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Sample records for reis rj brazil

  1. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ..., the most recent being that of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50,661 (Aug. 16, 2011)), has continued the... Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and...

  2. [Daily eating habits of obese women living in Rocinha Shanytown (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Magalhães, Rosana

    2011-06-01

    This article presents conclusions of research conducted at Ensp/Fiocruz, as part of a master's degree course. One of the objectives of the research to investigate the eating habits of women living in the Rocinha Shantytown (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) from a socio-anthropological perspective. The results revealed that the eating habits of the group were repetitive, with few variations in the menu consisting basically of rice, bean, sugars and fats. We further observed the rejection of industrialized and canned products. This food consumption pattern seems to conform to Brazilian food culture revealing the preservation of the national identity based on feeding habits. Consequently, it is necessary to set aside presuppositions regarding the relationship between food consumption and obesity, especially with respect to the predominant idea of changes in diet with the incorporation of a "modern" or "western" diet that prevail in studies in the field of nutrition in Brazil. In this sense, we signaled the need to reassert a multidimensional approach for studies about food and nutrition in the country. This proposal involves overcoming restricted conceptual outlooks and the creation of new avenues of investigation.

  3. Reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the Ubatiba river, Maricá, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, R; Mendonça, R S; Caramaschi, E P

    2005-11-01

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of Astyanax janeiroensis in the Ubatiba river in Maricá, RJ, Brazil were evaluated in order to ascertain whether the strategy adopted by the species is causally related to environmental variables. Specimens were collected on a monthly basis from October 1994 to September 1995, through electrofishing. The Sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected frequency of 1:1 (G = 1.29; p > 0.50); nonetheless, considering three standard length classes, significantly larger numbers of females were recorded for the higher SL class (G = 11.07; p < 0.01). Size at first maturation showed no significant differences between sexes. Length-weight ratio analyses showed negative allometry for males and isometry, for females. Length structure was significantly different between sexes, suggesting that females are larger than males (D = 0.027, p < 0.01). Reproductive specimens were recorded during nine months of the annual cycle. Seasonal variations of reproductive specimens belonging to two different standard length classes displayed an asynchronous behavior, with larger specimens having a longer reproductive period and smaller ones reproducing for fewer months during the annual cycle. High values of fecundity (F), varying from 3169 to 18714 oocytes, were recorded for fish of 9.1 and 10.2 cm lengths, respectively. The correlation between weight and number of oocytes/unit of weight was positive, indicating that larger specimens produced more eggs.

  4. Spatial-temporal analysis of marine debris on beaches of Niterói, RJ, Brazil: Itaipu and Itacoatiara.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Melanie Lopes; de Araújo, Fábio Vieira; Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Sales, Alessandro Souza

    2015-03-15

    In many areas of the world, studies of marine debris are conducted with an emphasis on analyzing their composition, quantification and distribution on sandy beaches. However, in Brazil, studies are still restricted to some areas of the coast, and the quantities and the spatial and temporal patterns are unknown. To enhance the marine debris information in these areas, we selected the Itaipu and Itacoatiara beaches in Niterói, RJ, to collect, quantify and qualify the solid residues present in their sands. We collected 12 samples and recorded 118.39 kg of residues in Itaipu and 62.94 kg in Itacoatiara. At both beaches, the largest portion of debris was located on the upper part of the beach. Several debris items were related to food and drink consumption on the beaches, which indicated the contribution of beach users to pollution. Most of the debris was plastic. The greatest amount of debris was found at Itaipu in January and February and at Itacoatiara in January and March, months related to both the holiday season and abundant rainfall. The results demonstrated the necessity to implement an Environmental Education project for these areas to reduce its degradation.

  5. [Eating practices during pregnancy: a study of low-income pregnant and postpartum women in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the self-reported eating practices of pregnant and postpartum women living in a group of slum communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. The interpretative methodology used a semi-structured interview and thematic content analysis. The sample (n=26) consisted of 18 pregnant and 8 postpartum women, of whom 7 were adolescents and 19 adults, including both primiparous and multiparous subjects. According to these women, eating while watching television, eating out, and eating with relatives and friends on weekends were forms of associating leisure-time activities with food, thus increasing their pleasure in eating. Income was identified as the principal obstacle to consuming healthier foods, which were reserved for their children as a priority. Thus, milk, vegetables, greens, and fruit were rarely consumed. Their diet consisted mainly of rice, beans and chicken. There was a clear preference for "junk food". The women were limited to a monotonous diet. It is important to understand and value socio-cultural and economic issues that influence eating practices in order for food and nutritional orientation aimed at healthy eating to be negotiated and adjusted to pregnant women's objective and subjective needs.

  6. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in juvenile offenders in the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Renata Candido; Assumpção, Francisco; Teixeira, Ivan Abdalla; Fonseca, Vilma Aparecida da Silva

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence of juvenile offenders in Brazil, mainly among young females, is on the increase. The literature on this issue indicates an increased incidence of mental disorders among young offenders in several countries, though studies in Brazil are lacking. The aim of this article is to study the prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents from a socio-educational standpoint, taking as a hypothesis the gender difference and the type of offense committed. The instrument used was the K-SADS-PL. As results, we found a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among juvenile offenders, the most common being: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (33.3%); behavioral disorder (77%); oppositional defiant disorder (50%), anxiety disorders (70%), depressive disorder (50%), illicit drug abuse/dependence (70%), and alcohol abuse/dependence (52%). Alcohol abuse/dependence caused a 2.4-fold increase in the probability of adolescents committing a violent offence. Public health authorities should concentrate on early diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in childhood to reduce future violations. It is also suggested that mental health treatment of detained juveniles should be a fundamental part of the recuperation and reintegration of young offenders into society. PMID:21584459

  7. Use of elephant grass for energy production in Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daher, R F; Souza, L B; Gravina, G A; Machado, J C; Ramos, H C C; Silva, V Q R; Menezes, B R S; Schneider, L S A; Oliveira, M L F; Gottardo, R D

    2014-01-01

    Elephant grass is a tropical forage plant widely distributed throughout Brazil. It was first exclusively used in the livestock sector as cattle feed. The grass is characterized by its high productivity and photosynthetic capacity and is considered as an alternative source of renewable energy. Here, we estimated the general combining ability of the parents and specific combining ability of the hybrids based on morpho-agronomic biomass-quality traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replicates. The diallel was composed of 16 hybrids and 2 groups of genitors. In the diallel analysis of variance, we observed a significant difference among treatments. A significant difference was observed among genitors for dry matter production (DMP). For the general combining ability of group 1, the traits leaf blade width, DMP, height, percentage of neutral detergent fiber, percentage of hemicellulose, percentage of lignin, percentage of acid detergent fiber, and percentage of cellulose were significant. For the estimates of general combining ability of DMP, parents Porto Rico 534-B, Vruckwona, Taiwan A-146, and Mercker S. E. A. were 0.4748, 3.2819, 1.1659, and 0.4317. The parents of Mercker S. E. A. and Porto Rico 534-B produced the highest percentage of detergent fiber and percentage of lignin with values of 0.1482 and 0.0856. Thus, parents Vruckwona, Porto Rico 534-B, and Taiwan A-146 are promising for integration into breeding programs. The best hybrid combinations for DMP were 1 x 5, 1 x 8, 2 x 6, 3 x 7, and 4 x 5. PMID:25526210

  8. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of land snails in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, G K M; Santos, S B

    2012-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of terrestrial molluscs are affected by environmental factors, but data are lacking for Brazilian land snails. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between measured environmental factors and the land-snail species composition of two hillsides covered with Atlantic Rain Forest on Ilha Grande. On each hillside, five plots located at 100 m intervals between 100 to 500 m asl were chosen. Each plot was sampled by carrying out timed searches and collecting and sorting litter samples from ten quadrats of 25 × 75 cm. A range of environmental data was measured for each of the quadrats in a plot. A Cluster Analysis was carried out for the richness and abundance data. The environmental variables were analysed using a Pearson Correlation Matrix and Discriminant Analysis. Our results show that the two mountains are similar in species richness, but species composition and abundance are different, probably reflecting observed differences in environmental conditions. The environmental factors associated with compositional variation between the two mountains were: atmospheric temperature, soil temperature, litter depth, and relative air humidity. Distinct luminosity and canopy closure conditions were related to the composition of the land-snail community of one hillside. PMID:22437388

  9. Hydrogeochemistry Of A Modern Dolomite-Forming Lagoon System, Cabo Frio-RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, N. F.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Two hypersaline, dolomite-forming lagoons near Cabo Frio, Brazil, and associated ground- and surface waters were sampled in a comparative sediment and fluid geochemical (solutes, stable isotopes) investigation. Although microbial mediation via sulfate reducers has been invoked to explain dolomite formation in these lagoons, we showed that dolomites are associated with sulfide oxidation (Moreira et al., 2004). Sulfide oxidation is thought to promote dolomite formation by causing undersaturation for competing carbonate phases such as Mg-calcite. Herein, we consider the larger hydrogeologic and temporal setting to further elucidate hydrogeochemical and geochemical constraints on rates and mechanisms of dolomite formation in the two lagoons. The lagoons, Brejo do Espinho (BE) and Lagoa Vermelha (LV), are shallow marginal marine systems flanked by quartz sand dunes separating them from Atlantic open seawater to the south and from Araruama lagoon, a large, hypersaline water body, to the north. In both lagoons, about 1 m of high Mg-calcite and dolomite mud has accumulated over the last 5,000 years on an underlying aquifer composed of highly permeable, quartz-rich coquinas. BE has a proximal relation to recharge from Araruama lagoon, while LV is more closely associated with meteoric recharge from lacustrine and riverine systems. BE is shallower, at 0.5 m water depth, than LV (2 m), permitting BE waters to remain oxic. Oxygen isotope values and chloride mass balances of pore waters and of fluids sampled from shallow ground water wells identify the different water and solute sources the lagoons. BE overlying brines and pore waters appear to be produced by evapoconcentration of Araruama source brines and meteoric precipitation. In contrast, LV derives from evapoconcentrated seawater mixed with regional lake and ground water sources. We envision a scenario in which dense, Mg-SO4-rich brines from Araruama migrate along a permeable flowpath in limited contact with the atmosphere

  10. Evaluation of microplastics in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, Brazil, an area of mussels farming.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Silva, Melanie L; Marques, Mônica Regina C; de Araújo, Fábio V

    2016-09-15

    Once non-biodegradable, microplastics remain on the environment absorbing toxic hydrophobic compounds making them a risk to biodiversity when ingested or filtered by organisms and entering in the food chain. To evaluate the potential of the contamination by microplastics in mussels cultivated in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, waters of three stations were collected during a rain and dry seasons using a plankton net and later filtered. Microplastics were quantified and characterized morphologically and chemically. The results showed a high concentration of microplastics in both seasons with diversity of colors, types and sizes. Synthetic polymers were present in all samples. The presence of microplastics was probably due to a high and constant load of effluent that this area receives and to the mussel farming activity that use many plastic materials. Areas with high concentrations of microplastics could not be used for mussel cultivation due to the risk of contamination to consumers. PMID:27267118

  11. Evaluation of microplastics in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, Brazil, an area of mussels farming.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Silva, Melanie L; Marques, Mônica Regina C; de Araújo, Fábio V

    2016-09-15

    Once non-biodegradable, microplastics remain on the environment absorbing toxic hydrophobic compounds making them a risk to biodiversity when ingested or filtered by organisms and entering in the food chain. To evaluate the potential of the contamination by microplastics in mussels cultivated in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, waters of three stations were collected during a rain and dry seasons using a plankton net and later filtered. Microplastics were quantified and characterized morphologically and chemically. The results showed a high concentration of microplastics in both seasons with diversity of colors, types and sizes. Synthetic polymers were present in all samples. The presence of microplastics was probably due to a high and constant load of effluent that this area receives and to the mussel farming activity that use many plastic materials. Areas with high concentrations of microplastics could not be used for mussel cultivation due to the risk of contamination to consumers.

  12. Governance mechanisms and the institutional design of the Health Secretariat in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Alcoforado, Flávio

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we outline the discussions about the mechanisms of governance and public administration taking into account the main political and economic schools of thought which affect the decisions taken by elected and public bodies. We discuss the pendulum-style approach of the reforms and the degree of minimization of the Weberian thesis on rational bureaucracy. Taking into account conceptual aspects and the trajectory of the debate on a new form of public governance and the 1995 State of Brazil reforms, we analyzed the institutional design of the Municipal Health Secretariat in Rio de Janeiro after the reforms were adopted, based on a social organizational model. We also took into account regulatory capacity and the sustainability of the governmental schools.

  13. Governance mechanisms and the institutional design of the Health Secretariat in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Alcoforado, Flávio

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we outline the discussions about the mechanisms of governance and public administration taking into account the main political and economic schools of thought which affect the decisions taken by elected and public bodies. We discuss the pendulum-style approach of the reforms and the degree of minimization of the Weberian thesis on rational bureaucracy. Taking into account conceptual aspects and the trajectory of the debate on a new form of public governance and the 1995 State of Brazil reforms, we analyzed the institutional design of the Municipal Health Secretariat in Rio de Janeiro after the reforms were adopted, based on a social organizational model. We also took into account regulatory capacity and the sustainability of the governmental schools. PMID:27166885

  14. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  15. Aspects of the ecology of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence, municipality of Angra dos Reis, coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Gustavo Marins de; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; Medeiros, Wagner Muniz de; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  16. [FIBRA-RJ Network: frailty and risk of hospitalization in the elderly in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perez, Mariangela; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk profile and factors associated with frailty in elderly community residents. The population consisted of individuals 65 years or older living in the northern districts of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and who held private health insurance policies. The cross-sectional study was done at baseline in a cohort with a sample (N = 764) stratified by gender and age. Risk stratification used probability of repeated admissions (PRA) as the screening instrument. Following bivariate analyses, logistic regression analyses were performed to study associations between probability of repeated admissions and socio-demographic, health-status, functional, and cognitive variables. Of the total sample, 6.7% were classified as high risk. Cancer, falls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of medication, receiving a visit from a health professional, being bedridden at home, living alone, and level of activities of daily living were statistically associated with risk of hospitalization. The instrument appeared to be useful for stratifying risk in the elderly.

  17. Simultaneous evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere of Niterói City, RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Caroline Fernandes Jaegger; de Mendonça Ochs, Soraya; de Oliveira Grotz, Lucas; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (total suspended particulate - TSP - and inhalable particles - PM10) and gas-phase samples were collected in three periods of seven to nine consecutive days in June and December 2011, and May 2012, in the central area of Niterói City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. TSP (48.8-214 μg m-3) showed higher concentrations than PM10 (nd - 82.6 μg m-3). Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and thirty-one carbonyl compounds (CC) were evaluated. Concentrations of individual PAH ranged from

  18. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling.

  19. Piri Reis and the Columbus Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the origins and impact of the Piri Reis map, an early world map based on the voyages of Columbus and 20 other source maps. Maintains that evidence exists that Christopher Columbus may have drawn part of the map. Includes lengthy quotes from the map's legend written by Reis. (CFR)

  20. Situation of the supplementary diet of children between 6 and 24 months attended in the Primary Care Network of Macaé, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Leticia Maia Forte; Capelli, Jane de Carlos Santana; Rocha, Camilla Medeiros Macedo da; Bouskela, Alice; do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; de Freitas, Silvia Eliza Almeida Pereira; Anastácio, Alexandra da Silva; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Larcher; Pontes, Juliana da Silva

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the supplementary nutritional situation of children aged 6-24 months attended by the Primary Care unit of Macaé/RJ. It was conducted as a cross-sectional study, and data was obtained from the SISVAN Web website, including and analyzing all of the records (n=218) of children between 6-24 months in the year 2013. In infants between 6-12 months, the consumption of 72.3% of vegetables, 75.3% of fruits, and 63.4% of meats was detected, considered indicators of healthy supplementary nutrition. In contrast, 23.8% were already consuming sugar-based food sources (honey, molasses, simple sugar, and unrefined cane sugar), 34.7% industrialized juice, and 17.8% soft drinks. The consumption of industrialized juice was significantly greater in boys (p-value <0.001). In children between 12-18 months, 77.6% consumed vegetables, 77.4% fruits, and 86.3% meats. The consumption of sugar-based foods was 31%, 58.6% for industrialized juices, and 50% for soft drinks. Between 18-24 months, it was recorded that 89.9% of children consumed vegetables, 83.1% fruits, and 96.7% meat. The consumption of sugar-based foods was 33.9%, 69.5% for industrialized juices, and 55.5% for soft drinks. We conclude that the indicators of healthy complementary nutrition come close to the target set by the Ministry of Health (80%). PMID:26960109

  1. Phytoplankton community of Reis Lake in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ise G; Moura, Ariadne N; Dantas, Enio W

    2013-01-01

    Reis Lake is located in the municipality of Caracaraí, state of Roraima (Brazil) and is subject to fluctuations in water level. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure of the phytoplankton community on the nictemeral and seasonal scales and determined the influence of limnological variables. Sampling was performed in the rainy season (June/2006) and dry season (November/2006), considering two nictemeral cycles. The phytoplankton community was assessed with regard to composition and density, abiotic variables were analyzed simultaneously. The lake had low concentrations of oxygen, clinograde profile and water stratified during the day and homogenous at night, with low concentrations of nutrients and waters ranging from slightly acidic to alkaline. The phytoplankton was represented by 43 taxa, 35 species in the dry season and 29 species in the rainy season. Low densities of phytoplankton occurred in both nictemeral cycles, with accentuated vertical gradient. The highest densities were recorded in the dry season. Reis Lake exhibits characteristics that classify it as a polymythic and oligotrophic environment. The variability in the data was more important seasonally than on the nictemeral scale, supporting the hypothesis of the influence of the hydrological cycle on the dynamics of phytoplankton communities in floodplain lakes.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with frailty in an older population from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the FIBRA-RJ Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Virgílio Garcia; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Frailty syndrome can be defined as a state of vulnerability to stressors resulting from a decrease in functional reserve across multiple systems and compromising an individual's capacity to maintain homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with social and demographic factors, functional capacity, cognitive status and self-reported comorbidities in a sample of community-dwelling older individuals who are clients of a healthcare plan. METHODS: We evaluated 847 individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in the northern area of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were selected by inverse random sampling and stratified by gender and age. To diagnose frailty, we used the scale proposed by the Cardiovascular Health Study, which consisted of the following items: low gait speed, grip strength reduction, feeling of exhaustion, low physical activity and weight loss. The data were collected between 2009 and 2010, and the frailty prevalence was calculated as the proportion of individuals who scored positive for three or more of the five items listed above. To verify the association between frailty and risk factors, we applied a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty syndrome was 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3-11.3); 43.6% (95% CI, 40.3-47) of the individuals were considered robust, and 47.3% (95% CI 43.8-50.8) were considered pre-frail (p<0.001). The frail individuals tended to be older (odds ratio [OR] 13.2, 95% CI, 8.7-20) and have lower education levels (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 1-4.6), lower cognitive performance (OR 0.76, 95% CI, 0.73-0.79) and reduced health perception (OR 65.8, 95% CI, 39.1-110.8). Frail individuals also had a greater number of comorbidities (OR 6.6, 95% CI, 4.4-9.9) and worse functional capacity (OR 3.8, 95% CI, 2.9-5). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty was similar to that seen in other international studies and was significantly

  3. Origin of pegmatites and fluids at Ponta Negra (RJ, Brazil) during late- to post-collisional stages of the Gondwana Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Renac, Christophe; Piza, Patricia d'Almeida de Toledo; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Mexias, André Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    The Ponta Negra Pegmatites (PNP), part of a pegmatitic province in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, crop out along an intensely deformed, medium- to high-grade metamorphic area that is proximal to a crustal-scale thrust zone developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogeny. Fieldwork shows that the pegmatites formed in two distinct stages: (i) syn-collisional leucosome veins (Group I) conformable with the tectonic foliation of the gneissic host rocks and (ii) late- to post-collisional dykes (Group II) that cross-cut the same tectonic foliation at a high angle. In this paper, we use geochemistry of whole-rock and mineral separates (alkali-feldspar and biotite), fluid inclusion microthermometry and stable isotopic (δ18O, δD, δ13C) determinations on minerals (quartz, alkali-feldspar, biotite and magnetite) and fluid inclusions to provide insights into the composition of the pegmatite-forming melts, associated fluids, and their geotectonic significance. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of the Cajú syenogranite was performed to evaluate and compare the timing of magmatic events along the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain as this is the closest post-collisional pluton to the studied pegmatites. The calculated temperature for the Group I syn-collisional veins (740 °C) is similar to previous estimates for the peak metamorphic conditions in the study area. Variations in the temperature of the Group II pegmatite dykes obtained from stable isotopes (380 to 720 °C), and microthermometric data from primary fluid inclusions with traces of N2 (Th = 280 to 360 °C), may reflect the thermodynamics of the pegmatite crystallization, exsolution textures and isotopic exchange. The composition of fluids in equilibrium within the pegmatite dykes consists of magmatic and metamorphic components. The minimum pressures calculated for the emplacement of the pegmatites are equivalent to a shallow crustal depth between 1.7 and 3.5 km, which corresponds to the exhumation of the orogen since the emplacement of

  4. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E

    1981-12-01

    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  5. Targeting divalent metal cations with Re(I) tetrazolato complexes.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Valentina; Ranieri, Anna Maria; Muzzioli, Sara; Magee, Karen D M; Zacchini, Stefano; Akabar, Nurshadrina; Stefan, Alessandra; Ogden, Mark I; Massi, Massimiliano; Stagni, Stefano

    2015-12-21

    In order to exploit their potential as versatile luminescent sensors, four new Re(I)-tetrazolato complexes with the general formula fac-[Re(CO)3(diim)(L)], where diim is 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and L(-) is either the anion 5-(2'-pyridyl)tetrazolato (2-PTZ(-)) or 5-(2'-quinolyl)tetrazolato (2-QTZ(-)), were prepared and fully characterized. In all cases, the regioselective coordination of the Re(I) center through the N2 atom of the tetrazolato ring was observed. This particular feature ensures the availability of the diiminic (N^N) site that was systematically incorporated into the structure of the 2-PTZ(-) and 2-QTZ(-) ligands for further coordination with metal cations. Such a diimine-type coordination mode was preliminarily tested by using the mononuclear Re(I) complexes as N^N ligands for the preparation of two [(N^N)Cu(POP)] cationic species, where POP is the chelating diphosphine bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether. The X-ray structures of the resulting Re(I)-Cu(I) dyads revealed that the Re(I) mononuclear complexes effectively behaved as chelating N^N ligands with respect to the [Cu(POP)](+) fragment, the coordination of which also resulted in significant modification of the Re(I)-centered luminescence. With these data in hand, the luminescent sensing abilities of the four new Re(I) tetrazolato complexes were screened with respect to divalent metal ions of toxicological and biological importance such as Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II). The interaction of the Re(I) complexes with Zn(II) and Cd(II) was witnessed by the evident blue shift (Δλmax = 22-36 nm) of the emission maxima, which was also accompanied by a significant elongation of the emission lifetimes. On the contrary, the addition of the cupric ion caused substantial quenching of the radiative processes originating from the Re(I) luminophores. PMID:26554352

  6. xREI: a phylo-grammar visualization webserver.

    PubMed

    Barquist, Lars; Holmes, Ian

    2008-07-01

    Phylo-grammars, probabilistic models combining Markov chain substitution models with stochastic grammars, are powerful models for annotating structured features in multiple sequence alignments and analyzing the evolution of those features. In the past, these methods have been cumbersome to implement and modify. xrate provides means for the rapid development of phylo-grammars (using a simple file format) and automated parameterization of those grammars from training data (via the Expectation Maximization algorithm). xREI (pron. 'X-ray') is an intuitive, flexible AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript And XML) web interface to xrate providing grammar visualization tools as well as access to xrate's training and annotation functionality. It is hoped that this application will serve as a valuable tool to those developing phylo-grammars, and as a means for the exploration and dissemination of such models. xREI is available at http://harmony.biowiki.org/xrei/

  7. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  8. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  9. Effect of Rj genotype and cultivation temperature on the community structure of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia.

    PubMed

    Shiro, Sokichi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Naoto; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamakawa, Takeo; Saeki, Yuichi

    2012-02-01

    The nodulation tendency and community structure of indigenous bradyrhizobia on Rj genotype soybean cultivars at cultivation temperatures of 33/28°C, 28/23°C, and 23/18°C for 16/8 h (day/night degrees, hours) were investigated using 780 bradyrhizobial DNA samples from an Andosol with 13 soybean cultivars of four Rj genotypes (non-Rj, Rj(2)Rj(3), Rj(4), and Rj(2)Rj(3)Rj(4)). A dendrogram was constructed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products (PCR-RFLP) of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer region. Eleven Bradyrhizobium U.S. Department of Agriculture strains were used as a reference. The dendrogram indicated seven clusters based on similarities among the reference strains. The occupancy rate of the Bj123 cluster decreased with increasing cultivation temperature, whereas the occupancy rates of the Bj110 cluster, Be76 cluster, and Be94 cluster increased with increasing cultivation temperature. In particular, the Rj(2)Rj(3)Rj(4) genotype soybeans were infected with a number of Bj110 clusters, regardless of the increasing cultivation temperature, compared to other Rj genotype soybean cultivars. The ratio of beta diversity to gamma diversity (H'(β)/H'(γ)), which represents differences in the bradyrhizobial communities by pairwise comparison among cultivation temperature sets within the same soybean cultivar, indicated that the bradyrhizobial communities tended to be different among cultivation temperatures. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that the infection of the Bj110 cluster and the Bj123 cluster by host soybean genotype and the cultivation temperature affected the bradyrhizobial communities. These results suggested that the Rj genotypes and cultivation temperatures affected the nodulation tendency and community structures of soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia.

  10. Paper and Plastic in Daily Diary Research: Comment on Green, Rafaeli, Bolger, Shrout, and Reis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennen, Howard; Affleck, Glenn; Coyne, James C.; Larsen, Randy J.; DeLongis, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors applaud A. S. Green, E. Rafaeli, N. Bolger, P. E. Shrout, and H. T. Reis's (2006) response to one-sided comparisons of paper versus electronic (plastic) diary methods and hope that it will stimulate more balanced considerations of the issues involved. The authors begin by highlighting areas of agreement and disagreement with Green et…

  11. Sally Reis and Joe Renzulli: Models for Education Reform, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The term "talent development" has historically been associated only with gifted education in the K12 education world. But for the past 30 years, husband and wife team Joseph Renzulli and Sally Reis have been steadily increasing the pool of educators trained to apply talent development practices to mainstream instruction through the Renzulli…

  12. A Reflective Conversation with Joe Renzulli and Sally Reis: About the Renzulli Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joe; Reis, Sally; Shaughnessy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Dr. Joe Renzulli and Dr. Sally Reis respond to questions about the newly developed Renzulli Learning System. They discuss the system in light of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) and provide information regarding its use with curriculum compacting and Renzulli's "Three Ring Conceptualization of…

  13. Revealing the latent mobilization capability of the staphylococcal bacteriocinogenic plasmid pRJ9.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Bruna Gonçalves; Coelho, Marcus Lívio Varella; Ceotto, Hilana; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2011-01-01

    Plasmid pRJ9 is a non-self-mobilizable bacteriocinogenic plasmid from Staphylococcus aureus. Despite this feature, DNA sequencing and RT-PCR experiments showed that it presents a Mob region with three genes (mobCAB), transcribed as an operon. In silico analysis of the Mob proteins encoded by pRJ9 showed that they present all the conserved functional features reported until present as being essential for plasmid mobilization. Moreover, they showed a high identity to Mob proteins encoded by mobilizable plasmids from Staphylococcus spp., especially to those encoded by plasmid pRJ6, which presents four mob genes (mobCDAB). A putative oriT region was also found upstream of the pRJ9 mob operon. pRJ9 could only be successfully mobilized by pGO1 when pRJ6 was present in the same strain. Further experiments showed that the pRJ9 oriT can be recognized by the pRJ6 Mob proteins, confirming its functionality. As pRJ9 does not possess a mobD gene while pRJ6 does, the absence of this gene was believed to be responsible for its lack of mobilization. However, conjugation experiments with a donor strain carrying also mobD cloned into an S. aureus vector showed that pRJ9 does not become mobilized even in the presence of the protein MobD encoded by pRJ6. Therefore, the reasons for pRJ9 failure to be mobilized are presently unknown. PMID:22286044

  14. Fusion of classifiers for REIS-based detection of suspicious breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Dror; Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Tublin, Mitchell; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    After developing a multi-probe resonance-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system aimed at detecting women with breast abnormalities that may indicate a developing breast cancer, we have been conducting a prospective clinical study to explore the feasibility of applying this REIS system to classify younger women (< 50 years old) into two groups of "higher-than-average risk" and "average risk" of having or developing breast cancer. The system comprises one central probe placed in contact with the nipple, and six additional probes uniformly distributed along an outside circle to be placed in contact with six points on the outer breast skin surface. In this preliminary study, we selected an initial set of 174 examinations on participants that have completed REIS examinations and have clinical status verification. Among these, 66 examinations were recommended for biopsy due to findings of a highly suspicious breast lesion ("positives"), and 108 were determined as negative during imaging based procedures ("negatives"). A set of REIS-based features, extracted using a mirror-matched approach, was computed and fed into five machine learning classifiers. A genetic algorithm was used to select an optimal subset of features for each of the five classifiers. Three fusion rules, namely sum rule, weighted sum rule and weighted median rule, were used to combine the results of the classifiers. Performance evaluation was performed using a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method. The results indicated that REIS may provide a new technology to identify younger women with higher than average risk of having or developing breast cancer. Furthermore, it was shown that fusion rule, such as a weighted median fusion rule and a weighted sum fusion rule may improve performance as compared with the highest performing single classifier.

  15. An alternate hypothesis for the origin of Angra dos Reis - Porphyry, not cumulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Angra dos Reis achondrite is a unique meteorite of potentially great importance for understanding the origins of the solar system and of the terrestrial planets. It is proposed that the meteorite, which consists of megacrysts of Al-Ti augite (fassaite) in skeletal or cellular shapes, olivine, and possibly whitlockite in a fine-grained groundmass of the same materials plus spinel, is a porphyritic igneous rock modified by metamorphism. In this interpretation, the megacrysts represent cellular-textured phenocrysts, and the fine-grain groundmass represents crystallized or devitrified magma. Phase equilibria suggest that Angra dos Reis-like compositions could grow phenocrysts of fassaite pyroxene, olivine, and whitlockite. These same compositions could crystallize, without crystal sorting or accumulation, to an almost monomineralic fassaite pyroxenite.

  16. Insertion of the Biogenesis Factor Rei1 Probes the Ribosomal Tunnel during 60S Maturation.

    PubMed

    Greber, Basil Johannes; Gerhardy, Stefan; Leitner, Alexander; Leibundgut, Marc; Salem, Michèle; Boehringer, Daniel; Leulliot, Nicolas; Aebersold, Ruedi; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ban, Nenad

    2016-01-14

    Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis depends on several hundred assembly factors to produce functional 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. The final phase of 60S subunit biogenesis is cytoplasmic maturation, which includes the proofreading of functional centers of the 60S subunit and the release of several ribosome biogenesis factors. We report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the yeast 60S subunit in complex with the biogenesis factors Rei1, Arx1, and Alb1 at 3.4 Å resolution. In addition to the network of interactions formed by Alb1, the structure reveals a mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the ribosomal polypeptide exit tunnel. Arx1 probes the entire set of inner-ring proteins surrounding the tunnel exit, and the C terminus of Rei1 is deeply inserted into the ribosomal tunnel, where it forms specific contacts along almost its entire length. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence that failure to insert the C terminus of Rei1 precludes subsequent steps of 60S maturation. PMID:26709046

  17. 75 FR 75205 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights...,\\1\\ CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant limited overhead trackage rights to R.J... original notices, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC--Acquisition and...

  18. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc. R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad...

  19. Understanding the photophysical properties of chiral dinuclear Re(i) complexes and the role of Re(i) in their complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyu; Si, Yanling; Shi, Shaoqing; Yang, Guochun; Pan, Xiumei

    2016-05-01

    Chiral transition metal complexes not only have large nonlinear optical (NLO) response but also meet the non-centrosymmetric requirement of second-order NLO materials. Therefore, chiral transition metal complexes become very active in the NLO area. Recently, the second-order NLO response of chiral dinuclear Re(i) complex 2 has been found to be 1.5 times larger than that of KH2PO4 (KDP) based on experimental measurement. However, its NLO origin has not been determined and a structure-property relationship has not been established at the microscopic level, which are very important to further improve the performance. It is found that charge transfer from metal to ligand is mainly responsible for its NLO origin. Based on complex 2, the designed complexes have remarkably large second-order NLO activity. For instance, the designed complex 9 has a very large second-order NLO response value (115.81 × 10(-30) esu), which is about 668 times larger than the organic molecule urea. Moreover, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to investigate their UV-Vis/CD spectra. The simulated circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the complex 2 are in good agreement with the experimental ones, which can be used to assign the absolute configurations (ACs) of chiral dinuclear Re(i) complexes with high confidence. The electronic absorption wavelengths, electron transition properties, and the second-order NLO responses strongly depend on the nature of substituent, different ligands (pyridine and isoquinoline) and their combinations. Based on NBO analysis, the interactions between [Re(CO)3Cl] fragments and ligands are of n →σ* character. PMID:27009569

  20. Mobilization functions of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid pRJ6 of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Varella Coelho, Marcus Livio; Ceotto, Hilana; Madureira, Danielle Jannuzzi; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2009-06-01

    Plasmid pRJ6 is the first known bacteriocinogenic mobilizable (Mob) plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus. Its Mob region is composed of four mob genes (mobCDAB) arranged as an operon, a genetic organization uncommon among S. aureus Mob plasmids. oriT (pRJ6) was detected in a region of 431 bp, positioned immediately upstream of mobC. This region, when cloned into pCN37, was able to confer mobilization to the re-combinant plasmid only in the presence of pRJ6. The entire Mob region, including oriT (pRJ6), is much more similar to Mob regions from several coagulase-negative staphylococci plasmids, although some remarkable similarities with S. aureus Mob plasmids can also be noted. These similarities include the presence within oriT (pRJ6) of the three mcb (MobC binding sites), firstly described in pC221 and pC223, an identical nick site also found in these same plasmids, and a nearly identical sra(pC223) site (sequence recognized by MobA). pRJ6 was successfully transferred to S. epidermidis by conjugation in the presence of the conjugative plasmid pGOl. Altogether these findings suggest that pRJ6 might have been originally a coagulase-negative staphylococci plasmid that had been transferred successfully to S. aureus. PMID:19557350

  1. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Soybean Plants Carrying the Rj4 Allele

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Omar M.; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses between leguminous plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia are of great importance to agricultural production and nitrogen cycling. While these mutualistic symbioses can involve a wide range of rhizobia, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific strains, resulting in ineffective nodulation. The formation of nodules in soybean plants (Glycine max) is controlled by several host genes, which are referred to as Rj genes. The soybean cultivar BARC2 carries the Rj4 gene, which restricts nodulation by specific strains, including Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61. Here we employed transposon mutagenesis to identify the genetic locus in USDA61 that determines incompatibility with soybean varieties carrying the Rj4 allele. Introduction of the Tn5 transposon into USDA61 resulted in the formation of nitrogen fixation nodules on the roots of soybean cultivar BARC2 (Rj4 Rj4). Sequencing analysis of the sequence flanking the Tn5 insertion revealed that six genes encoding a putative histidine kinase, transcriptional regulator, DNA-binding transcriptional activator, helix-turn-helix-type transcriptional regulator, phage shock protein, and cysteine protease were disrupted. The cysteine protease mutant had a high degree of similarity with the type 3 effector protein XopD of Xanthomonas campestris. Our findings shed light on the diverse and complicated mechanisms that underlie these highly host-specific interactions and indicate the involvement of a type 3 effector in Rj4 nodulation restriction, suggesting that Rj4 incompatibility is partly mediated by effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26187957

  2. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Soybean Plants Carrying the Rj4 Allele.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Omar M; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei; Okazaki, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Symbioses between leguminous plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia are of great importance to agricultural production and nitrogen cycling. While these mutualistic symbioses can involve a wide range of rhizobia, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific strains, resulting in ineffective nodulation. The formation of nodules in soybean plants (Glycine max) is controlled by several host genes, which are referred to as Rj genes. The soybean cultivar BARC2 carries the Rj4 gene, which restricts nodulation by specific strains, including Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61. Here we employed transposon mutagenesis to identify the genetic locus in USDA61 that determines incompatibility with soybean varieties carrying the Rj4 allele. Introduction of the Tn5 transposon into USDA61 resulted in the formation of nitrogen fixation nodules on the roots of soybean cultivar BARC2 (Rj4 Rj4). Sequencing analysis of the sequence flanking the Tn5 insertion revealed that six genes encoding a putative histidine kinase, transcriptional regulator, DNA-binding transcriptional activator, helix-turn-helix-type transcriptional regulator, phage shock protein, and cysteine protease were disrupted. The cysteine protease mutant had a high degree of similarity with the type 3 effector protein XopD of Xanthomonas campestris. Our findings shed light on the diverse and complicated mechanisms that underlie these highly host-specific interactions and indicate the involvement of a type 3 effector in Rj4 nodulation restriction, suggesting that Rj4 incompatibility is partly mediated by effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26187957

  3. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  4. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

  5. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  6. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with

  7. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future

  8. High luminance phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on Re(I) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Fujun; Che, Guangbo; Wang, Yang; Wang, Bo; Gao, Lin; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-10-01

    A novel Re(I) complex with the acenaphtho[1,2-b]pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline (APPT) ligand Re(APPT)(CO)3Br (abbreviated as Re-APPT) was used to fabricate organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the device at different bias voltages, it could be found that the EL maxima shifted approximately 30 nm. For OLEDs with 5% Re-APPT doped emissive layer, turn-on voltage of 6 V, maximum luminance of 7631 cd/m2 and a current efficiency up to 2.36 cd/A were obtained. We suppose that a direct charge trapping took the dominant position in the EL process. Trapping contributed mostly to this relatively higher luminance.

  9. Sm-Nd-Pu timepieces in the Angra dos Reis meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Marti, K.

    1977-01-01

    Isotope ratios and age estimations are presented for the ultramafic pyroxenite Angra dos Reis meteorite. A pyroxene-phosphate internal isochron age of 4.55 plus or minus 0.04 eons was obtained, in agreement with reported Pb-Pb ages. It is suggested that Sm-146 decay led to an increase in the ratio of Nd-142 to Nd-144 in pyroxene, which is greater than the ratio of the Nd isotopes in phosphates. The effect of Pu-244 on the fission xenon components in pyroxene and phosphate is examined. The ratios of Pu-244 to Nd, U-238, and Th-232 are compared for pyroxene and phosphate separates. The exposure age of the meteorite, as obtained by the Kr-81 to Kr-83 method, was found to be 55.5 plus or minus 1.2 million years.

  10. Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in differents environments in Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon - RJ/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Estefan M; Baptista Neto, José A; Fernandez, Marcos A; McAlister, John; Smith, Bernard

    2011-06-01

    The accelerated urbanisation without a planning, brought several environmental problems to Rio de Janeiro coastal zone, especially in areas such as Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, which receives a great amount of untreated sewage every day. To assess the nature, potentially sources and extent of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon, sediments from the surrounding streets, from the entrance of the main canal that drains to the lagoon and from the bottom of the lagoon were collected and analysed by a modified selective extraction procedure in order to study the geochemical partitioning and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb in these three compartments. The present study verified an increase in the Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the north of the Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon. Despite the different levels of oxidation between the sediments accumulated in the streets and in the bottom of the lagoon, the geochemical partitioning of the heavy metals did not show any pattern of variation for the metals, except for the element Cu. No concentrations were found in the soluble phase of samples collected in the surfacial sediments of the lagoon, suggesting no bioavailability of heavy metals. PMID:21670872

  11. 75 FR 52818 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights... Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant additional limited overhead trackage rights \\1\\ to R.J. Corman... Louisville, Ky., a distance of approximately 17 miles.\\2\\ \\1\\ The original rights were obtained by...

  12. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and... prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines...

  13. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  14. Luminescent Re(I) terpyridine complexes for OLEDs: what does the DFT/TD-DFT probe reveal?

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Gunasekaran; Venuvanalingam, Ponnambalam

    2015-05-14

    The electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of a series of rhenium(I) terpyridine complexes were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. The influence of different substituent groups on the optical and electronic properties of Re(I) terpyridine complexes has also been explored. The reorganization energy calculations show that the substituted Re(I) terpyridine complexes are better electron transport materials with high quantum efficiency in OLED devices due to their high electron transport mobility and low λ(electron) values, whereas the unsubstituted complex shows relatively balanceable charge transfer abilities with the higher efficiency in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). An NBO analysis reveals that n→σ* interactions are mainly responsible for the ground state stabilization of all the complexes. QTAIM results show that in all cases, Re-CO bonds are shared type transient interactions as reported in the other metal ligand complexes. The absorption is associated with (1)MLCT/(1)LLCT/(1)ILCT character while the emission transition has (3)MLCT/(3)LLCT/(3)ILCT character as revealed by a natural transition orbital (NTO) analysis. The higher quantum yields reported for the complexes 4-6 are found to be closely related to both its smaller ΔE(S1-T1), higher μ(S1), E(T1) and moderate (3)MLCT character. The calculated results show that Re(I) terpyridine complexes, particularly complexes 4-6, are suitable candidates for OLED materials.

  15. Origin of the B/J, R/J, and Y/J strains of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Fox, R R

    1978-01-01

    The inbreeding of strains B/J, Y/J, and R/J, formerly designated ACCR(B), ACCR(Y), and ACCR(R), was started by full brother X sister inbreeding by C. Cohen to test the effect of inbreeding on the selective value of the different blood group genes. PMID:731016

  16. First record of Botryosphaeria ribis associated with leaf spots on Magnolia aff. candollei in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Davi Mesquita; Barreto, Robert Weingart

    2008-01-01

    A leaf spot disease was observed attacking some Magnolia aff. candollei plants grown in a private garden in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Such leaf spots coalesced and led to extensive blight of foliage. A fungus was clearly associated to the disease symptoms and was identified as Botryosphaeria ribis. Its anamorph, Fusicoccum ribis, was also present, although less abundant than the teleomorph. This is first report of this fungus on this host in Brazil and the first record of any fungal disease on a member of the genus Magnolia in Brazil. PMID:24031224

  17. Luminescent supramolecular soft nanostructures from amphiphilic dinuclear Re(i) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, Cristina; Natali, Mirco; Villa, Davide; Panigati, Monica; Mauro, Matteo; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; de Cola, Luisa

    2015-07-01

    Luminescent metallo-surfactants based on highly emissive dinuclear Re(i) complexes have been synthesized combining the peculiar photophysical behaviour of this class of neutral hydrophobic complexes with new properties imparted by hydrophilic chains anchored on the coordinated chromophoric ligand. In solution, the resulting neutral amphiphiles tend to self-assembly in soft structures. The aggregation properties have been thoroughly investigated in dioxane-water mixtures, where all the complexes assembly in globular-like supramolecular architectures with well-defined size (hydrodynamic diameter = 200-400 nm). The morphology of these nano-objects has been completely characterized with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis, Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and cryo-TEM to determine the size, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles in relationship with the structure of the metallo-surfactants. The photophysical properties of both the isolated metal complexes and their aggregates have been investigated by means of UV-Vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Noteworthy, the self-assembly properties of the reported luminescent rhenium metallo-amphiphiles can be modulated by solvent polarity. Even more importantly, such aggregation process yielded a small hypsochromic shift of the emission energy accompanied by a sizeable elongation of the excited-state lifetime and an enhancement of the photoluminescence quantum yield, reaching a remarkably high value of 0.20 despite the air-equilibrated aqueous condition. The presented findings endorse novel possibilities for the efficient use of soft-nanostructures based on metallo-amphiphiles in dual (electron and optical microscopy) bio-imaging applications and theranostics where the non-covalent nature of the intermolecular interactions would offer the powerful and unique possibility to reversibly assemble and disassemble imaging agents.Luminescent metallo-surfactants based on

  18. Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

  19. Photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen from Re(I) complexes: a photophysical study using LIOAS and luminescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Ragone, Fabricio; Martinez Saavedra, Héctor H; David Gara, Pedro M; Ruiz, Gustavo T; Wolcan, Ezequiel

    2013-05-30

    Quantum yields and efficiencies of (1)O2 ((1)Δg) production along with photophysical properties for a number of Re(I) complexes in acetonitrile solutions are reported. Two different classes of Re(I) complexes, L(S)-CO2-Re(CO)3(bpy) (L(S) = 2-pyrazine, 2-naphthalene, 9-anthracene, 1-pyrene, 2-anthraquinone) and XRe(CO)3L (X = CF3SO3, py; L = bpy, phen), were probed as photosensitizers for (1)O2 ((1)Δg) production in air-saturated acetonitrile solutions. Depending on the nature of the Re(I) complex, the excited state responsible for the generation of (1)O2 ((1)Δg) is either a metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) or a ligand centered ((3)LC) state. With L(S)-CO2-Re(CO)3(bpy) complexes, (1)O2 ((1)Δg) is produced by oxygen quenching of (3)LC states of anthracene and pyrene with high quantum yields (ΦΔ between 0.8 and 1.0), while the complexes bearing the ligands L(S) = 2-anthraquinone, 2-pyrazine, and 2-naphthalene did not yield (1)O2. XRe(CO)3L complexes generate (1)O2 ((1)Δg) mainly by oxygen quenching of their (3)MLCT luminescence with an efficiency of (1)O2 ((1)Δg) formation close to unity. Bimolecular rate constants for the quenching of the XRe(CO)3L complexes' emission by molecular oxygen range between 1 × 10(9) and 2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), and they are all ≤ (1/9)kd, in good agreement with the predominance of the singlet channel in the mechanism of (1)O2 ((1)Δg) generation using these Re(I) complexes as photosensitizers. All the experimental singlet oxygen efficiencies are consistent with calorimetric and luminescence data for the studied complexes. With L(S)-CO2-Re(CO)3(bpy) complexes, calorimetric experiments were utilized in the calculation of the quantum yields of triplet formation; namely φT = 0.76 and 0.83 for the triplet states of anthracene and pyrene, respectively. PMID:23642169

  20. Rj4, a Gene Controlling Nodulation Specificity in Soybeans, Encodes a Thaumatin-Like Protein But Not the One Previously Reported.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Yang, Shengming; Liu, Jinge; Zhu, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Rj4 is a dominant gene in soybeans (Glycine max) that restricts nodulation by many strains of Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The soybean-B. elkanii symbiosis has a low nitrogen-fixation efficiency, but B. elkanii strains are highly competitive for nodulation; thus, cultivars harboring an Rj4 allele are considered favorable. Cloning the Rj4 gene is the first step in understanding the molecular basis of Rj4-mediated nodulation restriction and facilitates the development of molecular tools for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation in soybeans. We finely mapped the Rj4 locus within a small genomic region on soybean chromosome 1, and validated one of the candidate genes as Rj4 using both complementation tests and CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout experiments. We demonstrated that Rj4 encodes a thaumatin-like protein, for which a corresponding allele is not present in the surveyed rj4 genotypes, including the reference genome Williams 82. Our conclusion disagrees with the previous report that Rj4 is the Glyma.01G165800 gene (previously annotated as Glyma01g37060). Instead, we provide convincing evidence that Rj4 is Glyma.01g165800-D, a duplicated and unique version of Glyma.01g165800, that has evolved the ability to control symbiotic specificity.

  1. Lightcurve Analysis of the Near-Earth Asteroid (162566) 2000 RJ34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Benishek, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of CCD photometry observations of the near-Earth asteroid (162566) 2000 RJ34 indicates a period of 50.5 ± 0.1 h. The amplitude was 0.78 ± 0.03 mag. The long period nearly commensurate with an Earth day made it critical that at least two stations, well-separated in longitude, be involved in the observing campaign.

  2. A support vector machine designed to identify breasts at high risk using multi-probe generated REIS signals: a preliminary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Lederman, Dror; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

    2010-02-01

    A new resonance-frequency based electronic impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with multi-probes, including one central probe and six external probes that are designed to contact the breast skin in a circular form with a radius of 60 millimeters to the central ("nipple") probe, has been assembled and installed in our breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective clinical study to test the performance of this REIS system in identifying younger women (< 50 years old) at higher risk for having or developing breast cancer. In this preliminary analysis, we selected a subset of 100 examinations. Among these, 50 examinations were recommended for a biopsy due to detection of a highly suspicious breast lesion and 50 were determined negative during mammography screening. REIS output signal sweeps that we used to compute an initial feature included both amplitude and phase information representing differences between corresponding (matched) EIS signal values acquired from the left and right breasts. A genetic algorithm was applied to reduce the feature set and optimize a support vector machine (SVM) to classify the REIS examinations into "biopsy recommended" and "non-biopsy" recommended groups. Using the leave-one-case-out testing method, the classification performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.816 +/- 0.042. This pilot analysis suggests that the new multi-probe-based REIS system could potentially be used as a risk stratification tool to identify pre-screened young women who are at higher risk of having or developing breast cancer.

  3. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Silva, L O

    2016-04-19

    Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).

  4. Structural deformation of a ring-shaped Re(I) diimine dinuclear complex in the excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Sei'ichi; Matsubara, Yoshitaka; Asatani, Tsuyoshi; Morimoto, Tatsuki; Ishitani, Osamu; Onda, Ken

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the excited state of a ring-shaped dinuclear Re(I) diimine bis-carbonyl complex that shows promise with regard to efficient photosensitized reactions and multi-electron storage, using time-resolved infrared (TR-IR) vibrational spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Anomalous peaks in the CO stretching region of the TR-IR spectrum were well reproduced by the calculations. It was found that metal-to-ligand charge transfer occurs only in one of the Re complex units, and that the excited state geometry is deformed relative to the ground state in order to relax the associated steric tension. This structural deformation generates the unique photophysical properties of the complex.

  5. Road Marking Extraction Using a MODEL&DATA-DRIVEN Rj-Mcmc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervieu, A.; Soheilian, B.; Brédif, M.

    2015-03-01

    We propose an integrated bottom-up/top-down approach to road-marking extraction from image space. It is based on energy minimization using marked point processes. A generic road marking object model enable us to define universal energy functions that handle various types of road-marking objects (dashed-lines, arrows, characters, etc.). A RJ-MCMC sampler coupled with a simulated annealing is applied to find the configuration corresponding to the minimum of the proposed energy. We used input data measurements to guide the sampler process (data driven RJ-MCMC). The approach is enhanced with a model-driven kernel using preprocessed autocorrelation and inter-correlation of road-marking templates, in order to resolve type and transformation ambiguities. The method is generic and can be applied to detect road-markings in any orthogonal view produced from optical sensors or laser scanners from aerial or terrestrial platforms. We show the results an ortho-image computed from ground-based laser scanning.

  6. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,253), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, filed a...

  7. Population dynamics of calyptrate Diptera (Muscidae and Sarcophagidae) at the Rio-Zoo Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V C; D'Almeida, J M; Paes, M J; Sanavria, A

    2002-05-01

    Twenty-seven species of calyptrate muscoids (Muscidae and Sarcophagidae) were collected from December 1993 to November 1994 with wind oriented traps (W.O.T.) baited with decomposing beef liver at the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The most abundant species found were Musca domestica (57.84%), Peckia chrysostoma (28.16%), Ophyra aenescens (17.11%), Oxysarcodexia thornax (17.82%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (13.05%), and Oxysarcodexia diana (14.52%).

  8. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone.

  9. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, R B; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13), in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area 'Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras - MoNa Cagarras', describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats) are used to set three types of gillnets: "Corvineira" (target species - whitemouth croaker), "linguadeira" (target species - flounders) and "rede-alta" (target species - bluefish). Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher's local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone. PMID:26909618

  10. [Effect of different baits as attractant for blowflies (Diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil].

    PubMed

    d'Almeida, José M; Fraga, Mariana B

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in an area of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).

  11. Baetid mayflies are very messy eaters: evidence from field experiments in a tropical stream, Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krsulovic, F.; Moulton, T.

    2005-05-01

    Mayflies may play an important role in periphyton dynamics. In previous field exclusion experiments, we had found that baetid mayflies (Americabaetis sp. and Cloeodes sp.) had a strong negative impact on periphyton. In this study we quantified the contributions of mayfly consumptive and non-consumptive effects on periphyton in the absence of shrimp. We carried out five field experiments: an egestion rate experiment to quantify periphyton consumed by mayflies and four shrimp exclusion experiments using electricity to exclude shrimps from natural substrate to estimate total removal of periphyton by mayflies. By comparing total removal with estimated ingestion, we estimated non-consumptive loss. We starved mayflies for 0, 3 and 6 h and assumed that periphyton egested would be replaced by ingestion at the same time. We found that, after 3h, 52.8% of the initial amount of periphyton in the mayfly alimentary canal was lost due to egestion, and 77.9% after 6h. During shrimp absence mayflies accumulated over control level and significantly reduced periphyton. Estimated ingestion was 2 to 23% of the periphyton depletion, thus mayfly non-consumptive periphyton removal contributed 98 to 77% of all periphyton lost inside electrified areas. Our results suggest that mayfly have strong negative non-consumptive effects on periphyton.

  12. Enhanced Cytotoxicity through Conjugation of a “Clickable” Luminescent Re(I) Complex to a Cell-Penetrating Lipopeptide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Re(I) tricarbonyl polypyridine-based complexes are particularly attractive metal complexes in the field of inorganic chemical biology due to their luminescent properties, ease of conjugation to targeting biomolecules, and the possibility to prepare their “hot” 99mTc analogues for radioimaging. In this study, we prepared and characterized a novel, “clickable” complex, [Re(2,2′-bipyridine)(3-ethynylpyridine)(CO)3](BF4) ([Re(CO)3(bipy)(py-alkyne)](BF4)), exhibiting the characteristic luminescent properties and moderate cytotoxicity of this general class of compound. Using Cu(I)-catalyzed “click” chemistry, the complex was efficiently attached to a lipidated peptide known to increase cell permeability, namely, the myristoylated HIV-1 Tat peptide (myr-Tat), to give Re-myr-Tat. Fluorescence microscopy localization in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) confirmed enhanced cellular uptake of Re-myr-Tat compared with [Re(CO)3(bipy)(py-alkyne)](BF4), and cytotoxicity studies showed that this resulted in an increase in potency to a level comparable with cisplatin (13.0 ± 2.0 μM). PMID:25050170

  13. Capturing Re(i) in an neutral N,N,N pincer Scaffold and resulting enhanced absorption of visible light.

    PubMed

    Bulsink, Philip; Al-Ghamdi, Ahlam; Joshi, Prajesh; Korobkov, Ilia; Woo, Tom; Richeson, Darrin

    2016-06-01

    The organometallic and coordination chemistry of rhenium(i) has been largely restricted to bidentate α-diimine ligation and facial tricarbonyl coordination geometries. The thermal transformation of bidentate bis(imino)pyridine and bidentate terpyridine complexes at 200-240 °C under nitrogen led to a family of Re(i) pincer complexes [κ(3)-2,6-{ArN[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe}2(NC5H3)]Re(CO)2X (Ar[double bond, length as m-dash]C6H5, Me2C6H3, (i)Pr2C6H3; X = Cl, Br) and (κ(3)-terpy)Re(CO)2X (X = Cl, Br). The synthesis, single crystal X-ray structural and spectroscopic characterization of these eight species documents their Re coordination geometries and demonstrates the accessibility of such compounds. The basic photophysical features of these compounds show significant elaboration in both number and intensity of the d-π* transitions observed in the UV-vis spectra relative to the bidentate starting materials and these spectra were analyzed using time-dependent DFT computations.

  14. Capturing Re(i) in an neutral N,N,N pincer Scaffold and resulting enhanced absorption of visible light.

    PubMed

    Bulsink, Philip; Al-Ghamdi, Ahlam; Joshi, Prajesh; Korobkov, Ilia; Woo, Tom; Richeson, Darrin

    2016-06-01

    The organometallic and coordination chemistry of rhenium(i) has been largely restricted to bidentate α-diimine ligation and facial tricarbonyl coordination geometries. The thermal transformation of bidentate bis(imino)pyridine and bidentate terpyridine complexes at 200-240 °C under nitrogen led to a family of Re(i) pincer complexes [κ(3)-2,6-{ArN[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe}2(NC5H3)]Re(CO)2X (Ar[double bond, length as m-dash]C6H5, Me2C6H3, (i)Pr2C6H3; X = Cl, Br) and (κ(3)-terpy)Re(CO)2X (X = Cl, Br). The synthesis, single crystal X-ray structural and spectroscopic characterization of these eight species documents their Re coordination geometries and demonstrates the accessibility of such compounds. The basic photophysical features of these compounds show significant elaboration in both number and intensity of the d-π* transitions observed in the UV-vis spectra relative to the bidentate starting materials and these spectra were analyzed using time-dependent DFT computations. PMID:27151420

  15. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Maifrede, Simone Bravim; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2013-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  16. Qualitative analysis of the magnetic data collected by the Embrace MagNet in comparison to absolute measurements made by Intermagnet in Vassouras-RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sony Su; Moro, Juliano; Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    The Embrace Magnetometer Network (Embrace MagNet) is a network of three-axis fluxgate magnetometers using single bars with high level of magnetic saturation, covered with two copper coils, one for the excitation and the second for sensing the external field. It is planned to cover most of the Easter Southern American longitudinal sector in order to fulfill the gap for magnetic measurement available on-line. The availability of fast internet, reliable energy supply and easy access were the key point for deciding the location of the magnetometer stations of the network. Up to now, the main characteristic of this network is the severe sensibility matching process among all the magnetometers composing it. Now, in order to validate the magnetic data collected by the elements of the Embrace MagNet in comparison to absolute measurements, we performed a study about the correlation between the data collected by the fluxgate magnetometer provided by Embrace MagNet and an absolute magnetometer installed by Intermagnet in the same observatory. For this study, we have used data collected in Vassouras-RJ, in Brazil, covering the period from June to December 2015. The analysis consist of: (a) selecting the 5 quietest days and the 5 most disturbed days of each month based on the Kp index; (b) deducing the local midnight value from the data collected by both instruments; (c) correlating the data collected by the variometer with the absolute measurement day-by-day; (d) grouping the results as Winter (June, July, and August), Equinox (September and October) and Summer (November and December); (e) obtaining the linear correlations factor for each group. The averaged correlation factors and the daily variations of the magnetic data are presented and discussed in terms of the magnetic activity and the season variation.

  17. Magnetic studies on hexaiodorhenate(IV) salts of univalent cations. Spin canting and magnetic ordering in K2[ReI6] with Tc = 24 K.

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo; Chiozzone, Raúl; Kremer, Carlos; De Munno, Giovanni; Nicolò, Francesco; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Faus, Juan

    2003-04-21

    The ionic salts of rhenium(IV) of formula (Cat)(2)[ReI(6)] with Cat = Li(+) (1), Na(+) (2), K(+) (3), Rb(+) (4), Cs(+) (5), NH(4)(+) (6), and AsPh(4)(+) (7) [AsPh(4)(+) = tetraphenylarsonium cation] have been synthesized, and the structures of two of them (namely, 3 and 6) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group Pn, with a = 7.815(1) A, b = 7.874(1) A, c = 11.335(1) A, beta = 90.38(1) degrees, and Z = 2 whereas 6 crystallizes in the tetragonal system, space group P4/mnc, with a = 7.881(1) A, b = 7.881(1) A, c = 11.474(2) A, and Z = 2. The structures of 3 and 6 are made up of discrete [ReI(6)](2)(-) anions and K(+) (3) or NH(4)(+) (6) cations held together by electrostatic forces (3 and 6) and N-H.I hydrogen bonds (6). The rhenium(IV) cation in 3 and 6 is surrounded by six iodide ligands in an octahedral environment with the Re-I bond lengths varying in a very narrow range [2.704(3)-2.738(3) and 2.716(1)-2.722(2) A for 3 and 6, respectively]. The [ReI(6)](2)(-) anions in 6 describe a tetragonally distorted body-centered cubic structure. In 3, the arrangement of these units is similar but more distorted. The different arrangement of the anions in 3 and 6 accounts for the centrosymmetric (6) and non-centrosymmetric (3) structures observed. The magnetic properties of 1-7 were investigated in the temperature range 2.0-300 K. The magnetic behavior of 7 is that of a magnetically diluted Re(IV) complex with a large value of the zero-field splitting of the ground level (|2D| = 49.8 cm(-)(1)) whereas those of 1, 2, and 4-6 are typical of antiferromagnetically coupled systems with susceptibility maxima at 28 (1), 27 (2), 21 (4), 16 (5), and 20 K (6). In the case of compound 3, its magnetic behavior in the high-temperature range is parallel to that observed in the parent salts but below 24 K it is a weak ferromagnet with a canting angle of ca. 1.2 degrees.

  18. Spotlight: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  19. Structural Properties and UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy of Retinal-pyridyl-CN Re(I) Carbonyl Bipyridine Complex: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Eng, Julien; Daniel, Chantal

    2015-10-29

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of the all-trans and five cis conformers of [Re(CO)3(bpy)(ret-pyr-CN)](+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; ret-pyr-CN = pyridyl-CN-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-n)-none-(2,4,6,8-tetraen) were studied in solvent by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT. The isolated retinal-like chromophore ret-pyr-CN was investigated as well for comparison. By coordination to the complex the two lowest intraligand (IL) states localized on the retinal group are slightly red-shifted from 627 to 690 nm and from 415 to 450 nm, respectively. Several isomerization pathways are open upon irradiation of the Re(I) complex by visible light (400-450 nm), especially to two cis conformers corresponding to the isomerization of the two double bonds of the retinal-like ligand close to the pyridyl group linked to the Re(I) fragment. The metal-to-ligand charge transfer states localized either on the retinal group or on the bpy ligand should play a minor role in the isomerization process itself but could improve its efficiency via ultra-fast intersystem crossing.

  20. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  1. A Putative Type III Secretion System Effector Encoded by the MA20_12780 Gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 Causes Incompatibility with Rj4 Genotype Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Syougo; Okizaki, Kouhei; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2015-09-01

    The nodulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 is restricted by Rj4 genotype soybeans (Glycine max). To identify the genes responsible for this incompatibility, Tn5 mutants of B. japonicum Is-34 that were able to overcome this nodulation restriction were obtained. Analysis of the Tn5 mutants revealed that Tn5 was inserted into a region containing the MA20_12780 gene. In addition, direct disruption of this gene using marker exchange overcame the nodulation restriction by Rj4 genotype soybeans. The MA20_12780 gene has a tts box motif in its upstream region, indicating a possibility that this gene encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein. Bioinformatic characterization revealed that the MA20_12780 protein contains the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease domain of the C48 peptidase (ubiquitin-like protease 1 [Ulp1]) family. The results of the present study indicate that a putative T3SS effector encoded by the MA20_12780 gene causes the incompatibility with Rj4 genotype soybeans, and they suggest the possibility that the nodulation restriction of B. japonicum Is-34 may be due to Rj4 genotype soybeans recognizing the putative T3SS effector (MA20_12780 protein) as a virulence factor.

  2. Taxonomy of Cotylea (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from Cabo Frio, southeastern Brazil, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Juliana; Padula, Vinicius; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-01-01

    Polyclads are free-living Platyhelminthes with a simple, dorsoventrally flattened body and a much ramified intestine. In Brazil, 66 species are reported; only three from Rio de Janeiro State (RJ). The main objective of this study is to describe and illustrate coloration pattern, external morphology, reproductive system morphology and, when possible, biological and ecological aspects of species of the suborder Cotylea found in Cabo Frio, RJ. Of the 13 cotylean polyclad species found, Pseudobiceros pardalis, Cycloporus variegatus and Eurylepta aurantiaca are new records from the Brazilian coast and one species is new to science, Pseudoceros juani sp. nov. Feeding observations were made of four species. It is the first time that Lurymare utarum, Cycloporus gabriellae, C. variegatus and E. aurantiaca are illustrated with digital photographs of live specimens and histological preparations. This study increases to 70 the number of Brazilian Polycladida and to 14 the number of species known from Rio de Janeiro State. However, the knowledge about Polycladida in Brazil still has gaps, with great parts of the coast remaining unsampled. 

  3. Comparative study on bulk and composite fibrous samples photophysical feature: synthesis and characterization of a fluorine-containing Re(I) complex and its electrospinning fibers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Cangming, Zhao; Qi, Wang

    2015-05-01

    This paper reported a diamine ligand 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (referred to as FPOZ) owing two typical electron-withdrawing moieties of an oxidiazole group and a fluorine atom, as well as its corresponding Re(I) complex Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br. Geometric structure and electronic nature of Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br were explored and discussed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation, which suggested that Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br took a distorted octahedral coordination field. The onset electronic transitions owned a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer (LLCT). Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was then doped into a polymer host. Photophysical difference between resulting composite fibers and bulk Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was carefully performed, so that the correlation between emissive performance and electron-withdrawing group/geometric relaxation could be investigated. It was found that the immobilization in polymer matrix could repress MLCT excited state geometric relaxation, leading to improved PL parameters such as emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and higher photostability.

  4. Composite nanofibers doped with a phosphorescent Re(I) complex having restricted conjugation plane in its diamine ligand: Preparation, characterization, photophysical property and oxygen-sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Qi, Wang; Jing, Li

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we report a Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br, where Cl-PYO stands for 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole, including its synthesis, identification, molecular structure, theoretical calculation and photophysical character. Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br is found to be a yellow emitter with long excited state lifetime in pure N2 atmosphere. Theoretical calculation result suggests that this emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. By doping Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br into a polymer supporting matrix of poly(vinylpyrrolidone), the emission of the resulted composite materials is found to be sensitive towards various oxygen concentrations. The maximum sensitivity is obtained to be 7.88. Owing to the porous structure of fibrous poly(vinylpyrrolidone) matrix, a short response time of 11 s towards molecular oxygen is also realized with high photostability.

  5. Comparative study on bulk and composite fibrous samples photophysical feature: Synthesis and characterization of a fluorine-containing Re(I) complex and its electrospinning fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Cangming, Zhao; Qi, Wang

    2015-05-01

    This paper reported a diamine ligand 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (referred to as FPOZ) owing two typical electron-withdrawing moieties of an oxidiazole group and a fluorine atom, as well as its corresponding Re(I) complex Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br. Geometric structure and electronic nature of Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br were explored and discussed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation, which suggested that Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br took a distorted octahedral coordination field. The onset electronic transitions owned a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer (LLCT). Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was then doped into a polymer host. Photophysical difference between resulting composite fibers and bulk Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was carefully performed, so that the correlation between emissive performance and electron-withdrawing group/geometric relaxation could be investigated. It was found that the immobilization in polymer matrix could repress MLCT excited state geometric relaxation, leading to improved PL parameters such as emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and higher photostability.

  6. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  7. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  8. Military Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1974-01-01

    A large share of the credit for Brazil's recent progress must go to Brazil's highly structured military education, including the colegios militares (high schools), the military colleges, and the general staff schools. (Author/PG)

  9. Isolation of pure compound R/J/3 from Pluchea indica (L.) Less. and its anti-amoebic activities against Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ria; Dutta, P K; Achari, B; Bandyopadhyay, Durba; Mishra, Moumita; Pramanik, K C; Chatterjee, T K

    2007-08-01

    The plant Pluchea indica is known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-pyretic, hypoglycemic, diuretic and anti-microbial activities besides many other pharmacological activities. We have isolated and purified seven compounds from the methanolic root extract of this plant by column chromatography. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses. The anti-amoebic activities of the pure compound R/J/3 was investigated against the HM1 strain of Entamoeba histolytica. The compound, R/J/3 showed the most pronounced anti-proliferative activity at a dose of 50 microg/ml. It also showed a marked activity on cell lysis of trophozoites, 4h after administration. The cell lytic activity was compared with metronidazole (5 microg/ml) as positive control. PMID:17174538

  10. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  11. Degree of threat to the biological diversity in the Ilha Grande State Park (RJ) and guidelines for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Schneider, M; Vasconcellos, L A

    2002-08-01

    The State Park of Ilha Grande is only a part (5,594 hectares) of the entire island (19,300 hectares) which is located off the south coast of Rio de Janeiro state, between the cities of Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis. Approximately half of the Park area (47%) is covered by dense Atlantic forest. The secondary forest growth is in a process of ecological succession close to attaining maturity (43%) and the remaining part (10%) is composed of human-altered areas (1%), rocky outcrops with herbaceous vegetation (7%), mangroves and beaches (2%). The fauna is well represented but already shows signs of degradation with introduced species. The analysis of the degree of threat has shown that the dense forest habitat has a relatively stable status of conservation while the secondary forest, the mangrove and the herbaceous vegetation on rocky outcrops (and their fauna) are categorized as vulnerable. The area altered by human occupation is considered threatened. Since the coastal area where Ilha Grande is located is well known for its beautiful scenery (known as the green coast, because of the contrast between the ocean and the Atlantic forest covering the Serra do Mar mountain chain). There is a strong possibility for tourism to become the means in which to achieve economic sustainability for conservation. Contradictorily, tourism is also the major threat to local biodiversity and its landscape units. Because tourism is not organized and controlled, during high season the numbers grow above local capacity, giving rise to a proliferation of hotels, guesthouses and camping grounds. The resulting untreated open sewage, random garbage disposal and other harmful activities form the major threats to biodiversity. PMID:12530174

  12. Degree of threat to the biological diversity in the Ilha Grande State Park (RJ) and guidelines for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Schneider, M; Vasconcellos, L A

    2002-08-01

    The State Park of Ilha Grande is only a part (5,594 hectares) of the entire island (19,300 hectares) which is located off the south coast of Rio de Janeiro state, between the cities of Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis. Approximately half of the Park area (47%) is covered by dense Atlantic forest. The secondary forest growth is in a process of ecological succession close to attaining maturity (43%) and the remaining part (10%) is composed of human-altered areas (1%), rocky outcrops with herbaceous vegetation (7%), mangroves and beaches (2%). The fauna is well represented but already shows signs of degradation with introduced species. The analysis of the degree of threat has shown that the dense forest habitat has a relatively stable status of conservation while the secondary forest, the mangrove and the herbaceous vegetation on rocky outcrops (and their fauna) are categorized as vulnerable. The area altered by human occupation is considered threatened. Since the coastal area where Ilha Grande is located is well known for its beautiful scenery (known as the green coast, because of the contrast between the ocean and the Atlantic forest covering the Serra do Mar mountain chain). There is a strong possibility for tourism to become the means in which to achieve economic sustainability for conservation. Contradictorily, tourism is also the major threat to local biodiversity and its landscape units. Because tourism is not organized and controlled, during high season the numbers grow above local capacity, giving rise to a proliferation of hotels, guesthouses and camping grounds. The resulting untreated open sewage, random garbage disposal and other harmful activities form the major threats to biodiversity.

  13. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  14. Iridium(III) 1-Phenylisoquinoline Complexes as a Photosensitizer for Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction: A Mixed System with a Re(I) Catalyst and a Supramolecular Photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Yusuke; Ishitani, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    An Ir(III) complex with 1-phenylisoquinoline (piq) ligands [Ir(piq)2(dmb)](+) (Ir, dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) exhibited strong absorption in the visible region, and the lifetime of its excited state was very long (τ = 2.8 μs). Photochemical reduction of Ir efficiently proceeded with 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH) and 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (BIH) as reductants, giving the one-electron-reduced species (OERS), which was stable in solution at ambient temperature. The OERS of the Ir complex possessed strong reductive power, sufficient to supply an electron to fac-Re(dmb)(CO)3Br (Re). The photocatalytic reduction of CO2 proceeded efficiently using a mixed system constructed with Ir as a redox photosensitizer and Re as a catalyst, selectively giving CO (ΦCO = 0.16 using BNAH at λex = 480 nm). Ir was a more suitable photosensitizer for evaluating the activity of the Re catalyst in the photocatalytic reaction compared to [Ru(dmb)3](2+) (Ru) because the Ir complex was more stable in the photocatalytic reaction, and its decomposition products did not function as catalysts for CO2 reduction while the decomposition products of the Ru complex functioned as catalysts for the reduction of CO2 to HCOOH, inducing a drastic perturbation of the product distribution. A supramolecular photocatalyst (Ir-Re), in which the Ir(III) photosensitizer and the Re(I) catalyst were connected by a bridging ligand, was newly synthesized. When using BNAH, Ir-Re possessed a greater photocatalytic ability (ΦCO = 0.21, TONCO = 130) than the corresponding mixed system of the Ir and Re mononuclear complexes. Using BIH as the reductant, both Ir-Re and the mixed system showed very high photocatalytic activity (ΦCO = 0.40-0.41, TONCO = 1700). PMID:27212275

  15. A new Magnetic Observatory in Pantanal - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, F.; Pinheiro, K.; Linthe, H.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of a Magnetic Observatory is to register the variations of the Earth's magnetic field in a long temporal scale. Using this data it is possible to study field variations of both external and internal origins. The external variations concern interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, in general are measured in a short time scale. The internal field generated by convection of a high electrical conductivity fluid in the external core by a mechanism known as the geodynamo. Usually the internal field time variations are longer than in the external field and are called secular variations. Measurements carried out over the last century suggest that field intensity is decreasing rapidly. The decreasing of the field's intensity is not the same around the globe, especially at the SAMA (South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly) regions, where this reduction is occurring faster. The global distribution of magnetic observatories is uneven, with few observatories in South America. In Brazil, there are three magnetic observatories, but only Vassouras Observatory (VSS- RJ) is part of the INTERMAGNET network. The National Observatory has plans to install seven new observatories in Brazil. Pantanal was the chosen location for installing the first observatory because of its privileged location, close to the SAMA region, and its data can contribute to more information about its origin. We followed the procedures suggested by the IAGA to build this observatory. The first step is to perform a magnetic survey in order to avoid strong magnetic gradients in the location where the absolute and variometers houses will be installed. The next step, the construction of the observatory, includes the selection of special non-magnetic material for the variometer and absolute houses. All materials used were previously tested using a proton magnetometer GSM-19. After construction of the whole infrastructure, the equipment was installed. This Project is a cooperation between Brazilian

  16. Amino-anthraquinone chromophores functionalised with 3-picolyl units: structures, luminescence, DFT and their coordination chemistry with cationic Re(I) di-imine complexes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer E; Kariuki, Benson M; Ward, Benjamin D; Pope, Simon J A

    2011-04-14

    The syntheses of four new ligands based upon 3-picolyl functionalised amino anthraquinone (AQ) chromophores are described via a one-pot reductive amination procedure giving the desired ligands L1-L4 (L1, 1-(3-picolylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione; L2, 1-hydroxy-4-(3-picolylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione; L3, 1,4-bis(3-picolylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione; L4, 1,5-bis(3-picolylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione). Each ligand was characterised in solution via(1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR, with three examples giving single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The structures confirmed the proposed formulations and also revealed the presence of intramolecular H-bonding between the quinone and secondary amine units. The electronic characteristics of the ligands were investigated using a combined experimental/theoretical approach, revealing that in each case absorption in the visible region constitutes significant charge transfer (CT) character, originating from N-(amine)-to-quinone transitions, and is solvent sensitive. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations also suggest that the position of amino-substitution at the AQ core influences the wavelength of the lowest energy feature, by modulation of the HOMO, rather than the LUMO energy. The coordination chemistry of the ligands was probed through reaction with fac-[Re(CO)(3)(di-imine)(MeCN)](BF(4)) where di-imine = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp). Combined structural and spectroscopic studies confirmed that the ligands coordinate to Re(i) exclusively via the pyridyl units, however in the case of L3 only monometallic complexes were isolated. The optical properties of the complexes are dominated by AQ-centred (>425 nm) absorptions superimposed upon (1)MLCT features, as well as diimine-based intra-ligand (<350 nm) transitions. The luminescence properties of the complexes generally display dual emission, which was dependent upon the wavelength of sensitisation, with short-lived AQ fluorescence superimposed

  17. New preparative routes to 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 5-substituted 5,6-dihydro-6-hydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline complexes of Re(I) carbonyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubner, Tatyana S.

    Luminescent transition-metal polyimine complexes are utilized in numerous applications, including luminescent sensors and probes, activation of CO 2 and photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and solar energy conversion and storage. What makes the complexes so versatile for so many applications is that their photophysical and photochemical properties can be synthetically programmed by (1) placing electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents on the polyimine (chromophoric) ligand, (2) by varying the non-chromophoric ligands in the coordination sphere, (3) by varying the choice of chromophoric ligand, and/or (4) by changing the metal itself. Synthesis of new complexes that incorporate such changes contributes to the availability of building blocks for the aforementioned applications. This work examines the effects of several of the above variations in the luminescent polycarbonyl complexes of Re(I), specifically focusing on the synthesis and characterization of new 5,6-dihydro-5-substituted-6-hydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline ligands and their complexes, and new Re(I) polycarbonyl mixed-ligand "black" chromophores of 2,2':6',2 ″-terpyridine.

  18. Updating the Seismic Hazard Determination in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This job presents an update of research by Berrocal in 1996 in the determination of seismic hazard for the Southeast of Brazil, based on the earthquake catalog compiled at the Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo and bulletin of Seismological Observatory, Universidade de Brasilia, during the period between 1767 until May 2012. The southeastern Brazil has a level of seismic activity is considered low, typical of intraplate regions. Our database has a total of 3726 events, however 1242 events do not have the magnitude estimated, 1638 events are between magnitudes 0.1 to 1.9 and from 2.0 to 3.9 are 819 events. The largest earthquake in the region occurred on February 28, 1955 with magnitude 6.1 mb (Assumpção, 2000), with its epicenter about 400 km from the coast, this was felt in small cities, especially in Espirito Santo State. The intensity VIII-IX MM was estimated by Berrocal et al. (1984). The database also has four events with magnitude above 5.0 mb in the region that occurred during the past 215 years and a little more than a twenty earthquakes with magnitude between 4.0 and 5.0 mb. Instrumental data are available since the 1970s when the station network was installed in Brasilia. Several other short-period vertical stations have been installed in the region. We used data from the same area defined in the previous survey, located between parallels 15S-32S degree and longitudes 35W-52W degree. It contains the most developed area of Brazil, and the major cities and industrial centers of the country (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte). Major engineering works, hydroelectric and nuclear power plant (Angra dos Reis) are also in this area. Therefore, the results can be applied to the planning and construction of large engineering within that region. With GIS and seismology tools was calculated relative frequency/magnitude for earthquakes mb > 3.0, the value of b with the maximum likelihood method, and so curves of recurrence was

  19. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  20. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development. PMID:23950068

  1. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  2. Social Studies in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searles, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the role of social studies in transmitting the cultural heritage of Brazil. Includes descriptions of Brazilian culture and the educational structure. Journal availability: see SO 506 831. (AV)

  3. A new species of Comephoronema (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from the squirrelfish Holocentrus adscensionis (Beryciformes: Holocentridae) off Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe Bisaggio; Pereira, Aldenice de Nazaré; Luque, José Luis

    2014-02-01

    A new nematode species, Comephoronema multipapillatum sp. n. (Cystidicolidae), is described from the anterior intestine and caecum of the squirrelfish Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck) (Beryciformes: Holocentridae) collected in Angra dos Reis, State of Rio de Janeiro, offshore Brazil. The new species was placed in Comephoronema Layman, 1933 by having an oval oral aperture, four submedian labia, four bilobed submedian sublabia, two narrow lateral pseudolabia and four single cephalic papillae, but mainly by numerous precloacal papillae in males (more than six pairs), in which it differs from species of the otherwise morphologically similar genus Ascarophis van Beneden, 1871. Comephoronema multipapillatum sp. n. can be easily distinguished from other congeners based on the high number of precloacal papillae in males (18 pairs + one unpaired) and also by the bidentate plate structure on the inner margin of pseudolabia, mature eggs with two long filaments on a single pole, body length of male (9.4-11.5 mm) and female (10.2-19.9 mm), left spicule size (222-278 microm) and length ratio of spicules (1 : 2.2-2.8). This is the fifth nominal species of Comephoronema, the first nematode registered parasitizing H. adscensionis and the first species of the genus in the Neotropical part of the Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Particle pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: increase and decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L; Amaral, Beatriz S; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D; Gioda, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent.

  5. Particle Pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Increase and Decrease of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Rivera-Ramírez, Evasomary; Mateus, Vinicius L.; Amaral, Beatriz S.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.; Gioda, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Particle pollution from urban and industrialized regions in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil was analyzed for toxic and pro-inflammatory (cytokines: IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Trace elements contribution was studied. Airborne particulate matter was collected at: three industrial sites Ind-1 (PM10) and Ind-2a and 2b (PM2.5); Centro urban area (PM10) and two rural sites (PM2.5, PM10). PM10 acetone extracts were toxic and did not elicit cytokine release; aqueous extracts were less toxic and stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8. PM2.5 aqueous extracts from Ind-2 decreased the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Zinc concentration was higher at the industrial and rural reference sites (Ref-1-2) although metals were not associated to cytokines changes. These results demonstrate that PM from RJ can either increase or decrease cytokine secretion in vitro while being site specific and time dependent. PMID:25106047

  6. [A better Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  7. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  8. [A better Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories. PMID:24789488

  9. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  10. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  11. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  12. Human Pythiosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Araújo, João Pessoa; Candeias, João Manuel Grisi; Fabiano de Franco, Marcello; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Mendoza, Leonel; Pires de Camargo, Rosangela; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2005-01-01

    Pythiosis, caused by Pythium insidiosum, occurs in humans and animals and is acquired from aquatic environments that harbor the emerging pathogen. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical and histopathologic features are not pathognomonic. We report the first human case of pythiosis from Brazil, diagnosed by using culture and rDNA sequencing. PMID:15890126

  13. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  14. Chikungunya risk for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  15. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  16. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  17. Tuberculosis Control Program and patient satisfaction, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Brito, Cláudia; Ferreira, Vanja Maria Bessa; Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate factors associated with users’ satisfaction in the Tuberculosis Control Program. METHODS A cross-sectional study of 295 patients aged ≥ 18 years, with two or more outpatient visits in the Tuberculosis Control Program, in five cities in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. Considering an estimated population of 4,345 patients, the sampling plan included 15 health care units participating in the program, divided into two strata: units in Rio de Janeiro City, selected with probability proportional to the monthly average number of outpatient visits, and units in the other four cities. In the units, four temporal clusters of five patients each were selected with equal probability, totaling 300 patients. A questionnaire investigating the users’ clinical and sociodemographic variables and aspects of care and service in the program relevant to user satisfaction was applied to the patients. Descriptive statistics about users and their satisfaction with the program were obtained, and the effects of factors associated with satisfaction were estimated. RESULTS Patients were predominantly males (57.7%), with a mean age of 40.9 and with low level of schooling. The mean treatment time was 4.1 months, mostly self-administered (70.4%). Additionally, 25.8% had previously been treated for tuberculosis. There was a high level of satisfaction, especially regarding medication provision, and respect to patients by the health professionals. Patients who were younger (≤ 30), those on self-administered treatment, and with graduate level, showed less satisfaction. Suggestions to improve the services include having more doctors (70.0%), and offering exams in the same place of attendance (55.1%). CONCLUSIONS Patient satisfaction with the Tuberculosis Control Program was generally high, although lower among younger patients, those with university education and those on self-administered treatment. The study indicates the need

  18. Post-Little Ice Age (1891-2011 AD) volume loss of Kotárjökull glacier, southeastern Iceland, as established from historical photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Hannesdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Björnsson, Helgi

    2013-04-01

    Kotárjökull is one of several outlet glaciers draining the ice-covered central volcano Öræfajökull in SE-Iceland. We estimate the average annual specific mass loss of the glacier, to be 0.22 m (water equivalent)over the post Little Ice Age period 1891-2011. The glacial recession corresponds to an areal decrease of 2.7 km2 (20%) and a volume loss of 0.4 km3 (30%). A surface lowering of 180 m is observed near the snout decreasing to negligible amounts above 1700 m elevation. This minimal surface lowering at high altitudes is supported by a comparison of the elevation of trigonometrical points on Öræfajökull's plateau from the Danish General Staff map of 1904 and a recent LiDAR-based digital elevation model. Our estimates are derived from a) three pairs of photographs from 1891 and 2011, b) geomorphological field evidence delineating the maximum glacier extent at the end of the Little Ice Age, and c) the high-resolution digital elevation model from 2010- 2011. The historical photographs of Frederick W.W. Howell from 1891 were taken at the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland, thus providing a reference of the maximum glacier extent.

  19. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  20. IPPs in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Alqueres, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil offers a viable opportunity for independent power producers (IPPs). Four areas of the Brazilian power sector may be the potential starting points for an independent power industry. Recent legislation also has opened the doors for IPP activity by allowing companies to form consortia to generate power for their own needs. Another recent decree formed the basis for a grid system to which generators can sell power. This also has laid the groundwork for more clearly defined wheeling charges.

  1. Evidence of Gondwana early rifting process recorded by Resende-Ilha Grande Dike Swarm, southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Eliane; Heilbron, Monica; de Morisson Valeriano, Claudio; de Almeida, Julio César Horta; Szatmari, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Continental flood basalts and dike swarm have been related to continental breakup process through geological time. The Resende - Ilha Grande Dike swarm (RIGDS) located in the southeast Brazil, is related the Gondwana breakup and composed of dikes/sills intruded in Precambrian gneiss. The dikes have three distinguish orientations: NNW more inland; NS-NNE in the central segment and NE orientation in the coast line, consistent with Precambrian structural lineaments. The swarm comprises high-TiO2 tholeiitic basalts divided into three suites based on REE and Sr and Nd isotope data. The Resende and Volta Redonda suites present higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7077 and 0.7065, while Angra dos Reis suite presents values of 0.7066 to 0.7057. Geochemical and isotopic data support the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) as the main source for the high-TiO2 basalts. The suites heterogeneities are explained by different compositions of SCLM in accreted Precambrian terranes and/or different degree of partial melting and fractional. 40Ar/39Ar data indicate age interval between ca. 156 to 144 Ma for the swarm, older than the average for Gondwana breakup (ca. 130-120 Ma). The age interval places the RIGDS between the Karoo magmatism (181-178 Ma) and the Paraná-Etendeka magmatism (133-134 Ma) and indicates that extensional process affected the supercontinent prior the break-up.

  2. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  3. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  4. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  5. A Comprehensive View of Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This student and teacher resource discusses the geography, history, and contemporary changes and achievements of Brazil. It is intended to complement textbooks and other teaching materials by serving as a resource for teachers, administrators, and students. The document is presented in three parts. Part I focuses on the geography of Brazil,…

  6. Group 2 vaccinia virus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil.

  7. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  8. Astronomy in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  9. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  10. The white marble used in Brasília, a World Heritage and the capital of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heloisa Barros de Oliveira Frascá, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Created as the Brazilian capital, in the central western part of Brazil, Brasilia is a definitive example of 20th century modernist urbanism. It was built in only four years, from 1956 to 1960, following the project of urban planner Lucio Costa and architect Oscar Niemeyer that intended that every element - from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves - should be in harmony with the city's overall design. This description is from the World Heritage Centre, of Unesco, that nominated Brasilia as a Cultural Heritage Property in 1987. Most of the remarkable buildings designed Oscar Niemeyer, cited by Unesco, are around the Plaza of Three Powers, as the Planalto ("Plateau") Palace, the National Congress, the Supreme Court, the Cathedral, the National Theatre among others. Aside from the worldwide recognition of the architectonic value of these buildings, it is barely mentioned the expressive use of white marble as cladding. Very few are found in the literature about specification criteria, provenance, fixation method and conservation. According to Oscar Niemeyer Foundation, at this moment they know that the stone come from a supplier in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A preliminary research indicated that the marble used in most of Brasilia buildings are from the municipality of Italva, in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ, 2012). In a study carried out by DRM-RJ, in 2003, it is mentioned two white marble commercialized as dimension stone in Italva: "Sparkling Marble" (SM) and "Italva White Marble" (IWM), respectively dolomite-calcite marble and dolomite marble. Their main characteristics are: bulk specific gravity: 2,792 kg/m3 (SM) and 2,852kg/m3 (IWM); water absorption: 0.08 % (SM) and 0.10 % (IWM); uniaxial compression strength: 84.3 MPa (SM) and 88.2 MPa (IWM); modulus of rupture: 9.92 MPa (SM) and 8.75 MPa (IWM); coefficient of linear

  11. Impact of a Reference Center on Leprosy Control under a Decentralized Public Health Care Policy in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Raquel Rodrigues; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana Andrea; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Duppre, Nádia Cristina; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Reorientation of the public health policies in Brazil over the last 20 years in association with a stable rate of new-case detection prompted the establishment of a decentralized leprosy control strategy. The aim was to move from a vertical model associated with general dermatological services to one in which the diagnosis and treatment of the disease would be integrated into the primary care level of the national health care facilities. Once patients demand for leprosy reference centers began to be affected by the process of integrating leprosy diagnosis into the basic health care services, it was necessary to determine the profile of all our referrals in light of the new decentralization policy. Objective We evaluated the profile of patients referred to the Fiocruz Outpatient Clinic, a reference center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and analyzed the origins and outcomes of these referrals. Methods This is an observational retrospective study based on information collected from the Leprosy Laboratory database at Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A total of 1,845 suspected leprosy cases examined at the reference center between 2010 and 2014 were included. The originating health service referrals and diagnostic outcomes were analyzed as well as the clinical and epidemiological data of patients diagnosed with leprosy. Result Our data show that the profile of the patients treated at the Clinic has changed in recent years. There was an increase in both the proportion of patients with other skin diseases and those who had visited only one health service prior to our Clinic. Among the total 1,845 cases analyzed, the outcomes of 1,380 were linked to other diseases and, in 74% of these cases, a biopsy was not necessary to reach a diagnostic conclusion. A decrease in new leprosy case detection among our patients was also observed. Yet, among the leprosy patients, 40% had some degree of disability at diagnosis. Conclusion The results of

  12. Biothics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Guilhem, Dirce Bellezi; Garrafa, Volnei

    1999-07-01

    In this article the authors briefly sketch the nature of Brazilian bioethics. Bioethics emerged in Brazil later than in other Western countries and the 1990's were the most important period for the spread of the discipline in the country. It is in this period that some structural elements of bioethics were established, such as research groups, regulation of Local Research Ethics Committees (Comitês Locais de Etica em Pesquisa -- CEP), the creation of the National Commission of Ethics in Research with Human Beings (Comissão Nacional de Etica em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos -- CONEP) and the Brazilian Bioethics Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética -- SBB). With regard to theoretical work, Brazilian bioethics is clearly an importer of theories from countries central to the studies of bioethics, or, in other words, countries where biothics first emerged and was established. The most commonly used theory among Brazilian researchers is principalism.

  13. The Brazil nut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Dora; Ruiz-Suarez, Jesus

    2004-03-01

    The segregation of large intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed is studied. We measure rising times a function of density, diameter and depth; for two different sinusoidal excitations. Our results shed definitive light to explain the fundamental aspects of the fascinating Brazil nut problem. At low frequencies (high amplitudes), inertia and convection are the only mechanisms behind segregation. Inertia dominates when the relative density of the intruder is greater than one and convection when it is less than one. At high frequencies (small amplitudes), where convection is suppressed, segregation occurs by buoyancy or sinkage. Finally, when the diameter of the intruders is changed, the well known paradigm "larger intruders rise faster" fails if the mass of the intruders is kept constant (while their relative densities are greater than one).

  14. Tungsten resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  15. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  16. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  17. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infrared scene of agriculture and ranching enterprises along the middle portion of the Rio Sao Francisco basin of Brazil (13.0S, 43.5 W) shows the usefulness of infrared film in determining types of vegetation. This region of Brazil has been under study for agriculture and ranching enterprises for several years. However, unpredictable rainfall and frequent severe droughts have limited the success of these enterprises.

  18. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  19. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  20. Tin resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Annual tin production in Brazil, most of it from cassiterite placer deposits in Rondonia Territory, amounts to about 4,000 metric tons (4,400 short tons) of concentrate containing 66 percent tin, much of which is consumed by Brazilian industry. Reserves of cassiterite concentrate in the placers of Rondonia district are estimated at about 160,000 (176,000 short tons) containing 66 percent tin. Extensive undiscovered resources of cassiterite possibly exist in southern Rondonia Territory and to the east of the Territory in northern Mato Grosso, southern Amazonas, and southern Para. Numerous occurrences have been reported in these regions and as far to the east as the headwaters of the Tapajos and the Xingo Rivers. Minor deposits or occurrences of cassiterite (or lode deposits about which there is only minimal information available) are located in Para, Amapa, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goias, Sao Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul. All the lode tin deposits are dated or enclosed in rocks that date as Precambrian B (900 to 1,300 m.y.).

  1. Hydrological Forecasting Practices in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando; Paiva, Rodrigo; Collischonn, Walter; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2016-04-01

    This work brings a review on current hydrological and flood forecasting practices in Brazil, including the main forecasts applications, the different kinds of techniques that are currently being employed and the institutions involved on forecasts generation. A brief overview of Brazil is provided, including aspects related to its geography, climate, hydrology and flood hazards. A general discussion about the Brazilian practices on hydrological short and medium range forecasting is presented. Detailed examples of some hydrological forecasting systems that are operational or in a research/pre-operational phase using the large scale hydrological model MGB-IPH are also presented. Finally, some suggestions are given about how the forecasting practices in Brazil can be understood nowadays, and what are the perspectives for the future.

  2. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  3. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  4. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  5. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  6. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  7. Optimization of Rei-mullite Physical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzilli, R. A.; Musikant, S.; Bolinger, P. N.; Brazel, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Micromechanical and thermal modeling studies prove that ceramic fiber mullite materials is the only system capable of shuttle thermal protection to 1644 K. Hafnia pigmentated mullite surface coatings meet both orbital and reentry thermal radiative requirements for reuse without refurbishment. Thermal and mechanical models show growths potentials associated with the mullite system for a factor of 2 improvement in mechanical properties, and a factor of 2 to 3 reduction in thermal conductivity.

  8. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  9. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  10. Environmental Education Activities in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Michele

    1994-01-01

    Describes environmental education activities in the Cuiaba region of Brazil's Amazon and Platina Basins. Activities include the environmental education specialization course at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, teacher training in rural schools, and the introduction of environmental themes into school curriculum. (MDH)

  11. Chromobacterium violaceum in Siblings, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Juarez; Ruf, Hilda; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G.; Maciel, Elves Anderson Pires; Rolim, Ana; Jabur, Laura; Vasconcelos, Luciana; Silvany, Célia

    2005-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a saprophyte bacterium found commonly in soil and water in tropical and subtropical climates, is a rare cause of severe, often fatal, human disease. We report 1 confirmed and 2 suspected cases of C. violaceum septicemia, with 2 fatalities, in siblings after recreational exposure in northeastern Brazil. PMID:16229777

  12. Chromobacterium violaceum in siblings, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Isadora Cristina; Dias, Juarez; Ruf, Hilda; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G; Maciel, Elves Anderson Pires; Rolim, Ana; Labur, Laura; Vasconcelos, Luciana; Silvany, Célia

    2005-09-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a saprophyte bacterium found commonly in soil and water in tropical and subtropical climates, is a rare cause of severe, often fatal, human disease. We report 1 confirmed and 2 suspected cases of C. violaceum septicemia, with 2 fatalities, in siblings after recreational exposure in northeastern Brazil. PMID:16229777

  13. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  14. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo L; Lindoso, Ana Angélica B P

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is intrinsically related to the incidence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The main countries that have the lowest human development indices (HDI) and the highest burdens of NTDs are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among these countries is Brazil, which is ranked 70th in HDI. Nine out of the ten NTDs established by the World Health Organization (WHO) are present in Brazil. Leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, dengue fever and leprosy are present over almost the entire Brazilian territory. More than 90% of malaria cases occur in the Northern region of the country, and lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis occur in outbreaks in a particular region. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil have the lowest HDIs and the highest rates of NTDs. These diseases are considered neglected because there is not important investment in projects for the development of new drugs and vaccines and existing programs to control these diseases are not sufficient. Another problem related to NTDs is co-infection with HIV, which favors the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations and therapeutic failure. In this article, we describe the status of the main NTDs currently occurring in Brazil and relate them to the HDI and poverty.

  15. Education for Librarianship in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Pamela F.

    The paper examines and describes the development, trends, and current status of education for librarianship in Brazil against the background of the contemporary library scene and the system of higher education in general, focusing on the development of the 30 undergraduate and six post-graduate library programs in existence today. The master's…

  16. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  17. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case

  18. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  19. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  20. AIDS Treatment In Brazil: Impacts And Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy Stewart; Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has one of the developing world's largest, and arguably most successful, AIDS treatment programs. In this paper we review the treatment program, including controversial policies that Brazil has used to promote widespread local and global access to AIDS treatment. We also examine the lessons learned from this program and highlight the challenges Brazil faces, including the rising costs of AIDS treatment and changes in donors' funding priorities. Finally, we explore the relevance of Brazil's treatment program for other countries and its broad implications for global AIDS and health policy. PMID:19597210

  1. The geomorphology and ground penetrating radar survey results of the Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull surge-type glaciers, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karušs, Jānis; Lamsters, Kristaps; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2015-04-01

    Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull are surge-type outlet glaciers of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2003). The forefield of Múlajökull comprises the active drumlin field of more than 110 drumlins (Johnson et al., 2010; Jónsson et al., 2014) and therefore is an excellent area for studies of glacial geomorphology, subglacial topography and ice structures. This work describes preliminary results obtained during the expedition to Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull glaciers in August, 2014. In the research ground penetrating radar (GPR) Zond 12-e was used. GPR measurements were performed on both outlet glaciers using 38 MHz and 75 MHz antenna systems. During data acquisition 2000 ns time window was used, while length of profiles was determined using GPS device Garmin GPS-76. In total approximately 3 km of GPR profiles were recorded. GPR signals propagation speed in glacier ice was determined using reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In obtained radarogramms it was possible to trace reflections from the glacier bed till depth of approximately 144 m as well as numerous prominent reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In one of the obtained radarogramms possible subglacial channel below Múlajökull glacier was identified. Also feature of subglacial topography that resembles drumlin was identified. The area of abundant infiltrated water was distinguished close to the ice margin in the radarogramm obtained on Þjórsárjökull suggesting successive supraglacial meltwater infiltration towards glacier margin. During the field work numerous radial crevasses, supraglacial channels and moulins were observed in the marginal zone of Múlajökull. The forefield of Múlajökull mainly consist of subglacial landforms (drumlins, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges), end moraines and sandur plains. Flutes and crevasse-fill ridges were found superimposed on drumlins in places. Till macrofabric was measured close to the

  2. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  3. Recent developments on shotcrete applications in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes Filho, J.D.; Guimaraes Neto, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the development of shotcrete in Brazil, since its introduction in the country to the present. Firstly, the authors focus on the application, with an overview on the main projects in which shotcrete was used. Next, the evolution of fabrication of shotcrete equipment in Brazil and some new achievements in this area are shown.

  4. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  5. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  6. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  7. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation... frozen concentrated orange juice for further manufacturing and NFC stands for conventional pasteurized... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  8. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  9. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  10. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  11. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  12. [Economic evaluation of cases of dengue fever attributed to the disaster of 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos Alexandre Rodrigues; Barata, Martha Macedo de Lima; Hoelz, Melania de Paulo Cariello; Medeiros, Viviane Nunes Lopes Oliveira; Marincola, Felipe de Carvalho Vommaro; Costa Neto, Cristina; Marinho, Diana Pinheiro; Oliveira, Teresa Vieira Dos Santos; Trigo, Aline Guimarães Monteiro; Medeiros, Thiago Klein de

    2014-09-01

    The prospects outlined in climate scenarios produced for Brazil indicate a probable increase in the number of extreme hydrometeorological events in the coming years. Therefore, a study of the health scourges that may intensify due to these events is important. The scope of this article is to estimate the cost represented by the cases of dengue fever attributed to the 2011 disaster in Nova Friburgo (RJ). There were 1,356 suspected cases of dengue fever, 937 of which were confirmed. The total cost of the disease may have been between R$66,000 and R$499,000 taking the minimum salary as a benchmark, with approximately 70% of this amount being among the confirmed cases. The disaster caused extensive changes in the city's environment which, together with the urban sanitation and clearing up process that occurred in the post-event period, led to an increase in the number of potential mosquito breeding sites, facilitating their proliferation and increasing the number of cases of dengue fever. This was a disease that in the decade prior to the disaster recorded few cases of the disease in the municipality. This illustrates the potential of events like the one that occurred in 2011 in Nova Friburgo may have on the increase in the number of cases, and consequently on the cost of the disease.

  13. Understanding the variations in the vegetation of Cabo Frio, Southeastern coast of Brazil, during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario, K.; Coe, H. H.; Gomes, J.; Oliveira, F.; Gomes, P.; Carvalho, C.; Linares, R.; Alves, E.; Santos, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Southeast was formerly occupied by Atlantic forest before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, when deforestation slowly started to take place. To understand the variations in the vegetation of Cabo Frio during the Quaternary, and possibly identify when they roughly took place, we make use of soil phytolith identification (as proxy), stable isotopes analyses and 14C dating of soil profiles. Nowadays, those are helpful tools to reveal the palaeoenvironmental secrets hidden below-ground. The soil profile studied, which was divided in 4 horizons ranging from 10 and 115 cm in depth, was collected in the surroundings of Cabo Frio, in the Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern coast of Brazil. Its total organic carbon (TOC) varied from 0.42 to 1.11% (for the different horizons), when its δ13C values ranged from -18.81 (topsoil) to -23.72‰ (~ 80cm deep). Phytolith D/P index varied from 0.1 to 0.21. Due to the low carbon content within soil horizons, soil organic matter (SOM) fractions were chosen for isotopic analyses. Mostly of the 14C-SOM analyses were performed in a newer 14C facility, which runs a NEC 250 kV Single Stage Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system, the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Fluminense Federal University (LAC-UFF) located in Niteroi, RJ. In brief, before measurements could be performed, the soil samples were treated with HCl 1.0M to remove carbonates, then combusted in sealed evacuated pre-baked tubes, cryogenically clean and converted to graphite (as decribed in Xu et al. 2007). In order to verify the distribution of 14C ages of different chemical soil fractions (Pessenda et al. 2001), a refractory C fraction (humin) was extracted from the topsoil horizon, and also converted to graphite following established protocols (Santos et al. 2007a,b). Due to its very low carbon mass (<<50mgC), this graphite target was processed and measured at the Keck-CCAMS Facility at University of California, Irvine. (UCI), which runs a modified NEC

  14. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1999-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  15. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  16. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  17. Radiometric Analyses of Beach Sands from the Southeast of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Anjos, R. M.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.

    2007-02-12

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of coastal sand deposits were used to determine the provenance of the sandy sediments and to obtain information about paleo-sea-levels along the coast of three Brazilian States: Sao Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Espirito Santo (ES). Th/U and Th/K ratios suggest a considerable positive correlation with the geological evolution of the Quaternary coastal deposits of the Brazilian Southeast.

  18. [Women and development in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cunha Neves, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the social, political and cultural status of women in Brazil. In 1976 only 29.6% of Brazilian women participated in economic activities; 54.3% of these were still employed as laborers in the countryside, while only 6% were employed in urban and industrial jobs. The greatest concentration of female labor is in the category of the very badly paid domestic employment. Man is traditionally the head of the family, even when he is not the breadwinner. Illiteracy has decreased in Brazil to 24.3%, but female analphabetism is 26.5% versus 21.9% male analphabetism. Schools are open to males and females at all levels, but the traditional and cultural structure of Brazilian society considers the home, not the school, as the only proper place for young girls, and maternity is still the primary social function of women. Politically Brazilian women have very little power, even if they make up 44% of the electoral body. Sex education does not exist in the school or in the home, and any sexuality exercised outside the bonds of marriage is considered as deviant.

  19. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  20. Proposed hydrologic analyses of streamflow for Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, Henry Chiles

    1974-01-01

    Streamflow records are evaluated for the Rio Jacui basin in the state of Rio Grande Sul, Brazil, in reference to data reliability, length of record, and density of areal coverage. Availability of water is a factor in the development of a country, and surface water is of especial importance in Brazil. This report is intended as a reference for further investigation of the flow characteristic of the basin to provide (1) information for utilization of streamflow and (2) information to improve the data collection and analytic procedures. In addition the evaluation study can serve as a pilot for other developing river basins in Brazil. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  2. An Energy Overview of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Brazil. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  3. Reversing the Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, F.; Vandewalle, N.

    2005-12-01

    We propose a lattice model for studying the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), i.e. the phase segregation occuring when a granular material is vertically shaked. The model considers the tap intensity and the mobility μ of the grains as the main physical parameters. Different mobilities for different grain species lead to segregation (BNE) patterns, reverse segregation (RBNE) patterns, “sandwhich" layered structures or vertical domains. A phase diagram (decompaction χ, mobility difference between both species Δ μ) is obtained in which the different phases are emphasized. In a narrow region of the diagram, different phases coexist. It is shown that the BNE segregation could be reversed by increasing the tap intensity or the characteristics of the grains. Numerical results are compared with earlier experimental works.

  4. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations. PMID:26375648

  5. Implementation and Validation of the Viscoelastic Continuum Damage Theory for Asphalt Mixture and Pavement Analysis in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Luis Alberto Herrmann do

    This dissertation presents the implementation and validation of the viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model for asphalt mixture and pavement analysis in Brazil. It proposes a simulated damage-to-fatigue cracked area transfer function for the layered viscoelastic continuum damage (LVECD) program framework and defines the model framework's fatigue cracking prediction error for asphalt pavement reliability-based design solutions in Brazil. The research is divided into three main steps: (i) implementation of the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model in Brazil (Petrobras) for asphalt mixture characterization, (ii) validation of the LVECD model approach for pavement analysis based on field performance observations, and defining a local simulated damage-to-cracked area transfer function for the Fundao Project's pavement test sections in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and (iii) validation of the Fundao project local transfer function to be used throughout Brazil for asphalt pavement fatigue cracking predictions, based on field performance observations of the National MEPDG Project's pavement test sections, thereby validating the proposed framework's prediction capability. For the first step, the S-VECD test protocol, which uses controlled-on-specimen strain mode-of-loading, was successfully implemented at the Petrobras and used to characterize Brazilian asphalt mixtures that are composed of a wide range of asphalt binders. This research verified that the S-VECD model coupled with the GR failure criterion is accurate for fatigue life predictions of Brazilian asphalt mixtures, even when very different asphalt binders are used. Also, the applicability of the load amplitude sweep (LAS) test for the fatigue characterization of the asphalt binders was checked, and the effects of different asphalt binders on the fatigue damage properties of the asphalt mixtures was investigated. The LAS test results, modeled according to VECD theory, presented a strong correlation with

  6. Brazil comes in from the cold

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Brazil is well on its way to rolling back its nuclear program from the brink of developing nuclear explosives. The reason for this dramatic reversal can be traced to international diplomatic pressure on Brazil to accept full-scope safeguards and implement the Treaty of Tlatelolco, and to the growth of democracy in Brazil, which has provided an opportunity for groups such as the Brazilian Physics Society to work politically to end their country's effort to build nuclear weapons. The recent developments in Brazil underscore the importance of responsible civilian control of the nuclear program, and the role of domestic and international inspections of nuclear facilities to verify that weapons-related activities are not taking place. More importantly, these developments show that knowledgeable and dedicated people and groups opposed to nuclear weapons production can make a significant contribution to stopping their country from going nuclear.

  7. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  8. Telecommunications and Information Services in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarapanoff, Kira; Alvares, Lillian

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the interdependence of telecommunications and information sciences in Brazil. Highlights include new technologies and telecommunications: satellites, fiber optic cables, data communication networks, information superhighways, and cooperative projects; and information services development. (AEF)

  9. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  10. Brazil: energy options and current outlook.

    PubMed

    Goldemberg, J

    1978-04-14

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Brazil has abundant renewable energy resources but very modest reserves of fossil fuels. Consequently, the emphasis in the future will have to be on the utilization of solar energy, hydroelectric power, and biomass in a program designed to preserve local traditions and culture.

  11. Response to the comment on: “Soon, W., and Legates, D.R., solar irradiance modulation of equator-to-pole (Arctic) temperature gradients: empirical evidence for climate variation on multi-decadal timescales. Journal of Atmospheric and solar-terrestrial physics, 93, (2013) 45-56” by F. Meunier and A. H. Reis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Willie; Legates, David R.

    2015-06-01

    We thank Meunier and Reis (hereafter as MR) for their comments on our paper. We, however, do not see the relevance of their alternative interpretation to our original results and believe this reflects their confusion regarding our conclusions rather than a discussion on physical mechanisms. In the context of this quote, note that even Pallé et al. (2009:3)admitted that “while the deseasonalized CERES data has a small year to year variability (Fig. 2 of Pallé et al., 2009), the Earthshine data seem to present overly large interannual anomalies, along with a large size of the error bars associated to the yearly means [which] is mostly due to sampling issues, as Earthshine measurements are taken from a single station.”To put this in a different way, the relatively short duration of Earthshine or satellite-borne measurements of global albedo is unable to provide the necessary information on how this important quantity may vary on multi-decadal timescales as studies by Soon and Legates (2013). We note that efforts to 'reconstruct' Earth albedo over a 120-to-130 year period have been discussed by Zavalishin (2014) but we stress that such research requires non-independent information regarding surface temperatures and some unproven assumptions about the thermal inertia of the hydrosphere.

  12. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.

    The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.

    The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or

  13. [The health system of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  14. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Agapejev, S

    1996-01-01

    A revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil. The prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. The frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. The disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. Patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. The most involved age range (64-100%) was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67%) between 21 and 40 years. The male sex was the most affected (51-80%). In the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62%) and of the female sex (53-75%). The period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 +/- 1.4 admissions. The clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92%) and intracranial hypertension (19-89%). Psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. Lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. The asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical series and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. The racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. Among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.

  15. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses. PMID:27781012

  16. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  17. Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, H; Câmara, V de M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory scheme, workers' compensation system, plant-level practices, training, and data collection. METHODS. We reviewed and analyzed Brazilian regulatory legislation and government and non-governmental organization (NGO) activity in occupational safety and health, as well as the structure and function of the workers' compensation system. We also reviewed available data on injuries and diseases from major sources, including the now-defunct Instituto Nacional do Previdencia Social (INPS) and the workers' compensation scheme, Seguro de Acidente de Trabalho (SAT). RESULTS. The incidence of workplace injuries has decreased in recent years and is now reported to be about 5 per 100 workers per year. The case fatality rate has been constant at about 5 fatalities per 1000 injuries. Less than 6% of reported injuries are classified as "diseases." Brazil's rates are comparable to those of Mexico and Zimbabwe, and two to four times higher than in most industrialized countries. CONCLUSIONS. Brazil has a high incidence of occupational injuries and diseases; these injuries and diseases are underreported; there is a large informal sector at special risk; and Brazil illustrates the disparity that exists in many countries between legislation on the books and legislation that is actually implemented. PMID:1836110

  18. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu

    2013-06-01

    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  19. Air-driven Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, M.; Swift, Michael; King, P.

    2003-07-01

    A large heavy object may rise to the top of a bed of smaller particles under the influence of vertical vibration, the “Brazil nut effect.” Recently it has been noted that interstitial air can influence the Brazil nut rise time. Here we report that the air movement induced by vertical vibration produces a very strong Brazil nut effect for fine granular beds. We use a porous-bottomed box to investigate the mechanism responsible for this effect and to demonstrate that it is related to the piling of fine beds, first reported by Chladni and studied by Faraday. Both effects are due to the strong interaction of the fine particles with the air, as it is forced through the bed by the vibration.

  20. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  1. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Souza, Katia P. R.; Añez, Germán; Rios, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil. PMID:26413514

  2. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  3. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  4. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B.; Jacobson, Cardell K.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey data from 2001 and 2008 to examine factors predicting intergroup marriage and the trends in intergroup marriage in Brazil. The results show higher rates of intermarriage in urban than in rural areas. Intermarriage is less common among the most educated people. While the rates of intermarriage are increasing substantially, the rates of change are diffuse across urban and rural areas, regions and education groups. PMID:24052666

  5. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82-95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs.

  6. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  7. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82-95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  8. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  9. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  10. Brazil's Higher Education Responses to the Global Challenges of the 21st Century. Thinking Brazil. No. 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Thinking Brazil" is an electronic publication of the Brazil Institute. This issue of "Thinking Brazil" highlights the research of Elizabeth Balbachevsky. On July 24, 2006, Elizabeth Balbachevsky, Woodrow Wilson Center Public Policy Scholar and Associate Professor of Political Science, Universidade de Sao Paulo, presented her research on the…

  11. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  12. [Brazil, land of choice for arbovirosis?].

    PubMed

    Bedin, F

    2007-06-01

    Scores of arboviroses have been indexed in Brazil with variable rates of morbidity and mortality. Emergence of arboviroses and their transmission by hematophageous vectors are closely related to the country's recent history and in particular to its economic, social and ecological development. Most arboviroses are caused by alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Some species of bunyavirus are also found. Brazil is often regarded as an arbovirus sanctuary where dormant or nonpathogenic viruses can find an optimal context to emerge or reinforce their pathogenic potential in the middle term. Currently yellow fever and especially dengue fever are major public health problems.

  13. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  14. Satellite detection of tropical burning in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Michael; Holben, Brent

    1987-01-01

    Tropical burning often occurs in remote areas of the world. Satellite remote sensing is the only practical solution for detecting and monitoring this burning. The capability of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar orbiting satellites to detect tropical fire activity in the Manaus, Brazil area is demonstrated.

  15. Racial Inequality and Child Mortality in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Charles H.; Lovell, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1980 urban Brazil, race of mother significantly affected child mortality after controlling for region, income, and parent education, with a mortality gap of 6.7 years between the whites and Afro-Brazilians. Parent education, indoor plumbing, access to public health care, and presence of adult females significantly reduced the probability of…

  16. Characterization of hantaviruses circulating in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo-Silva, Carolina R; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K; Bisordi, Ivani; Suzuki, Akemi; Brigido, Marcelo M

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, an outbreak of HCPS in Brazil made hantaviruses a national threat to the rural and urban population. During this outbreak, 164 cases were reported, and 18.3% of them occurred in the Federal District. In this study, hantavirus genomic sequences were amplified from seven patients who resided in Central Brazil and then sequenced and compared to other hantavirus sequences. The complete S segment sequence, which is 1847 bases long and potentially encodes the 428 amino acid nucleocapsid protein, was determined for one patient. Moreover, a 700 base-pair sequence of the S segment was obtained from two other patients, and we analyzed M segment sequences from all samples. It can be inferred by both identity and phylogenetic analysis that the sequences obtained are highly related to Araraquara variant and Maciel virus. Phylogenetic results show that hantaviruses isolated in Central Brazil can be divided into two monophyletic groups: one group that clusters with Araraquara variant and the other group that includes the complete S segment sequence obtained in this study. Therefore, we propose the name Paranoa for this variant that co-exists with the Araraquara-like hantavirus in Central Brazil.

  17. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Rn; Souto, Wedson Ms

    2011-01-01

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology--reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements. PMID:21767370

  18. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  19. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  20. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Maranhao, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele B; Simith, Darlene B; de Souza Pereira, Armando; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Mendes, Wellington S; Vidigal, José R B; de Oliveira, Renata C; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Cruz, Ana C R; Nunes, Márcio R T; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F

    2010-12-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhao, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region.

  1. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves), presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements. PMID:21767370

  2. Culture Revisited: Vygotsky's Ideas in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza Lima, Elvira

    1995-01-01

    Examines educational reform and Vygotsky's influence on critical pedagogy in Brazil from two perspectives. One is the historical tradition of accepting multiplicity of learning behaviors, and the other is a close analysis of an environment that espoused the idea of literacy as a cultural production shared by everyone. (MMU)

  3. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the economic…

  4. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  5. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

  6. Determinants of Educational Performance in Southern Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David O.

    The study examined the effects of socioeconomic origin (SES) and mental ability (MA) on levels of educational (EA) and occupational aspiration (OA), academic performance (AP), and significant others' influence (SOI) for 1,950 5th grade elementary and 4th year gymnastic students in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Representative samples of approximately…

  7. Dengue situation in Brazil by year 2000.

    PubMed

    Schatzmayr, H G

    2000-01-01

    Dengue virus types 1 and 2 have been isolated in Brazil by the Department of Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, in 1986 and 1990 respectively, after many decades of absence. A successful continental Aedes aegypti control program in the Americas, has been able to eradicate the vector in most countries in the 60's, but the program could not be sustained along the years. Dengue viruses were reintroduced in the American region and the infection became endemic in Brazil, like in most Central and South American countries and in the Caribbean region, due to the weaning of the vector control programs in these countries. High demographic densities and poor housing conditions in large urban communities, made the ideal conditions for vector spreading. All four dengue types are circulating in the continent and there is a high risk of the introduction in the country of the other two dengue types in Brazil, with the development of large epidemics. After the Cuban episode in 1981, when by the first time a large epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome have been described in the Americas, both clinical presentations are observed, specially in the countries like Brazil, with circulation of more than one dengue virus type. A tetravalent potent vaccine seems to be the only possible way to control the disease in the future, besides rapid clinical and laboratory diagnosis, in order to offer supportive treatment to the more severe clinical infections.

  8. Microcephaly in Infants, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We studied the clinical characteristics for 104 infants born with microcephaly in the delivery hospitals of Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 2015. Testing is ongoing to exclude known infectious causes. However, microcephaly peaked in October and demonstrated central nervous system abnormalities with brain dysgenesis and intracranial calcifications consistent with an intrauterine infection. PMID:27071041

  9. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  10. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  11. Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Brazil, from Field to Gene

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Lenildo; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia; Wada, Marcelo Y.; Jones, Jeffrey L.; Tuboi, Suely H.; Carmo, Eduardo H.; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Camargo, Natal J.; Trevisan, Ronaldo; Graça, Regina M.T.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Moura, Iaci; Dubey, J.P.; Garrett, Denise O.

    2006-01-01

    Water was the suspected vehicle of Toxoplasma gondii dissemination in a toxoplasmosis outbreak in Brazil. A case-control study and geographic mapping of cases were performed. T. gondii was isolated directly from the implicated water and genotyped as SAG 2 type I. PMID:16494765

  12. Maternal-child health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, C A

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the social and economic climates and the healthcare delivery systems of Brazil is presented. The Brazilian healthcare system is discussed, with particular attention directed to the status of nursing and to the perinatal health-care delivery system. Examples of Brazilian perinatal health-care practices are provided. PMID:3650322

  13. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  14. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454

  15. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil. PMID:17351814

  16. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil.

  17. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  18. Doctoral education in nursing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Silva, Isília Aparecida; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumet; Araújo, Thelma Leite; Vianna, Lucila Amaral Carneiro; Santos, Rosangela da Silva; Lopes, Marta Júlia Marques

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to present the trajectory of doctoral education in nursing in Brazil from 1981 to 2004. A descriptive and analytical study was carried out, using documents available at the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education, a body responsible for the recognition, evaluation and coordination of graduate studies in Brazil. Data analysis revealed that there are 13 doctoral courses in nursing, most of which are concentrated in the Southeast (69.2%), and that teaching and scientific production have been influenced by demographic and epidemiological transitions and by historical, social and political movements. Knowledge production is related to Nursing Care, Health Management and Practices and Theoretical Foundations of Care. Doctoral programs have prepared leaders in the fields of education, research and public policy development, in health institutions as well as in public policies, health institutions and governmental entities.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Oropouche Virus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Casseb, Lívia M.N.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto da Silva, Eliana V.; Silva, Mayra; Casseb, Samir M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV) is the causative agent of Oropouche fever, an urban febrile arboviral disease widespread in South America, with >30 epidemics reported in Brazil and other Latin American countries during 1960–2009. To describe the molecular epidemiology of OROV, we analyzed the entire N gene sequences (small RNA) of 66 strains and 35 partial Gn (medium RNA) and large RNA gene sequences. Distinct patterns of OROV strain clustered according to N, Gn, and large gene sequences, which suggests that each RNA segment had a different evolutionary history and that the classification in genotypes must consider the genetic information for all genetic segments. Finally, time-scale analysis based on the N gene showed that OROV emerged in Brazil ≈223 years ago and that genotype I (based on N gene data) was responsible for the emergence of all other genotypes and for virus dispersal. PMID:21529387

  20. John Banister: an Elizabethan surgeon in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mello, Amílcar D'Avila de

    2011-03-01

    In Brazil's sixteenth-century history, very few references are made to health professionals. On the expedition of Edward Fenton, dispatched by the English Crown in 1582 to set up a trading post in Asia, was the famous barber-surgeon and physician John Banister. The naval squadron, diverted from its original route to repeat the feats of Sir Francis Drake, stopped over in Africa, crossed the Atlantic and anchored off the Santa Catarina coast in Brazil. In these waters, the expedition degenerated into piracy and returned unsuccessful to Europe. John Banister is considered the person who liberated English anatomy from mediaeval slavery, shedding upon it the light of the Renaissance. It was the first time that anyone of this importance in the area of health had visited these latitudes.

  1. The water-enhanced Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, C. P.; Pacheco-Martinez, H. A.; Swift, M. R.; King, P. J.

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that a large dense intruder may rise to the surface of a vibrated granular bed, the Brazil nut effect. In this paper we describe a water-enhanced Brazil nut effect which occurs when the vibrated granular bed is fully immersed in a liquid. We use a bed of glass beads immersed in water and monitor the behaviour of a large steel intruder as the system is vibrated vertically. To aid our understanding, we have developed numerical simulations to model this system and provide detailed information on the fluid and grain motion. The mechanism responsible for the rapid rise of the intruder is shown to be fluid-enhanced ratcheting rather than simple differential drag.

  2. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  3. The burden of osteoporosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Bruna Coelho Galvão; Guerra, Luiza Paulino; Drummond, Juliana Beaudette; Silva, Barbara C; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporotic fractures impose severe physical, psychosocial, and financial burden both to the patient and the society. Studies on the prevalence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in Brazil show a wide variation, due to differences in sample size, the population studied, and methodologies. Few studies have been conducted in Brazil about the cost-effectiveness analyses of different intervention options aimed at the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Investigation and treatment strategies based on cost-effectiveness and scientific evidence are essential in the preparation of public health policies with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of fractures and, consequently, the direct and indirect costs associated with them. This article reviews the Brazilian burden of osteoporosis in terms of the prevalence and fractures attributable to the disease, the costs related to the investigation and management, as well as the impact of osteoporosis on the population as a whole and on affected individuals.

  4. The legacy of monazite processing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R

    2005-01-01

    The exploitation of natural resources containing naturally occurring radionuclides may lead to enhanced levels of radioactive isotope and enhanced potential for exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in products, by-products, residues or wastes. Such resources include, for instance, monazite, the processing of which, in Brazil, generated a great amount of radioactive residues, being stored in buried concrete tanks, in temporary storage buildings and in sealed trenches. In addition, during the 1980s there were no radiological protection rules concerning the storage and transportation of these kinds of residues. Mineral radioactive residues were used as landfills and the residues of chemical processes contaminated floors and buildings. The decommissioning process and cleaning of old plants have generated tons of wastes that has been added to previously produced wastes. This paper reports and discusses the cycle of monazite in Brazil and its consequences in terms of site remediation and amount of wastes and residues generated and stored. PMID:15899906

  5. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  6. Biobanking and Privacy Law in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi; Castellaro, Felipe Angel Bocchi; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the current regulatory framework for biobanking, genomic research, and protection of privacy in Brazil. It is divided in four parts. The first describes the biobanking context in Brazil and its evolution in recent years. In the second, the entire regulatory framework on biobanking and genomic research is analyzed. The third part focuses on the critical evaluation of this regulatory framework, specifically on some major ethical dilemmas in biobanking. The fourth part describes the characteristics of the Brazilian biobanking and human research governance system, known as the CEP/CONEP system. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the information in the article and its contribution to the study of the biobanking ethical challenges, especially the protection of privacy. It is highlighted that biobanking regulatory harmonization among countries is necessary, since it increases scientific possibilities that can come from broader cooperation among biobanks and several research centers on the national and international levels. PMID:26711412

  7. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection of Dogs from an Urban Area of Brazil as Identified by Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Coura-Vital, Wendel; Marques, Marcos José; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2011-01-01

    Background Various factors contribute to the urbanization of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), including the difficulties of implementing control measures relating to the domestic reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an urban endemic area in Brazil and the factors associated with Leishmania infantum infection among seronegative and PCR-positive dogs. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 1,443 dogs. Serology was carried out by using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Biomanguinhos/FIOCRUZ/RJ and “in house”), and molecular methods were developed, including PCR-RFLP. To identify the factors associated with early stages of infection, only seronegative (n = 1,213) animals were evaluated. These animals were divided into two groups: PCR-positive (n = 296) and PCR-negative (n = 917) for L. infantum DNA. A comparison of these two groups of dogs taking into consideration the characteristics of the animals and their owners was performed. A mixed logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with L. infantum infection. Principal Findings Of the 1,443 dogs examined, 230 (15.9%) were seropositive in at least one ELISA, whereas PCR-RFLP revealed that 356 animals (24.7%) were positive for L. infantum DNA. Results indicated that the associated factors with infection were family income

  8. Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, A

    1997-01-01

    The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas. (EXCERPT) PMID:12294841

  9. Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, A

    1997-01-01

    The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas. (EXCERPT)

  10. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  11. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  12. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  13. "Health for All" in England and Brazil?

    PubMed

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care. PMID:26077860

  14. [Dengue and its vectors in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dégallier, N; da Rosa, A P; Vasconcelos, P F; Figueiredo, L T; da Rosa, J F; Rodrigues, S G; da Rosa, E S

    1996-01-01

    History of dengue in Brazil is covered from the first citations in the XIXth century to the great outbreaks of the last ten years. DEN-1 and DEN-4 viruses have been isolated for the first time in 1982 during an epidemic in Boa Vista, Roraima State. In 1986-1987, epidemics of dengue type 1 covered an extended area from Rio de Janeiro/Sào Paulo States to the North East States of Brazil. During 1990-1991, dengue type 2 epidemics have been notified in the South East (Rio de Janeiro/São Paulo) and in some States of the interior of the country (Mato Grosso do Sul, Tocantins). DEN-1 virus was also circulating the same year in São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. Recently (1994), an important outbreak has been studied in Ceará State, where DEN-2 and DEN-1 viruses have been isolated. In Rio de Janeiro and Ceara (1990 and 1994, respectively), it is probably the succession of infections by DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses which has caused many DHF/DSS cases. The urban vector has always been the mosquito Aedes aegypti, from which 4, 7 and 16 strains of DEN-4, DEN-1 and DEN-2 have been isolated, respectively. In Brazil, transovarial transmission of dengue viruses by this species has not yet been shown to occur in nature.

  15. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  16. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil. PMID:24111568

  17. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome. PMID:26811272

  18. Sustainable Rural Energy Development in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ghandour, A.

    2005-01-01

    Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.

  19. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  20. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome.

  1. [Reflections on drug policies in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Tarcísio Matos

    2011-12-01

    This article contains some reflections on drug policies in Brazil. In the first two chapters, taking the needle exchange programs (SEPs) as the starting point, the author discusses the trajectory of the Harm Reduction Policy in Brazil and the role played in it by the Department of STD, AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. The third chapter examines the actions developed by the National Coordination of Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drugs and the Office of Drug Policies - SENAD, after the retraction of the Department of STD and AIDS from drug policies, as well as the introduction of PEAD and the "Crack Plan" in the country. In the fourth and fifth chapters the provisions of the current Brazilian policy on drugs and its limitations related mainly to the fragility of the Family Health Strategy are discussed, and some of the actions foreseen in the PEAD and the "Crack Plan" are critically analyzed. In the sixth chapter the author examines the effects of repression in the name of combating trafficking in the Brazilian policy on drugs having as background of the marginalization and social exclusion of users. Finally, some proposals are presented for the Alcohol and Drugs Policy in Brazil. PMID:22124907

  2. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  3. Food-fuel conflicts: the Brazil case

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, N.

    1981-01-01

    Brazil has decided to commit a significant part of its agricultural resources to the production of sugarcane and other crops to be processed into fuel grade alcohol. Concerns are already being raised about potential food-fuel conflicts, especially in the major food-sugarcane producing areas of the state of Sao Paulo and the sugarcane areas of northeast Brazil. The objective of this paper is to explore the dimensions of this emerging food-fuel issue in Brazil. The energy supply and use situation along with a brief description of the alcohol program are presented first. Current land use in relation to food and export crop production is presented next. This is followed by a description of the energy crops to be used for alcohol production. The paper concludes with an investigation of the food-fuel conflicts on a national and regional basis with the identification of some changes in program emphasis that will lessen the impact of the alcohol program on food supplies and prices.

  4. "Health for All" in England and Brazil?

    PubMed

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care.

  5. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  6. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil.

  7. Four new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Bolivia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of Cerambycidae are described: Sphaerion iuasanga (Elaphidiini), Glypthaga arena, Hypsioma albosericea (Onciderini) from Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Hesycha jataiensis (Onciderini) from Brazil. PMID:26250045

  8. Dangerous liaison: sexually transmitted allergic reaction to Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Bansal, A S; Chee, R; Nagendran, V; Warner, A; Hayman, G

    2007-01-01

    Brazil nuts are the second most frequent cause of nut allergy in the United Kingdom. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman with documented Brazil nut allergy who developed widespread urticaria and mild dyspnea after intercourse with her boyfriend who had earlier consumed Brazil nuts. Skin prick testing with the boyfriend's semen after Brazil nut consumption confirmed significant reactivity whereas a sample before nut consumption was negative. We believe this to be the first case of a sexually transmitted allergic reaction.

  9. Four new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Bolivia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-13

    Four new species of Cerambycidae are described: Sphaerion iuasanga (Elaphidiini), Glypthaga arena, Hypsioma albosericea (Onciderini) from Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Hesycha jataiensis (Onciderini) from Brazil.

  10. [Postgraduate programs in nursing in Brazil and in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumêt; de Araújo, Thelma Leite

    2007-03-01

    This descriptive-exploratory study aimed at describing the current situation of postgraduate programs in nursing in Brazil, particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, in terms of trends and expansion perspectives. Statistical data of 2003 were collected using registration tool on Stricto Sensu Postgraduate Programs in Nursing, made available by official research-sponsoring agencies Coordenation for the Improvement of Undergraduate Level Personnel (CAPES) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The results indicated extensive asymmetriesin the Brazilian Post-Graduation System, showing that the expansion of postgraduate programs in nursing in the Northeast of Brazil results from the response capacity to the official demands of the present national post-graduation system.

  11. The problems of nutrition in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    Low income is the factor most often associated with the existence of malnutrition. Malnutrition in Brazil is more frequently found among Brazilians with less than 2 minimum salaries/family and who live in the less developed parts of the country. In 1976, 59.2% of urban residents earned 2 or less minimum salaries. A study found that those rural residents engaged in agriculture on their own or someone else's property were better paid than those who live from salaried labor alone; temporary salaried workers are the largest rural class in Brazil and have the lowest levels of nutrition. In urban areas the informal sector represent the lowest nutrition level group. The issue of food consumption by the lower classes is linked to 4 aspects of Brazilian development: 1) structure of food production, 2) distribution of income, 3) government attempts to influence prices and marketing systems, and 4) the role of government food supplementation programs. Brazil suffers today from unbalanced growth among its various economic sectors and regions, inequitable income distribution, and inadequate public services. The misconception of the necessity of a large industrial base for development resulted in the neglect of the rural sector and thus higher malnutrition. Recent regulatory efforts by the government have begun to increase rural production, but production of agricultural exports has increased at a much more rapid pace than that of domestic food commodities. Small farmers have not taken advantage of new financial opportunities offered by the government to balance production levels because: 1) banks do not have enough for the demand, 2) access to the small producer of foods is difficult, and 3) the present hesitation to risk his few possessions. The largest percentage of income in Brazil goes to the richest classes and the economy is oriented towards meeting the demands of the more prosperous classes. The government's program of minimum support prices has not been successful in

  12. The problems of nutrition in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    Low income is the factor most often associated with the existence of malnutrition. Malnutrition in Brazil is more frequently found among Brazilians with less than 2 minimum salaries/family and who live in the less developed parts of the country. In 1976, 59.2% of urban residents earned 2 or less minimum salaries. A study found that those rural residents engaged in agriculture on their own or someone else's property were better paid than those who live from salaried labor alone; temporary salaried workers are the largest rural class in Brazil and have the lowest levels of nutrition. In urban areas the informal sector represent the lowest nutrition level group. The issue of food consumption by the lower classes is linked to 4 aspects of Brazilian development: 1) structure of food production, 2) distribution of income, 3) government attempts to influence prices and marketing systems, and 4) the role of government food supplementation programs. Brazil suffers today from unbalanced growth among its various economic sectors and regions, inequitable income distribution, and inadequate public services. The misconception of the necessity of a large industrial base for development resulted in the neglect of the rural sector and thus higher malnutrition. Recent regulatory efforts by the government have begun to increase rural production, but production of agricultural exports has increased at a much more rapid pace than that of domestic food commodities. Small farmers have not taken advantage of new financial opportunities offered by the government to balance production levels because: 1) banks do not have enough for the demand, 2) access to the small producer of foods is difficult, and 3) the present hesitation to risk his few possessions. The largest percentage of income in Brazil goes to the richest classes and the economy is oriented towards meeting the demands of the more prosperous classes. The government's program of minimum support prices has not been successful in

  13. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Brazil, including recent trends in production, consumption, and trade; 2. An overview of U.S. and... production, transportation and marketing infrastructure, technology, exchange rates, domestic support,...

  14. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g‑1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g‑1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g‑1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g‑1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however

  15. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g-1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g-1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g-1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g-1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however, in the

  16. Popular Education in Brazil. A Report on the LASG/WEA 1985 Study Visit to Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers Educational Association, Sunderland (England). Northern District.

    The 11 "themes" in this report describe the three-week study visit of 11 adult education workers from Northern England to Brazil. The report describes contacts with Brazilian colleagues in workers' and popular education and in related support services and trade and popular organizations they serve. "Organization of the Visit" (Victor Cadaxa)…

  17. Basic Education in Brazil: What's Wrong and How to Fix It. Thinking Brazil. No. 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While Brazil has successfully achieved universal access to basic education, the quality of education remains stubbornly low. A recent study by the Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA) shows that the average 25 years old Brazilian has completed only nine years of education. Almost eleven percent of the population is illiterate and a…

  18. User Education and Marketing of Information Services in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Nice

    Arguing that marketing appears to be a solid means for creating users' needs for information as well as for attracting potential users to the library, this paper reviews the current literature in Brazil on marketing information services and on user education. It also discusses the current status of library education in Brazil. An analysis of the…

  19. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Naccache, Samia N.; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I.; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L.; Bandeira, Antonio C.; Campos, Gubio S.; Tauro, Laura B.; Faria, Nuno R.; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia’s capital city, since mid-2014. PMID:27448188

  20. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Naccache, Samia N; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L; Bandeira, Antonio C; Campos, Gubio S; Tauro, Laura B; Faria, Nuno R; Pybus, Oliver G; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-10-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia's capital city, since mid-2014.

  1. Brazil: Finance of Primary Education. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, D.; And Others

    Compiled by the World Bank, this study of educational finance in Brazil identifies principal problems, possible solutions, and recommendations for policy changes. The study indicates that Brazil has not given high priority to educational investment, and identifies the problems as: (1) a lack of financial policy analysis and planning; (2) too…

  2. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  3. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Brazil is the world’s fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, there is no information on E. bieneusi in pigs. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of E. bieneusi in pigs in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 91 pigs (1- to 12-mo-old) ...

  4. Focus on Brazil: A Case Study of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truhan, Deborah L.

    The teaching unit is designed to help senior high school and college students learn about national development in Brazil. In this case study, development is defined as advances in social well-being and economic growth. Brazil was chosen as an example of a developing nation which depends upon foreign markets, technology, and capital. The country…

  5. Publishing, Books and Library Resources: Brazil and Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Book Committee, Inc., New York, NY.

    This survey synthesizes and analyzes the book resources and book requirements of Brazil, with particular reference to the educational scene, in terms of local production and distribution resources and capabilities. Information on the geography, political establishment, economy, and educational system of Brazil is presented in the introductory…

  6. Distance Education and Corporate Training in Brazil: Regulations and Interrelationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Stella C. S.; Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Distance education in Brazil has evolved more slowly than distance education offerings in other developing countries. This is because all aspects of Brazil's publicly-funded educational system are excessively regulated, highly bureaucratic, and tightly centralized. Such highly centralized bureaucracy and strict control has resulted in tremendous…

  7. An Overview of Engineering Courses in Brazil: Actual Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canen, Alberto G.; Tammela, Iara; Camatta, Diogo Cevolani

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest countries in the world as well one of the greatest economies among developing countries. To be competitive, Brazil needs to be able to develop technology, research and knowledge. In this sense, we argue that economic growth is directly related to technological development, which is linked to the investments in…

  8. Rural Sociology in Brazil: Institutional Growth (1965-1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David O.; And Others

    Growth and present status of graduate programs, major research interests, and potential for US-Brazilian collaboration indicate the present state of rural sociology in Brazil. In contrast to US rural sociology's identity crisis of the past decade, the field in Brazil has blossomed. Graduate programs are underway at universities of Rio Grande do…

  9. Species H rotavirus detected in piglets with diarrhea, Brazil, 2012.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Bruna L D; Lorenzetti, Elis; Otonel, Rodrigo A A; Alfieri, Alice F; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2014-06-01

    We determined nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the rotavirus gene encoding viral protein 6 from 3 fecal samples collected from piglets with diarrhea in Brazil, 2012. The analyses showed that the porcine rotavirus strains in Brazil are closely related to the novel species H rotavirus. PMID:24855935

  10. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  11. A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Marinoni, Luciane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Species of Canacidae sensu lato of Brazil are reviewed, including the subfamilies Canacinae and Tethininae. Included are seven species in five genera with two species, Nocticanace austra and Nocticanace packhamorum, from southern Brazil being newly described. To facilitate identification, we have included keys and diagnose to taxa at all levels. PMID:22303126

  12. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ierecê ML; Alves, Rômulo RN; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana PR; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-01-01

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality. PMID

  13. [The cases of China and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A

    1987-01-01

    Demographic developments and family planning in China and Brazil are described and compared. Postrevolutionary China was characterized by initial rapid economic expansion, followed later by recurrent agricultural crises. Abortion and sterilization were strictly forbidden. The mid-twenties was legal minimum age for marrying, thus increasing the work force. In the early 1960s, population control measures were introduced, legalizing sterilization and abortion, a trend reversed, in 1966, by the cultural revolution, which resulted in a baby boom and an enormous proportion of young women, today, in their reproductive ages. Various stages of increased government involvement finally resulted in a 1 family, 1 child policy adopted in 1978, coercing families and individuals to sign a certificate, severely limiting earning potentials and privileges, if having more than 1 child. By the year 2050, if current policies are being enforced, the population is projected to be 917 million. Brazil traditionally has had an intellectual pro-natality movement, due to its vast internal space, low population density and high economic productive capacity. By 1970, however, the economic miracle had passed. Child mortality and health problems became rampant. Democratizing access to contraceptive means and services, and the economic for migration to large empty spaces of the country were emphasized. The state assumed responsibility for providing contraceptive means instead of leaving it in the hands of private agencies. Brazil refuses to recognize simplistic rhetoric blaming population increases for all ills in the developing countries and espouses the position that planning for children, the more positive term for family planning, is a fundamental right of all human beings and should stem from free and informed choice by couples and individuals.

  14. Use of GIS for Earthquakes in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.; Roig, H. L.; Pascual, M. F.; Vasconcelos, A. E.; Ferreira, J. M.; Ribotta, L. C.; do Nascimento, A. F.; Pavao, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    We present geoprocessing techniques to monitor and analyse earthquakes in Brazil. We constructed a georeferenced database called SIGSIBRA using PostgreSQL + PostGIS softwares, and fed by information from the SISBRA earthquake catalog, IBGE geographical data and CPRM geological data. The SISBRA catalog was built from the book "Sismicidade Brasileira" (Berrocal et al, 1984), updated with the Brazilian seismic bulletins from the Brazilian Geophysical Journal up to 1995, and especially with the data from seismographic monitoring activities of the University of Brasília-SIS/UnB, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte-UFRN, the University of Sao Paulo-USP and the Institute for Technological Research (IPT). Earthquakes occur in Brazil with moderate to low magnitudes. Besides natural earthquakes, seismic activity triggered by water dams must also be monitored. With the growing number and size of Brazilian dams (because of the many rivers, favorable topography and "clean" energy) concern with reservoir triggered seismicity is expected to increase. Approval for the construction of a hydropower plant requires seismic hazard assesmment prepared by an interdisciplinary team, with a large contribution of geoprocessing specialists. Therefore, it is important to study the characteristics of this seismicity, so that these professionals can avoid or mitigate potential environmental and social harm to communities on the margins of large dams. Thus the SIGSIBRA system can generate spatial analysis of its events, such as intensity estimation of "Kernel" points distribution; spatial statistics; spatial autocorrelation (Morans I) and correlations with geological structures, making it possible to characterize important aspects of the Brazilian seismicity. Finally, we show the statistical analysis of the database through the program ZMAP and estimate the intraplate seismogenic zones in Brazil.

  15. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ierecê Ml; Alves, Rômulo Rn; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana Pr; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-12-08

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality.

  16. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  17. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  18. [Reproductive rights and racism in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Roland, E

    1995-01-01

    Sterilization in Brazil is discussed in a racial context and contrasted with the experience of the United States, demonstrating the historical differences between these two societies regarding race relations and reproductive rights. The American feminist Angela Davis referred to the control of fertility as genocide, especially as practiced in the first half of the 20th century. In 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt characterized the drop of White fertility caused by rapid urbanization as racial suicide. In 1932 the development of the eugenic movement resulted in inducing 26 states to adopt compulsory sterilization laws for persons considered unfit for reproduction. Margaret Sanger, the protagonist of fertility control, advocated a program of compulsory sterilization for imbeciles, illiterates, criminals, epileptics, the mentally retarded, prostitutes, and drug traffickers. 7686 sterilizations were performed in North Carolina, of which about 5000 were performed on Blacks to prevent the reproduction of mentally retarded persons. It was only in 1974 that guidelines were drawn up to prevent sterilization abuses. Under federal programs 100,000-200,000 persons were sterilized in 1972, and 35% of Puerto Rican women of reproductive age underwent sterilization. In Brazil 44% of the population of 147 million is Black. In 1940 the White population was the majority, but by 1980 a steady increase of the mulatto population had occurred. From 1965 on the White population began to decrease both because of oral contraceptive use and intermarriage. The fertility rate of the mulatto population was 4.1% in 1980 and 2.3% in 1990, less than the 2.4% rate of whites. The total fertility rate (TFR) in Brazil was 3.5 children per woman in 1986, which dropped to 2.5 in 1991. In the northeast, where the majority of the population is Black, the TFR was 3.7 in 1991 vs. 7.5 in 1970. Although in Brazil racial intolerance is not acceptable, there is still inequality of opportunity for Blacks. In

  19. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. PMID:17614991

  20. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas.

  1. Brazil's remote sensing activities in the Eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raupp, M. A.; Pereiradacunha, R.; Novaes, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the remote sensing activities in Brazil have been conducted by the Institute for Space Research (INPE). This report describes briefly INPE's activities in remote sensing in the last years. INPE has been engaged in research (e.g., radiance studies), development (e.g., CCD-scanners, image processing devices) and applications (e.g., crop survey, land use, mineral resources, etc.) of remote sensing. INPE is also responsible for the operation (data reception and processing) of the LANDSATs and meteorological satellites. Data acquisition activities include the development of CCD-Camera to be deployed on board the space shuttle and the construction of a remote sensing satellite.

  2. Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-11-01

    The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia.

  3. Catholic populism and education in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Vanilda

    1995-05-01

    Education in Brazil has been profoundly affected by populism, a movement which extols the virtue of the oppressed classes and opposes the traditional teacherstudent relationship. This movement has antecedents in nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Herzen and Bakunin. The author shows how populist ideas, often merging with Marxism, were adopted by many Brazilian Catholics from the 1950s onwards, under the influence of Vieira Pinto, Paulo Freire and others. In the realm of education this often led to an extreme form of anti-authoritarianism. While not denying certain positive aspects of this movement, the author argues that its position is fundamentally self-contradictory.

  4. Plecoptera from Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Plecoptera collected in Minas Gerais State, Brazil were studied. Twelve previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria boraceiensis Froehlich, 2004, A. debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. itatiaiensis Baldin et al., 2013, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. singularis Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. stanjewetti Froehlich, 2002, A. terere Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. vanini Froehlich, 2004, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson and Bianchi, 1905), K. obtusa Klapálek, 1916, Tupiperla gracilis (Burmeister, 1839) and T. robusta Froehlich, 1998. Additionally, two new species of Anacroneuria are described, A. paprockii n. sp. and A. mineira n. sp., and a list of species from Minas Gerais State is presented. PMID:25284668

  5. Molecular characterization of bromeliads from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S D; Rabbani, A R C; Santos, F; Silva-Mann, R; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Prata, A P N; Resende, L V; Pasqual, M; Blank, A F

    2014-01-01

    Bromeliaceae is an important botany family that includes many species with economic value; demand for members of this family is increasing. However, illegal collection frequently occurs, drastically reducing the species populations; thus, it is necessary to collect and store Bromeliaceae genetic material. In this study, we identified and quantified genetic variability of the Bromeliad family using dominant markers to create the first Germplasm Bank in the northeast region of Brazil. Molecular tools were used to characterize the collected accessions. The combination of 11 inter-simple sequence repeats and 13 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to detect the genetic variability of wild bromeliad accessions. PMID:25501194

  6. Dermatological diseases of compulsory notification in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Domingues, Carla M A S; Siqueira Jr, João Bosco; Elkhoury, Ana Nilce S M; Cechinel, Michella P; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Gomes, Marcia de Leite S; Sena, Joana M; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lima Júnior, Francisco Edilson F; Segatto, Teresa Cristina Vieira; Melo, Flavia Cardoso de; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Silva, Marcia Mesquita; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2011-01-01

    The development of a Brazilian National Surveillance System in 1975 led to a compulsory reporting of selected infectious diseases aiming to reduce the burden of these events in the country. However, shifts in the epidemiology of these diseases associated with modern life style, demand constant revision of surveillance activities. In this manuscript we present the epidemiology, trends and differential diagnosis of the following compulsory notifiable diseases in Brazil: Aids, dengue fever, hanseniasis, American tegumentary leishmaniasis, measles, rubella and congenital rubella syndrome and syphilis. Additionally, the current challenges for control and prevention of each disease are presented.

  7. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas. PMID:12179683

  8. Notes for Brazil sampling frame evaluation trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Hicks, D. R. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Field notes describing a trip conducted in Brazil are presented. This trip was conducted for the purpose of evaluating a sample frame developed using LANDSAT full frame images by the USDA Economic and Statistics Service for the eventual purpose of cropland production estimation with LANDSAT by the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project of the AgRISTARS program. Six areas were analyzed on the basis of land use, crop land in corn and soybean, field size and soil type. The analysis indicated generally successful use of LANDSAT images for purposes of remote large area land use stratification.

  9. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... criteria in making a sale. Best Prospects/Services Brazil's strengthened currency has meant that private... discuss industry developments, opportunities, and sales strategies. Commercial Setting Brazil is the... 30% of the import market, with U.S. sales mainly going through local agents, distributors...

  10. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes da Silva, Aracy

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Brazil was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Brazil's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…

  11. Brazil and the United States. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series No. 279.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.

    One of a series, this booklet on world issues explains why Brazil has become important for the United States. Brazil's rise from a sleeping giant to continental leader is investigated. Brazil's impressive economic growth from the mid-1960s through the 1970s is explored. An analysis of Brazil's economic crisis of the 1980s is also explained.…

  12. 75 FR 67689 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India and Japan, 60 FR 9661... Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 10022 (March... Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, 59 FR 66914 (December 28, 1994). These...

  13. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, co-chair the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum, pursuant to the Terms...

  14. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This....-Brazil CEO Forum (Forum), pursuant to the Terms of Reference signed in March 2007 by the U.S....

  15. Filarioids infecting dogs in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Oliveira do Rêgo, Ana Gabriela; de Farias Firmino, Everton Diogo; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-08-15

    Species of filarial nematodes belonging to the genera Dirofilaria and Acanthocheilonema are recognised as common parasites of dogs throughout the world. Recently, other filarioids featured by the presence of dermal microfilariae (e.g., Onchocerca lupi and Cercopithifilaria spp.) have been recognised in Europe. In Brazil, reports of filarioids in dogs are limited to Dirofilaria immitis, Acanthocheilonema reconditum and Cercopithifilaria bainae. To investigate the distribution of filarial infections in dogs living in an endemic region from northeastern Brazil, blood and skin samples (n=104) were microscopically (modified Knott's test and skin snip sediment examination) and molecularly evaluated. Twenty-two dogs (21.15%) were positive at microscopic and/or molecular examination for at least one filarioid species, with 21 (20.19%) animals positive for blood microfilariae at molecular and/or at microscopic examination. Microfilariae of D. immitis were detected in 12 (11.54%) animals, with co-infection of D. immitis and A. reconditum observed in four (3.85%) individuals. One animal was positive for C. bainae at both microscopic and molecular examination. Analysis of sequence obtained in the present study showed significant alignment identity with that of C. bainae from Europe. Considering that in the area of study arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, fleas and ticks) are prevalent throughout the year, preventive measures should be disposed in order to avoid the animal infestation and pathogen infection. PMID:27514878

  16. [Retrospect of tuberculosis control in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hijjar, Miguel Aiub; Gerhardt, Germano; Teixeira, Gilmário M; Procópio, Maria José

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis), promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920), the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National Service of Tuberculosis - 1940), and the Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (National Campaign Against Tuberculosis - 1946), coordinated national policies such as chemotherapy, beginning with the discovery of streptomycin in 1944. The emergence of bacterial resistance led to the development of several therapeutic schemes. The Scheme 1 (rifampycin, hydrazide and pyrazinamid), which was the main one in 1979 and is still used nowadays, had a great epidemiological effect. The WHO declared TB a public health emergency in 1993. In response, Brazil developed some strategies; the first one was the Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (Emergency Plan for Tuberculosis Control - 1994), prioritizing 230 municipalities. The current prospects are an effective municipalization of actions and their greater integration with the Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família (Humanitarian Agents and Family Health Programs).

  17. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences. PMID:25578002

  18. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  19. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Renata B.; Popkin, Barry M.; Monteiro, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) would improve the diets of households in Brazil. Methods. We used household food consumption data that the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics collected in 2002–2003 from a nationally representative sample of 48 470 Brazilian households. The consumption of SSBs is expressed as the total SSB calories consumed and as the SSB percentage of the total calories purchased. We investigated price elasticity with regression models, controlling for demographic variables, income, and prices of all other foods and drinks. Results. Increases in the price of SSBs led to reductions in consumption. A 1.00% increase in the price of SSBs led to a 0.85% reduction of SSB calories consumed (1.03% reduction for the poor and 0.63% for the nonpoor). Increased income had a positive effect on SSB consumption, but the effect was less than half the size of the price elasticity (0.41% increase in SSB calories consumed for every 1.00% increase in income). Conclusions. High SSB price elasticity in Brazil indicates that a tax on purchased weight or volume would lead to reductions in SSB consumption. PMID:22095333

  20. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-01

    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  1. Filarioids infecting dogs in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Oliveira do Rêgo, Ana Gabriela; de Farias Firmino, Everton Diogo; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-08-15

    Species of filarial nematodes belonging to the genera Dirofilaria and Acanthocheilonema are recognised as common parasites of dogs throughout the world. Recently, other filarioids featured by the presence of dermal microfilariae (e.g., Onchocerca lupi and Cercopithifilaria spp.) have been recognised in Europe. In Brazil, reports of filarioids in dogs are limited to Dirofilaria immitis, Acanthocheilonema reconditum and Cercopithifilaria bainae. To investigate the distribution of filarial infections in dogs living in an endemic region from northeastern Brazil, blood and skin samples (n=104) were microscopically (modified Knott's test and skin snip sediment examination) and molecularly evaluated. Twenty-two dogs (21.15%) were positive at microscopic and/or molecular examination for at least one filarioid species, with 21 (20.19%) animals positive for blood microfilariae at molecular and/or at microscopic examination. Microfilariae of D. immitis were detected in 12 (11.54%) animals, with co-infection of D. immitis and A. reconditum observed in four (3.85%) individuals. One animal was positive for C. bainae at both microscopic and molecular examination. Analysis of sequence obtained in the present study showed significant alignment identity with that of C. bainae from Europe. Considering that in the area of study arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, fleas and ticks) are prevalent throughout the year, preventive measures should be disposed in order to avoid the animal infestation and pathogen infection.

  2. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  3. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences.

  4. The changing face of autism in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rios, Clarice; Costa Andrada, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    At the end of 2012, after intensive lobbying by parent activist associations, a federal law recognized autism as a "disability for all legal purposes" in Brazil. Defining autism as a disability was more than a change of legal status to guarantee social benefits. It was also a political maneuver, orchestrated by parent associations, aimed to take the responsibility for treatment away from the public mental health network of services. This article examines the controversies that have set parent associations in direct antagonism with mental health professionals in the public health system. We draw from ethnographic data and theoretical discussions in the field of disability studies to situate these controversies within the context of a larger debate on the relationship between health, rights, and citizenship. We found similarities between the ethical and political goals of parent activists and mental health professionals in Brazil, but we argue that the main cause of dissent is the role that each of these social actors assigns to identity politics in their clinical and political projects.

  5. Mesothelioma mortality in Brazil, 1980-2003.

    PubMed

    Pedra, Francisco; Tambellini, Anamaria Testa; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; da Costa, Ana Carolina Carioca; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Although asbestos causes asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma, it remains widely used in Brazil, mostly in cement-fiber products. We report the Brazilian mesothelioma mortality trend 1980-2003, using records of the national System of Mortality Information of DATASUS, including all deaths with IX International Disease Classification (ICD9) codes 163.n--pleura cancer during the period 1980-1995; and ICD10 codes c45.n--mesotheliomas and c38.4--pleura cancer for the years 1996-2003. Mesothelioma mortality rates increased over the period studied, from 0.56 to 1.01 deaths per 1,000,000 [corrected] habitants. The total number of mesothelioma deaths nationwide in the period studied was 2,414; the majority (1,415) were in the Southeast region. Mortality was highest among males and people over age 65. Given the history of asbestos exposure in Brazil, our findings support the need for policies that limit or ban the use of this product.

  6. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  7. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  8. Ocular Gnathostomiasis in Brazil: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Cláudia M.; Chaves, Claudio; Zoroquiain, Pablo; Belfort, Rubens; Burnier, Miguel N.

    2016-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by nematode larvae ingestion of 15 known species of the genus Gnathostoma (one of the Gnathostomatidae family members). This parasite uses freshwater fish as a host and can infect - through the consumption of raw fish or their viscera - other animals such as dogs, cats, chickens, pigs, and humans. This parasitic disease, with humans acting as hosts, has been known since 1945 (India), and ocular complications have been known since 2004 (intravitreal; also described in India). Latin American countries, especially Mexico and Peru, have reported cases of the disease since 1970. The first dermatological case was reported in Brazil in 2009 (the individual had acquired the disease in Peru). This article describes the first reported ophthalmic case of the disease in Brazil and refers to a male patient, 30 years old, living in the municipality of Juruá, Amazonas State. The disease evolved within 30 days through a fistulized tumor in the inner corner of the lower eyelid. Following excision, the anatomical and histopathological examination revealed the presence of a different parasite species from other previously known genera. PMID:27239465

  9. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  10. Bullying during adolescence in Brazil: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Machado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: gender differences, factors associated with bullying, consequences, and possible intervention and prevention approaches. The guiding question of this study was: what have Brazilian researchers produced regarding bullying among adolescents? The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying. The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a lack of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention and restorative practices that involve the community and can be applied to everyday life at school. PMID:26602728

  11. [Blood regulation in Brazil: contextualization for improvement].

    PubMed

    Silva Júnior, João Batista; Costa, Christiane da Silva; Baccara, João Paulo de Araújo

    2015-10-01

    The use of blood products as essential medicines and the recognition of the high risk associated with blood transfusions require governments to take regulatory action with a focus on quality and safety. In this scenario, regulatory agencies play an essential role in socially advancing the guarantee that blood components will be produced according to current operating rules. Thus, in the effort to manage sanitary risks involved in the processing and use of blood, the Brazilian regulatory model, based on the construction of a national blood policy overseen by the State, has undergone conceptual improvement and review of the tools employed to achieve its goals. With the inclusion of good manufacturing practices as part of the Brazilian norms, as recommended by the World Health Organization, the country has moved forward in its view of blood facilities as manufacturing centers producing blood-derived biologics for therapeutic applications. It has also strengthened the need to develop safety mechanisms for blood donors and recipients. The development of a State-coordinated national blood policy and the institution of a national surveillance system with legitimate power of inspection are essential elements used in Brazil to guarantee the amount, quality, safety, and timeliness of blood supply to the population. The present article aims to discuss the present context of the blood regulatory model in Brazil so as to identify the challenges for improvement of this model. PMID:26758225

  12. Implementation of thermographers' certification in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Laerte; Alves, Luiz M.; da Costa Bortoni, Edson

    2011-05-01

    In recent years Brazil has experienced extraordinary growth despite the recent economic global crisis. The demand for infrared thermography products and services has accompanied this growth. Like other non-destructive testing and inspection, the results obtained by thermography are highly dependent on the skills of thermographer. Therefore, it is very important to establish a serious and recognized process of certification to assess thermographers' qualifications and help services suppliers to establish credibility with their customers and increase the confidence of these costumers on the quality of these services. The Brazilian Society of Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, ABENDI, a non-profitable, private technical-scientific entity, recognized nationally and internationally, has observed the necessity of starting a process for certification of thermographers in Brazil. With support of a work group composed by experts from oil and energy industries, transportation, universities and manufactures, the activities started in 2005. This paper describes the economic background required for installation of the certification process, its initial steps, the main characteristics of the Brazilian certification and the expectation for initiating the certification process.

  13. Ichthyofauna Used in Traditional Medicine in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; Collier, Carolina Alves; de Almeida Neto, Miguel Santana; Silva, Karina Maria de Souza; Policarpo, Iamara da Silva; Araújo, Thiago Antonio S.; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Fish represent the group of vertebrates with the largest number of species and the largest geographic distribution; they are also used in different ways by modern civilizations. The goal of this study was to compile the current knowledge on the use of ichthyofauna in zootherapeutic practices in Brazil, including ecological and conservational commentary on the species recorded. We recorded a total of 85 species (44 fresh-water species and 41 salt-water species) used for medicinal purposes in Brazil. The three most commonly cited species were Hoplias malabaricus, Hippocampus reidi, and Electrophorus electricus. In terms of conservation status, 65% of species are in the “not evaluated” category, and 14% are in the “insufficient data” category. Three species are in the “vulnerable” category: Atlantoraja cyclophora, Balistes vetula, and Hippocampus erectus. Currently, we cannot avoid considering human pressure on the population dynamics of these species, which is an essential variable for the conservation of the species and the ecosystems in which they live and for the perpetuation of traditional medical practices. PMID:22454668

  14. Dengue viruses in Brazil, 1986-2006.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Schatzmayr, Hermann Gonçalves

    2007-11-01

    A total of 4,243,049 dengue cases have been reported in Brazil between 1981 and 2006, including 5,817 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) and a total of 338 fatal cases. Although all Brazilian regions have been affected, the Northeast and Southeast regions have registered the highest number of notifications. DENV-1 and DENV-4 were isolated for the first time in the Amazon region of Brazil in 1981 and 1982. The disease became a nationwide public health problem following outbreaks of DENV-1 and DENV-2 in the state of Rio de Janeiro in 1986 and 1990, respectively. The introduction of DENV-3 in 2000, also in the state of Rio de Janeiro, led to a severe epidemic with 288 245 reported dengue cases, including 91 deaths. Virus strains that were typed during the 2002 epidemic show that DENV-3 has displaced other dengue virus serotypes and entered new areas, a finding that warrants closer evaluation. Unusual clinical symptoms, including central nervous system involvement, have been observed in dengue patients in at least three regions of the country.

  15. The elimination of Chagas' disease from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    MASSAD, E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY On 9 June 2006 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) presented the Minister of Health of Brazil with the International Elimination of Transmission of Chagas' Disease Certificate. This act was the culmination of an intensive process that began in 1991 with the Southern Cone Initiative, a joint agreement between the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Peru, to control Chagas' disease by the elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans. This initiative has been highly successful and the prevalence area of the vector diminished rapidly in the last years. As a consequence, the current seroprevalence in children aged between 0 and 5 years is of the order of 10−5, a clear indication that transmission, if it is occurring, is only accidental. In this review I calculate the basic reproduction number, R0, for Chagas' disease and demonstrate that its relatively low value (1·25) explains why vectorial transmission was interrupted relatively easily. In addition, I used a mathematical model to forecast how long the remaining cases of the disease, as well as the additional vertically transmitted cases will last. PMID:18053273

  16. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  17. Bullying during adolescence in Brazil: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Machado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: gender differences, factors associated with bullying, consequences, and possible intervention and prevention approaches. The guiding question of this study was: what have Brazilian researchers produced regarding bullying among adolescents? The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying. The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a lack of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention and restorative practices that involve the community and can be applied to everyday life at school.

  18. Phenology and global warming research in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellato, L. P. C.

    2009-04-01

    A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global warming within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by

  19. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. Design: A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Methods: Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. Results: A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. Conclusions: These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions. PMID:12198271

  20. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Lino; da Silva, Gláucia Faria; Setúbal, Sandra Mutarelli

    2015-01-01

    The role of play in Brazilian children's hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children's Hospital ("Hospital Infantil Sabará") in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children's care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture. PMID:27417350

  1. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo, Lino; Faria da Silva, Gláucia; Mutarelli Setúbal, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará”) in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture. PMID:27417350

  2. Achyrocline satureioides essential oils from southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, D; Atti-Serafini, L; Santos, A C; Frizzo, C D; Paroul, N; Paz, D; Dellacassa, E; Moyna, P

    2000-06-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of Achyrocline satureioides (D.C.) Lam., a regional medicinal plant, from different collection locations in the South of Brazil and Uruguay were examined by GC and GC-MS. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the main fractions of both the oils from Brazil and Uruguay. The oxygenated monoterpenes and sequiterpenes were at much lower percentage in both samples. The Uruguayan samples have 1,8-cineole which is not present in the Brazilian samples and has not been reported in other samples from Brazil. The results indicated a high biodiversity of the native populations of A. satureioides.

  3. A Checklist of the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colpani, Daniara; Benetti, Cesar João; Hamada, Neusa

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of all known species of the water beetle family Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles) recorded from Brazil is assembled. This checklist is based on literature published prior to 2012. A total of 206 species and subspecies are cited for Brazil, distributed among three genera (Enhydrus Laporte, 1834, Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762 and Gyretes Brullé, 1835). For each species we also include a complete account of its nomenclature including synonyms and historical combinations. The geographical distribution of each species both inside and outside of Brazil is provided. PMID:25544139

  4. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Lino; da Silva, Gláucia Faria; Setúbal, Sandra Mutarelli

    2015-01-29

    The role of play in Brazilian children's hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children's Hospital ("Hospital Infantil Sabará") in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children's care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  5. Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A.

    1995-10-02

    Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

  6. Asian genotypes of dengue virus 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, A C O; Sardi, S I; Paula, F L; Peixoto, I B; Brandão, C J; Fernandez, F M C; Campos, G S

    2015-10-01

    Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil.

  7. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes.

  8. [National demonstration project on epilepsy in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Li, Li Min; Sander, J W A S

    2003-03-01

    Epilepsy is the most prevalent non-communicable serious neurological condition worldwide. Unfortunately, the majority of people with epilepsy in low-income countries do not receive appropriate treatment. Stigmatisation is the rule. In this setting, the World Health Organisation, the International League against Epilepsy and the International Bureau for Epilepsy launched the Global Campaign against Epilepsy in 1997. This entered its second phase in 2001 and as part of it has set up demonstration projects in the People's Republic of China, Zimbabwe, Senegal and, more recently, in Brazil. The objective of the demonstration projects is to show, through methodological evaluation, that it is possible to establish a model of treatment for people with epilepsy in primary health care settings. The Brazilian demonstration project has targeted regions in Campinas and S o Jose do Rio Preto, both in Sao Paulo State. A task force has been established to assess strategies to expand this project nationwide. PMID:12715043

  9. The challenges of ageism in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The material and symbolic resource flows and obligations between generations leave an indelible imprint on family members. These intergenerational exchanges have increased in recent years with growing human longevity and they thus have become important to current academic and policy agendas. Concurrently, ageism and age discrimination have emerged as important subjects. The main goal of this article is to call attention to these issues and their relationship with the current policy debate on resource allocation by age groups. We argue that ageism and the practice of age discrimination in Brazil should be viewed as part of the multiple forms of discrimination experienced by individuals. While noticing someone’s age is not inherently offensive, acting on age-based stereotypes clearly works against the individual and often goes unchallenged by mainstream society. A central assumption in this paper is that the way we frame ageism and intergenerational relations significantly affects perceived age discrimination and support for age-based social programs. PMID:26401063

  10. Literacy in Brazil: from Rights to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Timothy D.

    2008-11-01

    At a time when some 24% of the Brazilian population of 182 million are functionally illiterate, the author shows how illiteracy is concentrated in traditionally poor and disadvantaged social and ethnic groups as well as in certain regions of the country. He surveys the changes in legislation, policies and attitudes relating to literacy over the past few decades and describes how literacy is increasingly seen as a continuous process rather than a short-term, low-cost intervention. While there is still a lack of a broad, coordinated policy and adequate funding in this area, and while the challenges remain formidable, the author concludes that Brazil is moving slowly in the right direction.

  11. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  12. [The anti-asylum movement in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lüchmann, Lígia Helena Hahn; Rodrigues, Jefferson

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the history of the national anti-asylum struggle in Brazil. It analyzes some of the movement's difficulties, achievements and challenges. The theory of social movements is used here as an important analytical tool to understand this collective action, to the degree in which theory allows an appraisal of this type of social action rooted in its many configurations, evidencing the complexity of the contemporary world. The anti-asylum movement is composed of many stakeholders whose struggles and conflicts have been developed through different social-political-institutional dimensions. It encompasses at different moments and to different degrees, a movement which articulates solidarity and conflict relations and social denunciations in an attempt to transform relations and conceptions that are discriminatory and which are intended to control the "insane" and "insanity" in our country.

  13. Flood forecasting for Tucurui Hydroelectrical Plant, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, S.I.; Basso, E.; Osorio, C.; Melo de Moraes, H.; Serrano, A.

    1986-04-01

    The construction of the Tucurui Hydroelectric Plant on the Tocantins River basin in Brazil requires flood forecasting to ensure the safety of the cofferdam. The latter has been initially designed for a flood with a return frequency of one in 25 years. Lack of adequate forecasting facilities during the earlier stages of construction has resulted in significant damages and construction delays. Statistical forecasting models were developed by Projeto de Hidrologia y Climatologie da Amazonia (PHCA) for the purpose of preventing further damage at the site. The application of these models during the 1980 flood season, when the highest flood on record occurred at the Tucurui site, proved of great assistance in preventing the flooding of the cofferdam. In conjunction with the development of these models a number of data collection platforms using data transmission through the GOES system were installed to provide the data required for forecasting.

  14. Current biomass energy technology in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, H.G.

    1985-06-01

    The potential for major biomass energy production in Brazil is very great because of the significant possibilities for expansion of the agricultural and forest production there. For example, production of 20 t/ha (metric) of dry wood in the Amazon basin is reported here by the senior author, who worked with the huge JARI operation there. In addition to the current large ethanol production (7.5 billion liters estimated 1983/84) based mainly on sugar cane, the potential for expanding this with sweet sorghum and cassava is promising. Research and development there and in the US resulted in a high-compression ethanol tractor showing slightly higher thermal efficiency than a standard diesel tractor under field operating conditions.

  15. Comments on human eurytremiasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2016-05-20

    Eurytremiasis is an important parasitic disease of cattle that was recently suggested to be a neglected and emerging human disease in Brazil. Based on a misinterpretation of the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that a great number of people could be infected with this fluke in the country. In the present letter, aspects of the life cycle of Eurytrema spp. are revisited and clarified. The mechanism of transmission previously reported for the few accidental human cases involved the ingestion of raw or undercooked insects (grasshoppers and crickets) harboring the infective metacercariae. In reality, the zoonotic potential of Eurytrema species is extremely low, and human eurytremiasis is not, and probably never will be, a zoonotic disease in countries where entomophagy is not a common food habit. PMID:27226956

  16. Comments on human eurytremiasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2016-05-20

    Eurytremiasis is an important parasitic disease of cattle that was recently suggested to be a neglected and emerging human disease in Brazil. Based on a misinterpretation of the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that a great number of people could be infected with this fluke in the country. In the present letter, aspects of the life cycle of Eurytrema spp. are revisited and clarified. The mechanism of transmission previously reported for the few accidental human cases involved the ingestion of raw or undercooked insects (grasshoppers and crickets) harboring the infective metacercariae. In reality, the zoonotic potential of Eurytrema species is extremely low, and human eurytremiasis is not, and probably never will be, a zoonotic disease in countries where entomophagy is not a common food habit.

  17. New cases of thalidomide embryopathy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Soares, Rosa Castalia Franca; de Sousa, Artur Custodio Moreira; Maximino, Claudia; Luna, Expedito; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doderlein; Waldman, Carolina; Castilla, Eduardo Enrique

    2007-09-01

    Thalidomide is the best known human teratogen. Although withdrawn from the market in 1961, thalidomide was remarketed after 1965 in several countries, for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Thalidomide has a potent immunomodulatory property and has now a number of approved and off-label uses in dermatologic, oncologic, infectious and gastrointestinal conditions. In the U.S., FDA approved the use of thalidomide in 1998, but no cases of thalidomide embriophaty were registered after that. Since 1996 no new cases were reported in Latin America. However, the Teratogen Information Service (TIS) Porto Alegre, recorded three new cases of thalidomide embriophaty born in Brazil since 2005. Considering that these three cases were not registered through a systematic surveillance system, but that came to our attention through a series of coincidental random events, it can be assumed that the actual occurrence of affected babies by thalidomide continues being as frequent as denounced ten years ago.

  18. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes. PMID:14576874

  19. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  20. [Religious affiliation and mental health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dalgalarrondo, P

    1994-12-01

    Religiosity is a complex and fundamental socio-cultural phenomenon. Its possible positive or negative influence on the ethiology and treatment of mental illness remains controversial. Evangelical sects, specially the Pentecostals, have expanded dramatically in the last 40 years, in Latin America. Until now, the socio-cultural implications of this process have not been systematically studied. In the present study a group of patients admitted to a psychiatric unit in a general hospital in Campinas, Brazil, was investigated. Diagnosis distribution and length of hospital stay was related to religion affiliation. More functional psychosis and a shorter length of stay was found in the Pentecostal group. Possible implications of these findings are critically discussed.

  1. Recent studies on UV radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, M. P.; Ceballos, J. C.; Moregula, A.; Okuno, E.; Fausto, A.; Mol, A.; Santos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation shows a summary of UV index measurements performed in the last years in Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) Brazilian regions. Brazil has an area of 8.5 million km2 distributed between latitudes 5˚ N and 35˚ S and longitudes 5˚ W and 75˚ W. SE is the most important economic pole of South America and the NE coast is an important tourist region. This large area has a great diversity of climatic, atmospheric and geographical conditions in addition to very diverse social and cultural habits. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an epidemiological health problem with more than 120,000 new cases each year. The most of these cases are found in the South and Southeast regions, with about 70 new NMSC per 100,000 inhabitants. Solar Light UV501 biometers are installed in the SE cities of São Paulo (23.6˚ S, 46.7˚ W, 865 m ASL), Itajubá/Minas Gerais (22.4˚ S; 45.5˚ W, 846 m ASL) and the NE city of Ilhéus/Bahia (14.8˚ S; 39.3˚ W; 54 m ASL). First measurements began in 2005 in São Paulo city, while Itajubá and Ilhéus have regular measurements from the beginning of 2008. Other studies related to the UV radiation modeling and interactions with atmosphere components, as ozone, aerosols and clouds, have also been performed. For example: a) UVI modelling calculations performed by a multiple-scattering spectral models; b) studies on the aerosol radiative properties based on satellite (MODIS/Terra-Aqua) and ground-based (Aeronet) observation; c) ozone content variability from satellite (OMI/Aura) and ground-based (Microtops ozonometer) measurements; d) behavioral profile of the population, as regarding habits of solar exposure and sun protection measures. Results show that more than 75% of the measurements conducted in the summer (outside noon) can be classified as upper than high UVI according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended categories: Low (UVI < 2), Medium (3 ? UVI < 6), High (6 ? UVI < 8), Very High (8 ? UVI

  2. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection.

  3. Comments on human eurytremiasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2016-01-01

    Eurytremiasis is an important parasitic disease of cattle that was recently suggested to be a neglected and emerging human disease in Brazil. Based on a misinterpretation of the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that a great number of people could be infected with this fluke in the country. In the present letter, aspects of the life cycle of Eurytrema spp. are revisited and clarified. The mechanism of transmission previously reported for the few accidental human cases involved the ingestion of raw or undercooked insects (grasshoppers and crickets) harboring the infective metacercariae. In reality, the zoonotic potential of Eurytrema species is extremely low, and human eurytremiasis is not, and probably never will be, a zoonotic disease in countries where entomophagy is not a common food habit. PMID:27226956

  4. Dengue Virus Type 3, Brazil, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Schatzmayr, Hermann Gonçalves; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Barreto dos Santos, Flávia; Venâncio da Cunha, Rivaldo; Coelho, Janice Oliveira; José de Souza, Luiz; Guimarães, Flávia Ramos; Machado de Araújo, Eliane Saraiva; De Simone, Thatiane Santos; Baran, Meri; Teixeira, Gualberto; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, Rio de Janeiro had a large epidemic of dengue fever; 288,245 cases were reported. A subset of 1,831 dengue hemorrhagic fever cases occurred. In this study, performed in the first half of 2002, samples from 1,559 patients with suspected cases of dengue infection were analyzed. From this total, 1,497 were obtained from patients with nonfatal cases, and 62 were obtained from patients with fatal cases. By the use of different methods, 831 (53.3%) cases, including 40 fatal cases, were confirmed as dengue infection. When virus identification was successful, dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) was obtained in 99% of cases. Neurologic involvement was shown in 1 patient with encephalitis, confirmed by the detection of DENV-3 RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. This explosive epidemic of DENV-3 was the most severe dengue epidemic reported in Brazil since dengue viruses were introduced in 1986. PMID:16229765

  5. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  6. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources. PMID:15930560

  7. Size segregation in the Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soterroni, Aline C.; Ramos, Fernando M.

    2013-10-01

    Granular materials are ubiquitous in nature and in our daily lives, and used in many industrial processes. Depending on the physical conditions that they are subjected, granular materials may present unusual behavior, combining properties of solids, liquids or gases, and displaying interesting and diversified phenomena. In this work we numerically simulated a granular system in order to investigate the phenomena of size segregation in the Brazil Nut Effect. Our simulations indicate that the phenomenon of size segregation results from the combined effect of two different mechanisms: buoyancy and convection. Increasing the vibration amplitude, the behavior of the system becomes less periodic and more turbulent, with evidence of deterministic chaos in the dynamics of the large particle.

  8. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  9. Dengue virus type 3, Brazil, 2002.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Schatzmayr, Hermann Gonçalves; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; dos Santos, Flávia Barreto; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; Coelho, Janice Oliveira; de Souza, Luiz José; Guimarães, Flávia Ramos; de Araújo, Eliane Saraiva Machado; De Simone, Thatiane Santos; Baran, Meri; Teixeira, Gualberto; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2005-09-01

    During the summer of 2002, Rio de Janeiro had a large epidemic of dengue fever; 288,245 cases were reported. A subset of 1,831 dengue hemorrhagic fever cases occurred. In this study, performed in the first half of 2002, samples from 1,559 patients with suspected cases of dengue infection were analyzed. From this total, 1,497 were obtained from patients with nonfatal cases, and 62 were obtained from patients with fatal cases. By the use of different methods, 831 (53.3%) cases, including 40 fatal cases, were confirmed as dengue infection. When virus identification was successful, dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) was obtained in 99% of cases. Neurologic involvement was shown in 1 patient with encephalitis, confirmed by the detection of DENV-3 RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. This explosive epidemic of DENV-3 was the most severe dengue epidemic reported in Brazil since dengue viruses were introduced in 1986.

  10. [Social inequality and health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Neri, Marcelo; Soares, Wagner

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between social inequality and health in Brazil. The strategy adopted by the authors was to analyze needs and uses of medical care as well as access to health insurance plans according to income distribution. Determinants of health care consumption were also studied by means of logistic regression. The main source of data was the 1998 National Sample Household Survey of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (PNAD-IBGE). In general, individuals in the lowest income distribution deciles had less access to health insurance, greater need for medical care, and lower consumption of such services. Other determinants of health care consumption were heavily associated with the most privileged social strata (greater access to schooling, water supply, sewerage, electricity, garbage collection, and health insurance) and with factors pointing to the capacity to supply these services in country.

  11. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable.

  12. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable. PMID:27355570

  13. Mucorales from the semiarid of Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-01-01

    Nineteen taxa of Mucorales, belonging to Absidia, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Fennellomyces, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Mycotypha, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were isolated from 36 composite soil samples in three semiarid areas in the State of Pernambuco (Triunfo, Cabrobó and Belém de São Francisco), Northeast Brazil, which are characterized by Caatinga vegetation. Triunfo is preserved, whereas Cabroró and Belém de São Francisco are experiencing low and severe desertification processes, respectively. Mucorales were isolated in Petri dishes in triplicate from 5 mg samples of soil placed on the surface of wheat germ agar plus chloramphenicol and Cercobin [Dimethyl 4,49-(103 phenylene) bis (3-thioallophanate)] medium. The plates were left on a bench at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 72 h of alternating dark and light periods. Absidia cylindrospora presented the highest amount of CFU/g of soil, followed by L. hyalospora, C. phaeospora and C. echinulata var. echinulata. The latter, and R. microsporus var. microsporus, presented the highest frequencies of occurrence. Soils from Triunfo showed higher diversity of Mucorales than the samples from the other areas, although without differing statistically in relation to species richness. The communities of Mucorales from the degraded areas were more similar, while that from the preserved area was quite different. Most of the identified specimens have been commonly isolated from soil in other Brazilian regions, which indicates that they are not endemic of the semiarid. Eleven taxa are registered for the first time in this ecosystem, while F. heterothallicus is reported for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24159320

  14. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  15. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Mission to Brazil, 77 FR 13560, Mar. 7, 2012, to announce that the Mission will be executive-led and to... Timeframe for Recruitment and Applications section of the Notice of the Education Mission to Brazil, 77 FR... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S o...

  16. Brazil twinning in natural and synthetic amethyst crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taijing, Lu; Sunagawa, I.; Balitsky, V. S.

    1990-01-01

    The structures of Brazil twin boundaries, the micro-textures due to Brazil twinning, and the sites and the conditions for the generation of Brazil twins have been investigated on natural amethyst crystals with and without Brewster fringes, synthetic amethyst crystals hydrothermally grown under various conditions, and natural milky quartz crystals of epithermal origin. Their generation is triggered by the precipitation of solid inclusions on the growing smooth surfaces due to a perturbation of growth parameters. Brewster fringes appear through a process of incorporation of a large number of Brazil twin lamellae, whereas fibrous or other micro-textures appear when there is no such process. The former is assumed to have been formed under more stable conditions than the latter.

  17. Inflation in Brazil: The Principles of Monetary Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Roberto de Oliveira

    1975-01-01

    The evils of inflation and Brazil's attempts to minimize inflation by a generalized indexation for all forms of saving, wage adjustments, tax reform, a mini-devaluation, and saving incentives are examined. (DE)

  18. Closeup of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, Italy, Argentina, and Britain, view to southwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  19. [Long-distance migration and its contexts: Portugal and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rowland, R

    1992-08-01

    The author reviews migratory flows from Portugal to Brazil from the sixteenth century to the present. The focus is on the effect on each country's economic development, social characteristics, and demographic profile. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Capillaria hepatica in Puma concolor: first report in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Rosiléia M; Pilati, Célso; Marques, Sandra M T; Mazzolli, Marcelo; Benedet, Rodrigo C

    2009-09-01

    Capillaria hepatica was detected by histopathologic diagnosis in two cougars that were shot in April 2008 in Painel, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Macroscopic analysis of their livers revealed the presence of diffuse granulomas, and the histopathologic analysis indicated the presence of C. hepatica eggs, surrounded by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate, small foci of necrosis, and mild-to-moderate fibrosis. This is the first report of C. hepatica in cougars (Puma concolor) in Brazil.

  1. The EDUCAR Foundation in Brazil: Two Experiences. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonfim, Maria Nubia Barbosa

    Data from a 1980 population census indicates that of the over 73.5 million people in Brazil who were over 15 years of age, 25.4 percent were illiterate and 27.42 percent had less than 1 year of schooling. Such data show the precarious situation of education in Brazil, particularly that of adolescents and adults. Its origins lie in the dual nature…

  2. Aspidochirotida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the northeast coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, Jéssica; Manso, Cynthia L C; Christoffersen, Martin L

    2014-11-28

    This is a taxonomic work on the aspidochirotid sea cucumbers from shallow waters in Northeast Brazil. We studied 165 specimens, classified into 2 families, 3 genera, 7 subgenera and 9 species. Descriptions, illustrations and literature data are included for each species, in addition to ecological notes and information on their distribution in the northeast coast of Brazil. A taxonomic key is provided for the identification of the species.

  3. G1P[8] species A rotavirus over 27 years--pre- and post-vaccination eras--in Brazil: full genomic constellation analysis and no evidence for selection pressure by Rotarix® vaccine.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques da; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Fialho, Alexandre Madi; Assis, Rosane Maria Santos de; Andrade, Juliana da Silva Ribeiro de; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological data on species A rotavirus (RVA) infections have demonstrated the genetic diversity of strains circulating worldwide. Many G and P genotype combinations have been described over the years, varying regionally and temporally, especially in developing countries. However, the most common G and P genotype combinations identified in RVA human strains worldwide are G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8] and G9P[8]. RVA genotype G1P[8] strains are responsible for more than 50% of child infections worldwide and component of the two vaccines (Rotarix® [RV1] and RotaTeq® [RV5]) licensed globally. For a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of this genotype in Brazil, phylogenetic analyses based on the 11 RVA genome segments (genomic constellation) from 90 G1P[8] RVA strains collected in two eras - (i) pre-vaccination with RV1 (1996-February 2006); (ii) post-vaccination (March 2006-2013) - in different Brazilian states were performed. The results showed the Wa-like genomic constellation of the Brazilian G1P[8] strains with a I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 specificity, except for two strains (rj14055-07 and ba19030-10) that belong to a I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T3-E1-H1 genomic constellation, evidencing the occurrence of reassortment (Wa-like×AU-1-like) of the NSP3 gene. Reassortment events were also demonstrated between Brazilian G1P[8] strains and the RV1 vaccine strain in some genes in vaccinated and unvaccinated children. VP7 and VP8* antigenic site analysis showed that the amino acid substitutions observed in samples collected after the introduction of RV1 in Brazil were already detected in samples collected in the 1980s and 1990s, suggesting that mass Brazilian RV1 vaccination had no impact on the diversity observed inside antigenic sites for these two proteins.

  4. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  5. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  6. Origin and Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n = 107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998–2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000–2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance. PMID:22970331

  7. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Bello, Gonzalo; Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n=107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance.

  8. [Newborn hearing screening in Rio de Janeiro's municipal network, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Priscila Tavares; Goldbach, Márcia Goldfeld; Monteiro, Márcia Cavadas; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Hearing deficiencies are a prevalent disease and justify the need for regulation of the Laws and their execution through Hearing Health Care Ordinances. In line with public policies, maternity hospitals that were part of the network began to implement the Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS) service, as had occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The otoacoustic emissions test is used for NHS as it is a rapid and highly reliable method that is easy to perform and gives objective results. The scope of this article is to get fully acquainted with the assistance and care for the hearing health of newborns in maternity wards of the Municipal Health Grid. It is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis with frequency distribution, and was conducted at SMS-RJ Maternity hospitals that perform NHS. Three maternity hospitals with NHS (A, B and C) were identified, in which 1,865 live newborns were recorded. Of this total, 40.5% performed the NHS exam. In maternity hospitals A and B, the NHS exam was applied to 54.6%, of which 97.3% passed and only 1.8% failed and needed to be referred to the high complexity unit. The NHS is the initial stage of the Hearing Health Care Program for the newborn. It is important that the NHS services should be fully integrated into the network through the Hearing Health Care Program. PMID:25650598

  9. [Methylphenidate in Brazil: a decade of publications].

    PubMed

    Itaborahy, Claudia; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Methylphenidate is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), though this psychostimulant has been on the market in Switzerland, Germany and the US since the 1950s. After its association with ADHD, Ritalin has become the world's most widely used psychostimulant. The scope of this article is to present the results of an analysis of publications concerning the use of Methylphenidate in Brazil over a decade. It seeks to understand how the information is presented or omitted in the different printed materials. For the analysis, the most important Brazilian psychiatric journals as well as major Brazilian newspapers and magazines for the general public for the 1998-2008 period were consulted. One important point that resulted from analysis of the empirical material was the participation of pharmaceutical laboratories in the funding of research groups on ADHD. The findings reveal several controversial issues in the publications, such as the combination of drugs and psychotherapy, as well as issues of addiction and over-prescription.

  10. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease.

  11. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  12. Ubarana Oil Field, offshore Brazil: case history

    SciTech Connect

    Chagas, L.S.; Stringhini, A.V.; Gontijo, J.E.

    1981-05-01

    Ubarana is the first commercial oil field on the northern continental shelf of Brazil. Discovery well No. 1-RNS-3, drilled in 1973, was located on a seismic structural high in the offshore extension of the Potiguar Basin, about 13 km from the coast and 160 km northwest of Natal. The well penetrated oil-bearing, fluvio-deltaic sandstones of the Cretaceous acu formation. Five outpost wells, also located on the mapping of seismic horizons adjacent to the producing interval, helped to extend the limits of the accumulation. A total of 1.4 million cu m of oil has been produced between 1976 and Oct. 1980. The surface area of Ubarana Field is approximately 35 sq km with oil-bearing reservoirs at an average depth of approximately 2400 m. Permeability and porosity of the sandstones generally are poor. Pressure is normal and the main production mechanism is solution gas drive. The volume of oil in place is approximately 37 million cu m; estimated recovery factor is 29%. There are presently 4 platforms in the Ubarana Field active in drilling and production with 32 producing wells, and 14 locations to be drilled.

  13. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  14. Recently Acquired Toxoplasma gondii Infection, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Muccioli, Cristina; Belfort, Rubens; Holland, Gary N.; Roberts, Jacquelin M.; Silveira, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The city of Erechim, Brazil, has a 17% prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis, and type 1 Toxoplasma gondii predominates. To examine risk factors for acute T. gondii infection in this area, we administered a questionnaire to recently infected persons (n = 131) and seronegative controls (n = 110). Eating undercooked meat; having a garden; working in the garden or yard more than once per week; eating rare meat; eating cured, dried, or smoked meat; eating frozen lamb; and being male increased risk for T. gondii infection in univariate analysis. Risk factors independently associated with acute T. gondii infection in multivariate analysis were working in the garden (odds ratio [OR] 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–4.33) and eating frozen lamb (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.15–3.67). Among women (n = 86), having had children markedly increased the risk for T. gondii infection (OR 14.94, 95% CI 3.68–60.73). PMID:16704805

  15. Anthropotechnological analysis of industrial accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, M. C.; de Almeida, I. M.; Monteau, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Labour has been attempting to modify the norms used to analyse industrial accidents in the country. For this purpose, in 1994 it tried to make compulsory use of the causal tree approach to accident analysis, an approach developed in France during the 1970s, without having previously determined whether it is suitable for use under the industrial safety conditions that prevail in most Brazilian firms. In addition, opposition from Brazilian employers has blocked the proposed changes to the norms. The present study employed anthropotechnology to analyse experimental application of the causal tree method to work-related accidents in industrial firms in the region of Botucatu, São Paulo. Three work-related accidents were examined in three industrial firms representative of local, national and multinational companies. On the basis of the accidents analysed in this study, the rationale for the use of the causal tree method in Brazil can be summarized for each type of firm as follows: the method is redundant if there is a predominance of the type of risk whose elimination or neutralization requires adoption of conventional industrial safety measures (firm representative of local enterprises); the method is worth while if the company's specific technical risks have already largely been eliminated (firm representative of national enterprises); and the method is particularly appropriate if the firm has a good safety record and the causes of accidents are primarily related to industrial organization and management (multinational enterprise). PMID:10680249

  16. The challenges of antimicrobial resistance in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Flávia

    2011-05-01

    Brazil is a country with continental proportions with high geographic and economic diversity. Despite its medical centers of excellence, antimicrobial resistance poses a major therapeutic challenge. Rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are up to 60% and are related to an endemic Brazilian clone. Local resistance to vancomycin in Enterococci was first related to Enterococcus faecalis, which differs from European and American epidemiology. Also, local Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases have a much higher prevalence (40%-50% and 10%-18%, respectively). Carbapenem resistance among the enterobacteriaceae group is becoming a major problem, and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase isolates have been reported in different states. Among nonfermenters, carbapenem resistance is strongly related to SPM-1 (Pseudomonasaeruginosa) and OXA-23 (Acinetobacter baumannii complex) enzymes, and a colistin-only susceptible phenotype has also emerged in these isolates, which is worrisome. Local actions without loosing the global resistance perspective will demand multidisciplinary actions, new policies, and political engagement.

  17. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-06-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158

  18. Malaria and antimalarial plants in Roraima, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Milliken, W

    1997-01-01

    One of the numerous problems created by the gold rush which took place in northern Brazil (Roraima State) at the end of the 1980s was a severe epidemic of malaria amongst the indigenous peoples of the region. Worst hit were the Yanomami Indians, who had lived in almost total isolation prior to this event. The problem has been exacerbated by the development of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In an effort to identify viable alternatives to dependence on western medicine for malaria treatment, a survey was carried out on the local plant species (wild and cultivated) used for this purpose in Roraima. Fieldwork was carried out amongst seven indigenous peoples, as well as with the non-indigenous settlers. Over 90 species were collected, many of which have been cited as used for treatment of malaria and fevers elsewhere. Knowledge of antimalarial plants was found to vary greatly between the communities, and in some cases there was evidence of recent experimentation. Initial screening of plant extracts has shown a high incidence of significant antimalarial activity amongst the species collected. PMID:9204719

  19. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Henrique V; Lopes, Mário Lucio; de Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco; Buckeridge, Marcos S; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2011-09-01

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO₂ by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. PMID:21735264

  20. Brazil advances subsea technology in Marlim pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-29

    Petroleum Brasileiro SA has extended several water depth records for subsea technology during a pilot project in giant Marlim oil field in the Campos basin off Brazil. Petrobras finished the 10 well Marlim pilot last December. The field's pilot phase was intended to begin early production and enable Petrobras to gather more reservoir data. Ten satellite wells, including two prepilot wells, were completed during the Marlim pilot phase with guidelineless (GLL) wet christmas trees designed and fabricated by FMC Corp., Houston, and CBV Industrial Mechanic SA, Rio de Janeiro. The subsea wells are producing 52,000 b/d of oil and 21.19 MMCfd of gas in water depths of 1,847-2,562 ft. Marlim pilot well flow is routed to a permanent semisubmersible floating production system (FPS). Oil moves from the FPS to a monobuoy that offloads to a shuttle tanker. In addition to marking the first successful uses of purpose-built GLL wet trees, FMC said the Marlim pilot project allowed GLL subsea technology to evolve from conceptual status into a proven deepwater completion method. The paper describes the project.

  1. Renal lesions in cetaceans from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Ruoppolo, V; Marigo, J; Carvalho, V L; Groch, K R; Bertozzi, C P; Takakura, C; Namiyama, G; Vanstreels, R E T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of Brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. The animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. Kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. Due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 animals, of which 82 (64.1%) had kidney lesions. Cystic renal disease was the most common lesion observed in 34 cases (26.6%) and these were classified as simple cysts in eight cases (6.3%), polycystic kidney disease in one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), secondary glomerulocystic disease in 16 cases (12.5%) and primary glomerulocystic disease in nine cases (7%). Other lesions included membranous glomerulonephritis (28 cases; 21.9%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (20 cases; 15.6%), lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis (21 cases; 16.4%), lipidosis (19 cases; 14.8%), glomerulosclerosis (8 cases; 6.3%) and pyogranulomatous nephritis(five cases; 3.9%); two of the later were associated with the migration of nematode larvae. Additionally, tubular adenoma was identified in a Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei). The pathological implications of these lesions are discussed according the cause of death, age or sex of the animals. Furthermore, the lesions were compared with those of other marine and terrestrial mammals, including man.

  2. Diarrhoea and garbage disposal in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rego, R F; Moraes, L R S; Dourado, I

    2005-01-01

    The association of infantile diarrhoea with the presence of garbage in the environment was investigated in Canabrava, a peripheral neighbourhood of Salvador, northeast of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with all the 184 children aged less than two years residing in Canabrava, which is located close to the city garbage dump. Variables selected for study included the method used for the disposal of excrement, type of floor, mother's education, unemployment of the head of the family, regularity of the water supply, presence of toilet, storage of garbage inside the house, age, gender, duration of breastfeeding, and the number of people per room. The estimated prevalence of diarrhoea was 21.2%. Exposure to garbage in the environment was found to be the most important factor associated with diarrhoea (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.98, 95% CI 1.56-10.13). Other important variables were the mother's education (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.09-7.13), maternal breastfeeding (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.05-5.04), and unemployment of the head of the family (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI 0.93-4.69). These findings indicate the necessity of adopting solutions in the public domain and of intersectorial policies for the reduction of diarrhoea.

  3. Potential intake of intense sweeteners in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M C; Ioshi, S H

    1995-01-01

    A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener-containing food and drinks. The respondents were randomly chosen among intense sweetener consumers living the cities of Campinas, São Paulo and Curitiba, Paraná. Potential daily intakes by individuals were calculated for each sweetener by combining each person's consumption of sweetener-containing food and beverages with information generated by the determination of the concentrations of the sweeteners used in these products. The data showed that 72% of the studied population consumed saccharin, 67% cyclamate and 40% aspartame. The main reasons alleged for the use of intense sweeteners were weight-control diet (36%), diabetes (35%) and weight loss (23%). Table-top sweeteners were the major source of sweeteners, followed by soft drinks. The median daily intake of aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin represented approximately 2.9, 15.5, and 16-4% of the corresponding ADI, respectively. Diabetics in general had a much higher intake within the studied population.

  4. Cigarette smoking among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Fabiana Cristina Ribeiro de; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cournos, Francine; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Peixoto, Eliane Rezende de Morais; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among psychiatric patients attended in care facilities in Brazil and assess associated factors. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted of psychiatric patients (N = 2,475) selected from 26 care facilities. Current and ex-smokers were compared to those who had never smoked. Odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression. The current and past smoking prevalence rates were 52.7% and 18.9%, respectively. Being male, aged 40 years or over, drug and alcohol use, unprotected sex and a history of physical violence were factors associated with both current and past smoking, while a low education level (≤ 8 years of schooling), history of homelessness, not practicing a religion, current or previous psychiatric hospitalization, and main psychiatric diagnosis substance use disorders, were factors only associated with current smoking. Tobacco smoking prevalence among this population was high and was higher than the rate in the general population. Appropriate interventions and smoking prevention policies should be incorporated into mental health services. PMID:25099043

  5. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5–9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10–19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158

  6. Drug design for neglected disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giarolla, Jeanine; Ferreira, Elizabeth Igne

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are a group of 17 diseases transmitted by virus, protozoa, helminthes and bacteria. These illnesses are responsible for millions of deaths per year, affecting mainly the poorest populations in the world. The therapeutic drugs available are obsolete, toxic, have questionable efficacy and there are reports of resistance. Therefore, the discovery of new, safe, effective and affordable active molecules is urgently needed. Considering that, the main purpose of this mini-review is to show the current scenario concerning drug design for neglected disease in Brazil. NTD are a very broad topic. Thus, we selected four infections for discussion: Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria and tuberculosis. According to CNPq (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development) directories, there are many Brazilian groups studying these respective diseases. The papers published possess high quality and some of them, the most recent, are briefly discussed here. Medicinal chemistry approaches such as synthesis of novel series of molecules and biological activity evaluation, studies of structure-activity relationships (qualitative and quantitative), molecular modeling calculations and electrochemistry are some of the tools applied in the design of the compounds.

  7. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease. PMID:27334632

  8. Do Trichogramma minutum Riley and Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja & Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) occur in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Querino, Ranyse B; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2007-01-01

    According to some catalogues, Trichogramma minutum and T. bennetti have been recorded in Brazil. However, the information obtained in studies with Trichogramma in recent years indicate that those species do not occur in Brazil.

  9. First record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon, 1962 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....

  10. Control of salt tectonics by young basement tectonics in Brazil`s offshore basins

    SciTech Connect

    Szatmari, P.; Mohriak, W.

    1995-08-01

    The Campos basin (offshore SE Brazil) is one of the most successful areas of oil exploration in South America. Discovered 20 years ago, its production (500,000 b/d) and reserves (2.9 billion barrels) are second only to Venezuela`s. This richness is due, to a large extent, to intense salt tectonics and the abundance of turbidites. Reactivated basement structures onshore provide a unique opportunity to understand the role of young basement tectonics in controlling salt tectonics and petroleum occurrence. The mountains of SE Brazil, over 1500 m high, formed by the reactivation of late Precambrian thrust and wrench zones under E-W compression, presumably caused by Mid-Atlantic ridge push. Coastal mountain ranges, up to 3000 m high, are limited to the segment of the Atlantic between the Vitoria-Trindade hotspot chain and the Rio Grande Rise. The coastal ranges formed as this segment of oceanic crust and adjacent continental margin were pushed WSW along a reactivated Precambrian wrench zone. To the north of this segment, salt tectonics is mostly due to basinward sliding on a tilted salt layer. Along the coastal ranges, to this is added basinward escape of the salt from beneath prograding sediments derived from the rising mountains. Extension above the salt tends to be compensated by compression farther basinward. Salt canopies, frequent in the Gulf of Mexico, occur only near the Abrolhos hotspot, where high temperatures during volcanic activity sharply reduced the viscosity of the salt.

  11. Brazil-nut effect versus reverse Brazil-nut effect in a moderately dense granular fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzó, Vicente

    2008-08-01

    A segregation criterion based on the inelastic Enskog kinetic equation is derived to show the transition between the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) and the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE) by varying the different parameters of the system. In contrast to previous theoretical attempts, the approach is not limited to the near-elastic case, takes into account the influence of both thermal gradients and gravity, and applies for moderate densities. The form of the phase diagrams for the BNE-RBNE transition depends sensitively on the value of gravity relative to the thermal gradient, so that it is possible to switch between both states for given values of the mass and size ratios, the coefficients of restitution, and the solid volume fraction. In particular, the influence of collisional dissipation on segregation becomes more important when the thermal gradient dominates over gravity than in the opposite limit. The present analysis extends previous results derived in the dilute limit case and is consistent with the findings of some recent experimental results.

  12. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy.

  13. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil.

  14. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  15. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.

  16. The Fate of the Forest in Brazil, 2000 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, V.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding the drivers of tropical deforestation is essential to research on global climate change and biodiversity loss, and would be particularly informative to ongoing international climate change negotiations. Geographically explicit maps of post-forest land cover can provide valuable information about the extent and spatial distribution of the major drivers of deforestation. Brazil is the country with the largest extent of tropical forest in the world and the one with the most tropical forest cover loss since the turn of this century. This fate of the forest study aims to determine which land covers have replaced forest cover in Brazil. Using a classification tree algorithm, we determined pasture and cropland extent in areas of forest cover loss in Brazil circa 2012. We used 30 m resolution Landsat data for the 2000-2013 time period as well as tree cover loss data from the Global Forest Change (GFC) maps published by Hansen et al. (2013). The GFC data was used to mask out areas not categorized as forest cover lost between 2000 and 2013. Additionally, the year of loss layer was used to disaggregate pasture and cropland extent by year. Our results comprehensively demonstrate the extent to which pasture is the dominant post-forest land cover in Brazil. More broadly, the product reveals spatiotemporal patterns of forest conversion to pasture and cropland in Brazil, which could lead to a better understanding of the underlying drivers of deforestation.

  17. Humane Education in Brazil: Organisation, Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bachinski, Róber; Tréz, Thales; Alves, Gutemberg G; de C M Garcia, Rita; Oliveira, Simone T; da S Alonso, Luciano; Heck, Júlio X; Dias, Claudia M C; Costa Neto, João M; Rocha, Alexandro A; Ruiz, Valeska R R; Paixão, Rita L

    2015-11-01

    Humane education and the debate on alternatives to harmful animal use for training is a relatively recent issue in Brazil. While animal use in secondary education has been illegal since the late 1970s, animal use in higher science education is widespread. However, alternatives to animal experiments in research and testing have recently received attention from the Government, especially after the first legislation on animal experiments was passed, in 2008. This article proposes that higher science education should be based on a critical and humane approach. It outlines the recent establishment of the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), as a result of the project, Mapping Animal Use for Undergraduate Education in Brazil, which was recognised by the 2014 Lush Prize. The network aims to create a platform to promote change in science education in Brazil, starting by quantitatively and qualitatively understanding animal use, developing new approaches adapted to the current needs in Brazil and Latin America, and communicating these initiatives nationally. This paper explores the trajectory of alternatives and replacement methods to harmful animal use in training and education, as well as the status of humane education in Brazil, from the point of view of educators and researchers engaged with the network. PMID:26551290

  18. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  19. A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Vieira, Kleber Silva; Santana, Gindomar Gomes; Vieira, Washington Luiz Silva; Almeida, Waltécio Oliveira; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Montenegro, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

    2012-11-01

    For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil-although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation-which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.

  20. Potential Geographic Distribution of Hantavirus Reservoirs in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin. PMID:24391989

  1. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and rat lungworm disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2013-06-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  2. Humane Education in Brazil: Organisation, Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bachinski, Róber; Tréz, Thales; Alves, Gutemberg G; de C M Garcia, Rita; Oliveira, Simone T; da S Alonso, Luciano; Heck, Júlio X; Dias, Claudia M C; Costa Neto, João M; Rocha, Alexandro A; Ruiz, Valeska R R; Paixão, Rita L

    2015-11-01

    Humane education and the debate on alternatives to harmful animal use for training is a relatively recent issue in Brazil. While animal use in secondary education has been illegal since the late 1970s, animal use in higher science education is widespread. However, alternatives to animal experiments in research and testing have recently received attention from the Government, especially after the first legislation on animal experiments was passed, in 2008. This article proposes that higher science education should be based on a critical and humane approach. It outlines the recent establishment of the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), as a result of the project, Mapping Animal Use for Undergraduate Education in Brazil, which was recognised by the 2014 Lush Prize. The network aims to create a platform to promote change in science education in Brazil, starting by quantitatively and qualitatively understanding animal use, developing new approaches adapted to the current needs in Brazil and Latin America, and communicating these initiatives nationally. This paper explores the trajectory of alternatives and replacement methods to harmful animal use in training and education, as well as the status of humane education in Brazil, from the point of view of educators and researchers engaged with the network.

  3. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Rat Lungworm Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Simões, Raquel; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  4. [Anisakidae larvae (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) parasites of the bluewing searobin Prionotus punctatus (Bloch, 1793) (Osteichthyes: Triglidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bicudo, Alvaro J A; Tavares, Luiz E R; Luque, José L

    2005-01-01

    Eighty specimens of Prionotus punctatus (Bloch, 1793) from Angra dos Reis, coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (23 degrees 01 'S, 44 degrees 19 'W), were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Three species of larval nematodes anisakids were found, Anisakis sp., Hysterothylacium sp. and Raphidascaris sp. from the liver and mesenteries. These nematodes are described and a revision of available literature concerning nematodes belonging to these genera was made. PMID:16229755

  5. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse

  6. Paleoenvironmental implications of early diagenetic siderites of the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Amanda Goulart; De Ros, Luiz Fernando; Neumann, Reiner; Borghi, Leonardo

    2015-06-01

    Abundant early diagenetic siderites occur as spherulites and rhombohedral microcrystalline and macrocrystalline crystals in the cores of the 2-MU-1-RJ well, drilled in the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The host sediments of the siderites are siliciclastic, hybrid, and carbonate deposits. Intense pedogenetic processes affected the siliciclastic sediments immediately after deposition, comprising clay illuviation, plants bioturbation, feldspar dissolution, and iron oxide/hydroxide precipitation. Siderite and pyrite are the main diagenetic constituents. The other diagenetic products are kaolinite, smectite, argillaceous and carbonate pseudomatrix, quartz overgrowths, diagenetic titanium minerals, jarosite, and iron oxides/hydroxides. Early diagenetic siderites were separated into four groups based on their elemental and stable isotopic composition, as well as on their paragenetic relationships with the other constituents and with the host sediments. Spherulitic to macrocrystalline siderites from group 1 are almost pure (average: 94.7 mol% FeCO3; 1.2 mol% MgCO3; 2.3 mol% CaCO3; 1.8 mol% MnCO3) and precipitated from meteoric porewaters in continental siliciclastic rocks under suboxic conditions (δ18Ovpdb values range in - 10.28 to - 5.57‰ and the δ13Cvpdb values in - 12.68 to - 4.33‰). Microcrystalline rhombohedral siderites from group 2 have zonation due to substantial Ca and Mg substitution (core average: 78.5 mol% FeCO3; 4.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.7 mol% CaCO3; 1.6 mol% MnCO3; edge average: 74.0 mol% FeCO3; 9.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.6 mol% CaCO3; 1.1 mol% MnCO3), and δ13Cvpdb and δ18Ovpdb values of + 0.17‰ and - 1.96‰, precipitated from marine porewaters in packstones/wackestones under methanogenic conditions. The group 3 is represented by irregular spherulitic siderites with moderate Ca and Mg substitutions (average: 80.2 mol% FeCO3; 7.9 mol% MgCO3; 11.3 mol% CaCO3; 0.6 mol% MnCO3), with δ18Ovpdb values ranging from - 5.96 to - 7.61‰ and

  7. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  8. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  9. Racialized Boundaries: Women's Studies and the Question of "Difference" in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Kia Lilly

    2001-01-01

    Examines racial politics of knowledge production in Brazil, comparing trends in women's studies scholarship in North America, England, and Brazil by investigating the significance of the intersection of race and gender in women's studies. Discusses how minority women's feminist scholarship has traveled to Brazil and how work by Afro-Brazilian…

  10. First report on the entomopathogenic genus Neozygites (Entomophthoromycota) and Neozygites osornensis on aphids in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Neozygites has been known in Brazil until now only on mites, and this is its first report on aphids in Brazil. Tree-dwelling aphids (Cinara sp.) on a cypress tree were regularly monitored for entomopathogenic fungi in the city of Terezópolis de Goiás in Central Brazil between July 2014 and...

  11. 76 FR 50176 - Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... order includes certain orange juice for transport and/or further manufacturing, produced in two... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Administrative Review, 74 FR 40167 (Aug. 11, 2009); and Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results...

  12. 77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... this order includes certain orange juice for transport and/or further manufacturing, produced in two... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20,...

  13. 75 FR 12514 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India and Japan, 60 FR 9661... Steel Bar From Brazil, 59 FR 66914 (December 28, 1994). These deposit requirements, when imposed, shall..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 6013 (February...

  14. 75 FR 15687 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission to Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission to Brazil AGENCY..., is organizing a Trade Mission to Brazil, to be led by a senior Commerce official. This event is... Brazil is the largest economy and population in Latin America, and offers considerable...

  15. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo;...

  17. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  18. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense By the authority vested in me as....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  19. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  20. 3 CFR - Provision of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Brazil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Government of Brazil Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential... Brazil Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority vested in....C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft...

  1. 76 FR 72676 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil for the period November 1, 2009 through October 31... duty order covering PET film from Brazil and invited interested parties to comment. See...

  2. 75 FR 75172 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil for the period November 6, 2008, through October 31... covering PET film from Brazil and invited interested parties to comment. See Polyethylene...

  3. Morphological and molecular characteristics do not confirm popular classification of the Brazil nut tree in Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sujii, P S; Fernandes, E T M B; Azevedo, V C R; Ciampi, A Y; Martins, K; de O Wadt, L H

    2013-09-27

    In the State of Acre, the Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae), is classified by the local population into two types according to morphological characteristics, including color and quality of wood, shape of the trunk and crown, and fruit production. We examined the reliability of this classification by comparing morphological and molecular data of four populations of Brazil nut trees from Vale do Rio Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. For the morphological analysis, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative information of the trees, fruits, and seeds. The molecular analysis was performed using RAPD and ISSR markers, with cluster analysis. Significant differences were found between the two types of Brazil nut trees for the characters diameter at breast height, fruit yield, fruit size, and number of seeds per fruit. Despite the significant correlation between the morphological characteristics and the popular classification, we observed all possible combinations of morphological characteristics in both types of Brazil nut trees. In some individuals, the classification did not correspond to any of the characteristics. The results obtained with molecular markers showed that the two locally classified types of Brazil nut trees did not differ genetically, indicating that there is no consistent separation between them.

  4. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  5. Explaining social discrimination: racism in Brazil and xenophobia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camino, Leoncio; Álvaro, José Luis; Torres, Ana Raquel R; Garrido, Alicia; Morais, Thiago; Barbosa, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.

  6. [Obesity among the poor in Brazil: female vulnerability].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Magalhães, Rosana

    2011-04-01

    The increase in obesity among women in the lower income bracket in Brazil has been singled out as a priority issue in the field of Public Health today. Concern about future repercussions of obesity in the less privileged groups calls for an in-depth theoretical approach and the energetic definition of public policy for prevention and control of the affliction in these segments. In this respect, the scope of this work is to attempt to pinpoint some analytical categories in the phenomenon of obesity among the underprivileged female population in Brazil. Biological, socioeconomic and cultural factors appear to interact in the dynamics of female obesity in the context of poverty revealing the complexity of this problem. Public policies of job creation, social inclusion and gender equality in the labor market would appear to be more promising ways of tackling obesity in underprivileged females in Brazil.

  7. Everyday narratives on race and health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Anna

    2014-06-01

    In 2006, Brazil approved a groundbreaking policy aimed at reducing significant racial health inequalities among its citizens. Like health disparities programs in the United States, Brazil's policy is based on the assumptions that racial identity and racism are important health determinants and that citizens who identify as "black" suffer disproportionately from a number of health problems. How do these assumptions compare to Brazilian citizens' conceptions of racial identity and health inequalities? To address this question, I present ethnographic data from two years of fieldwork in Brazilian public clinics and low-income neighborhoods. I show that a majority of research participants made no connection between race and better or worse health. Of those who perceived health inequalities by race, most believed that white Brazilians had more health problems than black or brown Brazilians. Finally, I consider the implications of these ethnographic findings for Brazil's health disparities campaign.

  8. Shared decision making in Brazil: history and current discussion.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mirhelen Mendes de; Battisti, Raphael; Martins, Rachel Samhan; Baumgratz, Thiago Dias; Cuziol, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    There is no SDM in clinical practice in Brazil. The first steps have been taken towards research and tool development recently. Likewise, our society is starting to get involved with decision making in health care. This paper aims to offer an overview of the Brazilian health system history, its values, and its influence on SDM. The participative social control concept is introduced as a result of the movement against the dictatorship era. In addition, the influence of social changes on the Medical Ethical Code is delineated. SDM state of the art in Brazil is also discussed and the challenges to implement it on clinical practice are described. Regardless the challenges, it is possible to make a positive assessment of SDM in Brazil.

  9. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  10. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  11. Medical and agricultural entomology in Brazil: a historical approach.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, J L

    2008-12-01

    Medical Entomology emerged in Brazil in the late nineteenth century, through the initiative of a group of physicians dedicated to researching microorganisms related to diseases of public health importance, especially yellow fever and malaria. They led the institutionalization of Bacteriology and Tropical Medicine in southeast Brazil and the sanitation of coastal cities and, subsequently, rural areas. Medical Entomology provided the professionals who would undertake campaigns against agricultural plagues, as well as the institutionalization of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine. In the present article, I intend to show how relations between the professionals who gave life to Medical Entomology in Brazil were interwoven and to illustrate their relations with entomologists in other countries. I will also present an overview of the research problems faced by Brazilian entomologists at the turn of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth.

  12. [Generic drugs in Brazil: historical overview and legislation].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Lorena Ulhôa; Albuquerque, Kemile Toledo de; Kato, Kelly Cristina; Silveira, Gleiciely Santos; Maciel, Náira Rezende; Spósito, Pollyanna Álvaro; Barcellos, Neila Márcia Silva; Souza, Jacqueline de; Bueno, Márcia; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2010-12-01

    The Brazilian generic drugs policy was implemented in 1999 with the aim of stimulating competition in the market, improve the quality of drugs and improve the access of the population to drug treatment. The process of implementing this policy allowed the introduction and discussion of concepts that had never before been used in the context of drug registration in Brazil: bioavailability, bioequivalence, pharmaceutical equivalence, generic drugs, biopharmaceutical classification system, biowaiver. The present article provides definitions for these concepts in the context of Brazilian legislation as well as a historical and chronological description of the implementation of the generic drugs policy in Brazil, including a list of current generic drug legislation. This article contributes to the understanding of the Brazilian generic drugs policy and facilitates the search for information concerning the legal requirements for registration of drugs in Brazil.

  13. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host. PMID:26957084

  14. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present.

  15. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences. PMID:27479998

  16. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Dias, Monike Lourenço; de Moraes, Ana Carolina Franco; Ferreira, Sandra RG; Franco, Denise Reis; Eliaschewitz, Freddy Goldberg

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most important epidemic diseases in the world this century, and accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes globally. Brazil is one of the most important examples of the alarming picture of T2DM in emergent societies, being the country with the fourth largest number of people with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on diabetes in Brazil, specifically looking at the epidemiology and management of T2DM. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and LILACS to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government, World Health Organization, and International Diabetes Federation were also reviewed. PMID:25609989

  17. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, Brazil, 1981-2002.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, João Bosco; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Simplicio, Ana Cristina da Rocha; Hatch, Douglas L

    2005-01-01

    In the last 5 years, Brazil has accounted for approximately 70% of reported dengue fever cases in the Americas. We analyzed trends of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) from the early 1980s to 2002 by using surveillance data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Two distinct epidemiologic patterns for dengue were observed: localized epidemics (1986-1993), and endemic and epidemic virus circulation countrywide (1994-2002). Currently, serotypes 1, 2, and 3 cocirculate in 22 of 27 states. Dengue and DHF affected mainly adults; however, an increase in occurrence of DHF among children has been recently detected in northern Brazil, which suggests a shift in the occurrence of severe disease to younger age groups. In 2002, hospitalizations increased, which points out the change in disease severity compared to that seen in the 1990s. We describe the epidemiology of dengue in Brazil, characterizing the changing patterns of it and DHF during the last 20 years.

  18. Genetics against race: Science, politics and affirmative action in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.

  19. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two false-color images of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These images demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas

  20. Regional Climate Change Projections over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassain Sales, Domingo; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; Cavalcante, Arnóbio M. B.; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco; Martins de Araújo Junior, Luiz; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro

    2013-04-01

    Climate change and climate change impact studies often require a spatial resolution beyond the horizontal grid spacing of the data generated by Global Climate Models (GCMs). Dynamical Downscaling is one of techniques that allow regionalization of information from such models, in which the GCM data drive a Regional Climate Model (RCM) that in turn, at least theoretically, presents the climatological fields in more detail and can add value to climatic analysis. In this context, CORDEX is a coordinated experiment that standardizes dynamical downscaling simulations over continental regions, to provide a contribution from the regional climate modeling community to the IPCC/AR5 and beyond. Because computer resources are limited, a modeling group involved in CORDEX typically chooses one or few of the suggested domains, and use one or a few CMIP5 GCM data to drive its regional model. At the State University of Ceará (UECE), in Brazil, we used RAMS6.0 (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0), driven by HadGEM2-ES (Hadley Centre Global Enviroment Model Version 2 - Earth System) data, over a extended CORDEX Central America domain (longitude: 124.5W to 24.5W, latitude: 33.5N to 17.5S). This work presents the evaluation of climatological features of precipitation and temperature over Northeast Brazil region (longitude: 47W to 34.5W, latitude: 2.5S to 17.5S) for 20 years of the historical period (1985-2005) evaluating short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079-2099) changes, under the RCP4.5 e RCP8.5 scenarios. For the historical period, the results were compared against several observed data sets, in order to evaluate the performance of RAMS6.0 nested to HadGEM2-ES. The correlation between the simulated and observed annual cycle of precipitation is high (above 0.93). RAMS6.0 shows a wet bias of 0.706 mm/day that is larger than HadGEM2-ES bias (0.197 mm/day), however the regional model corrects the month of maximum precipitation (the global model

  1. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  2. Investing in the future in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Madina, M

    1998-01-01

    In 1991, a survey conducted in northeastern Brazil by BEMFAM, the International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, revealed that 15% of female adolescent respondents had children or were pregnant and that the fertility rate for adolescents aged 15-19 was 41 births/1000. In addition, the fact that 33% of all cases of HIV/AIDS reported between 1980 and 1996 involved 20-29 year olds means that a significant number were infected as adolescents. BEMFAM responded by launching (in 1993) a school-based adolescent HIV/STD prevention campaign in Alagoas state (where BEMFAM found the school in a deplorable state of filth, with every surface covered with graffiti) and in Paraiba state. Today the school buildings are clean, the graffiti is gone, and students are learning to talk openly about their bodies and sexuality. The most innovative aspect of the program is that sex education is incorporated in every part of the curriculum instead of being isolated in a separate course. History teachers incorporate gender issues in their discussions; math teachers use AIDS statistics in class; and other teachers discuss such issues as personal hygiene, sexuality, and unwanted pregnancy. The school staff received 40 hours of training in sexuality, reproduction, HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, communication and leadership skills, gender, and self-worth. A serious implementation impediment is the fact that Brazilian teachers are rotated annually from school to school, and new staff must be trained each year. The project has had beneficial results for all involved and has earned the support of the community at large. PMID:12293653

  3. Brazil's urban laboratory takes the strain.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, C

    1996-01-01

    The city of Curitiba, in southern Brazil, has been known for its environmental-friendly urban planning. Its quality of life has encouraged the natural growth of the city, which has doubled its population to over 1.3 million in the last 20 years while retaining 52 m of green area per inhabitant. In this article, the city's efforts to retain its success in the face of a growing population are documented. An integrated transport system has been created, a main commercial street was turned into a pedestrian street, the building of the Wire Opera and the Free Environment University was created, and the decentralization of the country's health system, and the launching of a program of waste sorting. All these accomplishments subsequently generated tourism, bringing in an income of about 4% of the city's net income. In addition, they have helped the 300,000 inhabitants of the city's slums with their rubbish by selling them carts on a low installment price. Migratory flow has been curbed since the creation of the Return House, wherein social workers offer free tickets to potential migrants; and the Vila Rural (Rural Town), consisting of small rural properties where peasant farmers will be able to farm in between industrial jobs. In conclusion, if Curitiba's Institute of Urban Research and Planning team is successful in transposing to the State its achievements in the municipal administration, by the year 2000 Curitiba will have proved to be the seed of a revolution that will improve the development of the whole region. PMID:12295719

  4. Investing in the future in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Madina, M

    1998-01-01

    In 1991, a survey conducted in northeastern Brazil by BEMFAM, the International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, revealed that 15% of female adolescent respondents had children or were pregnant and that the fertility rate for adolescents aged 15-19 was 41 births/1000. In addition, the fact that 33% of all cases of HIV/AIDS reported between 1980 and 1996 involved 20-29 year olds means that a significant number were infected as adolescents. BEMFAM responded by launching (in 1993) a school-based adolescent HIV/STD prevention campaign in Alagoas state (where BEMFAM found the school in a deplorable state of filth, with every surface covered with graffiti) and in Paraiba state. Today the school buildings are clean, the graffiti is gone, and students are learning to talk openly about their bodies and sexuality. The most innovative aspect of the program is that sex education is incorporated in every part of the curriculum instead of being isolated in a separate course. History teachers incorporate gender issues in their discussions; math teachers use AIDS statistics in class; and other teachers discuss such issues as personal hygiene, sexuality, and unwanted pregnancy. The school staff received 40 hours of training in sexuality, reproduction, HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, communication and leadership skills, gender, and self-worth. A serious implementation impediment is the fact that Brazilian teachers are rotated annually from school to school, and new staff must be trained each year. The project has had beneficial results for all involved and has earned the support of the community at large.

  5. A Systematic Review of Children's Environmental Health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2016-01-01

    In the region of the Americas, approximately 100,000 children under the age of 5 years die each year due to environmental hazards. Brazil, due to its large size and wide range of environmental challenges, presents numerous hazards to children's health. The aim of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature that describes children's exposures to environmental pollutants in Brazil and their effects on Brazilian children's health. A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed without language restrictions and time of publication (years). The literature search was conducted in the following key resources: PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Web of Science with the MeSH Terms: Environmental exposure AND Brazil (filters: Human, Child [birth to 18 years] and Affiliation Author). The Virtual Health Library was also employed to access the databases Scielo and Lilacs. The search strategy was [DeCS Terms]: Child OR adolescent AND Environmental exposure AND Brazil. Health effects in children associated with exposure to environmental pollutants in Brazil were reported in 74 studies, during the period between 1995 and 2015. The most frequently cited effect was hospital admission for respiratory causes including wheezing, asthma, and pneumonia among children living in areas with high concentrations of air pollutants. A broad spectrum of other health effects possibly linked to pollutants also was found such as prematurity, low birth weight, congenital abnormality (cryptorchidism, hypospadia, micropenis), poor performance in tests of psychomotor and mental development, and behavioral problems. Exposure to pesticides in utero and postnatally was associated with a high risk for leukemia in children <2 years old. These results show that there is a need in Brazil for stricter monitoring of pollutant emissions and for health surveillance programs especially among vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and young children. PMID:27325071

  6. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%), who self-reported as black (1.8%) or mixed (1.2%), those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%), and those attending public (1.37%) or mixed (0.93%) health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions. Regional

  7. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanluca, Camila; Melo, Vanessa Campos Andrade de; Mosimann, Ana Luiza Pamplona; Santos, Glauco Igor Viana Dos; Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos; Luz, Kleber

    2015-06-01

    In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.

  8. [Psychiatric nursing production in Brazil, 1932-1993].

    PubMed

    Souza, M C; Alencastre, M B

    1999-01-01

    The present research aims at studying the psychiatric nursing bibliographical production in Brazil, from 1932 to 1993. Therefore, the authors searched national journals, annals of the Brazilian Nursing Congresses, Annals of the National Seminars on Nursing Research and Catalogues of the Brazilian Nursing Association--Center of Nursing Studies and Research. In addition, the authors selected publications of the following events: III Meeting of Researchs on Mental Health, II Meeting of Specialists on Psychiatric Nursing, Nursing Undergraduation Golden Jubilee and National Meeting of University Hospitals. After the conclusion of this study, discussions were based on the central themes of the texts as well as on historical development of Psychiatric Nursing in Brazil.

  9. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil.

  10. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    PubMed

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  11. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil. PMID:26675921

  12. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided.

  13. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    PubMed

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi.

  14. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Michelangeli, Fabián A.; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas. PMID:27489476

  15. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michelangeli, Fabián A; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas.

  16. Experimental Verification of the Reverse Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Smoyer, Justin

    2007-03-01

    In the Brazil nut problem (BNP), hard spheres with larger diameters rise to the top. In a previous paper, [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 ,423(2001), A theory was presented for the crossover from BNP to the reverse Brazil nut problem (RBNP) based on the competition between the percolation effect and the condensation of hard spheres. We experimentally test the crossover condition as predicted by the theory. Our results show that the the RBNP does occur under certain conditions. We then verify the crossover conditions as predicted by the theory in three dimensions.

  17. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided. PMID:23489044

  18. Cancer research in Brazil - stuck in second gear?

    PubMed

    Lepique, A P; Bonorino, C

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the main issues regarding clinical cancer research in Brazil, including both the opportunities and the hurdles. Scientists and clinicians in this field had the opportunity to talk to regulatory agencies and to the Health Ministry representative at a meeting held in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in April 2014. Our conclusions are that we do indeed have opportunities; however, we need to move forward regarding partnerships between academia and industry, increase the availability of funding, and provide easier navigation through the regulatory processes.

  19. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michelangeli, Fabián A; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas. PMID:27489476

  20. 76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO... March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... the Brazilian Minister of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, co-chair the U.S.-Brazil CEO...

  1. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  2. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 by 25 miles). At the top of the image are the Solimoes and Rio Negro rivers just before they combine at Manaus to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude, and 61 degrees west longitude. The false colors are created by displaying three L-band polarization channels; red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low returns at VV polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces. Using this coloring scheme, green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest. Between Rio Solimoes and Rio Negro a road can be seen running from some cleared areas (visible as blue rectangles north of Rio Solimoes) north towards a tributary of Rio Negro. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in youth smoking in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Giatti, Luana

    2013-01-01

    Objective The contribution of smoking to socioeconomic inequalities in health is increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. Youth smoking may play an important role in the increasing social inequalities related to smoking. This study investigates social determinants of smoking among 15-year-old to 19-year-old individuals. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The study uses data of 3536 participants aged 15–19 years of age of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and the National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostragem de Domicilio, PNAD) obtained from household interviews. Smoking was defined as currently smoking tobacco products, regardless of frequency. Household socioeconomic indicators included per capita income, the educational level and sex of the head of the household, the presence of smoking restrictions and the number of smokers (excluding adolescents). Adolescent social factors included years of delaying school and social status (full-time student, working, and neither working nor studying). The hierarchical logistic regression analysis considered the effect of the complex sampling design. Results From 3536 participants, 6.2% were smokers (95% CI 5.4 to 7.1). More men than women had the habit of smoking (7.2%; 5.9 to 8.6 vs 3.6%; 2.7 to 4.6). The likelihood of smoking was significantly greater for men and older teens. There was an upward trend in the OR of smoking according to the number of smokers in the house. Adolescents living in households with no smoking restrictions had a greater likelihood of being smokers. OR of smoking rose as the number of years of delaying school increased, being about three times greater among adolescents who were working and five times greater among those who were neither studying nor working. Conclusions Results demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality in smoking is established at younger ages and that school delay as well as school abandonment may contribute to increased smoking

  4. Magnetic expression of the Transbrasiliano Lineament, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotti, R. M.; Curto, J. B.; Fuck, R. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Roig, H. L.; Almeida, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Transbrasiliano lineament is a continental-sized discontinuity exposed between the Amazonian craton and the eastern portion of the South American Platform. It is over 3,000 km long, extending from northern Paraguay, across the Tocantins Province and the Phanerozoic Paraná and Parnaíba basins, down to the Ceará Atlantic coast. In the context of West Gondwana, this large continental structure extends to the African continent along the 4o30 lineament. Its NE-SW preferential trend is marked by strong magnetic anomalies at the crustal level and by low velocity zones of S waves within the mantle, suggesting lithosphere thinning. On the surface the Transbrasiliano lineament translates as aligned drainage and ridges in the continental relief, and is comprised of a set of N20-50E Late Neoproterozoic ductile right-lateral shear zones, brittlely reactivated during the Mesozoic. Different interpretations were forwarded along the years, suggesting that the lineament represents a mega-suture active during Gondwana Supercontinent amalgamation, in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic, or seeing the strike-slip ductile faults as the result of shearing related with post-collision stages of the Brasiliano orogeny. Fault reactivation is believed to have controlled graben formation, sediment accumulation and magmatism of the Jaibaras basin in NW Ceará, as well as the establishing of depocentres within the Paraná and Parnaíba basins, influencing also sedimentation at the Atlantic coast. Although a direct link with the lineament has not been established, nearby areas are the site of seismic activity, mainly in NW Ceará and close to the Goiás-Tocantins border in central Brazil. The lineament is covered by aeromagnetic surveys collected over decades. Qualitative interpretation of magnetic and remote sensing data shows that the Transbrasiliano lineament is comprised of a system of ductile shear zones, forming parallel sets of faults penetrating below the large Paraná and

  5. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vânia A.; Terças, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

    2012-01-01

    We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717

  7. 77 FR 65906 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... FR 54272) and determined on November 4, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 72212..., 2012 (77 FR 22344). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on September 5, 2012, and all persons who... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine Determinations On the basis of the record...

  8. Prisons as reservoir for community transmission of tuberculosis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Flávia P C; Praça, Renata M; Tatara, Mariana B; Simonsen, Vera; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Croda, Mariana G; Suffys, Philip N; Ko, Albert I; Andrews, Jason R; Croda, Julio

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Dourados, Brazil, to assess the relationship between incarceration and TB in the general population. Incarceration was associated with TB in an urban population; 54% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were related to strains from persons in prisons. TB control in prisons is critical for reducing disease prevalence.

  9. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  10. Rabies in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Favoretto, S. R.; de Mattos, C. C.; Morais, N. B.; Alves Araújo, F. A.; de Mattos, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    A new Rabies virus variant, with no close antigenic or genetic relationship to any known rabies variants found in bats or terrestrial mammals in the Americas, was identified in association with human rabies cases reported from the state of Ceará, Brazil, from 1991 to 1998. The marmoset, Callithrix jacchus acchus, was determined to be the source of exposure. PMID:11747745

  11. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-08-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  12. When Myth and Reality Meet: Reflections on ESP in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celani, Maria Antonieta Alba

    2008-01-01

    Within the broad background of English language education in Brazil, this paper intends to discuss two questions. Firstly, where and why a common misconception about ESP being identified as the teaching of reading only originated, and secondly, given the social role of English in the Brazilian context, whether an ESP approach can be seen as more…

  13. Transformative Learning through Music: Case Studies from Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Nan; Veblen, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we consider meaningful, emancipatory, and affirming music-making in Brazil through the lens of five case studies. Each illustrates aspects of transformative theory through music-making in music education as advanced by Mezirow, Freire, and contemporary Brazilian music educators.

  14. Molecular analysis of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliana Soares; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Carneiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2012-04-01

    Brazil nuts are an important export market in its main producing countries, including Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. Approximately 30,000 tons of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs with subsequent production of aflatoxins. In our study, Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), and identified by morphological and molecular means. We obtained 241 isolates from nut samples, 41% positive for aflatoxin production. Eighty-one isolates were selected for molecular investigation. Pairwise genetic distances among isolates and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. The following Aspergillus species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. bombycis, and A. arachidicola. Additionally, molecular profiles indicated a high level of nucleotide variation within β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences associated with high genetic divergence from RAPD data. Among the 81 isolates analyzed by molecular means, three of them were phylogenetically distinct from all other isolates representing the six species of section Flavi. A putative novel species was identified based on molecular profiles.

  15. Assessing Deaf and Hearing Children's Communication in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtig, Ida; Couto, Maria Ines Vieira; Mecca, Fabiola F. D. N.; Hartley, Sally; Wirz, Sheila; Woll, Bencie

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil there are no specific tests for either signed or spoken language for deaf children. A protocol evaluating communicative abilities independent of modality of communication (sign language or spoken language), and comprising assessments of (a) pragmatic profile; (b) modality of communication and linguistic level; (c) complexity of…

  16. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  17. Brazil: Education in an Expanding Economy. Bulletin, 1959, No. 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Augustus F.

    1959-01-01

    Studies on education in other countries have long been a responsibility of the Office of Education. This present study is another contribution in the series. It is based on background information acquired by the author during 4 visits totaling 3 years of residence in Brazil, with a 1957 visit to obtain current first-hand data. The purpose of the…

  18. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. PMID:22789090

  19. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  20. Confluence of the Amazon and Topajos Rivers, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the confluence of the Amazon and the Topajos Rivers at Santarem, Brazil (2.0S, 55.0W). The Am,azon flows from lower left to upper right of the photo. Below the river juncture of the Amazon and Tapajos, there is considerable deforestation activity along the Trans-Amazon Highway.