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Sample records for reis rj brazil

  1. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and...

  2. Reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba river, Maricá, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, R; Mendonça, R S; Caramaschi, E P

    2005-11-01

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis in the Ubatiba river in Maricá, RJ, Brazil were evaluated in order to ascertain whether the strategy adopted by the species is causally related to environmental variables. Specimens were collected on a monthly basis from October 1994 to September 1995, through electrofishing. The Sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected frequency of 1:1 (G = 1.29; p > 0.50); nonetheless, considering three standard length classes, significantly larger numbers of females were recorded for the higher SL class (G = 11.07; p < 0.01). Size at first maturation showed no significant differences between sexes. Length-weight ratio analyses showed negative allometry for males and isometry, for females. Length structure was significantly different between sexes, suggesting that females are larger than males (D = 0.027, p < 0.01). Reproductive specimens were recorded during nine months of the annual cycle. Seasonal variations of reproductive specimens belonging to two different standard length classes displayed an asynchronous behavior, with larger specimens having a longer reproductive period and smaller ones reproducing for fewer months during the annual cycle. High values of fecundity (F), varying from 3169 to 18714 oocytes, were recorded for fish of 9.1 and 10.2 cm lengths, respectively. The correlation between weight and number of oocytes/unit of weight was positive, indicating that larger specimens produced more eggs.

  3. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Cheryl; de Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães; Zwetsch, Adriana; Motta-Silva, Daniel; Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; de Santana, Antônio Ferreira; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector's population and the contact between man and vectors. PMID:22988458

  4. Spatial-temporal analysis of marine debris on beaches of Niterói, RJ, Brazil: Itaipu and Itacoatiara.

    PubMed

    Silva, Melanie Lopes da; Araújo, Fábio Vieira de; Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Sales, Alessandro Souza

    2015-03-15

    In many areas of the world, studies of marine debris are conducted with an emphasis on analyzing their composition, quantification and distribution on sandy beaches. However, in Brazil, studies are still restricted to some areas of the coast, and the quantities and the spatial and temporal patterns are unknown. To enhance the marine debris information in these areas, we selected the Itaipu and Itacoatiara beaches in Niterói, RJ, to collect, quantify and qualify the solid residues present in their sands. We collected 12 samples and recorded 118.39 kg of residues in Itaipu and 62.94 kg in Itacoatiara. At both beaches, the largest portion of debris was located on the upper part of the beach. Several debris items were related to food and drink consumption on the beaches, which indicated the contribution of beach users to pollution. Most of the debris was plastic. The greatest amount of debris was found at Itaipu in January and February and at Itacoatiara in January and March, months related to both the holiday season and abundant rainfall. The results demonstrated the necessity to implement an Environmental Education project for these areas to reduce its degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of elephant grass for energy production in Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daher, R F; Souza, L B; Gravina, G A; Machado, J C; Ramos, H C C; Silva, V Q R; Menezes, B R S; Schneider, L S A; Oliveira, M L F; Gottardo, R D

    2014-12-19

    Elephant grass is a tropical forage plant widely distributed throughout Brazil. It was first exclusively used in the livestock sector as cattle feed. The grass is characterized by its high productivity and photosynthetic capacity and is considered as an alternative source of renewable energy. Here, we estimated the general combining ability of the parents and specific combining ability of the hybrids based on morpho-agronomic biomass-quality traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replicates. The diallel was composed of 16 hybrids and 2 groups of genitors. In the diallel analysis of variance, we observed a significant difference among treatments. A significant difference was observed among genitors for dry matter production (DMP). For the general combining ability of group 1, the traits leaf blade width, DMP, height, percentage of neutral detergent fiber, percentage of hemicellulose, percentage of lignin, percentage of acid detergent fiber, and percentage of cellulose were significant. For the estimates of general combining ability of DMP, parents Porto Rico 534-B, Vruckwona, Taiwan A-146, and Mercker S. E. A. were 0.4748, 3.2819, 1.1659, and 0.4317. The parents of Mercker S. E. A. and Porto Rico 534-B produced the highest percentage of detergent fiber and percentage of lignin with values of 0.1482 and 0.0856. Thus, parents Vruckwona, Porto Rico 534-B, and Taiwan A-146 are promising for integration into breeding programs. The best hybrid combinations for DMP were 1 x 5, 1 x 8, 2 x 6, 3 x 7, and 4 x 5.

  6. The influence of vegetation cover and soil physical properties on deflagration of shallow landslides - Nova Friburgo, RJ / Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Marques, Maria Clara; Silva, Roberta; Fraga, Joana; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; Mululo Sato, Anderson

    2017-04-01

    In 2011, the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) suffered enormous social and economic losses due to thousands of landslides caused by an extreme rainfall event. The mapping of the scars of these landslides in an area of 421 km2 in the municipality of Nova Friburgo, RJ - Brazil resulted in a total of 3622, and 89% of these scars were located in areas covered by grasses and forests. Despite the unexpected result (64% of scars in forest areas), field evidence has shown that most of the forest fragments in the municipality are in the initial stages of succession and in different states of degradation, evidencing the need for a better understanding of the role of these forests in the detonation and propagation of landslides. Two slope forest areas with different ages (20 and 50 years) were evaluated in relation to the vegetative aspects that influence the stability of the slopes in each area. Hydrological monitoring, including precipitation, interception by manual and automatic method, soil moisture and subsurface flows were performed in two different areas: forest and grass. Soil moisture was monitored by granular matrix sensors and flows by collecting troughs in trenches at depths of 0 cm, 20 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 150 cm and 220 cm, which were also analyzed for biomass and length of thick roots (> 2 mm diameter) and thin roots (< 2 mm diameter) and for the soil physical properties (particle size, aggregate stability, porosity and hydraulic conductivity in situ). In the grass area, the lower soil structure in relation to the forest areas makes it difficult to transmit the water through the soil matrix. During the monitoring period, that area preserved the moisture in depths of 100 cm, 150 cm and 220 cm. The fasciculate root system of the grasses increased the infiltration of water at the top of the soil, favouring the formation of more superficial saturation zones in the heavy rains, due to the hydraulic discontinuities. In forest areas

  7. Evaluation of microplastics in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, Brazil, an area of mussels farming.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Silva, Melanie L; Marques, Mônica Regina C; de Araújo, Fábio V

    2016-09-15

    Once non-biodegradable, microplastics remain on the environment absorbing toxic hydrophobic compounds making them a risk to biodiversity when ingested or filtered by organisms and entering in the food chain. To evaluate the potential of the contamination by microplastics in mussels cultivated in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, waters of three stations were collected during a rain and dry seasons using a plankton net and later filtered. Microplastics were quantified and characterized morphologically and chemically. The results showed a high concentration of microplastics in both seasons with diversity of colors, types and sizes. Synthetic polymers were present in all samples. The presence of microplastics was probably due to a high and constant load of effluent that this area receives and to the mussel farming activity that use many plastic materials. Areas with high concentrations of microplastics could not be used for mussel cultivation due to the risk of contamination to consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  9. [The domestic violence against the elderly within the Family Health Program of Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Apratto Júnior, Paulo Cavalcante

    2010-09-01

    This article investigates the magnitude and characteristics of violence against the elderly by trusted people at Ilha da Conceição, Niterói--RJ registered at the Family Health Program. A domestic survey interviewed 343 individuals with 60 years or more, selected by a simple random sample. To identify the violence it was used the Conflict Tactics Scales. Information about identification, demographics and socio-economics characteristics were obtained using the National Health Interview Survey. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used to evaluate mental health. In order to evaluate the functional capacity, the Health Assessment Questionnaire was used. In cases of alcohol suspicion among men, it was used the instrument CAGE. To female elder or caregivers, the TWEAK instrument was used. 43% reported at least one episode of psychological violence. Physical violence was reported by 9.6% of the interviewed, 6.1% reported serious physical violence in this period. The prevalence of different modalities of violence was higher among the youngest individuals, with higher scholarity, among those who have one of the pathologies that characterize the elderly as having a vulnerability (depression and/or urinary incontinence/fecal and/or diabetes and/or rheumatism) and those living with the greatest number of individuals.

  10. [Development and migration of cyathostome infective larvae (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) in bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) in tropical climate, in Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil].

    PubMed

    do Couto, Melissa C M; Quinelato, Simone; de Souza, Tarcísio M; dos Santos, Claudia Navarro; Bevilaqua, Cláudia Maria L; Anjos, Débora H da S; Sampaio, Ivan B M; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de A

    2009-01-01

    A study following the development and migration of Cyathostominae infective larvae was conducted from July 2003 to November 2004 in tropical climate, Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil. Samples of naturally infected feces were placed on 12 m2 plot each month on a cyathostomin-free "Bermuda grass" pasture (Cynodon dactylon). After Seven days, samples of feces and grass were collected every week at 8 a.m, 1 and 5 p.m., weighed and processed by Baermann technique. Higher survival of L3 was found at dry season, 15 and 12 weeks on feces and sward respectively, at rainy season the survival was smaller. The multivariable analysis of main components was evident the influence of time and environment variables on L3 recovery from feces and grass. Close relationship between time and the number of L3 in feces could be noted, in contrast with L3 in sward. The climatic conditions influenced directly the number of infective larvae. The infective larvae were recovered during three times and the Kruskal-Wallis test did not present significance among them.

  11. Simultaneous evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere of Niterói City, RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Caroline Fernandes Jaegger; de Mendonça Ochs, Soraya; de Oliveira Grotz, Lucas; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (total suspended particulate - TSP - and inhalable particles - PM10) and gas-phase samples were collected in three periods of seven to nine consecutive days in June and December 2011, and May 2012, in the central area of Niterói City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. TSP (48.8-214 μg m-3) showed higher concentrations than PM10 (nd - 82.6 μg m-3). Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and thirty-one carbonyl compounds (CC) were evaluated. Concentrations of individual PAH ranged from

  12. [FIBRA-RJ Network: frailty and risk of hospitalization in the elderly in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perez, Mariangela; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk profile and factors associated with frailty in elderly community residents. The population consisted of individuals 65 years or older living in the northern districts of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and who held private health insurance policies. The cross-sectional study was done at baseline in a cohort with a sample (N = 764) stratified by gender and age. Risk stratification used probability of repeated admissions (PRA) as the screening instrument. Following bivariate analyses, logistic regression analyses were performed to study associations between probability of repeated admissions and socio-demographic, health-status, functional, and cognitive variables. Of the total sample, 6.7% were classified as high risk. Cancer, falls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of medication, receiving a visit from a health professional, being bedridden at home, living alone, and level of activities of daily living were statistically associated with risk of hospitalization. The instrument appeared to be useful for stratifying risk in the elderly.

  13. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  14. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling.

  15. Piri Reis and the Columbus Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the origins and impact of the Piri Reis map, an early world map based on the voyages of Columbus and 20 other source maps. Maintains that evidence exists that Christopher Columbus may have drawn part of the map. Includes lengthy quotes from the map's legend written by Reis. (CFR)

  16. [Domestic violence against children and prospects for intervention of the Family Health Program: the experience of the Family Doctor Program/Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro Carlos Xavier da; Moraes, Claudia Leite

    2011-07-01

    This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of psychological and physical violence practiced against children in the family environment among clients of the Family Medical Program in Niterói (RJ). It also discloses some potential opportunities for action in the prevention, early detection and monitoring of families experiencing violence. This population-based survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews with parents or legal sponsors of 278 children registered in 27 teams of the Family Health Program. The population studied was randomly selected among children up to ten years of age. The Brazilian version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales - CTSPC was employed to assess the occurrence of this type of violence. Psychological aggression occurred in 96.7% (CI 95%: 94.7-98.8) of the households, and corporal punishment occurred in 93.8% (CI 95%: 92.0-96.7). Minor physical violence was reported by 51.4% (CI 95%: 45.5-57.3) of the respondents, and severe physical maltreatment by 19.8% (CI 95%: 15.1-24.5) of them. Although the mother was the foremost perpetrator of all kinds of maltreatment, most of the children were abused by both parents. In view of these results, domestic violence against children should be seen as a main concern for the Family Health Program.

  17. [The impact of professional activities on the physical and mental health of the civil and military police of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we analyze the physical and mental stress and illness of military and civil police force officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) due to their working conditions and professional activities. The same methodology was used for the study of two categories, namely a quantitative approach (simple random sampling by conglomerates, involving a total of 1,458 civil police officers and 1,108 military police officers, who answered questionnaires anonymously) and a qualitative approach (focal groups involving 143 professionals and 18 interviews with managers of both police forces). The data presented here are all original. Disorders identified were: overweight and obesity in both forces but mainly in the Military Police; low frequency of physical exercise and high levels of cholesterol, especially in the Civil Police. The main health complaints are neck, back or spinal cord pain, eyesight complaints and headaches/ migraines. Sixteen point two per cent of officers of both forces reported physical lesions that were more prevalent in the Military Police, among whom psychic suffering was also more frequent (SRQ20). The need for changes in the individual and professional dimensions and in institutional aspects regarding the conditions and organization of work and of health services is emphasized.

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with frailty in an older population from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the FIBRA-RJ Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Virgílio Garcia; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Frailty syndrome can be defined as a state of vulnerability to stressors resulting from a decrease in functional reserve across multiple systems and compromising an individual's capacity to maintain homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with social and demographic factors, functional capacity, cognitive status and self-reported comorbidities in a sample of community-dwelling older individuals who are clients of a healthcare plan. METHODS: We evaluated 847 individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in the northern area of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were selected by inverse random sampling and stratified by gender and age. To diagnose frailty, we used the scale proposed by the Cardiovascular Health Study, which consisted of the following items: low gait speed, grip strength reduction, feeling of exhaustion, low physical activity and weight loss. The data were collected between 2009 and 2010, and the frailty prevalence was calculated as the proportion of individuals who scored positive for three or more of the five items listed above. To verify the association between frailty and risk factors, we applied a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty syndrome was 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3-11.3); 43.6% (95% CI, 40.3-47) of the individuals were considered robust, and 47.3% (95% CI 43.8-50.8) were considered pre-frail (p<0.001). The frail individuals tended to be older (odds ratio [OR] 13.2, 95% CI, 8.7-20) and have lower education levels (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 1-4.6), lower cognitive performance (OR 0.76, 95% CI, 0.73-0.79) and reduced health perception (OR 65.8, 95% CI, 39.1-110.8). Frail individuals also had a greater number of comorbidities (OR 6.6, 95% CI, 4.4-9.9) and worse functional capacity (OR 3.8, 95% CI, 2.9-5). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty was similar to that seen in other international studies and was significantly

  19. Phytoplankton community of Reis Lake in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ise G; Moura, Ariadne N; Dantas, Enio W

    2013-01-01

    Reis Lake is located in the municipality of Caracaraí, state of Roraima (Brazil) and is subject to fluctuations in water level. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure of the phytoplankton community on the nictemeral and seasonal scales and determined the influence of limnological variables. Sampling was performed in the rainy season (June/2006) and dry season (November/2006), considering two nictemeral cycles. The phytoplankton community was assessed with regard to composition and density, abiotic variables were analyzed simultaneously. The lake had low concentrations of oxygen, clinograde profile and water stratified during the day and homogenous at night, with low concentrations of nutrients and waters ranging from slightly acidic to alkaline. The phytoplankton was represented by 43 taxa, 35 species in the dry season and 29 species in the rainy season. Low densities of phytoplankton occurred in both nictemeral cycles, with accentuated vertical gradient. The highest densities were recorded in the dry season. Reis Lake exhibits characteristics that classify it as a polymythic and oligotrophic environment. The variability in the data was more important seasonally than on the nictemeral scale, supporting the hypothesis of the influence of the hydrological cycle on the dynamics of phytoplankton communities in floodplain lakes.

  20. Origin of pegmatites and fluids at Ponta Negra (RJ, Brazil) during late- to post-collisional stages of the Gondwana Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Renac, Christophe; Piza, Patricia d'Almeida de Toledo; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Mexias, André Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    The Ponta Negra Pegmatites (PNP), part of a pegmatitic province in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, crop out along an intensely deformed, medium- to high-grade metamorphic area that is proximal to a crustal-scale thrust zone developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogeny. Fieldwork shows that the pegmatites formed in two distinct stages: (i) syn-collisional leucosome veins (Group I) conformable with the tectonic foliation of the gneissic host rocks and (ii) late- to post-collisional dykes (Group II) that cross-cut the same tectonic foliation at a high angle. In this paper, we use geochemistry of whole-rock and mineral separates (alkali-feldspar and biotite), fluid inclusion microthermometry and stable isotopic (δ18O, δD, δ13C) determinations on minerals (quartz, alkali-feldspar, biotite and magnetite) and fluid inclusions to provide insights into the composition of the pegmatite-forming melts, associated fluids, and their geotectonic significance. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of the Cajú syenogranite was performed to evaluate and compare the timing of magmatic events along the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain as this is the closest post-collisional pluton to the studied pegmatites. The calculated temperature for the Group I syn-collisional veins (740 °C) is similar to previous estimates for the peak metamorphic conditions in the study area. Variations in the temperature of the Group II pegmatite dykes obtained from stable isotopes (380 to 720 °C), and microthermometric data from primary fluid inclusions with traces of N2 (Th = 280 to 360 °C), may reflect the thermodynamics of the pegmatite crystallization, exsolution textures and isotopic exchange. The composition of fluids in equilibrium within the pegmatite dykes consists of magmatic and metamorphic components. The minimum pressures calculated for the emplacement of the pegmatites are equivalent to a shallow crustal depth between 1.7 and 3.5 km, which corresponds to the exhumation of the orogen since the emplacement of

  1. Beth Reis and the Safe Schools Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2007-01-01

    This article chronicles the formation and organization of the Safe Schools Coalition (SCC) through the experiences of Beth Reis, co-founder and co-Chair. The article suggests ways in which the SCC can serve as a model for both collective and individual work in promoting safe schools.

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report shows that recycling and reuse of materials creates jobs, while also generating local and state tax revenues. The 2016 REI Report covers the economic activities of nine sectors: ferrous metals, nonferrous metals (aluminum), glass, paper, plastics, rubber, construction and demolition, electronics and organics (including food and yard trimmings). The 2016 REI Report builds on work from a 2001 REI study. In 2001, to encourage the development of an economic market for recycling, EPA supported the creation of a national Recycling Economic Information (REI) Project and the related REI report, based upon the work of several states and regions. The REI report was a ground breaking national study demonstrating the economic value of recycling and reuse to the U.S. economy. Compiled through a cooperative agreement with the National Recycling Coalition, the study confirmed what many have known for decades: there are significant economic benefits in recycling. The 2016 report focuses on the economic impacts of recycling rather than the environmental benefits, as the environmental benefits have been researched in detail. Accurately estimating the impact that recycling has on jobs, wages and taxes is important because the results can influence policy decisions and provide a more robust picture of recycling by a

  3. Responses of Rj1 and rj1 Soybean Isolines to Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum1

    PubMed Central

    Pueppke, Steven G.; Payne, John H.

    1987-01-01

    We evaluated the symbiotic phenotypes of nodulation-restrictive and normal soybean isolines by inoculating Clark (genotypically Rj1Rj1) and mutant Clark-rj1 (genotypically rj1rj1) seedlings in plastic growth pouches. Nodules first appeared on Clark seedlings inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 94 after 6 days. The mean number of nodules per plant was 13.9 ± 0.8 after 24 days. In contrast, Clark-rj1 seedlings first nodulated at 12 days, and the mean number of nodules per plant was only 1.7 ± 0.3 at 24 days. Segments from infectible zones of primary roots, i.e. near the position occupied by the root tip at the time of inoculation, were sectioned serially. Clark roots contained cortical cell divisions and a few infection threads in question mark-shaped root hairs by 2 days after inoculation. Typical nodules developed soon thereafter. Analogous serially sectioned segments from Clark-rj1 roots lacked these responses. This prompted us to section nodules and adjacent tissues from other parts of Clark and Clark-rj1 roots. Clark roots contained cortical cell divisions, many associated with infected root hairs. Cortical cell divisions occasionally were present in Clark-rj1, and a few infection threads were visible in surface cells. The presence of infection threads within Clark-rj1 nodules was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Thus, although B. japonicum USDA 94 fails to elicit the wild-type spectrum of responses in the infectible zones of primary roots, it can infect Clark-rj1 via infection threads. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665600

  4. Isotopic and chemical investigations on Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Tera, F.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Huneke, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope ratios and chemical abundance measurements for a variety of elements are reported for total meteorite and mineral separates of the Angra dos Reis achondrite. U-Pb, Th-Pb, and Pb-Pb ages are concordant at 4.54 eons for the total meteorite and for high-purity whitlockite, which indicates that Angra dos Reis is an early planetary differentiate that has not been disturbed for these systems since 4.54 eons ago. The implications of different ratios of Sr-87 and Sr-86 found in different components are discussed. Xe isotopic measurements show that Pu-244 was enriched in the whitlockite relative to the pyroxene by a factor of about 18. Chemical enrichment factors between the whitlockite and the fassaitic pyroxene in Angra dos Reis are presented

  5. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E

    1981-12-01

    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  6. Mutagen and Oncogen Study on RJ-4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    human risk may be made with greater confidence. The interpretations of data outlined in this section are based primarily on criteria developed for each...used as a positive control for the nonactivation studies at a final concentration of 0.5 pl/ml. Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), which requires metabolic...evaluate the test chemical, RJ-4, for its ability to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in human diploid WI-38 cells blocked in G1 phase. MATERIALS Test

  7. Rj (rj) genes involved in nitrogen-fixing root nodule formation in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masaki; Saeki, Yuichi; Haga, Michiyo; Harada, Kyuya; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Umehara, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that formation of symbiotic root nodules in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is controlled by several host genes referred to as Rj (rj) genes, but molecular cloning of these genes has been hampered by soybean’s complicated genome structure and large genome size. Progress in molecular identification of legume genes involved in root nodule symbiosis have been mostly achieved by using two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, that have relatively simple and small genomes and are capable of molecular transfection. However, recent development of resources for soybean molecular genetic research, such as genome sequencing, large EST databases, and high-density linkage maps, have enabled us to isolate several Rj genes. This progress has been achieved in connection with systematic utilization of the information obtained from molecular genetics of the model legumes. In this review, we summarize the current status of knowledge of host-controlled nodulation in soybean based on information from recent studies on Rj genes, and discuss the future research prospects. PMID:23136493

  8. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  9. Geographic distribution of reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellowships in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abusief, Mary E; Missmer, Stacey A; Barbieri, Robert L; Jain, Tarun; Hornstein, Mark D

    2009-05-01

    To examine in detail the geographic distribution of reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellowships in the United States. Ecological. University-based REI fellowship program. None. None. Number and location of REI fellowship positions. A significant association was found between the number of REI fellowship positions and the number of categorical postgraduate year-1 (PGY-1) obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) residency positions within states. No association was observed among the land area, population, or population density within states. However, despite the fact that in the East, as in the United States overall, there was no association between population density and number of fellowships, West of the Mississippi River, as the population density increased, the number of REI fellowships increased linearly (test for heterogeneity = 0.007). First-year REI fellowship positions in the United States are correlated with the number of categorical PGY-1 OBGYN residency positions within a state. The geographically uneven distribution of fellowship positions may limit the choices for OBGYN residents wishing to pursue further training in REI.

  10. Recombinant cellulolytic or xylanolytic complex comprising the full-length scaffolding protein RjCipA and cellulase RjCel5B or xylanase RjXyn10C of Ruminiclostridium josui.

    PubMed

    Orita, Taku; Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo

    2017-02-01

    Three cellulosomal subunits of Ruminiclostridium josui, the full-length scaffolding protein CipA (RjCipA), a cellulase Cel5B (RjCel5B) and a xylanase Xyn10C (RjXyn10C), were successfully produced by Escherichia coli recombinant clones. RjCel5B and RjXyn10C were characterized as an endoglucanase and an endoxylanase, respectively. RjCipA, RjCel5B and Xyn10C adsorbed to microcrystalline cellulose (Funacel) and rice straw powder. Interaction between RjCel5B and RjCipA, and RjXyn10C and RjCipA were confirmed by qualitative assays. When a fixed amount of RjCel5B was mixed with different amounts of RjCipA, i.e., at the molar ratio of 6:1 or 6:6, the 6:6 complex showed 6.6-fold higher activity toward Funacel and 11.5-fold higher activity toward rice straw powder than RjCel5B, whereas the 6:1 complex showed only 2.8- and 3.9-folds higher activities toward Funacel and rice straw powder, respectively, than RjCel5B. These results suggest that the family-3 carbohydrate binding module (CBM3) of RjCipA in the RjCel5B-RjCipA complex plays an important role for hydrolysis of cellulose and the substrate-targeting effect of the CBM is more significant than the proximity effect caused by the presence of plural catalytic subunits adjoining each other. In contrast, the 6:1 complex of RjXyn10C and RjCipA showed 45% and 28% of the activities of RjXyn10C toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan and rice straw powder, respectively. These results suggest that both a negative proximity effect and substrate-isolating effect, but not substrate-targeting effect, are caused by the CBM3 with inappropriate polysaccharide specificity. Substrate-targeting, proximity and substrate-isolating effects are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Ruminiclostridium josui arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase, RjAxh43B, and RjAxh43B-containing xylanolytic complex.

    PubMed

    Orita, Taku; Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakka, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    A novel gene (axh43B) from Ruminiclostridium josui encoding a cellulosomal enzyme consisting of a catalytic module of subfamily GH43_10, a family-6 carbohydrate-binding module, and a dockerin module, was expressed using Escherichia coli. RjAxh43B released only arabinose from arabinoxylan and 2(3),3(3)-di-α-l-arabinofuranosyl xylotriose, but not 3(2)-α-l-arabinofuranosyl xylobiose or 2(3)-α-l-arabinofuranosyl xylotriose, strongly suggesting that RjAxh43B is an arabinoxylan α-l-1,3-arabinofuranohydrolase capable of cleaving α-1,3-linked arabinose residues of doubly arabinosylated xylan. When Axh43B was mixed with the recombinant scaffolding protein RjCipA of R. josui at a molar ratio of 6:1, the activity of the RjAxh43B-RjCipA complex (6:1) toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan was similar to that of RjAxh43B alone, suggesting that RjAxh43B does not show a proximity effect, which is defined as an activity enhancement effect caused by the presence of plural catalytic subunits adjoining each other. When RjAxh43A was mixed with xylanase RjXyn10C, they acted synergistically toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan and rice straw powder in the absence of RjCipA. Furthermore, the RjAxh43B-RjXyn10C-RjCipA (3:3:3) complex had higher activity toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan than a mixture of RjAxh43B and RjXyn10C without RjCipA, suggesting that incorporation of a xylanase and an α-l-arabinofuranosidase into a cellulosome is beneficial for more efficiently degrading arabinoxylan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A thaumatin-like protein, Rj4, controls nodule symbiotic specificity in soybean.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaki; Shiro, Sokichi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Mori-Hosokawa, Satomi; Sasaki-Yamagata, Harumi; Sayama, Takashi; Nishioka, Miki; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishimoto, Masao; Katayose, Yuichi; Kaga, Akito; Harada, Kyuya; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Saeki, Yuichi; Umehara, Yosuke

    2014-09-01

    Soybeans exhibit a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soil bacteria of the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer/Sinorhizobium in a unique organ, the root nodule. It is well known that nodulation of soybean is controlled by several host genes referred to as Rj (rj) genes. Among these genes, a dominant allele, Rj4, restricts nodulation with specific bacterial strains such as B. elkanii USDA61 and B. japonicum Is-34. These incompatible strains fail to invade the host epidermal cells as revealed by observations using DsRed-labeled bacteria. Here, we describe the molecular identification of the Rj4 gene by using map-based cloning with several mapping populations. The Rj4 gene encoded a thaumatin-like protein (TLP) that belongs to pathogenesis-related (PR) protein family 5. In rj4/rj4 genotype soybeans and wild soybeans, we found six missense mutations and two consecutive amino acid deletions in the rj4 gene as compared with the Rj4 allele. We also found, using hairy root transformation, that the rj4/rj4 genotype soybeans were fully complemented by the expression of the Rj4 gene. Whereas the expression of many TLPs and other PR proteins is induced by biotic/abiotic stress, Rj4 gene expression appears to be constitutive in roots including root nodules. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Re(I) complex doped nanofibers for oxygen optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, He; Zhu, Long; Wang, Aofang; Lu, Hongwei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we design and synthesize a novel diamine ligand of PTO (2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole). The crystal structure, photophysical character and electronic nature of its corresponding Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(PTO)Br have been investigated in detail. Experimental data and theoretical calculation suggest that Re(CO)3(PTO)Br owns a long-lived yellow phosphorescence which is sensitive towards molecular oxygen. By doping Re(CO)3(PTO)Br into a polymer matrix of polystyrene (PS), the emission response of the resulted composite nanofibers towards molecular oxygen is studied. The optimal sample with mean diameter of 600 nm shows a maximum sensitivity of 4.14 with short response time of 14 s (here sensitivity is defined as the ratio of emission intensity in pure N2 atmosphere to that in pure O2 atmosphere). The composite nanofibers are also found to be photostable enough to experience UV radiation.

  14. Re(I) complex doped nanofibers for oxygen optical sensing.

    PubMed

    Hong, He; Zhu, Long; Wang, Aofang; Lu, Hongwei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we design and synthesize a novel diamine ligand of PTO (2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole). The crystal structure, photophysical character and electronic nature of its corresponding Re(I) complex of Re(CO)(3)(PTO)Br have been investigated in detail. Experimental data and theoretical calculation suggest that Re(CO)(3)(PTO)Br owns a long-lived yellow phosphorescence which is sensitive towards molecular oxygen. By doping Re(CO)(3)(PTO)Br into a polymer matrix of polystyrene (PS), the emission response of the resulted composite nanofibers towards molecular oxygen is studied. The optimal sample with mean diameter of 600 nm shows a maximum sensitivity of 4.14 with short response time of 14s (here sensitivity is defined as the ratio of emission intensity in pure N(2) atmosphere to that in pure O(2) atmosphere). The composite nanofibers are also found to be photostable enough to experience UV radiation.

  15. Conclusions and future directions for the REiNS International Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Blakeley, Jaishri O.; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J.; Hanemann, Clemens O.; Walsh, Karin S.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Plotkin, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established with the goal to develop consensus recommendations for the use of endpoints in neurofibromatosis (NF) clinical trials. This supplement includes the first series of REiNS recommendations for the use of patient-reported, functional, and visual outcomes, and for the evaluation of imaging response in NF clinical trials. Recommendations for neurocognitive outcome measures, the use of whole-body MRI in NF, the evaluation of potential biomarkers of disease, and the comprehensive evaluation of functional and patient-reported outcomes in NF are in development. The REiNS recommendations are made based on current knowledge. Experience with the use of the recommended endpoints in clinical trials, development of new tools and technologies, new knowledge of the natural history of NF, and advances in the methods used to analyze endpoints will likely lead to modifications of the currently proposed guidelines, which will be shared with the NF research community through the REiNS Web site www.reinscollaboration.org. Due to the clinical complexity of NF, there is a need to seek expertise from multiple medical disciplines, regulatory agencies, and industry to develop trial endpoints and designs, which will lead to the identification and approval of effective treatments for NF tumor and nontumor manifestations. The REiNS Collaboration welcomes anyone interested in providing his or her expertise toward this effort. PMID:24249805

  16. Conclusions and future directions for the REiNS International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Widemann, Brigitte C; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J; Hanemann, Clemens O; Walsh, Karin S; Wolters, Pamela L; Plotkin, Scott R

    2013-11-19

    The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established with the goal to develop consensus recommendations for the use of endpoints in neurofibromatosis (NF) clinical trials. This supplement includes the first series of REiNS recommendations for the use of patient-reported, functional, and visual outcomes, and for the evaluation of imaging response in NF clinical trials. Recommendations for neurocognitive outcome measures, the use of whole-body MRI in NF, the evaluation of potential biomarkers of disease, and the comprehensive evaluation of functional and patient-reported outcomes in NF are in development. The REiNS recommendations are made based on current knowledge. Experience with the use of the recommended endpoints in clinical trials, development of new tools and technologies, new knowledge of the natural history of NF, and advances in the methods used to analyze endpoints will likely lead to modifications of the currently proposed guidelines, which will be shared with the NF research community through the REiNS Web site www.reinscollaboration.org. Due to the clinical complexity of NF, there is a need to seek expertise from multiple medical disciplines, regulatory agencies, and industry to develop trial endpoints and designs, which will lead to the identification and approval of effective treatments for NF tumor and nontumor manifestations. The REiNS Collaboration welcomes anyone interested in providing his or her expertise toward this effort.

  17. Response of the lichen Cladonia rei Schaer. to strong heavy metal contamination of the substrate.

    PubMed

    Osyczka, Piotr; Rola, Kaja

    2013-07-01

    The phenomenon of mass occurrence of the lichen Cladonia rei in extremely contaminated post-smelting slag dumps was studied in relation to metal accumulation capacity of this lichen. The research was aimed to evaluate the relationships between element contents in the thalli and in the corresponding substrate. The study was conducted in terms of a wide spectrum of Zn, Cd, Pb and As contents. The concentrations of these elements in the lichen thalli and substrate samples were measured. Various regression models were considered to find the best fitted one that greatly reflects the dependencies. Various Cladonia species and the hyperaccumulator Diploschistes muscorum were also included in the study for comparison purposes. Specific non-linear regression models described by a power function reflected relationships between Zn and Cd contents in C. rei thalli and in the host substrate in the most reliable way. The relationship for As was also noted, but none significant model was found. Contrarily, Pb concentrations in the thalli varied independently of the metal levels in the substrate. Nevertheless, the concentrations of all measured heavy metals in C. rei thalli are relatively low considering the frequently enormous substrate contamination. Different Cladonia species demonstrated a generally similar accumulation capacity and could be considered as weak accumulators. The restrained accumulation pattern may be one of the important attributes of C. rei which facilitates its colonisation of extremely contaminated dumps. This finding highlights ecological importance of this species as stable and resistant pioneer in such affected sites.

  18. Sally Reis and Joe Renzulli: Models for Education Reform, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The term "talent development" has historically been associated only with gifted education in the K12 education world. But for the past 30 years, husband and wife team Joseph Renzulli and Sally Reis have been steadily increasing the pool of educators trained to apply talent development practices to mainstream instruction through the Renzulli…

  19. Sally Reis and Joe Renzulli: Models for Education Reform, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The term "talent development" has historically been associated only with gifted education in the K12 education world. But for the past 30 years, husband and wife team Joseph Renzulli and Sally Reis have been steadily increasing the pool of educators trained to apply talent development practices to mainstream instruction through the Renzulli…

  20. Paper and Plastic in Daily Diary Research: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennen, Howard; Affleck, Glenn; Coyne, James C.; Larsen, Randy J.; DeLongis, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors applaud A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) response to one-sided comparisons of paper versus electronic (plastic) diary methods and hope that it will stimulate more balanced considerations of the issues involved. The authors begin by highlighting areas of agreement and disagreement with Green et…

  1. A Reflective Conversation with Joe Renzulli and Sally Reis: About the Renzulli Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joe; Reis, Sally; Shaughnessy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Dr. Joe Renzulli and Dr. Sally Reis respond to questions about the newly developed Renzulli Learning System. They discuss the system in light of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) and provide information regarding its use with curriculum compacting and Renzulli's "Three Ring Conceptualization of…

  2. A Reflective Conversation with Joe Renzulli and Sally Reis: About the Renzulli Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joe; Reis, Sally; Shaughnessy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Dr. Joe Renzulli and Dr. Sally Reis respond to questions about the newly developed Renzulli Learning System. They discuss the system in light of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) and provide information regarding its use with curriculum compacting and Renzulli's "Three Ring Conceptualization of…

  3. Paper and Plastic in Daily Diary Research: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennen, Howard; Affleck, Glenn; Coyne, James C.; Larsen, Randy J.; DeLongis, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors applaud A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) response to one-sided comparisons of paper versus electronic (plastic) diary methods and hope that it will stimulate more balanced considerations of the issues involved. The authors begin by highlighting areas of agreement and disagreement with Green et…

  4. Fusion of classifiers for REIS-based detection of suspicious breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Dror; Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Tublin, Mitchell; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    After developing a multi-probe resonance-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system aimed at detecting women with breast abnormalities that may indicate a developing breast cancer, we have been conducting a prospective clinical study to explore the feasibility of applying this REIS system to classify younger women (< 50 years old) into two groups of "higher-than-average risk" and "average risk" of having or developing breast cancer. The system comprises one central probe placed in contact with the nipple, and six additional probes uniformly distributed along an outside circle to be placed in contact with six points on the outer breast skin surface. In this preliminary study, we selected an initial set of 174 examinations on participants that have completed REIS examinations and have clinical status verification. Among these, 66 examinations were recommended for biopsy due to findings of a highly suspicious breast lesion ("positives"), and 108 were determined as negative during imaging based procedures ("negatives"). A set of REIS-based features, extracted using a mirror-matched approach, was computed and fed into five machine learning classifiers. A genetic algorithm was used to select an optimal subset of features for each of the five classifiers. Three fusion rules, namely sum rule, weighted sum rule and weighted median rule, were used to combine the results of the classifiers. Performance evaluation was performed using a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method. The results indicated that REIS may provide a new technology to identify younger women with higher than average risk of having or developing breast cancer. Furthermore, it was shown that fusion rule, such as a weighted median fusion rule and a weighted sum fusion rule may improve performance as compared with the highest performing single classifier.

  5. Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittipaldo, M. M.; Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    The angrites are a small and enigmatic group of basaltic achondrites that possess unique mineralogical and chemical properties. The dominant mineralogy of the seven angrite members (Angra dos Reis, LEW 86010, LEW 87051, Asuka 881371, Sahara 99555, D Orbigny, and a new Moroccan member) is fassaite, olivine, and plagioclase. Angrites display a wide range of thermal histories, with Angra dos Reis (AdoR) exhibiting a cooling history different from that of the rapidly cooled members and from LEW86010, a more slowly cooled member. AdoR could represent either a cumulate or a porphyritic igneous rock that was later altered by metamorphism. We are re-examining the thermal history of AdoR in light of the more recently described angrite members. Our emphasis is a trace element study of low-Ca olivine, which we refer to as olivine, and high-Ca olivine, which we refer to as kirschsteinite, in AdoR.

  6. Achieving consensus for clinical trials: the REiNS International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Scott R; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J; Hanemann, C Oliver; Walsh, Karin S; Wolters, Pamela L; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2013-11-19

    The neurofibromatoses (NF)--including neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis--are related tumor-suppressor syndromes characterized by a predisposition to multiple tumor types and other disease manifestations, which often result in functional disability, reduced quality of life, pain, and, in some cases, malignancy. With increasing knowledge of the biology and pathogenesis of NF, clinical trials with targeted agents directed at NF tumors have become available. Most clinical trials for patients with NF have used designs and endpoints similar to oncology trials. However, differences in the disease manifestations and natural history of NF (compared to cancers) require the development of new designs and endpoints to perform meaningful NF clinical trials. The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established in 2011 at the Children's Tumor Foundation meeting to achieve consensus within the NF community about the design of future clinical trials, with a specific emphasis on endpoints. The REiNS Collaboration includes 7 working groups that focus on imaging of tumor response; functional, visual, patient-reported, and neurocognitive outcomes; whole-body MRI; and disease biomarkers. This supplement includes the first series of recommendations by the REiNS Collaboration. The hope is that these recommendations will be used by members of the group and by researchers outside of the REiNS International Collaboration to standardize the measurement of outcomes and thus improve clinical trials for patients with NF. Ultimately, we plan to engage industry partners and national regulatory agencies in this process to facilitate the approval of drugs for patients with NF.

  7. PCR-based karyotyping of Anopheles gambiae inversion 2Rj identifies the BAMAKO chromosomal form.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Pombi, Marco; Caputo, Beniamino; Nwakanma, Davis; Jawara, Musa; Konate, Lassana; Dia, Ibrahima; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Kern, Marcia; Simard, Frédéric; Conway, David J; Petrarca, Vincenzo; della Torre, Alessandra; Traoré, Sékou; Besansky, Nora J

    2007-10-01

    The malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is polymorphic for chromosomal inversions on the right arm of chromosome 2 that segregate nonrandomly between assortatively mating populations in West Africa. One such inversion, 2Rj, is associated with the BAMAKO chromosomal form endemic to southern Mali and northern Guinea Conakry near the Niger River. Although it exploits a unique ecology and both molecular and chromosomal data suggest reduced gene flow between BAMAKO and other A. gambiae populations, no molecular markers exist to identify this form. To facilitate study of the BAMAKO form, a PCR assay for molecular karyotyping of 2Rj was developed based on sequences at the breakpoint junctions. The assay was extensively validated using more than 700 field specimens whose karyotypes were determined in parallel by cytogenetic and molecular methods. As inversion 2Rj also occurs in SAVANNA populations outside the geographic range of BAMAKO, samples were tested from Senegal, Cameroon and western Guinea Conakry as well as from Mali. In southern Mali, where 2Rj polymorphism in SAVANNA populations was very low and most of the 2Rj homozygotes were found in BAMAKO karyotypes, the molecular and cytogenetic methods were almost perfectly congruent. Elsewhere agreement between the methods was much poorer, as the molecular assay frequently misclassified 2Rj heterozygotes as 2R+j standard homozygotes. Molecular karyotyping of 2Rj is robust and accurate on 2R+j standard and 2Rj inverted homozygotes. Therefore, the proposed approach overcomes the lack of a rapid tool for identifying the BAMAKO form across developmental stages and sexes, and opens new perspectives for the study of BAMAKO ecology and behaviour. On the other hand, the method should not be applied for molecular karyotyping of j-carriers within the SAVANNA chromosomal form.

  8. PCR-based karyotyping of Anopheles gambiae inversion 2Rj identifies the BAMAKO chromosomal form

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Pombi, Marco; Caputo, Beniamino; Nwakanma, Davis; Jawara, Musa; Konate, Lassana; Dia, Ibrahima; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Kern, Marcia; Simard, Frédéric; Conway, David J; Petrarca, Vincenzo; Torre, Alessandra della; Traoré, Sékou; Besansky, Nora J

    2007-01-01

    Background The malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is polymorphic for chromosomal inversions on the right arm of chromosome 2 that segregate nonrandomly between assortatively mating populations in West Africa. One such inversion, 2Rj, is associated with the BAMAKO chromosomal form endemic to southern Mali and northern Guinea Conakry near the Niger River. Although it exploits a unique ecology and both molecular and chromosomal data suggest reduced gene flow between BAMAKO and other A. gambiae populations, no molecular markers exist to identify this form. Methods To facilitate study of the BAMAKO form, a PCR assay for molecular karyotyping of 2Rj was developed based on sequences at the breakpoint junctions. The assay was extensively validated using more than 700 field specimens whose karyotypes were determined in parallel by cytogenetic and molecular methods. As inversion 2Rj also occurs in SAVANNA populations outside the geographic range of BAMAKO, samples were tested from Senegal, Cameroon and western Guinea Conakry as well as from Mali. Results In southern Mali, where 2Rj polymorphism in SAVANNA populations was very low and most of the 2Rj homozygotes were found in BAMAKO karyotypes, the molecular and cytogenetic methods were almost perfectly congruent. Elsewhere agreement between the methods was much poorer, as the molecular assay frequently misclassified 2Rj heterozygotes as 2R+j standard homozygotes. Conclusion Molecular karyotyping of 2Rj is robust and accurate on 2R+j standard and 2Rj inverted homozygotes. Therefore, the proposed approach overcomes the lack of a rapid tool for identifying the BAMAKO form across developmental stages and sexes, and opens new perspectives for the study of BAMAKO ecology and behaviour. On the other hand, the method should not be applied for molecular karyotyping of j-carriers within the SAVANNA chromosomal form. PMID:17908310

  9. 75 FR 75205 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights...,\\1\\ CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant limited overhead trackage rights to R.J... original notices, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC--Acquisition and...

  10. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc. R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad...

  11. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Soybean Plants Carrying the Rj4 Allele

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Omar M.; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses between leguminous plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia are of great importance to agricultural production and nitrogen cycling. While these mutualistic symbioses can involve a wide range of rhizobia, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific strains, resulting in ineffective nodulation. The formation of nodules in soybean plants (Glycine max) is controlled by several host genes, which are referred to as Rj genes. The soybean cultivar BARC2 carries the Rj4 gene, which restricts nodulation by specific strains, including Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61. Here we employed transposon mutagenesis to identify the genetic locus in USDA61 that determines incompatibility with soybean varieties carrying the Rj4 allele. Introduction of the Tn5 transposon into USDA61 resulted in the formation of nitrogen fixation nodules on the roots of soybean cultivar BARC2 (Rj4 Rj4). Sequencing analysis of the sequence flanking the Tn5 insertion revealed that six genes encoding a putative histidine kinase, transcriptional regulator, DNA-binding transcriptional activator, helix-turn-helix-type transcriptional regulator, phage shock protein, and cysteine protease were disrupted. The cysteine protease mutant had a high degree of similarity with the type 3 effector protein XopD of Xanthomonas campestris. Our findings shed light on the diverse and complicated mechanisms that underlie these highly host-specific interactions and indicate the involvement of a type 3 effector in Rj4 nodulation restriction, suggesting that Rj4 incompatibility is partly mediated by effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26187957

  12. Study on polymer fibers doped with phosphorescent Re(I) complex via electrospinning: synthetic strategy, structure, morphology and photophysical features.

    PubMed

    Dejin, Wang; Qiang, Liu; Fei, Wang

    2014-01-01

    In the following paper, a Re(I) complex with electron-withdrawing oxadiazole group in its diamine ligand (denoted as N-N) was synthesized. Its single crystal structure analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of both ligand and complex. The central Re(I) ion localized in a traditional octahedral coordination environment. The diamine ligand 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5-(p-tolyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (denoted as PPOZ) took a coplanar structure and the corresponding face-to-face π-π attraction between PPOZ ligands made the Re(I) complex molecules adjust a highly ordered arrangement which was positive to improve emissive performance. In order to repress the excited state geometric relaxation and further improve the emissive performance, the Re(I) complex was doped into a polymer host poly(vinylpyrrolidone) via electrospinning, resulting in composite fibers. The morphology of those composite fibers was analyzed by electron microscopy. The photophysical comparison between bulk sample and composite fibers indicated that the composite fibers showed emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and improved photostability. Further analysis suggested that the excited state geometric relaxation could be effectively repressed when the Re(I) complex molecules were immobilized in the polymer matrix, leading to above variations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on polymer fibers doped with phosphorescent Re(I) complex via electrospinning: Synthetic strategy, structure, morphology and photophysical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejin, Wang; Qiang, Liu; Fei, Wang

    2014-03-01

    In the following paper, a Re(I) complex with electron-withdrawing oxadiazole group in its diamine ligand (denoted as N-N) was synthesized. Its single crystal structure analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of both ligand and complex. The central Re(I) ion localized in a traditional octahedral coordination environment. The diamine ligand 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5-(p-tolyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (denoted as PPOZ) took a coplanar structure and the corresponding face-to-face π-π attraction between PPOZ ligands made the Re(I) complex molecules adjust a highly ordered arrangement which was positive to improve emissive performance. In order to repress the excited state geometric relaxation and further improve the emissive performance, the Re(I) complex was doped into a polymer host poly(vinylpyrrolidone) via electrospinning, resulting in composite fibers. The morphology of those composite fibers was analyzed by electron microscopy. The photophysical comparison between bulk sample and composite fibers indicated that the composite fibers showed emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and improved photostability. Further analysis suggested that the excited state geometric relaxation could be effectively repressed when the Re(I) complex molecules were immobilized in the polymer matrix, leading to above variations.

  14. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

  15. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  16. Proposed Penalty Against RJ Explorations, LLC. For Clean Water Act Violations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is authorized to issue Orders assessing civil penalties for various violations of the CWA Act. EPA is providing notice of a proposed administrative penalty assessment to RJ Explorations, LLC. for alleged violations of the Act.

  17. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  18. If at First You Don't Succeed, Bye, Bye Again: A Response to General Educators' Views on the REI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; Gerber, Michael M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs implementing the Regular Education Initiative (REI) are criticized for their relatively simplistic approaches to the instructional problems created by learner diversity. Such programs as "Success for All" and teacher consultation programs do not adequately consider what happens to those students and teachers who do not succeed under the…

  19. Schistosomiasis in a low prevalence area: incomplete urbanization increasing risk of infection in Paracambi, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, M S; Barreto, M G; da Silva, C L; Pereira, J B; Moza, P G; Rey, L; Calçado, M S; Lustoza, A; Maspero, R

    1995-01-01

    The risk of schistosomiasis infection and heavy infection in the locality of Sabugo was evaluated in relation to housing in areas with different urbanization development and to residential supply with snail-infested water. Critical sanitary conditions were found in areas of incomplete urbanization, where healthy water supply sources were scarce, and draining of sewage, without previous treatment, was made directly to the water-bodies used for domestic and leisure activities, despite being Biomphalaria tenagophila snail breeding-places. Stool examinations (Kato-Katz and Lutz methods) showed prevalence of 2.9% mean intensity of 79 eggs per gram of stool and 47% of positive cases presenting intense infection. The use of snail-contaminated water for domestic purposes was considered a risk factor for infection. It is concluded that incomplete urbanization would facilitate transmission, probably enhancing the intensity of infection and that a low prevalence could hide a highly focal transmission. The relevance of these facts upon the efficiency of epidemiologic study methods and disease control planning are then discussed.

  20. Eutrophication and hypoxia in four streams discharging in Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil, a case study.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Aguiar, Valquiria Maria; Neto, José Antônio Baptista; Rangel, Carlos Marclei

    2011-08-01

    Four streams in the city of São Gonçalo, were sampled to evaluate their potential as sources of nutrients to Guanabara Bay aiming to contribute with the government program to decrease the levels of pollution in this area. Imbuaçu, Guaxindiba, Marimbondo and Brandoas streams were sampled in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The streams revealed to be hipereutrophic with severe limitation of primary production by nitrogen, as shown by the N/P molar ratio. Phosphate levels were abnormally high varying between 4.35 and 130.82 μM, whereas nitrate and nitrite ranged from 0.06 to 54.05 μM and from 0.28 to 19.23 μM, respectively. The streams also presented severe hypoxia and anoxia, with oxygen values varying from non-detected to 3.72 ml l(-1). Heavy loads of particulate suspended material were recorded in the studied streams, ranging between 6.00 and 400.00 mg l(-1). The streams were considered inexorable sources of nutrients, enhancing the severe eutrophication process in Guanabara Bay.

  1. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future

  2. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with

  3. Granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I (GrI) and Reis-Bücklers' corneal dystrophy (R-B). One entity?

    PubMed

    Møller, H U

    1989-12-01

    This paper maintains that Reis-Bücklers' corneal dystrophy and granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I are one and the same disease. Included are some of the technically best photographs of Reis-Bücklers' dystrophy found in the literature, and these are compared with photographs from patients with granular corneal dystrophy examined by the author. It is argued that most of the histological and ultrastructural findings on Reis Bücklers' dystrophy described in the literature are either congruent with what is found in granular corneal dystrophy or unspecific.

  4. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  5. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  6. Measured oxygen fugacities of the Angra dos Reis achondrite as a function of temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the oxygen fugacity (f{hook}O2) as a function of temperature (T) were made on an interior bulk sample of the cumulate achondrite, Angra dos Reis. Data clustered between the f{hook}O2-T relationship of the iron-wu??stite assemblage and 1.2 log atm units above iron-wu??stite. Interpretation of the data indicates that, throughout most of the cooling history of the meteorite, f{hook}O2 values were defined by equilibria involving iron-bearing species at values close to the f{hook}O2 of the assemblage iron-wu??stite. Measured f{hook}O2 data are compatible with crystallization and cooling at pressures greater than 50 bars. ?? 1977.

  7. 75 FR 52818 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights... Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant additional limited overhead trackage rights \\1\\ to R.J. Corman... Louisville, Ky., a distance of approximately 17 miles.\\2\\ \\1\\ The original rights were obtained by...

  8. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and... prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines...

  9. 75 FR 49377 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...-012-AD; Amendment 39-16387; AD 2010-16-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... has been identified regarding the interchanging of wing links on all BAe 146 & AVRO 146-RJ...

  10. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  11. [Recurrence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in a patient with Sai-rei-to-induced pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kensuke; Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Togashi, Yuki; Zaima, Mika; Kohno, Chiyoko; Yamada, Yoshihito

    2008-10-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever and difficulty in walking with marked hypoxemia and diffuse ground glass opacities in bilateral lung fields by chest radiography and CT scanning. Treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids resulted in improvement of the clinical findings and successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. At first, we diagnosed severe mycoplasma pneumonia because of a 2560 titer in a particle agglutiation (PA) test. Five days after discharge, she was given a second emergency admission, because of fever and difficulty in walking. Chest X-ray film revealed improvement after administration of methylprednisolone. Her detailed medical history proved that she had been treated with a Chinese herbal drug, Sai-rei-to, for several weeks before first admission. We finally diagnosed her disease as Sai-rei-to-induced pneumonitis. Despite intensive treatment, she finally died. The histopathological findings (H-E stain) of the autopsied lungs showed hyaline membrane formation and hyperplasia of type II alveolar epithelium cells, so-called, diffuse alveolar damage. This case and other referred in the literature suggest that Sai-rei-to-induced pneumonitis can become severe.

  12. A deadly organometallic luminescent probe: anticancer activity of a ReI bisquinoline complex.

    PubMed

    Kitanovic, Igor; Can, Suzan; Alborzinia, Hamed; Kitanovic, Ana; Pierroz, Vanessa; Leonidova, Anna; Pinto, Antonio; Spingler, Bernhard; Ferrari, Stefano; Molteni, Roberto; Steffen, Andreas; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Wölfl, Stefan; Gasser, Gilles

    2014-02-24

    The photophysical properties of [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br (L-N3 =2-azido-N,N-bis[(quinolin-2-yl)methyl]ethanamine), which could not be localized in cancer cells by fluorescence microscopy, have been revisited in order to evaluate its use as a luminescent probe in a biological environment. The Re(I) complex displays concentration-dependent residual fluorescence besides the expected phosphorescence, and the nature of the emitting excited states have been evaluated by DFT and time-dependent (TD) DFT methods. The results show that fluorescence occurs from a (1) LC/MLCT state, whereas phosphorescence mainly stems from a (3) LC state, in contrast to previous assignments. We found that our luminescent probe, [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br, exhibits an interesting cytotoxic activity in the low micromolar range in various cancer cell lines. Several biochemical assays were performed to unveil the cytotoxic mechanism of the organometallic Re(I) bisquinoline complex. [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br was found to be stable in human plasma indicating that [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br itself and not a decomposition product is responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. Addition of [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br to MCF-7 breast cancer cells grown on a biosensor chip micro-bioreactor immediately led to reduced cellular respiration and increased glycolysis, indicating a large shift in cellular metabolism and inhibition of mitochondrial activity. Further analysis of respiration of isolated mitochondria clearly showed that mitochondrial respiratory activity was a direct target of [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br and involved two modes of action, namely increased respiration at lower concentrations, potentially through increased proton transport through the inner mitochondrial membrane, and efficient blocking of respiration at higher concentrations. Thus, we believe that the direct targeting of mitochondria in cells by [Re(CO)3 (L-N3)]Br is responsible for the anticancer activity.

  13. Paper and plastic in daily diary research: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis (2006).

    PubMed

    Tennen, Howard; Affleck, Glenn; Coyne, James C; Larsen, Randy J; Delongis, Anita

    2006-03-01

    The authors applaud A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) response to one-sided comparisons of paper versus electronic (plastic) diary methods and hope that it will stimulate more balanced considerations of the issues involved. The authors begin by highlighting areas of agreement and disagreement with Green et al. The authors review briefly the broader literature that has compared paper and plastic diaries, noting how recent comparisons have relied on study designs and methods that favor investigators' allegiances. The authors note some sorely needed data for the evaluation of the implications of paper versus plastic for the internal and external validity of research. To facilitate evaluation of the existing literature and assist in the design of future studies, the authors offer a balanced comparison of paper and electronic diary methods across a range of applications. Finally, the authors propose 2 study designs that offer fair comparisons of paper and plastic diary methods. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Full-electron ligand-to-ligand charge transfer in a compact Re(I) complex.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yuankai; Grusenmeyer, Tod; Ma, Zheng; Zhang, Peng; Schmehl, Russell H; Beratan, David N; Rubtsov, Igor V

    2014-11-13

    Ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT) states in transition metal complexes are often characterized by fractional electron transfer due to coupling of the LLCT state with many other states via the metal. We designed and characterized a compact Re(I) complex that displays essentially full-electron charge transfer in the LLCT excited state. The complex, [Re(DCEB)(CO)3(L)](+) (DCEB = 4,4'-dicarboxyethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), referred to as ReEBA, features two redox active ligands with strong electron accepting (DCEB) and electron donating (L is 3-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (3DMABN)) properties. The lowest energy excited state formed with a ca. 10 ps time constant and was characterized as the full-electron 3DMABN → DCEB LLCT state using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR), transient absorption spectroscopy, and DFT computations. Analysis of a range of vibrational modes helped to assign the charge transfer characteristics of the complex. The LLCT state lifetime in ReEBA shows a strong dependence on the solvent polarity and features solvent dependent frequency shifts for several vibrational reporters. The formation of a full-electron LLCT state (∼92%) was enabled by tuning the redox properties of the electron accepting ligand (DCEB) and simultaneously decoupling the redox active group of the electron donating ligand (3DMABN) from the metal center. This strategy is generally applicable for designing compact transition metal complexes that have full-electron LLCT states.

  15. Re(I) NHC Complexes for Electrocatalytic Conversion of CO2.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Charles J; Machan, Charles W; Vandezande, Jonathon E; Jin, Tong; Majetich, George F; Schaefer, Henry F; Kubiak, Clifford P; Li, Gonghu; Agarwal, Jay

    2016-03-21

    The modular construction of ligands around an N-heterocyclic carbene building block represents a flexible synthetic strategy for tuning the electronic properties of metal complexes. Herein, methylbenzimidazolium-pyridine and methylbenzimidazolium-pyrimidine proligands are constructed in high yield using recently established transition-metal-free techniques. Subsequent chelation to ReCl(CO)5 furnishes ReCl(N-methyl-N'-2-pyridylbenzimidazol-2-ylidine)(CO)3 and ReCl(N-methyl-N'-2-pyrimidylbenzimidazol-2-ylidine)(CO)3. These Re(I) NHC complexes are shown to be capable of mediating the two-electron conversion of CO2 following one-electron reduction; the Faradaic efficiency for CO formation is observed to be >60% with minor H2 and HCO2H production. Data from cyclic voltammetry is presented and compared to well-studied ReCl(2,2'-bipyridine)(CO)3 and MnBr(2,2'-bipyridine)(CO)3 systems. Results from density functional theory computations, infrared spectroelectrochemistry, and chemical reductions are also discussed.

  16. Autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: a clinical and eco-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Georg, Ingebourg; de Castro, Liane; dos Santos Lima, Valdirene; Roque, André Luiz R; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Santos, Laura Cristina; Fernandes, Fabiano A; Sarquis, Otília; Lima, Marli Maria; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Aníbal; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    2015-01-08

    After the control of the main modes of Chagas disease (CD) transmission in most endemic countries, it is important to identify the participation of native sylvatic vectors in CD transmission. Although CD is not considered endemic in Rio de Janeiro State (RJ), Brazil, we identified patients with CD born in RJ and investigated the possible autochthonous transmission in the state. Patients born in RJ and followed in our institution between 1986 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The cases identified as autochthonous transmission were submitted to epidemiological, clinical, serological, parasitological and molecular studies. Sectional field study with serological survey, research of sylvatic reservoirs and vectors was conducted in rural areas where patients were born. Among 1963 patients, 69 (3.5%) were born in RJ. From these, 15 (21.7%) were considered to have acquired the infection by autochthonous transmission. Cardiac form was the commonest form of presentation (60%). In rural areas in RJ northern region, sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi and domestic invasion by Triatoma vitticeps were identified, and CD prevalence among inhabitants was 0.74%.TcI genotype was identified in sylvatic reservoirs and vectors. The genotype (mixed infection TcI/TcVI) could be identified in one of the autochthonous cases. The autochthonous vectorial transmission of CD occurs in RJ, probably due to wild cycles of T. cruzi and sylvatic vectors, such as T. vitticeps. Therefore, the health authorities should evaluate if RJ should be included in the original endemic area of CD and CD should be included in the diagnostic work out of cardiomyopathy of patients born in RJ. Moreover, control and educational measures should be put into place in the risk areas.

  17. [Implementation of indigenous people's health policy in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: obstacles and prospects].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Maria de Betania Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Almeida, Celia

    2006-02-01

    This article discusses the Brazilian National Policy for Indigenous People's Health, formulated in the 1990s as part of the national Health Reform Movement and based on the creation (in 1999) of the Indigenous Healthcare Sub-System. Coordinated at the central government level under the administration of the National Health Foundation/Ministry of Health, the implementation of this sub-system required adaptations in the organization of health services systems at the local level, with the creation of Special Indigenous Health Districts. This configuration showed the need for dialogue and negotiation among the various institutions involved with indigenous affairs, from the perspective of overcoming various conflicts and operational difficulties. The current analysis identifies the difficulties in the implementation of a differentiated indigenous health policy under federal responsibility and within the decentralized Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), since the absence of specific mechanisms and instruments regulating the operationalization of these services at the local level and the lack of more effective supervision and on-going evaluation of this policy mean that differentiated care for the indigenous population is subject to both the vices and virtues of local policy.

  18. First Report of Human Gastroenteritis Caused by Escherichia coli O157:NM in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata França Castro; Nascimento, Janaína Dos Santos; Geimba, Mercedes Passos; Hessel, Claudia Titze; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2017-08-02

    In September 2005, the Sanitary Surveillance Service of Rio de Janeiro (SSS/RJ), Brazil, investigated a case of gastroenteritis involving a 13-year-old teenager hospitalized because of bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal pain. Owing to the severity of the symptoms, an epidemiological investigation was conducted in two states of Brazil. Escherichia coli O157:NM was isolated from stools and from a tomato and cheese salad prepared at the school canteen where the teenager attended. This is the first report of a human case of gastroenteritis related to E. coli O157:NM infection in Brazil.

  19. Luminescent supramolecular soft nanostructures from amphiphilic dinuclear Re(i) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, Cristina; Natali, Mirco; Villa, Davide; Panigati, Monica; Mauro, Matteo; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; de Cola, Luisa

    2015-07-01

    Luminescent metallo-surfactants based on highly emissive dinuclear Re(i) complexes have been synthesized combining the peculiar photophysical behaviour of this class of neutral hydrophobic complexes with new properties imparted by hydrophilic chains anchored on the coordinated chromophoric ligand. In solution, the resulting neutral amphiphiles tend to self-assembly in soft structures. The aggregation properties have been thoroughly investigated in dioxane-water mixtures, where all the complexes assembly in globular-like supramolecular architectures with well-defined size (hydrodynamic diameter = 200-400 nm). The morphology of these nano-objects has been completely characterized with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis, Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and cryo-TEM to determine the size, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles in relationship with the structure of the metallo-surfactants. The photophysical properties of both the isolated metal complexes and their aggregates have been investigated by means of UV-Vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Noteworthy, the self-assembly properties of the reported luminescent rhenium metallo-amphiphiles can be modulated by solvent polarity. Even more importantly, such aggregation process yielded a small hypsochromic shift of the emission energy accompanied by a sizeable elongation of the excited-state lifetime and an enhancement of the photoluminescence quantum yield, reaching a remarkably high value of 0.20 despite the air-equilibrated aqueous condition. The presented findings endorse novel possibilities for the efficient use of soft-nanostructures based on metallo-amphiphiles in dual (electron and optical microscopy) bio-imaging applications and theranostics where the non-covalent nature of the intermolecular interactions would offer the powerful and unique possibility to reversibly assemble and disassemble imaging agents.Luminescent metallo-surfactants based on

  20. Functional analysis of alternative transcripts of the soybean Rj2 gene that restricts nodulation with specific rhizobial strains.

    PubMed

    Tang, F; Yang, S; Zhu, H

    2016-05-01

    The Rj2 gene is a TIR-NBS-LRR-type resistance gene in soybean (Glycine max) that restricts root nodule symbiosis with a group of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains including USDA122. Rj2 generates two distinct transcript variants in its expression profile through alternative splicing. Alternative splicing of Rj2 is caused by the retention of the 86-bp intron 4. Inclusion of intron 4 in mature mRNA introduces an in-frame stop codon; as such, the alternative transcript is predicted to encode a truncated protein consisting of the entire portion of the TIR, NBS and LRR domains but missing the C-terminal domain of the full-length Rj2 protein encoded by the regular transcript. Since alternative splicing has been shown to be essential for full activity of several plant R genes, we attempted to test whether the alternative splicing is required for Rj2-mediated nodulation restriction. Here we demonstrated that the Rj2-mediated nodulation restriction does not require the combined presence of the regular and alternative transcripts, and the expression of the regular transcript alone is sufficient to confer nodulation restriction. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

  2. Rj4, a Gene Controlling Nodulation Specificity in Soybeans, Encodes a Thaumatin-Like Protein But Not the One Previously Reported.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Yang, Shengming; Liu, Jinge; Zhu, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Rj4 is a dominant gene in soybeans (Glycine max) that restricts nodulation by many strains of Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The soybean-B. elkanii symbiosis has a low nitrogen-fixation efficiency, but B. elkanii strains are highly competitive for nodulation; thus, cultivars harboring an Rj4 allele are considered favorable. Cloning the Rj4 gene is the first step in understanding the molecular basis of Rj4-mediated nodulation restriction and facilitates the development of molecular tools for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation in soybeans. We finely mapped the Rj4 locus within a small genomic region on soybean chromosome 1, and validated one of the candidate genes as Rj4 using both complementation tests and CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout experiments. We demonstrated that Rj4 encodes a thaumatin-like protein, for which a corresponding allele is not present in the surveyed rj4 genotypes, including the reference genome Williams 82. Our conclusion disagrees with the previous report that Rj4 is the Glyma.01G165800 gene (previously annotated as Glyma01g37060). Instead, we provide convincing evidence that Rj4 is Glyma.01g165800-D, a duplicated and unique version of Glyma.01g165800, that has evolved the ability to control symbiotic specificity. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Rj4, a Gene Controlling Nodulation Specificity in Soybeans, Encodes a Thaumatin-Like Protein But Not the One Previously Reported1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fang; Yang, Shengming; Liu, Jinge

    2016-01-01

    Rj4 is a dominant gene in soybeans (Glycine max) that restricts nodulation by many strains of Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The soybean-B. elkanii symbiosis has a low nitrogen-fixation efficiency, but B. elkanii strains are highly competitive for nodulation; thus, cultivars harboring an Rj4 allele are considered favorable. Cloning the Rj4 gene is the first step in understanding the molecular basis of Rj4-mediated nodulation restriction and facilitates the development of molecular tools for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation in soybeans. We finely mapped the Rj4 locus within a small genomic region on soybean chromosome 1, and validated one of the candidate genes as Rj4 using both complementation tests and CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout experiments. We demonstrated that Rj4 encodes a thaumatin-like protein, for which a corresponding allele is not present in the surveyed rj4 genotypes, including the reference genome Williams 82. Our conclusion disagrees with the previous report that Rj4 is the Glyma.01G165800 gene (previously annotated as Glyma01g37060). Instead, we provide convincing evidence that Rj4 is Glyma.01g165800-D, a duplicated and unique version of Glyma.01g165800, that has evolved the ability to control symbiotic specificity. PMID:26582727

  4. [List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Felippe-Bauer, M; Oliveira Sd, S

    2001-11-01

    A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  5. Dear Diary, Is Plastic Better than Paper? I Can't Remember: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takarangi, Melanie K. T.; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2006-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors discuss the implications of A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) diary studies with respect to memory. Researchers must take 2 issues into account when determining whether paper-and-pencil or handheld electronic diaries gather more trustworthy data. The first issue is a matter of…

  6. Paper and Electronic Diaries: Too Early for Conclusions on Compliance Rates and Their Effects--Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Joan E.; Stone, Arthur A.

    2006-01-01

    This commentary discusses 4 issues relevant to interpretation of A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) article: (a) Self-reported compliance in medical settings has generally been substantially higher than verified compliance, suggesting that this is not a rare phenomenon; (b) none of the studies reported in…

  7. First Occurrence of Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Ricalde, M P

    2017-05-24

    Specimens of the mango stone weevil Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were found in fruits of mango from a tree in the residential area of the Rio de Janeiro, RJ. This is the first report of the S. mangiferae in Brazil, currently regulated as an absent quarantine pest in the country. A taxonomist specialized in Curculionidae confirmed the identification based on morphological diagnostics characteristics. This detection is a relevant finding, because Brazil is a major producer and exporter of mango and the main areas of mango for exportation are located very far from this detection point. This pest damages seed and embryo of mango fruits and it causes reduction of fruit size and its premature dropping. The detection was notified to the Plant Health Department, division of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), which is the National Plant Protection Organization of Brazil.

  8. A support vector machine designed to identify breasts at high risk using multi-probe generated REIS signals: a preliminary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Lederman, Dror; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

    2010-02-01

    A new resonance-frequency based electronic impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with multi-probes, including one central probe and six external probes that are designed to contact the breast skin in a circular form with a radius of 60 millimeters to the central ("nipple") probe, has been assembled and installed in our breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective clinical study to test the performance of this REIS system in identifying younger women (< 50 years old) at higher risk for having or developing breast cancer. In this preliminary analysis, we selected a subset of 100 examinations. Among these, 50 examinations were recommended for a biopsy due to detection of a highly suspicious breast lesion and 50 were determined negative during mammography screening. REIS output signal sweeps that we used to compute an initial feature included both amplitude and phase information representing differences between corresponding (matched) EIS signal values acquired from the left and right breasts. A genetic algorithm was applied to reduce the feature set and optimize a support vector machine (SVM) to classify the REIS examinations into "biopsy recommended" and "non-biopsy" recommended groups. Using the leave-one-case-out testing method, the classification performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.816 +/- 0.042. This pilot analysis suggests that the new multi-probe-based REIS system could potentially be used as a risk stratification tool to identify pre-screened young women who are at higher risk of having or developing breast cancer.

  9. Road Marking Extraction Using a MODEL&DATA-DRIVEN Rj-Mcmc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervieu, A.; Soheilian, B.; Brédif, M.

    2015-03-01

    We propose an integrated bottom-up/top-down approach to road-marking extraction from image space. It is based on energy minimization using marked point processes. A generic road marking object model enable us to define universal energy functions that handle various types of road-marking objects (dashed-lines, arrows, characters, etc.). A RJ-MCMC sampler coupled with a simulated annealing is applied to find the configuration corresponding to the minimum of the proposed energy. We used input data measurements to guide the sampler process (data driven RJ-MCMC). The approach is enhanced with a model-driven kernel using preprocessed autocorrelation and inter-correlation of road-marking templates, in order to resolve type and transformation ambiguities. The method is generic and can be applied to detect road-markings in any orthogonal view produced from optical sensors or laser scanners from aerial or terrestrial platforms. We show the results an ortho-image computed from ground-based laser scanning.

  10. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, H G; Luz, J L; Raíces, D S; Hatano, F H; Martins-Hatano, F

    2005-11-01

    The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC) are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC). Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability.

  11. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-01-22

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone.

  12. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone.

  13. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, filed a verified... acquisition transaction is related to the notice of exemption in Docket No. FD 35364, R. J. Corman...

  14. 75 FR 12158 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... fleet wide problem has been identified regarding the interchanging of wing links on all BAe 146 &...

  15. 75 FR 27959 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness information (MCAI) originated by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct...

  16. A new species of Tanycarpa Förster (1862) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae: Alysiinae) from Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cerântola, P C M; Souza-Gessner, C S; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2016-04-19

    This is the first description of a species of the genus Tanycarpa Förster (1862) for Brazil. Forty-eight specimens were collected in High Montane Dense Ombrophilous Forest area at National Park of Itatiaia, RJ, using four Malaise traps installed, respectively, at four different altitudes. This study is based on a description of two species of Tanycarpa from Colombia, Tanycarpa edithae and Tanycarpa sarmientoi, which are the only species of this genus recognized for the neotropics.

  17. R.J. Reynolds’ Targeting of African Americans: 1988–2000

    PubMed Central

    Balbach, Edith D.; Gasior, Rebecca J.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to describe RJ Reynolds (RJR) Tobacco Company’s strategy for targeting African Americans, as revealed in tobacco industry documents and magazine advertisements. Methods. The authors searched industry documents to determine RJR’s strategies and analyzed magazine advertising during 2 periods: the time of the launch of the company’s Uptown cigarette (1989–1990) and a decade later (1999–2000). Results. RJR’s efforts to target the African American market segment existed before and after Uptown, and the company’s strategy was largely implemented via other RJR brands. Advertisements featured mentholated cigarettes, fantasy/escape, expensive objects, and nightlife. Conclusions. To help all populations become tobacco-free, tobacco control practitioners must understand and counter tobacco industry strategies. PMID:12721151

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Re(I) complexes derived from S-benzyldithiocarbazate and 3-acetylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    Low, May Lee; Paulus, Georgiana; Dorlet, Pierre; Guillot, Régis; Rosli, Rozita; Delsuc, Nicolas; Crouse, Karen A; Policar, Clotilde

    2015-06-01

    Cu(II), Zn(II) and Re(I) complexes have been synthesized with the Schiff base, N'-[1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid benzyl ester (SBCM-H) which was prepared by condensation of S-benzyldithiocarbazate and 3-acetylcoumarin. The metal complexes were characterized on the basis of various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis and electrochemical studies, and FT-IR, UV-Vis, NMR, EPR and mass spectroscopy. The Schiff base was found to behave as a bidentate ligand coordinating with Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the thiolate form with 1:2 metal to ligand stoichiometry. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were obtained from the reaction of ReCl(CO)5 with SBCM-H forming a centrosymmetric dimeric complex Re2L2(CO)6 linked by Re-S-Re bridges, where S is the thiolate sulfur of the N,S-bidentate ligand. This Re(I) complex is the first metal carbonyl complex with a bidentate dithiocarbazate ligand to have been characterized by XRD. Cytotoxicity assays revealed enhancement of the bioactivity of SBCM-H upon complexation. Both Cu(II) and Re(I) complexes are found to be active against human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. TOC diagram.

  19. Capturing Re(i) in an neutral N,N,N pincer Scaffold and resulting enhanced absorption of visible light.

    PubMed

    Bulsink, Philip; Al-Ghamdi, Ahlam; Joshi, Prajesh; Korobkov, Ilia; Woo, Tom; Richeson, Darrin

    2016-06-07

    The organometallic and coordination chemistry of rhenium(i) has been largely restricted to bidentate α-diimine ligation and facial tricarbonyl coordination geometries. The thermal transformation of bidentate bis(imino)pyridine and bidentate terpyridine complexes at 200-240 °C under nitrogen led to a family of Re(i) pincer complexes [κ(3)-2,6-{ArN[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe}2(NC5H3)]Re(CO)2X (Ar[double bond, length as m-dash]C6H5, Me2C6H3, (i)Pr2C6H3; X = Cl, Br) and (κ(3)-terpy)Re(CO)2X (X = Cl, Br). The synthesis, single crystal X-ray structural and spectroscopic characterization of these eight species documents their Re coordination geometries and demonstrates the accessibility of such compounds. The basic photophysical features of these compounds show significant elaboration in both number and intensity of the d-π* transitions observed in the UV-vis spectra relative to the bidentate starting materials and these spectra were analyzed using time-dependent DFT computations.

  20. Luminescent Re(I) Carbonyl Complexes as Trackable PhotoCORMs for CO delivery to Cellular Targets.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Indranil; Jimenez, Jorge; Sameera, W M C; Kato, Masako; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2017-03-06

    A family of Re(I) carbonyl complexes of general formula [ReX(CO)3(phen)](0/1+) (where X = Cl(-), CF3SO3(-), MeCN, PPh3, and methylimidazole) derived from 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) exhibits variable emission characteristics depending on the presence of the sixth ancillary ligand/group (X). All complexes but with X = MeCN exhibit moderate CO release upon irradiation with low-power UV light and are indefinitely stable in anaerobic/aerobic environment in solution as well as in solid state when kept under dark condition. These CO donors liberate three, one, or no CO depending on the nature of sixth ligand upon illumination as studied with the aid of time-dependent IR spectroscopy. Results of excited-state density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations provided insight into the origin of the emission characteristics of these complexes. The luminescent rheinum(I) photoCORMs uniformly displayed efficient cellular internalization by the human breast adenocarcinoma cells, MDA-MB-231, while the complex with PPh3 as ancillary ligand showed moderate nuclear localization in addition to the cytosolic distribution. These species hold significant promise as theranostic photoCORMs (photoinduced CO releasing molecules), where the entry of the pro-drug can be tracked within the cellular matrices.

  1. An oxadiazole-functionalized ligand and its yellow-emitting Re(I) complex for organoelectronic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ge; Guo, Lei; Wei, Sheng; Zhang, Shuang

    2012-06-01

    A Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(PTO)Br with 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PTO) as the diamine ligand is synthesized, resulting in a phosphorescent emitter which contains oxadiazole functional moiety. Single crystal analysis confirms that oxadiazole moiety of PTO ligand participates in the coordination with Re center. Coordination ability difference between N atom from pyridine ring and that from oxadiazole moiety is found. Density functional theory calculation on the crystal suggests that the onset electronic transition owns a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer. Upon photon excitation, Re(CO)3(PTO)Br exhibits a yellow emission peaking at 549 nm with a short excited state lifetime of 0.15 μs. Further measurements suggest that Re(CO)3(PTO)Br owns HOMO and LUMO energy levels of -5.79 V and -3.49 V and a high decomposition temperature of 322 °C. The optimal electroluminescence device using Re(CO)3(PTO)Br as the emitting dopant shows an orange light of 598 nm, with a maximum luminance of 4600 cd/m2 and a maximum current efficiency of 11.5 cd/A.

  2. Qualitative analysis of the magnetic data collected by the Embrace MagNet in comparison to absolute measurements made by Intermagnet in Vassouras-RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sony Su; Moro, Juliano; Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    The Embrace Magnetometer Network (Embrace MagNet) is a network of three-axis fluxgate magnetometers using single bars with high level of magnetic saturation, covered with two copper coils, one for the excitation and the second for sensing the external field. It is planned to cover most of the Easter Southern American longitudinal sector in order to fulfill the gap for magnetic measurement available on-line. The availability of fast internet, reliable energy supply and easy access were the key point for deciding the location of the magnetometer stations of the network. Up to now, the main characteristic of this network is the severe sensibility matching process among all the magnetometers composing it. Now, in order to validate the magnetic data collected by the elements of the Embrace MagNet in comparison to absolute measurements, we performed a study about the correlation between the data collected by the fluxgate magnetometer provided by Embrace MagNet and an absolute magnetometer installed by Intermagnet in the same observatory. For this study, we have used data collected in Vassouras-RJ, in Brazil, covering the period from June to December 2015. The analysis consist of: (a) selecting the 5 quietest days and the 5 most disturbed days of each month based on the Kp index; (b) deducing the local midnight value from the data collected by both instruments; (c) correlating the data collected by the variometer with the absolute measurement day-by-day; (d) grouping the results as Winter (June, July, and August), Equinox (September and October) and Summer (November and December); (e) obtaining the linear correlations factor for each group. The averaged correlation factors and the daily variations of the magnetic data are presented and discussed in terms of the magnetic activity and the season variation.

  3. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Maifrede, Simone Bravim; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2013-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  4. Results of the radiological survey at 27 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ004)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 27 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ004), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  5. Results of the radiological survey at 37 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ002)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Th derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 37 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ002), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  6. Results of the radiological survey at 31 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ003)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 31 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ003), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  7. RJ 051542+0104.7: A new magnetic, eclipsing, cataclysmic variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garnavich, Peter M.; Szkody, Paula; Robb, Russell M.; Zurek, David R.; Hoard, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of a recently identified X-ray bright, magnetic cataclysmic variable, RJ 051542+0104.7. The X-ray source was discovered serendipitously by Walter et al. (1994; Walter & Zoonematkermani 1994), and their data imply the presence of a heated white dwarf compatible with a magnetic accretion column. Buckley (1994) has reported the presence of circular polarization. Our optical photometry shows that the system undergoes eclipses with a period of 7.9835 +/- 0.0002 hours. The eclipse is 1 magnitude deep and appears to be total. Our spectra were all obtained near eclipse and show a strong blue continuum with broad Balmer emission as well as He II (4686 and 5411 A), C III/N III (4650 A) and He I lines. The blue continuum and emission lines disappear during eclipse, leaving only the spectrum of a M0 star. Using the observed magnitude during eclipse and ignoring interstellar extinction, the distance is approximately 500 pc. For the secondary to fill its Roche lobe, it must be at least 20% larger than that of a normal dM0 star. This may indicate the red dwarf is far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) due to strong magnetic braking. We find evidence for cyclotron humps in the continuum spectrum which imply a magnetic field strength in the cyclotron emitting region of up to 55 MG. The unexpected existence of a long period AM Her system should provide constraints on models of polar evolution.

  8. Photophysics of Re(I) and Ru(II) diimine complexes covalently linked to pyrene: contributions from intra-ligand charge transfer states.

    PubMed

    Del Guerzo, André; Leroy, Stéphanie; Fages, Frédéric; Schmehl, Russell H

    2002-01-28

    The photophysical properties of Ru(II) and Re(I) polypyridyl complexes including a bis-bipyridyl pyrene ligand are presented. The complexes ([(bpy)(2)Ru](2)bpb)(4+) and [(CO)(3)ReCl(bpb)] (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, bpb = 1,6-bis-(4-(2,2'-bipyrid-yl)-pyrene) were designed with the intent of examining intramolecular energy migration between MLCT states localized on the metal complexes and pyrene-localized (3)(pi-pi) states. Absorption spectroscopy of both complexes containing the bpb ligand reveals that in addition to the MLCT and the pyrene-centered (1)(pi-pi) transitions, a new absorption band is observed near 400 nm for both complexes. Absorption spectral data for the Re(I) complex strongly suggest the presence of a pyrene(pi) to bpy(pi) intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) transition. Emission spectra at room temperature and at 77 K are almost identical for the Ru(II) and Re(I) complexes containing the bpb ligand. The (3)MLCT emission of related bipyridyl compounds lacking the pyrene is observed at higher energy than for the pyrene-containing complexes, ([(bpy)(2)Ru](2)bpb)(4+) and [(CO(3)ReCl(bpb)]. The Ru(II) complex emits at room temperature with a remarkably long lifetime (130 micros in degassed DMSO). This emission is also strongly sensitive to oxygen and is almost entirely quenched in an aerated solution. In addition, excited-state absorption spectra exhibit features not consistent with (3)MLCT or (3)(pi-pi) states of the parent chromophores. The combined characteristics suggest the emission arises from either (3)(pi-pi) or (3)ILCT states or a state with mixed parentage.

  9. Dear diary, is plastic better than paper? I can't remember: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis (2006).

    PubMed

    Takarangi, Melanie K T; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2006-03-01

    In this commentary, the authors discuss the implications of A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) diary studies with respect to memory. Researchers must take 2 issues into account when determining whether paper-and-pencil or handheld electronic diaries gather more trustworthy data. The first issue is a matter of prospective memory, and the second is a matter of reconstructive memory. The authors review the research on these issues and conclude that regardless of the type of diary researchers use, several factors can conspire to produce prompt--but inaccurate--data. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; de Andrade, Victor Piana; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-10-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

  11. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Piana de Andrade, Victor; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B.; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P.; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi. PMID:16318703

  12. Retrospective analysis of melanocytic lesions in children at the National Cancer Institute-RJ*

    PubMed Central

    Bomm, Lislaine; de Carvalho, Ricardo Vianna; Lima, Fernanda Ferreira da Silva; de Oliveira, Lidicie Natalia Braga; Tolstoy, Fernanda; Lobão, Dolival

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common neoplasm in Brazil. Melanoma accounts for 4% of these neoplasms. Although childhood melanoma is rare, there is evidence that its incidence is increasing, placing it among the most important public health problems for the future. This work sought to conduct a retrospective review of cases of suspected melanocytic skin lesions in children, their diagnosis and management, and evaluate the sentinel lymph node biopsy method in some cases of cutaneous melanoma. PMID:24770528

  13. Retrospective analysis of melanocytic lesions in children at the National Cancer Institute-RJ.

    PubMed

    Bomm, Lislaine; Carvalho, Ricardo Vianna de; Lima, Fernanda Ferreira da Silva; Oliveira, Lidicie Natalia Braga de; Tolstoy, Fernanda; Lobão, Dolival

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common neoplasm in Brazil. Melanoma accounts for 4% of these neoplasms. Although childhood melanoma is rare, there is evidence that its incidence is increasing, placing it among the most important public health problems for the future. This work sought to conduct a retrospective review of cases of suspected melanocytic skin lesions in children, their diagnosis and management, and evaluate the sentinel lymph node biopsy method in some cases of cutaneous melanoma.

  14. Structural Properties and UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy of Retinal-pyridyl-CN Re(I) Carbonyl Bipyridine Complex: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Eng, Julien; Daniel, Chantal

    2015-10-29

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of the all-trans and five cis conformers of [Re(CO)3(bpy)(ret-pyr-CN)](+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; ret-pyr-CN = pyridyl-CN-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-n)-none-(2,4,6,8-tetraen) were studied in solvent by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT. The isolated retinal-like chromophore ret-pyr-CN was investigated as well for comparison. By coordination to the complex the two lowest intraligand (IL) states localized on the retinal group are slightly red-shifted from 627 to 690 nm and from 415 to 450 nm, respectively. Several isomerization pathways are open upon irradiation of the Re(I) complex by visible light (400-450 nm), especially to two cis conformers corresponding to the isomerization of the two double bonds of the retinal-like ligand close to the pyridyl group linked to the Re(I) fragment. The metal-to-ligand charge transfer states localized either on the retinal group or on the bpy ligand should play a minor role in the isomerization process itself but could improve its efficiency via ultra-fast intersystem crossing.

  15. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  16. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  17. “A Whole ’Nother Smoke” or a Cigarette in Disguise: How RJ Reynolds Reframed the Image of Little Cigars

    PubMed Central

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Hrywna, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Present-day consumption of little cigars rivals that of the early 1970s when sales of little cigars boomed. This boom was largely attributed to RJ Reynolds, and documents reveal how and why they became a powerful force in little cigar sales. RJ Reynolds designed a little cigar, Winchesters, for cigarette smokers and produced one as close to a cigarette as legally possible. Initially, RJ Reynolds intended to capitalize on the cigarette advertising broadcast ban, but the price and tax structure was more critical to Winchester’s success. Today, the tobacco industry is fighting again to sustain its unique application of federal definitions for little cigars. Regulatory efforts are needed to close taxation loopholes for the little cigar. PMID:17600253

  18. Paper and electronic diaries: Too early for conclusions on compliance rates and their effects--Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis (2006).

    PubMed

    Broderick, Joan E; Stone, Arthur A

    2006-03-01

    This commentary discusses 4 issues relevant to interpretation of A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) article: (a) Self-reported compliance in medical settings has generally been substantially higher than verified compliance, suggesting that this is not a rare phenomenon; (b) none of the studies reported in Green et al. explicitly verified paper diary compliance; (c) the impact of participant motivation on diary compliance is unknown, and it may be difficult for researchers to accurately assess it in their own studies; and (d) without objective verification of diary compliance, analysis of the effects of noncompliance on data quality is difficult to interpret. The authors conclude that compliance in paper diaries and the effects of noncompliance on data quality are still unsettled issues. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Putative Type III Secretion System Effector Encoded by the MA20_12780 Gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 Causes Incompatibility with Rj4 Genotype Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Syougo; Okizaki, Kouhei; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2015-09-01

    The nodulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 is restricted by Rj4 genotype soybeans (Glycine max). To identify the genes responsible for this incompatibility, Tn5 mutants of B. japonicum Is-34 that were able to overcome this nodulation restriction were obtained. Analysis of the Tn5 mutants revealed that Tn5 was inserted into a region containing the MA20_12780 gene. In addition, direct disruption of this gene using marker exchange overcame the nodulation restriction by Rj4 genotype soybeans. The MA20_12780 gene has a tts box motif in its upstream region, indicating a possibility that this gene encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein. Bioinformatic characterization revealed that the MA20_12780 protein contains the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease domain of the C48 peptidase (ubiquitin-like protease 1 [Ulp1]) family. The results of the present study indicate that a putative T3SS effector encoded by the MA20_12780 gene causes the incompatibility with Rj4 genotype soybeans, and they suggest the possibility that the nodulation restriction of B. japonicum Is-34 may be due to Rj4 genotype soybeans recognizing the putative T3SS effector (MA20_12780 protein) as a virulence factor. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A Putative Type III Secretion System Effector Encoded by the MA20_12780 Gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 Causes Incompatibility with Rj4 Genotype Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Syougo; Okizaki, Kouhei; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    The nodulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 is restricted by Rj4 genotype soybeans (Glycine max). To identify the genes responsible for this incompatibility, Tn5 mutants of B. japonicum Is-34 that were able to overcome this nodulation restriction were obtained. Analysis of the Tn5 mutants revealed that Tn5 was inserted into a region containing the MA20_12780 gene. In addition, direct disruption of this gene using marker exchange overcame the nodulation restriction by Rj4 genotype soybeans. The MA20_12780 gene has a tts box motif in its upstream region, indicating a possibility that this gene encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein. Bioinformatic characterization revealed that the MA20_12780 protein contains the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease domain of the C48 peptidase (ubiquitin-like protease 1 [Ulp1]) family. The results of the present study indicate that a putative T3SS effector encoded by the MA20_12780 gene causes the incompatibility with Rj4 genotype soybeans, and they suggest the possibility that the nodulation restriction of B. japonicum Is-34 may be due to Rj4 genotype soybeans recognizing the putative T3SS effector (MA20_12780 protein) as a virulence factor. PMID:26092458

  1. [An outbreak of coccidiosis in partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens), reared in captivity, by Eimeria rhynchoti Reis and Nobrega, 1936 (Apicomplexa: Emeriidae)].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da C; Almeida, Katyane de S; do Nascimento, Adjair A; Machado, Celio R; Machado, Rosangela Z

    2006-01-01

    Eimeria rhynchoti is redescribed parasitizing partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens), reared in captivity, from Jaboticabal City, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sporulation takes place in 48 hours, the shape of oocysts found vary from spherical to elliptic with 23.01 micro +/- 1.57 of length by 21.0 micro +/- 1.78 of width. The microple, polar cap and residuum of the oocysts were absent. The oocyst wall, measures 2.2 micro +/- 0.31 of thickness, is composed by two smooth layers; the polar granule is present. The sporocysts length was 15.03 mm +/- 2.12 by 8.08 mm +/- 0.84 of width vary from elliptic to elongate. Sporocyst wall slender with is fine and Stieda body; the residue found in form of several smaller granules spherical compacts. The sporozoites are contrary extending along the sporocysts wall possessing refracts body of easy visualization.

  2. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  3. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-16

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03851

  4. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  5. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  6. Degree of threat to the biological diversity in the Ilha Grande State Park (RJ) and guidelines for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Schneider, M; Vasconcellos, L A

    2002-08-01

    The State Park of Ilha Grande is only a part (5,594 hectares) of the entire island (19,300 hectares) which is located off the south coast of Rio de Janeiro state, between the cities of Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis. Approximately half of the Park area (47%) is covered by dense Atlantic forest. The secondary forest growth is in a process of ecological succession close to attaining maturity (43%) and the remaining part (10%) is composed of human-altered areas (1%), rocky outcrops with herbaceous vegetation (7%), mangroves and beaches (2%). The fauna is well represented but already shows signs of degradation with introduced species. The analysis of the degree of threat has shown that the dense forest habitat has a relatively stable status of conservation while the secondary forest, the mangrove and the herbaceous vegetation on rocky outcrops (and their fauna) are categorized as vulnerable. The area altered by human occupation is considered threatened. Since the coastal area where Ilha Grande is located is well known for its beautiful scenery (known as the green coast, because of the contrast between the ocean and the Atlantic forest covering the Serra do Mar mountain chain). There is a strong possibility for tourism to become the means in which to achieve economic sustainability for conservation. Contradictorily, tourism is also the major threat to local biodiversity and its landscape units. Because tourism is not organized and controlled, during high season the numbers grow above local capacity, giving rise to a proliferation of hotels, guesthouses and camping grounds. The resulting untreated open sewage, random garbage disposal and other harmful activities form the major threats to biodiversity.

  7. Taxonomy of Cotylea (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from Cabo Frio, southeastern Brazil, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Juliana; Padula, Vinicius; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-10-20

    Polyclads are free-living Platyhelminthes with a simple, dorsoventrally flattened body and a much ramified intestine. In Brazil, 66 species are reported; only three from Rio de Janeiro State (RJ). The main objective of this study is to describe and illustrate coloration pattern, external morphology, reproductive system morphology and, when possible, biological and ecological aspects of species of the suborder Cotylea found in Cabo Frio, RJ. Of the 13 cotylean polyclad species found, Pseudobiceros pardalis, Cycloporus variegatus and Eurylepta aurantiaca are new records from the Brazilian coast and one species is new to science, Pseudoceros juani sp. nov. Feeding observations were made of four species. It is the first time that Lurymare utarum, Cycloporus gabriellae, C. variegatus and E. aurantiaca are illustrated with digital photographs of live specimens and histological preparations. This study increases to 70 the number of Brazilian Polycladida and to 14 the number of species known from Rio de Janeiro State. However, the knowledge about Polycladida in Brazil still has gaps, with great parts of the coast remaining unsampled. 

  8. Composite nanofibers doped with a phosphorescent Re(I) complex having restricted conjugation plane in its diamine ligand: Preparation, characterization, photophysical property and oxygen-sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Qi, Wang; Jing, Li

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we report a Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br, where Cl-PYO stands for 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole, including its synthesis, identification, molecular structure, theoretical calculation and photophysical character. Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br is found to be a yellow emitter with long excited state lifetime in pure N2 atmosphere. Theoretical calculation result suggests that this emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. By doping Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br into a polymer supporting matrix of poly(vinylpyrrolidone), the emission of the resulted composite materials is found to be sensitive towards various oxygen concentrations. The maximum sensitivity is obtained to be 7.88. Owing to the porous structure of fibrous poly(vinylpyrrolidone) matrix, a short response time of 11 s towards molecular oxygen is also realized with high photostability.

  9. Comparative study on bulk and composite fibrous samples photophysical feature: Synthesis and characterization of a fluorine-containing Re(I) complex and its electrospinning fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Cangming, Zhao; Qi, Wang

    2015-05-01

    This paper reported a diamine ligand 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (referred to as FPOZ) owing two typical electron-withdrawing moieties of an oxidiazole group and a fluorine atom, as well as its corresponding Re(I) complex Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br. Geometric structure and electronic nature of Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br were explored and discussed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation, which suggested that Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br took a distorted octahedral coordination field. The onset electronic transitions owned a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer (LLCT). Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was then doped into a polymer host. Photophysical difference between resulting composite fibers and bulk Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was carefully performed, so that the correlation between emissive performance and electron-withdrawing group/geometric relaxation could be investigated. It was found that the immobilization in polymer matrix could repress MLCT excited state geometric relaxation, leading to improved PL parameters such as emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and higher photostability.

  10. Composite nanofibers doped with a phosphorescent Re(I) complex having restricted conjugation plane in its diamine ligand: preparation, characterization, photophysical property and oxygen-sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Qi, Wang; Jing, Li

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we report a Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br, where Cl-PYO stands for 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole, including its synthesis, identification, molecular structure, theoretical calculation and photophysical character. Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br is found to be a yellow emitter with long excited state lifetime in pure N2 atmosphere. Theoretical calculation result suggests that this emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. By doping Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br into a polymer supporting matrix of poly(vinylpyrrolidone), the emission of the resulted composite materials is found to be sensitive towards various oxygen concentrations. The maximum sensitivity is obtained to be 7.88. Owing to the porous structure of fibrous poly(vinylpyrrolidone) matrix, a short response time of 11s towards molecular oxygen is also realized with high photostability.

  11. Comparative study on bulk and composite fibrous samples photophysical feature: synthesis and characterization of a fluorine-containing Re(I) complex and its electrospinning fibers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Cangming, Zhao; Qi, Wang

    2015-05-05

    This paper reported a diamine ligand 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (referred to as FPOZ) owing two typical electron-withdrawing moieties of an oxidiazole group and a fluorine atom, as well as its corresponding Re(I) complex Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br. Geometric structure and electronic nature of Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br were explored and discussed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation, which suggested that Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br took a distorted octahedral coordination field. The onset electronic transitions owned a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer (LLCT). Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was then doped into a polymer host. Photophysical difference between resulting composite fibers and bulk Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was carefully performed, so that the correlation between emissive performance and electron-withdrawing group/geometric relaxation could be investigated. It was found that the immobilization in polymer matrix could repress MLCT excited state geometric relaxation, leading to improved PL parameters such as emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and higher photostability.

  12. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  13. [Climatic and anthropic influence on the abundance and richness of Calliphoridae (Diptera) in a forest fragment in the Tinguá Biological Reserve, RJ, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Gadelha, Bárbara Q; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2010-01-01

    Monthly collections were made using two traps 5 m apart exposed for 48h, containing sardines and installed at points: A at the edge (500 m from the entrance of the Reserve); B 1200 m from the entrance and 1000 m inside the forest; and C 1700 m from the entrance and 500 m inside the forest. The purpose was to evaluate the abundance and richness of calliphorid species as a function of the environmental conditions using Pearson's correlation, compare the richness of the areas using ANOVA and Tukey's test, compare the abundances of the areas by the Kruskal-Wallis test, and also assess the possible influence of the anthropic presence. Rare, intermediary and common species were identified. The collection totalized 8515 Calliphoridae belonging to 26 species, with a predominance of females. None of the 13 species considered common presented a correlation between abundance and temperature: only Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) were correlated with humidity and only Mesembrinella semihyalina Mello with precipitation. This parameter was the only climatic variable correlated with richness. The greatest abundance and richness of calliphorids occurred in September 2006. From the 13 common species, seven were considered synanthropic, indicating the effect of anthropic action in this site.

  14. Negative serosurvey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Golden-headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) from Niterói/RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molina, Camila Vieira; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Bueno, Marina Galvão; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Genari, Solange Maria; Pissinatti, Alcides; Kierulff, Maria Cecília Martins; Silva, Tiago Ferreira da; Freitas, Danilo Gomes de; Caneli, Larissa Cristinne; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-12-01

    New World Nonhuman Primates are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 126 recently captured Leontopithecus chrysomelas, from an exotic and invasive population, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); all were seronegative. The MAT is highly specific and is not species-specific. This is the first report of T. gondii survey in this tamarin in the wild. This result is consistent with prior reports that showed the high susceptibility of the species to infection by T. gondii usually with high mortality rates.

  15. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community of the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ.

    PubMed

    Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Cunha-Barros, M; Rocha, C F; Van Sluys, M

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed the thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community from the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The broadest activity was that of Tropidurus torquatus, a sit-and-wait forager, while the active foraging teiid Cnemidophorus littoralis had the shortest activity. The nocturnal gekkonid Hemidactylus mabouia was found active during the day only during early morning and late afternoon, when environmental temperatures are low. Body temperature was highest for Cnemidophorus littoralis and lowest for the two Mabuya species. The patterns found here are discussed and compared to those of congeneric species in other habitats in Brazil.

  16. Brazil Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Brazil was the eighth-largest energy consumer in the world and the third-largest in the Americas, behind the United States and Canada, according to BP statistics. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has nearly doubled in the past decade1 because of sustained economic growth. The largest share of Brazil's total energy consumption is oil and other liquid fuels, followed by hydroelectricity and natural gas

  17. Results of the radiological survey at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ001)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally {sup 232}Th, derived from the MCW site. The surveys typically include direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this commercial property at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ001), was conducted in 1986. Measurements taken at the commercial property located at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue indicate slightly elevated gamma exposure rates in three areas of the parking lot. Although results of analysis of the asphalt disclosed radionuclide concentrations in excess of the applicable criterion, their presence is due to naturally radioactive substances in asphalt patching materials and is not associated with material from the MCW site. Therefore, it is recommended that this site be eliminated from consideration for inclusion in the DOE remedial action program. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  19. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  20. Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) from Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, R F; Gonçalves, I C B; Miyahira, I C; Pinto, H A; Melo, A L; Santos, S B

    2016-09-05

    Pleurolophocercous cercariae found in the invasive gastropod Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) collected in a stream of the Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were used for experimental infection that enabled the identification of the heterophyid trematode Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924). The parasite has been found in the locality since 2007, after two years of the introduction of M. tuberculata. Recently, from a sample of 483 specimens collected in June 2013, 101 (21%) were found infected with parasite. The potential environmental impacts caused by the parasite occurrence could be underestimated in the country, and actions to monitor and control both the parasite and the mollusk are necessary.

  1. Updating the Seismic Hazard Determination in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This job presents an update of research by Berrocal in 1996 in the determination of seismic hazard for the Southeast of Brazil, based on the earthquake catalog compiled at the Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo and bulletin of Seismological Observatory, Universidade de Brasilia, during the period between 1767 until May 2012. The southeastern Brazil has a level of seismic activity is considered low, typical of intraplate regions. Our database has a total of 3726 events, however 1242 events do not have the magnitude estimated, 1638 events are between magnitudes 0.1 to 1.9 and from 2.0 to 3.9 are 819 events. The largest earthquake in the region occurred on February 28, 1955 with magnitude 6.1 mb (Assumpção, 2000), with its epicenter about 400 km from the coast, this was felt in small cities, especially in Espirito Santo State. The intensity VIII-IX MM was estimated by Berrocal et al. (1984). The database also has four events with magnitude above 5.0 mb in the region that occurred during the past 215 years and a little more than a twenty earthquakes with magnitude between 4.0 and 5.0 mb. Instrumental data are available since the 1970s when the station network was installed in Brasilia. Several other short-period vertical stations have been installed in the region. We used data from the same area defined in the previous survey, located between parallels 15S-32S degree and longitudes 35W-52W degree. It contains the most developed area of Brazil, and the major cities and industrial centers of the country (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte). Major engineering works, hydroelectric and nuclear power plant (Angra dos Reis) are also in this area. Therefore, the results can be applied to the planning and construction of large engineering within that region. With GIS and seismology tools was calculated relative frequency/magnitude for earthquakes mb > 3.0, the value of b with the maximum likelihood method, and so curves of recurrence was

  2. Melioidosis, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rolim, Dionne Bezerra; Vilar, Dina Cortez Feitosa Lima; Sousa, Anastacio Queiroz; Miralles, Iracema Sampaio; Almeida de Oliveira, Diana Carmen; Harnett, Gerry; O'Reilly, Lyn; Howard, Kay; Sampson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Melioidosis was first recognized in northeastern Brazil in 2003. Confirmation of additional cases from the 2003 cluster in Ceará, more recent cases in other districts, environmental isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei, molecular confirmation and typing results, and positive serosurveillance specimens indicate that melioidosis is more widespread in northeastern Brazil than previously thought. PMID:16229782

  3. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  4. Brazil: A Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-19

    7 AOAB B89 ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA F/G 5/5 BRAZIL : A COUNTRY STUOY.(Ul UNLSIID APR 82 W L STEININSER I U LASIEEEEEEEE S E C U R I T Y...COVERED Brazil ; A Country Study Student Essay G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) W. L. Steininger Jr. Colonel...reverse aide if necessy and Identify by block number) "Assesses, the political, economic and military factors in Brazil highlighting the Lountry’s drive

  5. "And they told two friends...and so on": RJ Reynolds' viral marketing of Eclipse and its potential to mislead the public.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S J; Ling, P M

    2008-08-01

    To explore viral marketing strategies for Eclipse cigarettes used by the RJ Reynolds Company (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA). Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and multimedia materials. The failure of RJ Reynolds' (RJR) 1988 "smokeless" cigarette, Premier, was in part due to widespread bad word of mouth about the product's flavour, quality and difficulty of use. In 1994 RJR introduced an updated version of Premier, the ostensibly "reduced risk" Eclipse cigarette. RJR developed viral marketing channels to promote Eclipse using (1) exploratory interviews to motivate consumers to spread the word about Eclipse prior to market release, (2) promotional videos featuring positive feedback from test group participants to portray majority consensus among triers, (3) "Tupperware"-like parties for Eclipse where participants received samples to pass around in their social circles and (4) the Eclipse website's bulletin board as a forum for potential users to discuss the brand in their own words. These strategies targeted the brand's likeliest adopters, recruited informal and credible representatives of the product unaffiliated with RJR, and controlled the information spread about the product. Viral marketing techniques may be particularly useful to promote new tobacco products such as Eclipse that have limited appeal and need a highly motivated audience of early adopters and acceptors. Such techniques help evade the mass rejection that could follow mass promotion, circumvent marketing restrictions, and allow tobacco companies to benefit from health claims made by consumers. Cigarette manufacturers must be held accountable for perceived health benefits encouraged by all promotional activities including viral marketing.

  6. Audiology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Novaes, Beatriz Caiuby; Morata, Thais C

    2008-02-01

    The profession of audiology took root in Brazil nearly a half a century ago and has since blossomed into a flourishing, well-developed field. Currently, audiologists in Brazil work at private institutions, including private medical practices and dedicated speech and hearing clinics. They are also employed in a wide array of public institutions, including community clinics, elementary schools, colleges, and universities. In both the private sector and health clinics, audiologists perform diagnostic evaluations of auditory and vestibular disorders, select and fit hearing aids, and provide aural rehabilitation. At the public level, they assist with workers' health programs, dispense hearing aids, and aural rehabilitation. There is always room to grow, however, and the future of audiology in Brazil holds both challenges and opportunity. The following article will sketch the development of audiology training and practice in Brazil, provide a picture of how the field stands today, and summarize the unique challenges which the profession faces in this large and diverse nation.

  7. Brazil-Bolivia Border

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-16

    This image of the river-delineated border between western Brazil Acre province, and northwestern Bolivia Pando Department, demarcates a remarkable difference in land use and development practices as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  8. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  9. Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcela G; Colasso, Camilla G; Monteiro, Paula P; Pedreira Filho, Walter R; Yonamine, Maurício

    2012-02-01

    In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk.

  10. The Morsárjökull rock avalanche in the southern part of the Vatnajökull glacier, south Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sæmundsson, Şorsteinn; Sigurősson, Ingvar A.; Pétursson, Halldór G.; Decaulne, Armelle; Jónsson, Helgi P.

    2010-05-01

    On the 20th of March 2007 a large rock avalanche fell on Morsárjökull, one of the outlet glaciers from the southern part of the Vatnajökull ice cap, in south Iceland. This is considered to be one of the largest rock avalanches which have occurred in Iceland during the last decades. It is believed that it fell in two separate stages, the main part fell on the 20th of March and the second and smaller one, on the 17th of April 2007. The Morsárjökull outlet glacier is about 4 km long and surrounded by up to 1000 m high valley slopes. The outlet glacier is fed by two ice falls which are partly disconnected to the main ice cap of Vatnajökull, which indicates that the glacier is mainly fed by ice avalanches. The rock avalanche fell on the eastern side of the uppermost part of the Morsárjökull outlet glacier and covered about 1/5 of the glacier surface, an area of about 720,000 m2. The scar of the rock avalanche is located on the north face of the headwall above the uppermost part of the glacier. It is around 330 m high, reaching from about 620 m up to 950 m, showing that the main part of the slope collapsed. It is estimated that about 4 million m3 of rock debris fell on the glacier, or about 10 million tons. The accumulation lobe is up to 1.6 km long, reaching from 520 m a.s.l., to about 350 m a.s.l. Its width is from 125 m to 650 m, or on average 480 m. The total area which the lobe covers is around 720.000 m2 and its mean thickness 5.5 m. The surface of the lobe shows longitudinal ridges and grooves and narrow flow-like lobes, indicating that the debris mass evolved down glacier as a mixture of a slide and debris flow. The debris mass is coarse grained and boulder rich. Blocks over 5 to 8 m in diameter are common on the edges of the lobe up to 1.6 km from the source. No indication was observed of any deformation of the glacier surface under the debris mass. The first glaciological measurements of Morsárjökull outlet glacier were carried out in the year 1896

  11. “And they told two friends…and so on”: RJ Reynolds’ viral marketing of Eclipse and its potential to mislead the public

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S J; Ling, P M

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore viral marketing strategies for Eclipse cigarettes used by the RJ Reynolds Company (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA). Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and multimedia materials. Results The failure of RJ Reynolds’ (RJR) 1988 “smokeless” cigarette, Premier, was in part due to widespread bad word of mouth about the product’s flavour, quality and difficulty of use. In 1994 RJR introduced an updated version of Premier, the ostensibly “reduced risk” Eclipse cigarette. RJR developed viral marketing channels to promote Eclipse using (1) exploratory interviews to motivate consumers to spread the word about Eclipse prior to market release, (2) promotional videos featuring positive feedback from test group participants to portray majority consensus among triers, (3) “Tupperware”-like parties for Eclipse where participants received samples to pass around in their social circles and (4) the Eclipse website’s bulletin board as a forum for potential users to discuss the brand in their own words. These strategies targeted the brand’s likeliest adopters, recruited informal and credible representatives of the product unaffiliated with RJR, and controlled the information spread about the product. Conclusions Viral marketing techniques may be particularly useful to promote new tobacco products such as Eclipse that have limited appeal and need a highly motivated audience of early adopters and acceptors. Such techniques help evade the mass rejection that could follow mass promotion, circumvent marketing restrictions, and allow tobacco companies to benefit from health claims made by consumers. Cigarette manufacturers must be held accountable for perceived health benefits encouraged by all promotional activities including viral marketing. PMID:18332064

  12. [A better Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  13. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  14. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  15. Brazil in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fabiola

    1993-10-01

    Brazil's National Space Research Institute (INPE) was born out of the desire of a number of Brazilians to see their country participating in the conquest of space. On 3 August 1961, President Janio Quadros signed a decree, creating the Organising Group for the National Space Commission (GOCNAE) as a part of the National Research Council (CNPq). CNAE, as the institution became known later gave birth to INPE. The present activities of INPE - concentrated in the areas of Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Observation, and Space Technology - and showing that space science and technology can exert an important influence on the quality of life of the general population, and on Brazil's future national development.

  16. Dengue type 4 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: case characterization following its introduction in an endemic region.

    PubMed

    Heringer, Manoela; Souza, Thiara Manuele A; Lima, Monique da Rocha Q; Nunes, Priscila Conrado G; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues da C; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; Chouin-Carneiro, Thaís; Nogueira, Rita Maria R; Dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-06-09

    Due to the populations' susceptibility, DENV-4 introduction in 2010 led to the occurrence of explosive epidemics in the following years in Brazil. In 2011, DENV-4 was identified in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and it was prevalent in 2012 and 2013. Here, we aimed to characterize clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial aspects of DENV-4 cases after this serotype introduction in an endemic scenario. Dengue suspected cases (n = 3727) were received and analyzed from January 2011 to December 2013, during outbreaks occurred in RJ, Brazil. Samples were submitted to virological, serological and molecular methods for case confirmation. DENV-4 cases (n = 705) were characterized according to the type of infection, disease severity and, viremia levels and NS1 antigenemia were accessed. Representative strains were partial sequenced for genotyping. DENV-4 was identified in 44.2% (705/1593) of dengue positive cases, virus isolated in 48.7% of the cases. Anti-DENV IgM was detected in 39.4% of the cases, however an increased detection was observed in cases with ≥4 days of symptoms (57.0%). NS1 antigen was identified in 41.5% of DENV-4 cases however, after immune complexes dissociation, the detection significantly increased (87.6%). Females were more affected than males, so did children aged 11-15 years old. Primary cases were more frequently observed than secondary ones and most of them were classified as dengue. No differences on NS1 antigenemia and viraemia within the groups were observed. Despite the higher frequency of severe disease on individuals >65 years old, no differences were observed among the groups and type of infection. However, DENV-4 fatal cases were more frequent on secondary infections (57.1%). DENV-4 Genotype II was identified with a probable origin from Venezuela and Colombia. It has been shown that laboratorial diagnosis is still a reliable tool for the disease surveillance, detecting and confirming emerging epidemics. Despite the occurrence of secondary

  17. [Socio-demographic factors and leisure-time physical activity among men and women of Duque de Caxias / RJ].

    PubMed

    Sá Silva, Suzana Patrícia de; Sandre-Pereira, Gilza; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and associated variables in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), by gender, in Duque de Caxias/Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,246 adults. During home visits, questionnaires were applied on LTPA, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric examinations were performed. Physical inactivity was high (70%) (p-value <0001) and men were more active (43.3%) than women (20%) (p-value <0.0001). Men practiced significantly more competitive and male-associated LTPA. Taking care of children was a factor that increased the likelihood of men engaging in LTPA (OR = 2.75, p-value = 0.034), whereas among women, those who spent less time on domestic activities (OR = 0.99, p-value = 0.016), did not smoke (OR = 2.63, p-value = 0.039) and had greater accumulation of abdominal fat (OR = 2.72, p -value = 0.023), practiced LTPA. Men chose LTPAs considered masculine. Socio-demographic and anthropometric measures had different associations with LTPA between the genders.

  18. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  19. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  20. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  1. Scientific ballooning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, R.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Villela, T.

    We present an overview of the scientific ballooning activities that took place in Brazil over the past 30 years as well as the current ongoing efforts in the area. We also briefly describe the balloon launching facility that exists at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) — INPE. Up to now, over 100 scientific balloon experiments, related to Astrophysics, Aeronomy, and Geophysics were launched from Brazil taking advantage of the country's continental dimensions, a well-defined rain season, and a low population density, which offer excellent conditions for scientific ballooning activities. Balloons with volumes up to 500,000 cubic meters can be launched from INPE's balloon launching base (latitude S 22° 4' 2″; longitude W 044° 58' 41″). The availability of good roads and several inland airports in Brazil provides the necessary structure for safe payload retrieval and its rapid return to the balloon base. There are several airports throughout Brazil that can also be used as balloon launching bases, mainly in the country's Eastern region. Overflights of more than 1,000 kilometers are possible and easily attained. Balloon flights ranging from a few hours to long duration flights can be safely verified. The constant climate monitoring through the use of weather satellites information received at INPE provides the necessary data to determine the necessary conditions for a long duration flight. INPE's Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) provides the necessary weather forecast support for launch and payload retrieval.

  2. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  3. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  4. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  5. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  6. Chikungunya risk for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  7. Particle Pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Increase and Decrease of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L.; Amaral, Beatriz S.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.; Gioda, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent. PMID:25106047

  8. Description of leprosy classification at baseline among patients enrolled at the uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial for leprosy patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo Scaliante; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; de Andrade Pontes, Maria Araci; Cruz, Rossilene; de Sá Gonçalves, Heitor; Fernandes Penna, Maria Lúcia; de Araújo Stefani, Mariane Martins; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The uniform multidrug therapy clinical trial, Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR), database was used to describe and report the performance of available tools to classify 830 leprosy patients as paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) at baseline. In a modified Ridley and Jopling (R&J) classification, considering clinical features, histopathological results of skin biopsies and the slit-skin smear bacterial load results were used as the gold standard method for classification. Anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology by ML Flow test, the slit skin smear bacterial load, and the number of skin lesions were evaluated. Considering the R&J classification system as gold standard, ML Flow tests correctly allocated 70% patients in the PB group and 87% in the MB group. The classification based on counting the number of skin lesions correctly allocated 46% PB patients and 99% MB leprosy cases. Slit skin smears properly classified 91% and 97% of PB and MB patients, respectively. Based on U-MDT/CT-BR results, classification of leprosy patients for treatment purposes is unnecessary because it does not impact clinical and laboratories outcomes. In this context, the identification of new biomarkers to detect patients at a higher risk to develop leprosy reactions or relapse remains an important research challenge.

  9. Emergent arboviruses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil is a large tropical country (8,514,215 km(2)) with 185,360,000 inhabitants. More than one third of its territory is covered by tropical forests or other natural ecosystems. These provide ideal conditions for the existence of many arboviruses, which are maintained in a large variety of zoonotic cycles. The risk that new arboviruses might emerge in Brazil is related to the existence of large, densely populated cities that are infested by mosquitoes such as Culex and the highly anthropophilic Aedes aegypti. Infected humans or animals may come into these cities from ecological-epidemiological settings where arbovirus zoonoses occur. This study analyzes the risk of emergence of the alphaviruses Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis and Chikungunya; the flaviviruses yellow fever, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile; and the orthobunyavirus Oropouche.

  10. IHY activities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  11. Brazils Rise to Global Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Organization for Economic Co-operation ( OECD ,) the World Bank, the UN, and the IMF will provide sufficient information to compare Brazil to the...is also prohibited from negotiating a FTA with the EU because of its membership in the South American Common Market (Mercosur). An EU- Brazil FTA...capable countries like Uruguay and Paraguay to rely on the political stability of a more capable Brazil through membership in Mercosur. Without a

  12. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-08

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  13. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  14. Cape Baleia, Caravelas, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Cape Baleia (17.5N, 39.0W), on the north central coast of Brazil illustrates a good example of multiple coastal sand spits. Over a several thousand year time period, shifting regimes of wave and current patterns have piled up sand onto a series of beach ridges and tidal lagoons. Offshore, several prominent reefs and sandbanks can be seen paralleling the coast. The largest is the Recife da Pedra Grande (Big Rocks Reef).

  15. Lung cancer in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Algranti, E; Menezes, A M; Achutti, A C

    2001-04-01

    Lung cancer is the second leading cause of death in Brazil, after exclusion of external causes. Registries in the country are not reliable because of under-registration and limited coverage. Incidence rates for Brazil are less then half those for selected areas with good registries. Crude and adjusted incidence and mortality rates for lung cancer are rising, particularly among women. The main reason is the acceleration in tobacco consumption and the spread of smoking among women. At present, approximately 40% of men and 25% of women, 15 years of age or older, are current smokers. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, where registries are reliable, incidence and mortality for males are similar to US data and the figures for women are rapidly approaching those for men. Occupations associated with risks of exposure to respiratory carcinogens show a rise in the incidence of lung cancer in the industrialized area of São Paulo. The main occupational risk in Brazil is exposure to mineral dusts, silica, or asbestos. Although about 15 million Brazilians are exposed to pesticides, agricultural workers were not a risk group for lung cancer in a case-control study. Pesticides containing arsenic and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are banned. In recent years, a trend towards a decrease in male smoking has been noted, but there is still a high tobacco exposure burden in both males and females, with a forecast of a further increase in rates of lung cancer incidence and deaths. Control of respiratory carcinogens at work continues to be a problem, particularly in the present scenario of economic and political pressures on Brazil and other developing nations. Semin Oncol 28:143-152. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  16. IPPs in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Alqueres, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil offers a viable opportunity for independent power producers (IPPs). Four areas of the Brazilian power sector may be the potential starting points for an independent power industry. Recent legislation also has opened the doors for IPP activity by allowing companies to form consortia to generate power for their own needs. Another recent decree formed the basis for a grid system to which generators can sell power. This also has laid the groundwork for more clearly defined wheeling charges.

  17. Brazil's Route to ESO Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, A.

    2011-06-01

    On 29 December 2010, in a ceremony held at the Ministry of Science and Technology in Brazil's capital, Brasília, the then Minister, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw signed the accession agreement by which, pending ratification by the Brazilian Congress, Brazil becomes the 15th ESO Member State and the first non-European member. An overview of the historical background, the current state of astronomy in Brazil, and the motivation that made Brazil apply to become an ESO Member State is presented.

  18. Upwelling at Cabo Frio (Brazil).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Upwelling, *Atlantic Ocean), Sea water, Wind, Sea level, Surface temperature, Correlation techniques, Ocean bottom, Shallow water, Fluid flow, Air water interactions, Time series analysis, Continental shelves, Theses, Brazil

  19. Evidence of Gondwana early rifting process recorded by Resende-Ilha Grande Dike Swarm, southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Eliane; Heilbron, Monica; de Morisson Valeriano, Claudio; de Almeida, Julio César Horta; Szatmari, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Continental flood basalts and dike swarm have been related to continental breakup process through geological time. The Resende - Ilha Grande Dike swarm (RIGDS) located in the southeast Brazil, is related the Gondwana breakup and composed of dikes/sills intruded in Precambrian gneiss. The dikes have three distinguish orientations: NNW more inland; NS-NNE in the central segment and NE orientation in the coast line, consistent with Precambrian structural lineaments. The swarm comprises high-TiO2 tholeiitic basalts divided into three suites based on REE and Sr and Nd isotope data. The Resende and Volta Redonda suites present higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7077 and 0.7065, while Angra dos Reis suite presents values of 0.7066 to 0.7057. Geochemical and isotopic data support the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) as the main source for the high-TiO2 basalts. The suites heterogeneities are explained by different compositions of SCLM in accreted Precambrian terranes and/or different degree of partial melting and fractional. 40Ar/39Ar data indicate age interval between ca. 156 to 144 Ma for the swarm, older than the average for Gondwana breakup (ca. 130-120 Ma). The age interval places the RIGDS between the Karoo magmatism (181-178 Ma) and the Paraná-Etendeka magmatism (133-134 Ma) and indicates that extensional process affected the supercontinent prior the break-up.

  20. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Treesearch

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  1. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  2. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  3. A Comprehensive View of Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This student and teacher resource discusses the geography, history, and contemporary changes and achievements of Brazil. It is intended to complement textbooks and other teaching materials by serving as a resource for teachers, administrators, and students. The document is presented in three parts. Part I focuses on the geography of Brazil,…

  4. Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil. PMID:23171598

  5. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  6. Unifocal Bone Paracoccidioidomycosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Correa-de-Castro, Bruna; Pompilio, Mauricio A.; Odashiro, Danilo N.; Odashiro, Maçanori; Arão-Filho, Adalberto; Paniago, Anamaria M. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a 47 year-old man from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with unifocal tibial paracoccidioidomycosis. A radiograph showed an osteolytic lesion on the tibial middle third diaphysis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic analysis, and treatment with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was started. After three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement. Ten months after treatment, the patient showed lesion bone healing. This case describes the rare occurrence of an osteolytic lesion caused by endemic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Latin America. PMID:22403319

  7. Cape Baleia, Caravelas, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-86-001 (13-19 Jan. 1993) --- This 70mm view shows a spectacular multiple spit on the coast of Brazil, about halfway between Rio de Janeiro and the mouth of the Amazon River. Over a few thousand years, according to NASA scientists, shifting regimes of wave and current patterns piled up sand onto a series of beach ridges and tidal lagoons. The present swirls of sediment along the coast evidently were derived from beach erosion, because streams flowing into the Atlantic contain dark, clear water. Offshore, reefs and sandbanks parallel the coast. The largest is the Recife da Pedra Grande (Big Rocks Reef).

  8. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  9. Astronomy in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  10. Impact of a Reference Center on Leprosy Control under a Decentralized Public Health Care Policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Raquel Rodrigues; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Duppre, Nádia Cristina; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the profile of patients referred to the Fiocruz Outpatient Clinic, a reference center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and analyzed the origins and outcomes of these referrals. This is an observational retrospective study based on information collected from the Leprosy Laboratory database at Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A total of 1,845 suspected leprosy cases examined at the reference center between 2010 and 2014 were included. The originating health service referrals and diagnostic outcomes were analyzed as well as the clinical and epidemiological data of patients diagnosed with leprosy. Our data show that the profile of the patients treated at the Clinic has changed in recent years. There was an increase in both the proportion of patients with other skin diseases and those who had visited only one health service prior to our Clinic. Among the total 1,845 cases analyzed, the outcomes of 1,380 were linked to other diseases and, in 74% of these cases, a biopsy was not necessary to reach a diagnostic conclusion. A decrease in new leprosy case detection among our patients was also observed. Yet, among the leprosy patients, 40% had some degree of disability at diagnosis. The results of the present study demonstrated the importance of referral centers in support of basic health services within the decentralization strategy. But, the success of the program depends on the advent of new developmental tools to augment diagnostic accuracy for leprosy. However, it should be emphasized that for new diagnostic methods to be developed, a greater commitment on the part of the health care system regarding research is urgently needed.

  11. An ice-contact rhythmite (turbidite) succession deposited during the November 1996 catastrophic outburst flood (jökulhlaup), Skeiðarárjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Andrew J.; Knudsen, Óskar

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents new evidence of coarse-grained deposition from a turbulent suspension within a low-energy `slack-water' location during a recent well-documented, volcanically related, high-magnitude glacier outburst flood or jökulhlaup, Skeiðarárjökull, Iceland. This study uses established spatial and temporal constraints on processes observed during the November 1996 jökulhlaup to interpret resultant flood sediments. Coarse-grained sediments were deposited within flood slack-water conditions from suspension load by repeated turbulent flow pulses with durations of seconds-minutes. Depositional processes are thought to be analogous to turbidity currents. A minimum thickness of 15 m of rhythmites record suspended sediment dynamics at a conduit mouth during the late rising and early falling stages of the jökulhlaup. The morphology and sedimentology of deposits in a large ice-walled chamber are consistent with previous models proposed for bar deposition during cataclysmic floods. Flood flows within subglacial conduits and ice-walled open channels were sufficiently powerful to carry material up to boulder size in suspension. Macro-turbulent flows carried huge quantities of suspended sediment to high levels within the main outlet channel. High-frequency, short-duration flow pulses entering a complex ice-walled channel geometry generated highly unsteady and non-uniform flows capable of both erosional and depositional work. This study lends support to the deposition of multiple rhythmites per flood under main flow slack-water conditions. Identification of high-magnitude jökulhlaups in the ice-marginal sedimentary record will depend on the identification and correct interpretation of feeder channel and slack-water turbidite sediments. The results described here may also have application to rhythmic deposits formed by large turbulent flows in other environmental settings.

  12. Tungsten resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  13. The Brazil nut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Dora; Ruiz-Suarez, Jesus

    2004-03-01

    The segregation of large intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed is studied. We measure rising times a function of density, diameter and depth; for two different sinusoidal excitations. Our results shed definitive light to explain the fundamental aspects of the fascinating Brazil nut problem. At low frequencies (high amplitudes), inertia and convection are the only mechanisms behind segregation. Inertia dominates when the relative density of the intruder is greater than one and convection when it is less than one. At high frequencies (small amplitudes), where convection is suppressed, segregation occurs by buoyancy or sinkage. Finally, when the diameter of the intruders is changed, the well known paradigm "larger intruders rise faster" fails if the mass of the intruders is kept constant (while their relative densities are greater than one).

  14. Biothics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Guilhem, Dirce Bellezi; Garrafa, Volnei

    1999-07-01

    In this article the authors briefly sketch the nature of Brazilian bioethics. Bioethics emerged in Brazil later than in other Western countries and the 1990's were the most important period for the spread of the discipline in the country. It is in this period that some structural elements of bioethics were established, such as research groups, regulation of Local Research Ethics Committees (Comitês Locais de Etica em Pesquisa -- CEP), the creation of the National Commission of Ethics in Research with Human Beings (Comissão Nacional de Etica em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos -- CONEP) and the Brazilian Bioethics Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética -- SBB). With regard to theoretical work, Brazilian bioethics is clearly an importer of theories from countries central to the studies of bioethics, or, in other words, countries where biothics first emerged and was established. The most commonly used theory among Brazilian researchers is principalism.

  15. [Chagas disease in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vinhaes, M C; Dias, J C

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the current situation for Chagas disease vectors in Brazil, based on data from the Brazilian National Health Foundation (FNS). Over the course of the last 20 years, continuous chemical control has resulted in a clear reduction of triatomine densities and Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazilian dwellings. Results have been particularly promising in relation to Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus, considered the most important species in the past. In parallel, data from school serological surveys, hospitalized patients, and mortality records show an important decrease in the disease. Nevertheless, some areas of the Brazilian Northeast and some residual foci of Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus remain as major challenges for public health authorities, requiring effective epidemiological surveillance. States and municipalities are required to assume this task at present, as the traditional Brazilian National Health Foundation is undergoing decentralization.

  16. [Psychotherapy in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Stubbe, H

    1980-01-01

    Present conditions in Brazil are characterized by sharp contrasts and rapid social changes. Modern Brazilian civilisation has its roots in Indian, Portuguese and African cultures, which have grown together in the course of many years to form a harmonious union of civilisations. The Indian and Afro-Brazilian elements of this civilisation in particular have brought about a great number of syncretistic cults, hitherto scarcely explored; such as Candomblé, Umbanda, Macumba and Spiritualism, all of which, together with a vigorously active folklore, exert an important psychohygienic function. The institutions created within these cults provide a ritualized therapeutic treatment of psychiatric conditions supplementing the professional psychiatric care available to the population. The variety of forms of the Brazilian psychotherapy stretches from the pre-scientifical methods of the Indian medicine man through the seemingly medieval forms of exorcisme and spiritualism right to the scientifically founded psychotherapy in all its lines. Integrative endeavours towards a culture-anthropological psychotherapy are becoming evident.

  17. Diabetes Care in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Maria Aurora Dropa Chrestani; Neves, Rosália Garcia; Schmidt, Paulo Ricardo Correa; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Saes, Mirelle de Oliveira; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Volz, Pamela Moraes; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the primary health care offered to 8118 service users with diabetes in Brazil based on data from the PMAQ (Program to Improve Primary Care Access and Quality) first survey. Structure, access, service organization and management, and clinical care quality were analyzed. Prevalence of self-reported receipt of appropriate treatment was 14.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.4-15.2). Following adjustment, it was 26% higher (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04-1.54) when primary health care centers had all the structure items investigated, it was 13% higher (PR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.00-1.29) when the teams' work process for service organization and management was adequate and it was 14% higher (PR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.30) when the teams' clinical practice was adequate. PMID:28252499

  18. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gualco, Gabriela; Klumb, Claudete E; Barber, Glen N; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10‐year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non‐Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36%) and mature (64%) cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B‐cell phenotype and 19% of the T‐cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central‐west region. The distribution by age groups was 15–18 years old, 33%; 11–14 years old, 26%; 6–10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B‐cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%), followed by diffuse large B‐cell lymphomas (24%). In the mature T‐cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK‐positive was the most prevalent (57%), followed by peripheral T‐cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%). In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%). Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions. PMID:21340214

  19. Determinants of gestational night blindness in pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Cláudia; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Neves, Paulo Augusto Ribeiro; Padilha, Patricia de Carvalho; da Silva, Letícia Barbosa Gabriel; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Corrêa

    2016-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and determinants of gestational night blindness in pregnant women receiving care in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study of pregnant and postpartum women receiving care in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro from 1999 to 2001 (group I; n 225) or from 2005 to 2008 (group II; n 381). Night blindness was identified through a standardized and validated interview (WHO, 1996). The determinants of gestational night blindness were identified through a hierarchical logistic regression model. Public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Adult pregnant and postpartum women (n 606), aged ≥20 years. The prevalence of gestational night blindness was 9·9 %. The final model revealed that not living in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (distal level: adjusted OR=1·846; 95 % CI 1·002, 3·401), belonging to group I (intermediate level: adjusted OR=2·183; 95 % CI 1·066, 4·471) and for the proximal level, having a history of abortion (adjusted OR=2·840; 95 % CI 1·134, 7·115) and having anaemia during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (adjusted OR=3·776; 95 % CI 1·579, 9·029) were determinants of gestational night blindness. Gestational night blindness should be assessed for during the prenatal care of all pregnant women, especially those living in deprived areas of the city and/or who have a history of abortion or anaemia. Nutritional monitoring is recommended during pregnancy to control gestational night blindness.

  20. Brazil's alcohol motor fuel program

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This is a status report on the production and use of ethanol as automotive fuel in Brazil. Ethanol, called in Portuguese Proalcool, will supply at least one-third of Brazil's expected fuel demand for transportation in the year 2000. In total energy terms, it should contribute on the same level as coal and twice the combined level of nuclear, solar and geothermal energies. 2 refs.

  1. Brazil - the Challenge of Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-07

    agency. BRAZIL -- THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPMENT BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL CLOVIS PURPER BANDEIRA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for publig release...MBER 7. ALU’-HOR(j) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER,’&I Clovis Purper Bandeira, LTC, IN 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PRO...agency. BRAZIL - THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPXENT AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Clovis Purper Bandeira, IN Colonel Alden M. Cunningham

  2. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  3. Impact of a Reference Center on Leprosy Control under a Decentralized Public Health Care Policy in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Raquel Rodrigues; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Duppre, Nádia Cristina; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Reorientation of the public health policies in Brazil over the last 20 years in association with a stable rate of new-case detection prompted the establishment of a decentralized leprosy control strategy. The aim was to move from a vertical model associated with general dermatological services to one in which the diagnosis and treatment of the disease would be integrated into the primary care level of the national health care facilities. Once patients demand for leprosy reference centers began to be affected by the process of integrating leprosy diagnosis into the basic health care services, it was necessary to determine the profile of all our referrals in light of the new decentralization policy. Objective We evaluated the profile of patients referred to the Fiocruz Outpatient Clinic, a reference center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and analyzed the origins and outcomes of these referrals. Methods This is an observational retrospective study based on information collected from the Leprosy Laboratory database at Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A total of 1,845 suspected leprosy cases examined at the reference center between 2010 and 2014 were included. The originating health service referrals and diagnostic outcomes were analyzed as well as the clinical and epidemiological data of patients diagnosed with leprosy. Result Our data show that the profile of the patients treated at the Clinic has changed in recent years. There was an increase in both the proportion of patients with other skin diseases and those who had visited only one health service prior to our Clinic. Among the total 1,845 cases analyzed, the outcomes of 1,380 were linked to other diseases and, in 74% of these cases, a biopsy was not necessary to reach a diagnostic conclusion. A decrease in new leprosy case detection among our patients was also observed. Yet, among the leprosy patients, 40% had some degree of disability at diagnosis. Conclusion The results of

  4. The white marble used in Brasília, a World Heritage and the capital of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heloisa Barros de Oliveira Frascá, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Created as the Brazilian capital, in the central western part of Brazil, Brasilia is a definitive example of 20th century modernist urbanism. It was built in only four years, from 1956 to 1960, following the project of urban planner Lucio Costa and architect Oscar Niemeyer that intended that every element - from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves - should be in harmony with the city's overall design. This description is from the World Heritage Centre, of Unesco, that nominated Brasilia as a Cultural Heritage Property in 1987. Most of the remarkable buildings designed Oscar Niemeyer, cited by Unesco, are around the Plaza of Three Powers, as the Planalto ("Plateau") Palace, the National Congress, the Supreme Court, the Cathedral, the National Theatre among others. Aside from the worldwide recognition of the architectonic value of these buildings, it is barely mentioned the expressive use of white marble as cladding. Very few are found in the literature about specification criteria, provenance, fixation method and conservation. According to Oscar Niemeyer Foundation, at this moment they know that the stone come from a supplier in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A preliminary research indicated that the marble used in most of Brasilia buildings are from the municipality of Italva, in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ, 2012). In a study carried out by DRM-RJ, in 2003, it is mentioned two white marble commercialized as dimension stone in Italva: "Sparkling Marble" (SM) and "Italva White Marble" (IWM), respectively dolomite-calcite marble and dolomite marble. Their main characteristics are: bulk specific gravity: 2,792 kg/m3 (SM) and 2,852kg/m3 (IWM); water absorption: 0.08 % (SM) and 0.10 % (IWM); uniaxial compression strength: 84.3 MPa (SM) and 88.2 MPa (IWM); modulus of rupture: 9.92 MPa (SM) and 8.75 MPa (IWM); coefficient of linear

  5. Tin resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Annual tin production in Brazil, most of it from cassiterite placer deposits in Rondonia Territory, amounts to about 4,000 metric tons (4,400 short tons) of concentrate containing 66 percent tin, much of which is consumed by Brazilian industry. Reserves of cassiterite concentrate in the placers of Rondonia district are estimated at about 160,000 (176,000 short tons) containing 66 percent tin. Extensive undiscovered resources of cassiterite possibly exist in southern Rondonia Territory and to the east of the Territory in northern Mato Grosso, southern Amazonas, and southern Para. Numerous occurrences have been reported in these regions and as far to the east as the headwaters of the Tapajos and the Xingo Rivers. Minor deposits or occurrences of cassiterite (or lode deposits about which there is only minimal information available) are located in Para, Amapa, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goias, Sao Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul. All the lode tin deposits are dated or enclosed in rocks that date as Precambrian B (900 to 1,300 m.y.).

  6. Policing violence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  7. Country watch. Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C; Lopes, V

    1993-01-01

    A fictional story using publicity-type language was depicted in an AIDS prevention video produced by the Health in Prostitution Project in Rio de Janeiro to support its work with prostitutes. The video was produced through the volunteer efforts of a professional cast and crew who used cultural entertainment codes to raise awareness. Although both established and new actors participated, the cast was comprised of largely famous soap opera and movie artists. This approach was chosen was the understanding that Brazilians watch soap operas 4-5 hours/day and would therefore readily recognize and pay attention to messages conveyed by the protagonists. The video was shot 2 weeks before Carnival when most actors usually rest and received wide media coverage and attention from the public sector. Prostitutes participated in all stages of production, from script-writing to casting to final editing. The video, Venus Fire, describes a pleasure lottery of which the prize is a lucky condom. The video was officially released on World AIDS Day 1992, and broadcast nationwide in January 1993. It was then subsequently aired in public squares and other street worker sites with question-and-answer sessions and public debates among average audience of 200-300 people. Similar health projects elsewhere in Brazil have also show the film with very good audience response. The prostitutes are happy that their profession is being treated with respect, while clients are attracted by the sexy images.

  8. Country watch. Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  9. [Eighty years of Japanese immigration in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mita, C

    1995-08-01

    "Japanese emigration to Brazil started in 1908 with some eight hundred subsidized contract workers for coffee plantations. Hard conditions made many of them flee, and the paulista government suppressed subsidies for these projects; however, the Japanese emigration to Brazil kept on under Japanese subsidies from 1925 until 1934 when Brazil imposed immigration quotas unfavorable to Japanese immigration. International circumstances in the late 1930s and local prohibition on the use of the Japanese language in Brazil caused many immigrants to return to Japan between 1939-1941. Emigration to Brazil restarted as diplomatic relations between Japan and Brazil were reestablished in 1952 but decreased in the late 1960s. Subsequent economic evolution in both countries caused Japanese emigrants in Brazil and their [descendants] to initiate dekasegui [labor] migration from Brazil to Japan as from the late 1980s." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  10. Brazil's Education Pitted against Instability, Low Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloc, Odelia

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics and problems of the students at Institute San Damiano in Goiania, Goias, Brazil; educational attitudes in Brazil; and efforts by the schools and its teachers to participate actively in the lives of their students. (CBC)

  11. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation...

  12. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.

    2000-08-31

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.

  13. Alcohol revisited: New energy strategy for Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-15

    Lower oil prices, increased production, and arguably the most ambitious fuel alcohol program in the world have strengthened Brazil's energy independence since the mid-1970s. Despite political and economic turmoil, Brazil's economy and appetite for energy continue to grow. Now, Brazil moves in a new direction by introducing market reforms in all sectors -- hand in hand with energy conservation and efficiency programs.

  14. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  15. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  16. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  17. Flood model for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  18. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  19. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects.

  20. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  1. CFTR allelic heterogeneity in Brazil: historical and geographical perspectives and implications for screening and counseling for cystic fibrosis in this country.

    PubMed

    Faucz, Fabio R; Souza, Denise A S; Olandoski, Marcia; Raskin, Salmo

    2010-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to provide a complete and updated spectrum of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in the Brazilian population combining all available in silico data for patients with CF in Brazil, including founder background and migration flow that consisted of the actual genetic pool of the Brazilian population. Information sources in international databases (PUBMED and SCIELO) were searched. The Brazilian population shows a wide variation in the frequency of CFTR mutations in states Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Santa Catarina (SC), Paraná (PR), São Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Minas Gerais (MG), Pará (PA) and Bahia (BA); this variation includes the most common mutation p.F508del. Apparently, this frequency variation is because of the different ethnic compositions. States such as SC and PR have a greater European admixture with almost 90% of CF alleles identified. In other states, such as BA, higher frequency of alleles that are common among African populations is seen. Overall, the CFTR mutational spectrum indicates the presence of European, African and Amerindian ethnic groups in the contemporary Brazilian CF patients. Here, we present an analysis of the CFTR allelic heterogeneity and discuss the origin of its genetic composition, in an attempt to provide improved perspective for the CF population screening in Brazil and genetic counseling.

  2. Genetic variation in the 3’ untranslated region of dengue virus serotype 3 strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1 to 4), replicate alternately on the mosquito vector and human host and are responsible for infections throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, the disease has become a major public health problem and the introduction of DENV-3 in 2000 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) was associated with severe dengue epidemics. The potential emergence of strains associated with severe disease highlights the need for the surveillance of DENV in human host and vectors. Methods Aiming to contribute for DENV phylogenetic and vector-virus-human host studies, we sequenced the entire genome of one DENV-3 isolated from naturally infected Aedes aegypti from RJ in 2001 and characterized the 3’ UTR from strains isolated from mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes were pooled and submitted to virus isolation in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells and the infecting serotype was identified by immunofluorescence using type-specific monoclonal antibody. Sequence analysis was performed using BioEdit software, the multiple alignments were performed using CLUSTAL W and the phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5, using the Neighbor-joining method. Secondary structure prediction was performed by using the MFOLD program. Results Exclusive substitutions and a substitution leading to a stop codon on the NS5 gene were observed in the DENV-3 isolated from a naturally infected Ae. aegypti and fully sequenced. As an 8- nucleotides deletion was observed within the 11- nucleotides (nts) insertion on the variable region (VR) from the 3′UTR in this isolate, we further sequenced other DENV-3 from both mosquitoes and humans. The majority of DENV-3 from RJ analyzed were characterized by the 11-nts insertion in the VR of the 3′UTR, despite the observation of strains carrying the 8-nts deletion. The latter presented similar secondary structures, however not all strains presenting the 11-nts

  3. An outbreak of acute Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomiasis in a nonendemic area of Brazil: a report on 50 cases, including 5 with severe clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, José Roberto; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Voieta, Izabela; de Queiróz, Leonardo Campos; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Nunes; Chaves, Bruna Assis; Botelho, Patrícia Passos; Prata, Pedro Henrique; Otoni, Alba; Vilela, José Fagundes; Antunes, Carlos Maurício

    2013-07-01

    Acute schistosomiasis is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and eggs. In this report, we describe an atypical outbreak of the disease with severe cases. Transmission occurred in a nonendemic area of Brazil, which became a new focus of transmission due to the in-migration of infected workers. From December 2009 to March 2010, the 50 patients with acute schistosomiasis (group 1) bathed in a swimming pool supplied by a brook on a country estate in the outskirts of São João del Rei, Brazil. Thirty other subjects (group 2) living in the same area, who denied having contact with the swimming pool, volunteered to participate in the study. All participants were submitted to clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound examinations. Five of 50 (10%) patients were admitted to the hospital: 1 with myeloradiculopathy, 1 with diffuse pulmonary micronodules, and 3 with diarrhea and dehydration. All 5 had hypereosinophilia and prolonged fever. Group 1 patients more frequently had cercarial dermatitis (P = .01), blood in the stool (P = .04), and intra-abdominal lymph nodes (P = .001). All group 1 patients were treated with praziquantel; 1 patient with myeloradiculopathy also received oral prednisone (60 mg/day) for 6 months with complete recovery. This report describes the first time that patients from an outbreak of acute schistosomiasis have been compared to controls. Five subjects (10%) had severe manifestations of schistosomiasis. Diagnosis of the disease and its severity was delayed because physicians did not consider that an epidemic of schistosomiasis might emerge in a nonendemic area.

  4. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  5. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  6. Digital radiographic measurement of approximal caries progression in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, H P; Benn, D K; Sheiham, A

    1997-12-01

    The effect of fluoridation on approximal caries progression was investigated using serial digitized bitewing images and conventional film images of 290 12-16-year-old schoolchildren who were lifetime residents of either Rio de Janeiro (a fluoridated area) or Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis (non-fluoridated areas) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One examiner scored a maximum of 28 approximal surfaces of posterior teeth per subject using both methods. The intraexaminer reliability for rating lesion depth with digital images was comparable with that of the conventional bitewing films (namely, intraclass correlation of 0.99 and weighted Kappa scores of 0.82, respectively). Approximal surface D1S was 3.17 +/- 0.25 (sx) in fluoridated areas and 6.64 +/- 0.44 in non-fluoridated areas. After 1 year, the rate of caries progression in approximal surfaces was significantly lower in the fluoridated areas (0.54 +/- 0.14) as compared with the non-fluoridated areas (1.41 +/- 0.20) using Pitts' scoring system for conventional bitewing radiographs (P < 0.001). Similarly, the digital radiographic method was able to detect subtle differences in approximal caries progression in the enamel and the dentin (overall mean: 0.34 mm/year in fluoridated areas vs 0.49 mm/year in non-fluoridated areas, P < 0.05). The two radiographic methods were strongly correlated (rs = 0.7). Assuming a constant rate over time, these results indicate that lesion progression from the outer half of the enamel into the outer half of the dentin takes approximately 3-4 years in schoolchildren from the fluoridated areas compared to 2 1/2 years in the non-fluoridated areas.

  7. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  8. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Treesearch

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  9. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-03

    Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), 2001. 30 “Economic Survey of Brazil 2005,” Organization...in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy, by Clare Ribando Seelke and June S. Beittel. 79 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no

  10. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-06

    Latin America Regional Report, December 21, 2004. 21 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica...Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), 2001 61 Livio Sansone, “Anti-Racism in Brazil

  11. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  12. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  13. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Treesearch

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  14. Education for Librarianship in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Pamela F.

    The paper examines and describes the development, trends, and current status of education for librarianship in Brazil against the background of the contemporary library scene and the system of higher education in general, focusing on the development of the 30 undergraduate and six post-graduate library programs in existence today. The master's…

  15. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-01-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

  16. Oropouche virus isolation, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-10-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama.

  17. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  18. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  19. The population question in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives.

  20. Electrofishing as a sampling technique for coastal stream fish populations and communities in the Southeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni; Fenerich-Verani; Caramaschi

    2000-05-01

    Electrofishing adequacy was tested as a technique to obtain quantitative data of coastal stream fish populations and communities in the Southeast of Brazil. Seven field trips, between July/94 and July/95, were done in 5 localities of the Ubatiba fluvial system (Maricá, RJ). Seventeen species, among the 22 collected, had their numbers estimated through the Zipping method, the model used to test the sampling methodology. At each field trip, three removals with electrofishing were done in each locality and, according to the number of obtained species at each locality/field trip, we analysed 315 cases. Nineteen cases, among 315, showed failure condition. Estimates were significant (p < 0.01) in 96% of the studied cases. Non-significant cases were obtained for rare species due to over and randomly efficient electrofishing in 63.3% and 36.4% of the cases, respectively. No correlation was found between catchability and the estimated number of individuals and/or environmental characteristics. High values for sampling efficiency (> 85%) were found for all estimates. An experimental analyses were done for one locality and, the comparison between the estimates for 3 and 6 successive removals showed a mean error and a standard deviation of 5.5% and 2.1% respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that electrofishing was an efficient method for quantitative data analysis of fish populations and communities in the Ubatiba fluvial system.

  1. Occupational health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  2. Microbial Mediation of Carbonate Precipitation: Biogeochemistry of Stromatolitic Mats of Lagoa Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, C.; Visscher, P. T.; Mauclaire, L.; Warthmann, R. J.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Contemporary microbial mats are organosedimentary constructions, which have a structure similar to ancient stromatolites. However, only a few marine and hypersaline microbial mats have been found to precipitate carbonates. In addition, the formation of continuous laminae of carbonates has been observed only in Shark Bay (Western Australia) and Highborne Cay (Bahamas). Here, we describe microcrystalline carbonate precipitation in microbial mats of the moderate hypersaline lagoon, Lagoa Vermelha (RJ, Brazil), where precipitation of dolomite at ca. 15 cm depth in the sediments has been previously reported. The Lagoa Vermelha mats sustain high rates of photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, sulfate reduction and fermentation, resulting in large pH fluctuations in the upper 5-8 mm. Several discrete lithified calcium carbonate layers are present, in which the Mg content increases with depth. The first lithified layer (Ca:Mg of 11:1) in the mats is found beneath a 2-mm-thick biofilm which contains Gloeocapsa. Below the underlying dense Microcoleus layer, the second micrite deposit (Ca:Mg of 8:1) is observed at 4-5 mm depth. Successive micritic laminae (Ca:Mg of 3:1 and lower) are found in the layer of decaying cyanobacteria that harbors large numbers of heterotrophic microbes and purple sulfur bacteria. This is the first report of microbial-mediated Ca-Mg carbonate precipitation in discrete laminae. Observations in this particular environment will undoubtedly offer clues to understand complex ancient conditions involved in stromatolite formation, as well as provide information about the role played by microorganisms during high-Mg calcite and dolomite precipitation. As dolomitic stromatolites are abundant from the Precambrian, understanding the mechanisms driving microbial dolomite precipitation in this microcosm will lead to insights about one of the oldest biomineralization processes.

  3. [Cancer mortality among electricity utility workers in a the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mattos, I E; Koifman, S

    1996-12-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies have observed an association between exposure to 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields and the development of specific types of cancer. In Brazil, a preliminary report from a study of electricity facility workers in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) has mentioned relatively similar results. An exploratory analysis of death certificates obtained from a sample of electricity workers in S. Paulo was made. Data was analysed by using the Proportional Mortality Ratio (PMR) and the Proportional Cancer Mortality Ratio (PCMR). A slightly elevated all-sites cancer mortality was observed among these workers (PMR 1.11; 95% CI 0.91-1.35). Site specific analysis has shown a statistically significant higher mortality of laryngeal cancer (PCMR 2.04; 95% CI 1.05-4.20). An excess of deaths was also seen for cancers of the buccal cavity/pharynx, prostate, bladder, brain and Hodgkin's disease, although the results lacked statistical significance. When analysed by categories of estimated exposure to magnetic fields, an excess of deaths from bladder cancer (PCMR 4.17; 95% CI 1.35-9.72), neoplasms of the brain (PCMR 7.7; 95% CI 1.02-9.65) and Hodgkin's disease (PCMR 5.55; 95% CI 1.14-16.21) was observed in the group with probably higher exposure to EMF. A comparison of cancer mortality between these workers and petrochemical employees has shown a higher PCMR for larynx tumours (PCMR 3.51; 95% CI 3.02-15.51) and bladder cancer (PCMR 7.53; 95% CI 3.02-15.51). For brain tumours, however, a PCMR of 0.74 (95% CI 0.27-1.61) was noted. Although restrictions related to sample size in the study and the lack of information about known confounders must be considered, the results of this study do not fully disagree with others previously mentioned in the literature.

  4. Denuclearization in Argentina and Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Goldemberg, J.; Feiveson, H.A.

    1994-03-01

    The political process that led to the important agreements reached between Argentina and Brazil to guarantee that nuclear energy is used in both countries exclusively for peaceful purposes could prove to be a useful model. These achievements are due primarily to the return of democratic rule in both countries. While the political processes leading to fully integrated democratic institutions may not have taken hold as fully in other regions of proliferation concern, the Argentine-Brazilian agreements suggest that similar regional safeguards arrangements might be possible in South Asia, on the Korean Peninsula eventually, and perhaps in portions of the Middle East. These agreements include the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) for the application of safeguards to both countries; and the Quadripartite Agreement between Brazil, Argentina, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and ABACC.

  5. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  6. Environmental impact assessment in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.G.; De Aguiar, A.M.D. . Dept. de Ecologia e Programa de Pos- graduac ao em Analise Ambiental)

    1993-05-01

    Brazilian environmental impact assessment (EIA) had a relatively late birth and is still far from being operative by international standards. Currently, geological, economic, and social considerations are more highly valued. Nevertheless, EIA has become important in shaping governmental policy. The state of Sao Paulo is responsible for 40% of all EIAs produced in Brazil, and the number of EIAs produced is proportional to stat population density.

  7. Brazil: Colossus of the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    restaurants. Cariocas, as the residents of Rio are called, enjoy their passions: scenic beaches, notorious carnivals , and futebol (soccer). The popularity of...say: "It’s about the size of Germany, the capital is Rio de Janeiro, and they speak Spanish." Many are surprised to learn that Brazil is bigger than...Portuguese spelling of this country is "Brasil." However, sunny Rio was the capital from 1822 to 1960 and was actually the seat of the Portuguese

  8. Kinship and Leprosy in the Contacts of Leprosy Patients: Cohort at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Daiane Santos; Duppre, Nadia Cristina; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Hacker, Mariana Andréa

    2013-01-01

    A broad variety of factors have been associated with leprosy among contacts, including socioeconomic, epidemiological, and genetic characteristics. Data from 7,174 contacts of leprosy patients from a leprosy outpatient clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1987–2010, were analyzed to investigate the effects of kinship, individual, and contextual factors on leprosy. Multivariate analyses were performed using a robust estimation method. In the prevalence analysis, close kinship (sibling OR = 2.75, offspring OR = 2.00, and other relatives OR = 1.70), socioeconomic factors, and the duration of exposure to the bacillus were associated to leprosy. In the incidence analysis, significant risks were found for all categories of kinship (parents RR = 10.93, spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, and bride/groom RR = 7.53, sibling RR = 7.03, offspring RR = 5.34, and other relatives RR = 3.71). Once the treatment of the index case was initiated, other factors lost their significance, and the index case bacteriological index and BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine) protection had a greater impact. Our findings suggested that both genetic susceptibility and physical exposure play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy, but it was not possible establishing the role of genetic factor. Analyses of other factors related to the genotype of individuals, such as genetic polymorphisms, are needed. PMID:23690793

  9. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; Maximo, Michele; Costa, Wagner Alexandre; de Santana, Antonio Luís Ferreira; da Costa, Simone Miranda; da Costa Rego, Taiana Amancio Neves; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-11-13

    The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the

  10. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case

  11. STUDY INSTRUMENTS: SECOND WAVE BRAZIL AND FINLAND,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POLITICAL SCIENCE, PUBLIC OPINION), (*PUBLIC OPINION, POLITICAL SCIENCE), FOREIGN POLICY, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), SAMPLING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, SOCIOLOGY, TEST METHODS, PROBABILITY, COMMUNISM, BRAZIL , FINLAND

  12. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  13. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  14. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  15. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  16. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  17. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  18. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  19. Recent developments on shotcrete applications in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes Filho, J.D.; Guimaraes Neto, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the development of shotcrete in Brazil, since its introduction in the country to the present. Firstly, the authors focus on the application, with an overview on the main projects in which shotcrete was used. Next, the evolution of fabrication of shotcrete equipment in Brazil and some new achievements in this area are shown.

  20. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  1. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  2. Reemergence of Oropouche Fever, Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Bensabath, Gilberta; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Martins, Lívia Carício; de Oliveira Monteiro, Hamilton Antônio; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro

    2007-01-01

    Oropouche fever has reemerged in Parauapebas and Porto de Moz municipalities, Pará State, Brazil. Serologic analysis (immunoglobulin M–ELISA) and virus isolation confirmed Oropouche virus (OROV) in both municipalities. Nucleotide sequencing of 2 OROV isolates from each location indicated genotypes I (Parauapebas) and II (Porto de Moz) in Brazil. PMID:17553235

  3. Reemergence of Oropouche fever, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimundado Socorro da Silva; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Bensabath, Gilberta; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Martins, Lívia Carício; Monteiro, Hamilton Antônio de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Oropouche fever has reemerged in Parauapebas and Porto de Moz municipalities, Pará State, Brazil. Serologic analysis (immunoglobulin M-ELISA) and virus isolation confirmed Oropouche virus (OROV) in both municipalities. Nucleotide sequencing of 2 OROV isolates from each location indicated genotypes I (Parauapebas) and II (Porto de Moz) in Brazil.

  4. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  5. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  6. US and Brazil: Prospective National Security Partners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5, “National Security,” data as of April 1997. Maxwell, Kenneth. “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” Article published by Council on Foreign...22. [22] Kenneth Maxwell, “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” article published by Council on Foreign Relations, 15 Dec 2000. (Hereafter referred

  7. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  8. The geomorphology and ground penetrating radar survey results of the Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull surge-type glaciers, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karušs, Jānis; Lamsters, Kristaps; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2015-04-01

    Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull are surge-type outlet glaciers of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2003). The forefield of Múlajökull comprises the active drumlin field of more than 110 drumlins (Johnson et al., 2010; Jónsson et al., 2014) and therefore is an excellent area for studies of glacial geomorphology, subglacial topography and ice structures. This work describes preliminary results obtained during the expedition to Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull glaciers in August, 2014. In the research ground penetrating radar (GPR) Zond 12-e was used. GPR measurements were performed on both outlet glaciers using 38 MHz and 75 MHz antenna systems. During data acquisition 2000 ns time window was used, while length of profiles was determined using GPS device Garmin GPS-76. In total approximately 3 km of GPR profiles were recorded. GPR signals propagation speed in glacier ice was determined using reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In obtained radarogramms it was possible to trace reflections from the glacier bed till depth of approximately 144 m as well as numerous prominent reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In one of the obtained radarogramms possible subglacial channel below Múlajökull glacier was identified. Also feature of subglacial topography that resembles drumlin was identified. The area of abundant infiltrated water was distinguished close to the ice margin in the radarogramm obtained on Þjórsárjökull suggesting successive supraglacial meltwater infiltration towards glacier margin. During the field work numerous radial crevasses, supraglacial channels and moulins were observed in the marginal zone of Múlajökull. The forefield of Múlajökull mainly consist of subglacial landforms (drumlins, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges), end moraines and sandur plains. Flutes and crevasse-fill ridges were found superimposed on drumlins in places. Till macrofabric was measured close to the

  9. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  10. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  11. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1999-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  12. Brazil, A Potential World Power?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-22

    highlands ; and the temperate south. The Amazon region is a sparsely settled, low-lying, tropical valley dominated by the Amazon River which rises in Peru...recurring economic crises. 3 The south-central highlands and the temperate south make up the heartland of present day Brazil. The most fertile and pro...VENEUELASURINAM{ GUIANA COLOMBIA GUIANA NF Jy1 Recife PERU 0. >f BOLIVIA <. au:c )Nier6 POPULATION DENSITY ------ iAat Rio d aer Per square Per square mile

  13. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  14. Commentary: Health Concerns of Brazil Nut Consumption.

    PubMed

    Mazokopakis, Elias E; Liontiris, Michael I

    2017-08-14

    Brazil nuts are the fruit of the enormous tropical tree Bertholletia excelsa that are produced in and exported from the territory of the Amazon. As a natural rich source of selenium (Se), the consumption of Brazil nuts is often suggested as therapeutic among patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the main health concerns of Brazil nut consumption, such as Se toxicity, Se-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus, weight gain, radioactivity, aflatoxins, and allergic reactions, is presented and discussed.

  15. Proposed hydrologic analyses of streamflow for Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, Henry Chiles

    1974-01-01

    Streamflow records are evaluated for the Rio Jacui basin in the state of Rio Grande Sul, Brazil, in reference to data reliability, length of record, and density of areal coverage. Availability of water is a factor in the development of a country, and surface water is of especial importance in Brazil. This report is intended as a reference for further investigation of the flow characteristic of the basin to provide (1) information for utilization of streamflow and (2) information to improve the data collection and analytic procedures. In addition the evaluation study can serve as a pilot for other developing river basins in Brazil. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Understanding the variations in the vegetation of Cabo Frio, Southeastern coast of Brazil, during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario, K.; Coe, H. H.; Gomes, J.; Oliveira, F.; Gomes, P.; Carvalho, C.; Linares, R.; Alves, E.; Santos, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Southeast was formerly occupied by Atlantic forest before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, when deforestation slowly started to take place. To understand the variations in the vegetation of Cabo Frio during the Quaternary, and possibly identify when they roughly took place, we make use of soil phytolith identification (as proxy), stable isotopes analyses and 14C dating of soil profiles. Nowadays, those are helpful tools to reveal the palaeoenvironmental secrets hidden below-ground. The soil profile studied, which was divided in 4 horizons ranging from 10 and 115 cm in depth, was collected in the surroundings of Cabo Frio, in the Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern coast of Brazil. Its total organic carbon (TOC) varied from 0.42 to 1.11% (for the different horizons), when its δ13C values ranged from -18.81 (topsoil) to -23.72‰ (~ 80cm deep). Phytolith D/P index varied from 0.1 to 0.21. Due to the low carbon content within soil horizons, soil organic matter (SOM) fractions were chosen for isotopic analyses. Mostly of the 14C-SOM analyses were performed in a newer 14C facility, which runs a NEC 250 kV Single Stage Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system, the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Fluminense Federal University (LAC-UFF) located in Niteroi, RJ. In brief, before measurements could be performed, the soil samples were treated with HCl 1.0M to remove carbonates, then combusted in sealed evacuated pre-baked tubes, cryogenically clean and converted to graphite (as decribed in Xu et al. 2007). In order to verify the distribution of 14C ages of different chemical soil fractions (Pessenda et al. 2001), a refractory C fraction (humin) was extracted from the topsoil horizon, and also converted to graphite following established protocols (Santos et al. 2007a,b). Due to its very low carbon mass (<<50mgC), this graphite target was processed and measured at the Keck-CCAMS Facility at University of California, Irvine. (UCI), which runs a modified NEC

  17. Malacological survey of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Castro, Milton Ferreira de; Lima, Adilson da Costa; Gonçalves, Murilo; Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Guimarães, Ricardo José Paula de Souza e; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-01-01

    The increasing practice of ecotourism and rural tourism in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, highlights the importance of studies concerning the occurrence of potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. This study aimed to identify species of Biomphalaria snails in municipalities along the Estrada Real, an important Brazilian tourism project. The specimens were collected in different water collections of 36 municipalities along the Estrada Real in the southeast of the State of Minas Gerais. Biomphalaria species were characterized using both morphological and molecular approaches. The research was conducted between August 2005 and September 2009 and all the sites visited were georeferenced using GPS. Six Biomphalaria species were found in 30 of the 36 municipalities studied: glabrata, tenagophila, straminea, peregrina, occidentalis and schrammi. The first three species of Biomphalaria, recognized as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni, were present in 33.3%, 47.2% and 8.3% of the municipalities studied, respectively. The mollusks were found in different types of water collections and no infection by S. mansoni was detected. The highest occurrence of Biomphalaria concentration was verified in the area covered by the Caminho Novo route (Diamantina/MG to Rio de Janeiro/RJ). Considering the occurrence of schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais and the socioeconomic repercussions involved in the Estrada Real Project, this work focuses on the vulnerability of water collections due to the presence of Biomphalaria mollusks and emphasizes the need for epidemiological surveillance and sanitary and educational measures integrated with the local community and tourism sectors.

  18. Evaluation of C1-C13 carbonyl compounds by RRLC-UV in the atmosphere of Niterói City, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Soraya de M.; Albuquerque, Flávio C.; Massa, M. Cecília G. Pontes; Pereira Netto, Annibal D.

    2011-09-01

    In this present work, the concentration of 31 carbonyl compounds (CC) were determined in the atmosphere of Niterói City, RJ, Brazil, between January 9th and 14th, 2010, in 7 periods of two hours in each day. Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography with UV detection of the corresponding hydrazones was employed. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were found to be the most abundant CC in all the 42 samples. Experimental data showed one period of maximum concentration of CC that occurred between 10:00 and 12:00 h, regardless of the day, with concentrations varying between 16.20 and 52.30 μg m -3. The ratios of the concentrations of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were ≥1 in all periods and the mean ratio was 2.0. The results obtained were lower than those previously found in Rio de Janeiro City, indicating that Niterói is a less polluted area in terms of this criterion. This is a novel work related to the aspects that concern the determination of most CC in the atmosphere of Niterói City and medium size Brazilian cities.

  19. [Economic evaluation of cases of dengue fever attributed to the disaster of 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos Alexandre Rodrigues; Barata, Martha Macedo de Lima; Hoelz, Melania de Paulo Cariello; Medeiros, Viviane Nunes Lopes Oliveira; Marincola, Felipe de Carvalho Vommaro; Costa Neto, Cristina; Marinho, Diana Pinheiro; Oliveira, Teresa Vieira Dos Santos; Trigo, Aline Guimarães Monteiro; Medeiros, Thiago Klein de

    2014-09-01

    The prospects outlined in climate scenarios produced for Brazil indicate a probable increase in the number of extreme hydrometeorological events in the coming years. Therefore, a study of the health scourges that may intensify due to these events is important. The scope of this article is to estimate the cost represented by the cases of dengue fever attributed to the 2011 disaster in Nova Friburgo (RJ). There were 1,356 suspected cases of dengue fever, 937 of which were confirmed. The total cost of the disease may have been between R$66,000 and R$499,000 taking the minimum salary as a benchmark, with approximately 70% of this amount being among the confirmed cases. The disaster caused extensive changes in the city's environment which, together with the urban sanitation and clearing up process that occurred in the post-event period, led to an increase in the number of potential mosquito breeding sites, facilitating their proliferation and increasing the number of cases of dengue fever. This was a disease that in the decade prior to the disaster recorded few cases of the disease in the municipality. This illustrates the potential of events like the one that occurred in 2011 in Nova Friburgo may have on the increase in the number of cases, and consequently on the cost of the disease.

  20. Family and community violence of schoolchildren from the city of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Gonçalves de Assis, Simone

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive study aimed to investigate the association between violence in the family, school and community experienced by school children/adolescents of the city of São Gonçalo (RJ), Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to the mothers/guardians to assess violence in the family and school and to children to check their perceptions of community violence. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, two exploratory descriptive techniques, were employed. Data from 280 schoolchildren were analyzed. A total of 43.9% of mothers reported that their children had been physically abused in their homes. With regard to children's/adolescents' perception of community violence, 93.2% said they had experienced or witnessed these events in their communities. For both sexes there was the formation of a cluster of categories with the presence of violence among siblings, presence of severe physical assault and verbal assault committed by parents. Among girls, the presence of violence in the school formed a cluster with the highest category of violence in the community. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that public policies aimed at dealing with violence should expand their scope to the various forms of violence affecting children.

  1. [Infestation with Linognathus africanus (Kellogg e Paine, 1911) (Linognathidae) and Bovicola caprae (Ewing, 1936) (Trichodectidae) in goat flock of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Sandra B; Cançado, Paulo Henrique D; Piranda, Eliane M; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2006-01-01

    Mixed infestations with Linognathus africanus and Bovicola caprae were diagnosed in a lot of 20 goats from a flock of 40, belonging to a farm from the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (22 degrees 44'38''S and 43 degrees 42'27''W). Animals were of both sexes, varied ages and different breeds (half blood Saanen/Boer, Saanen, cross breeds), were examined in April of 2004. With an exception of one goat, parasitized only by L. africanus, the remainders 19 (95%) were infested by the two species lice. Of 69 (71%) specimens of L. africanus and 28 (28.9%) of B. caprae collected the ratio female:male for L. africanus were 4.6 (23:5), while for B. caprae were 4.8 (57:12). The absence of L. africanus in recent surveys carried out in the semi-arid regions of the Northeast Brazil where more the 60% of examined goats were parasitized by B. caprae suggests that the adaptation to the climatic variation might be different for the two species.

  2. Robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Poffo, Robinson; Toschi, Alisson P; Pope, Renato B; Montanhesi, Paola K; Santos, Ricardo S; Teruya, Alexandre; Hatanaka, Dina M; Rusca, Gabriel F; Fischer, Claudio H; Vieira, Marcelo C; Makdisse, Marcia R

    2017-01-01

    Brazil, the largest country and economy in South America, is a major driving force behind the development of new medical technologies in the region. Robotic cardiac surgery (RCS) has been evolving rapidly since 2010, when the first surgery using the DaVinci(®) robotic system was performed in Latin America. The aim of this article is to evaluate short and mid-term results in patients undergoing robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil. From March 2010 to December 2015, 39 consecutive patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery. Twenty-seven patients were male (69.2%), with the mean age of 51.3±17.9 years. Participants had a mean ejection fraction of 62±5%. The procedures included in this study were mitral valve surgery, surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation, atrial septal defect closure, resection of intra-cardiac tumors, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass and pericardiectomy. The mean time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during RCS was 154.9±94.2 minutes and the mean aortic cross-clamp time was 114.48±75.66 minutes. Thirty-two patients (82%) were extubated in the operating room immediately after surgery. The median intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay was 1 day (ranging from 0 to 25) and the median hospital length of stay was 5 days (ranging from 3 to 25). For each type of procedure, endpoints were individually reported. There were no conversions to sternotomy and no intra-operative complications. Patient follow-up was complete in 100% of the participants, with two early deaths unrelated to the procedures and no re-operations at mid-term. Despite the heterogeneity of this series, RCS appears to be feasible, safe and effective when used for the correction of various intra- and extra-cardiac pathologies. Adopting the robotic system has been a challenge in Brazil, where its limited clinical application may be related to the lack of specific training and the high cost of technology.

  3. Robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Alisson P.; Pope, Renato B.; Montanhesi, Paola K.; Santos, Ricardo S.; Teruya, Alexandre; Hatanaka, Dina M.; Rusca, Gabriel F.; Fischer, Claudio H.; Vieira, Marcelo C.; Makdisse, Marcia R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Brazil, the largest country and economy in South America, is a major driving force behind the development of new medical technologies in the region. Robotic cardiac surgery (RCS) has been evolving rapidly since 2010, when the first surgery using the DaVinci® robotic system was performed in Latin America. The aim of this article is to evaluate short and mid-term results in patients undergoing robotic cardiac surgery in Brazil. Methods From March 2010 to December 2015, 39 consecutive patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery. Twenty-seven patients were male (69.2%), with the mean age of 51.3±17.9 years. Participants had a mean ejection fraction of 62±5%. The procedures included in this study were mitral valve surgery, surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation, atrial septal defect closure, resection of intra-cardiac tumors, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass and pericardiectomy. Results The mean time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during RCS was 154.9±94.2 minutes and the mean aortic cross-clamp time was 114.48±75.66 minutes. Thirty-two patients (82%) were extubated in the operating room immediately after surgery. The median intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay was 1 day (ranging from 0 to 25) and the median hospital length of stay was 5 days (ranging from 3 to 25). For each type of procedure, endpoints were individually reported. There were no conversions to sternotomy and no intra-operative complications. Patient follow-up was complete in 100% of the participants, with two early deaths unrelated to the procedures and no re-operations at mid-term. Conclusions Despite the heterogeneity of this series, RCS appears to be feasible, safe and effective when used for the correction of various intra- and extra-cardiac pathologies. Adopting the robotic system has been a challenge in Brazil, where its limited clinical application may be related to the lack of specific training and the high cost of technology. PMID:28203537

  4. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  5. Reversing the Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, F.; Vandewalle, N.

    2005-12-01

    We propose a lattice model for studying the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), i.e. the phase segregation occuring when a granular material is vertically shaked. The model considers the tap intensity and the mobility μ of the grains as the main physical parameters. Different mobilities for different grain species lead to segregation (BNE) patterns, reverse segregation (RBNE) patterns, “sandwhich" layered structures or vertical domains. A phase diagram (decompaction χ, mobility difference between both species Δ μ) is obtained in which the different phases are emphasized. In a narrow region of the diagram, different phases coexist. It is shown that the BNE segregation could be reversed by increasing the tap intensity or the characteristics of the grains. Numerical results are compared with earlier experimental works.

  6. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations.

  7. Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bisordi, Ivani; Levis, Silvana; Garcia, Jorge; Pereira, Luiz E.; Souza, Renato P.; Sugahara, Teresa K.N.; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Souza, Luiza T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat). PMID:15663849

  8. Primary Care Dentistry in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giordani, Jessye Melgarejo do Amaral; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics, health care indicators, work process characteristics, and the performance of preventive dental procedures by oral health care teams (OHCTs) assessed during the first phase of the PMAQ in Brazil. A census of 10 334 primary OHCTs was conducted. The outcome included topical application of fluoride, application of sealants, detection of oral lesions, and monitoring of suspected or confirmed cases of oral cancer. The multilevel Poisson regression model was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. The performance of preventive dental procedures was 29.46% (3044/10 334; 95% confidence interval, 28.57-30.33), which was considered low. PMID:28252501

  9. Thorium: Determination by CDTN, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, M. A. B. C.; Sabino, C. V. S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Radiochemical Sector, CDTN/CNEN, Brazil, is to meet the clients' analytical needs. The Sector has been facing the challenges of determining several elements in diversified matrixes from all over the country since the sixties. It has been giving analytical support to universities, industries, environmental monitoring programs, research institutes. Due to the growing need to determine thorium isotopes through the years it was necessary to work out a routine procedures. Nowadays the determination of thorium consists of a well established routine whose procedures are applied to grouped samples according to their kind, physical state, matrix interference, detection limits and number of samples. This paper describes the methods used by CDTN to determine232Th by neutron activation analysis and230Th and228Th by radiochemical separations and alpha spectrometry in several matrixes.

  10. Brazil comes in from the cold

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Brazil is well on its way to rolling back its nuclear program from the brink of developing nuclear explosives. The reason for this dramatic reversal can be traced to international diplomatic pressure on Brazil to accept full-scope safeguards and implement the Treaty of Tlatelolco, and to the growth of democracy in Brazil, which has provided an opportunity for groups such as the Brazilian Physics Society to work politically to end their country's effort to build nuclear weapons. The recent developments in Brazil underscore the importance of responsible civilian control of the nuclear program, and the role of domestic and international inspections of nuclear facilities to verify that weapons-related activities are not taking place. More importantly, these developments show that knowledgeable and dedicated people and groups opposed to nuclear weapons production can make a significant contribution to stopping their country from going nuclear.

  11. Community Development in Brazil: Two Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Frances; Speyer, Anne Marie; Tedrus, Maria Aparecida L.

    1998-01-01

    O'Gorman provides "Five Points for Reflection" on nongovernmental and community organizations in Brazil. Speyer and Tedrus discuss "Community Libraries: An Experience in Community Development in the Periphery of Sao Paulo." (SK)

  12. Telecommunications and Information Services in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarapanoff, Kira; Alvares, Lillian

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the interdependence of telecommunications and information sciences in Brazil. Highlights include new technologies and telecommunications: satellites, fiber optic cables, data communication networks, information superhighways, and cooperative projects; and information services development. (AEF)

  13. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  14. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  15. Telecommunications and Information Services in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarapanoff, Kira; Alvares, Lillian

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the interdependence of telecommunications and information sciences in Brazil. Highlights include new technologies and telecommunications: satellites, fiber optic cables, data communication networks, information superhighways, and cooperative projects; and information services development. (AEF)

  16. Community Development in Brazil: Two Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Frances; Speyer, Anne Marie; Tedrus, Maria Aparecida L.

    1998-01-01

    O'Gorman provides "Five Points for Reflection" on nongovernmental and community organizations in Brazil. Speyer and Tedrus discuss "Community Libraries: An Experience in Community Development in the Periphery of Sao Paulo." (SK)

  17. Brazil opens its first private research institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanissevich, Alicia

    2017-05-01

    The Brazilian filmmaker João Moreira Salles - whose family owns one of the largest banks in Brazil - has established a new institute in Rio de Janeiro that will support basic research across all sciences.

  18. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-03

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  19. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  20. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-05-20

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas.

  1. Implementation and Validation of the Viscoelastic Continuum Damage Theory for Asphalt Mixture and Pavement Analysis in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Luis Alberto Herrmann do

    This dissertation presents the implementation and validation of the viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model for asphalt mixture and pavement analysis in Brazil. It proposes a simulated damage-to-fatigue cracked area transfer function for the layered viscoelastic continuum damage (LVECD) program framework and defines the model framework's fatigue cracking prediction error for asphalt pavement reliability-based design solutions in Brazil. The research is divided into three main steps: (i) implementation of the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model in Brazil (Petrobras) for asphalt mixture characterization, (ii) validation of the LVECD model approach for pavement analysis based on field performance observations, and defining a local simulated damage-to-cracked area transfer function for the Fundao Project's pavement test sections in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and (iii) validation of the Fundao project local transfer function to be used throughout Brazil for asphalt pavement fatigue cracking predictions, based on field performance observations of the National MEPDG Project's pavement test sections, thereby validating the proposed framework's prediction capability. For the first step, the S-VECD test protocol, which uses controlled-on-specimen strain mode-of-loading, was successfully implemented at the Petrobras and used to characterize Brazilian asphalt mixtures that are composed of a wide range of asphalt binders. This research verified that the S-VECD model coupled with the GR failure criterion is accurate for fatigue life predictions of Brazilian asphalt mixtures, even when very different asphalt binders are used. Also, the applicability of the load amplitude sweep (LAS) test for the fatigue characterization of the asphalt binders was checked, and the effects of different asphalt binders on the fatigue damage properties of the asphalt mixtures was investigated. The LAS test results, modeled according to VECD theory, presented a strong correlation with

  2. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  3. [The health system of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  4. Military parachuting injuries in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; de Souza, Márcio Nogueira; de Almeida, Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the main injuries caused by military parachuting jumping techniques in Brazil. With this aim, their distribution by anatomical site and their association with aircraft type and drop zone characteristics were analysed. Data for the study were obtained by the analysis of accident reports, completed after each jumping training mission in which an injury occurred, during the period January 2005-August 2006. The overall lesion rate during the period was 1.2%, with 189 injured subjects, and the highest injury rate was detected for the foot/ankle anatomical site (32.8%). The relative injury rates according to drop zone were 1.00% (main drop zone-Afonsos) and 2.94% for the remaining zones. Regarding aircraft type, these rates were 0.91% for the C130, 2.03% for the C115 and 2.68% for the C95 airplanes. The relative risk for the drop zone categories (reference category Afonsos) was 2.94 (95% CI: [2.10; 4.04]); while for aircraft types (reference category C130) these values were 2.95 (95% CI: [2.18; 3.98]; C95 aircraft) and 2.23 (95% CI: [1.34; 3.70]; C115). The study suggests that ankle stabilisers should be put into use by military parachuters, and that a better-planned schedule should be implemented for the used drop zones.

  5. Spread F modeling over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, A. J.; Batista, I. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Based on a numerical model developed by Carrasco et al. (2014), the dynamics and morphology of ionospheric plasma bubbles for both magnetic hemispheres over Brazil are examined. Observational results show that the post sunset maximum velocity of the pre-reversal vertical drift velocity, VP , has different values at the conjugate points. This information on the asymmetry of the vertical drift or zonal electric field is used in the simulation of bubbles over Brazilian sector. The simulations were conducted considering two different cases: (a) simulation of trans-equatorial bubble neglecting the meridional winds, and (b) considering the effect of meridional winds. In case (a) the bubble development is symmetric in relation to the magnetic equator, while in case (b) we raise the conjecture of a possible asymmetry. The simulation shows that the trans-equatorial bubbles may develop between ±30° of latitude and present internal structures of different sizes and shapes. In addition, three spatial perspectives of the bubbles are displayed, where each perspective reveals interesting aspects of the bubble development.

  6. Quality improvement issues in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malik, A M

    1997-01-01

    In 1988 a new constitution in Brazil brought the creation of a national health system, the Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saúde; SUS). Accountability is not yet a strong feature of the health system, even though the Ministry of Health has made efforts to encourage the federal district and 26 states to participate in some quality-of-care projects. Initiatives include certification by the International Standards Organization (ISO; Geneva); consulting services, especially in managerial processes; total quality management; patient satisfaction; and development of new technologies to increase efficiency. Physicians' oft-repeated claim that they know all it takes to offer patients high-quality care makes it difficult to enlist their help in quality programs in general and in establishing protocols and guidelines in particular. State licenses are a prerequisite for hospitals, but this is not always enforced; the local health authority may be relieved that hospital care is at least being provided. Similarly, the government may find it important that the population has access to health services, even if the service is not considered adequate. Government can encourage quality initiatives and assess and disseminate the findings.

  7. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses. PMID:27781012

  8. Equine salmonellosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juffo, Gregory Duarte; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Gomes, Danilo Carloto; Wurster, Fabiana; Pissetti, Caroline; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Driemeier, David

    2017-03-01

    The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, and hyperthermia. Lesions varied in distribution and severity, although fibrinonecrotic or necrohemorrhagic enteritis was observed in all animals, mainly in the large intestine (large colon and cecum-8/10) and small intestine (3/10). Substantial liquid content, mainly hemorrhagic, was observed in all animals. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was mucosa necrosis, which is often accompanied by fibrin deposition, followed by necrosis of follicular centers and vascular changes. Bacterial isolation revealed seven isolates. Five were serotyped, and the serovars Typhimurium and Anatum were associated with two cases each, while Muenster was associated with a case whose lesion pattern varied. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in all cases. All diagnoses were based on the clinical history, macroscopic and histological lesions, and the bacterial isolation and/or immunostaining associated with histological lesions.

  9. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  10. Response to the comment on: “Soon, W., and Legates, D.R., solar irradiance modulation of equator-to-pole (Arctic) temperature gradients: empirical evidence for climate variation on multi-decadal timescales. Journal of Atmospheric and solar-terrestrial physics, 93, (2013) 45-56” by F. Meunier and A. H. Reis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Willie; Legates, David R.

    2015-06-01

    We thank Meunier and Reis (hereafter as MR) for their comments on our paper. We, however, do not see the relevance of their alternative interpretation to our original results and believe this reflects their confusion regarding our conclusions rather than a discussion on physical mechanisms. In the context of this quote, note that even Pallé et al. (2009:3)admitted that “while the deseasonalized CERES data has a small year to year variability (Fig. 2 of Pallé et al., 2009), the Earthshine data seem to present overly large interannual anomalies, along with a large size of the error bars associated to the yearly means [which] is mostly due to sampling issues, as Earthshine measurements are taken from a single station.”To put this in a different way, the relatively short duration of Earthshine or satellite-borne measurements of global albedo is unable to provide the necessary information on how this important quantity may vary on multi-decadal timescales as studies by Soon and Legates (2013). We note that efforts to 'reconstruct' Earth albedo over a 120-to-130 year period have been discussed by Zavalishin (2014) but we stress that such research requires non-independent information regarding surface temperatures and some unproven assumptions about the thermal inertia of the hydrosphere.

  11. Characteristics of Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella spp. Isolates from the Food Chain in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pribul, Bruno R.; Festivo, Marcia L.; Rodrigues, Marcelle S.; Costa, Renata G.; Rodrigues, Elizabeth C. dos P.; de Souza, Miliane M. S.; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is an important zoonotic pathogen related to foodborne diseases. Despite that quinolones/fluoroquinolones are considered a relevant therapeutic strategy against resistant isolates, the increase in antimicrobial resistance is an additional difficulty in controlling bacterial infections caused by Salmonella spp. Thus, the acquisition of resistance to quinolones in Salmonella spp. is worrisome to the scientific community along with the possibility of transmission of resistance through plasmids. This study investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. We evaluated 129 isolates, 39 originated from food of animal sources, and 14 from environmental samples and including 9 from animals and 67 from humans, which were referred to the National Reference Laboratory of Enteric Diseases (NRLEB/IOC/RJ) between 2009 and 2013. These samples showed a profile of resistance for the tested quinolones/fluoroquinolones. A total of 33 serotypes were identified; S. Typhimurium (63) was the most prevalent followed by S. Enteritidis (25). The disk diffusion test showed 48.8% resistance to enrofloxacin, 42.6% to ciprofloxacin, 39.53% to ofloxacin, and 30.2% to levofloxacin. According to the broth microdilution test, the resistance percentages were: 96.1% to nalidixic acid, 64.3% to enrofloxacin, 56.6% to ciprofloxacin, 34.1% to ofloxacin, and 30.2% to levofloxacin. Qnr genes were found in 15 isolates (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD), and the aac(6′)-Ib gene in 23. The integron gene was detected in 67 isolates with the variable region between ±600 and 1000 bp. The increased detection of PMQR in Salmonella spp. is a serious problem in Public Health and must constantly be monitored. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to evaluated clonal profile among the most prevalent serovars resistant to different classes of quinolones. A total of 33 pulsotypes of S

  12. Characteristics of Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella spp. Isolates from the Food Chain in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pribul, Bruno R; Festivo, Marcia L; Rodrigues, Marcelle S; Costa, Renata G; Rodrigues, Elizabeth C Dos P; de Souza, Miliane M S; Rodrigues, Dalia Dos P

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is an important zoonotic pathogen related to foodborne diseases. Despite that quinolones/fluoroquinolones are considered a relevant therapeutic strategy against resistant isolates, the increase in antimicrobial resistance is an additional difficulty in controlling bacterial infections caused by Salmonella spp. Thus, the acquisition of resistance to quinolones in Salmonella spp. is worrisome to the scientific community along with the possibility of transmission of resistance through plasmids. This study investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. We evaluated 129 isolates, 39 originated from food of animal sources, and 14 from environmental samples and including 9 from animals and 67 from humans, which were referred to the National Reference Laboratory of Enteric Diseases (NRLEB/IOC/RJ) between 2009 and 2013. These samples showed a profile of resistance for the tested quinolones/fluoroquinolones. A total of 33 serotypes were identified; S. Typhimurium (63) was the most prevalent followed by S. Enteritidis (25). The disk diffusion test showed 48.8% resistance to enrofloxacin, 42.6% to ciprofloxacin, 39.53% to ofloxacin, and 30.2% to levofloxacin. According to the broth microdilution test, the resistance percentages were: 96.1% to nalidixic acid, 64.3% to enrofloxacin, 56.6% to ciprofloxacin, 34.1% to ofloxacin, and 30.2% to levofloxacin. Qnr genes were found in 15 isolates (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD), and the aac(6')-Ib gene in 23. The integron gene was detected in 67 isolates with the variable region between ±600 and 1000 bp. The increased detection of PMQR in Salmonella spp. is a serious problem in Public Health and must constantly be monitored. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to evaluated clonal profile among the most prevalent serovars resistant to different classes of quinolones. A total of 33 pulsotypes of S

  13. Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, H; Câmara, V de M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory scheme, workers' compensation system, plant-level practices, training, and data collection. METHODS. We reviewed and analyzed Brazilian regulatory legislation and government and non-governmental organization (NGO) activity in occupational safety and health, as well as the structure and function of the workers' compensation system. We also reviewed available data on injuries and diseases from major sources, including the now-defunct Instituto Nacional do Previdencia Social (INPS) and the workers' compensation scheme, Seguro de Acidente de Trabalho (SAT). RESULTS. The incidence of workplace injuries has decreased in recent years and is now reported to be about 5 per 100 workers per year. The case fatality rate has been constant at about 5 fatalities per 1000 injuries. Less than 6% of reported injuries are classified as "diseases." Brazil's rates are comparable to those of Mexico and Zimbabwe, and two to four times higher than in most industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS. Brazil has a high incidence of occupational injuries and diseases; these injuries and diseases are underreported; there is a large informal sector at special risk; and Brazil illustrates the disparity that exists in many countries between legislation on the books and legislation that is actually implemented. PMID:1836110

  14. Multiple sclerosis in Brazil: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, C C F; Thuler, L C S; Rodrigues, B C; Calmon, A B; Alvarenga, R M P

    2016-12-01

    The natural history of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Brazil has been available in different regions of country. There is no nationwide population-based studies that express general data in Brazil. To review and synthesize available data about MS in Brazil. Systematic review was performed through a search of medical literature databases to identify Brazilian studies published during 1990-2012. PubMed, SciELO, and Lilacs. "Brazil" or "Brazilian" combined with the following terms: "multiple sclerosis", "clinical profile", "demographic profile", "natural history", "clinical course", "pediatric", or "familial form". In total of 45 pediatric and 1922 adult patients, the median age at onset was 10 years in pediatric patients and 32 years in adult patients. Women were more affected. Motor-control complaints and relapsing-remitting phenotype at onset were the most common. Predictors to disability and progression were number of relapses during the first year of disease, older age, male gender and African ancestry. The profile of the MS in Brazilian seems to correspond to that observed in high-MS-prevalence areas. African ancestry is a risk factor to disability and progression early. In Brazil, factors that limit MS incidence do not interfere with the clinical pattern and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu

    2013-06-01

    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  16. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil:...

  17. [Nursing education research groups in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Lino, Mônica Motta; Ferraz, Fabiane; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Canever, Bruna Pedroso

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the organization of nursing education research groups in Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive and documentary study. Census data for 2006 were collected from the CNPq database website. Brazil has 47 education research groups, comprised of 412 researchers, of whom 91% have masters, doctoral or postdoctoral degrees. There are 307 students, of whom 92% are nursing undergraduates. However, only 9% are recipients of young investigator grants. There are also 112 technicians, of whom 75% are nursing professionals; 46% have a masters or doctoral degree. In Brazil, there are a considerable number of nursing education research groups, which contribute significantly to scientific production of nursing knowledge in Latin America. In this scenario, there are many challenges to be overcome: poor interdisciplinary cooperation; limited integration between education and practice; low number of grants awarded to young investigators and significant inequalities between the country's geographic regions in terms of access to research development.

  18. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  19. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Añez, Germán; Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil. PMID:26413514

  20. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  1. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta H; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228).

  2. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  3. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fares, Rafaelle C G; Souza, Katia P R; Añez, Germán; Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil.

  4. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B.; Jacobson, Cardell K.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey data from 2001 and 2008 to examine factors predicting intergroup marriage and the trends in intergroup marriage in Brazil. The results show higher rates of intermarriage in urban than in rural areas. Intermarriage is less common among the most educated people. While the rates of intermarriage are increasing substantially, the rates of change are diffuse across urban and rural areas, regions and education groups. PMID:24052666

  5. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  6. Brazil's Higher Education Responses to the Global Challenges of the 21st Century. Thinking Brazil. No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Thinking Brazil" is an electronic publication of the Brazil Institute. This issue of "Thinking Brazil" highlights the research of Elizabeth Balbachevsky. On July 24, 2006, Elizabeth Balbachevsky, Woodrow Wilson Center Public Policy Scholar and Associate Professor of Political Science, Universidade de Sao Paulo, presented her research on the…

  7. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    PubMed

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eis, S R; de Souza, A C

    2001-04-01

    The definition of Osteoporosis as proposed by WHO is widely accepted amongst Brazilian physicians. The main diagnostic tool in Brazil is Bone Densitometry (DXA). Both public and private health insurance systems reimburse the densitometry test. DXA have been used also for monitoring changes in BMD. Biochemical markers and peripheral methods of bone assessment are not widely used in Brazil. Estrogens, Vitamin D and its metabolites, Salmon Calcitonin, Ipriflavone, Tibolone, Etidronate, Alendronate, Raloxifene and Risendronate are currently available for treating osteoporosis. Since 1995, Brazilian Society of Clinical Densitometry have been educating Bone Densitometry Professionals and all clinicians in order to improve their ability to turn DXA results into adequate clinical decisions.

  9. Epizootic botulism of cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Döbereiner, J; Tokarnia, C H; Langenegger, J; Dutra, I S

    1992-05-01

    The first diagnosis of botulism in cattle in Brazil and its epizootiology are reviewed. The high prevalence of the disease raised on phosphorus deficient pastures in Savanna regions has caused severe economic losses in the past. The temperature induced microcomplement fixation test (TIMCF) confirmed the clinical-pathological diagnosis in all of the 24 cases studied by this method. The most important reason why botulism has not been controlled satisfactorily in Brazil is the lack of an available effective vaccine (type C and D). Additional prophylactic measures are phosphorus supplementation and removal of carcasses from the pasture.

  10. Selenium content of Brazil nuts from two geographic locations in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chang, J C; Gutenmann, W H; Reid, C M; Lisk, D J

    1995-02-01

    Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) natively contain very high concentrations of selenium. Since dietary selenium, including Brazil nuts, have been associated with protection against tumor development in laboratory animal studies, it was of interest to determine the selenium content of the nuts from different nut-growing regions of Brazil. In the work reported, 162 nuts from each of two regions (Acre-Rondonia and Manaus-Belem) were individually analyzed for selenium. The average +/- standard deviation and range of selenium concentrations in ppm, fresh weight for nuts from Acre-Rondonia and Manaus-Belem regions were, respectively, 3.06 +/- 4.01 (0.03-31.7) and 36.0 +/- 50.0 (1.25-512.0). The toxicology of Brazil nut consumption is discussed.

  11. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  12. Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollefson, Scott D.

    1990-03-01

    This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S. policy of restricting space and missile technology to Brazil under the MTCR has succeeded in stalling Brazil's missile program, but has also: (1) further strained Brazilian security relations with the United States; (2) weakened U.S. influence over Brazil's rocket and missile programs; (3) strengthened Brazilian ties with European suppliers (especially France) of space and missile technology; (4) driven Brazil into closer technological cooperation with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union; and (5) intensified Brazilian negotiations with Iraq and Libya. As Brazil moves away from the United States (its traditional supplier of space and missile technology), it is becoming relatively more autonomous and less vulnerable to U.S. restrictions on space and missile technology. The successful implementation of an internationalist development strategy by Brazil's new president, Fernando Collor de Mello, could provide the United States with an exceptional opportunity to improve relations with Brazil.

  13. Combustion Tests of RJ-5 Fuel Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    and the fact th*t the m**^****** *T*rt£ **, is not to be Distribution limited to U.S. Govenunent agende . only; Test and ^luatlon; AuCutS73 Other...at -40’F. This limit was 2 due to the MRE fuel control system. This in-house test program was set up to look at what effects the diluents. exo

  14. Culture Revisited: Vygotsky's Ideas in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza Lima, Elvira

    1995-01-01

    Examines educational reform and Vygotsky's influence on critical pedagogy in Brazil from two perspectives. One is the historical tradition of accepting multiplicity of learning behaviors, and the other is a close analysis of an environment that espoused the idea of literacy as a cultural production shared by everyone. (MMU)

  15. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

  16. Communist Exploitation of Nationalism in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    the crowd and prolonged cheers at his closing phrases: "We are all Brazilians.’" (Somos todos Brasileiros) , "Long live Brazil."’ (Viva o Brasil ...Jornal do Comercio , 6 Jan. 1952, p. 3. 30FBIS No. 51, 12 Mar. 1952, ZYC9 Rio de Janeiro, 12 Mar. 1952. 31FBIS No. 194, 5 Oct. 1953, PRL7 Rio de

  17. Racial Inequality and Child Mortality in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Charles H.; Lovell, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1980 urban Brazil, race of mother significantly affected child mortality after controlling for region, income, and parent education, with a mortality gap of 6.7 years between the whites and Afro-Brazilians. Parent education, indoor plumbing, access to public health care, and presence of adult females significantly reduced the probability of…

  18. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  19. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  1. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Maranhao, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele B; Simith, Darlene B; de Souza Pereira, Armando; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Mendes, Wellington S; Vidigal, José R B; de Oliveira, Renata C; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Cruz, Ana C R; Nunes, Márcio R T; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F

    2010-12-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhao, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region.

  2. Brazil: Changing Patterns of Foreign Trade,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Primary products other than coffee which are important in the trade——sugar , cocoa beans, frozen shrimp and lobsters, Brazil and cashew nuts , tobacco...export categories. “Vegetable products” , a class which includes coffee , cereals , nuts and oilseeds , remained the largest single category of exports

  3. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the…

  4. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines.

  5. Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathryn; Brownstein, John S.; Marinho, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre F.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year. PMID:27618573

  6. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  7. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    PubMed

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  8. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Adalberto Pérez de León, all USDA-ARS, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cança...

  9. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Beto Perez de Leon, all USDA, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cançado, is t...

  10. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  11. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the…

  12. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission.

  13. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  14. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  15. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Rn; Souto, Wedson Ms

    2011-07-18

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology--reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements.

  16. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  17. NASA Spacecraft Captures Image of Brazil Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-19

    On Jan. 18, 2011, NASA Terra spacecraft captured this 3-D perspective image of the city of Nova Friburgo, Brazil. A week of torrential rains triggered a series of deadly mudslides and floods. More details about this image at the Photojournal.

  18. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements. PMID:21767370

  19. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  20. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454

  1. Allergens from Brazil nut: immunochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, B; Méndez, J D; Armentia, A; Vallverdú, A; Palacios, R

    1997-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of tropical nuts in the Northern Hemisphere during the last years, has evolved in a simultaneous enhancement of allergic IgE mediated (Hypersensitivity type 1) reported cases produced by this kind of food. The Brazil nut is the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa tree (Family Lecythidaceae) and, as in other seeds, proteins represent one of its major components making up 15-17% of its fresh weight and 50% of defatted flour. Of these, storage proteins are the most important ones, and the 12 S globulin legumin-like protein and the 2 S albumin have been described as the most representative. The 2 S protein, due to its high sulfur-rich amino acid content (3% cysteine and 18% methionine), is being studied, cloned and expressed in some important agronomic seeds (soybean, bean, oilseed rape) in order to enrich the nutritional quality of them. The case of a patient with serious clinical allergic symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of consciousness) caused by oral contact with the Brazil nut, is presented. The patient gave a positive Skin Prick Test response to Brazil nut, kiwi and hazelnut extracts, and negative to regionally specific aeroallergens and other food extracts. The patient serum showed a high level of specific IgE by RAST to Brazil nut (> 17.5 PRU/ml, Class 4), and significative levels to hazelnut, and mustard. In vitro immunological studies (SDS-Immunoblotting and IEF-Immunoblotting) revealed IgE-binding proteins present in the extract. It was shown that not only the heavy (Mr 9) and light (Mr 4) subunits of the known allergenic 2 S albumin but also the alpha-subunits (Mr approximately 33.5 and 32) and at least one of the beta-subunits (Mr approximately 21) of the 12 S Brazil nut globulin, hitherto never involved in allergic problems, showed a strong IgE-binding capacity.

  2. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil.

  3. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  4. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82-95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs.

  5. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  6. Enhanced detection of viral diversity using partial and near full-length genomes of HIV-1 provirus deep sequencing data from recently infected donors at four blood centers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Watanabe, Jaqueline Tomoko; Calabria, Paula; Alencar, Cecilia Salete; Loureiro, Paula; Lopes, Maria Esther; Proetti, Anna Barbara; Félix, Alvina Clara; Sabino, Ester C; Busch, Michael P.; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2014-01-01

    Background Here, we report application of high-throughput near-full-length genome (NFLG) and partial HIV-1 proviral genome deep sequencing to characterize HIV in recently infected blood donors at four major blood centers in Brazil. Study Design and Methods From 2007-2011, 341 HIV+ blood donors from 4 blood centers were recruited to participate in a case control study to identify HIV risk factors and motivations to donate. Forty-seven (17 from São Paulo [SP], 8 from Minas Gerais [MG], 11 from Pernambuco [PE] and 11 from Rio de Janeiro [RJ]) were classified as recently infected based on testing by less-sensitive enzyme immunoassays. Five overlapping amplicons spanning the HIV genome were PCR amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by an Illumina paired-end protocol. Results Of the 47 recently infected donor samples studied, 39 (82.9%) NFLGs and 6 (12.7%) partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Subtype B was the only non-recombinant virus identified in this study and accounted for 62.2% (28/45) of samples. The remaining 37.8% (17/45) of samples showed various patterns of subtype discordance in different regions of HIV-1 genomes, indicating 2- 4 circulating recombinant subtypes derived from clades B, F and C. Fourteen samples (31.1%) from this study harbored drug resistance mutations, indicating higher rate of drug resistance among Brazilian blood donors. Conclusion Our findings revealed a high proportion of HIV-1 recombinants among recently infected blood donors in Brazil which has implications for future blood screening, diagnosis, therapy and vaccine development. PMID:25413141

  7. Phylogeography of dengue virus serotype 4, Brazil, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Silva de Lima, Clayton Pereira; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Pinto da Silva, Eliana Vieira; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Sousa, Edivaldo Costa; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Abecasis, Ana Barroso; Suchard, Marc A; Lemey, Philippe; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-11-01

    Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) reemerged in Roraima State, Brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. To study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 DENV-4 isolates from northern (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará States) and northeastern (Bahia State) Brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in Roraima. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-4 introductions in Brazil were applied to envelope genes and full genomes by using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses. An introduction of genotype I into Brazil from Southeast Asia was confirmed, and full genome phylogeographic analyses revealed multiple introductions of DENV-4 genotype II in Brazil, providing evidence for >3 introductions of this genotype within the last decade: 2 from Venezuela to Roraima and 1 from Colombia to Amazonas. The phylogeographic analysis of full genome data has demonstrated the origins of DENV-4 throughout Brazil.

  8. Climatic implications of glacial evolution in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (northern Iceland) since the Little Ice Age maximum. The cases of the Gljúfurárjökull and Tungnahryggsjökull glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Fernández, José M.; Andrés, Nuria; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Palacios, David

    2017-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in northern Iceland, between meridians 19°30'W and 18°10'W, jutting out into the North Atlantic to latitude 66°12'N and joining the central highlands to the south. About 150 glaciers located on the Tröllaskagi peninsula reached their Holocene maximum extent during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum at the end of the 19th century. The sudden warming at the turn of the 20th century triggered a continuous retreat from the LIA maximum positions, interrupted by a reversal trend during the mid-seventies and eighties in response to a brief period of climate cooling. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationships between glacial and climatic evolution since the LIA maximum. For this reason, we selected three small debris-free glaciers: Gljúfurárjökull, and western and eastern Tungnahryggsjökull, at the headwalls of Skíðadalur and Kolbeinsdalur, as their absence of debris cover makes them sensitive to climatic fluctuations. To achieve this purpose, we used ArcGIS to map the glacier extent during the LIA maximum and several dates over four georeferenced aerial photos (1946, 1985, 1994 and 2000), as well as a 2005 SPOT satellite image. Then, the Equilibrium-Line Altitude (ELA) was calculated by applying the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR) and Area Altitude Balance Ratio (AABR) approaches. Climatological data series from the nearby weather stations were used in order to analyze climate development and to estimate precipitation at the ELA with different numerical models. Our results show considerable changes of the three debris-free glaciers and demonstrates their sensitivity to climatic fluctuations. As a result of the abrupt climatic transition of the 20th century, the following warm 25-year period and the warming started in the late eighties, the three glaciers retreated by ca. 990-1330 m from the LIA maximum to 2005, supported by a 40-metre ELA rise and a reduction of their area and volume of 25% and 33% on average

  9. The water-enhanced Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, C. P.; Pacheco-Martinez, H. A.; Swift, M. R.; King, P. J.

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that a large dense intruder may rise to the surface of a vibrated granular bed, the Brazil nut effect. In this paper we describe a water-enhanced Brazil nut effect which occurs when the vibrated granular bed is fully immersed in a liquid. We use a bed of glass beads immersed in water and monitor the behaviour of a large steel intruder as the system is vibrated vertically. To aid our understanding, we have developed numerical simulations to model this system and provide detailed information on the fluid and grain motion. The mechanism responsible for the rapid rise of the intruder is shown to be fluid-enhanced ratcheting rather than simple differential drag.

  10. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    PubMed

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  11. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  12. Echinostomes in Felid Coprolites from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sianto, L; Duarte, A N; Borba, V H; Magalhães, J G; de Souza, S M; Chame, M

    2016-06-01

    The first record of Echinostoma (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in coprolites was from a mummified human body in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The finding raised questions on this parasite's incidence in prehistoric populations and the natural hosts of each species in remote times. Echinostomes occur worldwide and, despite the wide range of hosts, there is no record of Echinostomatidae in felines in Brazil. This study reports the finding of Echinostomatidae eggs in felid coprolites in the Furna do Estrago Archaeological Site, located in Pernambuco State in the Brazilian semiarid. Despite the possibility of false parasitism, the finding expands the distribution of this Digenea in remote times and raises the hypothesis of other cases of echinostomiasis in pre-Colombian populations.

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Oropouche Virus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Casseb, Lívia M.N.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto da Silva, Eliana V.; Silva, Mayra; Casseb, Samir M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV) is the causative agent of Oropouche fever, an urban febrile arboviral disease widespread in South America, with >30 epidemics reported in Brazil and other Latin American countries during 1960–2009. To describe the molecular epidemiology of OROV, we analyzed the entire N gene sequences (small RNA) of 66 strains and 35 partial Gn (medium RNA) and large RNA gene sequences. Distinct patterns of OROV strain clustered according to N, Gn, and large gene sequences, which suggests that each RNA segment had a different evolutionary history and that the classification in genotypes must consider the genetic information for all genetic segments. Finally, time-scale analysis based on the N gene showed that OROV emerged in Brazil ≈223 years ago and that genotype I (based on N gene data) was responsible for the emergence of all other genotypes and for virus dispersal. PMID:21529387

  14. Biobanking and Privacy Law in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi; Castellaro, Felipe Angel Bocchi; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the current regulatory framework for biobanking, genomic research, and protection of privacy in Brazil. It is divided in four parts. The first describes the biobanking context in Brazil and its evolution in recent years. In the second, the entire regulatory framework on biobanking and genomic research is analyzed. The third part focuses on the critical evaluation of this regulatory framework, specifically on some major ethical dilemmas in biobanking. The fourth part describes the characteristics of the Brazilian biobanking and human research governance system, known as the CEP/CONEP system. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the information in the article and its contribution to the study of the biobanking ethical challenges, especially the protection of privacy. It is highlighted that biobanking regulatory harmonization among countries is necessary, since it increases scientific possibilities that can come from broader cooperation among biobanks and several research centers on the national and international levels. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. The burden of osteoporosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Bruna Coelho Galvão; Guerra, Luiza Paulino; Drummond, Juliana Beaudette; Silva, Barbara C; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporotic fractures impose severe physical, psychosocial, and financial burden both to the patient and the society. Studies on the prevalence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in Brazil show a wide variation, due to differences in sample size, the population studied, and methodologies. Few studies have been conducted in Brazil about the cost-effectiveness analyses of different intervention options aimed at the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Investigation and treatment strategies based on cost-effectiveness and scientific evidence are essential in the preparation of public health policies with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of fractures and, consequently, the direct and indirect costs associated with them. This article reviews the Brazilian burden of osteoporosis in terms of the prevalence and fractures attributable to the disease, the costs related to the investigation and management, as well as the impact of osteoporosis on the population as a whole and on affected individuals.

  16. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  17. John Banister: an Elizabethan surgeon in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mello, Amílcar D'Avila de

    2011-03-01

    In Brazil's sixteenth-century history, very few references are made to health professionals. On the expedition of Edward Fenton, dispatched by the English Crown in 1582 to set up a trading post in Asia, was the famous barber-surgeon and physician John Banister. The naval squadron, diverted from its original route to repeat the feats of Sir Francis Drake, stopped over in Africa, crossed the Atlantic and anchored off the Santa Catarina coast in Brazil. In these waters, the expedition degenerated into piracy and returned unsuccessful to Europe. John Banister is considered the person who liberated English anatomy from mediaeval slavery, shedding upon it the light of the Renaissance. It was the first time that anyone of this importance in the area of health had visited these latitudes.

  18. The legacy of monazite processing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R

    2005-01-01

    The exploitation of natural resources containing naturally occurring radionuclides may lead to enhanced levels of radioactive isotope and enhanced potential for exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in products, by-products, residues or wastes. Such resources include, for instance, monazite, the processing of which, in Brazil, generated a great amount of radioactive residues, being stored in buried concrete tanks, in temporary storage buildings and in sealed trenches. In addition, during the 1980s there were no radiological protection rules concerning the storage and transportation of these kinds of residues. Mineral radioactive residues were used as landfills and the residues of chemical processes contaminated floors and buildings. The decommissioning process and cleaning of old plants have generated tons of wastes that has been added to previously produced wastes. This paper reports and discusses the cycle of monazite in Brazil and its consequences in terms of site remediation and amount of wastes and residues generated and stored.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Oropouche virus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Nunes, Márcio R T; Casseb, Lívia M N; Carvalho, Valéria L; Pinto da Silva, Eliana V; Silva, Mayra; Casseb, Samir M M; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2011-05-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV) is the causative agent of Oropouche fever, an urban febrile arboviral disease widespread in South America, with >30 epidemics reported in Brazil and other Latin American countries during 1960-2009. To describe the molecular epidemiology of OROV, we analyzed the entire N gene sequences (small RNA) of 66 strains and 35 partial Gn (medium RNA) and large RNA gene sequences. Distinct patterns of OROV strain clustered according to N, Gn, and large gene sequences, which suggests that each RNA segment had a different evolutionary history and that the classification in genotypes must consider the genetic information for all genetic segments. Finally, time-scale analysis based on the N gene showed that OROV emerged in Brazil ≈223 years ago and that genotype I (based on N gene data) was responsible for the emergence of all other genotypes and for virus dispersal.

  20. Secular trends in breastfeeding in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the secular trend in breastfeeding in Brazil. Data bases from seven national surveys conducted from 1975 to 2008 were reanalyzed. To obtain compatible data from the different surveys, children in the same age group and the same indicators were analyzed, using the same statistical techniques. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2.5 to 11.3 months, and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months of age increased from 3.1% to 41.0% in the period. The results indicate important challenges in accelerating the rhythm at which this practice in Brazil moves towards meeting international recommendations. PMID:24626558

  1. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  2. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  3. Record of Diglyphus walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A R; Bueno, V H P; Silva, D B; Costa, V A

    2011-01-01

    Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are pests of various crops, mainly in greenhouses, and have Diglyphus spp. as important leafminer larval parasitoids. Until recently, only Diglyphus insularis (Gahan) had been reported in Brazil. In here we report the first records of Diglyphus begini (Ashmead), D. intermedius (Girault) and D. isaea (Walker) in Brazil. These parasitoids were found parasitizing leafminer larvae on cultivated and spontaneous plants in some areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  4. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Thais Elias; Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyatheasubincisa, Cyclodiumtrianae, Elaphoglossumstenophyllum, Hypoderrisbrauniana, Pleopeltisstolzei, Thelypterisarcana, Thelypteriscomosa, Thelypterisvaldepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodiumflagellare, Tectariaheracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophilasalvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurumcostatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypterisrolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

  5. Perspectives on invasive amphibians in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Forti, Lucas Rodriguez; Becker, C. Guilherme; Tacioli, Leandro; Pereira, Vânia Rosa; Santos, André Cid F. A.; Oliveira, Igor; Haddad, Célio F. B.; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM) can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species). We (i) modeled the current habitat suitability and future potential distribution of these six focal species, (ii) reported on the disease status of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei and Phyllodytes luteolus, and (iii) quantified the acoustic overlap of P. luteolus and Leptodactylus labyrinthicus with three co-occurring native species. Our models indicated that all six invasive species could potentially expand their ranges in Brazil within the next few decades. In addition, our SDMs predicted important expansions in available habitat for 2 out of 6 invasive species under future (2100) climatic conditions. We detected high acoustic niche overlap between invasive and native amphibian species, underscoring that acoustic interference might reduce mating success in local frogs. Despite the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus being recognized as a potential reservoir for the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Brazil, we did not detect Bd in the recently introduced population of E. johnstonei and P. luteolus in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that the number of invasive amphibian species in Brazil is increasing exponentially, highlighting the urgent need to monitor and control these populations and decrease potential impacts on the locally biodiverse wildlife. PMID:28938024

  6. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines. PMID:24770530

  7. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Weekly, p. 42-45 London 7 April 1984 Dzidzienyo, Anani. Relaciones Africanas y Latino Americanos Contemnporaneas: Problemas y Perspectivas . Brown...Resources to Carry on a War, Officers Say " New York Times, p. 1. 14 May 1984 Hayes, Margaret D. Brazil y el Atlantico Sur: cambios en las perspectivas de...Alfredo. "Marinha de Brasil: Atnalidodes e Perspectivas ." (Lecture on the Brazilian Naval War College.) Rio de Janeiro, Braz~I. 31 Agosto 1984. Kelly

  8. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-31

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15.

  9. Perspectives on invasive amphibians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Forti, Lucas Rodriguez; Becker, C Guilherme; Tacioli, Leandro; Pereira, Vânia Rosa; Santos, André Cid F A; Oliveira, Igor; Haddad, Célio F B; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM) can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species). We (i) modeled the current habitat suitability and future potential distribution of these six focal species, (ii) reported on the disease status of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei and Phyllodytes luteolus, and (iii) quantified the acoustic overlap of P. luteolus and Leptodactylus labyrinthicus with three co-occurring native species. Our models indicated that all six invasive species could potentially expand their ranges in Brazil within the next few decades. In addition, our SDMs predicted important expansions in available habitat for 2 out of 6 invasive species under future (2100) climatic conditions. We detected high acoustic niche overlap between invasive and native amphibian species, underscoring that acoustic interference might reduce mating success in local frogs. Despite the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus being recognized as a potential reservoir for the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Brazil, we did not detect Bd in the recently introduced population of E. johnstonei and P. luteolus in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that the number of invasive amphibian species in Brazil is increasing exponentially, highlighting the urgent need to monitor and control these populations and decrease potential impacts on the locally biodiverse wildlife.

  10. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury Epidemiology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Romeu; de Sousa Filho, José Lopes; Dourado, Jules Carlos; Gontijo, Pollyana Anício Magalhães; Dellaretti, Marcos Antônio; Costa, Bruno Silva

    2016-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) stands out as a grave social and economic problem. Emerging countries possess few epidemiologic studies on the range and impact of TBI. Our study aimed to characterize the demographic, social, and economic profile of people suffering from TBI in Brazil. Data on TBI cases in Brazil between 2008 and 2012 were collected through the website of the Information Technology Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) maintained by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. This database is fed by public hospital admission authorization forms provided nationwide. There were around 125,000 hospital admissions due to TBI a year, an incidence of 65.7 admissions per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Hospital mortality was 5.1/100,000/year, and the case fatality rate was 7.7%. The average annual cost of hospital expenses was US$ 70,960,000, with an average cost per admission of US$ 568. The age group 20-29, frequently admitted to the hospital due to TBI, presented the largest number of hospital deaths; however, the population >80 years of age showed the highest admission rate per age group, around 138/100,000/year, followed by the age group 70-79. TBI should be recognized as an important public health problem in Brazil because it is responsible for considerable social and economic costs. Besides the young adult age group (20-29 years old), the geriatric age group is especially vulnerable to the frequent and devastating consequences of TBI. The implementation of a system of effective epidemiologic vigilance for neurotrauma is urgent in Brazil and other countries worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Sciences and races in Brazil ca. 1900].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Arteaga, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a general overview about the way in which Brazilian medicine and physical anthropology gave a naturalistic approach to the idea of race and to the "problem" posed by the mixture of races in the country during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, coinciding with the introduction of evolutionism in Brazil.

  13. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    credited by Brazil- ian historians with having opened up the interior of the country by their expeditions. Antonio Baposo Tavares led what was probably the...rapid inflation. Once again, disorders 36 Historical Setting flared up in Rio Grande do Sul. The governor, Antonio Augusto Borges de Medeiros, had...Meanwhile, the political maneuvering over the next presiden- tial term had begun. The governor of Minas Gerais, Antonio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada, the

  14. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  15. Sustainable Rural Energy Development in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ghandour, A.

    2005-01-01

    Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.

  16. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro e; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas. PMID:28382937

  17. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  18. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  19. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mosquitoes infected with dengue viruses in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dengue epidemics have been reported in Brazil since 1985. The scenery has worsened in the last decade because several serotypes are circulating and producing a hyper-endemic situation, with an increase of DHF/DSS cases as well as the number of fatalities. Herein, we report dengue virus surveillance in mosquitoes using a Flavivirus genus-specific RT-Hemi-Nested-PCR assay. The mosquitoes (Culicidae, n = 1700) collected in the Northeast, Southeast and South of Brazil, between 1999 and 2005, were grouped into 154 pools. Putative genomes of DENV-1, -2 and -3 were detected in 6 mosquito pools (3.8%). One amplicon of putative DENV-1 was detected in a pool of Haemagogus leucocelaenus suggesting that this virus could be involved in a sylvatic cycle. DENV-3 was found infecting 3 pools of larvae of Aedes albopictus and the nucleotide sequence of one of these viruses was identified as DENV-3 of genotype III, phylogenetically related to other DENV-3 isolated in Brazil. This is the first report of a nucleotide sequence of DENV-3 from larvae of Aedes albopictus. PMID:20624314

  1. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  2. Comments on cosmic ray research in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silveira, Enio F.

    2013-05-01

    Cosmic Rays (CR) have been studied since their discovery by Victor Hess in the years 1911-1913. Interestingly, research in Physics in Brazil started with experiments on CR. Bernhard Gross (INT/Rio), Gleb Wataghin and Giuseppe Occhialini (USP) carried out their investigations on CR in Brazil in the 30's. Franz X. Roser worked with V. Hess (Nobel Prize, 1936) and Cesar Lattes collaborated with Cecil Powell (Nobel Prize, 1950). Nowadays, most of CR research in Brazil is conducted by the Pierre Auger Project. Nevertheless, there is an enormous lack of information on the effects of CR in matter, particularly in organic and biological materials, which motivates measurements of relevant physicochemical data, such as parameters of crystalline structure modifications, sputtering yields and cross sections for inducing associative or dissociative processes of atoms, molecules and molecular fragments. A fascinating question about CR is whether they are/were one of the agents responsible for the transformation of inorganic into organic material, synthesizing pre-biotic molecules in the whole Universe. The physicochemical effects of CR analogues in condensed gases, analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy - subject of our own work on CR - are discussed at the end of this article.

  3. Mental health economics: insights from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luciane; Lima, Ana Flavia Da Silva; Graeff-Martins, Ana; Maia, Carlos Renato Moreira; Ziegelmann, Patricia; Miguel, Sandoro; Fleck, Marcelo; Polanczyk, Carisi

    2013-04-01

    As the responsibility and demand on health care grows and resources do not increase at the same pace, the healthcare system has been forced to reconsider the benefits and costs of their actions, to ensure a rational and effective decision-making process regarding the adoption of interventions and allocation of resources. Cost-effectiveness (CE) studies represent one of the basic tools to achieve this goal. To present the current state of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and health economics in mental health in Brazil and its importance to the decision-making process. Descriptive paper on HTA and health economics in Brazil. Databases from government and universities as well as some scientific databases to assess the information are presented. Economic analysis to evaluate interventions in mental health care is a relatively recent addition to the field of health economics; in Brazil, it is also considered a topic within Epidemiology research area. There have been an increased number of studies developed in high-income countries. However, there are fewer CE studies in low- and middle-income ones. Psychiatric disorders represent a significant burden in developing countries, where resources devoted to health care are even scarcer.

  4. Mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arduini, Giovanna Abadia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Letícia Pinto; Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    This work aimed to characterize mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil. The MEDLINE electronic database was searched using the terms 'mortality' and 'sickle cell disease' and 'Brazil' for articles published in the last five years aiming to provide a current analysis of the subject in question. Eight studies on mortality by sickle cell disease were carried out in the Brazilian states of Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul. The majority of the deaths occurred in patients with sickle cell anemia, which is the most common genotype and causes the most severe clinical manifestation of the disease. In summary, there are few published studies on mortality related to sickle cell disease in Brazil, and most are from the state of Minas Gerais. This study emphasizes the importance of developing more studies on sickle cell disease mortality, so that it may be possible to profile gene carriers and give health professionals more data to strategize the delivery of more effective assistance to these individuals. Despite the early diagnosis of sickle cell disease by the Neonatal Screening Program and the use of preventive and therapeutic measures (penicillin, immunization and hydroxyurea), mortality by sickle cell disease on the world stage is still significant.

  5. Bioethics and Christian theology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, Márcio Fabri; Lepargneur, Hubert François

    2008-01-01

    A Christian theology is important to bioethics in Brazil not only because Brazil is a country of strong Christian traditions, but also because of its theological method and because of many practices in their Christian communities. In fact, the interaction within practice and theory is a big point of its methodology. A heritage of a long history of colonialism in South America comes to our times as enormous social inequalities. In such a context, the silent cry of poor people is heard as a question of coherence to the Christian faith and to the neighbor love. Through a constant dialog with human sciences, the method of theology, known as liberation theology, seeks the roots of social inequalities and the alternatives to a movement of spiritual and social liberation. In touch with the modern bioethics, this theology has strongly contributed to understand all the questions of bioethics in the frame of social structures and systems. On the other hand, many actual practices of the Catholic Church in Brazil with popular impact, like its annual Fraternity Campaign, develop social themes and problems that are also big concerns of bioethics. In this article we try to expose some aspects of this dialog, where theology has a well considered contribution to Brazilian bioethics, at the same time his religious discourse is open to interact with a lay discourse.

  6. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  7. Food-fuel conflicts: the Brazil case

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, N.

    1981-01-01

    Brazil has decided to commit a significant part of its agricultural resources to the production of sugarcane and other crops to be processed into fuel grade alcohol. Concerns are already being raised about potential food-fuel conflicts, especially in the major food-sugarcane producing areas of the state of Sao Paulo and the sugarcane areas of northeast Brazil. The objective of this paper is to explore the dimensions of this emerging food-fuel issue in Brazil. The energy supply and use situation along with a brief description of the alcohol program are presented first. Current land use in relation to food and export crop production is presented next. This is followed by a description of the energy crops to be used for alcohol production. The paper concludes with an investigation of the food-fuel conflicts on a national and regional basis with the identification of some changes in program emphasis that will lessen the impact of the alcohol program on food supplies and prices.

  8. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the ;so called; Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  9. Infant mortality and child health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Denisard; Belluzzo, Walter

    2004-12-01

    Child health is a central issue in the public policy agenda of developing countries. Several policies aimed at improving child health have been implemented over the years, with varying degrees of success. In Brazil, such policies have triggered a significant decline in infant mortality rates over the last 30 years. Despite this improvement, however, mortality rates are still high compared to international standards. Moreover, there is considerable imbalance across Brazilian municipalities suggesting that various policies should be adopted. We investigate the determinants of infant mortality at the municipal level and provide an analysis of the factors affecting child health at the individual level. To analyze the mortality rate, we estimate static and dynamic panel data models using four censuses covering the period from 1970 to 2000. The demand for child health, on the other hand, is addressed through a household decision model, estimated using anthropometric data from the 1996 Standard of Living Survey. The results obtained indicate that a rise in sanitation, education and per capita income contributed to the decline of infant mortality in Brazil, with stronger impacts in the long run than in the short run. The fixed effects associated with county characteristics explain the observed dispersion in child mortality rates. The results from the decision model are confirmed by the findings of the mortality model: education, sanitation and poverty are the most important causes of poor child health in Brazil.

  10. Four new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Bolivia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-13

    Four new species of Cerambycidae are described: Sphaerion iuasanga (Elaphidiini), Glypthaga arena, Hypsioma albosericea (Onciderini) from Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Hesycha jataiensis (Onciderini) from Brazil.

  11. The problems of nutrition in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    Low income is the factor most often associated with the existence of malnutrition. Malnutrition in Brazil is more frequently found among Brazilians with less than 2 minimum salaries/family and who live in the less developed parts of the country. In 1976, 59.2% of urban residents earned 2 or less minimum salaries. A study found that those rural residents engaged in agriculture on their own or someone else's property were better paid than those who live from salaried labor alone; temporary salaried workers are the largest rural class in Brazil and have the lowest levels of nutrition. In urban areas the informal sector represent the lowest nutrition level group. The issue of food consumption by the lower classes is linked to 4 aspects of Brazilian development: 1) structure of food production, 2) distribution of income, 3) government attempts to influence prices and marketing systems, and 4) the role of government food supplementation programs. Brazil suffers today from unbalanced growth among its various economic sectors and regions, inequitable income distribution, and inadequate public services. The misconception of the necessity of a large industrial base for development resulted in the neglect of the rural sector and thus higher malnutrition. Recent regulatory efforts by the government have begun to increase rural production, but production of agricultural exports has increased at a much more rapid pace than that of domestic food commodities. Small farmers have not taken advantage of new financial opportunities offered by the government to balance production levels because: 1) banks do not have enough for the demand, 2) access to the small producer of foods is difficult, and 3) the present hesitation to risk his few possessions. The largest percentage of income in Brazil goes to the richest classes and the economy is oriented towards meeting the demands of the more prosperous classes. The government's program of minimum support prices has not been successful in

  12. Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate “Phase Egg” in superdeep diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso State, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Richard; Vollmer, Christian; Brenker, Frank; Matsyuk, Stanislav; Kaminsky, Felix

    2007-07-01

    Inclusions in alluvial diamond from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) have been investigated by TEM methods (electron diffraction, HRTEM, AEM, HAADF, EELS) and Raman spectroscopy. The inclusion paragenesis of Juina diamonds is dominated by ultrahigh-pressure ("superdeep") phases. One of these diamonds, sample #1.1/4, contains several micrometer-sized (approximately 200 μm by 50-70 μm) inclusions, which have been studied. TEM foils prepared applying Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique revealed that these inclusions consist of a porous, nanocrystalline groundmass, which is composed of nanometre-sized crystals of a hydrous aluminium silicate phase with Al:Si approximately 1:1 and chemical composition of phase "Egg" (AlSiO 3(OH)), a minor volume fraction of nanocrystalline stishovite and pore space, which was originally filled with a fluid or gas. The nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate phase is idiomorphic, randomly oriented (approximately 20-30 nm in size) predominantly with tetragonal crystal structure ( a0 = 0.743 nm, c0 = 0.706 nm). The monoclinic structure of synthetic phase "Egg" determined at ambient conditions [M.W. Schmidt, L.W. Finger, R.J. Ross, R.E. Dinnebier, Synthesis, crystal structure, and phase relations of AlSiO 3OH, a high-pressure hydrous phase, American Mineralogist 83 (1998) 881 - 888] is only occasionally observed. The fluid filling in the porosity has been released into the vacuum of the FIB during TEM specimen preparation. Quench products of the fluid containing minor concentrations of F- P- S- Cl- K- Ca and Ba were detected at the walls of the pores. In addition phase "Egg" is identified by μ-Raman spectroscopy within a second sample (RS 43a) from the same location. The presence of Phase "Egg" in the inclusions in diamond may suggest that crustal material has been subducted to a depth of the lower Transition Zone. Although, metastable growth of nanocrystalline high-pressure phases or extension of their respective stability fields to lower

  13. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection of Dogs from an Urban Area of Brazil as Identified by Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2011-01-01

    Background Various factors contribute to the urbanization of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), including the difficulties of implementing control measures relating to the domestic reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban endemic area in Brazil and the factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection among seronegative and PCR-positive dogs. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1,443 dogs. Serology was carried out by using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biomanguinhos/FIOCRUZ/RJ and “in house”), and molecular methods were developed, including PCR-RFLP. To identify the factors associated with early stages of infection, only seronegative (n = 1,213) animals were evaluated. These animals were divided into two groups: PCR-positive (n = 296) and PCR-negative (n = 917) for L. infantum DNA. A comparison of these two groups of dogs taking into consideration the characteristics of the animals and their owners was performed. A mixed logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with L. infantum infection. Principal Findings Of the 1,443 dogs examined, 230 (15.9%) were seropositive in at least one ELISA, whereas PCR-RFLP revealed that 356 animals (24.7%) were positive for L. infantum DNA. Results indicated that the associated factors with infection were family income

  14. The Significance of 2010 Iran-Turkey-Brazil Nuclear Deal for Turkey and Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    brazilian-history/3-the- old-republic-1889-1930/ republica -velha-1889-1930/. 180 Ibid. 45 equal...2014. http://soulbrasileiro.com/main/brazil/brazilian-history/3-the-old-republic-1889- 1930/ republica -velha-1889-1930/. Spektor, Matias. “U.S

  15. Popular Education in Brazil. A Report on the LASG/WEA 1985 Study Visit to Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers Educational Association, Sunderland (England). Northern District.

    The 11 "themes" in this report describe the three-week study visit of 11 adult education workers from Northern England to Brazil. The report describes contacts with Brazilian colleagues in workers' and popular education and in related support services and trade and popular organizations they serve. "Organization of the Visit"…

  16. Basic Education in Brazil: What's Wrong and How to Fix It. Thinking Brazil. No. 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While Brazil has successfully achieved universal access to basic education, the quality of education remains stubbornly low. A recent study by the Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA) shows that the average 25 years old Brazilian has completed only nine years of education. Almost eleven percent of the population is illiterate and a…

  17. Publishing, Books and Library Resources: Brazil and Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Book Committee, Inc., New York, NY.

    This survey synthesizes and analyzes the book resources and book requirements of Brazil, with particular reference to the educational scene, in terms of local production and distribution resources and capabilities. Information on the geography, political establishment, economy, and educational system of Brazil is presented in the introductory…

  18. 77 FR 65906 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...\\ and that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from China and Ukraine would be... contained in USITC Publication 4354 (October 2012), entitled Silicomanganese from Brazil, China, and Ukraine...

  19. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although Brazil is the world’s fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, there is no information on E. bieneusi in pigs. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of E. bieneusi in pigs in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 91 pigs (1- to 12-mo-old) ...

  20. A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Marinoni, Luciane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Species of Canacidae sensu lato of Brazil are reviewed, including the subfamilies Canacinae and Tethininae. Included are seven species in five genera with two species, Nocticanace austra and Nocticanace packhamorum, from southern Brazil being newly described. To facilitate identification, we have included keys and diagnose to taxa at all levels. PMID:22303126

  1. Focus on Brazil: A Case Study of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truhan, Deborah L.

    The teaching unit is designed to help senior high school and college students learn about national development in Brazil. In this case study, development is defined as advances in social well-being and economic growth. Brazil was chosen as an example of a developing nation which depends upon foreign markets, technology, and capital. The country…

  2. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  3. Brazil's Exception to the World-Class University Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The continued importance of university rankings has only served to fuel the growth of the "world-class" university movement. There is a growing impression that, in a globalised and interconnected world, no country can do without a world-class university. No country, that is, except Brazil. While Brazil has the resources necessary to…

  4. Troglobitic scorpions: a new genus and species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira; de Leão Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce

    2004-12-01

    A new genus and species of troglobitic buthid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Brazil. This is the first cavernicolous scorpion ever found in Brazil, and only the second to be found in South America. Some considerations on troglobitic scorpions are proposed.

  5. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  6. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  7. Brazil: Finance of Primary Education. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, D.; And Others

    Compiled by the World Bank, this study of educational finance in Brazil identifies principal problems, possible solutions, and recommendations for policy changes. The study indicates that Brazil has not given high priority to educational investment, and identifies the problems as: (1) a lack of financial policy analysis and planning; (2) too…

  8. Brazil's Exception to the World-Class University Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The continued importance of university rankings has only served to fuel the growth of the "world-class" university movement. There is a growing impression that, in a globalised and interconnected world, no country can do without a world-class university. No country, that is, except Brazil. While Brazil has the resources necessary to…

  9. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Urban Domestic Cats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Miranda, Júlia Bahia; Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Silva de Oliveira, Jaqueline; Pinheiro, Mariana Siqueira; Gonçalves, Stefanne Aparecida; Pimenta dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2017-01-01

    We investigated possible vaccinia virus (VACV) in urban house cats in Brazil. Serum samples from 6 cats were positive for VACV by PCR, indicating likely VACV circulation among house cats in urban areas of Brazil. This finding highlights the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to avoid outbreaks among urban human populations. PMID:28098542

  10. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  11. Distance Education and Corporate Training in Brazil: Regulations and Interrelationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Stella C. S.; Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Distance education in Brazil has evolved more slowly than distance education offerings in other developing countries. This is because all aspects of Brazil's publicly-funded educational system are excessively regulated, highly bureaucratic, and tightly centralized. Such highly centralized bureaucracy and strict control has resulted in tremendous…

  12. An Overview of Engineering Courses in Brazil: Actual Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canen, Alberto G.; Tammela, Iara; Camatta, Diogo Cevolani

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest countries in the world as well one of the greatest economies among developing countries. To be competitive, Brazil needs to be able to develop technology, research and knowledge. In this sense, we argue that economic growth is directly related to technological development, which is linked to the investments in…

  13. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B

    2013-06-28

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36.

  14. [AIDS along Brazil's borders, 1990-2003].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres

    2009-01-01

    To study the AIDS epidemic in Brazil's border areas, from the spatial and temporal perspective. This was an ecological study in which the cases of AIDS reported to the Ministry of Health of Brazil from 1990-2003 were grouped according to "hunger areas" as defined by Josué de Castro in the 1940s and according to 19 cultural subregions. Spatial assessment was based on incidence rates for border municipalities; temporal assessment considered the absolute number of cases occurring quarterly from 1990-2003 in each of the hunger areas studied (Extreme South, Midwest, and Amazon). During the study period, 7,973 cases of AIDS were reported from the Brazilian border areas: 648 in the Amazon area, 1,579 in the Midwest, and 5,746 in the Extreme South (populations of 668,098, 895,489, and 2,769,361, respectively). The subregions with the highest AIDS incidence rates in each of the three border areas were those near triple-borders, between more than two Latin American countries. Sexual transmission was predominant, with heterosexual transmission being the most frequent, followed by transmission by male homosexuality. These two categories accounted for 87.2% of the cases reported. The estimates of the trend parameter in the temporal analysis were 0.53 (P < 0.0001), 0.83 (P < 0.0001), and 3.47 (P < 0.0001), respectively, for the Amazon, Midwest, and Extreme South areas. The improvement of health care services along Brazil's borders may be a strategy for territorial integration and for dealing with the AIDS epidemic, as long as social, economic, and cultural differences are taken into account.

  15. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ierecê ML; Alves, Rômulo RN; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana PR; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-01-01

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality. PMID

  17. Use of GIS for Earthquakes in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.; Roig, H. L.; Pascual, M. F.; Vasconcelos, A. E.; Ferreira, J. M.; Ribotta, L. C.; do Nascimento, A. F.; Pavao, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    We present geoprocessing techniques to monitor and analyse earthquakes in Brazil. We constructed a georeferenced database called SIGSIBRA using PostgreSQL + PostGIS softwares, and fed by information from the SISBRA earthquake catalog, IBGE geographical data and CPRM geological data. The SISBRA catalog was built from the book "Sismicidade Brasileira" (Berrocal et al, 1984), updated with the Brazilian seismic bulletins from the Brazilian Geophysical Journal up to 1995, and especially with the data from seismographic monitoring activities of the University of Brasília-SIS/UnB, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte-UFRN, the University of Sao Paulo-USP and the Institute for Technological Research (IPT). Earthquakes occur in Brazil with moderate to low magnitudes. Besides natural earthquakes, seismic activity triggered by water dams must also be monitored. With the growing number and size of Brazilian dams (because of the many rivers, favorable topography and "clean" energy) concern with reservoir triggered seismicity is expected to increase. Approval for the construction of a hydropower plant requires seismic hazard assesmment prepared by an interdisciplinary team, with a large contribution of geoprocessing specialists. Therefore, it is important to study the characteristics of this seismicity, so that these professionals can avoid or mitigate potential environmental and social harm to communities on the margins of large dams. Thus the SIGSIBRA system can generate spatial analysis of its events, such as intensity estimation of "Kernel" points distribution; spatial statistics; spatial autocorrelation (Morans I) and correlations with geological structures, making it possible to characterize important aspects of the Brazilian seismicity. Finally, we show the statistical analysis of the database through the program ZMAP and estimate the intraplate seismogenic zones in Brazil.

  18. Genetic diversity of Yersinia pestis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M B M; Barros, M P S; Silveira-Filho, V M; Araújo-Nepomuceno, M R; Balbino, V Q; Leal, N C; Almeida, A M P; Leal-Balbino, T C

    2012-09-25

    Plague outbreaks are occasionally reported in Brazil. Unfortunately, due to great genetic similarity, molecular subtyping of Yersinia pestis strains is difficult. Analysis of multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), also known as MLVA, has been found to be a valuable tool to discriminate among strains. To check for genetic differences, strains obtained from two different ecological complexes in Brazil collected during two different epidemiological events, an epizootic in Sítio Alagoinha in 1967 and an outbreak in Planalto da Borborema in 1986, were subtyped through MLVA using 12 VNTR loci. Three clusters (A, B and C) were observed. Of the 20 strains from the epizootic, 18 fit into cluster A. Cluster A was divided into two subgroups: A(1) (15 strains) and A(2) (3 strains). Of the 17 strains from the outbreak, 15 fit into cluster B. Cluster B was divided into three subgroups: B(1) (4 strains), B(2) (4 strains) and B(3) (7 strains). Cluster C is a singleton with one epizootic strain. The external standards, Y. pestis CO92 and Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953, formed two clusters of singletons. The stability of 12 VNTR loci of three unrelated cultures included in this study was assessed. The 12 VNTR loci were stable through multiple serial subcultures in the laboratory. MLVA revealed that Y. pestis populations in Brazil are not monomorphic, and that there is intraspecific genetic diversity among Brazilian plague strains. We conclude that there is some correlation among genetic groups of this species, related to the temporal and geographic origin of isolates.

  19. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ierecê Ml; Alves, Rômulo Rn; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana Pr; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-12-08

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality.

  20. Is Hepatitis Delta infections important in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Cicero, Maira Ferreira; Pena, Nathalia Mantovani; Santana, Luiz Claudio; Arnold, Rafael; Azevedo, Rafael Gonçalves; Leal, Élcio de Souza; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie; Komninakis, Shirley Vasconcelos

    2016-09-29

    The Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) can increase the incidence of fulminant hepatitis. For this infection occurs, the host must also be infected with Hepatitis B Virus. Previous studies demonstrated the endemicity and near exclusivity of this infection in the Amazon region, and as a consequence of the difficulty in accessing this area we used dried blood spots (DBS) in sample collection. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of recombination, to analyze the epidemiology, ancestry and evolutionary pressures on HDV in Brazil. Blood samples from 50 individuals were collected using dried-blood spots (DBS 903, Whatman), and sent via regular mail to Retrovirology Laboratory from Federal University of São Paulo, where the samples were processed. In the analysis the following software were used: PhyML, RDP, BEAST, jModelTest and CODEML. Our results confirm the prevalence of HDV-3 in the Amazon region of Brazil, with the absence of inter-genotypic recombination. It was identified a positive selection in probable epitopes of HDV on B lymphocytes that might indicate that the virus is changing to escape the humoral response of the host. The analysis of the time of the most common ancestor demonstrated the exponential growth of this virus in late 1970s that lasted until 1995, after which it remained constant. It was also observed a probable founder effect in two cities, which demonstrate the need to focus on prevention methods against HBV/HDV infection. We confirmed the prevalence of HDV-3 in the Amazon region of Brazil, without inter-genotypic recombination. The analysis of the time of the most common ancestor showed that this infection remain constant in the studied area. Taking into account the probable founder effect established in the cities of Rio Branco and Porto Velho, a focus on preventive methods is recommended against these infections.

  1. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  2. Access to postpartum sterilization in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, B; Higgins, J E; Clopton, D C; Nakamura, M S; Brown, M L

    1982-05-01

    All women hospitalized for delivery over a ten-week period at the largest maternity hospital in Campinas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were questioned about their interest in and plans for sterilization. Results from a categorical data analysis indicate that among the study variables, cesarean delivery was the necessary condition for postpartum sterilization and was significantly associated with the patient's ability to pay for services. Further, the variability in the proportion of women sterilized postpartum was almost perfectly explained by a linear model with main effects for parity and for the patient's ability to pay for services.

  3. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas.

  4. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  5. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  6. [Reproductive rights and racism in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Roland, E

    1995-01-01

    Sterilization in Brazil is discussed in a racial context and contrasted with the experience of the United States, demonstrating the historical differences between these two societies regarding race relations and reproductive rights. The American feminist Angela Davis referred to the control of fertility as genocide, especially as practiced in the first half of the 20th century. In 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt characterized the drop of White fertility caused by rapid urbanization as racial suicide. In 1932 the development of the eugenic movement resulted in inducing 26 states to adopt compulsory sterilization laws for persons considered unfit for reproduction. Margaret Sanger, the protagonist of fertility control, advocated a program of compulsory sterilization for imbeciles, illiterates, criminals, epileptics, the mentally retarded, prostitutes, and drug traffickers. 7686 sterilizations were performed in North Carolina, of which about 5000 were performed on Blacks to prevent the reproduction of mentally retarded persons. It was only in 1974 that guidelines were drawn up to prevent sterilization abuses. Under federal programs 100,000-200,000 persons were sterilized in 1972, and 35% of Puerto Rican women of reproductive age underwent sterilization. In Brazil 44% of the population of 147 million is Black. In 1940 the White population was the majority, but by 1980 a steady increase of the mulatto population had occurred. From 1965 on the White population began to decrease both because of oral contraceptive use and intermarriage. The fertility rate of the mulatto population was 4.1% in 1980 and 2.3% in 1990, less than the 2.4% rate of whites. The total fertility rate (TFR) in Brazil was 3.5 children per woman in 1986, which dropped to 2.5 in 1991. In the northeast, where the majority of the population is Black, the TFR was 3.7 in 1991 vs. 7.5 in 1970. Although in Brazil racial intolerance is not acceptable, there is still inequality of opportunity for Blacks. In

  7. [Medicine in Brazil today: education and practice].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, E L

    1990-01-01

    Present situation of medical education and medical practice in Brazil is analyzed, and the scientific-technological impact in medical practice is studied, in both diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. The influence of scientific methods in medical education, specifically the Flexner's contribution, is evaluated. In the recent years, Flexner's propositions have been put in question, particularly because of important contributions of psychology, anthropology and sociology to a better knowledge of human nature. Therefore many curricular alternatives have been proposed, aiming at a medical education that would favor the formation of well poised personality and a critical intelligence.

  8. Production and marketing of drugs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castelo, A; Colombo, A L; Holbrook, A M

    1991-01-01

    Brazil is typical of many developing countries in its struggle to provide basic healthcare for its citizens in face of national economic instability. Since pharmaceuticals represent a major component of modern healthcare, their production, regulation and use become an area of concern. It appears that any change in the current production patterns will require a major commitment from governments, understanding external economic pressures. There are pros and cons in a policy directed towards pharmaceutical self-sufficiency. Aside from production, efforts directed towards extending access to essential drugs and improving the appropriateness of use, would appear to be warranted.

  9. Molecular characterization of bromeliads from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S D; Rabbani, A R C; Santos, F; Silva-Mann, R; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Prata, A P N; Resende, L V; Pasqual, M; Blank, A F

    2014-11-27

    Bromeliaceae is an important botany family that includes many species with economic value; demand for members of this family is increasing. However, illegal collection frequently occurs, drastically reducing the species populations; thus, it is necessary to collect and store Bromeliaceae genetic material. In this study, we identified and quantified genetic variability of the Bromeliad family using dominant markers to create the first Germplasm Bank in the northeast region of Brazil. Molecular tools were used to characterize the collected accessions. The combination of 11 inter-simple sequence repeats and 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to detect the genetic variability of wild bromeliad accessions.

  10. Dermatological diseases of compulsory notification in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Domingues, Carla M A S; Siqueira Jr, João Bosco; Elkhoury, Ana Nilce S M; Cechinel, Michella P; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Gomes, Marcia de Leite S; Sena, Joana M; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lima Júnior, Francisco Edilson F; Segatto, Teresa Cristina Vieira; Melo, Flavia Cardoso de; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Silva, Marcia Mesquita; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2011-01-01

    The development of a Brazilian National Surveillance System in 1975 led to a compulsory reporting of selected infectious diseases aiming to reduce the burden of these events in the country. However, shifts in the epidemiology of these diseases associated with modern life style, demand constant revision of surveillance activities. In this manuscript we present the epidemiology, trends and differential diagnosis of the following compulsory notifiable diseases in Brazil: Aids, dengue fever, hanseniasis, American tegumentary leishmaniasis, measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome and syphilis. Additionally, the current challenges for control and prevention of each disease are presented.

  11. Biocatalysis and biotransformation in Brazil: An overview.

    PubMed

    Birolli, Willian G; Ferreira, Irlon M; Alvarenga, Natália; Santos, Darlisson de A; de Matos, Iara L; Comasseto, João V; Porto, André L M

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the recent research in biocatalysis and biotransformation in Brazil. Several substrates were biotransformed by fungi, bacteria and plants. Biocatalytic deracemization of secondary alcohols, oxidation of sulfides, sp(3) CH hydroxylation and epoxidation of alkenes were described. Chemo-enzymatic resolution of racemic alcohols and amines were carried out with lipases using several substrates containing heteroatoms such as silicon, boron, selenium and tellurium. Biotransformation of nitriles by marine fungi, hydrolysis of epoxides by microorganisms of Brazilian origin and biooxidation of natural products were described. Enzymatic reactions under microwave irradiation, continuous flow, and enzymatic assays using fluorescent probes were reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Catholic populism and education in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Vanilda

    1995-05-01

    Education in Brazil has been profoundly affected by populism, a movement which extols the virtue of the oppressed classes and opposes the traditional teacherstudent relationship. This movement has antecedents in nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Herzen and Bakunin. The author shows how populist ideas, often merging with Marxism, were adopted by many Brazilian Catholics from the 1950s onwards, under the influence of Vieira Pinto, Paulo Freire and others. In the realm of education this often led to an extreme form of anti-authoritarianism. While not denying certain positive aspects of this movement, the author argues that its position is fundamentally self-contradictory.

  13. Cutaneous pythiosis in horses from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meireles, M C; Riet-Correa, F; Fischman, O; Zambrano, A F; Zambrano, M S; Ribeiro, G A

    1993-01-01

    Equine pythiosis was studied in five animals from two farms located in a swampy region of southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Granulomatous lesions exuding necrotic material and containing a central yellow and firm tissue core, the 'kunker', were observed on the top of the nose of one horse, on the abdomen of two horses and on the hind limbs of two other animals. Direct microscopic preparations, histopathological examination of lesion material, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the isolates confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis. Surgical intervention of the inflammatory processes, intravenous potassium iodide and topical application of copper sulphate were used without success.

  14. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  15. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  16. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes da Silva, Aracy

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Brazil was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Brazil's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  17. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g-1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g-1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g-1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g-1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however, in the

  18. Brazil and the United States. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series No. 279.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.

    One of a series, this booklet on world issues explains why Brazil has become important for the United States. Brazil's rise from a sleeping giant to continental leader is investigated. Brazil's impressive economic growth from the mid-1960s through the 1970s is explored. An analysis of Brazil's economic crisis of the 1980s is also explained.…

  19. 76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The... stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

  20. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  1. Eimeria species in dairy goats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2012-02-10

    The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil.

  2. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Claro, Rafael M; Levy, Renata B; Popkin, Barry M; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) would improve the diets of households in Brazil. We used household food consumption data that the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics collected in 2002-2003 from a nationally representative sample of 48,470 Brazilian households. The consumption of SSBs is expressed as the total SSB calories consumed and as the SSB percentage of the total calories purchased. We investigated price elasticity with regression models, controlling for demographic variables, income, and prices of all other foods and drinks. Increases in the price of SSBs led to reductions in consumption. A 1.00% increase in the price of SSBs led to a 0.85% reduction of SSB calories consumed (1.03% reduction for the poor and 0.63% for the nonpoor). Increased income had a positive effect on SSB consumption, but the effect was less than half the size of the price elasticity (0.41% increase in SSB calories consumed for every 1.00% increase in income). High SSB price elasticity in Brazil indicates that a tax on purchased weight or volume would lead to reductions in SSB consumption.

  3. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  4. Bullying during adolescence in Brazil: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Machado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: gender differences, factors associated with bullying, consequences, and possible intervention and prevention approaches. The guiding question of this study was: what have Brazilian researchers produced regarding bullying among adolescents? The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying. The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a lack of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention and restorative practices that involve the community and can be applied to everyday life at school.

  5. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-01

    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  6. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  7. [Retrospect of tuberculosis control in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hijjar, Miguel Aiub; Gerhardt, Germano; Teixeira, Gilmário M; Procópio, Maria José

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis), promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920), the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National Service of Tuberculosis - 1940), and the Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (National Campaign Against Tuberculosis - 1946), coordinated national policies such as chemotherapy, beginning with the discovery of streptomycin in 1944. The emergence of bacterial resistance led to the development of several therapeutic schemes. The Scheme 1 (rifampycin, hydrazide and pyrazinamid), which was the main one in 1979 and is still used nowadays, had a great epidemiological effect. The WHO declared TB a public health emergency in 1993. In response, Brazil developed some strategies; the first one was the Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (Emergency Plan for Tuberculosis Control - 1994), prioritizing 230 municipalities. The current prospects are an effective municipalization of actions and their greater integration with the Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família (Humanitarian Agents and Family Health Programs).

  8. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  9. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  10. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences.

  11. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  12. Multidecadal Variability of the North Brazil Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; McPhaden, M.

    2009-04-01

    The North Brazil Current (NBC) flowing northward in the tropical south Atlantic is one of the strongest western boundary currents in the world ocean. It's unique location, straddling the tropical Atlantic where currents are predominately zonal, suggests that it is a major component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Fritz Schott was one of the first to suggest using the NBC as an index for AMOC transport, which is difficult to simulate accurately in models and data assimilation systems due to a lack of observational constraints. Here, we calculate an NBC transport time series based on five decades of historical ocean observations near the western boundary off the coast of Brazil between 6° and 11°S. Results reveal a large magnitude NBC variation on multidecadal time scales that is coherent with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in sea surface temperature, multidecadal swings in Sahel Drought and Atlantic hurricane activity, as well as the subtropical and subpolar upper ocean salinity anomalies. All of these multidecadal variations have been linked to the AMOC in a number of modelling studies, suggesting that our observed multidecadal NBC variability is an useful indicator of the AMOC. Concerning the possible slowdown of AMOC under global warming and the debate about whether a slowdown has already occurred, our NBC transport time series shows no significant trend over the last half century. The results provide important constraints on climate models used for climate change projections and decadal time scale climate predictions.

  13. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  14. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; de Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. METHODS Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. RESULTS A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67–2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25–4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. CONCLUSIONS The inequalities among the country’s regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. PMID:28380209

  15. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  16. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  17. Decentralising the health sector: issues in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collins, C; Araujo, J; Barbosa, J

    2000-06-01

    The health sector in Brazil has undergone important changes, particularly with the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). Decentralisation is an important principle of SUS and advances have been made in transferring responsibilities and resources to the local government units, known as municipios. This article describes the changes introduced, focusing on the system of municipio classification and the funding mechanisms introduced through the basic operating rule (BOR) of 1996. The paper then moves on to analysing three key issues of decentralisation in Brazil that are related to the policy process, the system of decentralisation and the output of decentralisation. Firstly, the formal process by which decisions on health sector reform are made is discussed with particular attention being paid to the negotiated and relatively open policy space. Secondly, the role of the states is discussed within the decentralised system. Thirdly, the impact of decentralisation on equity is discussed with particular reference to the resourcing of the Municipal Health Funds. The article concludes by emphasising the political nature of health sector decentralisation and the need to develop the conditions for effectiveness in decentralisation programmes.

  18. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J; Badaró Trindade, Angela C; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2007-07-01

    To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO's (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors' offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  19. Cryptococcosis outbreak in psittacine birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raso, T F; Werther, K; Miranda, E T; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cryptococcosis occurred in a breeding aviary in São Paulo, Brazil. Seven psittacine birds (of species Charmosyna papou, Lorius lory, Trichoglossus goldiei, Psittacula krameri and Psittacus erithacus) died of disseminated cryptococcosis. Incoordination, progressive paralysis and difficulty in flying were seen in five birds, whereas superficial lesions coincident with respiratory alterations were seen in two birds. Encapsulated yeasts suggestive of Cryptococcus sp. were seen in faecal smears stained with India ink in two cases. Histological examination of the birds showed cryptococcal cells in various tissues, including the beak, choana, sinus, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and central nervous system. High titres of cryptococcal antigen were observed in the serum of an affected bird. In this case, titres increased during treatment and the bird eventually died. Yeasts were isolated from the nasal mass, faeces and liver of one bird. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serovar B was identified based on biochemical, physiological and serological tests. These strains were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration 64 microg/ml) to fluconazole. This is the first report of C. neoformans var. gattii occurring in psittacine birds in Brazil.

  20. Misuse of organomercury fungicides in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, W. F.; Pregnolatto, W.; Pigati, P.

    1976-01-01

    A methoxyethyl mercuric compound, licensed in Brazil as a fungicide for seed dressing, was widely used for spraying tomato and other vegetable crops in 1966 and 1967. Mercury residues ranging from 0.05 to 0.30 mg/kg were detected in 14% of the tomatoes, 13% of other vegetable samples, and 57% of the tomato paste batches. A wide campaign through newspapers, radio, and television was quickly established to educate farmers and the population in general on the hazards of ingestion of mercury-contaminated food. All samples of tomatoes and other vegetables positive for mercury (residues above 0.05 mg/kg) were destroyed. Inspection posts on the main roads and highways prevented the delivery of contaminated food to cities and food processing plants. The sale of organomercury fungicides is now controlled in Brazil; however, treated seeds which are not planted may be diverted to human or animal consumption. There is no official record of accidents, but occasional cases of poisoning are known. The mercury residue level in Brazilian fish is low, indicating that environmental pollution by mercury is not a big problem in the country. However, some fresh-water and estuarine fish may contain mercury residues ranging from 0.01 to 0.66 mg/kg. PMID:1086162

  1. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Renata B.; Popkin, Barry M.; Monteiro, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) would improve the diets of households in Brazil. Methods. We used household food consumption data that the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics collected in 2002–2003 from a nationally representative sample of 48 470 Brazilian households. The consumption of SSBs is expressed as the total SSB calories consumed and as the SSB percentage of the total calories purchased. We investigated price elasticity with regression models, controlling for demographic variables, income, and prices of all other foods and drinks. Results. Increases in the price of SSBs led to reductions in consumption. A 1.00% increase in the price of SSBs led to a 0.85% reduction of SSB calories consumed (1.03% reduction for the poor and 0.63% for the nonpoor). Increased income had a positive effect on SSB consumption, but the effect was less than half the size of the price elasticity (0.41% increase in SSB calories consumed for every 1.00% increase in income). Conclusions. High SSB price elasticity in Brazil indicates that a tax on purchased weight or volume would lead to reductions in SSB consumption. PMID:22095333

  2. Implementation of thermographers' certification in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Laerte; Alves, Luiz M.; da Costa Bortoni, Edson

    2011-05-01

    In recent years Brazil has experienced extraordinary growth despite the recent economic global crisis. The demand for infrared thermography products and services has accompanied this growth. Like other non-destructive testing and inspection, the results obtained by thermography are highly dependent on the skills of thermographer. Therefore, it is very important to establish a serious and recognized process of certification to assess thermographers' qualifications and help services suppliers to establish credibility with their customers and increase the confidence of these costumers on the quality of these services. The Brazilian Society of Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, ABENDI, a non-profitable, private technical-scientific entity, recognized nationally and internationally, has observed the necessity of starting a process for certification of thermographers in Brazil. With support of a work group composed by experts from oil and energy industries, transportation, universities and manufactures, the activities started in 2005. This paper describes the economic background required for installation of the certification process, its initial steps, the main characteristics of the Brazilian certification and the expectation for initiating the certification process.

  3. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S M; Rogers, R; Rubem, A C; Da Gama, B A P; Muricy, G; Pereira, R C

    2013-08-01

    Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009), Tethya maza (p = 0.0039), Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277), and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003). These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  4. Ichthyofauna Used in Traditional Medicine in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; Collier, Carolina Alves; de Almeida Neto, Miguel Santana; Silva, Karina Maria de Souza; Policarpo, Iamara da Silva; Araújo, Thiago Antonio S.; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Fish represent the group of vertebrates with the largest number of species and the largest geographic distribution; they are also used in different ways by modern civilizations. The goal of this study was to compile the current knowledge on the use of ichthyofauna in zootherapeutic practices in Brazil, including ecological and conservational commentary on the species recorded. We recorded a total of 85 species (44 fresh-water species and 41 salt-water species) used for medicinal purposes in Brazil. The three most commonly cited species were Hoplias malabaricus, Hippocampus reidi, and Electrophorus electricus. In terms of conservation status, 65% of species are in the “not evaluated” category, and 14% are in the “insufficient data” category. Three species are in the “vulnerable” category: Atlantoraja cyclophora, Balistes vetula, and Hippocampus erectus. Currently, we cannot avoid considering human pressure on the population dynamics of these species, which is an essential variable for the conservation of the species and the ecosystems in which they live and for the perpetuation of traditional medical practices. PMID:22454668

  5. Phenology and global warming research in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellato, L. P. C.

    2009-04-01

    A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global warming within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by

  6. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. Design: A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Methods: Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. Results: A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. Conclusions: These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions. PMID:12198271

  7. Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zatz, Roberto; Romão, J E; Noronha, I L

    2003-02-01

    Latin America constitutes a complex universe that shows extreme variation regarding socioeconomic and human development. Brazil is the largest and most populous Latin American country, and combines characteristics encountered in developed countries with problems typically associated with the poorest regions of the world. These disparities condition the profile of renal disease in Brazil, with glomerulonephritis still the leading cause of ESRD. Little is known about the epidemiology of renal disease in the Brazilian (or Latin American) native population, which is numerous in some Central and South American countries, but constitute a very small minority in Brazil. However, interesting information has been obtained from the Yanomamis, a tribe living in Northern Brazil and Southern Venezuela. Hypertension is virtually absent among these people, who ingest very little sodium, lending strong support to the concept that sodium retention, a "civilization" factor, plays a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Despite Brazil's striking socioeconomic disparities, access to RRT is in principle accessible to all those in need of it. The dialysis units have been modernized in recent years, whereas the Government covers most expenses related to RRT. However, the prevalence of RRT in Brazil is currently approximately 320 per million population, less than one third as high as in the US, suggesting that ESRD may be underdiagnosed in the country. Much effort is still needed to limit the prevalence of renal disease and to improve the quality and the reach of RRT in Brazil and in Latin America.

  8. Processing of Rigidized Rei-mullite Insulative Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebhardt, J. J.; Gorsuch, P. D.; Braun, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Systematic development and evaluation of ceramic fiber Mullite are summarized: (1) Major reductions in thermal protection system weight have been achieved by reducing the density and thermal conductivity of the insulation by 20 and 25 percent; (2) already adequate structural margins-of-safety have been greatly enhanced by increasing the tensile strength and strain-to-failure capabilities of the insulation by factors of 3 and 2; (3) cost effectiveness has been increased through the achievement of a high degree of uniformity and reproducibility of properties and through process simplification and binder modifications; and (4) maximization of multimission capability at surface temperatures of 1644 K has been achieved through firing cycle adjustments and the development of a material with high dimensional stability.

  9. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil: the search for respiratory symptomatic patients in emergency service of "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano, Fundação Educacional Serra dos Orgãos".

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Bisaglia, Joana B; Borlot, Paulo Estevão W; D'avila Junior, Heraldo X; Faria, Carolina Gonçalves P P de; Braga, Bernardo D; Bezerra, Tiago S; Cedrola, Juan Pedro V; Almeida, Guilherme C; Couto, Lílian S; Nacif, Marcelo; Crivano, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the detection percentage of tuberculosis among patients that are respiratory symptomatic (TB suspects). In this work, we present the preliminary results of research carried out at "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano da Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgãos (FESO)" from November 2003 to April 2004. Among the 40 respiratory symptomatic individuals identified and referred to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Teresópolis , two (5.0%) were characterized as smear-positive. These results confirm reports in the literature and underscore the need for and importance of this strategy.

  10. A Checklist of the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colpani, Daniara; Benetti, Cesar João; Hamada, Neusa

    2014-12-01

    A checklist of all known species of the water beetle family Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles) recorded from Brazil is assembled. This checklist is based on literature published prior to 2012. A total of 206 species and subspecies are cited for Brazil, distributed among three genera (Enhydrus Laporte, 1834, Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762 and Gyretes Brullé, 1835). For each species we also include a complete account of its nomenclature including synonyms and historical combinations. The geographical distribution of each species both inside and outside of Brazil is provided.

  11. Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A.

    1995-10-02

    Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

  12. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Lino; Faria da Silva, Gláucia; Mutarelli Setúbal, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará”) in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture. PMID:27417350

  13. Asian genotypes of dengue virus 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, A C O; Sardi, S I; Paula, F L; Peixoto, I B; Brandão, C J; Fernandez, F M C; Campos, G S

    2015-10-01

    Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil.

  14. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  15. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Lino; da Silva, Gláucia Faria; Setúbal, Sandra Mutarelli

    2015-01-29

    The role of play in Brazilian children's hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children's Hospital ("Hospital Infantil Sabará") in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children's care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  16. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    PubMed

    Blum-Menezes, Dulcinéa; Deliberalli, Ivânia; Bittencourt, Najara Carneiro; Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares do; Barbosa, Liana Nunes; Santos, Alessandro Marques dos; Pinto, Gabriel Godinho

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA), Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  17. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, Seasonal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01733

  18. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with < 30 MW installed capacity number in the hundreds. Amazonian dams have substantial environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Loss of forest to flooding is one, the Balbina and Tucuruí Dams being examples (each 3000 km2). If the Babaquara/Altamira Dam is built it will flood as much forest as both of these combined. Some planned dams imply loss of forest in protected areas, for example on the Tapajós River. Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are lost, including unique biodiversity. Endemic fish species in rapids on the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are examples. Fish migrations are blocked, such as the commercially important "giant catfish" of the Madeira River. Dams emit greenhouse gases, including CO2 from the trees killed and CH4 from decay under anoxic conditions at the bottom of reservoirs. Emissions can exceed those from fossil-fuel generation, particularly over the 20-year period during which global emissions must be greatly reduced to meet 1.5-2°C limit agreed in Paris. Carbon credit for dams under the Climate Convention causes further net emission because the dams are not truly "additional." Anoxic environments in stratified reservoirs cause methylation of mercury present in Amazonian soils, which concentrates in fish, posing a health risk to human consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country

  19. 75 FR 62566 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... Brazil, the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel from Brazil and Japan, and the suspended... steel from Brazil, the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel from Brazil and Japan, and/ or the...

  20. The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; Silva, Lígia Guedes da; Pinto, Tatiana de Castro Abreu; Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes de; Fernandes, Flávio Gimenis; Costa, Natalia Silva da; Mattos, Marcos Corrêa de; Fracalanzza, Sergio Eduardo Longo; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2011-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.