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Sample records for rejection predicts hastened

  1. Predictive spatial risk model of poliovirus to aid prioritization and hasten eradication in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the challenges facing the Global Polio Eradication Initiative is efficiently directing limited resources, such as specially trained personnel, community outreach activities, and satellite vaccinator tracking, to the most at-risk areas to maximize the impact of interventions. A validated predictive model of wild poliovirus circulation would greatly inform prioritization efforts by accurately forecasting areas at greatest risk, thus enabling the greatest effect of program interventions. Methods Using Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data from 2004-2013, we developed a spatial hierarchical Poisson hurdle model fitted within a Bayesian framework to study historical polio caseload patterns and forecast future circulation of type 1 and 3 wild poliovirus within districts in Nigeria. A Bayesian temporal smoothing model was applied to address data sparsity underlying estimates of covariates at the district level. Results We find that calculated vaccine-derived population immunity is significantly negatively associated with the probability and number of wild poliovirus case(s) within a district. Recent case information is significantly positively associated with probability of a case, but not the number of cases. We used lagged indicators and coefficients from the fitted models to forecast reported cases in the subsequent six-month periods. Over the past three years, the average predictive ability is 86 ± 2% and 85 ± 4% for wild poliovirus type 1 and 3, respectively. Interestingly, the predictive accuracy of historical transmission patterns alone is equivalent (86 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% for type 1 and 3, respectively). We calculate uncertainty in risk ranking to inform assessments of changes in rank between time periods. Conclusions The model developed in this study successfully predicts districts at risk for future wild poliovirus cases in Nigeria. The highest predicted district risk was 12.8 WPV1 cases in 2006, while the lowest district risk

  2. Predictive active disturbance rejection control for processes with time delay.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qinling; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has been shown to be an effective tool in dealing with real world problems of dynamic uncertainties, disturbances, nonlinearities, etc. This paper addresses its existing limitations with plants that have a large transport delay. In particular, to overcome the delay, the extended state observer (ESO) in ADRC is modified to form a predictive ADRC, leading to significant improvements in the transient response and stability characteristics, as shown in extensive simulation studies and hardware-in-the-loop tests, as well as in the frequency response analysis. In this research, it is assumed that the amount of delay is approximately known, as is the approximated model of the plant. Even with such uncharacteristic assumptions for ADRC, the proposed method still exhibits significant improvements in both performance and robustness over the existing methods such as the dead-time compensator based on disturbance observer and the Filtered Smith Predictor, in the context of some well-known problems of chemical reactor and boiler control problems.

  3. A QSAR model for predicting rejection of emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors) by nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Sadmani, Anwar; McConville, Megan; Kennedy, Maria; Amy, Gary

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model has been produced for predicting rejection of emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, pesticides and other organic compounds) by polyamide nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Principal component analysis, partial least square regression and multiple linear regressions were used to find a general QSAR equation that combines interactions between membrane characteristics, filtration operating conditions and compound properties for predicting rejection. Membrane characteristics related to hydrophobicity (contact angle), salt rejection, and surface charge (zeta potential); compound properties describing hydrophobicity (log K(ow), log D), polarity (dipole moment), and size (molar volume, molecular length, molecular depth, equivalent width, molecular weight); and operating conditions namely flux, pressure, cross flow velocity, back diffusion mass transfer coefficient, hydrodynamic ratio (J(o)/k), and recovery were identified as candidate variables for rejection prediction. An experimental database produced by the authors that accounts for 106 rejection cases of emerging contaminants by NF membranes as result of eight experiments with clean and fouled membranes (NF-90, NF-200) was used to produce the QSAR model. Subsequently, using the QSAR model, rejection predictions were made for external experimental databases. Actual rejections were compared against predicted rejections and acceptable R(2) correlation coefficients were found (0.75 and 0.84) for the best models. Additionally, leave-one-out cross-validation of the models achieved a Q(2) of 0.72 for internal validation. In conclusion, a unified general QSAR equation was able to predict rejections of emerging contaminants during nanofiltration; moreover the present approach is a basis to continue investigation using multivariate analysis techniques for understanding membrane rejection of organic compounds.

  4. Pretransplant thymic function predicts acute rejection in antithymocyte globulin-treated renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Courivaud, Cécile; Crepin, Thomas; Carron, Clémence; Gaiffe, Emilie; Roubiou, Caroline; Laheurte, Caroline; Moulin, Bruno; Frimat, Luc; Rieu, Philippe; Mousson, Christiane; Durrbach, Antoine; Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Saas, Philippe; Ducloux, Didier

    2016-05-01

    Lack of clear identification of patients at high risk of acute rejection hampers the ability to individualize immunosuppressive therapy. Here we studied whether thymic function may predict acute rejection in antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-treated renal transplant recipients in 482 patients prospectively studied during the first year post-transplant of which 86 patients experienced acute rejection. Only CD45RA(+)CD31(+)CD4(+) T cell (recent thymic emigrant [RTE]) frequency (RTE%) was marginally associated with acute rejection in the whole population. This T-cell subset accounts for 26% of CD4(+) T cells. Pretransplant RTE% was significantly associated with acute rejection in ATG-treated patients (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.08) for each increased percent in RTE/CD4(+) T cells), but not in anti-CD25 monoclonal (αCD25 mAb)-treated patients. Acute rejection was significantly more frequent in ATG-treated patients with high pretransplant RTE% (31.2% vs. 16.4%) or absolute number of RTE/mm(3) (31.7 vs. 16.1). This difference was not found in αCD25 monclonal antibody-treated patients. Highest values of both RTE% (>31%, hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.74) and RTE/mm(3) (>200/mm(3), hazard ratio, 3.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-8.70) were predictive of acute rejection in ATG-treated patients but not in patients having received αCD25 monoclonal antibody). Results were confirmed in a retrospective cohort using T-cell receptor excision circle levels as a marker of thymic function. Thus, pretransplant thymic function predicts acute rejection in ATG-treated patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of conspiracist ideation and worldviews in predicting rejection of science.

    PubMed

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E; Oberauer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Among American Conservatives, but not Liberals, trust in science has been declining since the 1970's. Climate science has become particularly polarized, with Conservatives being more likely than Liberals to reject the notion that greenhouse gas emissions are warming the globe. Conversely, opposition to genetically-modified (GM) foods and vaccinations is often ascribed to the political Left although reliable data are lacking. There are also growing indications that rejection of science is suffused by conspiracist ideation, that is the general tendency to endorse conspiracy theories including the specific beliefs that inconvenient scientific findings constitute a "hoax." We conducted a propensity weighted internet-panel survey of the U.S. population and show that conservatism and free-market worldview strongly predict rejection of climate science, in contrast to their weaker and opposing effects on acceptance of vaccinations. The two worldview variables do not predict opposition to GM. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, predicts rejection of all three scientific propositions, albeit to greatly varying extents. Greater endorsement of a diverse set of conspiracy theories predicts opposition to GM foods, vaccinations, and climate science. Free-market worldviews are an important predictor of the rejection of scientific findings that have potential regulatory implications, such as climate science, but not necessarily of other scientific issues. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, is associated with the rejection of all scientific propositions tested. We highlight the manifold cognitive reasons why conspiracist ideation would stand in opposition to the scientific method. The involvement of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science has implications for science communicators.

  6. The Role of Conspiracist Ideation and Worldviews in Predicting Rejection of Science

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Among American Conservatives, but not Liberals, trust in science has been declining since the 1970's. Climate science has become particularly polarized, with Conservatives being more likely than Liberals to reject the notion that greenhouse gas emissions are warming the globe. Conversely, opposition to genetically-modified (GM) foods and vaccinations is often ascribed to the political Left although reliable data are lacking. There are also growing indications that rejection of science is suffused by conspiracist ideation, that is the general tendency to endorse conspiracy theories including the specific beliefs that inconvenient scientific findings constitute a “hoax.” Methodology/Principal findings We conducted a propensity weighted internet-panel survey of the U.S. population and show that conservatism and free-market worldview strongly predict rejection of climate science, in contrast to their weaker and opposing effects on acceptance of vaccinations. The two worldview variables do not predict opposition to GM. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, predicts rejection of all three scientific propositions, albeit to greatly varying extents. Greater endorsement of a diverse set of conspiracy theories predicts opposition to GM foods, vaccinations, and climate science. Conclusions Free-market worldviews are an important predictor of the rejection of scientific findings that have potential regulatory implications, such as climate science, but not necessarily of other scientific issues. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, is associated with the rejection of all scientific propositions tested. We highlight the manifold cognitive reasons why conspiracist ideation would stand in opposition to the scientific method. The involvement of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science has implications for science communicators. PMID:24098391

  7. Do attachment patterns predict aggression in a context of social rejection? An executive functioning account.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ma, Haijing; Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Xing

    2017-07-01

    People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns' modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns. Moreover, Experiment 1b and 2 used a Stroop task to examine whether differences in provoked aggression by attachment patterns are due to the amount of executive functioning following social rejection, or after unprovoked punishment, or even before social rejection. Anxiously attached participants displayed significant more provoked aggression than securely and avoidantly attached participants in provoked aggression following unprovoked punishment in Experiments 1 and 2. Meanwhile, subsequent Stroop tests indicated anxiously attached participants experienced more executive functioning depletion after social rejection and unprovoked aggression. The present findings support the General Aggression Model and suggest that provoked aggression is predicted by attachment patterns in the context of social rejection; different provoked aggression may depend on the degree of executive functioning that individuals preserved in aggressive situations. The current study contributes to our understanding of the importance of the role of attachment patterns in modulating aggressive behavior accompanying unfair social encounters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Disturbance Rejection for Model Predictive Control Using a Multivariable Disturbance Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tange, Yoshio; Matsui, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Koji; Nishida, Hideyuki

    Model predictive control has been widely used in industrial applications. And more efficient and more precise control is being required to meet growing demands such as energy savings and fewer emissions in industrial plants. In this paper, we focus on step response model based predictive control, which is one of most applied predictive control methods, and propose a new disturbance rejection method to overcome control performance degradation caused by unmeasured ramp-like disturbances.

  9. Predicting Cellular Rejection With a Cell-Based Assay: Preclinical Evaluation in Children.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Chethan; Soltys, Kyle; Mazariegos, George; Bond, Geoffrey; Higgs, Brandon W; Ningappa, Mylarappa; Sun, Qing; Brown, Amanda; White, Jaimie; Levy, Samantha; Fazzolare, Tamara; Remaley, Lisa; Dirling, Katie; Harris, Patricia; Hartle, Tara; Kachmar, Pamela; Nicely, Megan; OʼToole, Lindsay; Boehm, Brittany; Jativa, Nicole; Stanley, Paula; Jaffe, Ronald; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Zeevi, Adriana; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Allospecific CD154+T-cytotoxic memory cells (CD154+TcM) predict acute cellular rejection after liver transplantation (LTx) or intestine transplantation (ITx) in small cohorts of children and can enhance immunosuppression management, but await validation and clinical implementation. To establish safety and probable benefit, CD154+TcM were measured in cryopreserved samples from 214 children younger than 21 years (National Clinical Trial 1163578). Training set samples (n = 158) were tested with research-grade reagents and 122 independent validation set samples were tested with current good manufacturing practices-manufactured reagents after assay standardization and reproducibility testing. Recipient CD154+TcM induced by stimulation with donor cells were expressed as a fraction of those induced by HLA nonidentical cells in parallel cultures. The resulting immunoreactivity index (IR) if greater than 1 implies increased rejection-risk. Training and validation set subjects were demographically similar. Mean coefficient of test variation was less than 10% under several conditions. Logistic regression incorporating several confounding variables identified separate pretransplant and posttransplant IR thresholds for prediction of rejection in the respective training set samples. An IR of 1.1 or greater in posttransplant training samples and IR of 1.23 or greater in pretransplant training samples predicted LTx or ITx rejection in corresponding validation set samples in the 60-day postsampling period with sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 84%, 80%, 64%, and 92%, respectively (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.792), and 57%, 89%, 78%, and 74%, respectively (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.848). No adverse events were encountered due to phlebotomy. Allospecific CD154+T-cytotoxic memory cells predict acute cellular rejection after LTx or ITx in children. Adjunctive use can enhance clinical

  10. Pretransplant Numbers of CD16(+) Monocytes as a Novel Biomarker to Predict Acute Rejection After Kidney Transplantation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, T P P; Hilbrands, L B; Kraaijeveld, R; Litjens, N H R; Rezaee, F; Nieboer, D; Steyerberg, E W; van Gestel, J A; Roelen, D L; Clahsen-van Groningen, M C; Baan, C C; Rowshani, A T

    2017-10-01

    Acute rejection is one of the major immunological determinants of kidney graft function and survival. Early biomarkers to predict rejection are lacking. Emerging evidence reveals a crucial role for the monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the pathogenesis of rejection. We hypothesized that higher pretransplant numbers of proinflammatory CD16+ monocytes can predict rejection. The study cohort consisted of 104 kidney transplant recipients (58 with no rejection and 46 with biopsy-proven rejection) and 33 healthy persons. Posttransplant median follow-up time was 14.7 mo (interquartile range 0.3-34 mo). Pretransplantation blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry for monocyte immunophenotypes. Groups were compared by Cox regression models for the occurrence of acute rejection. We documented a significantly increased absolute number of pretransplant CD16+ monocytes in patients who developed biopsy-proven rejection after transplantation compared with those with no rejection (hazard ratio [HR] 1.60, 95% CI 1.28-2.00, p < 0.001) and healthy persons (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.82, p < 0.001). In parallel, significantly fewer absolute numbers of CD16- monocytes were observed at pretransplant time points in rejectors versus nonrejectors (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94, p < 0,014). A higher pretransplant number of CD16+ monocytes is significantly associated with a higher risk of acute rejection after kidney transplantation. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Peer Rejection, Aggressive or Withdrawn Behavior, and Psychological Maladjustment from Ages 5 to 12: An Examination of Four Predictive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    Findings yielded a comprehensive portrait of the predictive relations among children's aggressive or withdrawn behaviors, peer rejection, and psychological maladjustment across the 5-12 age period. Examination of peer rejection in different variable contexts and across repeated intervals throughout childhood revealed differences in the timing,…

  12. Prefrontal recruitment during social rejection predicts greater subsequent self-regulatory imbalance and impairment: neural and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2014-11-01

    Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region's inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined Detection of Serum IL-10, IL-17, and CXCL10 Predicts Acute Rejection Following Adult Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Young-In; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Tak, Eunyoung; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Hwang, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of non-invasive diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for acute rejection in liver transplant patients would help to ensure the preservation of liver function in the graft, eventually contributing to improved graft and patient survival. We evaluated selected cytokines and chemokines in the sera from liver transplant patients as potential biomarkers for acute rejection, and found that the combined detection of IL-10, IL-17, and CXCL10 at 1-2 weeks post-operation could predict acute rejection following adult liver transplantation with 97% specificity and 94% sensitivity. PMID:27498551

  14. Targeted rejection predicts decreased anti-inflammatory gene expression and increased symptom severity in youth with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael Liam; Slavich, George; Chen, Edith; Miller, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Although responses to stress are sometimes assumed to be similar across different stressors, recent research has demonstrated that certain types of stress, such as targeted rejection, are particularly impactful. To test such associations in a chronic disease model, we examined how non-interpersonal, interpersonal, and targeted rejection life events predicted changes in gene expression and symptom severity in 121 youth with asthma who were assessed every 6 months for 2 years. Youth who recently experienced targeted rejection had less mRNA for signaling molecules that control airway inflammation and obstruction, specifically the glucocorticoid receptor and β2-adrenergic receptor. These associations were specific to targeted rejection and stronger for higher-status youth. Higher-status youth exposed to targeted rejection (but not other types of stress) also exhibited more asthma symptoms. These data demonstrate stressor-specific associations with molecular signaling pathways and asthma disease severity, and suggests threats to the social self may be particularly deleterious. PMID:25564524

  15. Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

    2007-01-01

    When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

  16. Interactions between Rejection Sensitivity and Supportive Relationships in the Prediction of Adolescents' Internalizing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Laursen, Brett; Duchene, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity, the tendency to anxiously or angrily expect rejection, is associated with internalizing difficulties during childhood and adolescence. The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether supportive parent-child relationships and friendships moderate associations that link angry and anxious rejection sensitivity to…

  17. Interactions between Rejection Sensitivity and Supportive Relationships in the Prediction of Adolescents' Internalizing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Laursen, Brett; Duchene, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity, the tendency to anxiously or angrily expect rejection, is associated with internalizing difficulties during childhood and adolescence. The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether supportive parent-child relationships and friendships moderate associations that link angry and anxious rejection sensitivity to…

  18. A continued debate about hastened death.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, G A H

    2000-06-01

    Oregon's Death with Dignity Act has changed the nature of the discussion and debate surrounding hastened death. After considering how the Act has been implemented, the clinical, policy, and research implications of physician-assisted suicide or physician-assisted death are introduced. This brief article, and the special theme issue of Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, present the opposing viewpoints on this issue.

  19. Pre-transplant immune state defined by serum markers and alloreactivity predicts acute rejection after living donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vondran, Florian W R; Timrott, Kai; Kollrich, Sonja; Steinhoff, Ann-Kristin; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Schrem, Harald; Klempnauer, Juergen; Lehner, Frank; Schwinzer, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Acute rejection (AR) remains a major cause for long-term kidney allograft failure. Reliable immunological parameters suitable to define the pre-transplant immune state and hence the individual risk of graft rejection are highly desired to preferably adapt the immunosuppressive regimen in advance. Donor and third party alloreactivities were determined by mixed lymphocyte cultures. Soluble forms of CD25, CD30, and CD44 were detected in patients' serum by ELISA. Various lymphocyte subpopulations were measured using flow cytometry. All patients received triple immunosuppression (tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/steroids) and were grouped according to biopsy results within the first year: rejection-free (RF, n = 13), borderline (BL, n = 5), or acute rejection (AR, n = 7). Patients with AR showed the highest pre-transplant alloreactivities and serum levels (sCD25/sCD30/sCD44) according to the pattern RF < BL < AR. Relying on serum analysis only, multivariate logistic regression (logit link function) yielded a prognostic score for prediction of rejection with 75.0% sensitivity and 69.2% specificity. Patients with rejection showed markedly higher pre-transplant frequencies of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells lacking CD28, but lower numbers of CD8(+) CD161(bright) T cells and NK cells than RF individuals. Pre-transplant immune state defined by alloreactivity, serum markers, and particular lymphocyte subsets seems to correlate with occurrence of graft rejection after kidney transplantation. A prognostic score based on pre-transplant serum levels has shown great potential for prediction of rejection episodes and should be further evaluated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Predictive current control of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on linear active disturbance rejection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kunpeng

    2017-01-01

    The compatibility problem between rapidity and overshooting in the traditional predictive current control structure is inevitable and difficult to solve by reason of using PI controller. A novel predictive current control (PCC) algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based on linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) is presented in this paper. In order to displace PI controller, the LADRC strategy which consisted of linear state error feedback (LSEF) control algorithm and linear extended state observer (LESO), is designed based on the mathematic model of PMSM. The purpose of LSEF is to make sure fast response to load mutation and system uncertainties, and LESO is designed to estimate the uncertain disturbances. The principal structures of the proposed system are speed outer loop based on LADRC and current inner loop based on predictive current control. Especially, the instruction value of qaxis current in inner loop is derived from the control quantity which is designed in speed outer loop. The simulation is carried out in Matlab/Simulink software, and the results illustrate that the dynamic and static performances of proposed system are satisfied. Moreover the robust against model parameters mismatch is enhanced obviously.

  1. The value of serum neopterin, interferon-gamma levels and interleukin-12B polymorphisms in predicting acute renal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Chin, G K; Adams, C L; Carey, B S; Shaw, S; Tse, W-Y; Kaminski, E R

    2008-01-01

    Acute rejection remains a poor predictor of graft outcome. In this study, we measured serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and neopterin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 3′ untranslated region of the interleukin (IL)-12 B gene (1188 A/C) to determine whether either of these factors could predict acute rejection in renal transplantation. Significantly higher early post-transplant neopterin levels (days 5–7; 35·7 versus 19·9 nmol/l) were observed in recipients who subsequently rejected their grafts. Post-transplant neopterin levels showed a strong positive correlation with 1-month creatinine levels (Spearman's correlation 0·62, P < 0·001), suggesting macrophage activation early after transplantation. Pretransplant neopterin and IFN-γ levels and the IL-12B gene SNP did not predict acute rejection in this small retrospective study. The ability to predict acute rejection non-invasively early after transplantation could lead to individual tailoring of immunosuppressive regimens and perhaps lead eventually to longer graft survival. PMID:18341612

  2. Increased Pretransplant Frequency of CD28(+) CD4(+) TEM Predicts Belatacept-Resistant Rejection in Human Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Cerisuelo, M; Laurie, S J; Mathews, D V; Winterberg, P D; Larsen, C P; Adams, A B; Ford, M L

    2017-09-01

    While most human T cells express the CD28 costimulatory molecule constitutively, it is well known that age, inflammation, and viral infection can drive the generation of CD28(null) T cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated that CD28(null) cell effector function is not impacted by the presence of the CD28 costimulation blocker belatacept. As such, a prevailing hypothesis suggests that CD28(null) cells may precipitate costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. However, CD28(+) cells possess more proliferative and multifunctional capacity, factors that may increase their ability to successfully mediate rejection. Here, we performed a retrospective immunophenotypic analysis of adult renal transplant recipients who experienced acute rejection on belatacept treatment as compared to those who did not. Intriguingly, our findings suggest that patients possessing higher frequency of CD28(+) CD4(+) TEM prior to transplant were more likely to experience acute rejection following treatment with a belatacept-based immunosuppressive regimen. Mechanistically, CD28(+) CD4(+) TEM contained significantly more IL-2 producers. In contrast, CD28(null) CD4(+) TEM isolated from stable belatacept-treated patients exhibited higher expression of the 2B4 coinhibitory molecule as compared to those isolated from patients who rejected. These data raise the possibility that pretransplant frequencies of CD28(+) CD4(+) TEM could be used as a biomarker to predict risk of rejection following treatment with belatacept. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Perceived mother and father acceptance-rejection predict four unique aspects of child adjustment across nine countries

    PubMed Central

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that parental rejection of children leads to child maladaptation. However, the specific effects of perceived parental acceptance-rejection on diverse domains of child adjustment and development have been incompletely documented, and whether these effects hold across diverse populations and for mothers and fathers are still open questions. Methods This study assessed children's perceptions of mother and father acceptance-rejection in 1247 families from China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States as antecedent predictors of later internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, school performance, prosocial behavior, and social competence. Results Higher perceived parental rejection predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and decreases in school performance and prosocial behavior across three years controlling for within-wave relations, stability across waves, and parental age, education, and social desirability bias. Patterns of relations were similar across mothers and fathers and, with a few exceptions, all 9 countries. Conclusions Children's perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection have small but nearly universal effects on multiple aspects of their adjustment and development regardless of the family's country of origin. PMID:25492267

  4. Perceived mother and father acceptance-rejection predict four unique aspects of child adjustment across nine countries.

    PubMed

    Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul

    2015-08-01

    It is generally believed that parental rejection of children leads to child maladaptation. However, the specific effects of perceived parental acceptance-rejection on diverse domains of child adjustment and development have been incompletely documented, and whether these effects hold across diverse populations and for mothers and fathers are still open questions. This study assessed children's perceptions of mother and father acceptance-rejection in 1,247 families from China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States as antecedent predictors of later internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, school performance, prosocial behavior, and social competence. Higher perceived parental rejection predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and decreases in school performance and prosocial behavior across 3 years controlling for within-wave relations, stability across waves, and parental age, education, and social desirability bias. Patterns of relations were similar across mothers and fathers and, with a few exceptions, all nine countries. Children's perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection have small but nearly universal effects on multiple aspects of their adjustment and development regardless of the family's country of origin. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Pro-inflammatory cytokine predicts reduced rejection of unfair financial offers.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Hideki; Osumi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Yamakawa, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine one of biological correlates, pro-inflammatory cytokine, in rejection of unfair financial offers in the Ultimatum Game (UG), where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Nineteen participants played 20 trials of the UG as responders, and they were proposed unfair offers in a half of the trials. Baseline levels of several pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, subjective happiness, and depression of them were measured. Participants with higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6 rejected fewer unfair offers. This effect of IL-6 levels on decision-making was independent from other pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, subjective happiness, and depression. These results suggested that chronic higher levels of IL-6 might affect functions of neural regions related to decision making, and thus can modulate rejection of unfair offers.

  6. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection by changes in left ventricular volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.K.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1988-11-01

    Sixteen patients underwent heart transplantation (11 orthotopic, five heterotopic). Monitoring for acute rejection was by both endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning with technetium 99m-labelled red blood cells. From the scans information was obtained on left ventricular volumes (stroke, end-diastolic, and end-systolic), ejection fraction, and heart rate. Studies (208) were made in the 16 patients. There was a highly significant correlation between the reduction in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume (and a less significant correlation in end-systolic volume) and increasing acute rejection seen on EMB. Heart rate and ejection fraction did not correlate with the development of acute rejection. Correlation of a combination of changes in stroke volume and end-diastolic volume with EMB showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 96%. Radionuclide scanning is therefore a useful noninvasive tool for monitoring acute rejection.

  7. Anxious solitude and peer exclusion predict social helplessness, upset affect, and vagal regulation in response to behavioral rejection by a friend.

    PubMed

    Gazelle, Heidi; Druhen, Madelynn J

    2009-07-01

    It was hypothesized that combined individual child vulnerability (anxious solitude) and interpersonal stress (peer exclusion) would predict the strongest responses to experimentally manipulated behavioral peer rejection. Results indicated that in a sample of 3rd graders (N = 160, 59% girls), anxious solitary excluded children displayed more behavioral manifestations of social helplessness before and after behavioral rejection, reported more feelings of rejection in anticipation of and reaction to behavioral rejection, and were observably more upset during behavioral rejection than were normative children. Moreover, affective responses to behavioral rejection mediated the relation between anxious solitary excluded status and behavioral manifestations of social helplessness. Furthermore, anxious solitary excluded children versus anxious solitary children demonstrated excessive suppression of vagal tone and more sustained acceleration in heart rate during the experiment. Results also indicated that affective, social-cognitive, and regulatory processes directly contributed to children's responses to behavioral rejection.

  8. Donor-specific alloreactive T cells can be quantified from whole blood, and may predict cellular rejection after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michaela; Leyking, Sarah; Schäfer, Marco; Elsäßer, Julia; Janssen, Martin; Mihm, Janine; van Bentum, Kai; Fliser, Danilo; Sester, Martina; Sester, Urban

    2017-07-01

    Preformed cellular alloreactivity can exist prior to transplantation and may contribute to rejection. Here, we used a rapid flow-cytometric whole-blood assay to characterize the extent of alloreactive T cells among 1491 stimulatory reactions from 61 renal transplant candidates and 75 controls. The role of preformed donor-specific alloreactive T cells in cellular rejection was prospectively analyzed in 21 renal transplant recipients. Alloreactive CD8(+) T cells were more frequent than respective CD4(+) T cells, and these levels were stable over time. CD8(+) T cells were effector-memory T cells largely negative for expression of CD27, CD62L, and CCR7, and were susceptible to steroid and calcineurin inhibitor inhibition. Alloreactivity was more frequent in samples with higher number of HLA mismatches. Moreover, the percentage of individuals with alloreactive T cells was higher in transplant candidates than in controls. Among transplant candidates, 5/61 exhibited alloreactive CD8(+) T cells against most stimulators, 23/61 toward a limited number of stimulators, and 33/61 did not show any alloreactivity. Among 21 renal transplant recipients followed prospectively, one had donor-specific preformed T-cell alloreactivity. She was the only patient who developed cellular rejection posttransplantation. In conclusion, donor-specific alloreactive T cells may be rapidly quantified from whole blood, and may predict cellular rejection after transplantation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Prediction of acute graft rejection in renal transplantation: the utility of cyclosporine blood concentrations.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J; Napoli, K L; Welsh, M S; Atkinson, N E; Kahan, B D

    1991-02-01

    While cyclosporine is recommended to be used only in conjunction with monitoring of its blood concentrations, the utility of these measurements in preventing treatment failure is not established. In a group of 52 patients trough levels and steady-state concentrations were monitored in serum and whole blood by specific (SP) and nonspecific (NS) assays (polyclonal radioimmunoassay, PR; fluorescence polarization immunoassay, FP; high-pressure liquid chromatography, HP). From as many as 10 determinations of trough level and steady state concentrations during the first 40 days after renal transplantation, the lowest measurement was selected. In the case of an acute rejection episode within that time period, only values until that event were considered. Trough level measurements in serum by PR/NS and by FP/NS and in whole blood by HP/SP were not significantly different between patients with and patients without rejection episodes. However, simultaneously measured steady-state values (serum/PR/NS and serum/FP/NS) were significantly lower in patients suffering from rejection (with rejection SS/serum/PR/NS mean = 127 ng/ml, SD = 41 ng/ml; without rejection mean = 163 ng/ml, SD = 60 ng/ml; P = 0.027, t test). This difference could not be demonstrated for steady state/whole blood/HP/SP measurements. A logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the probability of rejection can be decreased by up to 40% if steady state/serum/PR/NS or steady state/serum/FP/NS values never drop below 250 ng/ml early after renal transplantation.

  10. Myocardial Gene Expression Profiling to Predict and Identify Cardiac Allograft Acute Cellular Rejection: The GET-Study

    PubMed Central

    Bodez, Diane; Hocini, Hakim; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Tisserand, Pascaline; Benhaiem, Nicole; Barau, Caroline; Kharoubi, Mounira; Guellich, Aziz; Guendouz, Soulef; Radu, Costin; Couetil, Jean-Paul; Ghaleh, Bijan; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Teiger, Emmanuel; Hittinger, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Aims Serial invasive endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) remain the gold standard for acute cellular rejection (ACR) diagnosis. However histological grading has several limitations. We aimed to explore the value of myocardial Gene Expression Profiling (GEP) for diagnosing and identifying predictive biomarkers of ACR. Methods A case-control study nested within a retrospective heart transplant patients cohort included 126 patients with median (IQR) age 50 (41–57) years and 111 (88%) males. Among 1157 EMB performed, 467 were eligible (i.e, corresponding to either ISHLT grade 0 or ≥3A), among which 36 were selected for GEP according to the grading: 0 (CISHLT, n = 13); rejection ≥3A (RISHLT, n = 13); 0 one month before ACR (BRISHLT, n = 10). Results We found 294 genes differentially expressed between CISHLT and RISHLT, mainly involved in immune activation, and inflammation. Hierarchical clustering showed a clear segregation of CISHLT and RISHLT groups and heterogeneity of GEP within RISHLT. All EMB presented immune activation, but some RISHLT EMB were strongly subject to inflammation, whereas others, closer to CISHLT, were characterized by structural modifications with lower inflammation level. We identified 15 probes significantly different between BRISHLT and CISHLT, including the gene of the muscular protein TTN. This result suggests that structural alterations precede inflammation in ACR. Linear Discriminant Analysis based on these 15 probes was able to identify the histological status of every 36 samples. Conclusion Myocardial GEP is a helpful method to accurately diagnose ACR, and predicts rejection one month before its histological occurrence. These results should be considered in cardiac allograft recipients’ care. PMID:27898719

  11. Average Tacrolimus Trough Level in the First Month After Transplantation May Predict Acute Rejection.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, S; Erdoğmuş, Ş; Kumru, G; Elhan, A H; Şengül, Ş; Tüzüner, A; Keven, K

    2017-04-01

    Although tacrolimus is one of the essential drugs used for the prevention of rejection in kidney recipients, target trough levels are not well established. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between average tacrolimus trough levels (TTLs) of the first month after transplantation and biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) during the first 12 months after transplant. A total of 274 patients who underwent kidney-alone transplantation between 2002 and 2014 were enrolled in the study. Average TTLs of the first month were assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to discriminate patients with and those without BPAR. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of average TTLs of the first month on BPAR. According to ROC curve analysis, the highest area under the curve (AUC) was obtained from 8 ng/mL (AUC = 0.73 ± 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.84). Forty-two (31.8%) of the 132 patients with average TTLs <8 ng/mL and 13 (9.1%) of 142 patients with ≥8 ng/mL had BPAR during the first 12 months after transplant (P < .001). In univariable analysis, average TTLs of the first month <8 ng/mL were associated with higher risk of BPAR (P < .001), and the significance remained in Cox multivariable analysis (hazard ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.76-3.82; P = .001). No significant differences were observed in the glomerular filtration rate, cytomegalovirus, BK viremia, or BK nephropathy between groups at post-transplant month 12. Keeping the average TTLs of the first month after transplantation at ≥8 ng/mL not only prevents BPAR occurrence but also minimizes the toxic effects of the use of a single-trough level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Asymptomatic Antibody-mediated Rejection After Heart Transplantation Predicts Poor Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Grace W.; Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Patel, Jignesh K.; Kittleson, Michelle M.; Reed, Elaine F.; Kiyosaki, Krista K.; Ardehali, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with poor outcome after heart transplantation. The diagnosis of AMR usually includes endomyocardial biopsy findings of endothelial cell swelling, intravascular macrophages, C4d+ staining, and associated left ventricular dysfunction. The significance of AMR findings in biopsy specimens of asymptomatic heart transplant patients (normal cardiac function and no symptoms of heart failure) is unclear. Methods Between July 1997 and September 2001, AMR was found in the biopsy specimens of 43 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: asymptomatic AMR (AsAMR, n = 21) and treated AMR (TxAMR with associated left ventricular dysfunction, n = 22). For comparison, a control group of 86 contemporaneous patients, without AMR, was matched for age, gender, and time from transplant. Outcomes included 5-year actuarial survival and development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Patients were considered to have AMR if they had ≥ 1 endomyocardial biopsy specimen positive for AMR. Results The 5-year actuarial survival for the AsAMR (86%), TxAMR (68%), and control groups (79%) was not significantly different (p = 0.41). Five-year freedom from CAV (≥ 30% stenosis in any vessel) was AsAMR, 52%; TxAMR, 68%; and control, 79%. Individually, freedom from CAV was significantly lower in the AsAMR group compared with the control group (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between AsAMR vs TxAMR and TxAMR vs control for CAV. Conclusions Despite comparable 5-year survival with controls after heart transplantation, AsAMR rejection is associated with a greater risk of CAV. Trials to treat AsAMR to alter outcome are warranted. PMID:19416767

  13. Asymptomatic antibody-mediated rejection after heart transplantation predicts poor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Grace W; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Fishbein, Michael C; Patel, Jignesh K; Kittleson, Michelle M; Reed, Elaine F; Kiyosaki, Krista K; Ardehali, Abbas

    2009-05-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with poor outcome after heart transplantation. The diagnosis of AMR usually includes endomyocardial biopsy findings of endothelial cell swelling, intravascular macrophages, C4d+ staining, and associated left ventricular dysfunction. The significance of AMR findings in biopsy specimens of asymptomatic heart transplant patients (normal cardiac function and no symptoms of heart failure) is unclear. Between July 1997 and September 2001, AMR was found in the biopsy specimens of 43 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: asymptomatic AMR (AsAMR, n = 21) and treated AMR (TxAMR with associated left ventricular dysfunction, n = 22). For comparison, a control group of 86 contemporaneous patients, without AMR, was matched for age, gender, and time from transplant. Outcomes included 5-year actuarial survival and development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Patients were considered to have AMR if they had > or = 1 endomyocardial biopsy specimen positive for AMR. The 5-year actuarial survival for the AsAMR (86%), TxAMR (68%), and control groups (79%) was not significantly different (p = 0.41). Five-year freedom from CAV (> or = 30% stenosis in any vessel) was AsAMR, 52%; TxAMR, 68%; and control, 79%. Individually, freedom from CAV was significantly lower in the AsAMR group compared with the control group (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between AsAMR vs TxAMR and TxAMR vs control for CAV. Despite comparable 5-year survival with controls after heart transplantation, AsAMR rejection is associated with a greater risk of CAV. Trials to treat AsAMR to alter outcome are warranted.

  14. Does chronic classroom peer rejection predict the development of children's classroom participation during the grade school years?

    PubMed

    Ladd, Gary W; Herald-Brown, Sarah L; Reiser, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 398 children was followed up from ages 5 to 12 to investigate the relation between peer group rejection and classroom participation. The participation trajectories of individuals and groups of children who were rejected for differing periods of time were examined both during and after rejection using piecewise growth curve analyses. The results showed that whereas during periods of rejection, children exhibited negative or negligible growth in participation, when nonrejected, they manifested positive growth. These findings corroborated the hypothesis that (a) peer rejection creates constraints that inhibit children's classroom participation and (b) the cessation of rejection enables children to become more active and cooperative participants in classroom activities.

  15. Desire for hastened death among patients with advanced AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William; Gibson, Christopher; Kramer, Michael; Tomarken, Alexis; Nelson, Christian; Pessin, Hayley; Esch, Julie; Galietta, Michele; Garcia, Nerina; Brechtl, John; Schuster, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The recent debate over legalization of physician-assisted suicide has fueled interest in understanding factors that lead medically ill patients to seek a hastened death. The authors investigated the prevalence and predictors of desire for hastened death in 372 patients with advanced AIDS who were newly admitted to a palliative-care facility. Clinician-rated and self-report measures of desire for hastened death, depression, hopelessness, spiritual well-being, social support, pain, and physical symptom burden were administered to assess the factors that correspond to a high desire for death. The prevalence ranged from 4.6% to 8.3%, significantly lower than in previous studies of patients with advanced or terminal cancer. Multivariate models revealed significant and unique effects for both hopelessness and depression, with these variables accounting for a large proportion of the variance in each model. Authors discuss the implications of these findings for palliative care practice and the assisted-suicide debate.

  16. Terminally ill cancer patients' wish to hasten death.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; Burnett, P; Pelusi, D; Badger, S; Varghese, F; Robertson, M

    2002-07-01

    This exploratory study investigated factors associated with the wish to hasten death among a sample of terminally ill cancer patients. Semi-structured interviews conducted on a total of 72 hospice and home palliative care patients were subjected to qualitative analysis using QSR-NUDIST. The main themes to emerge suggested that patients with a high wish to hasten death had greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceived themselves to be more of a burden to others, and experienced higher levels of demoralization, while also reporting less confidence in symptom control, fewer social supports, less satisfaction with life experiences and fewer religious beliefs when compared with patients who had a moderate or no wish to hasten death. The implications of these findings will be discussed.

  17. A Higher Risk of Acute Rejection of Human Kidney Allografts Can Be Predicted from the Level of CD45RC Expressed by the Recipients’ CD8 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Laurence; Bernard, Isabelle; Chabod, Marianne; Augusto, Jean-François; Lauwers-Cances, Valerie; Cristini, Christelle; Cuturi, Maria-Cristina; Subra, Jean-François; Saoudi, Abdelhadi

    2013-01-01

    Although transplantation is the common treatment for end-stage renal failure, allograft rejection and marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs remain important limitations. A major challenge in the field is to identify easy, reliable and noninvasive biomarkers allowing the prediction of deleterious alloreactive immune responses and the tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy in individuals according to the rejection risk. In this study, we first established that the expression of the RC isoform of the CD45 molecule (CD45RC) on CD4 and CD8 T cells from healthy individuals identifies functionally distinct alloreactive T cell subsets that behave differently in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion. We then investigated whether the frequency of the recipients CD45RC T cell subsets before transplantation would predict acute graft rejection in a cohort of 89 patients who had undergone their first kidney transplantation. We showed that patients exhibiting more than 54.7% of CD8 CD45RChigh T cells before transplantation had a 6 fold increased risk of acute kidney graft rejection. In contrast, the proportions of CD4 CD45RC T cells were not predictive. Thus, a higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients’ CD8 T cells. PMID:23894540

  18. Asymmetric frontal brain activity and parental rejection predict altruistic behavior: moderation of oxytocin effects.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tops, Mattie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-06-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts charitable donations after a charity's (emotion-eliciting) promotional video showing a child in need is viewed, in a sample of 47 young adult women. In addition, we explore possibilities for mediation and moderation, by asymmetric frontal activity, of the effects of intranasally administered oxytocin and parental love withdrawal on charitable donations. Greater relative left frontal activity was related to larger donations. In addition, we found evidence of moderation: Low levels of parental love withdrawal predicted larger donations in the oxytocin condition for participants showing greater relative right frontal activity. We suggest that when approach motivation is high (reflected in greater relative left frontal activity), individuals are generally inclined to take action upon seeing someone in need and, thus, to donate money to actively help out. Only when approach motivation is low (reflected in less relative left/greater relative right activity) do empathic concerns affected by oxytocin and experiences of love withdrawal play an important part in deciding about donations.

  19. Anxious Solitude and Peer Exclusion Predict Social Helplessness, Upset Affect, and Vagal Regulation in Response to Behavioral Rejection by a Friend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Druhen, Madelynn J.

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that combined individual child vulnerability (anxious solitude) and interpersonal stress (peer exclusion) would predict the strongest responses to experimentally manipulated behavioral peer rejection. Results indicated that in a sample of 3rd graders (N = 160, 59% girls), anxious solitary excluded children displayed more…

  20. Preventing Rejection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications work best. These medications work in different phases of the immune response to minimize side effects ... effective immunosuppression. Clinical immunosuppression usually occurs in three phases: induction, maintenance and anti-rejection. Reference and Publication ...

  1. High proportion of CD95(+) and CD38(+) in cultured CD8(+) T cells predicts acute rejection and infection, respectively, in kidney recipients.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Esther; Castro, María José; Allende, Luís M; Talayero, Paloma; Brunet, Mercè; Millán, Olga; Guirado, Luís; López-Hoyos, Marcos; San Segundo, David; Rodrigo, Emilio; Muñoz, Pedro; Boix Giner, Francisco; Llorente Viñas, Santiago; Muro-Amador, Manuel; Paz-Artal, Estela

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find noninvasive T-cell markers able to predict rejection or infection risk after kidney transplantation. We prospectively examined T-lymphocyte subsets after cell culture stimulation (according to CD38, CD69, CD95, CD40L, and CD25 expression) in 79 first graft recipients from four centers, before and after transplantation. Patients were followed up for one year. Patients who rejected within month-1 (n=10) showed high pre-transplantation and week-1 post-transplantation percentages of CD95(+), in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells (P<0.001 for all comparisons). These biomarkers conferred independent risk for early rejection (HR:5.05, P=0.061 and HR:75.31, P=0.004; respectively). The cut-off values were able to accurately discriminate between rejectors and non-rejectors and Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly different free-of-rejection time rates (P<0.005). Patients who rejected after the month-1 (n=4) had a higher percentage of post-transplantation CD69(+) in CD8(+) T-cells than non-rejectors (P=0.002). Finally, patients with infection (n=41) previously showed higher percentage of CD38(+) in CD8(+) T-cells at all post-transplantation times evaluated, being this increase more marked in viral infections. A cut-off of 59% CD38(+) in CD8(+) T-cells at week-1, week-2 and month-2 reached 100% sensitivity for the detection of subsequent viral infections. In conclusion, predictive biomarkers of rejection and infection risk after transplantation were detected that could be useful for the personalized care of kidney recipients.

  2. Assisted or Hastened Death: The Healthcare Practitioner’s Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Rod D; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa

    2012-01-01

    Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in most countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for the legalisation of euthanasia and assisted suicide has never been stronger. While some studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other healthcare professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to hastening death. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisting death, including a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country’s laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745

  3. Distinguishing among irrational suicide and other forms of hastened death: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Cavin P

    2009-01-01

    The increasing recognition that not all hastened death is irrational challenges clinical practice. The author distinguishes among the various forms of hastened death. Psychiatrists may be consulted when patients ask to hasten their death in any of the ways described, contrasted, and illustrated in this article. The rational desire to hasten death may call for unconventional psychiatric responses. The author discusses the error of failing to provide life-saving medical treatment over the objection of someone who has attempted suicide and the error of trying to prevent rational persons suffering from incurable illness from hastening their death.

  4. Immune biomarker panel monitoring utilizing IDO enzyme activity and CD4 ATP levels: prediction of acute rejection versus viral replication events

    PubMed Central

    Dharnidharka, Vikas R.; Gupta, Sushil; Khasawneh, Eihab Al; Haafiz, Allah; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Theriaque, Douglas W.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Infections have become as important an event as acute rejection post-transplant for long-term allograft survival. Less invasive biomarkers tested so far predict risk for one event or the other, not both. We prospectively tested blood and urine monthly for twelve months post-transplant from children receiving a kidney transplant. The indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme pathway was assessed by mass spectrometry assays using the ratio of product L-kynurenine (kyn) to substrate tryptophan (trp). Kyn/trp ratios and blood CD4 T-cell ATP levels were correlated with acute rejection or major infection events or stable group (no events) in the next 30 days. The 25 subjects experienced 6 discrete episodes of acute rejection in 5 subjects and 16 discrete events of major infection in 14 subjects (7 BK viruria, 6 cytomegaloviremia, 1 Epstein-Barr and cytomegaloviremia, 2 transplant pyelonephritis). Mean serum kyn/trp ratios were significantly elevated in the group that experienced acute rejection (p = 0.02).Within-subject analyses revealed that over time, urine kyn/trp ratios showed an increase (p = 0.01) and blood CD4-ATP levels showed a decrease (p = 0.007) prior to a major infection event. These pilot results suggest that a panel of biomarkers together can predict over- or under-immunosuppression, but need independent validation. PMID:21492353

  5. Rejected applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review membership application materials (especially rejected applications) to the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) during its formative years (1947–1953). Methods: Detailed study of materials in the AAN Historical Collection. Results: The author identified 73 rejected applications. Rejected applicants (71 male, 2 female) lived in 25 states. The largest number was for the Associate membership category (49). These were individuals “in related fields who have made and are making contributions to the field of neurology.” By contrast, few applicants to Active membership or Fellowship status were rejected. The largest numbers of rejectees were neuropsychiatrists (19), neurosurgeons (16), and psychiatrists (14). Conclusion: The AAN, established in the late 1940s, was a small and politically vulnerable organization. A defining feature of the fledgling society was its inclusiveness; its membership was less restrictive than that of the older American Neurological Association. At the same time, the society needed to preserve its core as a neurologic society rather than one of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Hence, the balance between inclusiveness and exclusive identity was a difficult one to maintain. The Associate membership category, more than any other, was at the heart of this issue of self-definition. Associate members were largely practitioners of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Their membership was a source of consternation and was to be carefully been held in check during these critical formative years. PMID:24944256

  6. Assisted or hastened death: the healthcare practitioner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Rod Duncan; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa

    2012-08-30

    Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in many countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for legalisation of euthanasia or assisted suicide has never been stronger. While many studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other health professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to assisted death or euthanasia. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisted death, with a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country's laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient.

  7. Investigation of Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) and HLA Genotypes to Predict the Occurrence of Acute Allograft Rejection after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Davood; Nafar, Mohsen; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Abdolvahabi, Razieh; Lesan Pezeshki, Mahboob; Razaghi, Efat; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar

    2017-06-01

    After kidney transplantation, natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in triggering the immune response to the allogeneic grafts primarily by their killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). This process may be one mechanism that contributes to graft rejection. In this study, we have evaluated whether acute rejection after kidney transplantation was associated with predicted NK cell alloreactivity based on KIR gene and ligand along with KIR/HLA compound genotype analysis. After kidney transplantation, natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in triggering the immune response to the allogeneic grafts primarily by their killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). This process may be one mechanism that contributes to graft rejection. In this study, we have evaluated whether acute rejection after kidney transplantation was associated with predicted NK cell alloreactivity based on KIR gene and ligand along with KIR/HLA compound genotype analysis. DNA from 65 patients with biopsy-proven acute kidney allograft rejection (AKAR), 61 clinically stable graft function (SGF) recipients and 176 healthy subjects were identified for the presence or absence of 10 variable KIR genes (both activating and inhibitory receptors) and their HLA ligands using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) assay. Although no significant difference in the frequency of individual KIR genes, was found the gene content, and the haplotypic distribution between the three categories were detected, the frequency of the KIR3DL1+HLA-Bw4*A allele combination was significantly lower in AKAR patients compared to SGF recipients (p=0.004, OR=0.34, CI=0.16-0.72) and healthy subjects (p=0.019, OR=0.47, CI=0.25-0.89). Kaplan-Meier survival test showed that the KIR3DL1+HLA-Bw4*A allele combination could be considered protective for AKAR (p=0.04 by log-rank). The results of this study suggest that KIR/HLA polymorphism may be a genetic susceptibility factor to alloreactivity

  8. Usefulness of Diastolic Strain Measurements in Predicting Elevated Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Risk of Rejection or Coronary Artery Vasculopathy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jimmy C; Magdo, H Sonali; Yu, Sunkyung; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Zamberlan, Mary; Gajarski, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    In pediatric heart transplant recipients, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is associated with rejection and coronary artery vasculopathy. This study aimed to evaluate which echocardiographic parameters track changes in PCWP and predict adverse outcomes (rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy). This prospective single-center study enrolled 49 patients (median 11.4 years old, interquartile range 7.4 to 16.5) at time of cardiac catheterization and echocardiography. Median follow-up was 2.4 years (range 1.2 to 3.1 years), with serial testing per clinical protocol. Ratio of early mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/E'), left atrial (LA) distensibility, peak LA systolic strain, E/left ventricular (LV) diastolic strain, and E/LV diastolic strain rate were measured from echocardiograms. Increase in PCWP ≥3 mm Hg was associated with changes in LA distensibility, E/E', and E/LV diastolic strain, with highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for E/LV diastolic strain (0.76). In 9 patients who subsequently developed rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy, E/LV diastolic strain rate at baseline differed from patients without events (median 57.0 vs 43.6, p = 0.02). On serial studies, only change in LV ejection fraction differed in patients with events (median -10% vs -1%, p = 0.01); decrease in LV ejection fraction of -19% had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 44%. In conclusion, LV diastolic strain and strain rate measurements can track changes in PCWP and identify patients at risk for subsequent rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data in a larger cohort.

  9. A Primer on Rational Suicide and Other Forms of Hastened Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Holdwick, Daniel J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of mental health issues involved in the debate over rational suicide and other forms of hastened death. Covers arguments for including counseling psychologists and other mental health professionals in discussions about hastened death and highlights the relevant empirical research. Provides directions for counseling…

  10. Social Causes and Consequences of Rejection Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Bonita; Downey, Geraldine; Bonica, Cheryl; Paltin, Iris

    2007-01-01

    Predictions from the Rejection Sensitivity (RS) model concerning the social causes and consequences of RS were examined in a longitudinal study of 150 middle school students. Peer nominations of rejection, self-report measures of anxious and angry rejection expectations, and social anxiety, social withdrawal, and loneliness were assessed at two…

  11. Husband's Reaction to His Wife's Sexual Rejection Is Predicted by the Time She Spends With Her Male Friends but Not Her Male Coworkers.

    PubMed

    DeLecce, Tara; Barbaro, Nicole; Mohamedally, Derek; Shackelford, Todd K

    2017-01-01

    Males among many species, including humans, evaluate cues of sperm competition risk and adjust accordingly their sperm competition tactics. The number of potential sexual rivals can serve as an index of sperm competition risk. Therefore, men may adjust their in-pair copulatory interest in accordance with the presence of sexual rivals. Using self-reports from 45 married men, we test the hypotheses that the time a man's wife spends with other men-either male friends or male coworkers-will positively predict a man's copulatory interest in his wife (Hypothesis 1) and his anger (Hypothesis 2), upset (Hypothesis 3), and frustration (Hypothesis 4) in response to his wife's sexual rejection. The results show that the time wives spend with male friends (but not male coworkers) predicts their husbands' anger, upset, and frustration in response to sexual rejection, providing support for Hypotheses 2-4. Discussion highlights novel contributions of the current research and provides a potential explanation for the discrepant findings regarding male friends versus male coworkers.

  12. Rejection positivity predicts trial-to-trial reaction times in an auditory selective attention task: a computational analysis of inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Melara, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara and Algom, 2003) probed the role of rejection positivity (RP), a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG) component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT) performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that additionally incorporated momentary fluctuations in EEG as the source of trial-to-trial variation in performance precisely predicted individual RTs within each condition. The results lend support to the linking proposition that RP controls the speed of responding to targets through the inhibitory control of distractors. PMID:25191244

  13. Artificial intelligence techniques: predicting necessity for biopsy in renal transplant recipients suspected of acute cellular rejection or nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hummel, A D; Maciel, R F; Sousa, F S; Cohrs, F M; Falcão, A E J; Teixeira, F; Baptista, R; Mancini, F; da Costa, T M; Alves, D; Rodrigues, R G D S; Miranda, R; Pisa, I T

    2011-05-01

    The gold standard for nephrotoxicity and acute cellular rejection (ACR) is a biopsy, an invasive and expensive procedure. More efficient strategies to screen patients for biopsy are important from the clinical and financial points of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate various artificial intelligence techniques to screen for the need for a biopsy among patients suspected of nephrotoxicity or ACR during the first year after renal transplantation. We used classifiers like artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM), and Bayesian inference (BI) to indicate if the clinical course of the event suggestive of the need for a biopsy. Each classifier was evaluated by values of sensitivity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for each of the classifiers. The technique that showed the best sensitivity value as an indicator for biopsy was SVM with an AUC of 0.79 and an accuracy rate of 79.86%. The results were better than those described in previous works. The accuracy for an indication of biopsy screening was efficient enough to become useful in clinical practice.

  14. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  15. Solid phase detection of C4d-fixing HLA antibodies to predict rejection in high immunological risk kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Gregor; Wahrmann, Markus; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Kikić, Željko; Winzer, Christine; Hörl, Walter H; Mühlbacher, Ferdinand; Hoke, Matthias; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Regele, Heinz; Böhmig, Georg A

    2013-02-01

    Protocols for recipient desensitization may allow for successful kidney transplantation across major immunological barriers. Desensitized recipients, however, still face a considerable risk of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), which underscores the need for risk stratification tools to individually tailor treatment. Here, we investigated whether solid phase detection of complement-fixing donor-specific antibodies (DSA) has the potential to improve AMR prediction in high-risk transplants. The study included 68 sensitized recipients of deceased donor kidney allografts who underwent peritransplant immunoadsorption for alloantibody depletion (median cytotoxic panel reactivity: 73%; crossmatch conversion: n = 21). Pre and post-transplant sera were subjected to detection of DSA-triggered C4d deposition ([C4d]DSA) applying single-antigen bead (SAB) technology. While standard crossmatch and [IgG]SAB testing failed to predict outcomes in our desensitized patients, detection of preformed [C4d]DSA (n = 44) was tightly associated with C4d-positive AMR [36% vs. 8%, P = 0.01; binary logistic regression: odds ratio: 10.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.6-64.2), P = 0.01]. Moreover, long-term death-censored graft survival tended to be worse among [C4d]DSA-positive recipients (P = 0.07). There were no associations with C4d-negative AMR or cellular rejection. [C4d]DSA detected 6 months post-transplantation were not related to clinical outcomes. Our data suggest that pretransplant SAB-based detection of complement-fixing DSA may be a valuable tool for risk stratification. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Catechins suppress muscle inflammation and hasten performance recovery after exercise.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2013-09-01

    Catechins, abundant in green tea, exhibit many biological actions for potential clinical applications. Our purpose was to explore the potential benefits of catechin ingestion on recovery of physical performance after downhill running. Institute of Cancer Research mice were used to examine the effects of prior catechin ingestion (0.5% w/w in diet for 3 wk) on 1) wheel-running activity, 2) running endurance, 3) muscle force, and 4) muscle oxidative stress and inflammation after downhill running (16 m·min for 5 min, 18 m·min for 5 min, 20 m·min for 10 min, and 22 m·min for 130 min). Voluntary wheel-running activity and the contractile force of the isolated soleus muscle decreased (P < 0.05) after downhill running. Notably, catechin ingestion significantly alleviated the running-induced decrease in voluntary wheel-running activity by 35%; the catechin-treated mice maintained endurance running capacity (214 ± 9 vs 189 ± 10 min, P < 0.05). Furthermore, catechins alleviated (P < 0.05) the decrease in tetanic force evident in the soleus muscle after downhill running. Catechins suppressed the running-induced increases in plasma creatine phosphokinase levels by 52%; this was also true of the carbonylated protein content of the soleus muscle by 17% (P < 0.05), malondialdehyde levels by 32% in the gastrocnemius muscle, and myeloperoxidase activity of the gastrocnemius by 22% (P < 0.05). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the gastrocnemius muscle were significantly lower (P < 0.05) by 33%, 29%, and 35%, respectively, in treated mice; the expression levels of mRNAs encoding these fell in parallel. Our results suggest that long-term intake of catechins, perhaps through their antioxidant properties, attenuates downhill running-induced muscle damage by suppressing muscle oxidative stress and inflammation, hastening recovery of physical performance in mice.

  17. Palliative Care and Patient Autonomy: Moving Beyond Prohibitions Against Hastening Death

    PubMed Central

    LiPuma, Samuel H.; DeMarco, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO) upholds policies prohibiting practices that deliberately hasten death. We find these policies overly restrictive and unreasonable. We argue that under specified circumstances it is both reasonable and morally sound to allow for treatments that may deliberately hasten death; these treatments should be part of the NHPCO guidelines. Broadening such policies would be more consistent with the gold standard of bioethical principles, ie, respecting the autonomy of competent adults. PMID:27980420

  18. Who Doesn't Reject the Rejectee?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockriel, Irwin W.; Fox, Randy J.

    1976-01-01

    This article reports on the utility of sociometrics for the teacher, particularly in determining who will not reject a generally rejected classmate. A study on teachers' ability to predict such students indicated teachers were not very good at predicting either rejectees, or accepting students. Implications and suggestions are discussed. (NG)

  19. Pathways to distress: the multiple determinants of depression, hopelessness, and the desire for hastened death in metastatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rodin, Gary; Lo, Christopher; Mikulincer, Mario; Donner, Allan; Gagliese, Lucia; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2009-02-01

    We tested a model in which psychosocial and disease-related variables act as multiple protective and risk factors for psychological distress in patients with metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that depression and hopelessness constitute common pathways of distress, which mediate the effects of psychosocial and disease-related factors on the desire for hastened death. This model was tested on a cross-sectional sample of 406 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal or lung cancer recruited at outpatient clinics of a Toronto cancer hospital, using structural equation modeling. The results supported the model. High disease burden, insecure attachment, low self-esteem, and younger age were risk factors for depression. Low spiritual well-being was a risk factor for hopelessness. Depression and hopelessness were found to be mutually reinforcing, but distinct constructs. Both depression and hopelessness independently predicted the desire for hastened death, and mediated the effects of psychosocial and disease-related variables on this outcome. The identified risk factors support a holistic approach to palliative care in patients with metastatic cancer, which attends to physical, psychological, and spiritual factors to prevent and treat distress in patients with advanced disease.

  20. Independent Qualification of the CIAU Tool Based on the Uncertainty Estimate in the Prediction of Angra 1 NPP Inadvertent Load Rejection Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Ronaldo C.; Alvim, Antonio Carlos M.

    2002-07-01

    The Code with - the capability of - Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU) is a tool proposed by the 'Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP)' of the University of Pisa. Other Institutions including the nuclear regulatory body from Brazil, 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear', contributed to the development of the tool. The CIAU aims at providing the currently available Relap5/Mod3.2 system code with the integrated capability of performing not only relevant transient calculations but also the related estimates of uncertainty bands. The Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) is used to characterize the uncertainty in the prediction of system code calculations for light water reactors and is internally coupled with the above system code. Following an overview of the CIAU development, the present paper deals with the independent qualification of the tool. The qualification test is performed by estimating the uncertainty bands that should envelope the prediction of the Angra 1 NPP transient RES-11. 99 originated by an inadvertent complete load rejection that caused the reactor scram when the unit was operating at 99% of nominal power. The current limitation of the 'error' database, implemented into the CIAU prevented a final demonstration of the qualification. However, all the steps for the qualification process are demonstrated. (authors)

  1. Should IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-2 be considered predictive biomarkers of acute rejection in liver and kidney transplant? Results of a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Millán, O; Rafael-Valdivia, L; San Segundo, D; Boix, F; Castro-Panete, M J; López-Hoyos, M; Muro, M; Valero-Hervás, D; Rimola, A; Navasa, M; Muñoz, P; Miras, M; Andrés, A; Guirado, L; Pascual, J; Brunet, M

    2014-10-01

    Acute rejection (AR) remains a major challenge in organ transplantation, and there is a need for predictive biomarkers. In the present multicenter study, we prospectively examined a series of biomarkers in liver and kidney recipients. Intracellular expression of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-2 and IL-17 soluble production were evaluated both pre-transplantation and post-transplantation (1st and 2nd week, 1st, 2nd and 3rd month). 142 transplant patients (63 liver/79 kidney) were included in the study. Twenty-eight recipients (14 liver/14 kidney) developed AR. Pre- and post-transplantation intracellular expression of %IFN-γ(+) in CD4(+)CD69(+) and in CD8(+)CD69(+) and soluble IL17 identified liver and kidney transplant patients at high risk of AR. Pre-transplantation, %IL-2(+) in CD8(+)CD69(+) also identified kidney patients at high risk. We constructed pre- and post-transplantation risk prediction models, based on a composite panel of biomarkers, which could provide the basis for future studies and will be a useful tool for the selection and adjustment of immunosuppressive treatments.

  2. Impact of Treatment for Depression on Desire for Hastened Death in Patients With Advanced AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Kramer, Michael; Li, Yuelin; Tomarken, Alexis; Nelson, Christian; Pessin, Hayley; Esch, Julie; Galietta, Michele; Garcia, Nerina; Brechtl, John; Schuster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the development of multi-drug regimens for HIV, palliative care and quality-of-life issues in patients with advanced AIDS remain important areas of clinical investigation. Objective Authors assessed the impact of treatment for depression on desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS. Method Patients with advanced AIDS (N=372) were interviewed shortly after admission to a palliative-care facility, and were reinterviewed monthly for the next 2 months. Patients diagnosed with a major depressive syndrome were provided with antidepressant treatment and reinterviewed weekly. Desire for hastened death was assessed with two questionnaire measures. Results Desire for death was highly associated with depression, and it decreased dramatically in patients who responded to antidepressant treatment. Little change in desire for hastened death was observed in patients whose depression did not improve. Although improved depression was not significantly associated with the use of antidepressant medication, those individuals prescribed antidepressant medication showed the largest decreases in desire for hastened death. Discussion Successful treatment for depression appears to substantially decrease desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS. The authors discuss implications of these findings for palliative-care treatment and the physician-assisted suicide debate. PMID:20332284

  3. Urinary miR-155-5p and CXCL10 as prognostic and predictive biomarkers of rejection, graft outcome and treatment response in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Millán, Olga; Budde, Klemens; Sommerer, Claudia; Aliart, Irene; Rissling, Olesja; Bardaji, Beatriz; Matz, Maaren; Zeier, Martin; Silva, Irene; Guirado, Lluis; Brunet, Mercè

    2017-09-07

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may be useful biomarkers of rejection and allograft outcome in kidney transplantation. Elevated urinary CXCL10 levels have been associated with acute rejection (AR) and may predict allograft failure. We examined the correlation of miRNA, CXCL10 levels and immunosuppressive drug exposure with AR and graft function in kidney transplant recipients. Eighty de novo kidney transplant recipients were recruited from four European centres. All patients received tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone. Urinary pellet expression of miR-142-3p, miR-210-3p, and miR-155-5p was assessed by qPCR and urinary CXCL10 levels by ELISA at the 1(st) week and the 1(st) , 2(nd) , 3(rd) and 6(th) month post-transplantation. Eight patients experienced AR. Before and during AR, patients showed a significant increase of urinary miR-142-3p, miR-155-5p, and CXCL10 levels and a decrease of miR-210-3p levels. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis showed that miR-155-5p (AUC=0.875; P=0.046) and CXCL10 (AUC=0.865; P=0.029) had excellent capacity to discriminate between rejectors and non-rejectors. The optimal cut-off values for the prognosis of AR were 0.51, with 85% sensitivity and 86% specificity for miR-155-5p and 84.73 pg/ml, with 84% sensitivity and 80% specificity for CXCL10. miR-155-5p and CXCL10 levels correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Levels of both biomarkers normalised after recovery of graft function. The regular early post-transplantation monitoring of urinary miR-155-5p and CXCL10 can help in the prognosis of AR and graft dysfunction. Large prospective randomised multicentre trials are warranted to refine our cut-off values and validate the clinical usefulness of these biomarkers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Predicting Risk for Antibody-mediated Rejection and Graft Loss in Highly Human Leukocyte Antigen Sensitized Patients Transplanted After Desensitization.

    PubMed

    Vo, Ashley A; Sinha, Aditi; Haas, Mark; Choi, Jua; Mirocha, James; Kahwaji, Joseph; Peng, Alice; Villicana, Rafael; Jordan, Stanley C

    2015-07-01

    Desensitization with intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab (I+R) significantly improves transplant rates in highly sensitized patients, but antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) remains a concern. Between July 2006 and December 2012, 226 highly sensitized patients received transplants after desensitization. Most received alemtuzumab induction and standard immunosuppression. Two groups were examined: ABMR (n = 181) and ABMR (n = 45, 20%). Risk factors for ABMR, pathology, and outcomes were assessed. Significant risks for ABMR included previous transplants and pregnancies as sensitizing events, donor-specific antibody (DSA) relative intensity scores greater than 17, presence of both class I and II DSAs at transplant and time on waitlist. The ABMR showed a significant benefit for graft survival and glomerular filtration rate at 5 years (P < 0.0001). Banff pathology characteristics for ABMR patients with or without graft loss did not differ. C4d versus C4d ABMR did not predict graft loss (P = 0.086). Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) significantly predicted graft failure (P = 0.045). The ABMR episodes were treated with I+R (n = 25), or, in more severe ABMR, plasma exchange (PLEX)+I+R (n = 20). Graft survival for patients treated with I+R was superior (P = 0.028). Increased mortality was seen in ABMR patients experiencing graft loss after ABMR treatment (P = 0.004). The PLEX + Eculizumab improved graft survival for TMA patients (P = 0.036). Patients desensitized with I+R who remain ABMR have long-term graft and patient survival. The ABMR patients have significantly reduced graft survival and glomerular filtration rate at 5 years, especially TMA. Severe ABMR episodes benefit from treatment with PLEX + Eculizumab. The DSA-relative intensity scores at transplant was a strong predictor of ABMR. Donor-specific antibody avoidance and reduction strategies before transplantation are critical to avoiding ABMR and improving long-term outcomes.

  5. Attitudes Regarding Palliative Sedation and Death Hastening Among Swiss Physicians: A Contextually Sensitive Approach.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rose-Anna; Johnston, Wendy S; Bernard, Mathieu; Canevascini, Michela; Currat, Thierry; Borasio, Gian D; Beauverd, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, where assisted suicide but not euthanasia is permitted, the authors sought to understand how physicians integrate palliative sedation in their practice and how they reflect on existential suffering and death hastening. They interviewed 31 physicians from different care settings. Five major attitudes emerged. Among specialized palliative care physicians, convinced, cautious and doubtful attitudes were evident. Within unspecialized settings, palliative sedation was more likely to be considered as death hastening: clinicians either avoid it with an inexperienced attitude or practice it with an ambiguous attitude, raising the issue of unskilled and abusive uses of sedatives at the end of life.

  6. Effector Mechanisms of Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Aurélie; Varey, Emilie; Anegon, Ignacio; Cuturi, Maria-Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation appears today to be the best alternative to replace the loss of vital organs induced by various diseases. Transplants can, however, also be rejected by the recipient. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms and the cells/molecules involved in acute and chronic rejections. T cells and B cells mainly control the antigen-specific rejection and act either as effector, regulatory, or memory cells. On the other hand, nonspecific cells such as endothelial cells, NK cells, macrophages, or polymorphonuclear cells are also crucial actors of transplant rejection. Last, beyond cells, the high contribution of antibodies, chemokines, and complement molecules in graft rejection is discussed in this article. The understanding of the different components involved in graft rejection is essential as some of them are used in the clinic as biomarkers to detect and quantify the level of rejection. PMID:24186491

  7. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Analysis of preformed donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies characteristics for prediction of antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Jorge; Tafulo, Sandra; Dias, Leonídio; Martins, La Salete; Fonseca, Isabel; Beirão, Idalina; Castro-Henriques, António; Cabrita, António

    2015-03-01

    The relevance of preformed donor specific antibodies (DSA) detected by Luminex assays, with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatch, remains unsettled in kidney transplantation (KT). We aimed to analyze the impact of preformed DSA characteristics on kidney graft outcomes. In 462 patients that received a kidney graft in our unit, between 2007 and 2012, pre-transplant sera were analyzed by Luminex screening assay to determine the presence of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies and single-antigen bead assay [positive if mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ≥ 1000] to assign anti-HLA specificities. Anti-HLA antibodies were present in 95 patients (20.6%), but only 40 (8.7%) had DSA. Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) at 1-year was higher in patients with DSA (35.0%) than in those without them (0.9%) (P < 0.001). Only DSA with a MFI of >3000 were significantly associated with AMR occurrence. Receiver operator curves revealed that a MFI of >4900 in the highest DSA bead had a high sensitivity (85.7%) and that the sum of all DSA beads MFI > 11,000 had a high specificity (92.3%) for AMR prediction. Anti-thymocyte globulin versus basiliximab induction was more frequent in DSA+ AMR- (65.4%) versus DSA+ AMR+ (34.6%) patients (P = 0.072). Five-year censored graft survival was lower in DSA+ than in DSA- patients (respectively, 84.8% versus 94.9%, P = 0.006), although survival was only reduced in DSA+ AMR+ (68.8%) versus DSA+ AMR- (96.0%) patients (P = 0.038). Preformed DSA is associated with kidney graft loss, in relation with AMR occurrence. DSA strength may be used to improve immunological risk stratification of sensitized patients and their clinical management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining donor-specific antibody C1q-binding ability improves the prediction of antibody-mediated rejection in human leucocyte antigen-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Jorge; Tafulo, Sandra; Dias, Leonídio; Martins, La Salete; Fonseca, Isabel; Beirão, Idalina; Castro-Henriques, António; Cabrita, António

    2017-04-01

    Detrimental impact of preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) against human leucocyte antigens on outcomes after kidney transplantation are well documented, however, the value of their capacity to bind complement for predicting antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and graft survival still needs to be confirmed. We aimed to study DSA characteristics (strength and C1q binding) that might distinguish harmful DSA from clinically irrelevant ones. We retrospectively studied 60 kidney-transplanted patients with preformed DSA detected by single antigen bead (SAB) assays (IgG and C1q kits), from a cohort of 517 kidney graft recipients (124 with detectable anti-HLA antibodies). Patients were divided into DSA strength (MFI < vs. ≥ 15 000) and C1q-binding ability. AMR frequency was high (30%) and it increased with DSA strength (P = 0.002) and C1q+ DSA (P < 0.001). The performance of DSA C1q-binding ability as a predictor of AMR was better than DSA strength (diagnostic odds ratio 16.3 vs. 6.4, respectively). Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression showed that C1q+ DSA was a risk factor for AMR (OR = 16.80, P = 0.001), while high MFI DSAs were not. Graft survival was lower in high MFI C1q+ DSA in comparison with patients with C1q- high or low MFI DSA (at 6 years, 38%, 83% and 80%, respectively; P = 0.001). Both DSA strength and C1q-binding ability assessment seem valuable for improving pretransplant risk assessment. Since DSA C1q-binding ability was a better predictor of AMR and correlated with graft survival, C1q-SAB may be a particularly useful tool.

  10. Primary Care Patients Hastening Death by Voluntarily Stopping Eating and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Eva E.; Hagens, Martijn; Willems, Dick; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Little is known about the role family physicians play when a patient deliberately hastens death by voluntarily stopping eating and drinking (VSED). The purpose of this study was to gain more insight for family physicians when confronted with patients who wish to hasten death by VSED. We aimed to describe physicians’ involvement in VSED, to describe characteristics and motives of their patients, and to describe the process of VSED in terms of duration, as well as common symptoms in the last 3 days of life. METHODS We undertook a survey of a random national sample of 1,100 family physicians (response rate 72%), and 500 of these physicians received questions about their last patient who hastened death by VSED. RESULTS Of the 978 eligible physicians, 708 responded (72.4%); 46% had cared for a patient who hastened death by VSED. Of the 500 physicians who received the additional questions, 440 were eligible and 285 (64.8%) responded; they described 99 cases of VSED. Seventy percent of these patients were aged older than 80 years, 76% had severe disease (27% with cancer), and 77% were dependent on others for everyday care. Frequent reasons for the patients’ death wish were somatic (79%), existential (77%), and dependence (58%). Median time until death was 7 days, and the most common symptoms before death were pain, fatigue, impaired cognitive functioning, and thirst or dry throat. Family physicians were involved in 62% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Patients who hasten death by VSED are mostly in poor health. It is not unlikely for family physicians to be confronted with VSED. They can play an important role in caring for these patients and their proxies by informing them of VSED and by providing support and symptom management during VSED. PMID:26371262

  11. Lifetime anxiety disorder and current anxiety symptoms associated with hastened depressive recurrence in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Shah, Saloni; Kim, Jane P; Park, Dong Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Yuen, Laura D; Do, Dennis; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Ketter, Terence A

    2017-09-01

    To assess differential relationships between lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms and longitudinal depressive severity in bipolar disorder (BD). Stanford BD Clinic outpatients enrolled during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation and followed with the STEP-BD Clinical Monitoring Form while receiving naturalistic treatment for up to two years. Baseline unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms and times to depressive recurrence/recovery were compared in patients with versus without lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms. Among 105 currently recovered patients, lifetime anxiety disorder was significantly associated with 10/27 (37.0%) demographic/other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms/current psychotropics, hastened depressive recurrence (driven by earlier onset age), and a significantly (> two-fold) higher Kaplan-Meier estimated depressive recurrence rate, whereas current anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with 10/27 (37.0%) demographic/other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms/current psychotropics and hastened depressive recurrence (driven by lifetime anxiety disorder), but only a numerically higher Kaplan-Meier estimated depressive recurrence rate. In contrast, among 153 currently depressed patients, lifetime anxiety disorder/current anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with time to depressive recovery or depressive recovery rate. American tertiary BD clinic referral sample, open naturalistic treatment. Research is needed regarding differential relationships between lifetime anxiety disorder and current anxiety symptoms and hastened/delayed depressive recurrence/recovery - specifically whether lifetime anxiety disorder versus current anxiety symptoms has marginally more robust association with hastened depressive recurrence, and whether both have marginally more robust

  12. Use of complement binding assays to assess the efficacy of antibody mediated rejection therapy and prediction of graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Daniel S; Huang, Yihung; Zhao, Lili; Rendulic, TrisAnn; Park, Jeong M; Sung, Randall S; Samaniego, Milagros

    2017-02-01

    The Luminex® single antigen bead assay (SAB) is the method of choice for monitoring the treatment for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). A ⩾50% reduction of the dominant donor-specific antibody (IgG-DSA) mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) has been associated with improved kidney allograft survival, and C1q-fixing DSA activity is associated with poor outcomes in patients with AMR. We aimed to investigate if C1q-DSA can be used as a reliable predictor of response to therapy and allograft survival in patients with biopsy-proven AMR. We tested pre- and post-treatment sera of 30 kidney transplant patients receiving plasmapheresis and low-dose IVIG for biopsy-proven AMR. IgG-DSA and C1q-DSA MFI were measured and correlated with graft loss or survival. Patients were classified as nonresponders (NR) when treatment resulted in <50% reduction in MFI of IgG-DSA and/or C1q-DSA was detectable following therapy. Differences in the percentage of patients deemed NR depended upon the end-point criterion (73% by reduction in IgG-DSA MFI vs. 50% by persistent C1q-DSA activity). None of the seven patients with <50% reduction of IgG-DSA but non-detectable C1q-DSA-fixing activity after therapy experienced graft loss, suggesting that C1q-DSA activity may better correlate with response. Reduction of C1q-DSA activity predicted graft survival better than IgG-DSA in the univariate Cox analysis (20.1% vs. 5.9% in NR; log-rank P-value=0.0147). A rapid reduction of DSA concentration below the threshold required for complement activation is associated with better graft survival, and C1q-DSA is a better predictor of outcomes than IgG-DSA MFI reduction. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate Change Hastens the Conservation Urgency of an Endangered Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change appears to be one of the main threats to biodiversity in the near future and is already affecting the distribution of many species. Currently threatened species are a special concern while the extent to which they are sensitive to climate change remains uncertain. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) is classified as endangered and a conservation focus on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using measures of species range shift, we explored how the distribution of Przewalski's gazelle may be impacted by projected climate change based on a maximum entropy approach. We also evaluated the uncertainty in the projections of the risks arising from climate change. Modeling predicted the Przewalski's gazelle would be sensitive to future climate change. As the time horizon increased, the strength of effects from climate change increased. Even assuming unlimited dispersal capacity of gazelles, a moderate decrease to complete loss of range was projected by 2080 under different thresholds for transforming the probability prediction to presence/absence data. Current localities of gazelles will undergo a decrease in their occurrence probability. Projections of the impacts of climate change were significantly affected by thresholds and general circulation models. This study suggests climate change clearly poses a severe threat and increases the extinction risk to Przewalski's gazelle. Our findings 1) confirm that endangered endemic species is highly vulnerable to climate change and 2) highlight the fact that forecasting impacts of climate change needs an assessment of the uncertainty. It is extremely important that conservation strategies consider the predicted geographical shifts and be planned with full knowledge of the reliability of projected impacts of climate change. PMID:21826214

  14. Therapeutic disasters that hastened safety testing of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Paine, M F

    2017-04-01

    New drugs were not required to undergo premarket safety testing in the United States until 1938, when a therapeutic disaster-the Elixir Sulfanilamide tragedy-prompted Congress to pass a bill mandating this now-routine process. History repeated itself nearly 25 years later, when another therapeutic disaster-the thalidomide tragedy-led to passage of new amendments in 1962 to ensure drug efficacy and greater drug safety. As is typical with historical events, critical information was gained that led to novel approaches for understanding, predicting, diagnosing, and managing drug-induced toxicities. Continued refinement of current, along with development of new, approaches will mitigate future drug-related catastrophes, with the goal of avoiding them entirely.

  15. Double effect: a useful rule that alone cannot justify hastening death.

    PubMed

    Billings, J Andrew

    2011-07-01

    The rule of double effect is regularly invoked in ethical discussions about palliative sedation, terminal extubation and other clinical acts that may be viewed as hastening death for imminently dying patients. Unfortunately, the literature tends to employ this useful principle in a fashion suggesting that it offers the final word on the moral acceptability of such medical procedures. In fact, the rule cannot be applied appropriately without invoking moral theories that are not explicit in the rule itself. Four tenets of the rule each require their own ethical justification. A variety of moral theories are relevant to making judgements in a pluralistic society. Much of the rich moral conversation germane to the rule has been reflected in arguments about physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia, but the rule itself has limited relevance to these debates, and requires its own moral justifications when applied to other practices that might hasten death.

  16. Anxiety, helplessness/hopelessness and 'desire for hastened death' in Korean cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shim, E-J; Hahm, B-J

    2011-05-01

    Despite a relatively high rate of suicide associated with cancer, this issue has not been explored in Korean patients. This study investigates the prevalence and factors related to 'the desire for hastened death' (DHD) in Korean cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey using standardised measures, including the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, was performed with 131 patients with different types of cancer. 13.7% of the participants experienced moderate DHD (Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death scores 5-9) and 1.7% experienced high DHD (≥10). Socio-demographic and disease-associated factors of the DHD included age, overall health and shortness of breath. The majority of psychosocial variables such as sadness, distress, 'helplessness/hopelessness' and 'anxious preoccupation' had a moderate association with DHD. Patients with a clinically significant level of anxiety or depression reported higher levels of DHD. Other significant correlates included 'meaning/peace', a sense of burdening family, dignity impairment and suicidal thoughts after diagnosis. Helplessness/hopelessness and anxiety were the strongest predictors of DHD in multivariate analysis. In view of significant role of helplessness/hopelessness and anxiety in the DHD of cancer patients, careful monitoring and management of these factors should be an integral part of cancer care to reduce the occurrence of DHD. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Paying To Belong: When Does Rejection Trigger Ingratiation?

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Downey, Geraldine; Reddy, Kavita S.; Rodriguez, Sylvia; Cavanaugh, Timothy J.; Pelayo, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Societies and social scientists have long held the belief that exclusion induces ingratiation and conformity, an idea in contradiction with robust empirical evidence linking rejection with hostility and aggression. The classic literatures on ingratiation and conformity help resolve this contradiction by identifying circumstances under which rejection may trigger efforts to ingratiate. Jointly, findings from these literatures suggest that when people are given an opportunity to impress their rejecters, ingratiation is likely after rejection experiences that are harsh and that occur in important situations that threaten the individual’s self-definition. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people high in rejection sensitivity, and therefore dispositionally concerned about rejection, will utilize opportunities to ingratiate after harsh rejection in situations that are self-defining. In three studies of situations that are particularly self-defining for men, rejection predicted ingratiation among men (but not women) who were high in rejection sensitivity. In a fourth study, harsh rejection in a situation particularly self-defining for women predicted ingratiation among highly rejection-sensitive women (but not men). These findings help identify the specific circumstances under which people are willing to act in socially desirable ways toward those who have rejected them harshly. PMID:20649367

  18. Decisions that hasten death: double effect and the experiences of physicians in Australia.

    PubMed

    Trankle, Steven A

    2014-03-25

    In Australian end-of-life care, practicing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is illegal. Despite this, death hastening practices are common across medical settings. Practices can be clandestine or overt but in many instances physicians are forced to seek protection behind ambiguous medico-legal imperatives such as the Principle of Double Effect. Moreover, the way they conceptualise and experience such practices is inconsistent. To complement the available statistical data, the purpose of this study was to understand the reasoning behind how and why physicians in Australia will hasten death. A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Highlighting the importance of a multidimensional approach, physicians negotiated multiple influences when death was regarded as hastened. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices were affected by politico-religious and cultural influences, medico-legal imperatives, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects further emphasised the emotional and psychological investment physicians have with patients and others. In most cases death occurred as a result of treating suffering, and sometimes to fulfil the wishes of patients and others who requested death. Experience was especially subject to the efficacy with which physicians negotiated complex but context-specific situations, and was reflective of how they considered a good death. Although many were compelled to draw on the Principle of Double Effect, every physician reported its inadequacy as a medico-legal guideline. The Principle of Double Effect, as a simplistic and generalised guideline, was identified as a convenient mechanism to protect physicians who inadvertently or intentionally hastened

  19. Decisions that hasten death: double effect and the experiences of physicians in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Australian end-of-life care, practicing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is illegal. Despite this, death hastening practices are common across medical settings. Practices can be clandestine or overt but in many instances physicians are forced to seek protection behind ambiguous medico-legal imperatives such as the Principle of Double Effect. Moreover, the way they conceptualise and experience such practices is inconsistent. To complement the available statistical data, the purpose of this study was to understand the reasoning behind how and why physicians in Australia will hasten death. Method A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Results Highlighting the importance of a multidimensional approach, physicians negotiated multiple influences when death was regarded as hastened. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices were affected by politico-religious and cultural influences, medico-legal imperatives, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects further emphasised the emotional and psychological investment physicians have with patients and others. In most cases death occurred as a result of treating suffering, and sometimes to fulfil the wishes of patients and others who requested death. Experience was especially subject to the efficacy with which physicians negotiated complex but context-specific situations, and was reflective of how they considered a good death. Although many were compelled to draw on the Principle of Double Effect, every physician reported its inadequacy as a medico-legal guideline. Conclusions The Principle of Double Effect, as a simplistic and generalised guideline, was identified as a convenient mechanism to protect physicians who

  20. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  1. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  2. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  3. Does Desire for Hastened Death Change in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Marziliano, Allison; Jacobson, Coleen; Sorger, Brooke; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why some terminally ill patients may seek a hastened death (a construct referred to as “desire for hastened death” or DHD) is critical to understanding how to optimize quality of life during an individual’s final weeks, months or even years of life. Although a number of predictor variables have emerged in past DHD research, there is a dearth of longitudinal research on how DHD changes over time and what factors might explain such changes. This study examined DHD over time in a sample of terminally ill cancer patients admitted to a palliative care hospital. A random sample of 128 patients who completed the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death (SAHD) at two time points approximately 2–4 weeks apart participated. Patients were categorized into one of four trajectories based on their SAHD scores at both time points: low (low DHD at T1 and T2), rising (low DHD at T1 and high DHD at T2), falling (high DHD at T1 and low DHD at T2) and high (high DHD at T1 and T2). Among patients who were low at T1, several variables distinguished between those who developed DHD and those who did not: physical symptom distress, depression symptom severity, hopelessness, spiritual well-being, baseline DHD, and a history of mental health treatment. However, these same medical and clinical variables did not distinguish between the falling and high trajectories. Overall, there appears to be a relatively high frequency of change in DHD, even in the last weeks of life. Interventions designed to target patients who are exhibiting subthreshold DHD and feelings of hopelessness may reduce the occurrence of DHD emerging in this population. PMID:24747154

  4. Does desire for hastened death change in terminally ill cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Marziliano, Allison; Jacobson, Colleen; Sorger, Brooke; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2014-06-01

    Understanding why some terminally ill patients may seek a hastened death (a construct referred to as "desire for hastened death" or DHD) is critical to understanding how to optimize quality of life during an individual's final weeks, months or even years of life. Although a number of predictor variables have emerged in past DHD research, there is a dearth of longitudinal research on how DHD changes over time and what factors might explain such changes. This study examined DHD over time in a sample of terminally ill cancer patients admitted to a palliative care hospital. A random sample of 128 patients completed the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death (SAHD) at two time points approximately 2-4 weeks apart participated. Patients were categorized into one of four trajectories based on their SAHD scores at both time points: low (low DHD at T1 and T2), rising (low DHD at T1 and high DHD at T2), falling (high DHD at T1 and low DHD at T2) and high (high DHD at T1 and T2). Among patients who were low at T1, several variables distinguished between those who developed DHD and those who did not: physical symptom distress, depression symptom severity, hopelessness, spiritual well-being, baseline DHD, and a history of mental health treatment. However, these same medical and clinical variables did not distinguish between the falling and high trajectories. Overall, there appears to be a relatively high frequency of change in DHD, even in the last weeks of life. Interventions designed to target patients who are exhibiting subthreshold DHD and feelings of hopelessness may reduce the occurrence of DHD emerging in this population.

  5. Deep brain stimulation improves movement amplitude but not hastening of repetitive finger movements.

    PubMed

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Zadikoff, Cindy; Rosenow, Joshua M; Mackinnon, Colum D

    2013-09-27

    External pacing cues, dopaminergic medication, and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) improve repetitive movements performed at low rates. When the pacing rate is increased to frequencies near 2 Hz and above, both external pacing cues and Parkinson's medication were shown to be ineffective at improving repetitive finger movement performance. It remains unclear if STN-DBS improves the performance of repetitive finger movements at high pacing rates. This study examined the effects of STN-DBS on the amplitude and rate of repetitive finger movement across a range of external pacing rates. Nine participants with STN-DBS (OFF and ON stimulation) and nine matched healthy adults performed repetitive index finger flexion movements paced by an acoustic tone that increased from 1.0 to 3.0 Hz. OFF stimulation, most subjects moved at rates that were substantially higher (hastening pattern) or lower (bradykinesia pattern) than the tone rate, particularly at high pacing rates. ON stimulation, movement rate improved in subjects with the bradykinesia pattern, but not in those with the hastening pattern. Overall, STN-DBS did not significantly affect movement rate. In contrast, STN-DBS significantly (p<0.05) improved movement amplitude across all pacing rates. These findings demonstrate that STN-DBS improves movement amplitude, but had no effect on the rate of movement in participants with a hastening pattern. Separately testing movement amplitude and movement rate using both high and low rate externally paced cues in the clinical environment may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of people with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Desire for death and requests to hasten death of Japanese terminally ill cancer patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Yukihiro; Hirai, Kei; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    A desire for death and requests to hasten death are major topics in recent medical literature. The aim of this study was to clarify the bereaved family-reported incidence and reasons for desiring death and requests to hasten death during the whole course of terminally ill cancer patients receiving specialized palliative care in Japan. A nationwide questionnaire survey of 500 primary caregivers yielded a total of 290 responses (effective response rate, 62%). Sixty-two (21%) families reported that the patients had expressed a desire to die, and 29 (10%) families reported that the patients had requested that death be hastened. The major reasons for desiring death and requests to hasten death were: burden on others, dependency, meaninglessness, unable to pursue pleasurable activities, general malaise, pain, dyspnea, concerns about future distress, and wish to control the time of death. No intolerable physical symptoms were reported in 32% and 28% of the patients who desired death and those who requested to hasten death, respectively. Concerns about future distress and wishes to control the time of death were significantly more likely to be listed as major reasons for desiring death in patients who requested that death be hastened than those who did not. A desire for death and requests to hasten death are not uncommon in terminally ill cancer patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care in Japan. More intensive strategies for general malaise, pain, and dyspnea near the end of life, and for feelings of being a burden, meaninglessness, and concerns about future distress would alleviate the serious suffering of patients with a desire for death. However, some patients with a strong wish to control the time of death might not receive benefit from conventional palliative care.

  7. Assessment of the wish to hasten death in patients with advanced disease: A systematic review of measurement instruments

    PubMed Central

    Bellido-Pérez, Mercedes; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Porta-Sales, Josep; Balaguer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with advanced conditions may present a wish to hasten death. Assessing this wish is complex due to the nature of the phenomenon and the difficulty of conceptualising it. Aim: To identify and analyse existing instruments for assessing the wish to hasten death and to rate their reported psychometric properties. Design: Systematic review based on PRISMA guidelines. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of validation studies and the measurement properties of the instrument described. Data sources: The CINAHL, PsycINFO, Pubmed and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to November 2015. Results: A total of 50 articles involving assessment of the wish to hasten death were included. Eight concerned instrument validation and were evaluated using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments criteria. They reported data for between two and seven measurement properties, with ratings between fair and excellent. Of the seven instruments identified, the Desire for Death Rating Scale or the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death feature in 48 of the 50 articles. The Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death is the most widely used and is the instrument whose psychometric properties have been most often analysed. Versions of the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death are available in five languages other than the original English. Conclusion: This systematic review has analysed existing instruments for assessing the wish to hasten death. It has also explored the methodological quality of studies that have examined the measurement properties of these instruments and offers ratings of the reported properties. These results will be useful to clinicians and researchers with an interest in a phenomenon of considerable relevance to advanced patients. PMID:28124578

  8. [Exploring and Responding to a Wish to Hasten Death of a patient with Advanced Illness].

    PubMed

    Mazzocato, Claudia; Séchaud, Laurence

    2015-02-25

    It is not uncommon for patients with an advanced disease to express a desire to their physician to hasten their death. Recent studies show that the motivation of such a desire is multifactorial and multidimensional, including depression, physical, psycho-social and spiritual suffering, fears about the process of dying and/or misunderstandings about the options for end-of-life care. The objective of this paper is to propose to the physician how to explore the dimensions of this request and some elements to answer it.

  9. "Science" Rejects Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report, "Scientific Research in Education," claims to present an inclusive view of sciences in responding to federal attempts to legislate educational research. This article asserts that it narrowly defines science as positivism and methodology as quantitative, rejecting postmodernism and omitting other theories. Uses…

  10. Dispositional mindfulness and rejection sensitivity: The critical role of nonjudgment.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smart, Laura M

    2016-04-01

    The pain of rejection is a crucial component of normal social functioning; however, heightened sensitivity to rejection can be impairing in numerous ways. Mindfulness-based interventions have been effective with several populations characterized by elevated sensitivity to rejection; however, the relationship between mindfulness and rejection sensitivity has been largely unstudied. The present study examines associations between rejection sensitivity and multiple dimensions of dispositional mindfulness, with the hypothesis that a nonjudgmental orientation to inner experiences would be both associated with decreased rejection sensitivity and attenuate the impact of sensitivity to rejection on general negative affect. A cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (n = 451) completed self-report measures of rejection sensitivity, dispositional mindfulness, and trait-level negative affect. Significant zero-order correlations and independent effects were observed between most facets of dispositional mindfulness and rejection sensitivity, with nonjudging demonstrating the largest effects. As predicted, rejection sensitivity was associated with negative affectivity for people low in nonjudging (β = .27, t = 5.12, p < .001) but not for people high in nonjudging (β = .06, t = .99, p = .324). These findings provide preliminary support for mindfulness, specifically the nonjudging dimension, as a protective factor against rejection sensitivity and its effects on affect.

  11. Using Item Response Theory (IRT) to Reduce Patient Burden When Assessing Desire for Hastened Death.

    PubMed

    Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Liu, Ying; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2016-06-09

    Desire for hastened death (DHD) represents a wish to die sooner than might occur by natural disease progression. Efficient and accurate assessment of DHD is vital for clinicians providing care to terminally ill patients. The Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death (SAHD) is a commonly used self-report measure of DHD. The goal of this study was to use methods grounded in item response theory (IRT) to analyze the psychometric properties of the SAHD and identify an abbreviated version of the scale. Data were drawn from 4 studies of psychological distress at the end of life. Participants were 1,076 patients diagnosed with either advanced cancer or AIDS. The sample was divided into 2 subsamples for scale analysis and development of the shortened form. IRT was used to estimate item parameters. A 6-item version of the SAHD (SAHD-A) was identified through examination of item parameter estimations. The SAHD-A demonstrated adequate convergent validity. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated comparable cut scores to identify patients with high levels of DHD. These analyses support the utility of the SAHD-A, which can be more easily integrated into research studies and clinical assessments of DHD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Porta-Sales, Josep; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; Altisent, Rogelio; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Bellido-Pérez, Mercedes; Breitbart, William; Centeno, Carlos; Cuervo, Miguel Angel; Deliens, Luc; Frerich, Gerrit; Gastmans, Chris; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maier, Markus A; Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Nabal, María; Rodin, Gary; Rosenfeld, Barry; Schroepfer, Tracy; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Trelis, Jordi; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Voltz, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD) that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD. Methods Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy. Findings All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD. Conclusions This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention. PMID:26726801

  13. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Albert; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Porta-Sales, Josep; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; Altisent, Rogelio; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Bellido-Pérez, Mercedes; Breitbart, William; Centeno, Carlos; Cuervo, Miguel Angel; Deliens, Luc; Frerich, Gerrit; Gastmans, Chris; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maier, Markus A; Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Nabal, María; Rodin, Gary; Rosenfeld, Barry; Schroepfer, Tracy; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Trelis, Jordi; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Voltz, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD) that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD. Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy. All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD. This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention.

  14. Detection of C3d-Binding Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies at Diagnosis of Humoral Rejection Predicts Renal Graft Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, Antoine; Ducreux, Stéphanie; Rabeyrin, Maud; Couzi, Lionel; McGregor, Brigitte; Badet, Lionel; Scoazec, Jean Yves; Bachelet, Thomas; Lepreux, Sébastien; Visentin, Jonathan; Merville, Pierre; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Morelon, Emmanuel; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Dubois, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a major cause of kidney graft loss, yet assessment of individual risk at diagnosis is impeded by the lack of a reliable prognosis assay. Here, we tested whether the capacity of anti-HLA antibodies to bind complement components allows accurate risk stratification at the time of AMR diagnosis. Among 938 kidney transplant recipients for whom a graft biopsy was performed between 2004 and 2012 at the Lyon University Hospitals, 69 fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for AMR and were enrolled. Sera banked at the time of the biopsy were screened for the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) and their ability to bind C1q and C3d using flow bead assays. In contrast with C4d graft deposition, the presence of C3d-binding DSA was associated with a higher risk of graft loss (P<0.001). Despite similar trend, the difference did not reach significance with a C1q-binding assay (P=0.06). The prognostic value of a C3d-binding assay was further confirmed in an independent cohort of 39 patients with AMR (P=0.04). Patients with C3d-binding antibodies had worse eGFR and higher DSA mean fluorescence intensity. In a multivariate analysis, only eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR], 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 8.70; P=0.005) and the presence of circulating C3d-binding DSA (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.12 to 6.95; P=0.03) were independent predictors for allograft loss at AMR diagnosis. We conclude that assessment of the C3d-binding capacity of DSA at the time of AMR diagnosis allows for identification of patients at risk for allograft loss. PMID:25125383

  15. Soothing the Sting of Rejection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Joan Daniels

    1990-01-01

    Preventing rejection of a student by his/her peers and helping the child to cope with such rejection are ever-present challenges for teachers. Suggestions are given by teachers who have successfully dealt with students who were rejected by classmates. (IAH)

  16. Soothing the Sting of Rejection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Joan Daniels

    1990-01-01

    Preventing rejection of a student by his/her peers and helping the child to cope with such rejection are ever-present challenges for teachers. Suggestions are given by teachers who have successfully dealt with students who were rejected by classmates. (IAH)

  17. Preadolescent Friendship and Peer Rejection as Predictors of Adult Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Newcomb, Andrew F.; Bukowski, William M.

    1998-01-01

    Compared adjustment of 30 young adults who had a stable, reciprocal best friend in fifth grade and 30 who did not. Found that lower peer rejection uniquely predicted overall life status adjustment. Friended preadolescents had higher general self-worth in adulthood, even after controlling for perceived preadolescence competence. Peer rejection and…

  18. Preadolescent Friendship and Peer Rejection as Predictors of Adult Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Newcomb, Andrew F.; Bukowski, William M.

    1998-01-01

    Compared adjustment of 30 young adults who had a stable, reciprocal best friend in fifth grade and 30 who did not. Found that lower peer rejection uniquely predicted overall life status adjustment. Friended preadolescents had higher general self-worth in adulthood, even after controlling for perceived preadolescence competence. Peer rejection and…

  19. Detection of C3d-binding donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies at diagnosis of humoral rejection predicts renal graft loss.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Antoine; Ducreux, Stéphanie; Rabeyrin, Maud; Couzi, Lionel; McGregor, Brigitte; Badet, Lionel; Scoazec, Jean Yves; Bachelet, Thomas; Lepreux, Sébastien; Visentin, Jonathan; Merville, Pierre; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Morelon, Emmanuel; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Dubois, Valérie; Thaunat, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a major cause of kidney graft loss, yet assessment of individual risk at diagnosis is impeded by the lack of a reliable prognosis assay. Here, we tested whether the capacity of anti-HLA antibodies to bind complement components allows accurate risk stratification at the time of AMR diagnosis. Among 938 kidney transplant recipients for whom a graft biopsy was performed between 2004 and 2012 at the Lyon University Hospitals, 69 fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for AMR and were enrolled. Sera banked at the time of the biopsy were screened for the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) and their ability to bind C1q and C3d using flow bead assays. In contrast with C4d graft deposition, the presence of C3d-binding DSA was associated with a higher risk of graft loss (P<0.001). Despite similar trend, the difference did not reach significance with a C1q-binding assay (P=0.06). The prognostic value of a C3d-binding assay was further confirmed in an independent cohort of 39 patients with AMR (P=0.04). Patients with C3d-binding antibodies had worse eGFR and higher DSA mean fluorescence intensity. In a multivariate analysis, only eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio [HR], 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 8.70; P=0.005) and the presence of circulating C3d-binding DSA (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.12 to 6.95; P=0.03) were independent predictors for allograft loss at AMR diagnosis. We conclude that assessment of the C3d-binding capacity of DSA at the time of AMR diagnosis allows for identification of patients at risk for allograft loss. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Response to LiPuma and DeMarco's Article on "Hastening Death".

    PubMed

    Zenz, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The paper "Palliative care and patient autonomy: moving beyond prohibitions against hastening death" by LiPuma and DeMarco deals with an aspect of end of life care which is the source of considerable disagreement. It is important to emphasize that autonomy is not the unique feature for end of life care. There is always a medical and ethical commitment to care, i.e. beneficence and nonmaleficence. All of these aspects have to be taken into account when treating patients at the very end of life. There is considerable scientific proof indicating that most patients and families can experience a death in dignity when being cared for in palliative care or hospice units.

  1. Current irritability associated with hastened depressive recurrence and delayed depressive recovery in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Laura D; Shah, Saloni; Do, Dennis; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Ketter, Terence A

    2016-12-01

    Current irritability is associated with greater retrospective and current bipolar disorder (BD) illness severity; less is known about prospective longitudinal implications of current irritability. We examined relationships between current irritability and depressive recurrence and recovery in BD. Outpatients referred to the Stanford BD Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation at baseline, and with the Clinical Monitoring Form during follow-up during up to 2 years of naturalistic treatment. Prevalence and clinical correlates of any current irritability in depressed and recovered (euthymic ≥8 weeks) BD patients were assessed. Kaplan-Meier analyses (Log-Rank tests) assessed relationships between current irritability and longitudinal depressive severity, with Cox Proportional Hazard analyses assessing potential mediators. Recovered BD outpatients with vs. without current irritability had significantly higher rates of 13/19 (68.4 %) other baseline unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms and hastened depressive recurrence (Log-Rank p = 0.020), driven by lifetime history of anxiety disorder and prior year rapid cycling, and attenuated by history of psychosis. Depressed BD outpatients with vs. without current irritability had significantly higher rates of 7/19 (36.8 %) other unfavorable illness characteristics/current mood symptoms and delayed depressive recovery (Log-Rank p = 0.034), NOT mediated by any assessed parameter. Limited generalizability beyond our predominately white, female, educated, insured American BD specialty clinic sample. Current irritability was associated with hastened depressive recurrence and delayed depressive recovery in BD. Treatment studies targeting irritability may yield strategies to mitigate increased longitudinal depressive burden.

  2. Cell-Free DNA and Active Rejection in Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Roy D; Bromberg, Jonathan S; Poggio, Emilio D; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Langone, Anthony J; Sood, Puneet; Matas, Arthur J; Mehta, Shikha; Mannon, Roslyn B; Sharfuddin, Asif; Fischbach, Bernard; Narayanan, Mohanram; Jordan, Stanley C; Cohen, David; Weir, Matthew R; Hiller, David; Prasad, Preethi; Woodward, Robert N; Grskovic, Marica; Sninsky, John J; Yee, James P; Brennan, Daniel C

    2017-07-01

    Histologic analysis of the allograft biopsy specimen is the standard method used to differentiate rejection from other injury in kidney transplants. Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) is a noninvasive test of allograft injury that may enable more frequent, quantitative, and safer assessment of allograft rejection and injury status. To investigate this possibility, we prospectively collected blood specimens at scheduled intervals and at the time of clinically indicated biopsies. In 102 kidney recipients, we measured plasma levels of dd-cfDNA and correlated the levels with allograft rejection status ascertained by histology in 107 biopsy specimens. The dd-cfDNA level discriminated between biopsy specimens showing any rejection (T cell-mediated rejection or antibody-mediated rejection [ABMR]) and controls (no rejection histologically), P<0.001 (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [AUC], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.61 to 0.86). Positive and negative predictive values for active rejection at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 61% and 84%, respectively. The AUC for discriminating ABMR from samples without ABMR was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97). Positive and negative predictive values for ABMR at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 44% and 96%, respectively. Median dd-cfDNA was 2.9% (ABMR), 1.2% (T cell-mediated types ≥IB), 0.2% (T cell-mediated type IA), and 0.3% in controls (P=0.05 for T cell-mediated rejection types ≥IB versus controls). Thus, dd-cfDNA may be used to assess allograft rejection and injury; dd-cfDNA levels <1% reflect the absence of active rejection (T cell-mediated type ≥IB or ABMR) and levels >1% indicate a probability of active rejection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Heat rejection system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  4. Rejection sensitivity moderates the impact of rejection on self-concept clarity.

    PubMed

    Ayduk, Ozlem; Gyurak, Anett; Luerssen, Anna

    2009-11-01

    Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. Research shows that SCC can be undermined by failures in valued goal domains. Because preventing rejection is an important self-relevant goal for people high in rejection sensitivity (RS), it is hypothesized here that failures to attain this goal would cause them to experience diminished SCC. Study 1, an experimental study, showed that high-RS people's SCC was undermined following rejection but not following an aversive experience unrelated to rejection. Study 2, a daily diary study of couples in relationships, used occurrence of partner conflicts to operationalize rejection. Replicating the findings in Study 1, having a conflict on any given diary day predicted a greater reduction in the SCC of high- compared to low-RS people on the following day. The implications for understanding the conditions under which rejection negatively affects the self-concept are discussed.

  5. Rejection Sensitivity Moderates the Impact of Rejection on Self-Concept Clarity

    PubMed Central

    Ayduk, Özlem; Gyurak, Anett; Luerssen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. Research shows that SCC can be undermined by failures in valued goal domains. Because preventing rejection is an important self-relevant goal for people high in rejection sensitivity (RS), it is hypothesized here that failures to attain this goal would cause them to experience diminished SCC. Study 1, an experimental study, showed that high-RS people’s SCC was undermined following rejection but not following an aversive experience unrelated to rejection. Study 2, a daily diary study of couples in relationships, used occurrence of partner conflicts to operationalize rejection. Replicating the findings in Study 1, having a conflict on any given diary day predicted a greater reduction in the SCC of high- compared to low-RS people on the following day. The implications for understanding the conditions under which rejection negatively affects the self-concept are discussed. PMID:19713567

  6. Escaping from Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Raymond J.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Those engaged in clinical transplantation and transplantation immunology have always taken as a central objective the elucidation of means to prevent graft rejection by the recipient immune system. Conceptually, such mechanisms stem from the concept of Paul Ehrlich that all organisms can selectively avoid autotoxicity; i.e. they exhibit horror autotoxicus. Some mechanisms of horror autotoxicus now understood. T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes recognize foreign antigens but not some auto-antigens. Clonal deletion generates lacunae in what is otherwise a virtually limitless potential to recognize antigens. We call this mechanism structural tolerance. Where imperfections in structural tolerance allow self-recognition, the full activation of lymphocytes and generation of effector activity depends on delivery of accessory signals generated by infection and/or injury. The absence of accessory signals prevents or even suppresses immunological responses. We call this dichotomy of responsiveness conditional tolerance. When, despite structural and conditional tolerance, effector activity perturbs autologous cells, metabolism changes in ways that protect against injury. We use the term accommodation to refer to this acquired protection against injury. Structural and conditional tolerance and accommodation overlap in such a way that potentially toxic products can be generated to control microorganisms and neutralize toxins without overly damaging adjacent cells. The central challenge in transplantation, then, should be the orchestration of structural and conditional tolerance and accommodation in such a way that toxic products can still be generated for defense while preserving graft function and survival. Since the earliest days of transplantation, immunobiologists have sought means by which to prevent recognition and rejection of foreign tissue. The goal of these strategies is the retention of recipient immune function while selectively avoiding graft injury. While

  7. Jet Transport Rejected Takeoffs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    r _ _ _ _ _ _ N AD—A05 6 032 FEDERAL AVIATIO N ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON 0 C FLIGHT—ETC FIG 1/2 ~,JET TRANSPORT REJECTED TAKEOFFS • (U)FED 77 0 S...AF~~16O-77-2 FOR FURTHER IRAN JET TRANSPORT R&JECTED TAKEDFFS DAVID W. OSTROWSKILI~~ H c ,~ ~~~~ C ...) ~~~~ O~ —1 w DDU FEB~JARY 1977U... FINAL...Pag. .po ,t No. 2 C.o.,,nm.rr, A c c . s s on No . 3. R.c ,pr. ns s Cat alog No. AFS-16~~-77-2_ j

  8. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M; Hart, Emily J; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bidirectional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3 to 5 years old) were investigated in an integrated model. The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the United States. Using observations, research assistant report, and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress.

  9. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  10. Sugar or spice: Using I3 metatheory to understand how and why glucose reduces rejection-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; DeWall, C Nathan; Fries, Veronika; Geiger, Babette; Krämer, Tanya; Krug, Sebastian; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social rejection can increase aggression, especially among people high in rejection sensitivity. Rejection impairs self-control, and deficits in self-control often result in aggression. A dose of glucose can counteract the effect of situational factors that undermine self-control. But no research has integrated these literatures to understand why rejection increases aggression, and how to reduce it. Using the I(3) model of aggression, we proposed that aggression would be highest under conditions of high instigation (rejection), high impellance (high rejection sensitivity), and low inhibition (drinking a beverage sweetened with a sugar substitute instead of glucose). As predicted, aggression was highest among participants who experienced social rejection, were high in rejection sensitivity, and drank a placebo beverage. A dose of glucose reduced aggression, especially among rejected people high in rejection sensitivity. These findings point to the importance of self-control in understanding why social rejection increases aggression, and how to prevent it.

  11. Recurrent slow slip event likely hastened by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Hitoshi; Kimura, Hisanori; Enescu, Bogdan; Aoi, Shin

    2012-01-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are another mode of fault deformation than the fast faulting of regular earthquakes. Such transient episodes have been observed at plate boundaries in a number of subduction zones around the globe. The SSEs near the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, are among the most documented SSEs, with the longest repeating history, of almost 30 y, and have a recurrence interval of 5 to 7 y. A remarkable characteristic of the slow slip episodes is the accompanying earthquake swarm activity. Our stable, long-term seismic observations enable us to detect SSEs using the recorded earthquake catalog, by considering an earthquake swarm as a proxy for a slow slip episode. Six recurrent episodes are identified in this way since 1982. The average duration of the SSE interoccurrence interval is 68 mo; however, there are significant fluctuations from this mean. While a regular cycle can be explained using a simple physical model, the mechanisms that are responsible for the observed fluctuations are poorly known. Here we show that the latest SSE in the Boso Peninsula was likely hastened by the stress transfer from the March 11, 2011 great Tohoku earthquake. Moreover, a similar mechanism accounts for the delay of an SSE in 1990 by a nearby earthquake. The low stress buildups and drops during the SSE cycle can explain the strong sensitivity of these SSEs to stress transfer from external sources. PMID:22949688

  12. Recurrent slow slip event likely hastened by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Hitoshi; Kimura, Hisanori; Enescu, Bogdan; Aoi, Shin

    2012-09-18

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are another mode of fault deformation than the fast faulting of regular earthquakes. Such transient episodes have been observed at plate boundaries in a number of subduction zones around the globe. The SSEs near the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, are among the most documented SSEs, with the longest repeating history, of almost 30 y, and have a recurrence interval of 5 to 7 y. A remarkable characteristic of the slow slip episodes is the accompanying earthquake swarm activity. Our stable, long-term seismic observations enable us to detect SSEs using the recorded earthquake catalog, by considering an earthquake swarm as a proxy for a slow slip episode. Six recurrent episodes are identified in this way since 1982. The average duration of the SSE interoccurrence interval is 68 mo; however, there are significant fluctuations from this mean. While a regular cycle can be explained using a simple physical model, the mechanisms that are responsible for the observed fluctuations are poorly known. Here we show that the latest SSE in the Boso Peninsula was likely hastened by the stress transfer from the March 11, 2011 great Tohoku earthquake. Moreover, a similar mechanism accounts for the delay of an SSE in 1990 by a nearby earthquake. The low stress buildups and drops during the SSE cycle can explain the strong sensitivity of these SSEs to stress transfer from external sources.

  13. Assumptions and moral understanding of the wish to hasten death: a philosophical review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Prat, Andrea; van Leeuwen, Evert

    2017-07-01

    It is not uncommon for patients with advanced disease to express a wish to hasten death (WTHD). Qualitative studies of the WTHD have found that such a wish may have different meanings, none of which can be understood outside of the patient's personal and sociocultural background, or which necessarily imply taking concrete steps to ending one's life. The starting point for the present study was a previous systematic review of qualitative studies of the WTHD in advanced patients. Here we analyse in greater detail the statements made by patients included in that review in order to examine their moral understandings and representations of illness, the dying process and death. We identify and discuss four classes of assumptions: (1) assumptions related to patients' moral understandings in terms of dignity, autonomy and authenticity; (2) assumptions related to social interactions; (3) assumptions related to the value of life; and (4) assumptions related to medicalisation as an overarching context within which the WTHD is expressed. Our analysis shows how a philosophical perspective can add to an understanding of the WTHD by taking into account cultural and anthropological aspects of the phenomenon. We conclude that the knowledge gained through exploring patients' experience and moral understandings in the end-of-life context may serve as the basis for care plans and interventions that can help them experience their final days as a meaningful period of life, restoring some sense of personal dignity in those patients who feel this has been lost.

  14. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media.

  15. Can community-based integrated vector control hasten the process of LF elimination?

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Kumar, V Ashok; Munirathinam, A; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K; White, Graham B; Arunachalam, N

    2016-06-01

    Community-based integrated vector control (IVC) using polystyrene beads (EPS) and pyrethroid impregnated curtains (PIC) as an adjunct to mass drug administration (MDA) was implemented for lymphatic filariasis elimination, in the filaria endemic villages of Tirukoilur, south India. In all the villages, MDA was carried out by the state health machinery, as part of the national filariasis elimination programme. Thirty-six difficult-to-control villages were grouped as, viz, MDA alone, MDA + EPS and MDA + EPS + PIC arms. Implementation and monitoring of IVC was carried out by the community. After 3 years of IVC, higher reductions in filariometric indices were observed in both the community and vector population. Decline in antigenaemia prevalence was higher in MDA + IVC as compared to MDA alone arm. Vector density dropped significantly (P < 0.05) in both the IVC arms, and nil transmission was observed during post-IVC period. Almost 53.8 and 75.8 % of the cesspits in MDA + EPS and MDA + EPS + PIC arms were closed by the householders, due to the enhanced awareness on vector breeding. The paper presents the key elements of IVC implementation through social mobilization in a LF prevalent area. Thus, community-based IVC strategy can hasten LF elimination, as it reduced the transmission and filariometric indices significantly. Indices were maintained at low level with nil transmission, by the community through IVC tools.

  16. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  17. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  18. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection.

  19. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficult temperament, and rejecting parenting in early childhood predicted antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Rejecting parenting accounted for the indirect effect of each of the maternal resources on antisocial behavior, but a direct effect was also supported between maternal aggressive personality and youth antisocial behavior. Results highlight the importance of these relatively understudied maternal resources and have implications for prevention and intervention programs that focus on parenting during early childhood. PMID:17805957

  20. Maternal predictors of rejecting parenting and early adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S

    2008-02-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficult temperament, and rejecting parenting in early childhood predicted antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Rejecting parenting accounted for the indirect effect of each of the maternal resources on antisocial behavior, but a direct effect was also supported between maternal aggressive personality and youth antisocial behavior. Results highlight the importance of these relatively understudied maternal resources and have implications for prevention and intervention programs that focus on parenting during early childhood.

  1. Do Scientists Really Reject God?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the title of the recent Larson and Witham article in the journal Nature, "Leading Scientists Still Reject God", is premature and without reliable data upon which to base it. (Author/CCM)

  2. Do Scientists Really Reject God?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the title of the recent Larson and Witham article in the journal Nature, "Leading Scientists Still Reject God", is premature and without reliable data upon which to base it. (Author/CCM)

  3. The desire to hasten death: Using Grounded Theory for a better understanding "When perception of time tends to be a slippery slope".

    PubMed

    Pestinger, Martina; Stiel, Stephanie; Elsner, Frank; Widdershoven, Guy; Voltz, Raymond; Nauck, Friedemann; Radbruch, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    Some patients with advanced and progressive diseases express a desire to hasten death. This study evaluated the motivations of patients expressing such a desire in a country with prohibitive legislation on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. A modified form of Grounded Theory was used. Patients from the departments of palliative medicine in three hospitals in Germany were recruited when they had made a statement or request to hasten death. Participants were interviewed face to face. Recruitment was stopped with 12 participants because of data saturation. Thematic analysis revealed three main motivational themes: self-determination, agony, and time. Expectations toward health professionals, attitudes toward death, and secureness related to the end of life were additional main themes emerging from the analysis. The desire to hasten death may be used as an extreme coping strategy to maintain control against anticipated agony. Patients expected health professionals to listen to and respect their experiences. Emerging hypotheses included the following: (a) patients try to balance life time and anticipated agony, and the perception of time is distressing in this balancing act; (b) anticipated images of agony and suffering in the dying process occur frequently and are experienced by patients as intrusive; (c) patients expressing a desire to hasten death are in need of more information about the dying process; and (d) patients wanted their caregivers to listen to and respect their wish to hasten death, and they did not expect the caregivers to understand this as an order to actually hasten their death. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  5. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  6. Reject analysis in direct digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Eivind Richter; Jorde, Jannike; Taoussi, Nadia; Yaqoob, Sadia Halima; Konst, Bente; Seierstad, Therese

    2012-03-01

    Reject analysis can be used as a quality indicator, and is an important tool in localizing areas where optimization is required. Reducing number of rejects is important yielding reduced patient exposure and increased cost-effectiveness. To determine rejection rates and causes in direct digital radiography. Data were collected during a three-month period in spring 2010 at two direct digital laboratories in Norway. All X-ray examinations, types, numbers, and reasons for rejections were obtained using automatic reject analysis software. Thirteen causes for rejection could be selected. Out of the 27,284 acquired images, 3206 were rejected, yielding an overall rejection rate of 12%. Highest rejection rates were found for examination of knees, shoulders, and wrist. In all, 77% of the rejected images arose from positioning errors. An overall rejection rate of 12% indicates a need for optimizing radiographic practice in the department.

  7. Hypervigilance to Rejecting Stimuli in Rejection Sensitive Individuals: Behavioral and Neurocognitive Evidence.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Gerson, Sarah A; Vanderwert, Ross E; Cannon, Erin N; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-10-01

    Individuals who are high in rejection sensitivity are vigilant toward social cues that signal rejection, and they exhibit attention biases towards information that confirms expectations of rejection. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of rejection sensitivity. The present study examined whether rejection sensitivity is associated with individuals' neural responses to rejection-relevant information. Female participants, classified as high or average in rejection sensitivity, completed a modified dot-probe task in which a neutral face was paired with either another neutral face or a gaze-averted ("rejecting") face while EEG was collected and ERP components were computed. Behavioral results indicated that average rejection sensitive participants showed an attention bias away from rejecting faces, while high rejection sensitive participants were equally vigilant to neutral and rejecting faces. High rejection sensitivity was associated with ERP components signaling elevated attention and arousal to faces. These findings suggest that rejection sensitivity shapes behavioral and neurocognitive responses to faces.

  8. Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PD1-Expressing T Cell Subsets Modify the Rejection Risk in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Rebecca; Thomas, Niclas; Workman, Sarita; Ambrose, Lyn; Guzman, David; Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Johnson, Margaret; Thorburn, Douglas; Harber, Mark; Chain, Benny; Stauss, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether multi-parameter immune phenotyping before or after renal ­transplantation can predict the risk of rejection episodes. Blood samples collected before and weekly for 3 months after transplantation were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry to define 52 T cell and 13 innate lymphocyte subsets in each sample, producing more than 11,000 data points that defined the immune status of the 28 patients included in this study. Principle component analysis suggested that the patients with histologically confirmed rejection episodes segregated from those without rejection. Protein death 1 (PD-1)-expressing subpopulations of regulatory and conventional T cells had the greatest influence on the principal component segregation. We constructed a statistical tool to predict rejection using a support vector machine algorithm. The algorithm correctly identified 7 out of 9 patients with rejection, and 14 out of 17 patients without rejection. The immune profile before transplantation was most accurate in determining the risk of rejection, while changes of immune parameters after transplantation were less accurate in discriminating rejection from non-rejection. The data indicate that pretransplant immune subset analysis has the potential to identify patients at risk of developing rejection episodes, and suggests that the proportion of PD1-expressing T cell subsets may be a key indicator of rejection risk. PMID:27148254

  11. Spiritual Well-being May Reduce the Negative Impacts of Cancer Symptoms on the Quality of Life and the Desire for Hastened Death in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin-Chih; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality is a central component of the well-being of terminally ill cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating or moderating role of spiritual well-being in reducing the impact of cancer-related symptoms on quality of life and the desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients. Eighty-five terminally ill cancer patients were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Schedule of Attitudes Toward Hastened Death. Spiritual well-being was significantly negatively correlated with symptom severity (r = -0.46, P < .01). Symptom severity negatively correlated with quality of life (r = -0.54) and positively correlated with hopelessness (r = 0.51, P < .01) and the desire for hastened death (r = 0.61, P < .01). Spiritual well-being was a partial mediator and moderator between symptom severity and quality of life. Spiritual well-being was a partial mediator between symptom severity and the desire for hastened death. The meaning subscale of spiritual well-being was a more significant predictor of the desire for hastened death and quality of life than the faith subscale was. Spiritual well-being may reduce the negative impacts of cancer on quality of life and the desire for hastened death. Appropriate spiritual care may reduce the negative impact of severe cancer symptoms on quality of life and the desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients.

  12. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Rapidly changing societal and individual values impact the course of man's future with accompanying conflict, tension and alienation. Conflict and fear over the impacts of science and technology may retard, or may hasten, societal progress. The broadening of the concept of equality of opportunity to an equality of outcome manifests itself by distributing the rewards of society based not on performance but simply on membership in the society. It is concluded that institutional failure caused by organizational and bureaucratic ineffectiveness inhibits change necessary for the solution of societal problems.

  13. Hypervigilance to Rejecting Stimuli in Rejection Sensitive Individuals: Behavioral and Neurocognitive Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Gerson, Sarah A.; Vanderwert, Ross E.; Cannon, Erin N.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who are high in rejection sensitivity are vigilant toward social cues that signal rejection, and they exhibit attention biases towards information that confirms expectations of rejection. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of rejection sensitivity. The present study examined whether rejection sensitivity is associated with individuals’ neural responses to rejection-relevant information. Female participants, classified as high or average in rejection sensitivity, completed a modified dot-probe task in which a neutral face was paired with either another neutral face or a gaze-averted (“rejecting”) face while EEG was collected and ERP components were computed. Behavioral results indicated that average rejection sensitive participants showed an attention bias away from rejecting faces, while high rejection sensitive participants were equally vigilant to neutral and rejecting faces. High rejection sensitivity was associated with ERP components signaling elevated attention and arousal to faces. These findings suggest that rejection sensitivity shapes behavioral and neurocognitive responses to faces. PMID:26213434

  14. Peer Rejection and Social Information-Processing Factors in the Development of Aggressive Behavior Problems in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Burks, Virginia Salzer; Beter, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Fontaine, Reid; Price, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Four studies based on two longitudinal investigations examined the relation between social rejection and increased antisocial behavior. Found that early peer rejection (ages 6 to 8) predicted growth in aggression (at ages 10 to 12); findings were replicated in children ages 5 to 8. Rejection exacerbated antisocial development only among children…

  15. Long-term rejection incidence and reversibility after penetrating and lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Emmanuel; Bullet, Julien; Sandali, Otman; Basli, Elena; Laroche, Laurent; Borderie, Vincent M

    2013-03-01

    To identify risk factors for corneal graft rejection and rejection irreversibility. Retrospective cohort study. setting: Institutional. patients: A total of 1438 consecutive eyes of 1438 patients who underwent corneal transplantation for optical indication at the Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des XV-XX, Paris, France, between December 1992 and December 2010 were studied. Surgical technique was penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in 1209 cases, anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) in 165 cases, and Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty in 64 cases. main outcome measures: Cumulative incidence of rejection episodes and rejection irreversibility rate. A total of 299 cases of rejection episodes were identified, of which 145 (48.5%) were irreversible after treatment. In multivariate analysis, the cumulative incidence of rejection episodes was influenced by recipient age (P = .00002), recipient rejection risk (P = .0003), lens status (P = .00003), and surgical group (P = .035). A higher incidence of rejection episodes was observed in young patients (<20 years) and patients aged from 41 to 50, high-risk recipients, aphakic eyes and eyes with anterior chamber intraocular lens, and eyes with PK (compared with eyes with ALK). Rejection episodes were more likely to be irreversible for high-risk recipients (P = .02), for eyes with preoperative hypertony (P = .009), and for eyes with poor visual acuity at presentation (P = .002). Recipient rejection risk and surgical group are the main risk factors for rejection as they both influence the incidence of rejection and the reversibility rate. Recipient age and lens status are predictive factors for the occurrence of rejection. Preoperative hypertony is a predictive factor for rejection irreversibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Augmented orbiter heat rejection study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Spacecraft radiator concepts are presented that relieve attitude restrictions required by the shuttle orbiter space radiator for baseline and extended capability STS missions. Cost effective heat rejection kits are considered which add additional capability in the form of attached spacelab radiators or a deployable radiator module.

  17. Vascular rejection in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Miller, L W; Wesp, A; Jennison, S H; Graham, M A; Martin, T W; McBride, L R; Pennington, D G; Peigh, P

    1993-01-01

    Antibody medicated (vascular) rejection has recently been described in heart transplantation. We report our experience with vascular rejection in a series of 62 patients who did not receive perioperative lymphocyte antibody therapy. Sixty-five rejections were reported, of which 58 (89%) were pure cellular; five (8%) had both cellular and vascular components, and two (3%) had only vascular rejection. Vascular rejection was very common in patients in whom hemodynamic compromise developed, and hemodynamic compromise was significantly more common in vascular than cellular rejection. Treatment for vascular rejection included plasmapheresis, intravenous methylprednisolone, and cyclophosphamide. Only one death occurred in this series, and that occurred in a patient with vascular rejection where the diagnosis and initiation of therapy were delayed. The role of vascular rejection in patients with hemodynamic compromise is discussed.

  18. Long-Term Associations of Justice Sensitivity, Rejection Sensitivity, and Depressive Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bondü, Rebecca; Sahyazici-Knaak, Fidan; Esser, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms have been related to anxious rejection sensitivity, but little is known about relations with angry rejection sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We measured rejection sensitivity, justice sensitivity, and depressive symptoms in 1,665 9-to-21-year olds at two points of measurement. Participants with high T1 levels of depressive symptoms reported higher anxious and angry rejection sensitivity and higher justice sensitivity than controls at T1 and T2. T1 rejection, but not justice sensitivity predicted T2 depressive symptoms; high victim justice sensitivity, however, added to the stabilization of depressive symptoms. T1 depressive symptoms positively predicted T2 anxious and angry rejection and victim justice sensitivity. Hence, sensitivity toward negative social cues may be cause and consequence of depressive symptoms and requires consideration in cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression. PMID:28955257

  19. After All I Have Done For You: Self-silencing Accommodations Fuel Women's Post-Rejection Hostility

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Reddy, Kavita S.; Rodriguez, Sylvia; Downey, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study tests if people's hostility after experiencing rejection is partly explained by the degree to which they had initially suppressed their own feelings and beliefs to please the source of rejection. This hypothesis emerges from the literatures on women's self-silencing and that on rejection-sensitivity, which has documented that rejection-sensitive women show strong responses to rejection, but are also likely to self-silence to please their partners. An online dating paradigm examined if this self-silencing drives post-rejection hostility among women. Participants were given the opportunity to read about a potential dating partner before meeting that person, and were randomly assigned to one of 3 experimental conditions that resulted in rejection from the potential date or from another dater. Self-silencing was captured as the suppression of tastes and opinions that clashed with those of the prospective partner. Self-silencing moderated the effect of rejection on hostility: Self-silencing to the prospective partner was associated with greater post-rejection hostility among women, but not men. Self-silencing to someone other than the rejecter was not predictive of hostility. Women's dispositional rejection-sensitivity predicted greater hostility after rejection, and self-silencing mediated this association. Efforts to secure acceptance through accommodation may help explain the paradoxical tendency of some people to show strong rejection-induced hostility toward those whose acceptance they have sought. PMID:23687385

  20. Rejection sensitivity mediates the relationship between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns.

    PubMed

    Fang, Angela; Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy; Cook, Courtney; Wilhelm, Sabine; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in the relationship between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns. To test our hypothesis that rejection sensitivity mediates the link between social anxiety and body dysmorphic concerns, we administered self-report questionnaires to 209 student volunteers. Consistent with our prediction, rejection sensitivity partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and body dysmorphic concerns. The implications of the overlap between these constructs are discussed.

  1. Peer Rejection Cues Induce Cardiac Slowing after Transition into Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…

  2. Peer Rejection Cues Induce Cardiac Slowing after Transition into Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…

  3. REJECTION OF ASCITES TUMOR ALLOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Gideon; Sullivan, Karen A.; Amos, Bernard

    1972-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), obtained after the rejection of EL4 leukemia by BALB/c mice, are much more effective in the specific in vitro destruction of 51Cr-labeled EL4 cells than are spleen, thymus, lymph node, or peripheral blood lymphocytes. The presence of a large number of effector cells at the site of graft rejection is reflected in the potent cytolytic activity seen in vitro. Effector cells temporarily lose cytolytic reactivity when treated with trypsin but regain reactivity with time. This recovery occurs in normal as well as in immune serum. The destructive reactivity of PEC is increased when macrophages are removed. The remaining population of nonadherent PEC is composed primarily of small- to medium-sized lymphocytes. Complex tissue culture media are not needed, but there is a definite requirement for serum. The required serum component is heat stable, nondialyzable, and is not consumed during the reaction. The use of an ascites allograft system made these observations possible and permitted the isolation of those host cells intimately associated with rejection. PMID:5025438

  4. GPS antenna multipath rejection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinius, A. M.

    1995-08-01

    A GPS antenna multipath rejection performance evaluation was conducted. Ground reference station antennas and aviation patches were tested for their ability to reject a multipath signal. Different types of ground plane structures were used such as choke rings, ground planes, and mock sections of fuselage. Frequencies transmitted were L1 (1575 MHz), L2 (1227 MHz), and the median GLONASS frequency (1609 MHz). Receive amplitude and phase were measured on each antenna. Subsequently, these data were converted to absolute gain for a right hand and left hand circularly polarized signal as a function of satellite elevation angle. Two types of multipath signals were considered: ground bounce multipath and building or structure bounce multipath. Ground bounce multipath typically occurs at low satellite elevation angles while structure bounce multipath can occur at any satellite elevation angle. Separate analysis methods were used to assess an antenna's ability to reject either type of multipath. This report describes the data collection methods, data reduction and analysis, and the results.

  5. Confidence and rejection in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, Larry Don

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is performed imperfectly by computers. For some designated part (e.g., word or phrase) of the ASR output, rejection is deciding (yes or no) whether it is correct, and confidence is the probability (0.0 to 1.0) of it being correct. This thesis presents new methods of rejecting errors and estimating confidence for telephone speech. These are also called word or utterance verification and can be used in wordspotting or voice-response systems. Open-set or out-of-vocabulary situations are a primary focus. Language models are not considered. In vocabulary-dependent rejection all words in the target vocabulary are known in advance and a strategy can be developed for confirming each word. A word-specific artificial neural network (ANN) is shown to discriminate well, and scores from such ANNs are shown on a closed-set recognition task to reorder the N-best hypothesis list (N=3) for improved recognition performance. Segment-based duration and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) features are shown to perform well for such ANNs. The majority of the thesis concerns vocabulary- and task-independent confidence and rejection based on phonetic word models. These can be computed for words even when no training examples of those words have been seen. New techniques are developed using phoneme ranks instead of probabilities in each frame. These are shown to perform as well as the best other methods examined despite the data reduction involved. Certain new weighted averaging schemes are studied but found to give no performance benefit. Hierarchical averaging is shown to improve performance significantly: frame scores combine to make segment (phoneme state) scores, which combine to make phoneme scores, which combine to make word scores. Use of intermediate syllable scores is shown to not affect performance. Normalizing frame scores by an average of the top probabilities in each frame is shown to improve performance significantly. Perplexity of the wrong

  6. Short-term sPECAM-Fc treatment ameliorates EAE while chronic use hastens onset of symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Reinke, Emily K.; Lee, JangEun; Zozulya, Alla; Karman, Jozsef; Muller, William A.; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2007-01-01

    The homotypic cell adhesion molecule PECAM-1 is a major participant in the migration of leukocytes across endothelium. We examined the ability of a chimeric soluble sPECAM-1 fused to human IgG-Fc to impair leukocyte entry through the blood-brain barrier and reduce CNS autoimmunity. sPECAM-Fc impaired migration of lymphocytes across brain endothelial monolayers and diminished the severity of EAE, an experimental model of MS, when administered at the onset of symptoms. However, in mice transgenic for sPECAM-Fc, the chronically elevated levels of sPECAM-Fc hastened onset of EAE disease without significantly changing clinical score severity. Our data suggests that short-term treatment of diseases like MS with sPECAM-Fc has therapeutic potential. PMID:17467062

  7. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  8. On fiber rejection loss in flotation deinking

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan

    2005-04-01

    Reducing fiber rejection loss in flotation deinking is very important to conserve natural resources and reduce the cost of secondary fibers in paper recycling. This study examined two aspects of the problem, fiber consistency in the rejection stream and rate of Froth (or wet stream) rejection. Flotation experiments were conducted using both nylon and wood fibers in...

  9. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  10. Aggressive Rejected Children: Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waas, Gregory A.

    1987-01-01

    Used sociometric rating procedure to classify third and fifth grade boys (N=64) as peer-rejected. Standardized teacher ratings classified students as aggressive. Significant portion of rejected students were rated as highly aggressive. Aggressive rejected groups were rated as exhibiting lower achievement motivation and higher levels of hostile…

  11. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  12. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  13. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  14. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  15. What Lies behind the Wish to Hasten Death? A Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography from the Perspective of Patients

    PubMed Central

    Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquin; Mahtani-Chugani, Vinita; Balaguer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need for an in-depth approach to the meaning of the wish to hasten death (WTHD). This study aims to understand the experience of patients with serious or incurable illness who express such a wish. Methods and Findings Systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies from the patient's perspective. Studies were identified through six databases (ISI, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CUIDEN and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials), together with citation searches and consultation with experts. Finally, seven studies reporting the experiences of 155 patients were included. The seven-stage Noblit and Hare approach was applied, using reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis. Six main themes emerged giving meaning to the WTHD: WTHD in response to physical/psychological/spiritual suffering, loss of self, fear of dying, the desire to live but not in this way, WTHD as a way of ending suffering, and WTHD as a kind of control over one's life (‘having an ace up one's sleeve just in case’). An explanatory model was developed which showed the WTHD to be a reactive phenomenon: a response to multidimensional suffering, rather than only one aspect of the despair that may accompany this suffering. According to this model the factors that lead to the emergence of WTHD are total suffering, loss of self and fear, which together produce an overwhelming emotional distress that generates the WTHD as a way out, i.e. to cease living in this way and to put an end to suffering while maintaining some control over the situation. Conclusions The expression of the WTHD in these patients is a response to overwhelming emotional distress and has different meanings, which do not necessarily imply a genuine wish to hasten one's death. These meanings, which have a causal relationship to the phenomenon, should be taken into account when drawing up care plans. PMID:22606338

  16. American tertiary clinic-referred bipolar II disorder versus bipolar I disorder associated with hastened depressive recurrence.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Shah, Saloni; Do, Dennis; Yuen, Laura D; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Wang, Po W; Miller, Shefali; Ketter, Terence A

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, frequently comorbid condition characterized by high rates of mood episode recurrence and suicidality. Little is known about prospective longitudinal characterization of BD type II (BD II) versus type I (BD I) in relation to time to depressive recurrence and recovery from major depressive episode. We therefore assessed times to depressive recurrence/recovery in tertiary clinic-referred BD II versus I patients. Outpatients referred to Stanford BD Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation and with Clinical Monitoring Form during up to 2 years of naturalistic treatment. Prevalence and clinical correlates of bipolar subtype in recovered (euthymic ≥8 weeks) and depressed patients were assessed. Kaplan-Meier analyses assessed the relationships between bipolar subtype and longitudinal depressive severity, and Cox proportional hazard analyses assessed the potential mediators. BD II versus BD I was less common among 105 recovered (39.0 vs. 61.0%, p = 0.03) and more common among 153 depressed (61.4 vs. 38.6%, p = 0.006) patients. Among recovered patients, BD II was associated with 6/25 (24.0%) baseline unfavorable illness characteristics/mood symptoms/psychotropics and hastened depressive recurrence (p = 0.015). Among depressed patients, BD II was associated with 8/25 (33.0%) baseline unfavorable illness characteristics/mood symptoms/psychotropics, but only non-significantly associated with delayed depressive recovery. BD II versus BD I was significantly associated with current depression and hastened depressive recurrence, but only non-significantly associated with delayed depressive recovery. Research on bipolar subtype relationships with depressive recurrence/recovery is warranted to enhance clinical management of BD patients.

  17. Sociocultural Influence and Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Lora E.; DiRaddo, Ann Marie; Calogero, Rachel M.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the influence of parents, peers, and the media in predicting college students' Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity (Appearance-RS)--the degree to which individuals anxiously expect to be rejected based on their physical appearance. Given that women are socialized to be more appearance-focused than men, women were…

  18. Sociocultural Influence and Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Lora E.; DiRaddo, Ann Marie; Calogero, Rachel M.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined the influence of parents, peers, and the media in predicting college students' Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity (Appearance-RS)--the degree to which individuals anxiously expect to be rejected based on their physical appearance. Given that women are socialized to be more appearance-focused than men, women were…

  19. Gender nonconformity, childhood rejection, and adult attachment: a study of gay men.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Monica A; Bartholomew, Kim; Saffrey, Colleen; Oram, Doug; Perlman, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Several childhood factors are reported to be associated with a homosexual orientation in men, including gender nonconformity and rejection by parents and peers. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between these childhood factors and attachment anxiety (the tendency to experience anxiety regarding potential loss and rejection in close relationships) and attachment avoidance (the tendency to avoid versus seek out closeness in relationships) in gay and bisexual men. A community sample of 191 gay and bisexual men completed questionnaires and an attachment interview. Gender nonconformity was significantly associated with paternal, maternal, and peer rejection in childhood. In addition, paternal and peer rejection, but not maternal rejection, independently predicted attachment anxiety. Peer rejection and, to a lesser extent, paternal rejection mediated the association between gender nonconformity and attachment anxiety. Finally, peer rejection mediated the association between paternal rejection and attachment avoidance. Findings highlight the role of gender nonconformity in contributing to childhood rejection and the importance of peer relationships in the socialization of gay men.

  20. Reactions to Discrimination, Stigmatization, Ostracism, and Other Forms of Interpersonal Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Laura Smart; Leary, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new model that provides a framework for understanding people’s reactions to threats to social acceptance and belonging as they occur in the context of diverse phenomena such as rejection, discrimination, ostracism, betrayal, and stigmatization. People’s immediate reactions are quite similar across different forms of rejection in terms of negative affect and lowered self-esteem. However, following these immediate responses, people’s reactions are influenced by construals of the rejection experience that predict 3 distinct motives for prosocial, antisocial, and socially avoidant behavioral responses. The authors describe the relational, contextual, and dispositional factors that affect which motives determine people’s reactions to a rejection experience and the ways in which these 3 motives may work at cross-purposes. The multimotive model accounts for the myriad ways in which responses to rejection unfold over time and offers a basis for the next generation of research on interpersonal rejection. PMID:19348546

  1. Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: a multimotive model.

    PubMed

    Smart Richman, Laura; Leary, Mark R

    2009-04-01

    This article describes a new model that provides a framework for understanding people's reactions to threats to social acceptance and belonging as they occur in the context of diverse phenomena such as rejection, discrimination, ostracism, betrayal, and stigmatization. People's immediate reactions are quite similar across different forms of rejection in terms of negative affect and lowered self-esteem. However, following these immediate responses, people's reactions are influenced by construals of the rejection experience that predict 3 distinct motives for prosocial, antisocial, and socially avoidant behavioral responses. The authors describe the relational, contextual, and dispositional factors that affect which motives determine people's reactions to a rejection experience and the ways in which these 3 motives may work at cross-purposes. The multimotive model accounts for the myriad ways in which responses to rejection unfold over time and offers a basis for the next generation of research on interpersonal rejection.

  2. Rejection as a call to arms: inter-racial hostility and support for political action as outcomes of race-based rejection in majority and minority groups.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Sibley, Chris G; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2012-03-01

    Both majority and minority group members fear race-based rejection, and respond by disparaging the groups that they expect will reject them. It is not clear, however, how this process differs in minority and majority groups. Using large representative samples of White (N= 4,618) and Māori (N= 1,163) New Zealanders, we found that perceptions of race-based rejection predicted outgroup negativity in both groups, but in different ways and for different reasons. For White (but not Māori) New Zealanders, increased intergroup anxiety partially mediated the relationship between cognitions of rejection and outgroup negativity. Māori who expected to be rejected on the basis of their race reported increased ethnic identification and, in part through this, increased support for political action benefiting their own group. This finding supports collective-action models of social change in historically disadvantaged minority groups.

  3. Are you being rejected or excluded? Insights from neuroimaging studies using different rejection paradigms.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi

    2012-12-01

    Rejection sensitivity is the heightened tendency to perceive or anxiously expect disengagement from others during social interaction. There has been a recent wave of neuroimaging studies of rejection. The aim of the current review was to determine key brain regions involved in social rejection by selectively reviewing neuroimaging studies that employed one of three paradigms of social rejection, namely social exclusion during a ball-tossing game, evaluating feedback about preference from peers and viewing scenes depicting rejection during social interaction. Across the different paradigms of social rejection, there was concordance in regions for experiencing rejection, namely dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual ACC and ventral ACC. Functional dissociation between the regions for experiencing rejection and those for emotion regulation, namely medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and ventral striatum, was evident in the positive association between social distress and regions for experiencing rejection and the inverse association between social distress and the emotion regulation regions. The paradigms of social exclusion and scenes depicting rejection in social interaction were more adept at evoking rejection-specific neural responses. These responses were varyingly influenced by the amount of social distress during the task, social support received, self-esteem and social competence. Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene.

  4. Rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal actor-partner effects in adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Norona, Jerika C; Roberson, Patricia N E; Welsh, Deborah P

    2016-08-01

    The present study utilizes the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the longitudinal relationship between rejection sensitivity and one's own and one's partner's depressive symptoms. The sample included adolescent romantic couples from the U.S. (N = 198 adolescents; 50% girls; 90.2% Caucasian) whose rejection sensitivity at Time 1 and depressive symptoms approximately one year later (Time 2) were assessed. Additionally, aggressive behaviors and maintenance behaviors that commonly associated with rejection sensitivity (e.g., self-silencing) are explored as mediators. Results indicate that boyfriends' rejection sensitivity at Time 1 predicted girlfriends' depressive symptoms at Time 2. Additionally, girls' rejection sensitivity predicted their own and their boyfriends' self-silencing. Developmental and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Fate of articles rejected by Indian Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush; Shah, Dheeraj

    2010-12-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the fate of manuscripts rejected by Indian Pediatrics (IP), and to identify the factors facilitating publication of a rejected manuscript elsewhere. Database (PubMed, IndMed) and Google searches were performed to trace the manuscripts published elsewhere any time after rejection by Indian Pediatrics in the year 2002. Eighteen per cent of the rejected submissions (62 out of 347) were eventually (till July 2009) published elsewhere. These manuscripts subsequently appeared in 33 different journals; Indian Journal of Pediatrics published the maximum numbers (n=22). Seventy four per cent of the rejected papers were published in journals with a impact factor lesser than Indian Pediatrics. Rejection before initiating peer-review, and rejection on the grounds of over-interpretation of results or poor statistical analysis diminished the chances of subsequent publication, whereas manuscripts rejected on grounds of poor originality or poor language had greater chances of being published elsewhere. Rejection of a manuscript by IP does not preclude publication, but rejected manuscripts are published more often in non-pediatric journals or journals with a lower impact factor, although the occasional exception exists.

  6. Labor market position after a rejection of a disability pension application: a register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija; Liukko, Jyri

    2017-08-17

    To study labor market positions of rejected disability pension applicants and to examine which characteristics predict ending up in these positions after the rejection. Nationwide Finnish register data was used to describe employment, unemployment and disability pension trajectories of rejected applicants (n = 5740) from four years before to four years after the rejection. Demographic, occupational and health-related determinants of labor market position after the rejection were examined among those employed and not employed at the time of the rejection. The proportion of the employed steeply decreased and that of unemployed increased before the rejection of a disability pension application. Four years after the rejection, 30% of the rejected applicants were employed, 24% were unemployed and 30% received disability pension. Employment at the time of the rejection, younger age, shorter unemployment history, public sector employment and milder work disability increased future employment. Manual work, public sector employment and previous long-term unemployment predicted future unemployment. Apart from higher age, associations with receiving disability pension were relatively weak. For many rejected disability pension applicants return to work is challenging. Special efforts should be targeted to support the remaining work ability and to promote employment opportunities of the rejected applicants. Implications for Rehabilitation Employment, unemployment and receiving disability pension were equally common labor market positions four years after the rejection. Rejected DP applicants with unemployment history need special efforts to increase their employability. As a disability pension application, even if rejected, clearly indicates some degree of work ability problems, rehabilitation should be targeted at this time point to support employment.

  7. Renal allograft rejection: sonography and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Cohen, W.N.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 30 renal allograft patients who had sonographic B scanning and radionuclide studies of the transplant was studied as to whether: (1) the allograft rejection was associated with any consistent and reliable sonographic features and (2) the sonograms complemented the radionuclide studies. Focal areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistent sonographic finding in chymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistens sonographic finding in allograft rejection. This was observed in most of the patients exhibiting moderate or severe rejection, but was frequently absent with mild rejection. Areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were not seen during episodes of acute tubular necrosis. Therefore, sonography showing zones of decreased parenchymal echogenicity was complementary to radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of allograft rejection versus acute tubular necrosis. Corticomedullary demarcation was difficult to interpret because of technical variables, and was inconsistently related to rejection in this series.

  8. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  9. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    PubMed

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  10. [Tubulointerstitial rejection of renal allografts].

    PubMed

    Malušková, Jana; Honsová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Tubulo-intersticial rejection represents T-cell mediated rejection of kidney allografts with the morphology of immune-mediated interstitial nephritis. Diagnosis is dependent on the histopathological evaluation of a graft biopsy sample. The key morphological features are interstitial inflammatory infiltrate and damage to tubular epithelial cell which in severe cases can result in the ruptures of the tubular basement membranes. The differential diagnosis of tubulo-interstitial rejection includes acute interstitial nephritis and viral inflammatory kidney diseases, mainly polyomavirus nephropathy.

  11. Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Philip F; Chang, Jessica; Famulski, Konrad; Hidalgo, Luis G; Salazar, Israel D R; Merino Lopez, Maribel; Matas, Arthur; Picton, Michael; de Freitas, Declan; Bromberg, Jonathan; Serón, Daniel; Sellarés, Joana; Einecke, Gunilla; Reeve, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    The prevalent renal transplant population presents an opportunity to observe the adaptive changes in the alloimmune response over time, but such studies have been limited by uncertainties in the conventional biopsy diagnosis of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). To circumvent these limitations, we used microarrays and conventional methods to investigate rejection in 703 unselected biopsies taken 3 days to 35 years post-transplant from North American and European centers. Using conventional methods, we diagnosed rejection in 205 biopsy specimens (28%): 67 pure TCMR, 110 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (89 designated borderline). Using microarrays, we diagnosed rejection in 228 biopsy specimens (32%): 76 pure TCMR, 124 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (no borderline). Molecular assessment confirmed most conventional diagnoses (agreement was 90% for TCMR and 83% for ABMR) but revealed some errors, particularly in mixed rejection, and improved prediction of failure. ABMR was strongly associated with increased graft loss, but TCMR was not. ABMR became common in biopsy specimens obtained >1 year post-transplant and continued to appear in all subsequent intervals. TCMR was common early but progressively disappeared over time. In 108 biopsy specimens obtained 10.2-35 years post-transplant, TCMR defined by molecular and conventional features was never observed. We conclude that the main cause of kidney transplant failure is ABMR, which can present even decades after transplantation. In contrast, TCMR disappears by 10 years post-transplant, implying that a state of partial adaptive tolerance emerges over time in the kidney transplant population.

  12. Physiotherapy does not prevent, or hasten recovery from, ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Patman, Shane; Jenkins, Sue; Stiller, Kathy

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of respiratory physiotherapy on the prevention and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) for adults in an intensive care unit (ICU) with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Two-part, prospective, randomised controlled trial. A total of 144 subjects with ABI admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale 24 h; 33 subjects were subsequently diagnosed with VAP. Respiratory physiotherapy comprised six treatments (positioning, manual hyperinflation and suctioning) in each 24-h period whilst on MV. The Control Group received standard medical/nursing care but no respiratory physiotherapy. There were no significant differences between groups for incidence of VAP, duration of MV, length of ICU stay or clinical variables such as requirement for re-ventilation. In adults with ABI, regular respiratory physiotherapy in addition to routine medical/nursing care does not appear to prevent VAP, reduce length of MV or ICU stay. Due to small numbers, it is not possible to draw any conclusions as to whether or not respiratory physiotherapy hastens recovery from VAP.

  13. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this.

  14. The stylar 120 kDa glycoprotein is required for S-specific pollen rejection in Nicotiana.

    PubMed

    Hancock, C Nathan; Kent, Lia; McClure, Bruce A

    2005-09-01

    S-RNase participates in at least three mechanisms of pollen rejection. It functions in S-specific pollen rejection (self-incompatibility) and in at least two distinct interspecific mechanisms of pollen rejection in Nicotiana. S-specific pollen rejection and rejection of pollen from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia also require additional stylar proteins. Transmitting-tract-specific (TTS) protein, 120 kDa glycoprotein (120K) and pistil extensin-like protein III (PELP III) are stylar glycoproteins that bind S-RNase in vitro and are also known to interact with pollen. Here we tested whether these glycoproteins have a direct role in pollen rejection. 120K shows the most polymorphism in size between Nicotiana species. Larger 120K-like proteins are often correlated with S-specific pollen rejection. Sequencing results suggest that the polymorphism primarily reflects differences in glycosylation, although indels also occur in the predicted polypeptides. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we suppressed expression of 120K to determine if it is required for S-specific pollen rejection. Transgenic SC N. plumbaginifolia x SI Nicotiana alata (S105S105 or SC10SC10) hybrids with no detectable 120K were unable to perform S-specific pollen rejection. Thus, 120K has a direct role in S-specific pollen rejection. However, suppression of 120K had no effect on rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen. In contrast, suppression of HT-B, a factor previously implicated in S-specific pollen rejection, disrupts rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen. Thus, S-specific pollen rejection and rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen are mechanistically distinct, because they require different non-S-RNase factors.

  15. Withholding or withdrawing treatment and palliative treatment hastening death: the real reason why doctors are not held legally liable for murder.

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, D J

    2014-02-01

    Doctors who hasten the termination of the lives of their patients by withholding or withdrawing treatment or prescribing a potentially fatal palliative dose of medication satisfy the elements of intention and causation of a charge of murder against them. However, the courts have held that, for policy reasons based on 'society's legal convictions', such conduct is not unlawful if the patient consented to it or medical treatment would be futile or palliative treatment may hasten death. Doctors are not held liable for murder because society regards their omissions or acts as lawful--not because they did not have the intention in law to kill or did not cause the death of their patients.

  16. The medullary pyramid index: an objective assessment of prominence in renal transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Fried, A M; Woodring, J H; Loh, F K; Lucas, B A; Kryscio, R J

    1983-12-01

    Prominence of the medullary pyramids at sonography has been considered a sign of renal transplant rejection. A search of the literature reveals no previously published objective assessment of this phenomenon. Medullary pyramids of 67 normal kidneys, 53 nonrejecting transplanted kidneys, and 71 transplanted kidneys in rejection were measured. The area of the pyramid was related to the thickness of the overlying renal cortex by a "medullary pyramid index" (MPI): MPI (formula; see text) The median MPI was 4.17 for normal kidneys, 6.0 for nonrejecting transplanted kidneys, and 7.50 for transplanted kidneys in rejection. The results are significantly different (P = 0.0001) for all possible pairs. Overlap between rejection and nonrejection distributions is, however, considerable, rendering the discriminatory value of an individual observation quite low (0.69). Prominence of the medullary pyramids is therefore of very limited predictive value in the determination of transplant rejection in an individual patient.

  17. Cellular rejection of the conduction system after orthotopic heart transplantation for congenital atrioventricular block.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jessica B; Levi, Daniel S; Lai, Chi K; Alejos, Juan C; Fishbein, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    We report a case of severe acute cellular rejection of the cardiac allograft conduction system in a 15-month-old girl who received orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for congestive heart failure from a congenital heart block. Post-operatively, the patient was treated for clinical evidence of rejection, but did not have electrocardiographic findings of heart block. Six weeks after transplantation, the patient developed sudden-onset bradycardia and died. Autopsy showed severe acute cellular rejection involving primarily the conduction system. Cellular rejection of the cardiac conduction system is a potentially lethal complication of OHT. Although diagnostic modalities to predict or detect ongoing cellular rejection in the conduction system are limited, recognizing the early signs, such as post-operative heart block, may prevent devastating consequences.

  18. Links of justice and rejection sensitivity with aggression in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Krahé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity have been linked to differences in aggressive behavior in adults. However, there is little research studying this association in children and adolescents and considering the two constructs in combination. We assessed justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective as well as anxious and angry rejection sensitivity and linked both constructs to different forms (physical, relational), and functions (proactive, reactive) of self-reported aggression and to teacher- and parent-rated aggression in N = 1,489 9- to 19-year olds in Germany. Victim sensitivity and both angry and anxious rejection sensitivity showed positive correlations with all forms and functions of aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity also correlated positively with teacher-rated aggression. Perpetrator sensitivity was negatively correlated with all aggression measures, and observer sensitivity also correlated negatively with all aggression measures except for a positive correlation with reactive aggression. Path models considering the sensitivity facets in combination and controlling for age and gender showed that higher victim justice sensitivity predicted higher aggression on all measures. Higher perpetrator sensitivity predicted lower physical, relational, proactive, and reactive aggression. Higher observer sensitivity predicted lower teacher-rated aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity predicted higher proactive and reactive aggression, whereas anxious rejection sensitivity did not make an additional contribution to the prediction of aggression. The findings are discussed in terms of social information processing models of aggression in childhood and adolescence.

  19. Rejection and Depression: Prospective and Contemporaneous Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Monroe M.; Tesiny, Edward P.

    1984-01-01

    Three studies explore the relationship between parental rejection during childhood and manifestations of depression both then and in young adulthood. With regard to rejection, findings support the general hypothesis that deprivation is an etiological factor in adult depression. (Author/RH)

  20. PEER ACCEPTANCE-REJECTION AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SELLS, S.B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A 5-YEAR RESEARCH PROGRAM WHICH ANALYZED MANY OF THE CORRELATES OF PEER ACCEPTANCE-REJECTION IN A SERIES OF STUDIES INVOLVING 37,913 SCHOOL CHILDREN, AGES 9 TO 12 YEARS. PEER ACCEPTANCE-REJECTION WAS INVESTIGATED THROUGH THE USE OF A PEER RATING SCALE AND A TEACHER RATING SCALE. A NUMBER OF METHODOLOGICAL…

  1. Rejection and Depression: Prospective and Contemporaneous Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Monroe M.; Tesiny, Edward P.

    1984-01-01

    Three studies explore the relationship between parental rejection during childhood and manifestations of depression both then and in young adulthood. With regard to rejection, findings support the general hypothesis that deprivation is an etiological factor in adult depression. (Author/RH)

  2. 21 CFR 1230.47 - Rejected containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejected containers. 1230.47 Section 1230.47 Food... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.47 Rejected containers. (a) In all cases where the containers... notification to the importer that the containers must be exported under customs supervision within 3...

  3. Greater positive schizotypy relates to reduced N100 activity during rejection scenes.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alexander; Castro, Antonio; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety due to rejection sensitivity (RS) exacerbates psychosis-like experiences in the general population. While reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity during social rejection in high schizotypy has suggested self-distancing from rejection, earlier stages of mental processing such as feature encoding could also contribute to psychosis-like experiences. This study aimed to determine the stage of mental processing of social rejection that relates to positive schizotypy. Forty-one healthy participants were assessed for schizotypy and RS. Event-related potential amplitudes (ERPs) were measured at frontal, temporal and parieto-occipital sites and their cortical sources (dACC, temporal pole and lingual gyrus) at early (N100) and late (P300 and late slow wave, LSW) timeframes during rejection, acceptance and neutral scenes. ERPs were compared between social interaction types. Correlations were performed between positive schizotypy (defined as the presence of perceptual aberrations, hallucinatory experiences and magical thinking), RS and ERPs during rejection. Amplitude was greater during rejection than acceptance or neutral conditions at the dACC-P300, parieto-occipital-P300, dACC-LSW and frontal-LSW. RS correlated positively with positive schizotypy. Reduced dACC N100 activity during rejection correlated with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Reduced dACC N100 activity and greater RS independently predicted positive schizotypy. An N100 deficit that indicates reduced feature encoding of rejection scenes increases with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Higher RS shows that a greater tendency to misattribute ambiguous social situations as rejecting also increases with positive schizotypy. These two processes, namely primary bottom-up sensory processing and secondary misattribution of rejection, combine to increase psychosis-like experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of a Simple Score to Determine Risk of Early Rejection After Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Ryan J.; Savage, Andrew J.; Atz, Andrew M.; Heal, Elisabeth M.; Burnette, Ali L.; Kavarana, Minoo M.; Bradley, Scott M.; Chowdhury, Shahryar M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to develop a reliable and feasible score to assess the risk of rejection in pediatric heart transplantation recipients during the first post-transplant year. BACKGROUND The first post-transplant year is the most likely time for rejection to occur in pediatric heart transplantation. Rejection during this period is associated with worse outcomes. METHODS The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for pediatric patients (age <18 years) who underwent isolated orthotopic heart transplantation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012. Transplantations were divided into a derivation cohort (n = 2,686) and a validation (n = 509) cohort. The validation cohort was randomly selected from 20% of transplantations from 2005 to 2012. Covariates found to be associated with rejection (p < 0.2) were included in the initial multivariable logistic regression model. The final model was derived by including only variables independently associated with rejection. A risk score was then developed using relative magnitudes of the covariates’ odds ratio. The score was then tested in the validation cohort. RESULTS A 9-point risk score using 3 variables (age, cardiac diagnosis, and panel reactive antibody) was developed. Mean score in the derivation and validation cohorts were 4.5 ± 2.6 and 4.8 ± 2.7, respectively. A higher score was associated with an increased rate of rejection (score = 0, 10.6% in the validation cohort vs. score = 9, 40%; p < 0.01). In weighted regression analysis, the model-predicted risk of rejection correlated closely with the actual rates of rejection in the validation cohort (R2 = 0.86; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The rejection score is accurate in determining the risk of early rejection in pediatric heart transplantation recipients. The score has the potential to be used in clinical practice to aid in determining the immunosuppressant regimen and the frequency of rejection surveillance in the first post-transplant year. PMID

  5. An Evolutionary Perspective on Mate Rejection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ashleigh J; Dubbs, Shelli L; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-01-01

    We argue that mate rejection and ex-partner relationships are important, multifaceted topics that have been underresearched in social and evolutionary psychology. Mate rejection and relationship dissolution are ubiquitous and form integral parts of the human experience. Both also carry with them potential risks and benefits to our fitness and survival. Hence, we expect that mate rejection would have given rise to evolved behavioral and psychological adaptations. Herein, we outline some of the many unanswered questions in evolutionary psychology on these topics, at each step presenting novel hypotheses about how men and women should behave when rejecting a mate or potential mate or in response to rejection. We intend these hypotheses and suggestions for future research to be used as a basis for enriching our understanding of human mating from an evolutionary perspective.

  6. Antibody-Mediated Lung Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Hachem, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection after lung transplantation remains enigmatic. However, emerging evidence over the past several years suggests that humoral immunity plays an important role in allograft rejection. Indeed, the development of donor-specific antibodies after transplantation has been identified as an independent risk factor for acute cellular rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Furthermore, cases of acute antibody-mediated rejection resulting in severe allograft dysfunction have been reported, and these demonstrate that antibodies can directly injure the allograft. However, the incidence and toll of antibody-mediated rejection are unknown because there is no widely accepted definition and some cases may be unrecognized. Clearly, humoral immunity has become an important area for research and clinical investigation. PMID:23002428

  7. Rejection Thresholds in Solid Chocolate-Flavored Compound Coating

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers versus melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate (SOA), a bitter GRAS additive. Paired preference tests (blank vs. spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between two self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (p = 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (p = 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (p = 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. PMID:22924788

  8. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592).

    PubMed

    A Hamid, Mohamad Shariff; Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Razif; Yusof, Ashril; George, John

    2012-08-06

    Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18 years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16 weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16 weeks.The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592.

  9. Monocyte procoagulant activity and plasminogen activator. Role in human renal allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.H.; Cardella, C.J.; Schulman, J.; Levy, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    Currently the mechanism of renal allograft rejection is not well understood. This study was designed to determine whether induction of monocyte procoagulant activity (MCPA) is important in the pathogenesis of renal allograft rejection. The MPCA assay was performed utilizing a one stage clotting assay both in normal and in factor-VII-deficient plasma. There was no increase in spontaneous MPCA in 20 patients with endstage renal failure and in 10 patients following abdominal or orthopedic operation, as compared with 20 normal controls. MPCA was assessed daily in 18 patients who had received renal allografts. Rejection episodes (RE) were predicted on the basis of persistent elevation in MPCA as compared with pretransplant levels. Rejection was diagnosed clinically and treated on the basis of standard criteria. Treated RE were compared with those predicted by elevated MPCA, and 3 patients were assessed as having no RE by MPCA and by standard criteria. In 8 RE, MPCA correlated temporally with RE (same day) when compared with standard criteria. In 12 RE, MPCA was predictive of rejection preceding standard criteria by at least 24 hr. There were 7 false-positive predictions on the basis of MPCA; however, there was only 1 false negative. MPCA was shown to be a prothrombinase by its dependence only on prothrombin and fibrinogen for full activity. MPCA may be important in the pathogenesis of allograft rejection, and additionally it may be a useful adjunct in the clinical management of this disease.

  10. Molecular diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in human kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Sellarés, J; Reeve, J; Loupy, A; Mengel, M; Sis, B; Skene, A; de Freitas, D G; Kreepala, C; Hidalgo, L G; Famulski, K S; Halloran, P F

    2013-04-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection is the major cause of kidney transplant failure, but the histology-based diagnostic system misses most cases due to its requirement for C4d positivity. We hypothesized that gene expression data could be used to test biopsies for the presence of antibody-mediated rejection. To develop a molecular test, we prospectively assigned diagnoses, including C4d-negative antibody-mediated rejection, to 403 indication biopsies from 315 patients, based on histology (microcirculation lesions) and donor-specific HLA antibody. We then used microarray data to develop classifiers that assigned antibody-mediated rejection scores to each biopsy. The transcripts distinguishing antibody-mediated rejection from other conditions were mostly expressed in endothelial cells or NK cells, or were IFNG-inducible. The scores correlated with the presence of microcirculation lesions and donor-specific antibody. Of 45 biopsies with scores>0.5, 39 had been diagnosed as antibody-mediated rejection on the basis of histology and donor-specific antibody. High scores were also associated with unanimity among pathologists that antibody-mediated rejection was present. The molecular score also strongly predicted future graft loss in Cox regression analysis. We conclude that microarray assessment of gene expression can assign a probability of ABMR to transplant biopsies without knowledge of HLA antibody status, histology, or C4d staining, and predicts future failure.

  11. How Do Discrepancies between Victimization and Rejection Expectations in Gay and Bisexual Men Relate to Mental Health Problems?

    PubMed

    Sattler, Frank A; Christiansen, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. Furthermore, it was shown that victimization predicts rejection expectations. Nevertheless, the levels of these two variables do not necessarily correspond as indicated by low inter-correlations, resulting in the question "How do discrepancies in the two variables relate to mental health problems?" This study tests if non-corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectations in gay and bisexual men relate to mental health problems differently than corresponding levels of victimization and rejection expectations. It furthermore tests for linear and curvilinear relationships between victimization, rejection expectations, and mental health problems. Methods: Data from N = 1423 gay and bisexual men were obtained online. Victimization and rejection expectations were tested for discrepant values (differing 0.5 SD or more) and those that were in agreement (differing less than 0.5): 33.7% of participants were in agreement, 33.0% reported higher rejection expectations than victimization, and 33.3% v.v. Then, a polynomial regression and a surface analysis were conducted. Results: Discrepant values in victimization and rejection expectations or the direction of the discrepancy did not relevantly predict mental health problems. Findings indicate that victimization and rejection expectations predict mental health problems linearly as well as convexly (upward curving) in gay and bisexual men. Discussion: This study replicates findings that gay and bisexual men with more experiences of victimization and rejection expectations demonstrated more mental health problems. Furthermore, this study is the first one to find a convex relationship between these predictors and mental health problems, implicating that disproportionally high mental health problems exist in those gay and bisexual men with high levels of victimization and rejection expectations. On the other

  12. The value of needle renal allograft biopsy. I. A retrospective study of biopsies performed during putative rejection episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Matas, A J; Sibley, R; Mauer, M; Sutherland, D E; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

    1983-01-01

    Following renal transplantation, immunosuppression is usually increased to treat presumed rejection episodes. However, a) many conditions mimic rejection in the post-transplant period, and b) many rejection episodes are irreversible. As increased immunosuppressive therapy is associated with an increased risk of infection, it would be ideal to limit antirejection therapy to only the rejection episodes that are reversible. The role of percutaneous allograft biopsy was studied as an aid to decide which patients to treat for rejection, to limit unnecessary immunosuppression and to predict allograft survival. One hundred thirty-five patients with suspected rejection underwent 206 allograft biopsies without complication. Two hundred four biopsies were available for study. Biopsies were coded on a 1-4 scale (minimal, mild, moderate, severe) for acute and chronic tubulointerstitial infiltrate and vascular rejection, as well as no rejection (e.g., recurrence of original disease). Treatment decisions were made on the basis of the biopsy combined with clinical data. All patients have been followed two years and outcome correlated with biopsy findings (death, nephrectomy, and return to dialysis defined as kidney loss). The results were the following: 1) biopsies represented changes within the kidney. Of 16 kidneys removed within one month of biopsy, no nephrectomy specimen showed less rejection than that seen on biopsy. 2) Eighty-one biopsies (39.7%) led to tapering or not increasing immunosuppression (either no rejection, minimal rejection, or irreversible changes). 3) Kidneys having either severe acute or chronic vascular rejection (less than 30% function at three months) had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival three to 24 months postbiopsy than those with minimal or mild vascular rejection or tubulointerstitial infiltrate (83% function at three months). 4) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection and those with severe acute tubulointerstitial

  13. Usefulness of liver stiffness measurement during acute cellular rejection in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Gonzalo; Castro-Narro, Graciela; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Benítez, Carlos; Ruiz, Pablo; Sastre, Lydia; Colmenero, Jordi; Miquel, Rosa; Sánchez-Fueyo, Alberto; Forns, Xavier; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-03-01

    Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is a useful method to estimate liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. The inflammatory process that takes place in post-liver transplant acute cellular rejection (ACR) may also increase liver stiffness. We aimed to explore the association between liver stiffness and the severity of ACR, as well as to assess the relationship between liver stiffness and response to rejection treatment in a prospective study that included 27 liver recipients with biopsy-proven ACR, 30 stable recipients with normal liver tests, and 30 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected LT recipients with histologically diagnosed HCV recurrence. Patients with rejection were stratified into 2 groups (mild and moderate/severe) according to the severity of rejection evaluated with the Banff score. Routine biomarkers and LSM with FibroScan were performed at the time of liver biopsy (baseline) and at 7, 30, and 90 days in patients with rejection and at baseline in control patients. Median baseline liver stiffness was 5.9 kPa in the mild rejection group, 11 kPa in the moderate/severe group (P = 0.001), 4.2 kPa in stable recipients (P = 0.02 versus mild rejection), and 13.6 kPa in patients with recurrent HCV (P = 0.17 versus moderate/severe rejection). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of LSM to discriminate mild versus moderate/severe ACR was 0.924, and a LSM value of 8.5 kPa yielded a positive predictive value of 100% to diagnose moderate/severe rejection. Liver stiffness improved in 7%, 21%, and 64% of patients with moderate/severe rejection at 7, 30, and 90 days. In conclusion, according to the results of this exploratory study, LSM is associated with the severity of ACR in liver transplantation and thus may be of help in its assessment.

  14. Elevated ST2 Distinguishes Incidences of Pediatric Heart and Small Bowel Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, L.R.; Lott, J. M.; Isse, K.; Lesniak, A.; Landsittel, D.; Demetris, A. J.; Sun, Y.; Mercer, D. F.; Webber, S. A.; Zeevi, A.; Fischer, R. T.; Feingold, B.; Turnquist, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated serum soluble (s) Suppressor of Tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) is observed during cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel diseases. To ascertain whether modulated ST2 levels signify heart (HTx) or small bowel transplant (SBTx) rejection, we quantified sST2 in serially obtained pediatric HTx (n=41) and SBTx recipient (n=18) sera. At times of biopsy-diagnosed HTx rejection (cellular and/or antibody-mediated), serum sST2 was elevated compared to rejection-free time points (1714±329 vs. 546.5±141.6 pg/ml; P=0.0002). SBTx recipients also displayed increased serum sST2 during incidences of rejection (7536±1561 vs. 2662±543.8 pg/ml; P=0.0347). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that serum sST2>600 pg/ml could discriminate time points of HTx rejection and non-rejection (Area under the curve (AUC)=0.724±0.053; P=0.0003). ROC analysis of SBTx measures revealed a similar discriminative capacity (AUC=0.6921±0.0820; P=0.0349). Quantitative evaluation of both HTx and SBTx biopsies revealed rejection significantly increased allograft ST2 expression. Pathway and Network Analysis of biopsy data pinpointed ST2 in the dominant pathway modulated by rejection and predicted TNF-α and IL-1β as upstream activators. In total, our data indicate that alloimmune-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines increase ST2 during rejection. They also demonstrate that routine serum sST2 quantification, potentially combined with other biomarkers, should be investigated further to aid in the non-invasive diagnosis of rejection. PMID:26663613

  15. Reviewing the pathogenesis of antibody-mediated rejection and renal graft pathology after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morozumi, Kunio; Takeda, Asami; Otsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keiji; Gotoh, Norihiko; Narumi, Shunji; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2016-07-01

    The clinicopathological context of rejection after kidney transplantation was well recognized. Banff conferences greatly contributed to elucidate the pathogenesis and to establish the pathologic criteria of rejection after kidney transplantation. The most important current problem of renal transplantation is de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA) production leading chronic rejection and graft loss. Microvascular inflammation is considered as a reliable pathological marker for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the presence of DSA. Electron microscopic study allowed us to evaluate early changes in peritubular capillaries in T-lymphocyte mediated rejection and transition to antibody-mediated rejection. Severe endothelial injuries with edema and activated lymphocyte invaded into subendothelial space with early multi-layering of peritubular capillary basement membrane suggest T-lymphocyte mediated rejection induce an unbounded chain of antibody-mediated rejection. The risk factors of AMR after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation are important issues. Anti-ABO blood type antibody titre of IgG excess 32-fold before transplant operation is the only predictable factor for acute AMR. Characteristics of chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAAMR) are one of the most important problems. Light microscopic findings and C4d stain of peritubular capillary and glomerular capillary are useful diagnostic criteria of CAAMR. Microvascular inflammation, double contour of glomerular capillary and thickening of peritubular capillary basement are good predictive factors of the presence of de novo DSA. C4d stain of linear glomerular capillary is a more sensitive marker for CAAMR than positive C4d of peritubular capillary. Early and sensitive diagnostic attempts of diagnosing CAAMR are pivotal to prevent chronic graft failure.

  16. High-Common-Mode-Rejection Differential Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukens, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    High-common-mode-rejection differential amplifier amplifies low-level signals in presence of high frequency noise. Amplifier used in power system requiring current monitoring on high side of high-voltage powerline.

  17. Enhanced pyrite rejection in coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.P.; Lu, M.X.; Richardson, P.E.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    Difficulties in rejecting pyrite from coal by flotation primarily result from two mechanisms of particle recovery: attachment and middlings. Attachment of pyrite is the consequence of surface hydrophobicity induced by superficial oxidation; middlings that can float readily are caused by incomplete liberation of pyrite from coal. New flotation schemes have been developed to enhance pyrite rejection. They are referred to as Electrochemically-Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer-Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. In the EESR process, the formation of hydrophobic products is prevented by electrochemical techniques in which active metals are used as sacrificial anodes to cathodically protect pyrite from oxidation; in the PESR process, hydrophilic polymers is used to mask coal in middlings by specific adsorption on pyrite, and thus depress coal-pyrite middlings.

  18. Mechanisms of chronic rejection in cardiothoracic transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Matthew J.; Madsen, Joren C.; Rosengard, Bruce R.; Allan, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in early post-transplantation survival rates, long-term patient and graft survival have remained poor, due in large part to the vexing problem of chronic allograft rejection. Attempts to combat this problem with intensification of immunosuppression have led to concomitant increases in the rates of fatal malignancies and infections. In cardiac transplantation, chronic rejection is manifested primarily by a disease entity known as cardiac allograft vasculopathy, an occlusive narrowing of the coronary vessels. In lung transplantation, chronic rejection is typified by obliterative bronchiolitis, an airflow limiting narrowing of the bronchioles. From an immunologic standpoint, chronic rejection is believed to be the end result of repeated immune and non-immune insults to the graft. This review examines the pathophysiology of heart and lung chronic, with emphasis on both immune and non-immune causes. PMID:17981771

  19. How to get your paper rejected.

    PubMed

    Chernick, Victor

    2008-03-01

    This paper focuses on the main problems that authors of rejected papers have had in their submissions to Pediatric Pulmonology over the past 5 years or so. It is intended as a teaching tool for residents, fellows, allied health personnel, practicing physicians and even some academic physicians who need a refresher on what goes wrong and how they may avoid rejection of their labor. The approach is somewhat lighthearted but nevertheless the message is quite serious.

  20. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-04-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection.

  1. Understanding patients' experiences of the wish to hasten death: an updated and expanded systematic review and meta-ethnography.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Prat, Andrea; Balaguer, Albert; Booth, Andrew; Monforte-Royo, Cristina

    2017-09-29

    Patients with advanced disease sometimes express a wish to hasten death (WTHD). In 2012, we published a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining the experience and meaning of this phenomenon. Since then, new studies eligible for inclusion have been reported, including in Europe, a region not previously featured, and specifically in countries with different legal frameworks for euthanasia and assisted suicide. The aim of the present study was to update our previous review by including new research and to conduct a new analysis of available data on this topic. Eligible studies originated from Australia, Canada, China, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Thailand and USA. Studies of patients with life-threatening conditions that had expressed the WTHD. The search strategy combined subject terms with free-text searching of PubMed MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycInfo. The qualitative synthesis followed the methodology described by Noblit and Hare, using the 'adding to and revising the original' model for updating a meta-ethnography, proposed by France et al. Quality assessment was done using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. 14 studies involving 255 participants with life-threatening illnesses were identified. Five themes emerged from the analysis: suffering (overarching theme), reasons for and meanings and functions of the WTHD and the experience of a timeline towards dying and death. In the context of advanced disease, the WTHD emerges as a reaction to physical, psychological, social and existential suffering, all of which impacts on the patient's sense of self, of dignity and meaning in life. The WTHD can hold different meanings for each individual-serving functions other than to communicate a genuine wish to die. Understanding the reasons for, and meanings and functions of, the WTHD is crucial for drawing up and implementing care plans to meet the needs of individual patients. © Article author(s) (or their

  2. Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggression.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Twenge, Jean M; Quinlivan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relationship between interpersonal rejection and aggression. Four bodies of research are summarized: laboratory experiments that manipulate rejection, rejection among adults in everyday life, rejection in childhood, and individual differences that may moderate the relationship. The theoretical mechanisms behind the effect are then explored. Possible explanations for why rejection leads to anger and aggression include: rejection as a source of pain, rejection as a source of frustration, rejection as a threat to self-esteem, mood improvement following aggression, aggression as social influence, aggression as a means of reestablishing control, retribution, disinhibition, and loss of self-control.

  3. Rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers compared to melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate, a bitter and generally recognized as safe additive. Paired preference tests (blank compared to spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between 2 self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (P= 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (P= 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (P= 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. This work makes use of the rejection threshold method to study market segmentation, extending its use to solid foods. We believe this method has broad applicability to the sensory specialist and product developer by providing a

  4. Kidney Transplant Rejection and Tissue Injury by Gene Profiling of Biopsies and Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Flechner, Stuart M.; Kurian, Sunil M.; Head, Steven R.; Sharp, Starlette M.; Whisenant, Thomas C.; Zhang, Jie; Chismar, Jeffrey D.; Horvath, Steve; Mondala, Tony; Gilmartin, Timothy; Cook, Daniel J.; Kay, Steven A.; Walker, John R.; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    A major challenge for kidney transplantation is balancing the need for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, while minimizing drug-induced toxicities. We used DNA microarrays (HG-U95Av2 GeneChips, Affymetrix) to determine gene expression profiles for kidney biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in transplant patients including normal donor kidneys, well-functioning transplants without rejection, kidneys undergoing acute rejection, and transplants with renal dysfunction without rejection. We developed a data analysis schema based on expression signal determination, class comparison and prediction, hierarchical clustering, statistical power analysis and real-time quantitative PCR validation. We identified distinct gene expression signatures for both biopsies and PBLs that correlated significantly with each of the different classes of transplant patients. This is the most complete report to date using commercial arrays to identify unique expression signatures in transplant biopsies distinguishing acute rejection, acute dysfunction without rejection and well-functioning transplants with no rejection history. We demonstrate for the first time the successful application of high density DNA chip analysis of PBL as a diagnostic tool for transplantation. The significance of these results, if validated in a multicenter prospective trial, would be the establishment of a metric based on gene expression signatures for monitoring the immune status and immunosuppression of transplanted patients. PMID:15307835

  5. Kidney transplant rejection and tissue injury by gene profiling of biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Flechner, Stuart M; Kurian, Sunil M; Head, Steven R; Sharp, Starlette M; Whisenant, Thomas C; Zhang, Jie; Chismar, Jeffrey D; Horvath, Steve; Mondala, Tony; Gilmartin, Timothy; Cook, Daniel J; Kay, Steven A; Walker, John R; Salomon, Daniel R

    2004-09-01

    A major challenge for kidney transplantation is balancing the need for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, while minimizing drug-induced toxicities. We used DNA microarrays (HG-U95Av2 GeneChips, Affymetrix) to determine gene expression profiles for kidney biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in transplant patients including normal donor kidneys, well-functioning transplants without rejection, kidneys undergoing acute rejection, and transplants with renal dysfunction without rejection. We developed a data analysis schema based on expression signal determination, class comparison and prediction, hierarchical clustering, statistical power analysis and real-time quantitative PCR validation. We identified distinct gene expression signatures for both biopsies and PBLs that correlated significantly with each of the different classes of transplant patients. This is the most complete report to date using commercial arrays to identify unique expression signatures in transplant biopsies distinguishing acute rejection, acute dysfunction without rejection and well-functioning transplants with no rejection history. We demonstrate for the first time the successful application of high density DNA chip analysis of PBL as a diagnostic tool for transplantation. The significance of these results, if validated in a multicenter prospective trial, would be the establishment of a metric based on gene expression signatures for monitoring the immune status and immunosuppression of transplanted patients.

  6. End-of-life decisions for children under 1 year of age in the Netherlands: decreased frequency of administration of drugs to deliberately hasten death.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Katja; van de Vathorst, Suzanne; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van der Heide, Agnes

    2015-10-01

    To assess whether the frequency of end-of-life decisions for children under 1 year of age in the Netherlands has changed since ultrasound examination around 20 weeks of gestation became routine in 2007 and after a legal provision for deliberately ending the life of a newborn was set up that same year. This was a recurrent nationwide cross-sectional study in the Netherlands. In 2010, a sample of death certificates from children under 1 year of age was derived from the central death registry. All 223 deaths that occurred in a 4-month study period were included. Physicians who had reported a non-sudden death (n=206) were sent a questionnaire on the end-of-life decisions made. 160 questionnaires were returned (response 78%). In 2010, 63% of all deaths of children under 1 year of age were preceded by an end-of-life decision-a percentage comparable to other times when this study was conducted (1995, 2001, 2005). These end-of-life decisions were mainly decisions to withdraw or withhold potentially life-sustaining treatment. In 2010, the percentage of cases in which drugs were administered with the explicit intention to hasten death was 1%, while in 1995 and 2001, this was 9% and in 2005, this was 8%. There has been a reduction of infant deaths that followed administration of drugs with the explicit intention to hasten death. One explanation for this reduction relates to the introduction of routine ultrasound examination around 20 weeks of gestation. In addition, the introduction of legal criteria and a review process for deliberately ending the life of a newborn may have left Dutch physicians with less room to hasten death. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Continuous sedation until death with or without the intention to hasten death--a nationwide study in nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Rys, Sam; Deschepper, Reginald; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc; Bilsen, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the removal of consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, has become a controversial practice. Some consider CSD a palliative treatment, whereas others claim that CSD is frequently used with the intention to hasten death. In nursing homes in Flanders, the rate of CSD has tripled over the past decade, whereas legal euthanasia remains a rare practice. This study wants to investigate to what extent CSD is used to hasten death (CSD+) and to identify possible associated factors. Nationwide cross-sectional retrospective survey, conducted in 2012. Nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. Coordinating and advisory physicians of all nursing homes in Flanders (n = 660). Physician reports of their most recent patient treated with CSD. The response rate was 57.3%, and 159 of the 378 responding physicians reported a case of CSD (42.1%). According to the reported intentions involved, 62.2% of these cases were considered CSD- cases (no life-shortening pursued), whereas 37.8% were labeled CSD+ (life-shortening pursued). Physician factors such as experience in end-of-life care, palliative care training, training in sedation, or knowledge of sedation guidelines did not affect the outcome distribution (CSD- or CSD+). In CSD+, the patient has a longer life expectancy, is more competent, is clearly longing for death, and requests for euthanasia more frequently. In nursing homes in Flanders, CSD is frequently used to hasten the patient's death. In some cases, CSD can even be considered a substitute for legal euthanasia. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combating the sting of rejection with the pleasure of revenge: A new look at how emotion shapes aggression.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2017-03-01

    How does emotion explain the relationship between social rejection and aggression? Rejection reliably damages mood, leaving individuals motivated to repair their negatively valenced affective state. Retaliatory aggression is often a pleasant experience. Rejected individuals may then harness revenge's associated positive affect to repair their mood. Across 6 studies (total N = 1,516), we tested the prediction that the rejection-aggression link is motivated by expected and actual mood repair. Further, we predicted that this mood repair would occur through the positive affect of retaliatory aggression. Supporting these predictions, naturally occurring (Studies 1 and 2) and experimentally manipulated (Studies 3 and 4) motives to repair mood via aggression moderated the rejection-aggression link. These effects were mediated by sadistic impulses toward finding aggression pleasant (Studies 2 and 4). Suggesting the occurrence of actual mood repair, rejected participants' affective states were equivalent to their accepted counterparts after an act of aggression (Studies 5 and 6). This mood repair occurred through a dynamic interplay between preaggression affect and aggression itself, and was driven by increases in positive affect (Studies 5 and 6). Together, these findings suggest that the rejection-aggression link is driven, in part, by the desire to return to affective homeostasis. Additionally, these findings implicate aggression's rewarding nature as an incentive for rejected individuals' violent tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Rejection versus escape: the tumor MHC dilemma.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Federico; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Aptsiauri, Natalia

    2017-02-01

    Most tumor cells derive from MHC-I-positive normal counterparts and remain positive at early stages of tumor development. T lymphocytes can infiltrate tumor tissue, recognize and destroy MHC class I (MHC-I)-positive cancer cells ("permissive" phase I). Later, MHC-I-negative tumor cell variants resistant to T-cell killing emerge. During this process, tumors first acquire a heterogeneous MHC-I expression pattern and finally become uniformly MHC-I-negative. This stage (phase II) represents a "non-permissive" encapsulated structure with tumor nodes surrounded by fibrous tissue containing different elements including leukocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, etc. Molecular mechanisms responsible for total or partial MHC-I downregulation play a crucial role in determining and predicting the antigen-presenting capacity of cancer cells. MHC-I downregulation caused by reversible ("soft") lesions can be upregulated by TH1-type cytokines released into the tumor microenvironment in response to different types of immunotherapy. In contrast, when the molecular mechanism of the tumor MHC-I loss is irreversible ("hard") due to a genetic defect in the gene/s coding for MHC-I heavy chains (chromosome 6) or beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) (chromosome 15), malignant cells are unable to upregulate MHC-I, remain undetectable by cytotoxic T-cells, and continue to grow and metastasize. Based on the tumor MHC-I molecular analysis, it might be possible to define MHC-I phenotypes present in cancer patients in order to distinguish between non-responders, partial/short-term responders, and likely durable responders. This highlights the need for designing strategies to enhance tumor MHC-I expression that would allow CTL-mediated tumor rejection.

  10. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. Purpose To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. Material and Methods All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Results Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. Conclusion The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality. PMID:26500784

  11. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-10-01

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality.

  12. The fate of triaged and rejected manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Amodeo, Daniela; Argiles, Angel; Arici, Mustafa; D'arrigo, Graziella; Evenepoel, Pieter; Fliser, Danilo; Fox, Jonathan; Gesualdo, Loreto; Jadoul, Michel; Ketteler, Markus; Malyszko, Jolanta; Massy, Ziad; Mayer, Gert; Ortiz, Alberto; Sever, Mehmet; Vanholder, Raymond; Vinck, Caroline; Wanner, Christopher; Więcek, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (NDT) established a more restrictive selection process for manuscripts submitted to the journal, reducing the acceptance rate from 25% (2008-2009) to currently about 12-15%. To achieve this goal, we decided to score the priority of manuscripts submitted to NDT and to reject more papers at triage than in the past. This new scoring system allows a rapid decision for the authors without external review. However, the risk of such a restrictive policy may be that the journal might fail to capture important studies that are eventually published in higher-ranked journals. To look into this problem, we analysed random samples of papers (∼10%) rejected by NDT in 2012. Of the papers rejected at triage and those rejected after regular peer review, 59 and 61%, respectively, were accepted in other journals. A detailed analysis of these papers showed that only 4 out of 104 and 7 out of 93 of the triaged and rejected papers, respectively, were published in journals with an impact factor higher than that of NDT. Furthermore, for all these papers, independent assessors confirmed the evaluation made by the original reviewers. The number of citations of these papers was similar to that typically obtained by publications in the corresponding journals. Even though the analyses seem reassuring, previous observations made by leading journals warn that the risk of 'big misses', resulting from selective editorial policies, remains a real possibility. We will therefore continue to maintain a high degree of alertness and will periodically track the history of manuscripts rejected by NDT, particularly papers that are rejected at triage by our journal. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. The fate of triaged and rejected manuscripts

    PubMed Central

    Zoccali, Carmine; Amodeo, Daniela; Argiles, Angel; Arici, Mustafa; D'arrigo, Graziella; Evenepoel, Pieter; Fliser, Danilo; Fox, Jonathan; Gesualdo, Loreto; Jadoul, Michel; Ketteler, Markus; Malyszko, Jolanta; Massy, Ziad; Mayer, Gert; Ortiz, Alberto; Sever, Mehmet; Vanholder, Raymond; Vinck, Caroline; Wanner, Christopher; Więcek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Nephrology Dialysis and Transplantation (NDT) established a more restrictive selection process for manuscripts submitted to the journal, reducing the acceptance rate from 25% (2008–2009) to currently about 12–15%. To achieve this goal, we decided to score the priority of manuscripts submitted to NDT and to reject more papers at triage than in the past. This new scoring system allows a rapid decision for the authors without external review. However, the risk of such a restrictive policy may be that the journal might fail to capture important studies that are eventually published in higher-ranked journals. To look into this problem, we analysed random samples of papers (∼10%) rejected by NDT in 2012. Of the papers rejected at triage and those rejected after regular peer review, 59 and 61%, respectively, were accepted in other journals. A detailed analysis of these papers showed that only 4 out of 104 and 7 out of 93 of the triaged and rejected papers, respectively, were published in journals with an impact factor higher than that of NDT. Furthermore, for all these papers, independent assessors confirmed the evaluation made by the original reviewers. The number of citations of these papers was similar to that typically obtained by publications in the corresponding journals. Even though the analyses seem reassuring, previous observations made by leading journals warn that the risk of ‘big misses’, resulting from selective editorial policies, remains a real possibility. We will therefore continue to maintain a high degree of alertness and will periodically track the history of manuscripts rejected by NDT, particularly papers that are rejected at triage by our journal. PMID:26597920

  14. Kin rejection: social signals, neural response and perceived distress during social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Herrera, Tania A; Wu, Jia; Borelli, Jessica L; White, Lars O; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Across species, kin bond together to promote survival. We sought to understand the dyadic effect of exclusion by kin (as opposed to non-kin strangers) on brain activity of the mother and her child and their subjective distress. To this end, we probed mother-child relationships with a computerized ball-toss game Cyberball. When excluded by one another, rather than by a stranger, both mothers and children exhibited a significantly pronounced frontal P2. Moreover, upon kin rejection versus stranger rejection, both mothers and children showed incremented left frontal positive slow waves for rejection events. Children reported more distress upon exclusion than their own mothers. Similar to past work, relatively augmented negative frontal slow wave activity predicted greater self-reported ostracism distress. This effect, generalized to the P2, was limited to mother- or child-rejection by kin, with comparable magnitude of effect across kin identity (mothers vs. children). For both mothers and children, the frontal P2 peak was significantly pronounced for kin rejection versus stranger rejection. Taken together, our results document the rapid categorization of social signals as kin relevant and the specificity of early and late neural markers for predicting felt ostracism.

  15. Gender-based rejection sensitivity and academic self-silencing in women.

    PubMed

    London, Bonita; Downey, Geraldine; Romero-Canyas, Rainer; Rattan, Aneeta; Tyson, Diana

    2012-05-01

    Building on prior work on rejection sensitivity, we propose a social-cognitive model of gender-based rejection sensitivity (Gender RS) to account for individual differences in how women perceive and cope with gender-based evaluative threats in competitive, historically male institutions. Study 1 develops a measure of Gender RS, defined as anxious expectations of gender-based rejection. Studies 2-5 support the central predictions of the model: Gender RS is associated with increased perceptions of gender-based threats and increased coping by self-silencing--responses that reinforce feelings of alienation and diminished motivation. Study 2 shows that Gender RS is distinct from overall sensitivity to rejection or perceiving the world through the lens of gender. Study 3 shows that Gender RS becomes activated specifically when gender-based rejection is a plausible explanation for negative outcomes. Study 4 provides experimental evidence that Gender RS predicts lower academic self-confidence, greater expectations of bias, and avoidance of opportunities for further help from a weakness-focused expert evaluator. Study 5 tests the Gender RS model in situ, using daily diaries to track women's experiences during the first weeks in a highly competitive law school. Implications for women's coping with the subtle nature of contemporary sexism are discussed as well as the importance of institution-level checks to prevent the costs of gender-based rejection.

  16. Strength of Excitation Is Negatively Associated with Aggressive Behavior after Interpersonal Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Rajchert, Joanna; Winiewski, Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how the Pavlovian temperamental traits strength of excitation (SE) and strength of inhibition (SI) were related to rejection and aggression. We predicted that rejection would increase aggression, but that higher SE and SI would mitigate this effect. Participants (n = 117) completed Strelau and Zawadzki’s (1998) Pavlovian Temperament Survey. A week later they were told that a peer wanted (acceptance) or did not want (rejection) to work with them and they were given a chance to react aggressively by damaging that person’s chance of getting a job. We found that only high SE was negatively related to rejected individuals’ aggression. The results are related to the diathesis-stress and catalyst models’ accounts of the role of temperament in shaping experience of social stress. PMID:28293212

  17. Strength of Excitation Is Negatively Associated with Aggressive Behavior after Interpersonal Rejection.

    PubMed

    Rajchert, Joanna; Winiewski, Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how the Pavlovian temperamental traits strength of excitation (SE) and strength of inhibition (SI) were related to rejection and aggression. We predicted that rejection would increase aggression, but that higher SE and SI would mitigate this effect. Participants (n = 117) completed Strelau and Zawadzki's (1998) Pavlovian Temperament Survey. A week later they were told that a peer wanted (acceptance) or did not want (rejection) to work with them and they were given a chance to react aggressively by damaging that person's chance of getting a job. We found that only high SE was negatively related to rejected individuals' aggression. The results are related to the diathesis-stress and catalyst models' accounts of the role of temperament in shaping experience of social stress.

  18. The regulating role of negative emotions in children's coping with peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kimberly L; Southam-Gerow, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the role of emotions as predictors of children's coping responses to peer rejection experiences. Children ages 7-12 (N = 79) completed questionnaires to assess emotional and coping responses to peer rejection scenarios. This study examined three coping factors specific to peer rejection (positive reappraisal, ruminative coping, and aggressive coping) and examined results separately for two negative peer experiences (teasing and exclusion). Children's emotions predicted coping responses after controlling for peer experiences. Specifically, anger was associated with aggressive coping, whereas sadness was associated with ruminative coping, supporting theory that emotions have distinct motivational-behavioral properties. Peer experiences were also important, as victimization was associated with aggressive coping, and receipt of prosocial peer behaviors was associated with positive reappraisal. These findings provide an empirical foundation for future research and the development of interventions to facilitate adaptive reactions to peer rejection.

  19. Unpacking the psychological weight of weight stigma: A rejection-expectation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Blodorn, Alison; Major, Brenda; Hunger, Jeffrey; Miller, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the negative effects of weight stigma among higher body-weight individuals are mediated by expectations of social rejection. Women and men who varied in objective body-weight (body mass index; BMI) gave a speech describing why they would make a good date. Half believed that a potential dating partner would see a videotape of their speech (weight seen) and half believed that a potential dating partner would listen to an audiotape of their speech (weight unseen). Among women, but not men, higher body-weight predicted increased expectations of social rejection, decreased executive control resources, decreased self-esteem, increased self-conscious emotions and behavioral displays of self-consciousness when weight was seen but not when weight was unseen. As predicted, higher body-weight women reported increased expectations of social rejection when weight was seen (versus unseen), which in turn predicted decreased self-esteem, increased self-conscious emotions, and increased stress. In contrast, lower body-weight women reported decreased expectations of social rejection when weight was seen (versus unseen), which in turn predicted increased self-esteem, decreased self-conscious emotions, and decreased stress. Men’s responses were largely unaffected by body-weight or visibility, suggesting that a dating context may not be identity threatening for higher body-weight men. Overall, the present research illuminates a rejection-expectation pathway by which weight stigma undermines higher body-weight women’s health. PMID:26752792

  20. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration (NF) membranes: Effect of fouling on rejection behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlangu, T. O.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Verliefde, A. R. D.; Mamba, B. B.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of membrane fouling by sodium alginate, latex and a combination of alginate + latex on the rejection behaviour of salts and organics. Sodium chloride and caffeine were selected to represent salts and organics, respectively. The effects of the presence of calcium chloride on the fouling behaviour and rejection of solutes were investigated. The results revealed that the salt rejection by virgin membranes was 47% while that of caffeine was 85%. Fouling by alginate, latex and combined alginate-latex resulted in flux decline of 25%, 37% and 17%, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ aggravated fouling and resulted in further flux decline to 37%. Fouling decreased salt rejection, an observation that was further aggravated by the addition on Ca2+. However, it was also observed that fouling with alginate and calcium and with latex and calcium minimised salt rejection by 30% and 31%, respectively. This reduction in salt rejection was attributed to the decrease in permeate flux (since rejection is a function of flux). There was a slight increase in caffeine rejection when the membrane was fouled with latex particles. Moreover, the presence of foulants on the membrane resulted in a decrease in the surface charge of the membrane. The results of this study have shown that the NF 270 membrane can be used to treat water samples contaminated with caffeine and other organic compounds that have physicochemical properties similar to those of caffeine.

  1. Understanding Rejection between First-and-Second-Grade Elementary Students through Reasons Expressed by Rejecters

    PubMed Central

    García Bacete, Francisco J.; Carrero Planes, Virginia E.; Marande Perrin, Ghislaine; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to obtain the views of young children regarding their reasons for rejecting a peer. Method: To achieve this goal, we conducted a qualitative study in the context of theory building research using an analysis methodology based on Grounded Theory. The collected information was extracted through semi-structured individual interviews from a sample of 853 children aged 6 from 13 urban public schools in Spain. Results: The children provided 3,009 rejection nominations and 2,934 reasons for disliking the rejected peers. Seven reason categories emerged from the analysis. Four categories refer to behaviors of the rejected children that have a cost for individual peers or peer group such as: direct aggression, disturbance of wellbeing, problematic social and school behaviors and dominance behaviors. A further two categories refer to the identities arising from the preferences and choices of rejected and rejecter children and their peers: personal identity expressed through preferences and disliking, and social identity expressed through outgroup prejudices. The “no-behavior or no-choice” reasons were covered by one category, unfamiliarity. In addition, three context categories were found indicating the participants (interpersonal–group), the impact (low–high), and the subjectivity (subjective–objective) of the reason. Conclusion: This study provides researchers and practitioners with a comprehensive taxonomy of reasons for rejection that contributes to enrich the theoretical knowledge and improve interventions for preventing and reducing peer rejection. PMID:28421008

  2. Noninvasive assessment for acute allograft rejection in a rat lung transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ayuko; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Zhao, Xiangdong; Chen, Fengshi; Fujinaga, Takuji; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Bando, Toru; Wada, Hiromi; Date, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract After lung transplantation, early detection of acute allograft rejection is important not only for timely and optimal treatment, but also for the prediction of chronic rejection which is a major cause of late death. Many biological and immunological approaches have been developed to detect acute rejection; however, it is not well known whether lung mechanics correlate with disease severity, especially with pathological rejection grade. In this study, we examined the relationship between lung mechanics and rejection grade development in a rat acute rejection model using the forced oscillation technique, which provides noninvasive assessment of lung function. To this end, we assessed lung resistance and elastance (RL and EL) from implanted left lung of these animals. The perivascular/interstitial component of rejection severity grade (A‐grade) was also quantified from histological images using tissue fraction (TF; tissue + cell infiltration area/total area). We found that TF, RL, and EL increased according to A‐grade. There was a strong positive correlation between EL at the lowest frequency (Elow; EL at 0.5 Hz) and TF (r2 = 0.930). Furthermore, the absolute difference between maximum value of EL (Emax) and Elow (Ehet; Emax − Elow) showed the strong relationship with standard deviation of TF (r2 = 0.709), and A‐grade (Spearman's correlation coefficients; rs = 0.964, P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that the dynamic elastance as well as its frequency dependence have the ability to predict A‐grade. These indexes should prove useful for noninvasive detection and monitoring the progression of disease in acute rejection. PMID:25524280

  3. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    , although less remarkable than HVT, on the spleen cell phenotypes at hatch. Vaccines of all three serotypes resulted in an increased percentage of MHC-I+, CD45-MHC-I+, CD4-CD8+, and CD8+ cells, but only HVT resulted in a higher percentage of CD45+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+MHC-II+, and CD4+CD8- cells. Results of this study show that it is possible to hasten maturation of the chicken embryo immune system by administering HVT in ovo and open new avenues to optimize the procedure to improve and strengthen the immunocompetency of commercial chickens at hatch.

  4. Women recovering from social rejection: The effect of the person and the situation on a hormonal mechanism of affiliation.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Korrina A; Harris, Lasana T; Chartrand, Tanya L; Stanton, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Rejection can motivate either affiliation or withdrawal. In order to study how personality and situational variables influence whether women will be motivated to affiliate versus withdraw, we manipulate social feedback (rejection vs. acceptance) and opportunity for face-to-face interaction (blocked vs. face-to-face) and measure the individual difference variables rejection sensitivity and social anxiety. We test how these variables affect endogenous progesterone and cortisol concentrations, which are presumed to signal motivational responses to rejection. We find that three-way interactions involving social feedback, opportunity for face-to-face interactions, and either social anxiety or rejection sensitivity significantly predict progesterone change, but not cortisol change. Both interactions are driven by sharp progesterone decreases for women high in social anxiety/rejection sensitivity who have been rejected and who have no opportunity to reaffiliate in a face-to-face interaction. This progesterone change may be a physiological marker of motivation for social avoidance following rejection for women who cannot reaffiliate and who are particularly socially anxious or sensitive to rejection.

  5. Taste rejection of nonnutritive sweeteners in cats.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M; Jacobs, H L; Nichols, T L; Hoff, L A; Ryckman, J J

    1975-10-01

    Cats reject saccharin and cyclamate and are indifferent to dulcin, although they, like other mammals, prefer sucrose. The rejection threshold for saccharin found in this experiments, .0001 M, is about 2 log steps lower than a previously reported rejection threshold for sodium saccharin. Water produces a taste in cats adapted to their own saliva. The high sodium saccharin threshold may have resulted because the taste of the sodium saccharin was masked by the taste of the water solvent; however, saccharin may also be somewhat more aversive to the cat than sodium saccharin. Saccharin may produce an aversive taste because it stimulates receptor sites sensitive to substances bitter to man as well as those sensitive to sugars. In addition, saccharin may not be an effective stimulus for all sugar-sensitive sites.

  6. The Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) device for hastened attachment of a superficial inferior-epigastric flap to third-degree burns on hand and fingers.

    PubMed

    Weinand, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device has a wide range of clinical applications, including treatment of infected surgical wounds, traumatic wounds, pressure ulcers, wounds with exposed bone and hardware, diabetic foot ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers. Increased release of growth factors has been described, leading to improved vascularization and thereby formation of new tissue. The system is also used in burn surgery for reconstructive purposes. In this case report, a patient suffered from a third-degree burn injury to the dorsum of the hand with exposure of tendons, necessitating the use of a flap reconstruction. The patient was treated with a superficial inferior-epigastric artery-based flap and the VAC system was applied in a created glove-like shape. Hastened attachment of the flap onto the exposed fingers was observed after 4 days. The author reports on the additional use of the VAC system to hasten flap attachment in a patient with a burn injury to the dorsum of the hand.

  7. Radiation therapy for renal transplant rejection reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peeples, W.J.; Wombolt, D.G.; El-Mahdi, A.M.; Turalba, C.I.

    1982-01-01

    Forty-four renal transplant patients were given radiation therapy for severe rejection phenomena. The 29 patients who had only one course of irradiation had a 52.3% successful function rate. Fifteen patients received from two to four courses of irradiation with an ultimate 60% rate of sustained function. Fifty patients who received only steroid and other medical management but no irradiation had a 60% rate of successful renal function. In the irradiation group, no patient whose creatinine level did not respond to radiation therapy maintained a functioning kidney. The data indicate that the overall successful function rate is maintained by radiation therapy in patients who show severe allograft rejection phenomena.

  8. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  9. Large Solar-Rejection Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William; Sheikh, David; Patrick, Brian

    2007-01-01

    analogous to a bird on a high voltage power wire. Recent analysis confirms that positive floating potentials, ionospheric currents to the EVA suit, can be hazardous. The analysis is wrong in that the ionospheric plasma itself can close the circuit. Parametric analysis of very low voltage exposures (2 to 15 volts) could cause pain and/or involuntary muscle tetani or spinal cord shock. NASA worked with the Naval Health Research Center Detachment Directed Energy Bioeffects Laboratory to examine the affects electrical hazards could have on extravehicular activity using two models. The results of the two computational models were combined to predict areas of the body in which neurons of different diameters would be excited. They predicted that physiologically active current could be conducted across the crew member causing catastrophic hazards. Future work to analyze additional current paths was proposed. The FUSE spectrum of BB Dor, observed in a high state, is modeled with an accretion disk with a very low inclination (possibly lower than 10 degrees). Assuming an average WD mass of 0.8 solar mass leads to a distance of the order of approximately 650pc, consistent with the extremely low galactic reddening in its direction, and a mass accretion rate of 10 (exp -9) solar mass a year. The spectrum presents some broad and deep silicon and sulfur absorption lines, indicating that these elements are over-abundant: silicon is 3 times solar, and sulfur is 20 times solar. The FUSE spectrum of BB Dor, observed in a high state, is modeled with an accretion disk with a very low inclination (possibly lower than 10 degrees). Assuming an average WD mass of 0.8 solar mass leads to a distance of the order of approximately 650pc, consistent with the extremely low galactic reddening in its direction, and a mass accretion rate of 10 (exp -9) solar mass a year. The spectrum presents some broad and deep silicon and sulfur absorption lines, indicating that these elements are over-abundant: silicon is

  10. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.; Adel, G.; Richardson, P.E.

    1993-03-23

    Research at Virginia Tech led to two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from much of the Eastern US coals. One controls the surface properties of coal pyrite (FeS[sub 2]) by electrochemical-.potential control, referred to as the Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) Process: The second controls the flotation of middlings, i.e., particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions by using polymeric reagents to react with pyrite and convert the middlings to hydrophilic particles, and is termed the Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) Process. These new concepts are based on recent research establishing the two main reasons why flotation fails to remove more than about 50% of the pyritic sulfur from coal: superficial oxidization of liberated pyrite to form polysulfide oxidation products so that a part of the liberated pyrite floats with the coal; and hydrophobic coal inclusions in the middlings dominating their flotation so that the middlings also float with the coal. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications of existing coal preparation facilities, enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that they can be used simultaneously to achieve both free pyrite and locked pyrite rejection.

  11. Automatic Rejection Of Multimode Laser Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Esproles, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic modulation detected, enabling rejection of multimode signals. Monitoring circuit senses multiple longitudinal mode oscillation of transversely excited, atmospheric-pressure (TEA) CO2 laser. Facility developed for inclusion into coherent detection laser radar (LIDAR) system. However, circuit described of use in any experiment where desireable to record data only when laser operates in single longitudinal mode.

  12. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Richardson, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern U.S. coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) processes. The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992 and all technical work has been completed. This report is based on the research carried out under Tasks 2-7 described in the project proposal. These tasks include Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, In Situ Monitoring of Reagent Adsorption on Pyrite, Bench Scale Testing of the EESR Process, Bench Scale Testing of the PESR Process, and Modeling and Simulation.

  13. Rejection of cowbird eggs by crissal thrashers

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1982-01-01

    Although the "dwarf" race of the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater obscurus) is sympatric with the Crissal Thrasher (Toxostoma dorsale) in the lower Colorado River valley, I observed no parasitism in 15 thrasher nests. To determine whether or not the absence of cowbird eggs was caused by egg rejection, I experimentally parasitized nine thrasher nests....

  14. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Cannon, P.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references.

  15. Examining Social Acceptance & Rejection. FPG Snapshot #44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This FPG Snapshot summarizes the findings of a study, published in the November 2006 issue of the "Journal of Educational Psychology," that examined whether children with disabilities are accepted or rejected by their classmates in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, the study examined two sets of related questions: (1) Are individual…

  16. Intragraft Toll-like receptor profiling in acute renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Dessing, Mark C; Bemelman, Frederike J; Claessen, Nike; Ten Berge, Ineke J M; Florquin, Sandrine; Leemans, Jaklien C

    2010-12-01

    Experimental studies have shown potential for Toll-like receptor (TLR) profiling in renal allograft in predicting renal outcome after transplantation. Our goal was to determine if profiling of TLR1-10 and TLR-related genes could be used as a prognostic value for renal function and late clinical outcome after transplantation. TLR1-10, CD14, MD-2 and negative regulators Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) and single immunoglobulin domain IL-1R-related receptor were analysed in 36 biopsies from renal transplant recipients with acute rejection (AR) and in 14 biopsies from renal transplant recipients without rejection (NR). Analysis was performed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. TLR (-related) genes were correlated to Banff'07 classification, cellular influx, response to conventional anti-rejection therapy, renal function 12 and 24 months after rejection and graft loss. mRNA levels of most TLRs were significantly higher in acute rejection while TOLLIP mRNA level was decreased. mRNA levels of TLR1/2/4/7/8 were highly accurate in distinguishing AR from NR. TLR mRNA levels correlated to inflammatory parameters according to the Banff'07 classification and to cellular influx. Elevated mRNA level of TLR3 in acute rejection was independent from infiltrating leukocytes. TLR (-related) genes were not correlated with response to conventional anti-rejection therapy. Splice variant TLR4r3 was associated with poor renal function 24 months after transplantation, and TLR1 appeared to be associated with graft loss. The elevated mRNA levels of several TLRs in association with reduced mRNA levels of TOLLIP in renal transplant biopsies of patients with acute rejection indicate a pro-inflammatory state, which may contribute to uncontrolled inflammation.

  17. The Association Between Broad Antigen HLA Mismatches, Eplet HLA Mismatches and Acute Rejection After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Do Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Wong, Germaine; Chapman, Jeremy R.; McDonald, Stephen P.; Coates, Patrick T.; Watson, Narelle; Russ, Graeme R.; D'Orsogna, Lloyd; Lim, Wai Hon

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitope matching, which evaluates mismatched amino acids within antigen-antibody interaction sites (eplets), may better predict acute rejection than broad antigen matching alone. We aimed to determine the association between eplet mismatches and acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Methods The association between eplet mismatches, broad antigen mismatches and acute rejection was assessed using adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression. Model discrimination for acute rejection was evaluated using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Of the 3,499 kidney transplant recipients from 2006 to 2011, the average (SD) number of broad antigen and eplet mismatches were 3.4 (1.7) and 22.8 (12.2), respectively. Compared with 0 to 2 eplet mismatches, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for acute rejection among those with 20 or greater eplet mismatches was 2.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.52; P = 0.001). The adjusted area under the curve for broad antigen mismatches was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.56-0.61), similar to that for eplet mismatches (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.56-0.61; P = 0.365). In recipients who were considered as low immunological risk (0-2 broad antigen HLA-ABDR mismatch), those with 20 or greater eplet mismatches experienced an increased risk of rejection compared to those with less than 20 mismatches (adjusted HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11-3.08; P = 0.019). Conclusions Increasing number of eplet mismatches is associated with acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Consideration of eplet HLA mismatches may improve risk stratification for acute rejection in a selected group of kidney transplant candidates. PMID:27990485

  18. Changes in Self-Definition Impede Recovery From Rejection.

    PubMed

    Howe, Lauren C; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research highlights how adept people are at emotional recovery after rejection, but less research has examined factors that can prevent full recovery. In five studies, we investigate how changing one's self-definition in response to rejection causes more lasting damage. We demonstrate that people who endorse an entity theory of personality (i.e., personality cannot be changed) report alterations in their self-definitions when reflecting on past rejections (Studies 1, 2, and 3) or imagining novel rejection experiences (Studies 4 and 5). Further, these changes in self-definition hinder post-rejection recovery, causing individuals to feel haunted by their past, that is, to fear the recurrence of rejection and to experience lingering negative affect from the rejection. Thus, beliefs that prompt people to tie experiences of rejection to self-definition cause rejection's impact to linger. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Resilient Adolescent Adjustment among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6–13 at baseline and 11–18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood measures of self-perceived scholastic competence, engagement in goal-directed play when alone, and popularity with adults. Adolescent criterion measures were multi-informant composites of externalizing and internalizing behavior plus indicators of academic achievement, eating pathology, and substance use. ADHD and peer rejection predicted risk for all criterion measures except for substance use, which was predicted by ADHD only. ADHD and peer rejection predicted lower adolescent academic achievement controlling for childhood achievement, but they did not predict adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior after controlling for baseline levels of these constructs. Regarding buffers, self-perceived scholastic competence in childhood (with control of academic achievement) predicted resilient adolescent functioning. Contrary to hypothesis, goal-directed play in childhood was associated with poor adolescent outcomes. Buffers were not found to have differential effectiveness among girls with ADHD relative to comparison girls. PMID:17051436

  20. Validation of a Simple Score to Determine Risk of Early Rejection After Pediatric Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ryan J; Savage, Andrew J; Atz, Andrew M; Heal, Elisabeth M; Burnette, Ali L; Kavarana, Minoo M; Bradley, Scott M; Chowdhury, Shahryar M

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a reliable and feasible score to assess the risk of rejection in pediatric heart transplantation recipients during the first post-transplant year. The first post-transplant year is the most likely time for rejection to occur in pediatric heart transplantation. Rejection during this period is associated with worse outcomes. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for pediatric patients (age <18 years) who underwent isolated orthotopic heart transplantation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012. Transplantations were divided into a derivation cohort (n = 2,686) and a validation (n = 509) cohort. The validation cohort was randomly selected from 20% of transplantations from 2005 to 2012. Covariates found to be associated with rejection (p < 0.2) were included in the initial multivariable logistic regression model. The final model was derived by including only variables independently associated with rejection. A risk score was then developed using relative magnitudes of the covariates' odds ratio. The score was then tested in the validation cohort. A 9-point risk score using 3 variables (age, cardiac diagnosis, and panel reactive antibody) was developed. Mean score in the derivation and validation cohorts were 4.5 ± 2.6 and 4.8 ± 2.7, respectively. A higher score was associated with an increased rate of rejection (score = 0, 10.6% in the validation cohort vs. score = 9, 40%; p < 0.01). In weighted regression analysis, the model-predicted risk of rejection correlated closely with the actual rates of rejection in the validation cohort (R(2) = 0.86; p < 0.01). The rejection score is accurate in determining the risk of early rejection in pediatric heart transplantation recipients. The score has the potential to be used in clinical practice to aid in determining the immunosuppressant regimen and the frequency of rejection surveillance in the first post-transplant year. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology

  1. Doppler tissue imaging for assessing left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in heart transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, S; Allemann, Y; Zimmerli, M; Lipp, E; Kucher, N; Mohacsi, P; Seiler, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that diastolic mitral annular motion velocity, as determined by Doppler tissue imaging and left ventricular diastolic flow propagation velocity, is related to the histological degree of heart transplant rejection according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT).
METHODS—In 41 heart transplant recipients undergoing 151 myocardial biopsies, the following Doppler echocardiographic measurements were performed within one hour of biopsy: transmitral and pulmonary vein flow indices; mitral annular motion velocity indices; left ventricular diastolic flow propagation velocity.
RESULTS—Late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity (ADTI) and mitral annular systolic contraction velocity (SCDTI) were higher in patients with ISHLT < IIIA than in those with ISHLT ⩾ IIIA (ADTI, 8.8 cm/s v 7.7 cm/s (p = 0.03); SCDTI, 19.3 cm/s v 9.3 cm/s (p < 0.05)). Sensitivity and specificity of ADTI < 8.7 cm/s (the best cut off value) in predicting significant heart transplant rejection were 82% and 53%, respectively. Early diastolic mitral annular motion velocity (EDTI) and flow propagation velocity were not related to the histological degree of heart transplant rejection.
CONCLUSIONS—Doppler tissue imaging of the mitral annulus is useful in diagnosing heart transplant rejection because a high late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity can reliably exclude severe rejection. However, a reduced late diastolic mitral annular motion velocity cannot predict severe rejection reliably because it is not specific enough.


Keywords: heart transplant rejection; diastolic function; Doppler tissue imaging; echocardiography PMID:11559685

  2. Lung allograft rejection in the rat. V. Inhaled stimuli aggravate the rejection response

    SciTech Connect

    Prop, J.; Jansen, H.M.; Wildevuur, C.R.; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1985-07-01

    Responses to inhaled stimuli in lung allografts might intensify the rejection response against the grafts. Therefore, the authors investigated the rejection of lung allografts in rats exposed to various degrees of stimuli via the airways. A group of these rats was selectively decontaminated to eliminate infection of the graft. Stimuli provided were intrabronchially injected purified protein derivative in sensitized rats and dust inhaled from sawdust used as bedding in the cages. Both intrabronchially injected purified protein derivative and stimuli inhaled from sawdust were found to aggravate lung allograft rejection, thus shortening mean graft survival from 32 to 11 days. Selective decontamination did prolong lung graft survival (p less than 0.05) because it lowered the overall immune reactivity of the recipient rats. For clinical lung transplantation, these observations suggest that patients should be selectively decontaminated and protected against inhalation of exogenous stimuli during a rejection episode.

  3. To Accept or Reject? The Impact of Adolescent Rejection Sensitivity on Early Adult Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Hafen, Christopher A.; Spilker, Ann; Chango, Joanna; Marston, Emily S.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Successfully navigating entry into romantic relationships is a key task in adolescence, which sensitivity to rejection can make difficult to accomplish. This study uses multi-informant data from a community sample of 180 adolescents assessed repeatedly from age 16 to 22. Individuals with elevated levels of rejection sensitivity at age 16 were less likely to have a romantic partner at age 22, reported more anxiety and avoidance when they did have relationships, and were observed to be more negative in their interactions with romantic partners. In addition, females whose rejection sensitivity increased during late adolescence were more likely to adopt a submissive pattern within adult romantic relationships, further suggesting a pattern in which rejection sensitivity forecasts difficulties. PMID:24729668

  4. Prevalence of clinical rejection after surveillance biopsies in pediatric renal transplants: does early subclinical rejection predispose to subsequent rejection episodes?

    PubMed

    Hymes, Leonard C; Warshaw, Barry L; Hennigar, Randolph A; Amaral, Sandra G; Greenbaum, Larry A

    2009-11-01

    We analyzed rates of both SCR and CR in children receiving SB at three months post-transplant to determine if SCR predisposed patients to acute CR. Acute rejection was defined according to Banff criteria to include borderline classification or higher. All cases of SCR and CR were treated with anti-rejection protocols. Between October 2004 and July 2008, 89 SB were performed at three months post-transplant. Twenty-six cases of SCR were detected (29%). Sixteen patients experienced 22 episodes of biopsy-proven CR occurring after SB, including seven episodes following SCR and 15 after normal SB. The onset of CR varied from one to 27 months after SB and occurred at similar intervals for cases with SCR and normal SB. The percentage of patients remaining free of CR at 30 months post-transplant was similar in patients with SCR and normal SB. Renal function and graft survival at 30 months also were no different between patients with SCR and those with normal SB. Early-SCR, when treated with rejection protocols, is not a prognostic indicator for subsequent CR episodes.

  5. Relationship Between Spirituality, Meaning in Life, Psychological Distress, Wish for Hastened Death, and Their Influence on Quality of Life in Palliative Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mathieu; Strasser, Florian; Gamondi, Claudia; Braunschweig, Giliane; Forster, Michaela; Kaspers-Elekes, Karin; Walther Veri, Silvia; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2017-07-15

    Spiritual, existential, and psychological issues represent central components of quality of life (QOL) in palliative care. A better understanding of the dynamic nature underlying these components is essential for the development of interventions tailored to the palliative context. The aims were to explore 1) the relationship between spirituality, meaning in life, wishes for hastened death and psychological distress in palliative patients and 2) the extent to which these nonphysical determinants influence QOL. A cross-sectional study involving face-to-face interviews with Swiss palliative patients was performed, including the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMILE), the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp), the Idler Index of Religiosity (IIR), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death (SAHD). QOL was measured with a single-item visual analogue scale (0-10). Two hundred and six patients completed the protocol (51.5% female; mean age = 67.5 years). The results indicated a significant negative relationship between FACIT-Sp/SMILE and HADS total scores (P = 0.000). The best model for QOL explained 32.8% of the variance (P = 0.000) and included the FACIT-Sp, SMILE, and SAHD total scores, the IIR "private religiosity" score, as well as the HADS "depression" score. Both spiritual well-being and meaning in life appear to be potential protective factors against psychological distress at the end of life. Since nonphysical determinants play a major role in shaping QOL at the end of life, there is a need for the development of meaning-oriented and spiritual care interventions tailored to the fragility of palliative patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence that estrogen hastens epiphyseal fusion and cessation of longitudinal bone growth by irreversibly depleting the number of resting zone progenitor cells in female rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ola; Weise, Martina; Landman, Ellie B M; Meyers, Jodi L; Barnes, Kevin M; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-08-01

    With age, growth plate cartilage undergoes programmed senescence, eventually causing cessation of bone elongation and epiphyseal fusion. Estrogen accelerates this developmental process. We hypothesized that senescence occurs because progenitor cells in the resting zone are depleted in number and that estrogen acts by accelerating this depletion. To test this hypothesis, juvenile ovariectomized rabbits received injections of estradiol cypionate or vehicle for 5 weeks, and then were left untreated for an additional 5 weeks. Exposure to estrogen accelerated the normal decline in growth plate height and in the number of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Five weeks after discontinuation of estrogen treatment, these structural parameters remained advanced, indicating an irreversible advancement in structural senescence. Similarly, transient estrogen exposure hastened epiphyseal fusion. Estrogen also caused a more rapid decline in functional parameters of growth plate senescence, including growth rate, proliferation rate, and hypertrophic cell size. However, in contrast to the structural parameters, once the estrogen treatment was discontinued, the growth rate, chondrocyte proliferation rate, and hypertrophic cell size all normalized, suggesting that estrogen has a reversible, suppressive effect on growth plate function. In addition, estrogen accelerated the normal loss of resting zone chondrocytes with age. This decrease in resting zone cell number did not appear to be due to apoptosis. However, it was maintained after the estrogen treatment stopped, suggesting that it represents irreversible depletion. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that estrogen causes irreversible depletion of progenitor cells in the resting zone, thus irreversibly accelerating structural senescence and hastening epiphyseal fusion. In addition, estrogen reversibly suppresses growth plate function.

  7. Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes toward Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Edward J.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gamm, Bridget K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary…

  8. Neural Responses to Peer Rejection in Anxious Adolescents: Contributions from the Amygdala-Hippocampal Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Tone, Erin B.; Jenness, Jessica; Parrish, Jessica M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer rejection powerfully predicts adolescent anxiety. While cognitive differences influence anxious responses to social feedback, little is known about neural contributions. Twelve anxious and twelve age-, gender- and IQ-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents received "not interested" and "interested" feedback from unknown peers during a…

  9. Children reject inequity out of spite.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Blake, Peter R; Warneken, Felix

    2014-12-01

    When confronted with inequality, human children and adults sacrifice personal gain to reduce the pay-offs of other individuals, exhibiting apparently spiteful motivations. By contrast, sacrifice of personal gain by non-human animals is often interpreted as frustration. Spite may thus be a uniquely human motivator. However, to date, no empirical study has demonstrated that psychological spite actually drives human behaviour, leaving the motivation for inequity aversion unclear. Here, we ask whether 4- to 9-year-old children and adults reject disadvantageous inequity (less for self, more for peer) out of spite or frustration. We show that children, but not adults, are more likely to reject disadvantageous allocations when doing so deprives their peer of a better reward (spite) than when their peer has already received the better reward (frustration). Spiteful motivations are thus present early in childhood and may be a species-specific component of humans' developing cooperative and competitive behaviour.

  10. Background Rejection in the ARA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfendner, Carl

    2017-03-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a radio frequency observatory under construction at the South Pole that is searching for ultrahigh energy neutrinos via the Askaryan effect. Thermal fluctuations currently dominate the trigger-level background for the observatory and anthropogenic sources also introduce a significant source of noise. By taking advantage of the observatory's regular geometry and the expected coincident nature of the RF signals arriving from neutrino-induced events, this background can be filtered efficiently. This contribution will discuss techniques developed for the ARA analyses to reject these thermal signals, to reject anthropogenic backgrounds, and to search for neutrino-induced particle showers in the Antarctic ice. The results of a search for neutrinos from GRBs using the prototype station using some of these techniques will be presented.

  11. A new rejection of moral expertise.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There seem to be two clearly-defined camps in the debate over the problem of moral expertise. On the one hand are the "Professionals", who reject the possibility entirely, usually because of the intractable diversity of ethical beliefs. On the other hand are the "Ethicists", who criticise the Professionals for merely stipulating science as the most appropriate paradigm for discussions of expertise. While the subject matter and methodology of good ethical thinking is certainly different from that of good clinical thinking, they argue, this is no reason for rejecting the possibility of a distinctive kind of expertise in ethics, usually based on the idea of good justification. I want to argue that both are incorrect, partly because of the reasons given by one group against the other, but more importantly because both neglect what is most distinctive about ethics: that it is personal in a very specific way, without collapsing into relativism.

  12. Mechanisms of allograft rejection of corneal endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Tagawa, Y.; Silverstein, A.M.; Prendergast, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    The local intraocular graft-vs.-host (GVH) reaction, involving the destruction of the corneal endothelial cells of the rabbit host by sensitized donor lymphoid cells, has been used to study the mechanism of corneal allograft rejection. Pretreatment of donor cells with a specific mouse monoclonal hybridoma anti-T cell antibody and complement suppresses the destructive reaction, suggesting that a cellular-immune mechanism is primarily involved. Pretreatment of donor cells with mitomycin-C completely abolishes the local GVH reaction, indicating that the effector lymphocytes must undergo mitosis within the eye before they can engage in target cell destruction. Finally, studies of the local GVH reaction in irradiated leukopenic recipients or in preinflamed rabbit eyes suggest that host leukocytes may contribute nonspecifically to enhance the destructive process. These studies show that the local ocular GVH reaction may provide a useful model for the study of the mechanisms involved in the rejection of corneal allografts.

  13. Preventing T cell rejection of pig xenografts.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Laura; Ford, Mandy L; Newell, Kenneth A; Adams, Andrew B

    2015-11-01

    Xenotransplantation is a potential solution to the limited supply of donor organs. While early barriers to xenograft acceptance, such as hyperacute rejection, are now largely avoided through genetic engineering, the next frontier in successful xenograft survival will require prevention of T cell-mediated rejection. Most successful immunosuppressive regimens in xenotransplantation utilize T cell depletion with antibody therapy. Additionally, the use of T cell costimulatory blockade - specifically blockade of the CD40-CD154 pathway - shows promise with several reports of long-term xenograft survival. Additional therapies, such as transgenic expression of T cell coinhibitory molecules or transfer of immunomodulatory cells to promote tolerance, may be necessary to achieve reliable long-term xenograft acceptance. Further studies in pre-clinical models are essential in order to optimize these regimens prior to trials in patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Optical communication noise rejection using corelated photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, D.; Hockney, G. M.; Dowling, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new way to perform noise rejection using photons correlated through quantum entanglement to improve an optical communications link in the presence of uncorrelated noise. In particular, a detailed analysis is made of the case where a classical link would be saturated by an intense background, such as when a satellite is in front of the sun, and identifies where the quantum correlating system has superior performance.

  15. Optical communication noise rejection using corelated photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, D.; Hockney, G. M.; Dowling, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new way to perform noise rejection using photons correlated through quantum entanglement to improve an optical communications link in the presence of uncorrelated noise. In particular, a detailed analysis is made of the case where a classical link would be saturated by an intense background, such as when a satellite is in front of the sun, and identifies where the quantum correlating system has superior performance.

  16. Allorecognition by T Lymphocytes and Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Jose; Paster, Joshua; Benichou, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of donor antigens by recipient T cells in secondary lymphoid organs initiates the adaptive inflammatory immune response leading to the rejection of allogeneic transplants. Allospecific T cells become activated through interaction of their T cell receptors with intact allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on donor cells (direct pathway) and/or donor peptides presented by self-MHC molecules on recipient antigen-presenting cells (APCs) (indirect pathway). In addition, recent studies show that alloreactive T cells can also be stimulated through recognition of allogeneic MHC molecules displayed on recipient APCs (MHC cross-dressing) after their transfer via cell–cell contact or through extracellular vesicles (semi-direct pathway). The specific allorecognition pathway used by T cells is dictated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors to the allograft and can influence the nature and magnitude of the alloresponse and rejection process. Consequently, various organs and tissues such as skin, cornea, and solid organ transplants are recognized differently by pro-inflammatory T cells through these distinct pathways, which may explain why these grafts are rejected in a different fashion. On the other hand, the mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Tregs) recognize alloantigen and promote transplantation tolerance are still unclear. It is likely that thymic Tregs are activated through indirect allorecognition, while peripheral Tregs recognize alloantigens in a direct fashion. As we gain insights into the mechanisms underlying allorecognition by pro-inflammatory and Treg cells, novel strategies are being designed to prevent allograft rejection in the absence of ongoing immunosuppressive drug treatment in patients. PMID:28018349

  17. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the successful...

  18. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the successful...

  19. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the successful...

  20. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the successful...

  1. Active disturbance rejection controller for chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.

    2015-03-10

    In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Recollection rejection: false-memory editing in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Wright, Ron; Mojardin, A H

    2003-10-01

    Mechanisms for editing false events out of memory reports have fundamental implications for theories of false memory and for best practice in applied domains in which false reports must be minimized (e.g., forensic psychological interviews, sworn testimony). A mechanism posited in fuzzy-trace theory, recollection rejection, is considered. A process analysis of false-memory editing is presented, which assumes that false-but-gist-consistent events (e.g., the word SOFA, when the word COUCH was experienced) sometimes cue the retrieval of verbatim traces of the corresponding true events (COUCH), generating mismatches that counteract the high familiarity of false-but-gist-consistent events. Empirical support comes from 2 qualitative phenomena: recollective suppression of semantic false memory and inverted-U relations between retrieval time and semantic false memory. Further support comes from 2 quantitative methodologies: conjoint recognition and receiver operating characteristics. The analysis also predicts a novel false-memory phenomenon (erroneous recollection rejection), in which true events are inappropriately edited out of memory reports.

  3. "I wouldn't want to become a nuisance under any circumstances"--a qualitative study of the reasons some healthy older individuals support medical practices that hasten death.

    PubMed

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Mitchell, Kay; Johnson, Malcolm H

    2012-07-29

    To explore the reasons some healthy older New Zealanders support medical practices that hasten death. Recruitment was from the Voluntary Euthanasia Society of New Zealand (VESNZ), an organisation that supports legal medical assistance in dying. All participants were members of VESNZ. 106 individuals returned signed consent forms. All interviews took place in the participant's home. After 11 interviews, saturation of information was reached and interviewing was stopped. An important finding of this study indicates that healthy, older individuals who support medical practices that hasten death have serious concerns about their (perceived) future incapacities and dependency on others, as well as their fears around becoming a burden. The study also found that fear of future pain was not a dominant reason to support medical assistance to die. Our study provides confirmation that the fear of being a burden on others is not only felt by those facing their imminent mortality, but also by older individuals who are currently healthy and living independently in the community. We also conclude that for some older people their prior experiences with health care and dying may be a strong factor in influencing and supporting medical practices that hasten death at the end of life. We believe it is crucial to understand the reasons why people support medical practices that hasten death well in advance of such practices ever becoming legally available.

  4. Accelerated rejection following offspring-to-mother and husband-to-wife transplants.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jerry C; Jones, Bruce; Oh, Henry

    2004-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that graft survival rates of offspring-to-mother and husband-to-wife renal transplants are equivalent to those of other living donors. Although the vast majority of these transplants proceed without incident, we have encountered several instances of delayed accelerated rejections that are not predicted by a positive cross-match. The accelerated rejection can result from an anamnestic reaction subsequent to the in utero exposure of the mother to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens of the fetus with sensitization developing during the pregnancy.

  5. Passive rejection of heat from an isotope heat source through an open door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    The isotope heat-source design for a Brayton power system includes a door in the thermal insulation through which the heat can be passively rejected to space when the power system is not operating. The results of an analysis to predict the heat-source surface temperature and the heat-source heat-exchanger temperature during passive heat rejection as a function of insulation door opening angle are presented. They show that for a door opening angle greater than 20 deg, the temperatures are less than the steady-state temperatures during power system operation.

  6. When Is Peer Rejection Justifiable? Children's Understanding across Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonjung; Killen, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how Korean (N = 397) and U.S. (N = 333) children and adolescents (10 and 13 years of age) evaluated personality (aggression, shyness) and group (gender, nationality) characteristics as a basis for peer rejection in three contexts (friendship rejection, group exclusion, victimization). Overall, peer rejection based on…

  7. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons for... shall refer an appeal to an official other than the one who originally disapproved the...

  8. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons for... shall refer an appeal to an official other than the one who originally disapproved the...

  9. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons for... shall refer an appeal to an official other than the one who originally disapproved the...

  10. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons for... shall refer an appeal to an official other than the one who originally disapproved the...

  11. 28 CFR 540.13 - Notification of rejections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.13 Notification of rejections. When correspondence is rejected, the Warden shall notify the sender in writing of the rejection and the reasons for... shall refer an appeal to an official other than the one who originally disapproved the...

  12. Parental Acceptance-Rejection Theory and the Phylogenetic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.

    Guided by specific theoretical and methodological points of view--the phylogenetic perspective and the universalistic approach respectively--this paper reports on a worldwide study of the antecedents and effects of parental acceptance and rejection. Parental acceptance-rejection theory postulates that rejected children throughout our species share…

  13. 19 CFR 191.41 - Rejected merchandise drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejected merchandise drawback. 191.41 Section 191... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.41 Rejected merchandise drawback. Section 313(c) of the Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1313(c)), provides for drawback upon the exportation or...

  14. Utility of sentinel flaps in assessing facial allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Fischer, Sebastian; Lian, Christine G; Bueno, Ericka M; Marty, Francisco M; Tullius, Stefan G; Pribaz, Julian J; Murphy, George J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsies are critical for histologic evaluation of rejection and proper treatment after facial allotransplantation. Many facial allografts provide only limited skin area, and frequent biopsies may also compromise aesthetic outcome. Sentinel flaps, recovered as free fasciocutaneous radial forearm flaps, have been used for remote-site rejection monitoring. They maintain their axial blood supply, similar to facial allografts. The correlation between facial allografts and sentinel flaps in cases of rejection is presented. The authors analyzed the experience of the Boston team's use of four sentinel flaps. Rejection was evaluated and results were compared for each time point. Sentinel flaps were used as functional flaps whenever possible. Results showed a reliable correlation between biopsy specimens taken from the facial allograft and sentinel flaps. During severe rejection episodes in 100 percent of biopsy pairs, both sites displayed a similar grade of rejection. In one case, clinical findings suggested rejection in the facial allograft but were unraveled as rosacea, because clinically there was no rejection displayed in the sentinel flap. The sentinel flap shows a reliable correlation to the facial allograft in cases of severe rejection, therefore providing a valuable tool for rejection monitoring in facial allotransplantation. Advantages of using these flaps include the avoidance of further surgical procedures to the primary vascularized composite allotransplant, additional use of the sentinel flap to repair damaged nonfacial sites, and its utility as both a clinical and histopathologic barometer of rejection and predictor of the potential existence of facial dermatitis unrelated to rejection. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Cultural Rejection and Re-identification in Minority Group Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Jerry V.

    There is little consistent research available on cultural rejection and re-identification in minority group members, but this report uses case study material to extrapolate three general factors precipitating rejection: self-hatred and negative chauvinism, quality of ethnic experience and rejection of religious experience. A four-step model for…

  16. The perceived threat of the risk for graft rejection and health-related quality of life among organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Madeleine; Forsberg, Anna; Bäckman, Lars; Lennerling, Annette; Persson, Lars-Olof

    2011-01-01

    This study was primarily aimed for developing and testing a valid and reliable instrument that measures perceived threat of the risk for graft rejection after organ transplantation. A second aim was to report descriptive data regarding graft rejection and Health-Related Quality of Life. The most serious risk connected with transplantations besides infection is graft rejection. Non experimental, descriptive involving instrument development and psychometric assessment. Questionnaires about perceived threat of the risk for graft rejection and Health-Related Quality of Life were mailed to 229 OTRs between 19-65 years old. The items were formed from a previous interview study. Patients were transplanted with a kidney, a liver or a heart and/or a lung. All patients with follow-up time of one year ± three months and three years ± three months were included. With an 81% response rate, the study comprised of 185 OTRs, who had received either a kidney (n = 117), a liver (n = 39) or heart or lung (n = 29). Three homogenous factors of perceived threat for graft rejection were revealed, labelled 'intrusive anxiety', 'graft-related threat' and 'lack of control'. Tests of internal consistency showed good item-scale convergent and discriminatory validity. A majority of the OTRs scored low levels for 'intrusive anxiety'. The kidney transplant recipients experienced more 'graft-related threat' by acute graft rejection than those transplanted with a liver, heart or lung. In conclusion, this study suggests that it is possible to measure the perceived threat of the risk for graft rejection in three homogenous factors. Relevance to clinical practice.  The instrument perceived threat of the risk for graft rejection, might be usable to measure the impact of fear of graft rejection, to predict needs of pedagogical intervention strategies to reduce fear and to improve Health-Related Quality of Life related to graft rejection. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design. PMID:24127489

  18. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-10-21

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  19. Child neglect and adolescent violence: examining the effects of self-control and peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Constance L; Tyler, Kimberly A; Bersani, Bianca E

    2005-02-01

    Child maltreatment researchers have often suggested that experiences with child neglect have long-term, negative effects. Child neglect is thought to have particularly adverse effects on self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. In this research, we examine the relationship of child neglect with adolescent violence via self-control and peer rejection. Using prospective, longitudinal data from a community sample, we find that child neglect adversely affects peer rejection and violence. Neglected children were more likely to be rejected by their peers in early adolescence and were more likely to be violent later in adolescence. Contrary to theoretical predictions, child neglect was not a significant predictor of self-control. Implications for delinquency and child maltreatment researchers are discussed.

  20. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback.

  1. Rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is no evidence of strong reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Yang; Shinada, Mizuho; Miura, Arisa; Inukai, Keigo; Takagishi, Haruto; Simunovic, Dora

    2012-12-11

    The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have challenged the idea that the rejection response in the ultimatum game provides evidence of the assumption held by strong reciprocity theorists that negative reciprocity observed in the ultimatum game is inseparably related to positive reciprocity as the two sides of a preference for fairness. The prediction of an inseparable relationship between positive and negative reciprocity was rejected on the basis of the results of a series of experiments that we conducted using the ultimatum game, the dictator game, the trust game, and the prisoner's dilemma game. We did not find any correlation between the participants' tendencies to reject unfair offers in the ultimatum game and their tendencies to exhibit various prosocial behaviors in the other games, including their inclinations to positively reciprocate in the trust game. The participants' responses to postexperimental questions add support to the view that the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is a tacit strategy for avoiding the imposition of an inferior status.

  2. Rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is no evidence of strong reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Li, Yang; Shinada, Mizuho; Miura, Arisa; Inukai, Keigo; Takagishi, Haruto; Simunovic, Dora

    2012-01-01

    The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have challenged the idea that the rejection response in the ultimatum game provides evidence of the assumption held by strong reciprocity theorists that negative reciprocity observed in the ultimatum game is inseparably related to positive reciprocity as the two sides of a preference for fairness. The prediction of an inseparable relationship between positive and negative reciprocity was rejected on the basis of the results of a series of experiments that we conducted using the ultimatum game, the dictator game, the trust game, and the prisoner’s dilemma game. We did not find any correlation between the participants’ tendencies to reject unfair offers in the ultimatum game and their tendencies to exhibit various prosocial behaviors in the other games, including their inclinations to positively reciprocate in the trust game. The participants’ responses to postexperimental questions add support to the view that the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game is a tacit strategy for avoiding the imposition of an inferior status. PMID:23188801

  3. PREFERENTIAL RECYCLING/REJECTION IN CFBC/FBC SYSTEMS USING TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban; John M. Stencel

    2004-12-01

    Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) and Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) with recirculation are widely used technologies in the US for power generation. They have the advantage of fuel flexibility, and low NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Typically, as partially combusted fuel is circulated in the system, only a split stream of this circulating stream is rejected, with the remainder recycled to the combustor. As a consequence, there is unburned carbon and partially used and valuable calcium hydroxide in the reject stream. If these useful materials in the reject stream can be recovered and sent back to the combustor, the efficiency of the system will be increased significantly and the equivalent emissions will be lower. This project studies an innovative concept to incorporate triboelectric separation into CFBC/FBC systems in order to preferentially split its recycle/reject streams based on material compositions of the particles. The objective is to answer whether useful constituents, like carbon, calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide or oxide, can be selectively separated from combustion ash at elevated temperatures. Laboratory experimental studies are performed at temperatures from 25 C to 210 C,the data from which are presented in the form of recovery curves. These curves present quality-versus-quantity information useful for predicting the efficacy of triboelectric separation as applied to CFBC/FBC byproduct recycling and/or rejection.

  4. Noninvasive assessment of treatment of cardiac allograft rejection with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbloom, M.; Eisen, H.J.; Laschinger, J.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.; Bolman, R.M. III

    1988-09-01

    We have shown previously that cardiac allograft rejection can be detected noninvasively with gamma scintigraphy after administration of indium-111 (111In)-labeled lymphocytes. To determine whether this technique could be used to monitor salvage immunosuppressive therapy in reversing rejection, 5 dogs were studied after thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplantation. Initial postoperative immunosuppression was maintained with cyclosporine (10-20 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after transplantation and then discontinued. Scintigraphy after administration of labeled lymphocytes was performed during initial immunosuppression and every 3 days after its termination. Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained on each day scintigraphy was performed. Once scintigraphic criteria for rejection were met (111In-lymphocyte uptake greater than mean +/- 2SD of normal myocardium), animals were treated with high dose methylprednisolone and cyclosporine. Myocardial 111In-lymphocyte activity compared with that in blood was 0.7 +/- 0.8 during initial immunosuppression, increased to 5.7 +/- 3.5 after termination of therapy (P less than 0.01), and diminished with salvage immunosuppressive therapy to 0.5 +/- 0.8 (P = NS compared with native hearts or allografts during initial immunosuppression). Scintigraphy accurately predicted all but one episode of biopsy-documented rejection and accurately detected reversal of rejection during salvage. Thus, scintigraphy with 111In-labeled lymphocytes should facilitate noninvasive monitoring of antirejection therapy in patients.

  5. Mechanisms involved in antibody- and complement-mediated allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection has become critical clinically because this form of rejection is usually unresponsive to conventional anti-rejection therapy, and therefore, it has been recognized as a major cause of allograft loss. Our group developed experimental animal models of vascularized organ transplantation to study pathogenesis of antibody- and complement-mediated endothelial cell injury leading to graft rejection. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft rejection resulting from activation of complement by C1q- and MBL (mannose-binding lectin)-dependent pathways and interactions with a variety of effector cells, including macrophages and monocytes through Fcγ receptors and complement receptors. PMID:20135240

  6. Plant data comparisons for Comanche Peak 50% load rejection transient

    SciTech Connect

    Boatwright, W.J.; Choe, W.G.; Hiltbrand, D.W.; Devore, C.V.

    1994-12-31

    The RETRAN-02 codes is used for the transient and accident analysis. Benchmarks have been performed in order to qualify the Comanche Pear Steam electric station (CPSES) RETRAN-02 model, particularly the protection and control systems , reactivity feedback, noding, and primary-to-secondary heat transfer modeling. The 50% load rejection test was performed as part of the initial start-up test sequence for CPSES-1. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the RETRAN-02 model of CPSES-1 allows for quite good predictions of (1) the primary-to-secondary heat transfer rate; (2) the core power response, including the reactivity feedback effects due to changes in moderator and fuel temperatures and control rod position; and (3) the rod control model, which correctly simulates actual plant response in which the control rods are inserted and withdrawn in response to temperature and power error signals.

  7. Flow cytometry crossmatching as a predictor of acute rejection in sensitized recipients of cadaveric renal transplants.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Osorio, R W; Freise, C E; Lou, C D; Garovoy, M R; Bacchetti, P; Ascher, N L; Melzer, J S; Roberts, J P; Stock, P G

    2000-04-01

    Flow cytometry crossmatching (FCXM) was developed as a more sensitive assay than the standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (CDCXM) for the detection of anti-donor antibodies, that mediate hyperacute rejection and graft loss in the early post-transplant period in renal transplant recipients. The role of FCXM in predicting long-term clinical outcome in renal allograft recipients is unclear. This study examines the role of FCXM in predicting long-term clinical outcome in highly sensitized recipients of cadaveric renal transplants. All patients (n = 100) with peak panel reactive antibody (PRA) levels > 30%, who received cadaveric renal transplants between 1/1/'90 and 12/31/'95 at our institution, were divided into FCXM + and FCXM - groups. The incidence of acute rejection was determined for each group during the first yr after transplant. Graft survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 yr, and creatinine levels were also compared between groups. FCXM + patients experienced a higher incidence of acute rejection during the first yr after transplant (69 vs. 45%), and a higher percentage of FCXM + patients had more than one episode of acute rejection during the first yr after transplant (34 vs. 8%) when compared to FCXM - patients. There was no statistically significant difference in 1-, 2-, or 3-yr graft survival between FCXM + and FCXM - patients (76 vs. 83, 62 vs. 80, 62 vs. 72%, respectively). These results suggest that sensitized FCXM + cadaveric renal transplant recipients have a higher incidence of acute rejection episodes in the first yr after transplant. Given the association of multiple rejection episodes with poor long-term allograft survival, FCXM may be a useful predictor of long-term clinical outcome in this sub-group of renal transplant recipients.

  8. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; DUCATTI, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were analyzed demographics, immunosuppression, rejection, infection and graft and patient survival rates. Results: Late acute rejection in liver transplantation showed poor results mainly regarding patient and graft survival. Almost all of these cohort studies were retrospective and descriptive. The incidence of late acute rejection varied from 7-40% in these studies. Late acute rejection was one cause for graft loss and resulted in different outcomes with worse patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Late acute rejection has been variably defined and may be a cause of chronic rejection with worse prognosis. Late acute rejection occurs during a period in which the goal is to maintain lower immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Conclusion: The current articles show the importance of late acute rejection. The real benefit is based on early diagnosis and adequate treatment at the onset until late follow up after liver transplantation. PMID:26537150

  9. Changing Paradigms in the Management of Rejection in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Mirela; Takano, Tomoko; Sapir-Pichhadze, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine’s relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. Sources of information: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016) using a combination of subject headings (MeSH) and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine. The electronic database search was expanded further on particular subject headings. Findings: Available histocompatibility methods exemplify current applications of the predictive and preventive domains of P4 medicine in kidney transplant recipients’ care. Pharmacogenomics are discussed as means to facilitate personalized immunosuppression regimens and promotion of active patient participation as a means to improve adherence. Limitations: For simplicity, this review focuses on rejection. P4 medicine, however, should more broadly address health concerns in kidney transplant recipients, including competing outcomes such as infections, malignancies, and cardiovascular disease. This review highlights how biomarkers to evaluate these competing outcomes warrant validation and standardization prior to their incorporation into clinical practice. Implications: Consideration of all 4 domains of the P4 medicine framework when caring for and/or studying kidney transplant recipients has the potential of increasing therapeutic efficiency, minimizing adverse effects, decreasing health care costs, and maximizing wellness. Technologies to gauge immune competency, immunosuppression requirements, and early/reversible immune-mediated injuries are required to optimize kidney transplant care. PMID:28270929

  10. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  11. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  12. Mechanisms of solute rejection in solvent resistant nanofiltration: the effect of solvent on solute rejection.

    PubMed

    Darvishmanesh, Siavash; Degrève, Jan; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2010-10-28

    The separation performance of solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membranes was studied in a systematic way to elucidate the complex mechanisms involved in rejection of solutes. Rejection of three dyes (Sudan II, Sudan Black, Sudan 408) from common organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene and n-hexane) through a polyimide based SRNF membrane, STARMEM™122, was studied. It was found that the rejection of the STARMEM™122 membrane was lower than that indicated by the manufacturer. The experimental observations for Sudan II were not promising for the rejection study as they were lower than expected. Sudan Black and Sudan 408, which are larger solutes than Sudan II, provided more interesting insights. The effects of the solvent on the membrane and solute were studied separately. A higher permeation rate of ketones and alcohols was observed, while permeabilities of non-polar solvents were low which shows that this membrane shows higher affinity toward semi-polar solvents (alcohols, ketones). The effect of the solvent on the solute's rejection, based on the results for Sudan Black and Sudan 408, was studied for solvents in the same chemical groups, since the membrane showed a similar separation performance for solvents with similar functional groups (e.g. alcohols). The effect of solvent on solute molecular size was investigated by using simulation with Molecular Dynamics. It was shown that the effective size of a molecule is dependent on the solvent due to solvation and hydration of the solute by the solvent. The size of the solute in the solvent belonging to a similar family was studied separately. It was clear that the rejection was influenced by molecular size of the solute in the same group of solvents. A surprising negative rejection of solutes was achieved for n-hexane. Although solutes in n-hexane have higher volume compared to those in other solvents, the affinity between the solute and membrane increases the solute

  13. Rejected asylum seekers: the problem of return.

    PubMed

    Noll, G

    1999-01-01

    "During this decade the return of rejected asylum seekers has become an issue of increasing concern to major asylum states in the industrialized world. This article exposes the various political and legal approaches taken by returning states as well as the constraints emerging from human rights law. As a rigid control paradigm and related enforcement practices entail a considerable risk of human rights violations, it seems reasonable to focus on measures enhancing the voluntary compliance of all actors involved with norms governing return." (EXCERPT)

  14. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Garces, Jorge Carlos; Giusti, Sixto; Staffeld-Coit, Catherine; Bohorquez, Humberto; Cohen, Ari J.; Loss, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic antibody injury is a serious threat to allograft outcomes and is therefore the center of active research. In the continuum of allograft rejection, the development of antibodies plays a critical role. In recent years, an increased recognition of molecular and histologic changes has provided a better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), as well as potential therapeutic interventions. However, several pathways are still unknown, which accounts for the lack of efficacy of some of the currently available agents that are used to treat rejection. Methods: We review the current diagnostic criteria for AMR; AMR paradigms; and desensitization, treatment, and prevention strategies. Results: Chronic antibody-mediated endothelial injury results in transplant glomerulopathy, manifested as glomerular basement membrane duplication, double contouring, or splitting. Clinical manifestations of AMR include proteinuria and a rise in serum creatinine. Current strategies for the treatment of AMR include antibody depletion with plasmapheresis (PLEX), immunoadsorption (IA), immunomodulation with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and T cell– or B cell–depleting agents. Some treatment benefits have been found in using PLEX and IA, and some small nonrandomized trials have identified some benefits in using rituximab and the proteasome inhibitor-based therapy bortezomib. More recent histologic follow-ups of patients treated with bortezomib have not shown significant benefits in terms of allograft outcomes. Furthermore, no specific treatment approaches have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Other agents used for more difficult rejections include bortezomib and eculizumab (an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody). Conclusion: AMR is a fascinating field with ample opportunities for research and progress in the future. Despite the use of advanced techniques for the detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or non-HLA donor-specific antibodies

  15. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  16. Scatter rejection in multislit digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Aaslund, Magnus; Cederstroem, Bjoern; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2006-04-15

    The scatter to primary ratio (SPR) was measured on a scanning multislit full-field digital mammography system for different thickness of breast equivalent material and different tube voltages. Scatter within the detector was measured separately and was found to be the major source of scatter in the assembly. Measured total SPRs below 6% are reported for breast range 3-7 cm. The performance of the multislit assembly is compared to other imaging geometries with different scatter rejection schemes by using the scatter detective quantum efficiency.

  17. Three-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiographic Monitoring of Acute Rejection in Heart Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo-Qing; Hsiung, Ming-Chon; Wu, Yan; Qu, Shao-Hui; Wei, Jeng; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the use of 3-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography for noninvasive monitoring and diagnosis of acute rejection in heart transplant recipients. Fifteen heart transplant recipients underwent 32 endomyocardial biopsies; echocardiography was performed within 3 hours before biopsy. Twenty-four biopsies (acute rejection-negative group) showed grade 0 or 1A rejection, and 8 biopsies (acute rejection-positive group) showed grade 1B or higher rejection (based on the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria). Two-dimensional, M-mode, pulsed Doppler, and tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed to assess conventional heart structure and function, and 3D full-volume echocardiography was recorded and analyzed. Global peak longitudinal strain was significantly lower in the acute rejection-negative group compared to the positive group (mean ± SD, -7.38% ± 1.34% versus -10.88% ± 3.81%; P = .017). Differences in left ventricular global peak radial strain (28.79% ± 10.79% versus 24.32% ± 5.24%; P= .272), global peak circumferential strain (-12.16% ± 4.87% versus -12.61% ± 2.38%; P = .806), and ejection fraction (49.42% ± 12.17% versus 50.68% ± 7.26%; P = .824) between the negative and positive groups were not significant. Significant correlations were observed between the left ventricular ejection fraction and global peak longitudinal, global peak radial, and global peak circumferential (r = -0.72; P < .001; r = 0.60; P < 0.001; and r = -0.69; P < 0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a global peak longitudinal strain cutoff value of less than -9.55% could predict grade 1B or higher rejection with sensitivity of 87.50% and specificity of 54.17%. Three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived global peak longitudinal strain is a useful parameter for detecting acute rejection; thus, 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography can monitor dynamic and acute

  18. Mechanisms of rejection: role of complement.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Conrad A; Sacks, Steven H

    2014-02-01

    To provide the reader with an up-to-date comprehensive review of recent findings that highlight advances describing how proteins of the complement cascades contribute to the pathogenesis of solid organ rejection. The review is focussed mainly on renal transplantation. Of note are recent advances in elucidating the interactions between anaphylatoxins and their receptors in organ transplantation; there is evidence of direct engagement of C5aR on donor tubules and in addition, mechanisms by which the allostimulatory capacity of dendritic cells is modulated by complement are more fully understood. Activation of the lectin pathway is increasingly implicated in allograft rejection and the role of complement in modulating regulatory T cells is being vigorously investigated. As an alternative to systemic complement inhibition, there is continued focus on the design of targeted anti-complement therapies, directed to the donor organ. Complement has evolved as the first line of defence against pathogens, employing well defined effector mechanisms to rapidly remove infectious material. However, complement effector mechanisms are also triggered during inflammation associated with solid organ transplantation. Hence, complement has a significant role in mediating donor organ injury during both the initial ischaemia/reperfusion phase and the subsequent adaptive immune responses. Research on mechanisms of complement-mediated injury in transplantation provide a basis for the development of therapies that are aimed at transiently blocking complement activation at the site of injury, whereas leaving systemic anti-bacterial complement effector mechanisms intact.

  19. The 'fine line' of heat rejection.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Phillip

    2010-09-01

    Selection of heat rejection equipment has traditionally entailed a choice between the higher energy consumption of an air-cooled solution, and the high water consumption of a water-cooled solution. This paper examines advancement in heat rejection technology and the way it can be applied to air conditioning and refrigeration plant in healthcare and other facilities. It also examines field difficulties encountered in pipework design as the knowledge and experience levels of engineers designing systems with remote condensers diminish. With plant larger than 1,000 kW, the only option previously has been water-cooled solutions using an array of cooling towers, or perhaps an evaporative condenser, since air-cooled plant involved massive volumes of chemical refrigerant, which posed a problem ecologically. An additional hurdle was problems associated with limitations on pipe lengths for refrigeration plant. The advent of adiabatically pre-cooled closed circuit coolers and air-cooled condensers has introduced an alternative to cooling towers that offers the potential for "water-cooled performance" from an air-cooled solution with no serious threat of Legionella contamination. However, each application needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis. The paper examines, in detail, the impact of adiabatic pre-cooling, with recent examples of its application in sub-tropical Brisbane providing evidence of the potential performance achievable.

  20. A personal perspective: at the crossroads of heart attack care: designing an effective nationwide public education program to hasten patient hospital arrival.

    PubMed

    Turner, Glenn O

    2009-12-01

    This report presents a field-tested approach to the greatest health care problem facing our country, the fact that two-thirds of the deaths from acute myocardial infarction occur before hospital admission. Scores of fundraising appearances for the Missouri Heart Association during the 1950s and 1960s throughout the 1,000,000 population rural/urban Southwest Missouri region gave an ideal setting for teaching the public the early symptoms of heart attack. Audiences were advised that if any of these appeared they should immediately call their doctor or quickly get to the nearest hospital emergency room. These presentations led to a steady increase in hospital admissions. The Missouri Heart Association responded by launching the Early Warning Signs of Heart Attack Public and Professional Education Program in July 1971, incorporating these messages in radio, TV, and newspaper Public Service Announcements. In less than 6 months, analysis of consecutive admissions to the cardiovascular intensive care unit of the base hospital showed that the median time from the onset of symptoms to starting to the hospital was reduced from 4 to 2.2 hours; 64% of those patients called their doctor as their first step in seeking help and 58% went to the hospital by car. This message content was carried through the 1980s and 1990s under other auspices. The methods of the successful Missouri program are contrasted with others that have failed, establishing essential features in designing a nationwide program effective in hastening acute myocardial infarction patient hospital arrival.

  1. 14-bp ins/del polymorphism and +3142C>G SNP of the HLA-G gene have a significant impact on acute rejection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Thude, Hansjörg; Janssen, Maike; Sterneck, Martina; Nashan, Björn; Koch, Martina

    2016-12-01

    Expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) has been associated with increased graft survival and decreased rejection episodes. It has been described that the HLA-G 14-base pair (bp) insertion/deletion (ins/del) (rs66554220) and +3142C>G (rs1063320) gene polymorphisms modify the expression level of HLA-G. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these HLA-G polymorphisms have an impact on acute rejection after liver transplantation. In total, 146 liver transplant recipients (57 with acute rejection and 89 without acute rejection) and 99 corresponding liver donors were genotyped for both polymorphisms. In liver transplantation the 14-bp ins/ins and the +3142GG genotypes are more frequent in recipients without rejection compared to recipients with rejection (3.5% vs. 31.5%, p=<0.001; 12.3% vs. 41.6%, p=<0.001) demonstrating an association with protection from acute rejection. In contrast, in liver donors we could not reveal an association. We conclude that 14-bp ins/ins and +3142GG genotypes of HLA-G in liver transplant recipients are of importance for prediction of acute rejection after liver transplantation. Thus genotyping of liver recipients for both polymorphisms might be useful to stratify liver transplant recipients according to the risk of acute liver transplant rejection.

  2. Prevention trumps treatment of antibody-mediated transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Stuart J; Kwun, Jean; Iwakoshi, Neal

    2010-04-01

    Belying the spectacular success of solid organ transplantation and improvements in immunosuppressive therapy is the reality that long-term graft survival rates remain relatively unchanged, in large part due to chronic and insidious alloantibody-mediated graft injury. Half of heart transplant recipients develop chronic rejection within 10 years - a daunting statistic, particularly for young patients expecting to achieve longevity by enduring the rigors of a transplant. The current immunosuppressive pharmacopeia is relatively ineffective in preventing late alloantibody-associated chronic rejection. In this issue of the JCI, Kelishadi et al. report that preemptive deletion of B cells prior to heart transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys, in addition to conventional posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, markedly attenuated not only acute graft rejection but also alloantibody elaboration and chronic graft rejection. The success of this preemptive strike implies a central role for B cells in graft rejection, and this approach may help to delay or prevent chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation.

  3. Acute antibody-mediated rejection of cardiac transplants.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elaine F; Demetris, Anthony J; Hammond, Elizabeth; Itescu, Silviu; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Reinsmoen, Nancy L; Rodriguez, E Rene; Rose, Marlene; Stewart, Susan; Suciu-Foca, Nicole; Zeevi, Adriana; Fishbein, Michael C

    2006-02-01

    Under the direction of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, a multidisciplinary review of the cardiac biopsy grading system was undertaken in 2004, with task forces examining the areas of histopathology of rejection, clinical issues, and research. An important new area addressed by the Immunopathology Task Force sub-committee was the clinical and diagnostic criteria for antibody-mediated rejection. This article is a companion paper to the revised working formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the diagnosis of heart rejection and reviews the published literature documenting the serologic and morphologic evidence that antibody-mediated rejection is clinically significant and associated with graft loss, accelerated transplant-associated coronary artery disease, and death. This article also provides a more in-depth analysis of antibody-mediated rejection developed by the Immunopathology Task Force for revision of the 1990 working formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the diagnosis of heart rejection.

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B. )

    1991-03-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  5. The relations between secrecy, rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness.

    PubMed

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; Van Assen, Marcel A L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two attachment-related variables on secrecy: rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness. We hypothesized that rejection sensitivity is positively associated with secrecy, and autonomy-connectedness negatively with rejection sensitivity and secrecy. These hypotheses were generally corroborated in a sample of 303 university students. Moreover, we found that autonomy-connectedness at least partly explained the association between rejection sensitivity and secrecy. Self-awareness was negatively related to secrecy, suggesting that being aware of what one needs and thinks and being able to realize one's needs in social interactions reduce the tendency to keep secrets. In addition, interesting gender effects were found suggesting that men have a higher tendency to have secrets than women after controlling for the effects of autonomy-connectedness and rejection sensitivity. Our findings deepen the insight into possible reasons behind established associations between rejection sensitivity and secrecy, and may have clinical implications.

  6. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multi-reporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents’ social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a three-year period, even after accounting for teens’ baseline level of social competence. Additionally, reciprocal relationships emerged between rejection sensitivity and internalizing symptoms. Rejection sensitivity was also linked to relative decreases in peer-reports of teens’ social competence over a three-year period. Consistent with research on gendered socialization, males reported higher levels of rejection sensitivity than females at age 16 and 17. Results are interpreted as highlighting the importance of rejection sensitivity in understanding late adolescent social and emotional development. PMID:21113326

  7. The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Kathy R; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Coifman, Karin G; Paquin, Nina Leventhal

    2011-08-01

    Though long-standing clinical observation reflected in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role of perceived rejection in triggering rage in BPD has never been empirically tested. Extending basic personality research on rejection sensitivity to a clinical sample, a priming-pronunciation experiment and a 21-day experience-sampling diary examined the contingent relationship between perceived rejection and rage in participants diagnosed with BPD compared with healthy controls. Despite the differences in these 2 assessment methods, the indices of rejection-contingent rage that they both produced were elevated in the BPD group and were strongly interrelated. They provide corroborating evidence that reactions to perceived rejection significantly explain the rage seen in BPD. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  8. The Rejection-Rage Contingency in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Kathy R.; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Coifman, Karin; Leventhal, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Though longstanding clinical observation reflected in the DSM-IV suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role of perceived rejection in triggering rage in BPD has never been empirically tested. Extending basic personality research on rejection sensitivity to a clinical sample, a priming-pronunciation experiment and a 21-day experience-sampling diary examined the contingent relationship between perceived rejection and rage in participants diagnosed with BPD compared to healthy controls. Despite the differences in these two assessment methods, the indices of rejection-contingent rage that they produced were both elevated in the BPD group, and were strongly interrelated. They provide corroborating evidence that reactions to perceived rejection significantly explain the rage seen in BPD. PMID:21500875

  9. Control loop noise rejection using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Hay, Glen; Svrcek, William; Ross, Timothy; Young, Brent

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes an application of fuzzy logic to noise rejection in a control loop. This new use of fuzzy logic solves the problem of sluggish control loop response when using a set-point range to stop constant valve chattering due to noise in the output signal being sent to a control valve. Multiple related variables and a general understanding of their inter-relationship must be available for this method to be successfully applied. An overview of the specific fuzzy logic method used for this application is presented along with guidelines for the practical application. In addition, this paper includes results from the successful implementation of fuzzy logic to a control loop on a pilot plant distillation column.

  10. Linear quadratic output tracking and disturbance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi-Ghartemani, Masoud; Khajehoddin, S. Ali; Jain, Praveen; Bakhshai, Alireza

    2011-08-01

    This article introduces the problem of linear quadratic tracking (LQT) where the objective is to design a closed-loop control scheme such that the output signal of the system optimally tracks a given reference signal and rejects a given disturbance. Different performance indices that have been used to address the tracking problem are discussed and an appropriate new form is introduced. It is shown that a solution to the proposed optimality index exists under very mild conditions of stabilisability and detectability of the plant state-space equations. The solution is formulated based on converting the LQT problem to a standard linear quadratic regulation problem. The method is applied to two examples, a first-order plant and a third-order plant, and their simulation results are presented and discussed.

  11. Host intra-clutch variation, cuckoo egg matching and egg rejection by great reed warblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Michael I.; Bennett, Andrew T. D.; Moskát, Csaba

    2007-06-01

    Prevailing theory predicts that lower levels of intra-clutch variation in host eggs facilitate the detection of brood parasitism. We assessed egg matching using both human vision and UV-VIS spectrophotometry and then followed the nest fate of great reed warblers naturally parasitised by European cuckoos. Rejection was predicted by the following three variables: matching between cuckoo and host eggs on the main chromatic variable defined by principal components analysis of the egg spectra (which has a strong loading in the UV); the number of host eggs in the nest; and human estimates of intra-clutch variation. The first variable is not correlated to human estimates of matching, which do not predict rejection. In line with another recent study, rejection rates were predicted by higher levels of intra-clutch variation in the host eggs, suggesting that higher rather than lower levels of intra-clutch variation can facilitate the discrimination of cuckoo eggs by hosts. We suggest that the importance of intra-clutch variation is context dependent, with intra-clutch variation being important when there is good matching between the host and the cuckoo eggs. Our results also suggest that both spectrometric and human visual assessments of egg matching and intra-clutch variation are prudent: the former provide the best method of estimating reflectance variation, whereas the latter include some assessment of patterns of maculation.

  12. Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma

    2016-01-21

    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.

  13. WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. NASA faked the moon landing--therefore, (climate) science is a hoax: an anatomy of the motivated rejection of science.

    PubMed

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Oberauer, Klaus; Gignac, Gilles E

    2013-05-01

    Although nearly all domain experts agree that carbon dioxide emissions are altering the world's climate, segments of the public remain unconvinced by the scientific evidence. Internet blogs have become a platform for denial of climate change, and bloggers have taken a prominent role in questioning climate science. We report a survey of climate-blog visitors to identify the variables underlying acceptance and rejection of climate science. Our findings parallel those of previous work and show that endorsement of free-market economics predicted rejection of climate science. Endorsement of free markets also predicted the rejection of other established scientific findings, such as the facts that HIV causes AIDS and that smoking causes lung cancer. We additionally show that, above and beyond endorsement of free markets, endorsement of a cluster of conspiracy theories (e.g., that the Federal Bureau of Investigation killed Martin Luther King, Jr.) predicted rejection of climate science as well as other scientific findings. Our results provide empirical support for previous suggestions that conspiratorial thinking contributes to the rejection of science. Acceptance of science, by contrast, was strongly associated with the perception of a consensus among scientists.

  15. Systematic Review on the Trial Period for Bone Conduction Devices in Single-Sided Deafness: Rates and Reasons for Rejection.

    PubMed

    Wendrich, Anne W; Kroese, Tiuri E; Peters, Jeroen P M; Cattani, Guido; Grolman, Wilko

    2017-06-01

    To systematically review the literature to evaluate the trial period of bone conduction devices (BCDs) for adult patients with single-sided deafness (SSD). The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from their inception up to August 15, 2016 for SSD, BCD, and their synonyms. In total, 523 articles were retrieved, of which 12 satisfied the eligibility quality criteria. Our outcomes of interest were: 1) the BCD implantation rejection percentage, 2) reasons to reject BCD implantation, and 3) possible prognostic factors predicting the trial outcome. At critical appraisal, six studies (n = 471 patients) scored a moderate to high directness of evidence and a medium or low risk of bias and were selected for data extraction. Due to heterogeneity between studies, pooling of data for meta-analysis was not feasible. Therefore, results of studies were summarized per outcome: 1) after the BCD trial, 32.0 to 69.6% of SSD patients rejected BCD implantation, 2) the three main reasons for rejection were experiencing limited benefit from the device, patients fearing or being unfit for surgery and cosmetic aspects, 3) no clear prognostic factors predicting the trial outcome could be identified. Roughly half of patients rejected BCD implantation after a trial period. From the current literature it is unclear which patients could benefit most from BCD implantation. High level of evidence studies should be conducted to investigate possible prognostic factors that predict the BCD trial outcome.

  16. Metabonomic analysis of rats with acute heart rejection.

    PubMed

    Tao, M; Xiu, D R

    2013-03-01

    Organs transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage organ failure. Despite the use of modern immunosuppressants to decrease its incidence, acute rejection episodes (ARE), still present a problem for diagnosis, resolution, and prediction of long-term outcomes due to the absence of sufficiently robust biomarkers. Using an heterotopic heart transplantation model using Dark Agouti to Lewis rats, and sirolimus (rapamycin, Rapa) treatment by gavage, we divided recipients into four groups: controls, ARE, Rapa-14, and Rapa-7. We evaluated recipients by hematoxylin and eosin staining of grafts and reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. Levels of plasma metabolites were quantified using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Data were evaluated employing partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves with negative predictive values (NPV) and positive predictive values (PPV). The graft survival was prolonged by Rapa. Plasma levels of 10 metabolites differed significantly between the ARE and the Rapa-14 groups as illustrated by the total ion current. According to PLS-DA, proline, glycine, serine, phenylalanine, and isocitrate showed the greatest effects with areas under the curve of 0.944, 0.917, 1.0, 0.861, and 0.944 respectively. The NPV values were 85.7%, 85.7%, 100%, 83.3%, and 85.7% and PPV values, 100%, 100%, 100%, 83.3%, and 100% respectively. Therefore, these metabolites may be used to predict the occurrence and progression of ARE. The trend of changes suggested that plasma metabolites correlated with the immune state of recipients. Therefore, metabonomics may provide new biomarkers for graft injury in the early phases of ARE. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Multivariate Methods for Integration of Genomics and Proteomics Data: Applications in a Kidney Transplant Rejection Study

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Oliver P.; Shin, Heesun; Ng, Raymond T.; McMaster, W. Robert; McManus, Bruce M.; Keown, Paul A.; Tebbutt, Scott. J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Multi-omics research is a key ingredient of data-intensive life sciences research, permitting measurement of biological molecules at different functional levels in the same individual. For a complete picture at the biological systems level, appropriate statistical techniques must however be developed to integrate different ‘omics’ data sets (e.g., genomics and proteomics). We report here multivariate projection-based analyses approaches to genomics and proteomics data sets, using the case study of and applications to observations in kidney transplant patients who experienced an acute rejection event (n=20) versus non-rejecting controls (n=20). In this data sets, we show how these novel methodologies might serve as promising tools for dimension reduction and selection of relevant features for different analytical frameworks. Unsupervised analyses highlighted the importance of post transplant time-of-rejection, while supervised analyses identified gene and protein signatures that together predicted rejection status with little time effect. The selected genes are part of biological pathways that are representative of immune responses. Gene enrichment profiles revealed increases in innate immune responses and neutrophil activities and a depletion of T lymphocyte related processes in rejection samples as compared to controls. In all, this article offers candidate biomarkers for future detection and monitoring of acute kidney transplant rejection, as well as ways forward for methodological advances to better harness multi-omics data sets. PMID:25387159

  18. Could a Factor That Does Not Affect Egg Recognition Influence the Decision of Rejection?

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Soler, Manuel; Sánchez-Pérez, Lucía Ll.; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Rejection of the parasitic egg is the most important defence of hosts against brood parasites. However, this response is variable among and within species, and egg discrimination is not always followed by egg rejection. Low risk of parasitism and high risk of rejection costs may lead to the acceptance of the parasitic egg even if it has been previously recognized. The main aim of this paper is to answer a relevant question: can a single egg trait provoke the acceptance of an experimental egg previously recognized as foreign? Increased egg mass should hamper the ejection of an egg that has been discriminated because ejection of a heavy egg may imply higher rejection costs for hosts. We have tested this prediction by experimentally parasitizing natural nests of Common Blackbirds (Turdus merula) with non-mimetic model eggs of different mass (heavy, normal-weight, and light) while controlling for potential confounding factors such as egg size and colour. Our results showed that blackbirds more frequently accepted heavy eggs, even when previously recognized. This differential acceptance may be related to insufficient motivation to assume the higher costs that the ejection of a heavy egg could impose. PMID:26295481

  19. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  20. The role of age and motivation for the experience of social acceptance and rejection.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Jana; Schoch, Simone; Freund, Alexandra M

    2014-07-01

    A study with n = 55 younger (18-33 years, M = 23.67) and n = 58 older (61-85 years, M = 71.44) adults investigated age-related differences in social approach and avoidance motivation and their consequences for the experience of social interactions. Results confirmed the hypothesis that a predominant habitual approach motivation in younger adults shifts toward a stronger avoidance motivation in older adults. Moreover, age and momentary motivation predicted the experience of an actual social interaction. Younger adults reported stronger negative emotions in a rejection situation when striving to approach acceptance rather than avoid rejection. Conversely, older adults reported fewer positive emotions in a rejection situation when they attempted to avoid rejection rather than approach acceptance. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that the same motivation has different consequences for the experience of potentially threatening social situations in younger and older adults. People seem to react emotionally when the achievement of important developmental goals (approaching others in young adulthood, avoiding negative social interactions in older adulthood) is thwarted. Moreover, results suggest that approach and avoidance motivation play an important role for socioemotional development.

  1. T-cell immune response cDNA 7 in allograft rejection and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Utku, Nalân; Heinemann, Thomas; Milford, Edgar L

    2007-05-01

    The membrane protein T-cell immune response cDNA 7 (TIRC7) is transiently expressed in subsets of lymphocytes following antigen stimulation. The importance of TIRC7 in immune activation is demonstrated by the effect of antibodies directed against extracellular domains of TIRC7. In vitro targeting of TIRC7 inhibits proliferation and cytokine expression in human, mouse and rat lymphocytes, and these inhibitory effects have been associated with induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 mRNA and protein in the presence of TIRC7 antibodies. In vivo, anti-TIRC7 antibodies prevent kidney transplant rejection in rats and heart allograft rejection in mice. Treatment with an anti-TIRC7 antibody as monotherapy or in combination with TNFalpha blockade inhibits disease progression in collagen-induced arthritis. TIRC7 expression decreases in the peripheral blood of humans who have undergone cardiac transplant prior to clinical rejection, and is therefore a promising noninvasive tool for the prediction of rejection. Thus, targeting of TIRC7 may lead to the development of specific and effective therapeutic and diagnostic approaches by unifying relevant cellular and molecular responses in T- and B-cell subsets, and represents a promising new pathway for immune regulation in transplantation and autoimmune disease.

  2. Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-09-01

    How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Could a Factor That Does Not Affect Egg Recognition Influence the Decision of Rejection?

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Soler, Manuel; Sánchez-Pérez, Lucía Ll; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Rejection of the parasitic egg is the most important defence of hosts against brood parasites. However, this response is variable among and within species, and egg discrimination is not always followed by egg rejection. Low risk of parasitism and high risk of rejection costs may lead to the acceptance of the parasitic egg even if it has been previously recognized. The main aim of this paper is to answer a relevant question: can a single egg trait provoke the acceptance of an experimental egg previously recognized as foreign? Increased egg mass should hamper the ejection of an egg that has been discriminated because ejection of a heavy egg may imply higher rejection costs for hosts. We have tested this prediction by experimentally parasitizing natural nests of Common Blackbirds (Turdus merula) with non-mimetic model eggs of different mass (heavy, normal-weight, and light) while controlling for potential confounding factors such as egg size and colour. Our results showed that blackbirds more frequently accepted heavy eggs, even when previously recognized. This differential acceptance may be related to insufficient motivation to assume the higher costs that the ejection of a heavy egg could impose.

  4. Weight-based rejection sensitivity: Scale development and implications for well-being.

    PubMed

    McClure Brenchley, Kimberly J; Quinn, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    We integrated theories of social stigma and rejection sensitivity to develop a new construct for understanding the effects of day-to-day experiences of interpersonal weight stigma: weight-based rejection sensitivity (W-RS), or a tendency to anxiously expect weight-based rejection. We created a new scale to measure W-RS. Studies 1 and 2 together established the scale as valid and reliable in a college student population. Study 3 examined the outcomes and predictive validity of W-RS by testing the effects of W-RS longitudinally across college students' first semester. Those who were high in W-RS were found to be at additional risk for compromised psychological and physical well-being over time. W-RS also predicted poorer adjustment to college. Overall, W-RS could help to explain individual reactions to stigma and to predict when weight stigmatization may have a greater likelihood of impacting a target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The QuickWee trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation to hasten non-invasive urine collection from infants

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Jonathan; Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tosif, Shidan; Hopper, Sandy M; Bryant, Penelope A; Donath, Susan M; Babl, Franz E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children. Urine sample collection is required to diagnose or exclude UTI; however, current collection methods for pre-continent children all have limitations and guidelines vary. Clean catch urine (CCU) collection is a common and favoured non-invasive collection method, despite its high contamination rates and time-consuming nature. This study aims to establish whether gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold fluid-soaked gauze can improve the rate of voiding for CCU within 5 min in young pre-continent children. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised controlled trial of 354 infants (aged 1–12 months) who require urine sample collection, conducted in a single emergency department in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. After standard urogenital cleaning, patients will be randomised to either a novel technique of suprapubic cutaneous stimulation using cold saline-soaked gauze in circular motions or no stimulation. The study period is 5 min, after which care is determined by the treating clinician if a urine sample has not been collected. Primary outcome: whether the child voids within 5 min (yes/no). Secondary outcomes: parental and clinician satisfaction with the method, success in catching a urine sample if the child voids, and sample contamination rates. This trial will allow the definitive assessment of this novel technique, gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold saline-soaked gauze, and its utility to hasten non-invasive urine collection in infants. Ethics and dissemination The study has hospital ethics approval and is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12615000754549. The results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000754549; Pre-results. PMID:27515752

  6. 45 CFR 1180.36 - Rejection of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS... application. (a) The Director rejects an application if: (1) The applicant is not eligible; (2) The applicant... statute or implementing regulations. (b) If the Director rejects an application under this section, the...

  7. 45 CFR 1180.36 - Rejection of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS... application. (a) The Director rejects an application if: (1) The applicant is not eligible; (2) The applicant... statute or implementing regulations. (b) If the Director rejects an application under this section, the...

  8. 45 CFR 1180.36 - Rejection of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS... application. (a) The Director rejects an application if: (1) The applicant is not eligible; (2) The applicant... statute or implementing regulations. (b) If the Director rejects an application under this section, the...

  9. 45 CFR 1180.36 - Rejection of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS... application. (a) The Director rejects an application if: (1) The applicant is not eligible; (2) The applicant... statute or implementing regulations. (b) If the Director rejects an application under this section, the...

  10. 45 CFR 1180.36 - Rejection of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS... application. (a) The Director rejects an application if: (1) The applicant is not eligible; (2) The applicant... statute or implementing regulations. (b) If the Director rejects an application under this section, the...

  11. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  12. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898

  13. 48 CFR 619.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 619.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. The Procurement Executive is the agency head for the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business...

  14. Process Demands of Rejection Mechanisms of Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Timothy N.; Koen, Joshua D.; Gama, Jorge M.

    2008-01-01

    A surge of research has been conducted to examine memory editing mechanisms that help distinguish accurate from inaccurate memories. In the present experiment, the authors examined the ability of participants to use novelty detection, recollection rejection, and plausibility judgments to reject lures presented on a recognition memory test.…

  15. Peer Rejection in Preschool: Foregrounding Children’s Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay-Lim, Joanna; Gan, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on peer rejection are predominantly quantitative in nature and do not adequately engage children’s voices and provide a comprehensive view of the peer rejection phenomenon. There are also limited studies at the preschool level, especially in the Singapore context. This study addresses these limitations by presenting insights into…

  16. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received in...

  17. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received in...

  18. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received in...

  19. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received in...

  20. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received in...

  1. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  2. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  3. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  4. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  5. 48 CFR 914.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 914.404 Section 914.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 914.404 Rejection of bids....

  6. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 1419.505 Section 1419.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the CO's...

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    PubMed

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  8. Rheumatoid course of humoral (vascular) rejection after heart allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, L V; Kupriyanova, A G; Kormer, A Ya; Mironkov, B L; Kazakov, E N; Shumakov, V I

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of planned endomyocardial biopsy specimens of heart allotransplants from 22 recipients revealed signs of humoral type rejection (slight, medium, and severe) presenting as fixation of IgG, IgM, and complement components (C3, C4d) in 61 of 63 sections. Permanent presence of rejection signs attests to rheumatoid course of this process.

  9. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  10. 32 CFR 274.8 - Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. 274.8 Section 274.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... EXPORT LOAN AGREEMENTS § 274.8 Bids-revocations-rejections-postponements. The Secretary of Defense or...

  11. Social Rejection and ADHD in Young Adults: An Analogue Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Buermeyer, Curt; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.

    2005-01-01

    Poor outcomes in ADHD may be related to problematic social functioning and consequences of social rejection. This study examines how ADHD symptom expression affects mood and social rejection. Working from findings in depression that describe maintenance through negative interpersonal interactions, the authors seek to examine this theory's…

  12. 48 CFR 219.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 219.505 Section 219.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...-Asides for Small Business 219.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (b)...

  13. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 1419.505 Section 1419.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the CO's decision to reject the set-aside recommendation shall be approved by the HCA. It shall then be...

  14. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 2919.505 Section 2919.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the SBA Procurement Center Representative appeals a “rejection of an SBA recommendation” as referenced in FAR...

  15. 48 CFR 314.404 - Rejection of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of bids. 314.404 Section 314.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 314.404 Rejection of bids....

  16. On Rejecting Emotional Lures Created by Phonological Neighborhood Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Cook, Gabriel I.; Hicks, Jason L.; Marsh, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 experiments to assess how phonologically related lures are rejected in a false memory paradigm. Some phonological lures were emotional (i.e., taboo) words, and others were not. The authors manipulated the presence of taboo items on the study list and reduced the ability to use controlled rejection strategies by dividing…

  17. Social Rejection and ADHD in Young Adults: An Analogue Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Buermeyer, Curt; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.

    2005-01-01

    Poor outcomes in ADHD may be related to problematic social functioning and consequences of social rejection. This study examines how ADHD symptom expression affects mood and social rejection. Working from findings in depression that describe maintenance through negative interpersonal interactions, the authors seek to examine this theory's…

  18. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 1419.505 Section 1419.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the CO's decision to reject the set-aside recommendation shall be approved by the HCA. It shall then be...

  19. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 2919.505 Section 2919.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the SBA Procurement Center Representative appeals a “rejection of an SBA recommendation” as referenced in FAR...

  20. 48 CFR 219.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 219.505 Section 219.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...-Asides for Small Business 219.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (b)...

  1. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 2919.505 Section 2919.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the SBA Procurement Center Representative appeals a “rejection of an SBA recommendation” as referenced in FAR...

  2. 48 CFR 219.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 219.505 Section 219.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...-Asides for Small Business 219.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (b)...

  3. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 2919.505 Section 2919.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the SBA Procurement Center Representative appeals a “rejection of an SBA recommendation” as referenced in FAR...

  4. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 1419.505 Section 1419.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the CO's decision to reject the set-aside recommendation shall be approved by the HCA. It shall then be...

  5. 48 CFR 219.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 219.505 Section 219.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...-Asides for Small Business 219.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (b)...

  6. 48 CFR 1419.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 1419.505 Section 1419.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) A written justification in support of the CO's decision to reject the set-aside recommendation shall be approved by the HCA. It shall then be...

  7. 48 CFR 219.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. 219.505 Section 219.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...-Asides for Small Business 219.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. (b)...

  8. 48 CFR 2919.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 2919.505 Section 2919.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Small Business 2919.505 Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations. When the SBA Procurement Center Representative appeals a “rejection of an SBA recommendation” as referenced in FAR...

  9. The Peer Review Process: Acceptances, Revisions, and Outright Rejections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John V., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the manuscript review process at "Library Quarterly," discussing the accepted manuscript; the revise and resubmit manuscript; the rejected manuscript; and unethical conduct. Provides a "Library Quarterly" time to decisions table (overall days to decide acceptance, revision, or reject) by year (1996-2000). Includes the…

  10. Selecting Social Intervention Techniques for Aggressive Rejected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierman, Karen Linn; Schwartz, Lori A.

    Based upon evidence that peer rejection is a marker variable asociated with maladaptive social-emotional development and the risk of later maladjustment, psychologists have focused both on understanding the factors contributing to peer rejection and on preventive interventions designed to remediate social adjustment problems evident in grade…

  11. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Rejected Students: An Analysis of Their Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Olaizola, Juan Herrero; Ferrer, Belen Martinez; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze differences between aggressive and nonaggressive rejected students in four sets of variables: personal, family, school, and social. Participants in the study were 843 Spanish adolescents ranging in age from 11 to 16 years old, of whom 47% were boys. Results indicated that these two subgroups of rejected students…

  12. Peer Rejection in Preschool: Foregrounding Children’s Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay-Lim, Joanna; Gan, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on peer rejection are predominantly quantitative in nature and do not adequately engage children’s voices and provide a comprehensive view of the peer rejection phenomenon. There are also limited studies at the preschool level, especially in the Singapore context. This study addresses these limitations by presenting insights into…

  13. Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking at the end of life – a ‘systematic search and review’ giving insight into an option of hastening death in capacitated adults at the end of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The terminally ill person’s autonomy and control are important in preserving the quality of life in situations of unbearable suffering. Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) at the end of life has been discussed over the past 20 years as one possibility of hastening death. This article presents a ‘systematic search and review’ of published literature concerned with VSED as an option of hastening death at the end of life by adults with decision-making capacity. Methods Electronic databases PubMed, EBSCOhost CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO were systematically searched. Additionally, Google Scholar was searched and reference lists of included articles were checked. Data of the included studies were extracted, evaluated and summarized in narrative form. Results Overall, out of 29 eligible articles 16 were included in this review. VSED can be defined as an action by a competent, capacitated person, who voluntarily and deliberately chooses to stop eating and drinking with the primary intention of hastening death because of the persistence of unacceptable suffering. An estimated number of deaths by VSED was only provided by one study from the Netherlands, which revealed a prevalence of 2.1% of deaths/year (on average 2800 deaths/year). Main reasons for patients hastening death by VSED are: readiness to die, life perceived as being pointless, poor quality of life, a desire to die at home, and the wish to control the circumstances of death. The physiological processes occurring during VSED and the supportive care interventions could not be identified through our search. Conclusions The included articles provide marginal insight into VSED for hastening death. Research is needed in the field of theory-building and should be based on qualitative studies from different perspectives (patient, family members, and healthcare workers) about physiological processes during VSED, and about the prevalence and magnitude of VSED. Based on these findings supportive

  14. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 1: System concept development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Eric; Carlson, Albert W.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a concept development study of heat rejection systems for Space Station solar dynamic power systems. The heat rejection concepts are based on recent developments in high thermal transport capacity heat pipe radiators. The thermal performance and weights of each of the heat rejection subsystems is addressed in detail, and critical technologies which require development tests and evaluation for successful demonstration are assessed and identified. Baseline and several alternate heat rejection system configurations and optimum designs are developed for both Brayton and Rankine cycles. The thermal performance, mass properties, assembly requirements, reliability, maintenance requirements and life cycle cost are determined for each configuration. A specific design was then selected for each configuration which represents an optimum design for that configuration. The final recommendations of heat rejection system configuration for either the Brayton or Rankine cycles depend on the priorities established for the evaluation criteria.

  15. Rejection Sensitivity and Adolescents’ Perceptions of Romantic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Norona, Jerika C.; Salvatore, Joseph F.; Welsh, Deborah P.; Darling, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity – the tendency to expect, perceive, and overreact to rejection by others – is linked with individuals’ expectations that their romantic partners’ behaviors have negative intent, even if, perhaps, such behaviors could be considered neutral when observed by another. The aim of the present study was to test this proposition, derived from rejection sensitivity theory, using a Video-Recall Procedure with adolescent couples in the US (N = 386 adolescents, 50% girls). We examined whether adolescents who were more sensitive to rejection perceived their romantic partners’ behaviors as more conflictual than when viewed by trained, third-party observers. Findings suggest that, at the micro-analytic level, higher rejection sensitivity is associated with adolescents’ heightened perception of their romantic partners as conflictual when compared to observers, who more often coded the same behaviors as neutral rather than conflictual. Implications for adolescent mental health and well-being are discussed. PMID:25282535

  16. Imaging-based diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Kentrup, Dominik; Pawelski, Helga; Reuter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best available treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. Despite the introduction of effective immunosuppressant drugs, episodes of acute allograft rejection still endanger graft survival. Since efficient treatment of acute rejection is available, rapid diagnosis of this reversible graft injury is essential. For diagnosis of rejection, invasive core needle biopsy of the graft is the “gold-standard”. However, biopsy carries the risk of significant graft injury and is not immediately feasible in patients taking anticoagulants. Therefore, a non-invasive tool assessing the whole organ for specific and fast detection of acute allograft rejection is desirable. We herein review current imaging-based state of the art approaches for non-invasive diagnostics of acute renal transplant rejection. We especially focus on new positron emission tomography-based as well as targeted ultrasound-based methods. PMID:27011915

  17. Uptake of myocardial imaging agents by rejected hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A.; Carroll, M.; Wright, J.W.; Feldman, M.J.; Massucci, J.; Bhayana, J.N.; Gona, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, Gallium 67 and Thallium 201 uptakes were measured in heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Five days after transplantation, Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, and Gallium 67 uptakes were significantly higher in allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts. At an early stage of rejection (three days after transplantation), only Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate uptake in the left ventricle of allogeneic grafts showed a significant difference (p less than 0.04). At five days, Thallium 201 uptake was significantly lower in allo- than syngeneic grafts. There was a positive correlation between radionuclide uptake and histologic degree of rejection for Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate and Gallium 67 while Thallium 201 uptake correlated negatively. Analysis of variance revealed that hearts with no or minimal rejection had statistically different uptakes than hearts with mild to moderate rejection. These results suggest that uptake of imaging agents might be useful in the diagnosis of rejection of the transplanted heart.

  18. A rejection method for selection of scattered states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, William S.

    1994-05-01

    A rejection method is presented that sidesteps much of the labor necessary in the usual techniques for choosing a scattered state after an electron-phonon collision with full band structure. The phonon wave number is chosen randomly, then tested to see if the resultant collision will satisfy energy conservation to within some accuracy. If not, the collision is rejected, and if so, then the wave number is adjusted in order to enforce energy conservation more precisely. The price one pays is in a high rejection rate. If the cost of a rejection is small, however, this rejection rate can be tolerated. This method will not compete with analytical models (near valley minima), but may outperform the more usual techniques. Accuracies of a few percent are practical. Simulations were preformed with the first conduction band of gallium arsenide.

  19. Plasma proteolytic activity in liver transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; Gallimore, M J; Bäckman, L; Mathisen, O; Bergan, A; Klintmalm, G B; Aasen, A O

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of proteolytic enzymes belonging to the coagulation, fibrinolytic, and plasma contact systems in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Twenty-nine patients were studied at the time of OLT and during the first 2 postoperative weeks. Blood samples were collected daily after OLT and analyzed for kallikrein-like activity (KK), functional kallikrein inhibition (KKI), plasmin-like activity (PL), and alpha2-antiplasmin (AP). In addition, prekallikrein (PKK), prothrombin (PTH), antithrombin III (AT III), plasminogen (PLG), prothrombin/antithrombin III complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and plasmin/alpha2-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were measured. Nineteen patients experienced biopsy-verified acute rejections (AR) and ten patients had uneventful courses and served as controls. Plasma analyses showed that the contact, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems were activated during OLT. Following OLT, continuous thrombin and plasmin generation was observed, and these effects were more pronounced in the group having an uneventful course than in patients with AR. Factors that could possibly affect plasma proteolytic activity, such as blood product usage during and after OLT and cold ischemia time of the liver graft, did not differ between the groups, nor did the routine liver function tests, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST).

  20. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and scintillating bolometer vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Modified Zinc Molybdate Bolometers are used to produce scintillation light when stimulated by alpha background. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. Results are used to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications on bolometer searches.

  1. How rejection of essences expresses despair.

    PubMed

    Tougas, C T

    1999-07-01

    The Self and the ego in Jung's psychology are an instance of what Edmund Husserl called a 'double intentionality': one tending toward meaning is distinct from another tending toward meaning, yet they are reciprocally inseparable from each other. As perception in a present moment and memory of a past are impossible without each other, so an intending of ego and that of Self are impossible without each other. Accompanying the ego (mostly in the background) during each moment of time is a tending towards a particular Idea or essence. This reciprocity is expressed in a unique way over a lifetime and is like the relation of mother and child, and so it is important for all of us born of women to retain a sense of essences and the fullness of Self. 'Constructivism', however, is a current belief held by some feminists, and it influences both theorizing and practice in analytical psychology. It involves a rejection of essences, a revision of Jung's Idea of Self, and an attempt to conduct analysis without reference to an intentional subjective Self. Such constructivist revision expresses a despair both about essences as Ideas and about Self as intentional and subjective. It is despair over Self in a Kierkegaardian sense.

  2. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas; Cuore Collaboration

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and Cherenkov radiation vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Quantum dot based liquid scintillator is similarly bombarded to produce a background induced scintillation light. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. These findings are extrapolated to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications to bolometer searches. Effects of these techniques on experiment duration and signal-background ratio are discussed.

  3. Similarity principle and rejection of Gibbs paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Kun

    2000-03-01

    Gibbs Paradox says that entropy of mixing or assembling decreases discotinuously with the increase in the property similarity. After the rejection of the Gibbs paradox statement (see papers cited at website http://www.mdpi.org/lin/), the similarity principle has been developed: If all the other conditions remain constant, the higher the similarity among the components is, the higher value of entropy of the mixing, the assembling or the chemical bond formation process will be, the more spontaneous the mixing, the assembling or the chemical bond formation process will be, and the more stable the mixture, the assemblage or the chemical bond will be. The similarity principle is very useful. If one wants to mix substances, increase the similarity (of relevant properties); if one plans to separate the substances as phases, reduce their similarity! Then, the desirable processes of mixing or separation will happen spontaneously. Normally by changing temperature ( similarity is related to Boltzmann factor) and pressure, one can control the similarity and in turn, direct the process towards the desired direction. Higher temperature and pressure leads to higher similarity. This theory is important in understanding molecular recognition, self-organization, molecular assembling and molecular replication.

  4. South African court rejects country's new constitution.

    PubMed

    1996-09-20

    Fundamental principles designed to ensure that South Africa's new constitution upholds a wide range of individual rights and freedoms and establishes a responsive government with a balanced separation of powers, including recognition of the role of traditional tribal leadership, were adopted into the current interim constitution shortly before the 1994 free elections which brought Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress to power. In a judgement issued on September 6, 1996, South Africa's Constitutional Court rejected the country's new draft constitution, arguing that it failed to meet the standards of nine of the 34 principles established at the Kempton Park negotiations. The Constitutional Assembly is comprised of a joint meeting of the National Assembly and Senate. One of the court's major objections to the constitution concerned the proposed structure of rule, which was seen to give inadequate power to South Africa's nine provinces as compared with the national government. However, the bill of rights was almost entirely upheld. The bill would create a favorable environment for legalized abortion and guarantee a universal right of access to health care, including reproductive health services

  5. Quantum Communication Using Coherent Rejection Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshu, Anurag; Devabathini, Vamsi Krishna; Jain, Rahul

    2017-09-01

    Compression of a message up to the information it carries is key to many tasks involved in classical and quantum information theory. Schumacher [B. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2738 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevA.51.2738] provided one of the first quantum compression schemes and several more general schemes have been developed ever since [M. Horodecki, J. Oppenheim, and A. Winter, Commun. Math. Phys. 269, 107 (2007); , 10.1007/s00220-006-0118-xI. Devetak and J. Yard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230501 (2008); , 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230501A. Abeyesinghe, I. Devetak, P. Hayden, and A. Winter, Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 2537 (2009), 10.1098/rspa.2009.0202]. However, the one-shot characterization of these quantum tasks is still under development, and often lacks a direct connection with analogous classical tasks. Here we show a new technique for the compression of quantum messages with the aid of entanglement. We devise a new tool that we call the convex split lemma, which is a coherent quantum analogue of the widely used rejection sampling procedure in classical communication protocols. As a consequence, we exhibit new explicit protocols with tight communication cost for quantum state merging, quantum state splitting, and quantum state redistribution (up to a certain optimization in the latter case). We also present a port-based teleportation scheme which uses a fewer number of ports in the presence of information about input.

  6. Acute cellular rejection with isolated v-lesions is not associated with more favorable outcomes than vascular rejection with more tubulointerstitial inflammations.

    PubMed

    Wu, K Y; Budde, K; Schmidt, D; Neumayer, H H; Rudolph, B

    2014-04-01

    The impact of isolated v-lesions on clinical outcome in biopsies with acute cellular rejection (ACR) is unclear. Two hundred and sixty-five biopsies showing the highest ACR severity for each patient were recruited and classified into four groups: (i) acute interstitial rejection (AIR) I with minimal tubulointerstitial inflammation (TI), (ii) AIR II with intensive TI, (iii) acute vascular rejection (AVR) I with minimal TI, and (iv) AVR II with intensive TI. The complete reversal rates of AIR I and AIR II groups were marginally higher than AVR I and AVR II groups (p = 0.16). At eight yr of transplantation, the death-censored graft survival (DCGS) rate of AIR I group (93.3%) was significantly higher compared with the AVR I (72.7%) or AVR II (72.9%) group. AVR I group had a similar DCGS rate with AVR II group (72.7% vs. 74.1%), whereas AVR with v1-lesion showed significantly higher graft survival (GS) rate than those with v2-lesion (70.2% vs. 45.5%). The t-lesion of AIR and v-lesion of AVR group were associated with graft loss. The extent of TI is non-specifically associated with graft loss in biopsies with AVR; the higher grade v-lesion predicts the lower complete reversal rate and poorer long-term graft survival. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Who Is Most Vulnerable to Social Rejection? The Toxic Combination of Low Self-Esteem and Lack of Negative Emotion Differentiation on Neural Responses to Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Pond, Richard S.; Powell, Caitlin; Combs, David; Schurtz, David R.; Farmer, Antonina S.

    2014-01-01

    People have a fundamental need to belong that, when satisfied, is associated with mental and physical well-being. The current investigation examined what happens when the need to belong is thwarted—and how individual differences in self-esteem and emotion differentiation modulate neural responses to social rejection. We hypothesized that low self-esteem would predict heightened activation in distress-related neural responses during a social rejection manipulation, but that this relationship would be moderated by negative emotion differentiation—defined as adeptness at using discrete negative emotion categories to capture one's felt experience. Combining daily diary and neuroimaging methodologies, the current study showed that low self-esteem and low negative emotion differentiation represented a toxic combination that was associated with stronger activation during social rejection (versus social inclusion) in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula—two regions previously shown to index social distress. In contrast, individuals with greater negative emotion differentiation did not show stronger activation in these regions, regardless of their level of self-esteem; fitting with prior evidence that negative emotion differentiation confers equanimity in emotionally upsetting situations. PMID:24594689

  8. Relations among adults' remembrances of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood, self-reported psychological adjustment, and adult psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Akün, Ebru

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine relationships among recollections of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the level of psychological adjustment among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, social anxiety, and nonclinical control. The study focused primarily on adults with schizophrenia and social anxiety in comparison to nonclinical adults. Fifty-three adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, 51 adults with self-reported social anxiety, and 147 nonclinical controls between the ages of 18 and 62 participated in the study. Data were collected using adult versions of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire for mothers and for fathers, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and the Demographic Information Form. Findings of analyses showed that participants in the schizophrenia and social anxiety groups remembered having experienced significantly more maternal rejection in childhood than did the nonclinical group. Patient with schizophrenia also reported more recollections of paternal rejection than the nonclinical group. Both clinical groups self-reported more psychological maladjustment than did the nonclinical group. Regression analysis indicated that even though the overall psychological adjustment of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia was predicted by both maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection, psychological adjustment of adults in the social anxiety group was predicted only by maternal (but not paternal) acceptance-rejection. This study provides evidence about the long-lasting associations between adults' recollections of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood and their psychological adjustment in two mental disorders, in which genetic and environmental factors have a different weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rejection of micropollutants by clean and fouled forward osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Zhenyu; Amy, Gary

    2011-12-15

    As forward osmosis (FO) gains attention as an efficient technology to improve wastewater reclamation processes, it is fundamental to determine the influence of fouling in the rejection of emerging contaminants (micropollutants). This study focuses on the rejection of 13 selected micropollutants, spiked in a secondary wastewater effluent, by a FO membrane, using Red Sea water as draw solution (DS), differentiating the effects on the rejection caused by a clean and fouled membrane. The resulting effluent was then desalinated at low pressure with a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, to produce a high quality permeate and determine the rejection with a coupled forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) system. When considering only FO with a clean membrane, the rejection of the hydrophilic neutral compounds was between 48.6% and 84.7%, for the hydrophobic neutrals the rejection ranged from 40.0% to 87.5%, and for the ionic compounds the rejections were between 92.9% and 96.5%. With a fouled membrane, the rejections were between 44.6% and 95.2%, 48.7%-91.5% and 96.9%-98.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, except for the hydrophilic neutral compounds, the rejection of the micropollutants is increased by the presence of a fouling layer, possibly due to the higher hydrophilicity of the FO fouled membrane compared to the clean one, the increased adsorption capacity of hydrophilic compounds and reduced mass transport capacity, membrane swelling, and the higher negative charge of the membrane surface, related to the foulants composition, mainly NOM acids (carboxylic radicals) and polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances. However, when coupled with RO, the rejections in both cases increased above 96%. The coupled FO-LPRO system was an effective double barrier against the selected micropollutants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Specimen rejection in laboratory medicine: Necessary for patient safety?

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Zeliha Gunnur; Pinar, Asli; Akbiyik, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The emergency laboratory in Hacettepe University Hospitals receives specimens from emergency departments (EDs), inpatient services and intensive care units (ICUs). The samples are accepted according to the rejection criteria of the laboratory. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the sample rejection ratios according to the types of pre-preanalytical errors and collection areas. The samples sent to the emergency laboratory were recorded during 12 months between January to December, 2013 in which 453,171 samples were received and 27,067 specimens were rejected. Rejection ratios was 2.5% for biochemistry tests, 3.2% for complete blood count (CBC), 9.8% for blood gases, 9.2% for urine analysis, 13.3% for coagulation tests, 12.8% for therapeutic drug monitoring, 3.5% for cardiac markers and 12% for hormone tests. The most frequent rejection reasons were fibrin clots (28%) and inadequate volume (9%) for biochemical tests. Clotted samples (35%) and inadequate volume (13%) were the major causes for coagulation tests, blood gas analyses and CBC. The ratio of rejected specimens was higher in the EDs (40%) compared to ICUs (30%) and inpatient services (28%). The highest rejection ratio was observed in neurology ICU (14%) among the ICUs and internal medicine inpatient service (10%) within inpatient clinics. We detected an overall specimen rejection rate of 6% in emergency laboratory. By documentation of rejected samples and periodic training of healthcare personnel, we expect to decrease sample rejection ratios below 2%, improve total quality management of the emergency laboratory and promote patient safety.

  11. Specimen rejection in laboratory medicine: Necessary for patient safety?

    PubMed Central

    Dikmen, Zeliha Gunnur; Pinar, Asli; Akbiyik, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The emergency laboratory in Hacettepe University Hospitals receives specimens from emergency departments (EDs), inpatient services and intensive care units (ICUs). The samples are accepted according to the rejection criteria of the laboratory. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the sample rejection ratios according to the types of pre-preanalytical errors and collection areas. Materials and methods The samples sent to the emergency laboratory were recorded during 12 months between January to December, 2013 in which 453,171 samples were received and 27,067 specimens were rejected. Results Rejection ratios was 2.5% for biochemistry tests, 3.2% for complete blood count (CBC), 9.8% for blood gases, 9.2% for urine analysis, 13.3% for coagulation tests, 12.8% for therapeutic drug monitoring, 3.5% for cardiac markers and 12% for hormone tests. The most frequent rejection reasons were fibrin clots (28%) and inadequate volume (9%) for biochemical tests. Clotted samples (35%) and inadequate volume (13%) were the major causes for coagulation tests, blood gas analyses and CBC. The ratio of rejected specimens was higher in the EDs (40%) compared to ICUs (30%) and inpatient services (28%). The highest rejection ratio was observed in neurology ICU (14%) among the ICUs and internal medicine inpatient service (10%) within inpatient clinics. Conclusions We detected an overall specimen rejection rate of 6% in emergency laboratory. By documentation of rejected samples and periodic training of healthcare personnel, we expect to decrease sample rejection ratios below 2%, improve total quality management of the emergency laboratory and promote patient safety. PMID:26527231

  12. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products that are received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement? 111.170 Section 111.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  13. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products that are received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement? 111.170 Section 111.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  14. 21 CFR 111.170 - What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected components, packaging, and labels, and to rejected products that are received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement? 111.170 Section 111.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  15. Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait Rejection Sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and Rejection Detection Capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective. PMID:26483750

  16. Rejected by peers-attracted to antisocial media content: rejection-based anger impairs moral judgment among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Plaisier, Xanthe S; Konijn, Elly A

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying together developmental research on peer rejection and research on media effects. Assumed underlying mechanisms are rejection-based anger and frustration and the adolescent's moral judgment. A between-participants experimental design manipulated peer rejection versus acceptance in adolescents (Mage = 13.88 years; N = 74) and young adults (Mage = 21.37 years; N = 75), applying the Cyberball paradigm. Measures included the State Anger Inventory (STAXI) to assess feelings of rejection and the newly devised Media, Morals, and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue) to assess media preferences and moral judgment of media content. Using bootstrapping analyses, a double mediation was established: Higher levels of state anger in peer-rejected adolescents induced more tolerable moral judgments of antisocial media content, subsequently instigating a preference for antisocial media content. In contrast, the young adult sample showed no relations between peer rejection and antisocial media preference. Results are discussed within a downward spiral framework of combined peer and media influences.

  17. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  18. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  19. In-Flight Performance of the TES Loop Heat Pipe Rejection System: Seven Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose I.; Na-Nakornpanom, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument heat rejection system has been operating in space for nearly 8 years since launched on NASA's EOS Aura Spacecraft. The instrument is an infrared imaging fourier transform spectrometer with spectral coverage of 3.2 to 15.4 microns. The loop heat pipe (LHP) based heat rejection system manages all of the instrument components waste heat including the two mechanical cryocoolers and their drive electronics. Five propylene LHPs collect and transport the instrument waste heat to the near room temperature nadir viewing radiators. During the early months of the mission, ice contamination of the cryogenic surfaces including the focal planes led to increased cryocooler loads and the need for periodic decontamination cycles. Focal plane decontamination cycles require power cycling both cryocoolers which also requires the two cryocooler LHPs to turn off and on during each cycle. To date, the cryocooler LHPs have undergone 24 start-ups in orbit successfully. This paper reports on the TES cryocooler loop heat pipe based heat rejection system performance. After a brief overview of the instrument thermal design, the paper presents detailed data on the highly successful space operation of the loop heat pipes since instrument turn-on in 2004. The data shows that the steady-state and transient operation of the LHPs has not changed since 2004 and shows consistent and predictable performance. The LHP based heat rejection system has provided a nearly constant heat rejection heat sink for all of its equipment which has led to exceptional overall instrument performance with world class science.

  20. Was Sigmund Freud's death hastened?

    PubMed

    Macleod, Alastair D Sandy

    2017-08-01

    The terminal illness of Sigmund Freud has been considered by many authors to be an example of physician-enacted euthanasia. A review and a reconsideration of the published literature by Freud's doctors and biographers cast doubt on this opinion. Over his last 48 h, Freud was administered substantial morphine doses to sedate and relieve his pain. However, from a pharmacological perspective, the timing of his death would not be consistent with that of a fatal dose of opioid. Freud died a natural death. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. New Methods for Noninvasive Monitoring of Rejection after Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Reichenspumer, Hermann; Haberl, Ralph; Angermann, Christiane; Anthuber, Matthias; Osterholzer, Georg; Kemkes, Bemhard M.; Hammer, Claus; Gokel, Joachim M.; Reichart, Bruno

    1988-01-01

    Between August 1981 and February 1987, 67 orthotopic heart transplants and three heart-lung transplants were performed in 69 patients at the University of Munich Hospital. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and prednisone. The diagnosis of acute rejection was based on cytoimmunologic monitoring, frequency analysis of fast Fourier transformed surface electrocardiograms (FFT-ECGs), and two-dimensional echocardiography. The results of these diagnostic methods were compared to the findings provided by endomyocardial biopsies, which were performed simultaneously with the noninvasive studies. Seventy patients underwent cytoimmunologic monitoring. In 88% of all rejection episodes, this technique revealed activated lymphocytes and lymphoblasts in the mononuclear concentrate of the peripheral blood samples; the presence of such cells is known to be an extremely early sign of acute rejection. Twenty-six patients were monitored by means of FFT-ECG. In 20 of the 21 cases of rejection, this method disclosed significant changes in the frequency spectrum of the QRS complex in the 70- to 110-Hz range; in 12 cases, these changes were the earliest sign of acute rejection. Therefore, FFT-ECG had a sensitivity of 95%. All of the QRS changes were reversible with rejection therapy. Forty-five patients were subjected to two-dimensional echocardiography. In 31 of the 35 cases of rejection, the echocardiogram showed a significant increase in the left ventricular wall thickness and a decrease in the left ventricular cross-sectional area during mild rejection. Moderate or severe rejection was characterized by an increase in the diastolic area, as well as a decrease in the systolic area change and in the diastolic maximum velocity of area change. Thus, two-dimensional echocardiography had a sensitivity of 89%. In the recent cases, the diagnosis of rejection was based on noninvasive methods alone. After rejection therapy had been instituted, endomyocardial

  2. Indirect Effects of Emotion Regulation on Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Roles of Positive and Negative Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Bethany L.; Gangel, Meghan J.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that childhood emotion regulation predicts later success with peers, yet little is known about the processes through which this association occurs. The current study examined mechanisms through which emotion regulation was associated with later peer acceptance and peer rejection, controlling for earlier…

  3. Organ transplant tissue rejection: detection and staging by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum E.; Whitehead, Peter D.; McManus, Bruce; Zeng, Haishan; Wilson-McManus, Janet; MacKinnon, Nick; Morgan, David C.; Dong, Chunming; Gerla, Paul; Kenyon, Jennifer

    1998-07-01

    Patients receiving heart or other organ transplants usually require some level of anti-rejection drug therapy, most commonly cyclosporine. The rejection status of the organ must be monitored to determine the optimal anti-rejection drug therapy. The current method for monitoring post-transplant rejection status of heart transplant patients consists of taking biopsies from the right ventricle. In this work we have developed a system employing optical and signal-processing techniques that will allow a cardiologist to measure spectral changes associated with tissue rejection using an optical catheter probe. The system employs time gated illumination and detection systems to deal with the dynamic signal acquisition problems associated with in vivo measurements of a beating heart. Spectral data processing software evaluates and processes the data to produce a simple numerical score. Results of measurements made on 100 excised transplanted isograft and allograft rat hearts have demonstrated the ability of the system to detect the presence of rejection and to accurately correlate the spectroscopic results with the ISHLT (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation) stage of rejection determined by histopathology. In vivo measurements using a pig transplant model are now in process.

  4. Separate neural representations for physical pain and social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Lindquist, Martin A.; Banich, Marie T.; Ruzic, Luka; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Wager, Tor D.

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that physical pain and social rejection share common neural mechanisms, largely by virtue of overlapping functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity. Here we challenge this notion by identifying distinct multivariate fMRI patterns unique to pain and rejection. Sixty participants experience painful heat and warmth and view photos of ex-partners and friends on separate trials. FMRI pattern classifiers discriminate pain and rejection from their respective control conditions in out-of-sample individuals with 92% and 80% accuracy. The rejection classifier performs at chance on pain, and vice versa. Pain-and rejection-related representations are uncorrelated within regions thought to encode pain affect (for example, dorsal anterior cingulate) and show distinct functional connectivity with other regions in a separate resting-state data set (N = 91). These findings demonstrate that separate representations underlie pain and rejection despite common fMRI activity at the gross anatomical level. Rather than co-opting pain circuitry, rejection involves distinct affective representations in humans. PMID:25400102

  5. Lunar Dust on Heat Rejection System Surfaces: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Heat rejection from power systems will be necessary for human and robotic activity on the lunar surface. Functional operation of such heat rejection systems is at risk of degradation as a consequence of dust accumulation. The Apollo astronauts encountered marked degradation of performance in heat rejection systems for the lunar roving vehicle, science packages, and other components. Although ground testing of dust mitigation concepts in support of the Apollo mission identified mitigation tools, the brush concept adopted by the Apollo astronauts proved essentially ineffective. A better understanding of the issues associated with the impact of lunar dust on the functional performance of heat rejection systems and its removal is needed as planning gets underway for human and robotic missions to the Moon. Renewed emphasis must also be placed on ground testing of pristine and dust-covered heat rejection system surfaces to quantify degradation and address mitigation concepts. This paper presents a review of the degradation in performance of heat rejection systems encountered on the lunar surface to-date, and will discuss current activities underway to evaluate the durability of candidate heat rejection system surfaces and current dust mitigation concepts.

  6. Early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Tisdale, P.L.; Collier, B.D.; Kauffman, H.M.; Adams, M.B.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Rao, S.A.; Joestgen, T.; Krohn, L.

    1985-05-01

    A prospective evaluation of In-111 labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy for the early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection was undertaken. To date, 28 consecutive patients between 7 and 14 days post-op have been injected with 500..mu..Ci of In-111 platelets followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours. Activity within the renal transplant exceeding activity in the adjacent iliac vessels was considered to be evidence of rejection, and both chemical evidence and clinical impression of rejection at 5 days after completion of imaging was accepted as proof of ongoing or incipient rejection at the time of scintigraphy. In addition, to visual inspection, independent quantitative analysis compared the area-normalized activity over the transplant with the adjacent iliac vessels (normal <1.0). For 5 patients, positive In-111 scintigraphy was present before convincing clinical evidence of rejection. In-111 platelet scintigraphy is useful not only to confirm the clinical diagnosis of rejection but also to establish the early, pre-clinical diagnosis of incipient acute postoperative renal transplant rejection.

  7. Separate neural representations for physical pain and social rejection.

    PubMed

    Woo, Choong-Wan; Koban, Leonie; Kross, Ethan; Lindquist, Martin A; Banich, Marie T; Ruzic, Luka; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Wager, Tor D

    2014-11-17

    Current theories suggest that physical pain and social rejection share common neural mechanisms, largely by virtue of overlapping functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity. Here we challenge this notion by identifying distinct multivariate fMRI patterns unique to pain and rejection. Sixty participants experience painful heat and warmth and view photos of ex-partners and friends on separate trials. FMRI pattern classifiers discriminate pain and rejection from their respective control conditions in out-of-sample individuals with 92% and 80% accuracy. The rejection classifier performs at chance on pain, and vice versa. Pain- and rejection-related representations are uncorrelated within regions thought to encode pain affect (for example, dorsal anterior cingulate) and show distinct functional connectivity with other regions in a separate resting-state data set (N = 91). These findings demonstrate that separate representations underlie pain and rejection despite common fMRI activity at the gross anatomical level. Rather than co-opting pain circuitry, rejection involves distinct affective representations in humans.

  8. Detection of cardiac transplant rejection with radiolabeled lymphocytes. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-03-01

    To determine whether rejections of cardiac transplants could be detected specifically and non-invasively by lymphocytes labeled with indium-111 (111In), we studied 36 allogeneic and 14 isogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Allogeneic grafts accumulated autologous 111In-lymphocytes, detectable scintigraphically 24 hours after i.v. injection of the labeled cells. At the time of peak histologic rejection, the allogeneic grafts accumulated 92. +/- 4.8 times more activity than the native hearts (determined by well counting). The tissue-to-blood ratio in the rejecting transplants was 3.7 +/- 2.2; total uptake by the graft was 2.9 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose. Autoradiography confirmed that graft radioactivity was associated with labeled lymphocytes. In contrast, isogeneic grafts showed no signs of rejection and did not accumulate radioactivity. Because conventionally isolated and labeled lymphocytes are often contaminated with platelets, we prepared both 111In-platelets and purified 111In-lymphocytes for use in additional experiments. Allogeneic grafts accumulated platelets and purified lymphocytes independently. Thus, deposition of immunologically active cells in the rejecting graft representing specific pathophysiologic events can be detected. The results suggest that rejection of cardiac transplants can be detected noninvasively, potentially facilitating objective early clinical detection of rejection and titration of antirejection therapy.

  9. Lunar Dust on Heat Rejection System Surfaces: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaier, James R.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Heat rejection from power systems will be necessary for human and robotic activity on the lunar surface. Functional operation of such heat rejection systems is at risk of degradation as a consequence of dust accumulation. The Apollo astronauts encountered marked degradation of performance in heat rejection systems for the lunar roving vehicle, science packages, and other components. Although ground testing of dust mitigation concepts in support of the Apollo mission identified candidate mitigation tools, the brush concept adopted by the Apollo astronauts proved essentially ineffective. A better understanding of the issues associated with the impact of lunar dust on the functional performance of heat rejection systems and its removal is needed as planning gets underway for human and robotic missions to the Moon. Renewed emphasis must also be placed on ground testing of pristine and dust-covered heat rejection system surfaces to quantify degradation and address mitigation concepts. This paper presents a review of the degradation of heat rejection systems encountered on the lunar surface to-date, and discusses current activities underway to evaluate the durability of candidate heat rejection system surfaces and current dust mitigation concepts.

  10. Sinusoidal endotheliitis as a histological parameter for diagnosing acute liver allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; Dong, Kun; Zhang, Yu-Guo; Michel, René P; Marcus, Victoria; Wang, Yu-Yue; Chen, Yu; Gao, Zu-Hua

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the feasibility of using sinusoidal endotheliitis (SE) as a histological marker for liver allograft rejection. METHODS We compared the histological features of 88 liver allograft biopsies with acute cellular rejection (ACR) and 59 cases with no evidence of ACR. SE was scored as: (1) focal linear lifting up of the endothelial cells by lymphocytes with no obvious damage to adjacent hepatocytes; (2) focal disruption of the endothelial lining by a cluster of subendothelial lymphocytes (a group of > 3 lymphocytes); and (3) severe confluent endotheliitis with hemorrhage and adjacent hepatocyte loss. RESULTS The sensitivity and specificity of SE was 81% and 85%, respectively. Using SE as the only parameter, the positive predictive value for ACR (PPV) was 0.89, whereas the negative predictive value for ACR (NPV) was 0.75. The correlation between RAI and SE was moderate (R = 0.44, P < 0.001) (Figure 3A), whereas it became strong (R = 0.65, P < 0.001) when correlating SE with the venous endotheliitis activity index only. CONCLUSION Our data suggest that SE scoring could be a reliable and reproducible supplemental parameter to the existing Banff schema for diagnosing acute liver allograft rejection. PMID:28223723

  11. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in kidneys is associated with allograft survival after kidney transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shuo-Chun; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Wen, Mei-Chin; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Chen, Nien-Jung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-09-03

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression in kidneys has been shown to predict progression of chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated a cohort comprising 96 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) undergoing graft kidney biopsies. Computer-assisted quantitative immunohistochemical staining value of DcR3 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) was used to determine the predictive role of DcR3 in kidney disease progression. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine and/or graft failure. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of DcR3 expression in rejected kidney grafts toward the renal end point. In total, RTRs with kidney allograft rejection were evaluated and the median follow-up was 30.9 months. The greater expression of DcR3 immunoreactivity in RTECs was correlated with a higher rate of the histopathological concordance of acute T cell-mediated rejection. Compared with 65 non-progressors, 31 progressors had higher DcR3 expression (HDE) regardless of the traditional risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed HDE was significantly associated with the risk of renal end point with a hazard ratio of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 7.27; P = 0.006) after adjusting for other variables. In repetitive biopsies, HDE in tissue showed rapid kidney disease progression due to persistent inflammation.

  12. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comandi, G. L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    "Galileo Galilei on the ground" (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor.

  13. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    SciTech Connect

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-03-15

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor.

  14. Rejection elicits emotional reactions but neither causes immediate distress nor lowers self-esteem: a meta-analytic review of 192 studies on social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Blackhart, Ginette C; Nelson, Brian C; Knowles, Megan L; Baumeister, Roy F

    2009-11-01

    Competing predictions about the effect of social exclusion were tested by meta-analyzing findings from studies of interpersonal rejection, ostracism, and similar procedures. Rejection appears to cause a significant shift toward a more negative emotional state. Typically, however, the result was an emotionally neutral state marked by low levels of both positive and negative affect. Acceptance caused a slight increase in positive mood and a moderate increase in self-esteem. Self-esteem among rejected persons was no different from neutral controls. These findings are discussed in terms of belongingness motivation, sociometer theory, affective numbing, and self-esteem defenses.

  15. Adenovirus Interstitial Nephritis and Rejection in an Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Storsley, Leroy

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are an important complication of solid organ transplantation. Although polyoma is the virus that most commonly infects the renal allograft, adenoviral infections are also reported. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings in a patient with adenoviral infection associated with acute rejection of the renal allograft. The pathologic findings of adenovirus infection usually include a granulomatous interstitial nephritis, which is helpful in distinguishing from acute rejection. We discuss the differential diagnosis and pathophysiology of allograft viral infections and concomitant rejection. PMID:21436288

  16. Simplified analysis and optimization of space base and space shuttle heat rejection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulff, W.

    1972-01-01

    A simplified radiator system analysis was performed to predict steady state radiator system performance. The system performance was found to be describable in terms of five non-dimensional system parameters. The governing differential equations are integrated numerically to yield the enthalpy rejection for the coolant fluid. The simplified analysis was extended to produce the derivatives of the coolant exit temperature with respect to the governing system parameters. A procedure was developed to find the optimum set of system parameters which yields the lowest possible coolant exit temperature for either a given projected area or a given total mass. The process can be inverted to yield either the minimum area or the minimum mass, together with the optimum geometry, for a specified heat rejection rate.

  17. Physician reports of medication use with explicit intention of hastening the end of life in the absence of explicit patient request in general practice in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the incidence of the use of life-ending drugs without explicit patient request has been estimated in several studies, in-depth empirical research on this controversial practice is nonexistent. Based on face-to-face interviews with the clinicians involved in cases where patients died following such a decision in general practice in Belgium, we investigated the clinical characteristics of the patients, the decision-making process, and the way the practice was conducted. Methods Mortality follow-back study in 2005-2006 using the nationwide Sentinel Network of General Practitioners, a surveillance instrument representative of all GPs in Belgium. Standardised face-to-face interviews were conducted with all GPs who reported a non-sudden death in their practice, at home or in a care home, which was preceded by the use of a drug prescribed, supplied or administered by a physican without an explicit patient request. Results Of the 2690 deaths registered by the GPs, 17 were eligible to be included in the study. Thirteen interviews were conducted. GPs indicated that at the time of the decision all patients were without prospect of improvement, with persistent and unbearable suffering to a (very) high degree in nine cases. Twelve patients were judged to lack the competence to make decisions. GPs were unaware of their patient's end-of-life wishes in nine cases, but always discussed the practice with other caregivers and/or the patient's relatives. All but one patient received opioids to hasten death. All GPs believed that end-of-life quality had been "improved considerably". Conclusions The practice of using life-ending drugs without explicit patient request in general practice in Belgium mainly involves non-competent patients experiencing persistent and unbearable suffering whose end-of-life wishes can no longer be ascertained. GPs do not act as isolated decision-makers and they believe they act in the best interests of the patient. Advance care planning

  18. Precision Subtypes of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Identified by Molecular Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Paul Ostrom; Hajjiri, Zahraa; Finn, Patricia W.; Perkins, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Among kidney transplant recipients, the treatment of choice for acute T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) with pulse steroids or antibody protocols has variable outcomes. Some rejection episodes are resistant to an initial steroid pulse, but respond to subsequent antibody protocols. The biological mechanisms causing the different therapeutic responses are not currently understood. Histological examination of the renal allograft is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of acute rejection. The Banff Classification System was established to standardize the histopathological diagnosis and to direct therapy. Although widely used, it shows variability among pathologists and lacks criteria to guide precision individualized therapy. The analysis of the transcriptome in allograft biopsies, which we analyzed in this study, provides a strategy to develop molecular diagnoses that would have increased diagnostic precision and assist the development of individualized treatment. Our hypothesis is that the histological classification of TCMR contains multiple subtypes of rejection. Using R language algorithms to determine statistical significance, multidimensional scaling, and hierarchical, we analyzed differential gene expression based on microarray data from biopsies classified as TCMR. Next, we identified KEGG functions, protein–protein interaction networks, gene regulatory networks, and predicted therapeutic targets using the integrated database ConsesnsusPathDB (CPDB). Based on our analysis, two distinct clusters of biopsies termed TCMR01 and TCMR02 were identified. Despite having the same Banff classification, we identified 1933 differentially expressed genes between the two clusters. These genes were further divided into three major groups: a core group contained within both the TCMR01 and TCMR02 subtypes, as well as genes unique to TCMR01 or TCMR02. The subtypes of TCMR utilized different biological pathways, different regulatory networks and were predicted to

  19. Reliability and construct validity for scale of rejection of Christianity.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J; Bradford, Amanda

    2003-02-01

    A sample of 16 male and 30 female undergraduates completed the Greer and Francis Scale of Rejection of Christianity. The data support the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scale for this sample.

  20. The Effect of Circumstantial Rejection on Infant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Perla

    1972-01-01

    Intentional or unintentional rejection of a blind infant by the mother is shown to be conducive to the child's unwillingness to explore his environment, which in turn can have negative effects on the child's development. (CB)

  1. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected if the prices for any line items or subline items are materially unbalanced (see 15.404-1(g)). (h)...

  2. Children's Use of Memory Editing Strategies to Reject Source Misinformation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kara N; Lampinen, James M; Gallo, David A; Adams, Eryn J; Bridges, Ana J

    2017-02-15

    This is the first reported study of children's use of two metacognitive strategies, recollection rejection and diagnostic monitoring, to reject misinformation. Recollection rejection involves the retrieval of details that disqualify an event, whereas diagnostic monitoring involves the failure to retrieve expected details. First (n = 56, age 7 years) and third graders (n = 52, age 9 years) witnessed a staged classroom interaction involving common and bizarre accidents, were presented with misinformation about the source of these events, and took a memory test. Both age groups used recollection rejection, but third graders were more effective. There was little evidence that diagnostic monitoring influenced responses for bizarre events, potentially because these events were not sufficiently bizarre in the context of the stereotype induction.

  3. Liquid droplet radiators for heat rejection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1980-01-01

    A radiator for heat rejection in space is described which utilizes a stream of liquid droplets to radiate waste heat. The large surface area per mass makes the liquid droplet radiator at least an order of magnitude lighter than tube and fin radiators. Generation and collection of the droplets, as well as heat transfer to the liquid, can be achieved with modest extensions of conventional technology. Low vapor pressure liquids are available which cover a radiating temperature range 250-1000 K with negligible evaporation losses. The droplet radiator may be employed for a wide range of heat rejection applications in space. Three applications - heat rejection for a high temperature Rankine cycle, cooling of photovoltaic cells, and low temperature heat rejection for refrigeration in space illustrate the versatility of the radiator.

  4. 48 CFR 19.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 19.505 Section 19.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) If the contracting officer rejects a recommendation... the recommendation. (b) The SBA procurement center representative (or, if a procurement...

  5. Lung rejection occurs in lung transplant recipients with blood chimerism.

    PubMed

    Knoop, C; Andrien, M; Defleur, V; Antoine, M; de Francquen, P; Goldman, M; Estenne, M

    1997-07-15

    It has been postulated that chimerism after transplantation might promote graft acceptance. In the present study, we prospectively assessed blood chimerism in 10 lung transplant recipients during the first posttransplant year and investigated whether chimerism was associated with an immunologically stable situation of the graft. The recipients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained before transplantation and at various time points during the first postoperative year. Donor cells were detected using nested polymerase chain reaction amplification of a donor-specific HLA-DRB1 allele. Clinical graft acceptance was determined by the number of rejection episodes. The incidence of blood chimerism was high during the first 3 postoperative months and then decreased over time. All patients experienced at least one acute rejection episode, and three patients developed chronic rejection. We, thus, conclude that rejection of the lung allograft may occur in the presence of blood chimerism.

  6. 48 CFR 19.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 19.505 Section 19.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) If the contracting officer rejects a recommendation... the recommendation. (b) The SBA procurement center representative (or, if a procurement...

  7. 48 CFR 19.505 - Rejecting Small Business Administration recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration recommendations. 19.505 Section 19.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Small Business Administration recommendations. (a) If the contracting officer rejects a recommendation... the recommendation. (b) The SBA procurement center representative (or, if a procurement...

  8. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An...

  9. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An...

  10. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application. (a) An...

  11. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application (a) An...

  12. 7 CFR 56.24 - Rejection of application

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Application for Grading Service § 56.24 Rejection of application (a) An...

  13. Acute antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Davis, Scott; Cooper, James E

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection has now been recognized as one of the most important causes of graft loss. Transplantation across HLA barriers and nonadherence can result in acute antibody-mediated rejection, which is associated with particularly worse graft outcomes. New technologies, including genomic studies and assays to detect and define donor-specific antibodies, have provided important insights into the pathophysiology and diagnosis of acute antibody-mediated rejection but have engendered many questions about the clinical application of these tests in the prognosis and prevention of this protean disease process. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of acute antibody-mediated rejection, the evolving diagnostic criteria, and specific challenges related to its prognosis, treatment, and prevention.

  14. Filipino Mothers’ Self-Efficacy in Managing Anger and in Parenting, and Parental Rejection as Predictors of Child Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Daganzo, Mary Angeline A.; Peña Alampay, Liane; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors tested a model in which Filipino mothers’ self-efficacy in managing anger/irritation influenced child delinquency via two parenting variables: parental self-efficacy and parental rejection. Structured interviews were conducted with 99 mothers twice with an interval of one year with efficacy beliefs and rejection measured in the first year and child delinquency data collected in the following year. Path analyses showed that self-efficacy in managing anger/irritation negatively predicted child delinquency indirectly through the sequential mediation of parental self-efficacy and parental rejection. Results provided further evidence for the importance of efficacy beliefs, particularly self-efficacy in managing anger/irritation and parental self-efficacy, in the domain of child development. PMID:26635423

  15. Steroid-resistant kidney transplant rejection: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bock, H A

    2001-02-01

    Decreases in transplant function may be attributable to a variety of conditions, including prerenal and postrenal failure, cyclosporin A (CsA) toxicity, polyoma nephritis, recurrent glomerulonephritis, and rejection. The diagnosis of rejection should therefore be made on the basis of a transplant biopsy of adequate size, before the initiation of any therapy. Pulse steroid treatment (three to five 0.25- to 1.0-g pulses of methylprednisolone, administered intravenously) is the usual first-line therapy and has a 60 to 70% success rate, although orally administered prednisone (0.25 g) may be just as efficacious. Even if reverted, any rejection should trigger an at least temporary increase in basal immunosuppression, consisting of an increase in CsA or tacrolimus target levels, the addition of steroids or an increase in their dosage, the addition of mycophenolate mofetil, or a switch from CsA to tacrolimus. The addition of rapamycin or its RAD derivative may fulfill the same purpose. Steroid resistance should not be assumed before the fifth day of pulse steroid treatment, although histologic features of vascular rejection may indicate the need for more aggressive treatment earlier. Steroid-resistant rejection is traditionally treated with poly- or monoclonal antilymphocytic antibodies, with success rates of 60 to 70%. Their potential benefit must be carefully balanced against the risks of infection and lymphoma. More recently, mycophenolate mofetil has been successfully used to treat steroid-resistant rejection, but only of the interstitial (cellular) type. Switching from CsA to tacrolimus for treating recurrent or antibody-resistant rejection is successful in approximately 60% of cases. Plasmapheresis and intravenously administered Ig have been used in some desperate cases, with surprising success. Because none of the available drugs has a significantly better profile of therapeutic versus adverse effects, the possible benefits of continued rejection therapy must be

  16. Virus Rejection by the Reverse Osmosis - Ultrafiltration Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Rejection of viruses by commercial grade asymmetrical cellulose acetate membranes commonly used in the ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis processes...penetration of viruses may be attributable to the presence of random areas of imperfect crosslinkage of the cellulose acetate in the dense layer of...the membrane. Despite limited virus penetration, all of the cellulose acetate membranes used in this study rejected an extremely high percentage of the viruses and provided a product water of excellent quality.

  17. Peer rejection in childhood, involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence, and the development of externalizing behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Robert D.; Jordan, Kristi Y.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal, prospective design was used to examine the roles of peer rejection in middle childhood and antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Both early starter and late starter pathways were considered. Classroom sociometric interviews from ages 6 through 9 years, adolescent reports of peers' behavior at age 13 years, and parent, teacher, and adolescent self-reports of externalizing behavior problems from age 5 through 14 years were available for 400 adolescents. Results indicate that experiencing peer rejection in elementary school and greater involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence are correlated but that these peer relationship experiences may represent two different pathways to adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Peer rejection experiences, but not involvement with antisocial peers, predict later externalizing behavior problems when controlling for stability in externalizing behavior. Externalizing problems were most common when rejection was experienced repeatedly. Early externalizing problems did not appear to moderate the relation between peer rejection and later problem behavior. Discussion highlights multiple pathways connecting externalizing behavior problems from early childhood through adolescence with peer relationship experiences in middle childhood and early adolescence. PMID:11393650

  18. Gender and the Interplay of Source of Support and Peer Social Rejection on Internalizing Among Mexican American Youth.

    PubMed

    Jenchura, Emily C; Gonzales, Nancy A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Luecken, Linda J

    2017-04-01

    Gendered interpersonal processes may explain the elevated rates of internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls relative to boys. Two such processes are peer social rejection and social support. The current study assessed for gender differences in the effect of 7th grade peer social rejection on 10th grade internalizing symptoms, as well as the moderating effects of social support from family and from friends in a sample of 749 (49 % female) Mexican American adolescents, an understudied population with a unique social culture. Peer social rejection significantly predicted increased internalizing symptoms for girls. Although buffering effects of social support were not found, there were significant moderating effects of both sources of support for boys, such that at low levels of social support, peer social rejection was associated with decreased internalizing symptoms, and at high levels of social support, peer social rejection was associated with increased internalizing symptoms. The results help unpack the nuances of the interpersonal processes that lead to differential adjustment for adolescent boys and girls at this critical developmental stage.

  19. The private rejection of unfair offers and emotional commitment

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Takagishi, Haruto; Shinada, Mizuho; Tanida, Shigehito; Cook, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that certain players of an economic game reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases rather than decreases inequity. A substantial proportion (30–40%, compared with 60–70% in the standard ultimatum game) of those who responded rejected unfair offers even when rejection reduced only their own earnings to 0, while not affecting the earnings of the person who proposed the unfair split (in an impunity game). Furthermore, even when the responders were not able to communicate their anger to the proposers by rejecting unfair offers in a private impunity game, a similar rate of rejection was observed. The rejection of unfair offers that increases inequity cannot be explained by the social preference for inequity aversion or reciprocity; however, it does provide support for the model of emotion as a commitment device. In this view, emotions such as anger or moral disgust lead people to disregard the immediate consequences of their behavior, committing them to behave consistently to preserve integrity and maintain a reputation over time as someone who is reliably committed to this behavior. PMID:19564602

  20. Prevention trumps treatment of antibody-mediated transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Stuart J.; Kwun, Jean; Iwakoshi, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Belying the spectacular success of solid organ transplantation and improvements in immunosuppressive therapy is the reality that long-term graft survival rates remain relatively unchanged, in large part due to chronic and insidious alloantibody-mediated graft injury. Half of heart transplant recipients develop chronic rejection within 10 years — a daunting statistic, particularly for young patients expecting to achieve longevity by enduring the rigors of a transplant. The current immunosuppressive pharmacopeia is relatively ineffective in preventing late alloantibody-associated chronic rejection. In this issue of the JCI, Kelishadi et al. report that preemptive deletion of B cells prior to heart transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys, in addition to conventional posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, markedly attenuated not only acute graft rejection but also alloantibody elaboration and chronic graft rejection. The success of this preemptive strike implies a central role for B cells in graft rejection, and this approach may help to delay or prevent chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation. PMID:20335653

  1. Phenotypes of antibody-mediated rejection in organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Michael; Husain, Sufia; Hidalgo, Luis; Sis, Banu

    2012-06-01

    Antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection was the first rejection phenotype observed in human organ transplants. This devastating phenotype was eliminated by reliable crossmatch technologies. Since then, the focus was on T-cell-mediated rejection and de novo donor-specific antibodies were considered an epiphenomenon of cognate T-cell activation. The immune theory was that controlling the T-cell response would entail elimination of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). With modern immunosuppressive drugs, T-cell-mediated rejection is essentially treatable. However, this did not prevent ABMR from emerging as a significant phenotype in all types of organ transplants. It became obvious that both rejection types require distinct treatment and thus reliable diagnosis. This is the current challenge. ABMR, depending on stage, grade, time course, organ type or prior treatment, can present with a wide spectrum of phenotypes. This review summarizes the current diagnostic consensus for ABMR, describes unmet needs and challenges in diagnostics, and proposes new approaches for consideration. © 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  2. Confuser rejection performance of EMACH filters for MSTAR ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David; Nehemiah, Avinash

    2006-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) based on the extended maximum average correlation height (EMACH) distortion invariant filter (DIF) is presented. Prior work on the EMACH filter addresses 3-class and 10 class classification with clutter rejection. However, the ability of the EMACH filter to reject confusers is not well known. This paper addresses this. We follow a benchmark procedure which involves classification of three object classes over 360° aspect angle differences and with depression angle and variant differences and rejection of two unseen confusers from the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) public database. We present a scheme to select which training set images to include while making the filters, since it is not necessary to use all training set images to make the filters. Results for classification with both confuser and clutter rejection are presented. We also compare our work with prior EMACH MSTAR work. We find EMACH filters to have poor confuser and clutter rejection. We also correct prior EMACH clutter rejection performance results.

  3. The private rejection of unfair offers and emotional commitment.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Toshio; Horita, Yutaka; Takagishi, Haruto; Shinada, Mizuho; Tanida, Shigehito; Cook, Karen S

    2009-07-14

    In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that certain players of an economic game reject unfair offers even when this behavior increases rather than decreases inequity. A substantial proportion (30-40%, compared with 60-70% in the standard ultimatum game) of those who responded rejected unfair offers even when rejection reduced only their own earnings to 0, while not affecting the earnings of the person who proposed the unfair split (in an impunity game). Furthermore, even when the responders were not able to communicate their anger to the proposers by rejecting unfair offers in a private impunity game, a similar rate of rejection was observed. The rejection of unfair offers that increases inequity cannot be explained by the social preference for inequity aversion or reciprocity; however, it does provide support for the model of emotion as a commitment device. In this view, emotions such as anger or moral disgust lead people to disregard the immediate consequences of their behavior, committing them to behave consistently to preserve integrity and maintain a reputation over time as someone who is reliably committed to this behavior.

  4. Diagnostic criteria of antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Mosquera Reboredo, J M; Vázquez Martul, E

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of anti-donor antibody-mediated rejection or humoral rejection (ABMR) is one of the main discussions at the moment in kidney transplantation. The search for histopathological markers that help us to diagnose ABMR has been more problematic, in contrast to the histological expression of cellular or tubulointerstitial rejection. Although the relationship between post-transplant anti-donor antibodies and the allograft's prognosis has been a topic of discussion for a long time, led in the main by P.Terasaki, it was not until the beginning of 1990s when P. Halloran studied the humoral mechanisms of rejection in greater depth. Feutch described the importance of C4d deposits as a marker that shows a humoral mechanism of allograft rejection in 1993. As a result of many studies carried out, the Banff consensus group established some diagnostic histopathological criteria of acute (ABMR) in 2003. These have been modified slightly in later meetings of the group. Furthermore, in 2005 this same working group looked at the physiopathological mechanisms causing chronic allograft failure in more detail and established the criteria defining chronic humoral rejection. In this review, we are trying to update any useful histopathological criteria for diagnosing acute and chronic ABMR.

  5. Combining Theoretical and Experimental Techniques to Study Murine Heart Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Julia C.; Maturo, Andrew; Arun, Anirudh; Oh, Byoung Chol; Brandacher, Gerald; Raimondi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The quality of life of organ transplant recipients is compromised by complications associated with life-long immunosuppression, such as hypertension, diabetes, opportunistic infections, and cancer. Moreover, the absence of established tolerance to the transplanted tissues causes limited long-term graft survival rates. Thus, there is a great medical need to understand the complex immune system interactions that lead to transplant rejection so that novel and effective strategies of intervention that redirect the system toward transplant acceptance (while preserving overall immune competence) can be identified. This study implements a systems biology approach in which an experimentally based mathematical model is used to predict how alterations in the immune response influence the rejection of mouse heart transplants. Five stages of conventional mouse heart transplantation are modeled using a system of 13 ordinary differential equations that tracks populations of both innate and adaptive immunity as well as proxies for pro- and anti-inflammatory factors within the graft and a representative draining lymph node. The model correctly reproduces known experimental outcomes, such as indefinite survival of the graft in the absence of CD4+ T cells and quick rejection in the absence of CD8+ T cells. The model predicts that decreasing the translocation rate of effector cells from the lymph node to the graft delays transplant rejection. Increasing the starting number of quiescent regulatory T cells in the model yields a significant but somewhat limited protective effect on graft survival. Surprisingly, the model shows that a delayed appearance of alloreactive T cells has an impact on graft survival that does not correlate linearly with the time delay. This computational model represents one of the first comprehensive approaches toward simulating the many interacting components of the immune system. Despite some limitations, the model provides important suggestions of

  6. Utility of left ventricular systolic torsion derived from 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in monitoring acute cellular rejection in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Kato, Tomoko S; Komamura, Kazuo; Kamamura, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Shuji; Shishido, Toshiaki; Mano, Akiko; Oda, Noboru; Takahashi, Ayako; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Nakatani, Takeshi; Asakura, Masanori; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Hashimura, Kazuhiko; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2011-05-01

    Reduced left ventricular torsion (LV-tor) has been reported to be associated with acute rejection in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. We investigated the utility of LV-tor analysis derived from 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) for detecting allograft rejection. A total of 301 endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs), right heart catheterizations and echocardiograms were performed in 32 HTx recipients. Echocardiography was done within 3 hours from EMB or simultaneously with the procedures. The LV-tor was defined as the difference between apical and basal end-systolic rotations. The LV-tor values with and without cellular rejection were compared. In addition, we investigated whether the change in LV-tor values predicts the change in rejection grade in each patient. The baseline LV-tor value in each patient was defined as a mean value of the first 3 LV-tor measurements obtained when the patient was free from rejection. According to the conventional International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria, 274 biopsies showed a rejection Grade of 0, 1a or 1b (Group AR(-)), whereas 27 biopsies were Grade 2 or higher (Group AR(+)). LV-tor decreased more in Group AR(+) than in Group AR(-) (9.3 ± 0.7 vs 12.2 ± 0.2 degrees, p < 0.0001). In the LV-tor measurement for each patient, the 25% reduction in LV-tor value from baseline predicted Grade 2 or higher rejection with a predictive accuracy of 92.9%. LV-tor derived from 2D-STE could be of clinical value for non-invasive monitoring of acute rejection in HTx recipients. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Dyadic Perspective on Speech Accommodation and Social Connection: Both Partners' Rejection Sensitivity Matters.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Lauren; Downey, Geraldine; Krauss, Robert; Pardo, Jennifer; Lane, Sean; Bolger, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Findings from confederate paradigms predict that mimicry is an adaptive route to social connection for rejection-sensitive individuals (Lakin, Chartrand, & Arkin, 2008). However, dyadic perspectives predict that whether mimicry leads to perceived connection depends on the rejection sensitivity (RS) of both partners in an interaction. We investigated these predictions in 50 college women who completed a dyadic cooperative task in which members were matched or mismatched in being dispositionally high or low in RS. We used a psycholinguistics paradigm to assess, through independent listeners' judgments (N = 162), how much interacting individuals accommodate phonetic aspects of their speech toward each other. Results confirmed predictions from confederate paradigms in matched RS dyads. However, mismatched dyads showed an asymmetry in levels of accommodation and perceived connection: Those high in RS accommodated more than their low-RS partner but emerged feeling less connected. Mediational analyses indicated that low-RS individuals' nonaccommodation in mismatched dyads helped explain their high-RS partners' relatively low perceived connection to them. Establishing whether mimicry is an adaptive route to social connection requires analyzing mimicry as a dyadic process influenced by the needs of each dyad member. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Treatment of simultaneous acute antibody-mediated rejection and acute cellular rejection with alemtuzumab in kidney transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jirasiritham, S; Khunprakant, R; Techawathanawanna, N; Jirasiritham, Si; Mavichak, V

    2010-04-01

    This is a case report of a living related donor kidney transplantation using basiliximab induction and maintenance immunosuppression with cyclosporine, mycophenolate sodium, and steroid. On the second posttransplant day, the patient developed acute antibody-mediated rejection, which was treated with plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Five days later, the graft had still not responded to the treatment. Another biopsy revealed additional acute cellular rejection (Banff IIA). As alemtuzumab can rapidly deplete T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and natural killer cells, the patient was treated with alemtuzumab (30 mg subcutaneously) together with methylprednisolone (500 mg) and two more plasmaphereses. The kidney graft responded within 48 hours, producing more than 4 L of urine per day. The total lymphocyte decreased from 530/microL to 50/microL remaining in the 50 to 220/microL range. The patient received valgancyclovir and cotrimoxazole as infection prophylaxis. The kidney graft responded well to the rescue treatment and the patient was discharged with a serum creatinine of 1.1 mg/mL and has been uneventfully followed in the outpatient clinic for 8 months. Today, with the potent, effective, and selective immunosuppressive regimens, the rate and severity of acute cellular rejection in kidney transplantation has decreased in most centers. However, the rate of acute antibody-mediated rejection has increased to levels greater than those of acute cellular rejection in many centers. Acute antibody-mediated rejection is more difficult and expensive to treat successfully. The treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection included plasmapheresis and IVIG. Herein we have reported a case of kidney transplantation simultaneously developing acute antibody-mediated and acute cellular rejection; the patient was successfully treated with alemtuzumab.

  9. Effect of deoxyspergualin on vascular rejection in canine kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, K; Takahashi, K; Nemoto, K; Okada, M; Yasuo, M; Hayasaka, Y; Toma, H; Ota, K

    1994-08-01

    Deoxyspergualin (DSG), an analogue of spergualin produced by Bacillus laterosporus, has a strong immunosuppressive effect in various transplantation models. In this study, we investigated the effect of DSG on vascular rejection in canine kidney transplantation. To enhance vascular rejection, donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) was carried out on days 28, 21 and 14 preceding kidney transplantation. After DST, the donor kidney was transplanted to the recipient iliac fossa. The recipient animals were divided into five groups: namely, Group 1 (n = 7), no treatment; Group 2 (n = 6), DST only; Group 3 (n = 5), DSG only (treated with DSG intravenously at 1.2 mg./kg./day for the first 3 days after transplantation, 1.0 mg./kg./day for the following 3 days and 0.8 mg./kg./day for the following 8 days); Group 4 (n = 6), DST and DSG treatment (same protocol as Group 3); and Group 5 (n = 5), DST and cyclosporine (CsA) (treated with CsA orally at 10 mg./kg./day for 14 days after transplantation). In Group 2, DST treatment significantly reduced kidney graft survival time (8.6 +/- 2.2 days) compared with Group 1 (14.1 +/- 5.5 days). Despite DST, DSG treatment (Group 4) significantly prolonged graft survival time (29.5 +/- 2.6 days), whereas treatment with CsA (Group 5) did not prolong survival time (14.1 +/- 5.5 days) (Group 4 versus 5, p < 0.01). The onset of rejection was significantly delayed in Group 4 (22.1 +/- 2.7 days) compared with Groups 2 (5.7 +/- 2.4 days) and 5 (13.0 +/- 5.7 days) (p < 0.01). In contrast, the interval between rejection onset and animal death was significantly reduced in Groups 2 (3.0 +/- 0.6 days) and 5 (2.4 +/- 1.0 days) compared with Group 4 (7.3 +/- 1.7 days) (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that DSG successfully prevented humoral-type (accelerated acute-type) rejections. Histologically, nonDST groups (Groups 1 and 3) showed minimum vascular rejection. In contrast, all recipients in Group 2 showed severe vascular rejection, as did 80% of Cs

  10. Influence of pileup rejection on nuclear counting, viewed from the time-domain perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.; Denecke, B.; Alzetta, J.-P.

    1999-05-01

    Time-interval density distributions of accepted events in a HPGe γ-ray detection set-up are measured with a time-interval digitiser. In particular, the effect of pulse-pileup rejection is investigated. Experimental data are obtained with two types of shaping amplifiers: a classical amplifier with semi-Gaussian pulse shaping and a gated-integrator amplifier. A theoretical model is developed to predict typical time-interval density distributions for stationary Poisson processes passing through a detector with count loss by pulse-pileup rejection. Good agreement is obtained between theoretical, measured and simulated time-interval spectra. It is found that, when counting is affected by pileup rejection, the true incoming count rate cannot simply be determined by fitting an exponential to the time-interval distributions. From the Laplace transform of the interval-density distribution, expressions are derived for the expectation value and the variance of the counts. Good agreement is found with experimental counting statistics for different system configurations, as well as with data from computer simulations.

  11. Peer rejection, affiliation with deviant peers, delinquency, and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S

    2014-10-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5-27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood.

  12. Peer Rejection, Affiliation with Deviant Peers, Delinquency, and Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5 to 27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood. PMID:25150986

  13. Inferential reasoning and egg rejection in a cooperatively breeding cuckoo.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Christina; Strong, Meghan J; Edwards, Scott V

    2015-01-01

    Inferential reasoning-associating a visible consequence with an imagined event-has been demonstrated in several bird species in captivity, but few studies have tested wild birds in ecologically relevant contexts. Here, we investigate inferential reasoning by the greater ani, a cooperatively breeding cuckoo in which several females lay eggs in one nest. Prior to laying her first egg, each female removes any eggs that have already been laid by other females in the shared nest. After laying her first egg, however, each female stops removing eggs, presumably in order to avoid accidentally rejecting her own. But are anis using inferential reasoning to track the fate of their eggs in the communal nest, or is egg ejection governed by non-cognitive determinants? We experimentally removed eggs from two-female nests after both females had laid at least one egg and used video recording to verify that both females viewed the empty nest. We waited until one female (A) laid an egg in the nest, and video recorded the behavior of the female that had not yet re-laid (B). We predicted that if capable of inferential reasoning, female B should infer that the new egg could not be her own and she should remove it. Five out of five females tested failed to make this inference, suggesting that egg removal is either determined by the female's reproductive status or by the amount of time elapsed between egg removal and re-laying. This apparent cognitive constraint may have implications for the evolutionary stability of the anis' unusual breeding system.

  14. Reverse osmosis membrane rejection for ersatz space mission wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeomin; Lueptow, Richard M

    2005-09-01

    Adequate rejection of a variety of inorganic and organic compounds is necessary if reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes are to be used for space mission wastewater reuse. Three ersatz space mission wastewaters defined by NASA having different pH (2.6-8.9), conductivities (3980-12,640 microS/cm), and amounts of organic compounds (50-2400 mg/L as carbon) were tested to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for five RO and two NF membranes that are commercially available. The results show that the rejection of ions depends upon the solution pH which influences electrostatic repulsion. However, the rejection of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) depends upon the composition of the wastewater. The DOC rejection (80-95%) was the highest for the wastewater containing dextran (molecular weight 15-20 k) compared with the other ersatz wastewaters having detergent and urea as the major carbon sources (31-83%). The wastewater having the greatest conductivity (12,640 microS/cm) and DOC (2400 mg/L) showed a greater flux decline (71-96%) than the other ersatz wastewaters (37-82%) having lower conductivities (3980-6980 microS/cm) and DOC (50-660 mg/L) for the RO and NF membranes. The ratio of solute radius (r(i,s)) to effective membrane pore radius (r(p)) was employed to compare ion rejection. For ionic compounds, the rejection is higher than 70% when the r(i,s)/r(p) ratio is greater than 0.5 for both the RO and NF membranes with all wastewaters.

  15. The severity of acute cellular rejection defined by Banff classification is associated with kidney allograft outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaiyin; Budde, Klemens; Lu, Huber; Schmidt, Danilo; Liefeldt, Lutz; Glander, Petra; Neumayer, Hans Helmut; Rudolph, Birgit

    2014-06-15

    It is unclear if the severity or the timing of acute cellular rejection (ACR) defined by Banff classification 2009 is associated with graft survival. Borderline changes, TCMR I (interstitial rejection), and TCMR II/III (vascular rejection) were defined as low, moderate, and high ACR severity, respectively. Approximately 270 patients who had at least one episode of ACR were enrolled, 270 biopsies were chosen which showed the highest ACR severity of each patient and were negative for donor-specific antibodies (DSA), C4d, and microcirculation changes (MC). Six months were used as the cutoff to define early and late ACR; 370 patients without biopsy posttransplantation were recruited in the control group. Up to 8-year posttransplantation, death-censored graft survival (DCGS) rates of control, borderline, TCMR I, and TCMR II/III groups were 97.6%, 93.3%, 79.6%, and 73.6% (log rank test, P<0.001); the control group had significantly higher DCGS rate than the three ACR groups (each pairwise comparison yields P<0.05). The DCGS rate of late ACR was significantly lower compared with early ACR (63.6% vs. 87.4%, P<0.001). Intimal arteritis (Banff v-lesion) was an independent histologic risk factor correlated with long-term graft loss regardless of the timing of ACR. The v-lesions with minimal or high-grade tubulitis displayed similar graft survival (72.7% vs. 72.9%, P=0.96). All types of ACR affect long-term graft survival. Vascular or late ACR predict poorer graft survival; the extent of tubulointerstitial inflammation (TI) is of no prognostic significance for vascular rejection.

  16. Response of the μ-opioid system to social rejection and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, David T; Sanford, Benjamin J; Meyers, Kortni K; Love, Tiffany M; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wang, Heng; Ni, Lisong; Walker, Sara J; Mickey, Brian J; Korycinski, Steven T; Koeppe, Robert A; Crocker, Jennifer K; Langenecker, Scott A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system, which alleviates physical pain, is also known to regulate social distress and reward in animal models. To test this hypothesis in humans (n = 18), we used a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) radiotracer to measure changes in MOR availability in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) during social rejection (not being liked by others) and acceptance (being liked by others). Social rejection significantly activated the MOR system (i.e., reduced receptor availability relative to baseline) in the ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG). This pattern of activation is consistent with the hypothesis that the endogenous opioids play a role in reducing the experience of social pain. Greater trait resiliency was positively correlated with MOR activation during rejection in the amygdala, PAG, and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), suggesting that MOR activation in these areas is protective or adaptive. In addition, MOR activation in the pregenual ACC was correlated with reduced negative affect during rejection. In contrast, social acceptance resulted in MOR activation in the amygdala and anterior insula, and MOR deactivation in the midline thalamus and sgACC. In the left ventral striatum, MOR activation during acceptance predicted a greater desire for social interaction, suggesting a role for the MOR system in social reward. The ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus, PAG, anterior insula, and ACC are rich in MORs and comprise a pathway by which social cues may influence mood and motivation. MOR regulation of this pathway may preserve and promote emotional well-being in the social environment. PMID:23958960

  17. Noninvasive rejection monitoring of cardiac transplants using high resolution intramyocardial electrograms: initial US multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Bourge, R; Eisen, H; Hershberger, R; Keller, A; Radovancevic, B; Schreier, G; Kastner, P; Hutten, H; Wery, S; Mehta, N

    1998-11-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) remains the mainstay for the diagnosis of acute cellular rejection in cardiac transplant patients. A noninvasive alternative that would supplant or reduce the number of EMBs would be a highly desirable and cost-effective tool. To evaluate one potential alternative, a pacemaker with high resolution telemetry capabilities and two fractally coated epimyocardial leads were implanted in 30 patients at five transplant centers during the heart transplant procedure. Ventricular electrograms were recorded during intrinsic and paced activity and digitized to a laptop-based data acquisition device. Electrograms were recorded at frequent intervals and systematically on days when EMBs were performed. The electrogram data were then transferred via the Internet to a central data processing site. Clinical patient management was blinded to the electrogram results and varied considerably among the five centers. Using EMB together with clinical assessment of the transplant revealed 18 cases of clinically significant rejection beyond postoperative day 27 that required antirejection therapy. The normalized parameter values extracted from the electrogram recordings during pacing (the ventricular evoked response) that were associated with significant rejection were statistically lower (86% +/- 16% versus 96% +/- 22%, P < 0.005). The application of a single-threshold diagnosis model to the parameter values allowed detection of significant rejection with a negative predictive value of 98%. This analysis also showed that as many as 55% of the routine surveillance EMBs could have been eliminated had the pacemaker monitoring technique been used as a screening tool prior to EMB. A prospective study should further define the role of this technique in the detection and management of cardiac transplant patients.

  18. Solar rejection for an orbiting telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnberg, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The present work discusses some of the constraints that the optical designer must deal with in optimizing spaceborne sensors that must look at or near the sun. Analytical techniques are described for predicting the effects of stray radiation from sources such as mirror scatter, baffle scatter, diffraction, and ghost images. In addition, the paper describes a sensor design that has been flown on the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab) to aid astronauts in locating solar flares. In addition to keeping stray radiation to a minimum, the design had to be nondegradable by the direct solar heat load.

  19. Solar rejection for an orbiting telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnberg, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The present work discusses some of the constraints that the optical designer must deal with in optimizing spaceborne sensors that must look at or near the sun. Analytical techniques are described for predicting the effects of stray radiation from sources such as mirror scatter, baffle scatter, diffraction, and ghost images. In addition, the paper describes a sensor design that has been flown on the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab) to aid astronauts in locating solar flares. In addition to keeping stray radiation to a minimum, the design had to be nondegradable by the direct solar heat load.

  20. Swing-Leg Trajectory of Running Guinea Fowl Suggests Task-Level Priority of Force Regulation Rather than Disturbance Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Yvonne; Vejdani, Hamid R.; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve robust and stable legged locomotion in uneven terrain, animals must effectively coordinate limb swing and stance phases, which involve distinct yet coupled dynamics. Recent theoretical studies have highlighted the critical influence of swing-leg trajectory on stability, disturbance rejection, leg loading and economy of walking and running. Yet, simulations suggest that not all these factors can be simultaneously optimized. A potential trade-off arises between the optimal swing-leg trajectory for disturbance rejection (to maintain steady gait) versus regulation of leg loading (for injury avoidance and economy). Here we investigate how running guinea fowl manage this potential trade-off by comparing experimental data to predictions of hypothesis-based simulations of running over a terrain drop perturbation. We use a simple model to predict swing-leg trajectory and running dynamics. In simulations, we generate optimized swing-leg trajectories based upon specific hypotheses for task-level control priorities. We optimized swing trajectories to achieve i) constant peak force, ii) constant axial impulse, or iii) perfect disturbance rejection (steady gait) in the stance following a terrain drop. We compare simulation predictions to experimental data on guinea fowl running over a visible step down. Swing and stance dynamics of running guinea fowl closely match simulations optimized to regulate leg loading (priorities i and ii), and do not match the simulations optimized for disturbance rejection (priority iii). The simulations reinforce previous findings that swing-leg trajectory targeting disturbance rejection demands large increases in stance leg force following a terrain drop. Guinea fowl negotiate a downward step using unsteady dynamics with forward acceleration, and recover to steady gait in subsequent steps. Our results suggest that guinea fowl use swing-leg trajectory consistent with priority for load regulation, and not for steadiness of gait. Swing

  1. Electronically controlled rejections of spoof surface plasmons polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong Jin; Xiao, Qian Xun

    2017-03-01

    We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a band-notched surface plasmonic filter, which is composed of an ultra-wide passband plasmonic filter with a simple C-shaped ring on the back of the substrate. Enhanced narrowband or broadband rejections of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be achieved with double C-shaped rings in the propagation or transverse direction. By mounting active components across the slit cut in the C-shaped ring, dynamic control of rejection of spoof SPPs can be accomplished. Both the rejection of spoof SPPs and the rejection bandwidth can be controlled when the Schottky barrier diode is forward-biased or reverse-biased. The frequency spectrum of the rejection band can be electronically adjusted by tuning the applied bias voltage across the varactor diode. Both simulated and measured results agree well and demonstrate dynamic control of propagation of spoof SPPs at the microwave frequencies. Such electronically controllable devices could find more applications in advanced plasmonic integrated functional circuits in microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  2. Amino acid rejection behaviour as a function of concentration.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Jason; Mandale, Stephen; Williams, Paul M

    2011-05-11

    The solute rejection versus concentration behaviour of five different amino acids has been investigated using a Nitto Denko NTR7450 nanofiltration membrane. The experimental data for amino acid rejection was also compared against a combined steric and charge rejection model. At its isoelectric point, lysine was effectively neutral and its behaviour was well described by the model incorporating a steric function only. For phenylalanine, the combined model was found to fit the data well. In contrast there was poor agreement between the model and rejection data for glutamine, glutamic acid and glycine whose rejection values at first increased with concentration. This result implied that another governing process was in operation. Dimerisation as an explanation for the observed phenomena was also investigated. Size analysis of amino acid molecules as a function of the prevailing concentration using dynamic light scattering was limited but showed no evidence of dimerisation. This data was supported by osmotic pressure measurements which demonstrated no evidence of non-linearity in the relation between osmotic pressure and concentration.

  3. The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yuk Man; Chen, Luqiu; Wang, Ying; Stefka, Andrew T.; Molinero, Luciana L.; Theriault, Betty; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Sivan, Ayelet S.; Nagler, Cathryn R.; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Chong, Anita S.; Bartman, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation is the only cure for end-stage organ failure, but without immunosuppression, T cells rapidly reject allografts. While genetic disparities between donor and recipient are major determinants of the kinetics of transplant rejection, little is known about the contribution of environmental factors. Because colonized organs have worse transplant outcome than sterile organs, we tested the influence of host and donor microbiota on skin transplant rejection. Compared with untreated conventional mice, pretreatment of donors and recipients with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) or use of germ-free (GF) donors and recipients resulted in prolonged survival of minor antigen–mismatched skin grafts. Increased graft survival correlated with reduced type I IFN signaling in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and decreased priming of alloreactive T cells. Colonization of GF mice with fecal material from untreated conventional mice, but not from Abx-pretreated mice, enhanced the ability of APCs to prime alloreactive T cells and accelerated graft rejection, suggesting that alloimmunity is modulated by the composition of microbiota rather than the quantity of bacteria. Abx pretreatment of conventional mice also delayed rejection of major antigen–mismatched skin and MHC class II–mismatched cardiac allografts. This study demonstrates that Abx pretreatment prolongs graft survival, suggesting that targeting microbial constituents is a potential therapeutic strategy for enhancing graft acceptance. PMID:27322054

  4. Cellular requirements for the rejection of skin allografts in rats.

    PubMed

    Lubaroff, D M

    1973-08-01

    The role of bone marrow-derived cells in the rejection of skin allografts in rats was investigated. Lewis rats, rendered tolerant of BN antigens and bearing healthy grafts, were thymectomized, irradiated with 900 rad, and injected with varying doses of either normal isologous bone marrow, normal lymph node cells, and/or lymph node cells presensitized to BN antigens. In some experiments rats were also adoptively sensitized to tuberculin. Results showed that, although necessary for the elicitation of tuberculin skin reactions, bone marrow cells are not needed for the rejection of previously tolerated skin allografts. Rats receiving lymph node cells alone rejected their grafts in about 6-7 days. In addition, rats injected with bone marrow alone also rejected their grafts, although significantly later than did lymph node cell recipients, indicating that rat marrow contains a population of cells capable of reacting to transplantation antigens. These cells were found capable of reacting to major transplantation antigens but not minor as they were ineffective in causing the rejection of Ag-B compatible Fischer skin grafts. From experiments utilizing bone marrow from neonatally thymectomized donors and cells treated with an antiserum to rat T cells, these competent cells in the marrow were shown to be thymus derived.

  5. Molecular Classifiers for Acute Kidney Transplant Rejection in Peripheral Blood by Whole Genome Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, S. M.; Williams, A. N.; Gelbart, T.; Campbell, D.; Mondala, T. S.; Head, S. R.; Horvath, S.; Gaber, L.; Thompson, R.; Whisenant, T.; Lin, W.; Langfelder, P.; Robison, E. H.; Schaffer, R. L.; Fisher, J. S.; Friedewald, J.; Flechner, S. M.; Chan, L. K.; Wiseman, A. C.; Shidban, H.; Mendez, R.; Heilman, R.; Abecassis, M. M.; Marsh, C. L.; Salomon, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    There are no minimally invasive diagnostic metrics for acute kidney transplant rejection (AR), especially in the setting of the common confounding diagnosis, acute dysfunction with no rejection (ADNR). Thus, though kidney transplant biopsies remain the gold standard, they are invasive, have substantial risks, sampling error issues and significant costs and are not suitable for serial monitoring. Global gene expression profiles of 148 peripheral blood samples from transplant patients with excellent function and normal histology (TX; n = 46), AR (n = 63) and ADNR (n = 39), from two independent cohorts were analyzed with DNA microarrays. We applied a new normalization tool, frozen robust multi-array analysis, particularly suitable for clinical diagnostics, multiple prediction tools to discover, refine and validate robust molecular classifiers and we tested a novel one-by-one analysis strategy to model the real clinical application of this test. Multiple three-way classifier tools identified 200 highest value probesets with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under the curve for the validation cohort ranging from 82% to 100%, 76% to 95%, 76% to 95%, 79% to 100%, 84% to 100% and 0.817 to 0.968, respectively. We conclude that peripheral blood gene expression profiling can be used as a minimally invasive tool to accurately reveal TX, AR and ADNR in the setting of acute kidney transplant dysfunction. PMID:24725967

  6. Relational Victimization and Rejection Sensitivity: The Long-Term Impact of Social Hurt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Rejection Sensitivity Model is used to examine the social antecedents to expectations of rejection among adults. College students (N = 314) completed measures of relational victimization and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that relational victimization is significantly related to rejection sensitivity for women. Implications for…

  7. Relational Victimization and Rejection Sensitivity: The Long-Term Impact of Social Hurt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Rejection Sensitivity Model is used to examine the social antecedents to expectations of rejection among adults. College students (N = 314) completed measures of relational victimization and rejection sensitivity. Results indicate that relational victimization is significantly related to rejection sensitivity for women. Implications for…

  8. Delta Neutrophil Index as a Marker for Differential Diagnosis between Acute Graft Pyelonephritis and Acute Graft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Soo Jin; Park, Ji-Young; Oh, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The delta neutrophil index (DNI) is the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes, which reflect infectious and/or septic condition. Acute graft pyelonephritis (AGPN) versus acute graft rejection is a frequently encountered diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma in kidney transplant recipients, but little is known about the clinical usefulness of DNI value in the differentiation of the two conditions. Material & Methods A total of 90 episodes of AGPN or acute graft rejection were evaluated at the Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital between 2008 and 2014. We performed retrospective analysis of demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters data. Receiver operating curves (ROC) and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to ascertain the utility of DNI in discriminating between AGPN and acute graft rejection. Results AGPN group had significantly higher DNI values than acute graft rejection group (2.9% vs. 1.9%, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve for DNI value to discriminate between AGPN and acute graft rejection was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.76–0.92, P < 0.001). A DNI value of 2.7% was selected as the cut-off value for AGPN, and kidney transplant recipients with a DNI value ≥ 2.7% were found to be at a higher risk of infection than those with a DNI < 2.7% (odd ratio [OR] 40.50; 95% CI 8.68–189.08; P < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, DNI was a significant independent factor for predicting AGPN after adjusting age, sex, log WBC count, log neutorphil count, log lymphocyte count, CRP concentration, and procalcitonin concentration (OR 4.32; 95% CI 1.81–10.34, P < 0.001). Conclusions This study showed that DNI was an effective marker to differentiate between AGPN and acute graft rejection. Thus, these finding suggest that DNI may be a useful marker in the management of these patients. PMID:26275220

  9. Data augmentation for models based on rejection sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vinayak; Lin, Lizhen; Dunson, David B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a data augmentation scheme to perform Markov chain Monte Carlo inference for models where data generation involves a rejection sampling algorithm. Our idea is a simple scheme to instantiate the rejected proposals preceding each data point. The resulting joint probability over observed and rejected variables can be much simpler than the marginal distribution over the observed variables, which often involves intractable integrals. We consider three problems: modelling flow-cytometry measurements subject to truncation; the Bayesian analysis of the matrix Langevin distribution on the Stiefel manifold; and Bayesian inference for a nonparametric Gaussian process density model. The latter two are instances of doubly-intractable Markov chain Monte Carlo problems, where evaluating the likelihood is intractable. Our experiments demonstrate superior performance over state-of-the-art sampling algorithms for such problems. PMID:27279660

  10. Self-contained heat rejection module for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. L.; Williams, J. L.; Baskett, J. D.; Leach, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses development of a Self-Contained Heat Rejection Module (SHRM) which can be used on a wide variety of future spacecraft launched by the space shuttle orbiter. The SHRM contains radiators which are deployed by a scissor-mechanism and the flow equipment including pumps, accumulator, by-pass valves, and controllers necessary to reject heat from those radiators. Heat transfer between SHRM and the parent vehicle is effected by a contact heat exchanger. This device provides heat transfer between two separate flow loops through a mechanical connection. This approach reduces the time required to attach the SHRM to the payload, and increases the reliability of the SHRM flow loop since breaking into the fluid system in the field is not required. The SHRM concept also includes a refrigeration system to increase heat rejection capacity in adverse environments, or to provide for a lower return temperature, down to -23 C.

  11. The mechanisms of rejection in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Colpo, Anna; De Silvestro, Giustina

    2017-08-01

    Organ transplantation represents the preferred treatment option for many patients in terminal organ failure. The half-life of transplanted organs, however, is still far from being satisfactory with the vast majority of the organs failing within the first two decades following transplantation. At this stage, it has become apparent that rejection (prevalently mediated by humoral events) remains the primary cause of graft loss after the first year. In this light, studies are underway to better comprehend the immune events underlying graft rejection and novel immunosuppressive strategies are being explored. In this context, therapeutic apheresis techniques, that include therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), immunoadsorption (IA) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP), represent an important adjunct in the current immunosuppressive armamentarium. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the immune process underlying rejection of a solid organ transplant and describes the principal areas of application of therapeutic apheresis techniques in transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Study of Background Rejection Systems for the IXO Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Philippe; Limousin, O.; Tatischeff, V.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific performances of the IXO mission will necessitate a very low detector background level. This will imply thorough background simulations, and efficient background rejection systems. It necessitates also a very good knowledge of the detectors to be shielded. In APC, Paris, and CEA, Saclay, we got experience on these activities by conceiving and optimising in parallel the high energy detector and the active and passive background rejection system of the Simbol-X mission. Considering that this work may be naturally extended to other X-ray missions, we have initiated with CNES a R&D project on the study of background rejection systems mainly in view the IXO project. We will detail this activity in the poster.

  13. Active disturbance rejection control for fractional-order system.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingda; Li, Donghai; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Chunzhe

    2013-05-01

    Fractional-order proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are the most commonly used controllers in fractional-order systems. However, this paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme for fractional-order system based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the fractional-order dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. External disturbance, sensor noise, and parameter disturbance are also estimated using extended state observer. The ADRC stability of rational-order model is analyzed. Simulation results on three typical fractional-order systems are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Graft rejection by cytolytic T cells. Specificity of the effector mechanism in the rejection of allogeneic marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Gress, R.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Cellular effector mechanisms of allograft rejection remain incompletely described. Characterizing the rejection of foreign-marrow allografts rather than solid-organ grafts has the advantage that the cellular composition of the marrow graft, as a single cell suspension, can be altered to include cellular components with differing antigen expression. Rejection of marrow grafts is sensitive to lethal doses of radiation in the mouse but resistant to sublethal levels of radiation. In an effort to identify cells mediating host resistance, lymphocytes were isolated and cloned from spleens of mice 7 days after sublethal TBI (650 cGy) and inoculation with allogeneic marrow. All clones isolated were cytolytic with specificity for MHC encoded gene products of the allogeneic marrow donor. When cloned cells were transferred in vivo into lethally irradiated (1025 cGy) recipients unable to reject allogeneic marrow, results utilizing splenic 125IUdR uptake indicated that these MHC-specific cytotoxic clones could suppress marrow proliferation. In order to characterize the effector mechanism and the ability of the clones to affect final engraftment, double donor chimeras were constructed so that 2 target cell populations differing at the MHC from each other and from the host were present in the same marrow allograft. Results directly demonstrated an ability of CTL of host MHC type to mediate graft rejection and characterized the effector mechanism as one with specificity for MHC gene products.

  15. Autoantibodies to Vimentin Cause Accelerated Rejection of Cardiac Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Leong, Hon-Sing; McCormack, Ann; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Holder, Angela; Rose, Marlene L.

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune responses to vimentin occur after solid organ transplantation, but their pathogenic effects are unclear. The aim of these studies was to investigate the effects of vimentin preimmunization on allogeneic and isografted hearts in a murine transplant model. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with murine vimentin in complete Freund’s adjuvant resulted in anti-vimentin antibodies and vimentin-reactive Th-1 cells. Transplantation of 129/sv hearts into vimentin-immunized C57BL/6 recipients resulted in accelerated rejection (8.4 ± 1.5 days; n = 18), compared with hen egg lysozyme-immunized C57BL/6 (13.3 ± 2.2 days; n = 10; P < 0.0001, log-rank test). In contrast, isografts continued to beat beyond 90 days. Immunohistochemical analysis of allografts from vimentin/complete Freund’s adjuvant mice demonstrated increased numbers of T cells and enhanced microvascular deposition of C3d, CD41, and P-selectin compared with controls. Antibodies were necessary for accelerated rejection, shown by the fact that vimentin-immunized B-cell-deficient IgH6 mice did not show accelerated rejection of 129/sv allografts, but rejection was restored by adoptive transfer of serum containing anti-vimentin antibodies. Eluates from donor hearts placed in vimentin/complete Freund’s adjuvant recipients contained anti-vimentin antibodies, shown by Western blotting. Confocal imaging of rejected hearts demonstrated presence of vimentin and C3d on apoptosed leukocytes, endothelial cells, and platelet/leukocyte conjugates. These results demonstrate that autoantibodies to vimentin, in conjunction with the alloimmune response, have a pathogenic role in allograft rejection. PMID:17392180

  16. Solar dynamic organic Rankine cycle heat rejection system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Namkoong, D.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) and shear flow condenser for two-phase fluid management in microgravity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) applications is examined. A prototype of the proposed Space Station ORC heat rejection system was constructed to evaluate the performance of the inventory control method. The design and operation of the RFMD, shear flow condenser, and inventory control fluid accumulator are described. A schematic diagram of the ORC, RFMD, and condenser, and a functional diagram of the heat rejection system for the ORC are presented.

  17. Brine rejection from freezing salt solutions: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Vrbka, Lubos; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2005-09-30

    The atmospherically and technologically very important process of brine rejection from freezing salt solutions is investigated with atomic resolution using molecular dynamics simulations. The present calculations allow us to follow the motion of each water molecule and salt ion and to propose a microscopic mechanism of brine rejection, in which a fluctuation (reduction) of the ion density in the vicinity of the ice front is followed by the growth of a new ice layer. The presence of salt slows down the freezing process, which leads to the formation of an almost neat ice next to a disordered brine layer.

  18. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2014-11-18

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  19. Solar dynamic organic Rankine cycle heat rejection system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Namkoong, D.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) and shear flow condenser for two-phase fluid management in microgravity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) applications is examined. A prototype of the proposed Space Station ORC heat rejection system was constructed to evaluate the performance of the inventory control method. The design and operation of the RFMD, shear flow condenser, and inventory control fluid accumulator are described. A schematic diagram of the ORC, RFMD, and condenser, and a functional diagram of the heat rejection system for the ORC are presented.

  20. Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Andreas; Carmona, Susanna; Downey, Geraldine; Bolger, Niall; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    People vary greatly in their dispositions to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and strongly react to social rejection (rejection sensitivity, RS) with implications for social functioning and health. Here, we examined how RS influences learning about social threat. Using a classical fear conditioning task, we established that high as compared to low (HRS vs. LRS) individuals displayed a resistance to extinction of the conditioned response to angry faces, but not to neutral faces or non-social stimuli. Our findings suggest that RS biases the flexible updating of acquired expectations for threat, which helps to explain how RS operates as a self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:23914767

  1. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  2. Does the experience of interpersonal predictors of suicidal desire predict positive attitudes toward Physician Assisted Suicide?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Raymond P; Buchanan, Carmen A; O'Keefe, Victoria M; Wingate, Laricka R

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) attitudes and interpersonal risk factors of suicidal desire as outlined by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005). It was hypothesized that both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness would be positively related to PAS acceptance. Results indicated that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness predicted significance of favorable attitudes toward PAS in a college sample. Results suggest that attitudes toward PAS may be influenced by the experience of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness and provide a clear rationale for the study of these variables in populations more apt to consider hastened death. Future work regarding the application of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior in hastened death research is discussed.

  3. Increased monocyte expression of sialoadhesin during acute cellular rejection and other enteritides after intestine transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Chethan; Gabriellan, Anna; Ningappa, Mylarappa; Mazariegos, George; Sun, Qing; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2012-03-15

    Sialoadhesin (CD169) facilitates T-cell priming when overexpressed on inflammatory monocytes. Monocyte-derived macrophages prime acute cellular rejection after intestine transplantation (ITx).The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether CD169-expressing activated monocytes associate with or predict ITx rejection. After informed consent (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT No. 01163578), activated CD169+CD14+monocytes were measured by flow cytometry in five normal healthy adult volunteers (group A), and 56 children with ITx sampled cross-sectionally (group B, 26), longitudinally (group C, 18), or during infection/inflammation without rejection (group D: acute enteritis, 9; Helicobacter pylori, 1; Streptococcal pharyngitis 1; and posttransplant lymphoma, 1). Activated monocytes were tested for correlations with donor-specific alloreactivity in simultaneous mixed lymphocyte co-cultures. Median age was 3 years (range 0.5-21 yr), and distribution of ITx-alone:combined liver-ITx was 25:31. Higher frequencies (%) of activated monocytes were seen during rejection in group B and infection/inflammation without rejection in group D (58 ± 28 and 73 ± 26), compared with nonrejectors or normal controls (10.6 ± 7.9 or 10.7 ± 6.5, P=0.001). In longitudinal monitoring, rejectors also showed higher activated monocyte frequencies (%) before ITx (64 ± 26 vs. 13.4 ± 8.6, P=0.0007) and during acute cellular rejection (55 ± 28 vs. 22.4 ± 15, P=0.006) when compared with nonrejectors. Activated monocytes correlated significantly with allospecific CD154+T-cytotoxic memory cells (Spearman r=0.688, P=7.1E-05) and CD154+B cells (r=0.518, P=0.005) in ITx recipients without inflammation/infection but not in group D. Monocytes overexpress sialoadhesin nonspecifically during ITx rejection and systemic or enteritic inflammatory states. When combined with allospecific T and B cells, this information may differentiate between rejection and other enteritides.

  4. Peptide formation by N-methyl amino acids in translation is hastened by higher pH and tRNA(Pro).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfan; Kwiatkowski, Marek; Pavlov, Michael Y; Ehrenberg, Måns; Forster, Anthony C

    2014-06-20

    Applications of N-methyl amino acids (NMAAs) in drug discovery are limited by their low efficiencies of ribosomal incorporation, and little is known mechanistically about the steps leading to incorporation. Here, we demonstrate that a synthetic tRNA body based on a natural N-alkyl amino acid carrier, tRNA(Pro), increases translation incorporation rates of all three studied NMAAs compared with tRNA(Phe)- and tRNA(Ala)-based bodies. We also investigate the pH dependence of the incorporation rates and find that the rates increase dramatically in the range of pH 7 to 8.5 with the titration of a single proton. Results support a rate-limiting peptidyl transfer step dependent on deprotonation of the N-nucleophile of the NMAA. Competition experiments demonstrate that several futile cycles of delivery and rejection of A-site NMAA-tRNA are required per peptide bond formed and that increasing magnesium ion concentration increases incorporation yield. Data clarify the mechanism of ribosomal NMAA incorporation and provide three generalizable ways to improve incorporation of NMAAs in translation.

  5. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

  6. From Acceptance to Rejection: Food Contamination in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajecki, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom exercise to explain design and measurement principles in methodology and statistics courses. This demonstration which involves measurement of a shift from food acceptance to food rejection produces meaningful data sets. The realism of the exercise gives students a view of problems that emerge in research. (KO)

  7. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  8. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  9. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  10. Pretransplant identification of acute rejection risk following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lebranchu, Yvon; Baan, Carla; Biancone, Luigi; Legendre, Christophe; Morales, José Maria; Naesens, Maarten; Thomusch, Oliver; Friend, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Lack of an accepted definition for 'high immunological risk' hampers individualization of immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. For recipient-related risk factors for acute rejection, the most compelling evidence points to younger age and African American ethnicity. Recipient gender, body mass, previous transplantation, and concomitant infection or disease do not appear to be influential. Deceased donation now has only a minor effect on rejection risk, but older donor age remains a significant predictor. Conventional immunological markers (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] mismatching, pretransplant anti-HLA alloantibodies, and panel reactive antibodies) are being reassessed in light of growing understanding about the role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). At the time of transplant, delayed graft function is one of the most clear-cut risk factors for acute rejection. Extended cold ischemia time (≥ 24 h) may also play a contributory role. While it is not yet possible to establish conclusively the relative contribution of different risk factors for acute rejection after kidney transplantation, the available data point to variables that should be taken into account at the time of transplant. Together, these offer a realistic basis for planning an appropriate immunosuppression regimen in individual patients.

  11. Project Zero Reject Manual: Strategies in Child Find.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Deborah F. Carpenter; And Others

    The report describes Project Zero Reject, a cooperative effort between the Dallas (TX) Independent School District and the Dallas County Mental Health Mental Retardation Center to locate handicapped children not receiving educational services and to develop a computerized information system for planning regarding these children. Awareness efforts…

  12. Compact filtering monopole patch antenna with dual-band rejection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a compact ultra-wideband patch antenna with dual-band rejection is proposed. The proposed antenna filters 3.3-3.8 GHz WiMAX and 5.15-5.85 GHz WLAN by respectively rejecting these bands through a C-shaped slit and a λg/4 resonator. The λg/4 resonator is positioned as a pair, centered around the microstrip line, and a C-type slit is inserted into an elliptical patch. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 2.9-9.3 GHz, which satisfies the bandwidth for ultra-wideband communication systems. Further, the proposed antenna provides dual-band rejection at two bands: 3.2-3.85 and 4.7-6.03 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna is omnidirectional, and antenna gain is maintained constantly while showing -8.4 and -1.5 dBi at the two rejected bands, respectively.

  13. Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.

  14. Project Zero Reject Manual: Strategies in Child Find.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Deborah F. Carpenter; And Others

    The report describes Project Zero Reject, a cooperative effort between the Dallas (TX) Independent School District and the Dallas County Mental Health Mental Retardation Center to locate handicapped children not receiving educational services and to develop a computerized information system for planning regarding these children. Awareness efforts…

  15. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  16. Chlorine-resistant composite membranes with high organic rejection

    DOEpatents

    McCray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Barss, Robert P.; Nelson, Leslie D.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a chlorine-resistant composite polyamide membrane having high organic rejection, the essential step of which comprises treating a conventional composite membrane with an acyl halide. The novel membrane is especially suitable for the treatment of water containing chlorine or lower molecular weight organic compounds.

  17. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual bids. 14.404-2 Section 14.404-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... means not barred by 41 U.S.C. 15 or 31 U.S.C. 3727....

  18. Rejected Manuscripts in Publishers' Archives: Legal Rights and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburger, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on an analysis of how various archival repositories deal with rejected manuscripts in publishers' archives as part of existing collections and as potential donations, and includes suggestions for ways to provide access while maintaining the author's legal rights. Viewpoints from the journal editor, author, archivist, and…

  19. Imaging mouse lung allograft rejection with 1H MRI

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinbang; Huang, Howard J.; Wang, Xingan; Wang, Wei; Ellison, Henry; Thomen, Robert P.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Woods, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that longitudinal, non-invasive monitoring via MRI can characterize acute cellular rejection (ACR) in mouse orthotopic lung allografts. Methods Nineteen Balb/c donor to C57BL/6 recipient orthotopic left lung transplants were performed, further divided into control-Ig vs anti-CD4/anti-CD8 treated groups. A two-dimensional multi-slice gradient-echo pulse sequence synchronized with ventilation was used on a small-animal MR scanner to acquire proton images of lung at post-operative days 3, 7 and 14, just before sacrifice. Lung volume and parenchymal signal were measured, and lung compliance was calculated as volume change per pressure difference between high and low pressures. Results Normalized parenchymal signal in the control-Ig allograft increased over time, with statistical significance between day 14 and day 3 post transplantation (0.046→0.789, P < 0.05), despite large inter-mouse variations; this was consistent with histopathologic evidence of rejection. Compliance of the control-Ig allograft decreased significantly over time (0.013→0.003, P < 0.05), but remained constant in mice treated with anti-CD4/anti-CD8 antibodies. Conclusion Lung allograft rejection in individual mice can be monitored by lung parenchymal signal changes and by lung compliance through MRI. Longitudinal imaging can help us better understand the time course of individual lung allograft rejection and response to treatment. PMID:24954886

  20. Rejecting Admission Offers to a Selective Math and Science School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brent M.

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory study of applicants who rejected admission to the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS) is described in this article. TAMS is a residential early college entry program at the University of North Texas in Denton. Up to 600 mathematically talented sophomores apply to TAMS each year and among the 200 selectees, a predictable…