Science.gov

Sample records for related interaction phenomena

  1. 10.1142/9781911299660_fmatter years Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena (lirpp Vol. 13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich

    2016-10-01

    When these proceedings of 13th international conference LASER INTERACTION AND RELATED PLASMA PHENOMENA (LIRPP) will be circulated in 1998, it is just 30 years that this conference series began. Professor Miley asked me to present some thoughts at this occasion since I am involved from the beginning to 1991 a director and then as emeritus director. The conferences were in the following years 1969, 1971, 1973, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995 and 1997 and reference to each of the conferences is simply given by the year in brackets...

  2. Spin-Orbit Interaction and Related Transport Phenomena in 2d Electron and Hole Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaetskii, A.

    Spin-orbit interaction is responsible for many physical phenomena which are under intensive study currently. Here we discuss several of them. The first phenomenon is the edge spin accumulation, which appears due to spin-orbit interaction in 2D mesoscopic structures in the presence of a charge current. We consider the case of a strong spin-orbit-related splitting of the electron spectrum, i.e. a spin precession length is small compared to the mean free path l. The structure can be either in a ballistic regime (when the mean free path is the largest scale in the problem) or quasi-ballistic regime (when l is much smaller than the sample size). We show how physics of edge spin accumulation in different situations should be understood from the point of view of unitarity of boundary scattering. Using transparent method of scattering states, we are able to explain some previous puzzling theoretical results. We clarify the important role of the form of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian, the role of the boundary conditions, etc., and reveal the wrong results obtained in the field by other researchers. The relation between the edge spin density and the bulk spin current in different regimes is discussed. The detailed comparison with the existing theoretical works is presented. Besides, we consider several new transport phenomena which appear in the presence of spin-orbit interaction, for example, magnetotransport phenomena in an external classical magnetic field. In particular, new mechanism of negative magneto-resistance appears which is due to destruction of spin fluxes by the magnetic field, and which can be really pronounced in 2D systems with strong scatterers.

  3. Results of literature search on dielectric properties and electron interaction phenomena related to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, J. A.; Burke, E. A.; Frederickson, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the literature search was to determine the required material properties and electron interaction parameters needed for modeling charge buildup and breakdown in insulators. A brief overview of the results of the literature search is given. A partial list of the references covered is included in a bibliography. Although inorganic insulators were also considered in the search, coverage is limited to the organics, primarily Kapton and Teflon.

  4. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    reactions in stars. In the most active galaxies known, the radiating accretion disc of the central SMBH engine easily outshines the stellar light of the entire galaxy (Blandford 1995). In addition to the light, plasma streams can emerge from the innermost regions at relativistic velocities, returning energy to the host galaxy (host) and creating jets and lobes with strong observational signatures, especially at radio and X-ray wavelengths (Wilson 2003). New insights in the wide field of SMBH/host interaction are often related to the development of new, more sensitive instruments and telescopes. For example the idea, that a high luminosity AGN may result from a merger event between two galaxies, could only develop with the upcoming high resolution and sensitive imaging capabilities needed to detect the highly distorted host galaxy morphologies of (post-)merger galaxies (Heckman et al. 1986). Furthermore multi-wavelength approaches, which combine the results of measurements at different wavelengths, often lead to new conclusions or confirm unsecured hypotheses. Thus developing a new instrument can be as valuable as combining different datasets. I follow both approaches and developed projects which (i) deal with new instrumentation and telescope technology, (ii) combine datasets from different wavelengths and resolutions, and (iii) incorporate recent theoretical models and predictions, which can be verified empirically. While some projects are more focused on investigating the power of new observational techniques, others incorporate acknowledged instruments to probe predictions based on previous observations and models and trace special phenomena of SMBH/host interaction. But in most cases aspects of all three items appear. The SMBH/host interaction results in phenomena at all linear size scales of the system, from the direct accretion of matter onto the central black hole up to radio jets crossing the entire galaxy. Thus interaction effects do not simply concentrate on the

  5. Viscous theory of surface noise interaction phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A viscous linear surface noise interaction problem is formulated that includes noise production by an oscillating surface, turbulent or vortical interaction with a surface, and scattering of sound by a surface. The importance of viscosity in establishing uniqueness of solution and partitioning of energy into acoustic and vortical modes is discussed. The results of inviscid two dimensional airfoil theory are used to examine the interactive noise problem in the limit of high reduced frequency and small Helmholtz number. It is shown that in the case of vortex interaction with a surface, the noise produced with the full Kutta condition is 3 dB less than the no Kutta condition result. The results of a study of an airfoil oscillating in a medium at rest are discussed. It is concluded that viscosity can be a controlling factor in analyses and experiments of surface noise interaction phenomena and that the effect of edge bluntness as well as viscosity must be included in the problem formulation to correctly calculate the interactive noise.

  6. Interlayer interaction phenomena in novel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershoguba, Sergii

    Recently, there has been a considerable interest in various novel two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, topological insulators, etc. These materials host a plethora of exotic phenomena owing to their unconventional electronic structure. Physics of these 2D materials is understood fairly well, so a natural generalization is to assemble these materials into three-dimensional (3D) stacks. In this thesis, we study a number of multilayer systems, where the interlayer interaction plays a salient role. We commence with studying graphene multilayers coupled via interlayer tunneling amplitude. We calculate the energy spectrum of the system in magnetic field B parallel to the layers. The parallel magnetic field leads to a relative gauge shift of the momentum spaces of the individual 2D layers. When the interlayer tunneling is introduced, we find the Landau levels. We observe two qualitatively distinct domains in the Landau spectrum and analyze them using semiclassical arguments. Then, we include electric field E perpendicular to the layers, and analyze the spectrum in the crossed-field geometry. If the fields are in resonance E = upsilon B, where upsilon is the velocity of carriers in graphene, the wave-functions delocalize in the direction along the field E. We compare this prediction to a tunneling spectroscopy study of a graphite mesa in the parallel magnetic field. Indeed, the tunneling spectrum displays a peak, which grows linearly with the applied magnetic field B, and is, thus, consistent with our theoretical analysis. Then, we move on to a discussion of Z2 topological insulators within the Shockley model. We generalize the one dimensional (1D) Shockley model by replacing atomic sites of the original model by the 2D Rashba spin-orbit layers. We analyze surface states of a topological insulator using a construction of vortex lines in the 3D momentum space. We also study a topological insulator in a thin film geometry, where the opposite surface states are

  7. Phylogeny of Aging and Related Phenoptotic Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Libertini, G

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of aging as adaptive, i.e. as a phenomenon genetically determined and modulated, and with an evolutionary advantage, implies that aging, as any physiologic mechanism, must have phylogenetic connections with similar phenomena. This review tries to find the phylogenetic connections between vertebrate aging and some related phenomena in other species, especially within those phenomena defined as phenoptotic, i.e. involving the death of one or more individuals for the benefit of other individuals. In particular, the aim of the work is to highlight and analyze similarities and connections, in the mechanisms and in the evolutionary causes, between: (i) proapoptosis in prokaryotes and apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes; (ii) apoptosis in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes; (iii) aging in yeast and in vertebrates; and (iv) the critical importance of the DNA subtelomeric segment in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. In short, there is strong evidence that vertebrate aging has clear similarities and connections with phenomena present in organisms with simpler organization. These phylogenetic connections are a necessary element for the sustainability of the thesis of aging explained as an adaptive phenomenon, and, on the contrary, are incompatible with the opposite view of aging as being due to the accumulation of random damages of various kinds.

  8. Phylogeny of Aging and Related Phenoptotic Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Libertini, G

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of aging as adaptive, i.e. as a phenomenon genetically determined and modulated, and with an evolutionary advantage, implies that aging, as any physiologic mechanism, must have phylogenetic connections with similar phenomena. This review tries to find the phylogenetic connections between vertebrate aging and some related phenomena in other species, especially within those phenomena defined as phenoptotic, i.e. involving the death of one or more individuals for the benefit of other individuals. In particular, the aim of the work is to highlight and analyze similarities and connections, in the mechanisms and in the evolutionary causes, between: (i) proapoptosis in prokaryotes and apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes; (ii) apoptosis in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes; (iii) aging in yeast and in vertebrates; and (iv) the critical importance of the DNA subtelomeric segment in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. In short, there is strong evidence that vertebrate aging has clear similarities and connections with phenomena present in organisms with simpler organization. These phylogenetic connections are a necessary element for the sustainability of the thesis of aging explained as an adaptive phenomenon, and, on the contrary, are incompatible with the opposite view of aging as being due to the accumulation of random damages of various kinds. PMID:26638678

  9. Paramagnetic Meissner effect and related dynamical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mai Suan

    2003-03-01

    The hallmark of superconductivity is the diamagnetic response to external magnetic field. In striking contrast to this behavior, a paramagnetic response or paramagnetic Meissner effect was observed in ceramic high- Tc and in conventional superconductors. The present review is given on this interesting effect and related phenomena. We begin with a detailed discussion of experimental results on the paramagnetic Meissner effect in both granular and conventional superconductors. There are two main mechanisms leading to the paramagnetic response: the so-called d-wave and the flux compression. In the first scenario, the Josephson critical current between two d-wave superconductors becomes negative or equivalently one has a π junction. The paramagnetic signal occurs due to the nonzero spontaneous supercurrent circulating in a loop consisting of odd number of π junctions. In addition to the d-wave mechanism we present the flux compression mechanism for the paramagnetic Meissner effect. The compression may be due to either an inhomogeneous superconducting transition or flux trap inside the giant vortex state. The flux trapping which acts like a total nonzero spontaneous magnetic moment causes the paramagnetic signal. The anisotropic pairing scenario is believed to be valid for granular materials while the flux trap one can be applied to both conventional and high- Tc superconductors. The study of different phenomena by a three-dimensional lattice model of randomly distributed π Josephson junctions with finite self-inductance occupies the main part of our review. By simulations one can show that the chiral glass phase in which chiralities are frozen in time and in space may occur in granular superconductors possessing d-wave pairing symmetry. Experimental attempts on the search for the chiral glass phase are analysed. Experiments on dynamical phenomena such as AC susceptibility, compensation effect, anomalous microwave absorption, aging effect, AC resistivity and

  10. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    reactions in stars. In the most active galaxies known, the radiating accretion disc of the central SMBH engine easily outshines the stellar light of the entire galaxy (Blandford 1995). In addition to the light, plasma streams can emerge from the innermost regions at relativistic velocities, returning energy to the host galaxy (host) and creating jets and lobes with strong observational signatures, especially at radio and X-ray wavelengths (Wilson 2003). New insights in the wide field of SMBH/host interaction are often related to the development of new, more sensitive instruments and telescopes. For example the idea, that a high luminosity AGN may result from a merger event between two galaxies, could only develop with the upcoming high resolution and sensitive imaging capabilities needed to detect the highly distorted host galaxy morphologies of (post-)merger galaxies (Heckman et al. 1986). Furthermore multi-wavelength approaches, which combine the results of measurements at different wavelengths, often lead to new conclusions or confirm unsecured hypotheses. Thus developing a new instrument can be as valuable as combining different datasets. I follow both approaches and developed projects which (i) deal with new instrumentation and telescope technology, (ii) combine datasets from different wavelengths and resolutions, and (iii) incorporate recent theoretical models and predictions, which can be verified empirically. While some projects are more focused on investigating the power of new observational techniques, others incorporate acknowledged instruments to probe predictions based on previous observations and models and trace special phenomena of SMBH/host interaction. But in most cases aspects of all three items appear. The SMBH/host interaction results in phenomena at all linear size scales of the system, from the direct accretion of matter onto the central black hole up to radio jets crossing the entire galaxy. Thus interaction effects do not simply concentrate on the

  11. Search for collective phenomena in hadron interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kokoulina, E. S. Nikitin, V. A. Petukhov, Y. P.; Karpov, A. V. Kutov, A. Ya.

    2010-12-15

    New results of the search for collective phenomena have been obtained and analyzed in the present report. The experimental studies are carried out on U-70 accelerator of IHEP in Protvino. It is suggested that these phenomena can be discovered at the energy range of 50-70 GeV in the extreme multiplicity region since the high-density matter can form in this very region. The collective behavior of secondary particles is considered to manifest itself in the Bose-Einstein condensation of pions, Vavilov-Cherenkov gluon radiation, excess of soft-photon yield, and other unique phenomena. The perceptible peak in the angular distribution has been revealed. It was interpreted as the gluon radiation and so the parton matter refraction index was determined. The new software was designed for the track reconstruction based on Kalman Filter technique. This algorithm allows one to estimate more precisely the track parameters (especially momentum). The search for Bose-Einstein condensation can be continued by using the selected events with the multiplicity of more than eight charged particles. The gluon dominance model predictions have shown good agreement with the multiplicity distribution at high multiplicity and confirmed the guark-gluon medium formation under these conditions.

  12. Reduced Order Models for Fluid-Structure Interaction Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Daniele

    With the advent of active flow control devices for regulating the structural responses of systems involving fluid-structure interaction phenomena, there is a growing need of efficient models that can be used to control the system. The first step is then to be able to model the system in an efficient way based on reduced-order models. This is needed so that accurate predictions of the system evolution could be performed in a fast manner, ideally in real time. However, existing reduced-order models of fluid-structure interaction phenomena that provide closed-form solutions are applicable to only a limited set of scenarios while for real applications high-fidelity experiments or numerical simulations are required, which are unsuitable as efficient or reduced-order models. This thesis proposes a novel reduced-order and efficient model for fluid-structure interaction phenomena. The model structure employed is such that it is generic for different fluid-structure interaction problems. Based on this structure, the model is first built for a given fluid-structure interaction problem based on a database generated through high-fidelity numerical simulations while it can subsequently be used to predict the structural response over a wide set of flow conditions for the fluid-structure interaction problem at hand. The model is tested on two cases: a cylinder suspended in a low Reynolds number flow that includes the lock-in region and an airfoil subjected to plunge oscillations in a high Reynolds number regime. For each case, in addition to training profile we also present validation profiles that are used to determine the performance of the reduced-order model. The reduced-order model devised in this study proved to be an effective and efficient modeling method for fluid-structure interaction phenomena and it shown its applicability in very different kind of scenarios.

  13. Phenomena related to CP violation at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Squillacioti, Paola; /Siena U. /INFN, Pisa

    2009-10-01

    We report recent CDF results on CP violation in B{sup -} {yields} DK{sup -} modes, where D goes to Cabibbo suppressed ({pi}{pi}, KK) or doubly cabibbo suppressed (K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) modes, which are related to CKM angle gamma. We also describe direct CP violation measurements in charmless two-body decays of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{pi} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK, p{pi} modes, which are unique to the CDF experiment. We also report on CP violation measurements in D{sup 0} {yields} h{sup +}h{sup -} modes.

  14. Phenomena related to CP violation at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Squillacioti, Paola

    2010-02-10

    We report recent CDF results on CP violation in B{sup -}->DK{sup -} modes, where D goes to Cabibbo suppressed (pipi, KK) or doubly cabibbo suppressed (K{sup +}pi{sup -}) modes, which are related to CKM angle gamma. We also describe direct CP violation measurements in charmless two-body decays of B{sub s}{sup 0}->Kpi and LAMBDA{sub b}{sup 0}->pK, ppi modes, which are unique to the CDF experiment. We also report on CP violation measurements in D{sup 0}->h{sup +}h{sup -} modes.

  15. Magnetotransport phenomena related to the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, B. Z.; Andreev, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    We present a theory of magnetotransport phenomena related to the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals. We show that conductivity, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric, and the sound absorption coefficients exhibit strong and anisotropic magnetic field dependencies. We also discuss properties of magnetoplasmons and magnetopolaritons, whose existences are entirely determined by the chiral anomaly. Finally, we discuss the conditions of applicability of the quasiclassical description of electron transport phenomena related to the chiral anomaly.

  16. The Assessment of Object Relations Phenomena in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Eric Wayne

    Recent attempts to empirically validate psychoanalytic theory and its contemporary object relational constructs have turned to measuring the concepts with a variety of recently developed assessment scales. This paper reviews the 27 research studies which utilize instruments designed to assess object relations phenomena in subjects diagnosed with…

  17. Analysis of interaction phenomena between liquid jets and materials [preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S-W.; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G.

    1995-04-01

    The interaction phenomena of high-velocity liquid jets impinging on a material surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally to understand the physics of material removal by jet-machining processes. Experiments were performed to delineate conditions under which liquid jet impacts will cause mass removal and to determine optimum jet-cutting conditions. Theoretical analyses have also been carried out to study the effects of multiple jet-droplet impacts on a target surface as a material deformation mechanism. The calculated target response and spallation behavior following droplet impacts and their physical implications are also discussed.

  18. Analysis of interaction phenomena between liquid jets and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sang-Wook; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G.

    1995-02-01

    The interaction phenomena of high-velocity liquid jets impinging on a material surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally to gain an understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in material removal by fluidjet machining processes. Experiments were performed to determine conditions under which the liquid jet impacting a solid material will cause material removal and also to delineate possible physical mechanisms of mass removal at optimum jet-cutting conditions. We have also carried out numerical simulations of jet-induced surface pressure rises and of the material deformation and spallation behavior due to multiple droplet impacts. Results obtained from the experiments and theoretical calculations and their physical implications are also discussed.

  19. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  20. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of depression-related phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Armey, Michael F.; Schatten, Heather T.; Haradhvala, Natasha; Miller, Ivan W.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is one research method increasingly employed to better understand the processes that underpin depression and related phenomena. In particular, EMA is well suited to the study of affect (e.g., positive and negative affect), affective responses to stress (e.g., emotion reactivity), and behaviors (e.g., activity level, sleep) that are associated with depression. Additionally, EMA can provide insights into self-harm behavior (i.e. suicide and non-suicidal self-injury), and other mood disorders (e.g. bipolar disorder) commonly associated with depressive episodes. Given the increasing availability and affordability of handheld computing devices such as smartphones, EMA is likely to play an increasingly important role in the study of depression and related phenomena in the future. PMID:25664334

  1. Quantum phenomena modelled by interactions between many classical worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Howard; Hall, Michael; Deckert, Dirk-Andre

    2015-03-01

    We investigate how quantum theory can be understood as the continuum limit of a mechanical theory, in which there is a huge, but countable, number of classical ``worlds,'' and quantum effects arise solely from a universal interaction between these worlds, without reference to any wave function. Here a ``world'' means an entire universe with well-defined properties, determined by the classical configuration of its particles and fields. In our approach each world evolves deterministically; probabilities arise due to ignorance as to which world a given observer occupies; and we argue that in the limit of infinitely many worlds the wave function can be recovered (as a secondary object) from the motion of these worlds. We introduce a simple model of such a ``many interacting worlds'' approach and show that it can reproduce some generic quantum phenomena-such as Ehrenfest's theorem, wavepacket spreading, barrier tunneling and zero point energy-as a direct consequence of mutual repulsion between worlds. Finally, we perform numerical simulations using our approach. We demonstrate, first, that it can be used to calculate quantum ground states, and second, that it is capable of reproducing, at least qualitatively, the double-slit interference phenomenon.

  2. Scaling of Quench Front and Entrainment-Related Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Aumiller, D. L.; Hourser, R. J.; Holowach, M. J.; Hochreiter, L. E.; Cheung, F-B.

    2002-04-01

    The scaling of thermal hydraulic systems is of great importance in the development of experiments in laboratory-scale test facilities that are used to replicate the response of full-size prototypical designs. One particular phenomenon that is of interest in experimental modeling is the quench front that develops during the reflood phase in a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) following a large-break LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The purpose of this study is to develop a scaling methodology such that the prototypical quench front related phenomena can be preserved in a laboratory-scale test facility which may have material, geometrical, fluid, and flow differences as compared to the prototypical case. A mass and energy balance on a Lagrangian quench front control volume along with temporal scaling methods are utilized in developing the quench front scaling groups for a phenomena-specific second-tier scaling analysis. A sample calculation is presented comparing the quench front scaling groups calculated for a prototypical Westinghouse 17 x 17 PWR fuel design and that of the geometry and material configuration used in the FLECHT SEASET series of experiments.

  3. [Adhesive properties and related phenomena for powdered pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, A

    1998-04-01

    This report deals with adhesive properties and related phenomena of powdered materials including pharmaceuticals. The adhesive force between a powder particle and substrate as well as the tensile strength of a powder bed and tablet was measured. Various factors were found to affect powder adhesion. Physical properties such as the size, shape and surface roughness were examined. The adhesive force between a particle and substrate decreased remarkably in the presence of ultrafine particles, which is of interest since the addition of adequate amount of "glidant" causes an increase in powder fluidity. From a pharmaceutical point of view, temperature and humidity were essential to particle adhesion. For several organic substances, the adhesive force increased significantly at homologous temperatures more than ca. 0.7, suggesting the sintering mechanism to be operative. The adhsive force between polymer films and glass beads varied according to polymer and relative humidity. A close correlation of water sorbed by the polymer film with adhesive force was noted. In connection with powder fluidity, compaction properties were studied by the centrifugal and tapping methods. Apparent adhesion defined as the ratio of the adhesive force between two contacting particles to the external force acting on a particle was noted to be the primary determinant of the void fraction or the porosity of the powder bed, indicating that the probability of particle displacement essentially depended on apparent adhesion.

  4. Presenteeism and absenteeism: differentiated understanding of related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Eric; Lemyre, Louise; Corneil, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In the past it was assumed that work attendance equated to performance. It now appears that health-related loss of productivity can be traced equally to workers showing up at work as well as to workers choosing not to. Presenteeism in the workplace, showing up for work while sick, seems now more prevalent than absenteeism. These findings are forcing organizations to reconsider their approaches regarding regular work attendance. Given this, and echoing recommendations in the literature, this study seeks to identify the main behavioral correlates of presenteeism and absenteeism in the workplace. Comparative analysis of the data from a representative sample of executives from the Public Service of Canada enables us to draw a unique picture of presenteeism and absenteeism with regards not only to the impacts of health disorders but also to the demographic, organizational, and individual factors involved. Results provide a better understanding of the similarities and differences between these phenomena, and more specifically, of the differentiated influence of certain variables. These findings provide food for thought and may pave the way to the development of new organizational measures designed to manage absenteeism without creating presenteeism. PMID:23276197

  5. Magnetoelectric Effects and Related Phenomena in Spin-spiral Hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Tsuyoshi

    2012-02-01

    Among various multiferroics, extensive studies of ferroelectrics originating from magnetic orders, i.e., magnetically-induced ferroelectrics in which the inversion simmetry breaking and resultant ferroelectricity are induced by complex magnetic orders, have been triggered almost a decade ago by the discovery of multiferroic nature in a perovskite-type rare-earh manganites TbMnO3. The magnetically-induced ferroelectrics often show giant magnetoelectric effects, remarkable changes in electric polarization in response to a magnetic field, since the origin of their ferroelectricity is driven by magnetism which sensitively responds to an applied magnetic field. Though a large number of new magnetically-induced ferroelectrics have been reported in the past decade, so far there has been no practical application employing the magnetoelectric effect of the magnetically-induced ferroelectrics. This is partly because none of the existing magnetically-induced ferroelectrics have combined large and robust electric and magnetic polarizations at room temperature until quite recently. The situation is changed by the discoveries of magnetoelectricity in hexagonal ferrites (hexaferrites) with spin-spiral structures.ootnotetextT. Kimura, G. Lawes, and A. P. Ramirez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 137201 (2005).^,ootnotetextY. Kitagawa et al., Nature Mater. 9, 797 (2010).^,ootnotetextK. Okumura et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 212504 (2011). In this presentation, I show our recent studies on magnetoelectric effects and related phenomena in the new series of magnetically-induced ferroelectrics which are promising candidates for multiferroics operating at room temperature and low fields. This work has been done in collaboration with Y. Hiraoka, T. Ishikura, K. Okumura, Y. Kitagawa, H. Nakamura, Y. Wakabayashi, M. Soda, T. Asaka, and Y. Tanaka.

  6. Interfacial Phenomena in Noble Metal-C{sub 60} Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hai-Ping Cheng

    2008-06-15

    We have accomplished major tasks concerning fundamental physical processes during particle-surface interaction, including structure and electronic structure of surfaces patterned with nanoarrays, dynamics and energy distribution of energetic particle-surface interaction, properties of nano-aggregates, as well as properties of high T{sub c} cuprates.

  7. Relevance of metric-free interactions in flocking phenomena.

    PubMed

    Ginelli, Francesco; Chaté, Hugues

    2010-10-15

    We show that the collective properties of self-propelled particles aligning with their topological (Voronoi) neighbors are qualitatively different from those of usual models where metric interaction ranges are used. This relevance of metric-free interactions, shown in a minimal setting, indicate that realistic models for the cohesive motion of cells, bird flocks, and fish schools may have to incorporate them, as suggested by recent observations. PMID:21231019

  8. Relevance of Metric-Free Interactions in Flocking Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginelli, Francesco; Chaté, Hugues

    2010-10-01

    We show that the collective properties of self-propelled particles aligning with their topological (Voronoi) neighbors are qualitatively different from those of usual models where metric interaction ranges are used. This relevance of metric-free interactions, shown in a minimal setting, indicate that realistic models for the cohesive motion of cells, bird flocks, and fish schools may have to incorporate them, as suggested by recent observations.

  9. Interaction phenomena in graphene seen through quantum capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Yu, G. L.; Jalil, R.; Belle, Branson; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Blake, Peter; Schedin, Frederick; Morozov, Sergey V.; Ponomarenko, Leonid A.; Chiappini, F.; Wiedmann, S.; Zeitler, Uli; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Elias, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Capacitance measurements provide a powerful means of probing the density of states. The technique has proved particularly successful in studying 2D electron systems, revealing a number of interesting many-body effects. Here, we use large-area high-quality graphene capacitors to study behavior of the density of states in this material in zero and high magnetic fields. Clear renormalization of the linear spectrum due to electron–electron interactions is observed in zero field. Quantizing fields lead to splitting of the spin- and valley-degenerate Landau levels into quartets separated by interaction-enhanced energy gaps. These many-body states exhibit negative compressibility but the compressibility returns to positive in ultrahigh B. The reentrant behavior is attributed to a competition between field-enhanced interactions and nascent fractional states. PMID:23401538

  10. Polarization phenomena in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, V.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies are discussed. Prospects of polarization experiments at the new CW electron accelerators, as well as on upgraded older machines are outlined. It is concluded that polarization experiments will play a very important role in the study of the structure of the nucleon and of light nuclei. 72 refs.

  11. Polarization Phenomena in Electromagnetic Interactions at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, Volker

    1990-07-01

    Recent results of polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies are discussed. Prospects of polarization experiments at the new CW electron accelerators, as well as on upgraded older machines are outlined. It is concluded that polarization experiments will play a very important role in the study of the structure of the nucleon and of light nuclei.

  12. Unravelling Magma Interaction Phenomena in Volcanic and Plutonic Environments: Analogies and Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, G.; Perugini, D.

    2003-04-01

    The interaction between magmas is considered more and more to be one of the main mechanisms acting within magma chambers. The coexistence of at least two magmas of different composition and temperature is inherent in these models, and commingling and mixing occur both in the volcanic and plutonic environments, not only on a local scale, but even to produce large batches of magma. Geochemical and thermodynamical aspects of this mechanism have been studied in case histories from petrographical, geochemical, and isotopic point of view in order to define analogies and differences of the effects of magma interaction phenomena in the volcanic and the plutonic environment. Magma interaction has been pointed out using detailed petrographical and mineralogical observations coupled with image analysis. Structures produced by magma mixing processes can be divided into four main groups: i) enclaves, ii) fluidal structures, iii) fragmented dykes and basic septa, iv) mineralogical phase showing chemical-physical disequilibrium. Such structures can be found in both volcanic and plutonic environments although some are more common in the volcanic environment, and vice versa. For instance enclaves are ubiquitous in plutonites and volcanites whereas fluidal structures are more common in the volcanic than the plutonic environment; fragmented dikes and basic septa are almost exclusively a prerogative of plutonic bodies. Besides, whatever is the environment evidence are ubiquitous that physicochemical changes induced disequilibrium phenomena in mineralogical phases that reacted very differently in response to the imposed changes and they now coexist at short distance even in the same thin section. These occurrences can be explained considering the relative time scales on which magma interaction processes can operate in the plutonic and the volcanic environment. For instance the homogenisation by chemical diffusion of elongated fluidal structures requires much less time with respect to

  13. Quantum Phenomena Modeled by Interactions between Many Classical Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Michael J. W.; Deckert, Dirk-André; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate whether quantum theory can be understood as the continuum limit of a mechanical theory, in which there is a huge, but finite, number of classical "worlds," and quantum effects arise solely from a universal interaction between these worlds, without reference to any wave function. Here, a "world" means an entire universe with well-defined properties, determined by the classical configuration of its particles and fields. In our approach, each world evolves deterministically, probabilities arise due to ignorance as to which world a given observer occupies, and we argue that in the limit of infinitely many worlds the wave function can be recovered (as a secondary object) from the motion of these worlds. We introduce a simple model of such a "many interacting worlds" approach and show that it can reproduce some generic quantum phenomena—such as Ehrenfest's theorem, wave packet spreading, barrier tunneling, and zero-point energy—as a direct consequence of mutual repulsion between worlds. Finally, we perform numerical simulations using our approach. We demonstrate, first, that it can be used to calculate quantum ground states, and second, that it is capable of reproducing, at least qualitatively, the double-slit interference phenomenon.

  14. EUV Dimmings as a Diagnostic of CMEs and Related Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Mays, M. Leila; Webb, David F.; West, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale coronal EUV dimmings, developing on timescaJes of minutes to hours in association with a flare or filament eruption, are known to exhibit a high correlation with coronal mass ejections. While most observations indicate that the decrease in emission in a dimming is due, at least in part, to a density decrease, a complete understanding requires us to examine at least four mechanisms that have been observed to cause darkened regions in the corona: 1) mass loss, 2) cooling, 3) heating, and 4) absorption/obscuration. Recent advances in automatic detection, observations with improved cadence and resolution, multi-viewpoint imaging, and spectroscopic studies have continued to shed light on dimming formation, evolution, and recovery. However, there are still some outstanding questions, including 1) Why do some CMEs show dimming and some do not? 2) What determines the location of a dimming? 3) What determines the temporal evolution of a dimming? 4) How does the post-eruption dimming connect to the ICME? 5) What is the relationship between dimmings and other CME-associated phenomena? The talk will emphasize the different formation mechanisms of dimmings and their relationship to CMEs and CME-associated phenomena.

  15. White coat hypertension and related phenomena. A clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Ocón-Pujadas, J; Mora-Maciá, J

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, several clinical problems associated with the diagnosis of hypertension are discussed. Blood pressure variability and reactivity are factors underlying the difficulties in the diagnosis of hypertension. These phenomena are interrelated and mixed. White coat hypertension (WCH), referring to the phenomenon of a high diastolic pressure at the doctor's office and a normal diurnal diastolic pressure when it is measured by ambulatory monitoring, is the most important clinical problem of diagnosis. Blood pressure variability is described, since it is essential to understand changes in pressure throughout the day, and its phasic and tonic components. Blood pressure differences between activity and rest, usually seen as daytime/night-time differences, allow for blood pressure control in most patients with moderate hypertension. Prevalence of WCH depends on the cut-off point used by the investigators for normal diurnal blood pressure; thus, between 53% and 12% of patients may have WCH. In our studies, a prevalence of 35% has been found. The alert reaction, labile and borderline hypertension and WCH result from a mix of both variability and reactivity, and patients with these conditions are at a higher cardiovascular risk than normotensive controls. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, which enables true hypertensives to be distinguished from false hypertensives, is the most useful technique available to date for the diagnosis of hypertension.

  16. The myth of interconnected plastids and related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Schattat, Martin H; Barton, Kiah A; Mathur, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Studies spread over nearly two and a half centuries have identified the primary plastid in autotrophic algae and plants as a pleomorphic, multifunctional organelle comprising of a double-membrane envelope enclosing an organization of internal membranes submerged in a watery stroma. All plastid units have been observed extending and retracting thin stroma-filled tubules named stromules sporadically. Observations on living plant cells often convey the impression that stromules connect two or more independent plastids with each other. When photo-bleaching techniques were used to suggest that macromolecules such as the green fluorescent protein could flow between already interconnected plastids, for many people this impression changed to conviction. However, it was noticed only recently that the concept of protein flow between plastids rests solely on the words "interconnected plastids" for which details have never been provided. We have critically reviewed botanical literature dating back to the 1880s for understanding this term and the phenomena that have become associated with it. We find that while meticulously detailed ontogenic studies spanning nearly 150 years have established the plastid as a singular unit organelle, there is no experimental support for the idea that interconnected plastids exist under normal conditions of growth and development. In this review, while we consider several possibilities that might allow a single elongated plastid to be misinterpreted as two or more interconnected plastids, our final conclusion is that the concept of direct protein flow between plastids is based on an unfounded assumption.

  17. Particle acceleration during interactions between transient ion foreshock phenomena and Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Drew; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Wilson, Lynn; Hietala, Heli; Omidi, Nick; Masters, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Foreshocks are regions upstream of supercritical astrophysical shock waves that are in communication with the shock via suprathermal charged particles that have been energized and reflected by the shock and are counter-streaming into the incident plasma. These regions form upstream of the quasi-parallel region of the shock, in which the angle between the magnetic field in the incident plasma and the shock normal direction is less than ~40 deg. The relative drift between the reflected suprathermal particles and the incident bulk flow is a source of free energy, which is capable of producing a variety of kinetic plasma instabilities and enhanced wave activity. Simulations and observations of Earth's and other planetary foreshocks have shown that large-scale transient phenomena can also develop due to nonlinear processes and interactions between foreshock particles and discontinuities in the incident solar wind. Several of these transient ion foreshock phenomena (TIFP), such as short large-amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMS), hot flow anomalies (HFAs), and foreshock bubbles (FBs), can result in the development of nonlinear wave activity and additional shocks upstream of the main bow shock. We present in situ observations, made by NASA's THEMIS mission, of ion and electron distributions from within and without SLAMS, HFAs, and FBs, examining the particle heating and acceleration taking place within those TIFP. The observations are compared to theoretical expectations for shock-drift acceleration, Fermi acceleration, and energy diffusion via wave-particle interactions. Our preliminary results show that SLAMS, HFAs, and FBs can be ideal particle accelerators. Finally, we develop an understanding for the upper energy limits for ion and electron acceleration in each of these TIFP at Earth's bow shock and use this to investigate how TIFP may accelerate particles at other astrophysical shocks, such as planetary and astrospherical bow shocks, shocks in stellar winds, and

  18. Study of shock waves and related phenomena motivated by astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Malamud, G.; Manuel, M.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Gamboa, E. J.; Krauland, C. M.; MacDonald, M. J.; Wan, W. C.; Young, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Stoeckl, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the recent research in High-Energy-Density Physics at our Center. Our work in complex hydrodynamics is now focused on mode coupling in the Richtmyer- Meshkov process and on the supersonic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. These processes are believed to occur in a wide range of astrophysical circumstances. In radiation hydrodynamics, we are studying radiative reverse shocks relevant to cataclysmic variable stars. Our work on magnetized flows seeks to produce magnetized jets and study their interactions. We build the targets for all these experiments, and simulate them using our CRASH code. We also conduct diagnostic research, focused primarily on imaging x-ray spectroscopy and its applications to scattering and fluorescence.

  19. The Relation between Cognitive Development and Anxiety Phenomena in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relation between cognitive development and fear, anxiety, and behavioral inhibition in a non-clinical sample of 226 Dutch children aged 4-9 years. To assess cognitive development, children were tested with Piagetian conservation tasks and a Theory-of-Mind (TOM) test. Fears were measured by means of a self-report scale completed by…

  20. Physical phenomena related to crystal growth in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism of crystal growth which may be affected by the space environment was studied. Conclusions as to the relative technical and scientific advantages of crystal growth in space over earth bound growth, without regard to economic advantage, were deduced. It was concluded that the crucibleless technique will most directly demonstrate the unique effects of the greatly reduced gravity in the space environment. Several experiments, including crucibleless crystal growth using solar energy and determination of diffusion coefficients of common dopants in liquid silicon were recommended.

  1. BiSb and spin-related thermoelectric phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jin, Hyungyu; Zheng, Yuanhua; Watzman, Sarah J.; Prakash, Arati

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the factors limiting the figure of merit zT of conventional thermoelectrics especially at cryogenic temperatures and then highlights modern approaches used to increase zT below 200 K. Two type of materials are discussed. The first are BiSb alloys, relatively conventional thermoelectrics in which the zT is enhanced by using resonant levels. The second is the spin- Seebeck effect (SSE), a new solid-state energy conversion technology. Classical thermoelectric and SSE physics are combined to provide new concepts, like magnon-drag, in which we hope to increase the performance of solid-state coolers by exploiting the spin degree of freedom.

  2. Migraine aura and related phenomena: beyond scotomata and scintillations

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, MB; Hadjikhani, N

    2013-01-01

    Migraine affects the cortical physiology and may induce dysfunction both ictally and interictally. Although visual symptoms predominate during aura, other contiguous cortical areas related to less impressive symptoms are also impaired in migraine. Answers from 72.2% migraine with aura and 48.6% of migraine without aura patients on human faces and objects recognition, colour perception, proper names recalling and memory in general showed dysfunctions suggestive of prosopagnosia, dyschromatopsia, ideational apraxia, alien hand syndrome, proper name anomia or aphasia, varying in duration and severity. Symptoms frequently occurred in a successively building-up pattern fitting with the geographical distribution of the various cortical functions. When specifically inquired, migraineurs reveal less evident symptoms that are not usually considered during routine examination. Spreading depression most likely underlies the aura symptoms progression. Interictal involvement indicates that MWA and MWoA are not completely silent outside attacks, and that both subforms of migraine may share common mechanisms. PMID:17944958

  3. Analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena in simulant experiments investigating cavity interactions following postulated vessel meltthrough

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena in simulant experiments examining aspects of ex-vessel material interactions in a PWR reactor cavity following postulated core meltdown and localized breaching of the reactor vessel has been carried out. While previous analyses of the tests examined thresholds for the onset of sweepout of fluid from the cavity, the present analysis considers the progression of specific hydrodynamic phenomena involved in the dispersal process: crater formation due to gas jet impingement, radial wave motion and growth, entrainment and transport of liquid droplets, liquid layer formation due to droplet recombination, fluidization of liquid remaining in the cavity, removal of fluidized liquid droplets from the cavity, and the ultimate removal of the remaining liquid layer within the tunnel passageway. Phenomenological models which may be used to predict the phenomena are presented.

  4. Lightning and related phenomena in thunderstorms and squall lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Taylor, W. L.; Macgorman, D. R.; Brandes, E.; Mazur, V.; Arnold, R.; Marshall, T.; Christian, H.; Goodman, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    During the past few years, cooperative research on storm electricity has yielded the following results of both basic and applied interest: (1) the intracloud to cloud-to-ground flashing ratio can be as great as 40:1; (2) as storm cells in a squall line dissipate, longer flashes become predominant; (3) there are two centers of lightning activity maxima that are vertically separated, the lower maximum at about 5 km and the upper at about 12 km. In addition, (4) storms produce lightning in their upper regions at a high rate; (5) lightning appears to be related in time to convective motions; (6) positive cloud-to-ground flashes occur in the severe stage of storms and in the later, well-developed stage of squall line storms; (7) mesoscale convective complexes have been observed to have cloud-to-ground flashing rates of more than 48/min; and (8) the electric field in anvils well away from the main storm core (more than 60 km) can be very high, more than 94 kV/m.

  5. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  6. Apparatus and method for interaction phenomena with world modules in data-flow-based simulation

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Patrick G.; Gottlieb, Eric J.; McDonald, Michael J.; Oppel, III, Fred J.

    2006-08-01

    A method and apparatus accommodate interaction phenomenon in a data-flow-based simulation of a system of elements, by establishing meta-modules to simulate system elements and by establishing world modules associated with interaction phenomena. World modules are associated with proxy modules from a group of meta-modules associated with one of the interaction phenomenon. The world modules include a communication world, a sensor world, a mobility world, and a contact world. World modules can be further associated with other world modules if necessary. Interaction phenomenon are simulated in corresponding world modules by accessing member functions in the associated group of proxy modules. Proxy modules can be dynamically allocated at a desired point in the simulation to accommodate the addition of elements in the system of elements such as a system of robots, a system of communication terminals, or a system of vehicles, being simulated.

  7. The Use of the Principle of Relativity in the Interpretation of Phenomena by Undergraduate Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrocola, Mauricio; Zylbersztajn, Arden

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the extent to which the Principle of Relativity was employed by students when dealing with various phenomena. Concludes that the Principle of Relativity is not used as an heuristic tool in students' answers, and that the situations presented were not regarded as "problematic" by the students, who primarily used interpretive structures…

  8. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations including ionization, dissociation and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; De Jager, C.; Cuntz, M.; Lobel, A.; Achmad, L.

    1993-01-01

    For purposes of computing shocks in stellars atmospheres and winds we have developed a generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations including ionization, dissociation, radiation and related phenomena such as excitation, rotation and vibration of molecules. The new equations are given in analytical form. They are valid as long as the internal energy E, the total pressure P, and the first adiabatic coefficient gamma(sub 1) can be evaluated. However, we have not treated shock structures. In the case of non-LTE we have to employ an approximation for gamma(sub 1) because in that case no definition exists. Our new version of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations can easily be used for many purposes including ab-initio modeling. In our derivation we introduce a parameter gamma(sub H), which is definded as the ratio of the enthalpy H (sometimes called heat function w) to the internal energy E (sometimes called U). Using this parameter we solve the equations for changing mu and (d(natural log P)/d(natural log rho))(sub ad) identically equal to gamma(sub 1) on both sides of the shock. Both gamma(sub H) and gamma(sub 1), and also mu are functions of pressure P and temperature T. We present: (1) the derivation, (2) examples of gamma(sub 1) (P,T) and gamma(sub H) (P,T) which include/exclude ionization and radiation, and (3) as an example the differences in post-shock parameters as function of the pre-shock temperature for the case with ionization and without radiation.

  9. Effect of the short-range interaction on critical phenomena in elastic interaction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masamichi; Miyashita, Seiji

    2013-07-01

    The elastic interaction, induced by the lattice distortion due to the difference of the molecular size, causes an effective long-range interaction. In spin-crossover (SC) compounds, local bistable states, i.e., high-spin and low-spin states, have different molecular sizes, and the elastic interaction is important. In bipartite lattices, e.g., the square lattice, the ground state can be two types of phases: ferromagneticlike and antiferromagneticlike phases. In systems like SC compounds, the former phase consists of all small or large molecules, and the latter phase has the configuration of alternating small and large molecules. In fact, both cases are observed in SC systems. In this paper we have studied the effect of the short-range interaction in the elastic system on the properties of those order-disorder phase transitions. We have obtained a phase diagram in the coordinates of the temperature and the strength of the short-range interaction, including the metastable structures. We show that effects of the short-range interaction are essentially different for ferromagneticlike and antiferromagneticlike phase transitions. In the ferromagneticlike transition, the long-range interaction of elasticity is relevant, and the system exhibits a phase transition in the mean-filed universality class. In this case, the long-range interaction strongly enhances the ferromagneticlike order, and it works cooperatively with the short-range interaction. In contrast, in the antiferromagneticlike transition, the elastic interaction slightly enhances the antiferromagneticlike order, but essentially it does not contribute to the ordering, and the system shows a transition in the Ising universality class. We have found that in the border region between ferromagneticlike and antiferromagneticlike phases, the antiferromagneticlike phase has an advantage at finite temperatures. We discuss the critical properties of two-step SC transitions with comparison between the elastic interaction

  10. Mathematical, Constitutive and Numerical Modelling of Catastrophic Landslides and Related Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, M.; Fernández Merodo, J. A.; Herreros, M. I.; Mira, P.; González, E.; Haddad, B.; Quecedo, M.; Tonni, L.; Drempetic, V.

    2008-02-01

    Mathematical and numerical models are a fundamental tool for predicting the behaviour of geostructures and their interaction with the environment. The term “mathematical model” refers to a mathematical description of the more relevant physical phenomena which take place in the problem being analyzed. It is indeed a wide area including models ranging from the very simple ones for which analytical solutions can be obtained to those more complicated requiring the use of numerical approximations such as the finite element method. During the last decades, mathematical, constitutive and numerical models have been very much improved and today their use is widespread both in industry and in research. One special case is that of fast catastrophic landslides, for which simplified methods are not able to provide accurate solutions in many occasions. Moreover, many finite element codes cannot be applied for propagation of the mobilized mass. The purpose of this work is to present an overview of the different alternative mathematical and numerical models which can be applied to both the initiation and propagation mechanisms of fast catastrophic landslides and other related problems such as waves caused by landslides.

  11. Why does gaze enhance mimicry? Placing gaze-mimicry effects in relation to other gaze phenomena.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2014-01-01

    Eye gaze is a powerful signal, which exerts a mixture of arousal, attentional, and social effects on the observer. We recently found a behavioural interaction between eye contact and mimicry where direct gaze rapidly enhanced mimicry of hand movements ). Here, we report two detailed investigations of this effect. In Experiment 1, we compared the effects of "direct gaze", "averted gaze", and "gaze to the acting hand" on mimicry and manipulated the sequence of gaze events within a trial. Only direct gaze immediately before the hand action enhanced mimicry. In Experiment 2, we examined the enhancement of mimicry when direct gaze is followed by a "blink" or by "shut eyes", or by "occluded eyes". Enhanced mimicry relative to baseline was seen only in the blink condition. Together, these results suggest that ongoing social engagement is necessary for enhanced mimicry. These findings allow us to place the gaze-enhancement effect in the context of other reported gaze phenomena. We suggest that this effect is similar to previously reported audience effects, but is less similar to ostensive cueing effects. This has important implications for our theories of the relationships between social cues and imitation.

  12. Analysis of interaction phenomena between liquid jets and materials. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G.

    1995-04-01

    The interaction phenomena of high-velocity liquid jets impinging on a material surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally to understand the physics of material removal by jet-machining processes. Experiments were performed to delineate conditions under which liquid jet impacts will cause mass removal, and to determine optimum jet-cutting conditions. Theoretical analyses have also been carried out to study the effects of multiple jet-droplet impacts on a target surface as a material deformation mechanism. The calculated target response and spallation behavior following droplet impacts and their physical implications are also discussed.

  13. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  14. Ion beam injected point defects in crystalline silicon: Migration, interaction, and trapping phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Priolo, F.; Libertino, S. |; Privitera, V.; Coffa, S.

    1997-11-01

    The recent work on the room temperature migration and trapping phenomena of ion beam generated point defects in crystalline Si is reviewed. It is shown that a small fraction ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6}) of the defects generated at the surface by a shallow implant is injected into the bulk. These defects undergo a long range trap-limited diffusion and interact with both impurities, dopants and preexisting defects along their path. In particular, these interactions result in dopant deactivation and/or partial annihilation of pre-existing vacancy-type defect markers. It is found that in highly pure, epitaxial Si layers, these effects extend to several microns from the surface, demonstrating a long range migration of point defects at room temperature. By a detailed analysis of the experimental evidences the authors have identified the Si self-interstitials as the major responsible for the observed phenomena. This allowed them to give a lower limit of 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s for the room temperature diffusion coefficient of the Si self-interstitials. Room temperature trap-limited migration of vacancies is also detected as a broadening in the divacancy profile of as implanted samples. In this case the room temperature diffusion coefficient of vacancies has been found to be {ge}3 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/s. These data are presented and their implications discussed.

  15. Double Layers: Potential Formation and Related Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas: Proceedings of the 5th Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, S.

    1998-02-01

    Parallel Velocity Shear Instability (Invited) * Low-Frequency Instabilities under a Cross-Field Electric Field in a K+-C60- Plasma * 3.3 Vortex Formation * Vortex Dynamics in Low Frequency Electrostatic Turbulence * Development of Spiral-Vortex Structures of the Plasma During Rotation in a Neutral Gas * Vortex Formation of Particles in Magnetized Dusty Plasmas (Invited) * CHAPTER 4: SOLITONS, SHOCKS, WAVES AND INSTABILITIES, AND RELATED NONLINEAR PHENOMENA * 4.1 Solitons and Shocks * Refraction and Reflection of Ion Acoustic Solitons by Space Charge Sheath * 2D and 3D Solitons in Plasma: Structure, Stability, Dynamics * Solitary Waves in an Ion-Beam Multi-Component Plasma System * Shock Formation in a Q-Machine Plasma with Negative Ions * 4.2 Waves and Instabilities * Single-Ended Q-Machine as a Source of Oscillations (Invited) * Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Period Doubling of the Potential Relaxation Instability in an Electron-Rich Q-Machine Plasma * Large Amplitude Electrostatic Ion Waves in an e- - e+ - p Plasma * Measurements of Alfvén Waves around the CRIT Releases-Implications for Current Limitation in Alfvén Wings * 4.3 Nonlinear Phenomena * Self-Organization Phenomena in a Q-Machine Plasma * Nonlinearity Related to Self-Organization in a Thermionic Vacuum Arc Discharge * Spontaneous Formation of Ordered Spatio-Temporal Structures in Laboratory and Nature * Nonlinear Evolution and Stabilization of Linearly Unstable Waves in an Electron-Beam Plasma * Disruption of an Electron Hole Due to its Interaction with Ion Acoustic Waves in a Plasma * Expanding Plasma Clouds with Dust Particles (Invited) * LIST OF PARTICIPANTS * AUTHOR INDEX

  16. Numerical studies of wall-plasma interactions and ionization phenomena in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Zeng, Guangshang; Tang, Haibin; Huang, Yuping; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-07-01

    Wall-plasma interactions excited by ablation controlled arcs are very critical physical processes in pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs). Their effects on the ionization processes of ablated vapor into discharge plasma directly determine PPT performances. To reveal the physics governing the ionization phenomena in PPT discharge, a modified model taking into account the pyrolysis effect of heated polytetrafluoroethylene propellant on the wall-plasma interactions was developed. The feasibility of the modified model was analyzed by creating a one-dimensional simulation of a rectangular ablative PPT. The wall-plasma interaction results based on this modified model were found to be more realistic than for the unmodified model; this reflects the dynamic changes of the inflow parameters during discharge in our model. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial variations of the different plasma species in the discharge chamber were numerically studied. The numerical studies showed that polytetrafluoroethylene plasma was mainly composed of monovalent ions; carbon and fluorine ions were concentrated in the upstream and downstream discharge chamber, respectively. The results based on this modified model were in good agreement with the experimental formation times of the various plasma species. A large number of short-lived and highly ionized carbon and fluorine species (divalent and trivalent ions) were created during initial discharge. These highly ionized species reached their peak density earlier than the singly ionized species.

  17. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  18. Study of Starburst/Activity/Interaction Phenomena based on the Multiple Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Gohar S.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-07-01

    The Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy (BIG) sample is the result of optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at high-galactic latitudes using the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra. Among the 1178 objects most are spiral galaxies and many have been proved to be AGN and starburst by spectroscopic observations, as well as there is a number of ULIRGs among these objects. BIG objects contain galaxy pairs, multiples, and small groups that are subject for study on the matter of the real IR-emitter in these systems. Given that these objects are powerful IR sources, they are considered as young systems indicating high rate of evolution and starburst activity exceeding 100 M o /yr. Spectroscopic observations show that all these systems are physical ones and we were able to measure the mutual distances and sizes for all components. Cross-correlations with the recent more accurate IR catalogues, such as 2MASS and WISE, as well as radio ones (NVSS, FIRST), provided accurate coordinates of the IR source and possibility to find the individual galaxy responsible for the IR. However, in almost half of the cases, IR position indicates the intermediate region between the components, which means that it comes from the system as a whole. Some more MW data have been matched to IR and radio to have an overall understanding on these systems. Given that these systems are mostly interacting/merging ones often containing AGN and most of them may be considered as powerful starbursts, it is possible to study starburst/activity/interaction phenomena and their interrelationship.

  19. Dynamic cross correlation studies of wave particle interactions in ULF phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic field observations made by satellites in the earth's magnetic field reveal a wide variety of ULF waves. These waves interact with the ambient particle populations in complex ways, causing modulation of the observed particle fluxes. This modulation is found to be a function of species, pitch angle, energy and time. The characteristics of this modulation provide information concerning the wave mode and interaction process. One important characteristic of wave-particle interactions is the phase of the particle flux modulation relative to the magnetic field variations. To display this phase as a function of time a dynamic cross spectrum program has been developed. The program produces contour maps in the frequency time plane of the cross correlation coefficient between any particle flux time series and the magnetic field vector. This program has been utilized in several studies of ULF wave-particle interactions at synchronous orbit.

  20. SMALL-SCALE LOCAL PHENOMENA RELATED TO THE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND TURBULENCE IN THE PROXIMITY OF THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Strumik, M.; Czechowski, A.; Grzedzielski, S.; Macek, W. M.; Ratkiewicz, R.

    2013-08-20

    We study processes related to magnetic reconnection and plasma turbulence occurring in the presence of the heliopause (HP) and the heliospheric current sheet. It is shown that the interaction of plasmoids initiated by magnetic reconnection may provide connections between the inner and outer heliosheath and lead to an exchange of particles between the interstellar medium and the solar wind plasma shocked at the heliospheric termination shock. The magnetic reconnection may also cause plasma density and magnetic field compressions in the proximity of the HP. We argue that these phenomena could possibly be detected by the Voyager spacecraft approaching and crossing the HP. These results could clarify the concepts of the ''magnetic highway'' and the ''heliosheath depletion region'' recently proposed to explain recent Voyager 1 observations.

  1. Best Estimate Code System to Calculate Thermal & Hydraulic Phenomena in a Nuclear Reactor or Related System.

    1999-05-19

    Version 00 RELAP4/MOD7/101 performs best estimate analyses of nuclear reactors or related systems undergoing a transient. Transient thermal-hydraulic, two-phase phenomena are calculated from formulations of one-dimensional, homogeneous, equilibrium conservation equations for water mass, momentum, and energy. Heat structures are modeled using a transient one-dimensional heat conduction solution that is coupled to the fluid through heat transfer relations. Various explicit models are used to calculate nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium behavior including a phase separation model, a vertical slipmore » model, and a nonequilibrium model. Other models are used to represent critical flow, reactor kinetics, pressurized water reactor reflood behavior, nuclear fuel rod swelling and blockage, and components such as pumps, valves, and accumulators.« less

  2. Performance on Piagetian Horizontality and Verticality Tasks: Sex-Related Differences in Knowledge of Relevant Physical Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liben, Lynn S.; Golbeck, Susan L.

    1984-01-01

    Examines reasons for sex-related differences among adults on horizontality and verticality concepts. Studies the effects on task performance of inadequate knowlege of relevant physical phenomena and pictorial examples. (Author/AS)

  3. Anomalous cosmic ray interaction events for investigations in the SSC and Space Station era - 'Long lived she-devil phenomena'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data on anomalous cosmic-ray interaction events are compiled, classified, and briefly characterized. The events are divided into three groups: those confirmed by later observation or experiment, those shown to be the result of observational or analytical error, and those still unexplained. Among the phenomena in the latter group are magnetic-monopole candidates, fractionally charged particles, massive stable particles, anomalons, proton-decay and neutron-oscillation candidates, muon bundles, narrow showers, anomalous photons, fanlike phenomena, quark-gluon-plasma candidates, and anomalous long-range delta rays.

  4. Numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction phenomena in viscous dominated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hai Duong

    2001-12-01

    The accurate prediction of buffet boundaries is essential in modern military aircraft and suspension bridge design in order to avoid the potentially disastrous consequences of unsteady loads. The design of lightweight structures and thermal protection systems for supersonic and hypersonic vehicles depends on the accurate prediction of the aerothermal loads, the structural temperatures and their gradients, and the structural deformations and stresses. Despite their bounded nature, limit-cycle oscillations can exhibit important amplitudes which affect the fatigue life of aircraft structures. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to develop and design an integrated multidisciplinary computational methodology for the analyses of the coupled responses exhibited by these phenomena. To simulate fluid/structure interaction problems in turbulent flows, we formulate the k--epsilon turbulence model and Reichardt's wall law in ALE form for dynamic meshes. This law is used with the generalized boundary conditions on k and epsilon of Jaeger and Dhatt and allows a closer integration to the wall compared to standard logarithmic laws and boundary conditions on k and epsilon. In order to apply the methodology to buffeting problems dominated by vortex shedding, we validate our solution approach on the square cylinder benchmark problem. There, we stress the minimization of numerical dissipation induced by an upwinding scheme, and apply our methodology to the aeroelastic stability analysis of a sectional dynamic model of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Then, we extend the three field formulation of aeroelasticity to a four-field formulation of aerothermoelasticity for the analysis of aerodynamic heating on structures. With a k--epsilon model, the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated up to a distance delta from the real wall. This gap creates a problem for the transmission of the structural temperature to the fluid system. To resolve this problem, we exchange the

  5. A Next-Generation Experiment To Study Magnetic Reconnection and Related Explosive Phenomena in Large and Collisionless Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Prager, S.; Daughton, W.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2009-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection, a topological change in magnetic field in plasmas, often occurs explosively leading to rapid conversion of magnetic energy to plasma particle energy in space, astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas. The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX, http://mrx.pppl.gov) is a primary dedicated experiment to study reconnection in a controlled environment. However, further critical understanding and contributions to space and astrophysical plasmas are limited by the parameters achievable in MRX and other dedicated experiments. The MRX plasmas are relatively collisional (Lundquist numbers S ˜10^3) and effectively small (plasma size normalized by ion skin depth or ion sound radius ˜10). In this paper, we discuss plans for a next-generation reconnection experiment based on MRX. By a combination of larger physical size, stronger magnetic field, and higher heating power, we aim to increase S by a factor of 100 and effective size by a factor of 10, representing a very large jump in the laboratory capabilities. Kinetic simulations in realistic boundaries will be used to guide the experimental design. Research topics include: (1) transition of collisional to collisionless reconnection and its scaling with collisionality and size, (2) interacting multiple reconnections as a possible cause of explosive phenomena, (3) particle energization by reconnection, (4) relation between local reconnection and global magnetic self-organization in 3D realistic geometry and boundary.

  6. Novel techniques for detection and imaging of spin related phenomena: Towards sub-diffraction limited resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Christopher Stuart

    The idea that the spin degree of freedom of particles can be used to store and transport information has revolutionized the data storage industry and inspired a huge amount of research activity. Spin electronics, or spintronics, provides a plethora of potential improvements to conventional charge electronics that include increased functionality and energy efficiency. Scientists studying spintronics will need a multitude of characterization tools to sensitively detect spins in new materials and devices. There are already a handful of powerful techniques to image spin-related phenomena, but each has limitations. Magnetic resonance force microscopy, for example, offers sensitive detection of spin moments that are localized or nearly so but requires a high vacuum, cryogenic environment. Magnetometry based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond is a powerful approach, but requires the nitrogen vacancy center to be in very close contact to the spin system being studied to be able to measure the field generated by the system. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy provides perhaps the best demonstrated spatial resolution, but typically requires ultrahigh vacuum conditions and is limited to studying the surface of a sample. Traditional optical techniques such as Faraday or Kerr microscopy are limited in spatial resolution by the optical diffraction limit. In this dissertation I will present three new techniques we have developed to address some of these issues and to provide the community with new tools to help push forward spintronics and magnetism related research. I will start by presenting the first experimental demonstration of scanned spin-precession microscopy. This technique has the potential to turn any spin-sensitive detection technique into an imaging platform by providing the groundwork for incorporating a magnetic field gradient with that technique, akin to magnetic resonance imaging, and the mathematical tools to analyze the data and extract the local

  7. A Bayesian explanation of the "Uncanny Valley" effect and related psychological phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Roger K.

    2012-11-01

    There are a number of psychological phenomena in which dramatic emotional responses are evoked by seemingly innocuous perceptual stimuli. A well known example is the `uncanny valley' effect whereby a near human-looking artifact can trigger feelings of eeriness and repulsion. Although such phenomena are reasonably well documented, there is no quantitative explanation for the findings and no mathematical model that is capable of predicting such behavior. Here I show (using a Bayesian model of categorical perception) that differential perceptual distortion arising from stimuli containing conflicting cues can give rise to a perceptual tension at category boundaries that could account for these phenomena. The model is not only the first quantitative explanation of the uncanny valley effect, but it may also provide a mathematical explanation for a range of social situations in which conflicting cues give rise to negative, fearful or even violent reactions.

  8. A Bayesian explanation of the ‘Uncanny Valley’ effect and related psychological phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    There are a number of psychological phenomena in which dramatic emotional responses are evoked by seemingly innocuous perceptual stimuli. A well known example is the ‘uncanny valley’ effect whereby a near human-looking artifact can trigger feelings of eeriness and repulsion. Although such phenomena are reasonably well documented, there is no quantitative explanation for the findings and no mathematical model that is capable of predicting such behavior. Here I show (using a Bayesian model of categorical perception) that differential perceptual distortion arising from stimuli containing conflicting cues can give rise to a perceptual tension at category boundaries that could account for these phenomena. The model is not only the first quantitative explanation of the uncanny valley effect, but it may also provide a mathematical explanation for a range of social situations in which conflicting cues give rise to negative, fearful or even violent reactions. PMID:23162690

  9. Three-phase interactions and interfacial transport phenomena in coacervate/oil/water systems.

    PubMed

    Dardelle, Gregory; Erni, Philipp

    2014-04-01

    Complex coacervation is an associative liquid/liquid phase separation resulting in the formation of two liquid phases: a polymer-rich coacervate phase and a dilute continuous solvent phase. In the presence of a third liquid phase in the form of disperse oil droplets, the coacervate phase tends to wet the oil/water interface. This affinity has long been known and used for the formation of core/shell capsules. However, while encapsulation by simple or complex coacervation has been used empirically for decades, there is a lack of a thorough understanding of the three-phase wetting phenomena that control the formation of encapsulated, compound droplets and the role of the viscoelasticity of the biopolymers involved. In this contribution, we review and discuss the interplay of wetting phenomena and fluid viscoelasticity in coacervate/oil/water systems from the perspective of colloid chemistry and fluid dynamics, focusing on aspects of rheology, interfacial tension measurements at the coacervate/solvent interface, and on the formation and fragmentation of three-phase compound drops.

  10. Better late than Now-or-Never: The case of interactive repair phenomena.

    PubMed

    Healey, Patrick G T; Howes, Christine; Hough, Julian; Purver, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence from dialogue, both corpus and experimental, highlights the importance of interaction in language use - and this raises some questions for Christiansen & Chater's (C&C's) proposals. We endorse C&C's call for an integrated framework but argue that their emphasis on local, individual production and comprehension makes it difficult to accommodate the ubiquitous, interactive, and defeasible processes of clarification and repair in conversation. PMID:27561706

  11. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  12. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed. PMID:10778269

  13. Synchronous Study of Ferroresonance and Inrush Current Phenomena and their Related Reasons in Ground Power Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrami, Amin; Ghaderi, Mohammad; Ghadi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energizing the power transformers usually results in flowing very high inrush currents. This harmful current can be minimized using controlled switching and considering the value of residual flux. But nowadays, developing the ground power networks results in high increment of ferroresonance phenomenon occurrence due to the line' capacitance reactance and nonlinear inductive reactance of power transformer's core. In this study, these transient phenomena and their cause have studied synchronously.

  14. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    PubMed

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments. PMID:25430346

  15. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, S. R. Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  16. Interactive Discovery of New Phenomena in Martian Point Spectra and Hyperspectral Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K.; Lanza, N.; Thompson, D. R.; Blaney, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    In sifting through large martian data sets to find observations of particular scientific interest, there is always a lingering question of "what are we missing?" Targeted searches for materials such as phyllosilicates or carbonates might successfully identify key observations of each, but given limited analysis time we might inadvertently pass over other equally interesting compositions. Data sets with high dimensionality pose an additional challenge for efficient analysis and interpretation. Two prime examples are point spectra such as those collected by LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instruments like ChemCam on the Mars Science Laboratory and hyperspectral data such as that collected by CRISM on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We have developed DEMUD (Discovery through Eigenbasis Modeling of Uninteresting Data), a method that quickly scans through large data sets to identify observations that stand out as unusual or anomalous. It focuses attention on new or unexpected observations, accelerating the discovery of new phenomena. Further, DEMUD learns from feedback. Each item it selects can be designated 'interesting' or 'uninteresting'. DEMUD learns to ignore items deemed uninteresting even if they are otherwise anomalous (e.g., observations that contain noise, bad pixels, or even just novelties that are now well understood). DEMUD progressively peels back layers of anomalies in the data set, without specializing on one particular science goal. It therefore remains open to discovering new phenomena that may not have been anticipated by the mission prior to data collection. This data-driven analysis based on statistical properties can complement model-based interpretations of the observations. In addition to highlighting items of interest, DEMUD also provides explanations for individual decisions, e.g., highlighting specific wavelengths where the chosen sample has unusually high, or low, intensity. It therefore can greatly accelerate not just the discovery

  17. A study on flash sintering and related phenomena in titania and its composite with alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhar

    In 2010, Cologna et. al. [1] reported that with a help of small electric field 120 Vcm-1, the sintering temperature of 3 mol % yittria stabilized zirconia could be brought down to 850°C from 1450°C. On top of reducing the temperature requirements, the green sample could be sintered from starting density of 50% to near full density in mere 5 seconds, a sintering rate three orders of magnitude higher than conventional methods. This discovery led to the emergence of a new field of enhanced sintering with electric field, named "Flash Sintering". The objective of this thesis is to understand the phenomenological behavior of flash-sintering and related phenomena on titania and its composites with alumina at elevated temperature. The possible mechanisms to explain flash sintering are discussed: Joule heating and the avalanche of defect generation [2], both induced by the rapid rise in conductivity just before the onset of the flash. Apparently, both mechanisms play a role. The thesis covers the response of pure titania and composites of titania-alumina under flash and compared with conventional sintering. We start with the sintering behavior of pure titania and observe lowering of sintering temperature requirements with higher applied electric field. The conductivity of titania during flash is also measured, and compared with the nominal conductivity of titania at equivalent temperatures. The conductivity during flash is determined to be have a different activation energy. For the composites of titania-alumina, effect of flash on the constrained sintering was studied. It is a known fact that sintering of one component of composite slows down when the other component of a different densification rate is added to it, called constrained sintering. In our case, large inclusions of alumina particles were added to nano-grained titania green compact that hindered its densification. Flash sintering was found to be overcoming this problem and near full densification was achieved

  18. Some phenomena of the interaction between vegetation and a atmosphere on multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yinqiao; Chen, Jinbei; Zheng, Yuanrun; Li, Guoqing; Zuo, Hongchao

    2006-12-01

    This article studies the response of the distribution pattern and the physiological characteristies of the ecosystem to the spontaneous precipitation and the interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere on multiple scales in arid and semi-arid zones, based on measured data of the ecological physiological parameters in the Ordas Plateau of northern China. The results show that the vegetation biomass and the energy use efficiency of photosynthesis are especially sensitive to the annual precipitation; strong and complex interactions exist between the vegetation and the atmosphere on multiple scales leading to supernormal thermal heterogeneity of the underlying surface, the strong vortex movement and turbulence. This study can facilitate understanding of the land surface processes and the influences of global climate change as well as human activities on the human environment in the arid and semi-arid zones. It also aids in improving the parameterization schemes of turbulent fluxes of a heterogeneous underlying surface for land surface processes in climate models.

  19. Transient AC voltage related phenomena for HVDC schemes connected to weak AC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pilotto, L.A.S.; Szechtman, M. ); Hammad, A.E. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper a didactic explanation of voltage stability associated phenomena at HVDC terminals is presented. Conditions leading to ac voltage collapse problems are identified. A mechanism that excites control-induced voltage oscillations is shown. The voltage stability factor is used for obtaining the maximum power limits of ac/dc systems operating with different control strategies. Correlation to Pd {times} Id curves is given. Solutions for eliminating the risks of voltage collapse and for avoiding control-induced oscillations are discussed. The results are supported by detailed digital simulations of a weak ac/dc system using EMTP.

  20. Multiple personality and related dissociative phenomena in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schenk, L; Bear, D

    1981-10-01

    Many patients with temporal lobe epilepsy also experience dissociative episodes. Three patients with multiple personality exhibited alterations in speech pattern, personality, handedness, and sense of personal identity and claimed amnesia for the dissociative episodes. Another 10 patients identified alternative personalities or demons as motivators of ego-alien behavior. Of clinic patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, 33% exhibited some dissociative phenomena, which had no apparent association with individual seizures but always followed the development of the seizure disorder. The authors propose that intensified, dystonic affects, characteristic of the interictal period in temporal lobe epilepsy, may predispose some individuals to dissociative reactions.

  1. Wave phenomena at the Moon: interaction of solar wind with magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovski, Andrei; Skalsky, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    On the first sight the lunar plasma environment seems to be very simple matter but the interaction in Moon-plasma system shows that the physical processes are complex and varied. Moreover interactions have a kinetic nature and the kinetic theory is necessary for their studying. The solar wind interaction with Moon surface has received many attention last years. The regions of enhanced crustal magnetic field (magnetic anomalies), where a magnetic field may reach till several hundred nT were found. The observations of Kaguya and Chandrayaan revealed that significant deflected proton fluxes exist over magnetic anomalies at the lunar surface. Such proton fluxes allow to imply that the magnetic anomalies may act as magnetosphere-like obstacles (mini-magnetospheres), modifying the upstream plasma. The observations of energetic neutral atoms also confirm the existence of the enhanced fluxes of deflected particles. Variety of electric fluctuations was observed during the passage of Wind spacecraft across the lunar wake: langmuir waves, electrostatic modes above electron cyclotron frequency, whistlers. The investigations by Kuncic and Cairns (2004) revealed emissions on plasma frequency and its first harmonic. Electron reflection at quasi-shock at leading edge of magnetic anomaly could drive the electric field oscillations. The generation mechanism is similar to that known for foreshock of planetary bow shock.In KAGUYA and Lunar Prospector missions the monochromatic whistlers near the Moon were observed as narrow band magnetic fluctuations with frequencies close to 1 Hz, and are mostly left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame. We review different mechanisms for wave generation in plasma environment near such mini-magnetosphere regions.

  2. Bacterial-protozoa interactions; an update on the role these phenomena play towards human illness.

    PubMed

    Snelling, William J; Moore, John E; McKenna, James P; Lecky, Donna M; Dooley, James S G

    2006-02-01

    The usage of water with poor microbiological quality increases the risk of human illness. This review discusses and updates current thinking on the nature of the interaction between a range of human bacterial pathogens and waterborne protozoa. The importance of protozoa acting as protective environments for pathogenic bacteria from disinfection and of promoting extended survival in otherwise hostile environments is highlighted. The significance of biofilms in water systems, and new relationships between Salmonella and Campylobacter and water-borne protozoa are also discussed. The protection of pathogenic bacteria from disinfection within protozoa and/or biofilms has important implications for water safety.

  3. Macroscopic nucleation phenomena in continuum media with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Masamichi; Enachescu, Cristian; Miyashita, Seiji; Rikvold, Per Arne; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Varret, François

    2011-11-01

    Nucleation, commonly associated with discontinuous transformations between metastable and stable phases, is crucial in fields as diverse as atmospheric science and nanoscale electronics. Traditionally, it is considered a microscopic process (at most nano-meter), implying the formation of a microscopic nucleus of the stable phase. Here we show for the first time, that considering long-range interactions mediated by elastic distortions, nucleation can be a macroscopic process, with the size of the critical nucleus proportional to the total system size. This provides a new concept of ``macroscopic barrier-crossing nucleation''. We demonstrate the effect in molecular dynamics simulations of a model spin-crossover system with two molecular states of different sizes, causing elastic distortions.

  4. Study of earthquakes and related phenomena using a satellite scalar magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Magnes, Werner; Xuhui, Shen; Wang, Jindong; Pollinger, Andreas; Hagen, Christian; Lammegger, Roland; Ellmeier, Michaela; Prattes, Gustav; Eichelberger, Hans-Ulrich; Wolbang, Daniel; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Besser, Bruno P.; Rozhnoi, Alexander A.; Zhang, Tielong

    2016-04-01

    A new type of scalar magnetometer for space applications has been developed (see Lammegger 2008). A first instrument of this type will be flown aboard the upcoming Chinese Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES). The scalar magnetometer can measure the total magnetic field with an accuracy of about 50 pT/sqrt(Hz) in the frequency range between 0 and 30 Hz. In order to minimize the stray field of the satellite, the sensor of the scalar magnetometer is mounted at the tip of a five meter boom. The main scientific objective of the scalar magnetometer aboard the Chinese satellite is the investigation of seismic phenomena before, during and after earthquakes or volcanic activity. The expected variations of the total magnetic field above seismic active regions, are presented, using a model based on the groundbased tectonomagnetic measurements and are simplified lithospheric-ionospheric coupling coefficient. Patent: Lammegger, R., WO 2008/151344 A3, Method and Device for Measuring Magnetic Fields

  5. A Study of Aircraft Fire Hazards Related to Natural Electrical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Frank L.; Gerstein, Melvin; Plumer, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    The problems of natural electrical phenomena as a fire hazard to aircraft are evaluated. Assessment of the hazard is made over the range of low level electrical discharges, such as static sparks, to high level discharges, such as lightning strikes to aircraft. In addition, some fundamental work is presented on the problem of flame propagation in aircraft fuel vent systems. This study consists of a laboratory investigation in five parts: (1) a study of the ignition energies and flame propagation rates of kerosene-air and JP-6-air foams, (2) a study of the rate of flame propagation of n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, and n-decane in aircraft vent ducts, (3) a study of the damage to aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel aircraft skin materials by lightning strikes, (4) a study of fuel ignition by lightning strikes to aircraft skins, and (5) a study of lightning induced flame propagation in an aircraft vent system.

  6. Severe wind flow of small spatial and temporal scales: The microburst and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Rita D.; Mccarthy, John

    1985-01-01

    Low-altitude winds on the meso- and microscale are the primary focus of study for the Research Applications Program (RAP) of NCAR. Local weather features such as microbursts, microburst lines, gust fronts, and convergent wind boundaries have been observed and documented extensively. A microburst is a strong, small-scale convective storm outflow which diverges horizontally in all directions upon impact with the ground (Fujita, 1981). A microburst line is composed of two or more microbursts which occur either simultaneously or consecutively, and subsequently form a diverging line of outflow. The temporal and spatial scales of these phenomena are shown. Microbursts and microburst lines generally occur on both the meso- and microscale, while gust fronts and convergent wind boundaries overlap into the mesoscale. Microbursts, in particular, not only are small spatially but are also a short-lived phenomenon. Clearly, some of these features are on a much smaller spatial and temporal scale than can be resolved by a global wind measurement. During the past three years, three experiments were held in the Denver, CO, area to observe boundary-layer winds. Their main objectives were observation and documentation of those weather features discussed above. The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project, which ran in the summer of 1982, was set up to study microbursts. The Convective Initiation Project (1984) was designed to document clear-air convergent wind boundaries, including gust fronts, and their role in convective storm initiation. This project was immediately followed by the Classify, Locate, and Avoid Wind Shear experiment that expanded upon the work done in JAWS. Details on the scales of these weather features are presented. The wind sensors used to detect these phenomena are also discussed. Concluding comments address the usefulness of a global wind measurement system as it pertains to our local scale of interest.

  7. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Z. R. Crowhurst, J. C.; Grant, C. D.; Knight, K. B.; Tang, V.; Chernov, A. A.; Cook, E. G.; Lotscher, J. P.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-11-28

    We report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to 100 μs. Samples took the form of a 4 μm-thick film deposited onto 8 pairs of 17 μm-thick Cu electrodes supported on a 25 μm-thick Kapton backing and sandwiched between glass plates. Materials recovered from the glass plates and around the electrode tips after passage of an arc were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Recovered materials included a variety of crystalline compounds (e.g., UO{sub 2}, UC{sub 2}, UCu{sub 5},) as well as mixtures of uranium and amorphous glass. Most of the materials collected on the glass plates took the form of spherules having a wide range of diameters from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The composition and size of the spherules depended on location, indicating different chemical and physical environments. A theoretical analysis we have carried out suggests that the submicron spherules presumably formed by deposition during the arc discharge, while at the same time the glass plates were strongly heated due to absorption of plasma radiation mainly by islands of deposited metals (Cu, U). The surface temperature of the glass plates is expected to have risen to ∼2300 K thus producing a liquefied glass layer, likely diffusions of the deposited metals on the hot glass surface and into this layer were accompanied by chemical reactions that gave rise to the observed materials. These results, together with the compact scale and relatively low cost, suggest that the experimental technique provides a practical approach to investigate the complex physical and chemical processes that occur when actinide-containing material interacts with the environment at high temperature, for example, during fallout formation following a nuclear detonation.

  8. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Z. R.; Crowhurst, J. C.; Grant, C. D.; Knight, K. B.; Tang, V.; Chernov, A. A.; Cook, E. G.; Lotscher, J. P.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-11-22

    Here, we report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to . Samples took the form of a -thick film deposited onto 8 pairs of -thick Cu electrodes supported on a -thick Kapton backing and sandwiched between glass plates. Materials recovered from the glass plates and around the electrode tips after passage of an arc were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Recovered materials included a variety of crystalline compounds (e.g., UO2, UC2, UCu5,) as well as mixtures of uranium and amorphous glass. Most of the materials collected on the glass plates took the form of spherules having a wide range of diameters from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The composition and size of the spherules depended on location, indicating different chemical and physical environments. A theoretical analysis we have carried out suggests that the submicron spherules presumably formed by deposition during the arc discharge, while at the same time the glass plates were strongly heated due to absorption of plasma radiation mainly by islands of deposited metals (Cu, U). The surface temperature of the glass plates is expected to have risen to ~2300 K thus producing a liquefied glass layer, likely diffusions of the deposited metals on the hot glass surface and into this layer were accompanied by chemical reactions that gave rise to the observed materials. These results, together with the compact scale and relatively low cost, suggest that the experimental technique provides a practical approach to investigate the complex physical and chemical processes that occur when actinide-containing material interacts with the environment at high temperature, for example, during fallout formation following a nuclear detonation.

  9. Structural variation along the southwestern Nankai seismogenic zone related to various earthquake phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Kashiwase, K.; Fujimori, H.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2011-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture area of the Nankai megathrust event, it is important to know the geometry of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and deep subduction structure along the Nankai Trough. To obtain the deep subduction structure of the coseismic rupture area of the Nankai earthquake in 1946 off Shikoku area, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle seismic study was conducted in 2009 and 2010. In this study, 201 and 200 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed off the Shikoku Island and the Kii channel respectively. A tuned airgun system (7800 cu. in.) shot every 200m along 13 profiles. Airgun shots were also recorded along an onshore seismic profile (prepared by ERI, univ. of Tokyo and NIED) prolonged from the offshore profile off the Kii Peninsula. Long-term observation was conducted for ~9 months by 21 OBSs off the Shikoku area and 20 OBSs off the Kii channel.This research is part of 'Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Structural images of the overriding plate indicate the old accreted sediments (the Cretaceous-Tertiary accretionary prism) with the velocity greater than 6km/s extend seaward from off the Shikoku to the Hyuga-nada. Moreover, the young accreted sediments become relatively thinner eastward from off the cape Ashizuri to Muroto. These structural variations might be related to the different rupture pattern of the Nankai event. Structural image of the deep low frequency earthquakes and tremors is shown by using the airgun shots recorded at onshore

  10. Relation between methane hydrate-bearing formations and geological phenomena on the seafloor in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagakubo, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T.; Shimoda, N.; Fujii, T.; Morita, S.; Tanahashi, M.

    2007-12-01

    In 2002, a series of high-resolution 3D seismic surveys was conducted in the Tokai-Oki, the Daini-Atsumi Knoll, the Kumano-nada in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21) conducted resource assessment of methane hydrate in the eastern Nankai Trough by various seismic data analyses combining results of the exploratory wells conducted in 2005. By these analyses, occurrence of methane hydrate in the eastern Nankai Trough is coming to light. The MH21 has also interpreted the relation between methane hydrate-bearing formations and various geological phenomena on the seafloor, such as pockmarks and carbonate outcrops, using the 3D seismic data in the three survey areas. Bathymetric maps and seafloor amplitude maps constructed by the high-resolution 3D data provided lots of information on the seafloor. Some areas show very high intensity on the seafloor amplitude maps. It is expected that the areas showing strong amplitude correspond to the distribution of carbonate outcrops which are likely precipitated by methane seep activities. By checking the seafloor amplitude maps, seismic sections and methane seep sites observed by the previous submersible dives, some significant correlations are recognized between methane hydrate-bearing formations and various phenomena on the seafloor. It may be likely that the occurrence of methane hydrate and the geological phenomena on the seafloor have a strong implication with some typical geologic structures, e.g. shallow fault, highly-permeable sediments and hydraulic fractures, which may control the fluid migration. Besides, in this study we learnt that bathymetric map and seafloor amplitude map constructed by the high- resolution 3D seismic data are very useful not only for interpretation of relation between methane hydrate-bearing formation and various phenomena on the seafloor but also for designing the following seafloor investigations. This study is conducted by the MH21.

  11. Paranormal phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  12. Effect of some smooth muscle relaxant drugs on calcium-related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Ronca-Testoni, S; Hrelia, S; Hakim, G; Ronca, G; Rossi, C A

    1984-04-30

    Some smooth muscle relaxant drugs devoid of anticholinergic action have been tested for their interaction with calmodulin, calmodulin-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, and uterine membrane binding sites for nitrendipine and adenosine. The myolytic activity of octylonium bromide and pinaverium bromide may be due to their interaction with calmodulin-dependent systems. Trimebutine maleate does not bind either to calmodulin or to nitrendipine and adenosine receptors. Tiropramide has no effect on calmodulin-dependent systems and on Ca2+ channels but it shows a competition for the A2-type adenosine receptors. PMID:6329247

  13. Observation of genetic relation among new phenomena Geminion, Chiron and mini-Centauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The threshold energy problem of exotic type interactions is discussed on the basis of available information from the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. The genetic hypothesis is proposed as a working hypothesis to explain the discrepancy seen in cosmic ray study and CERN p bar -p collider experiments.

  14. Nonlinear quantum phenomena and biophysical aspects of complexity related to health and disease.

    PubMed

    Brizhik, L; Foletti, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss living systems as a non-linear self-interacting phenomenon, stabilized by the non-linear interaction between matter and self-created electromagnetic field. Such electromagnetic field can arise, in particular, as the radiation from electrosolitons which mediate the charge transport along macromolecules in metabolic redox processes. The non-linear nature of solitons results in an effective mechanism and leads to the synchronization of redox processes. It allows intra- and intercellular communication and long-range coherence in the system. One peculiar property of solitons is the resonant effect of external weak stimuli on their dynamics, which can explain the mechanism of low-intensity (non-thermal) electromagnetic therapies. We also discuss the stabilizing role of noise and spatial symmetry breaking in living organisms as open dissipative structures far from equilibrium, and health/disease states as the corresponding attractors of the system in the multi-parametric phase diagram. The essential role of electromagnetic potentials in self-regulation and self-healing processes is analyzed, based on the long-range matter-field interaction and fast information transfer, provided by the electromagnetic potentials.

  15. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  16. A new South American network to study the atmospheric electric field and its variations related to geophysical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacza, J.; Raulin, J.-P.; Macotela, E.; Norabuena, E.; Fernandez, G.; Correia, E.; Rycroft, M. J.; Harrison, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present the capability of a new network of field mill sensors to monitor the atmospheric electric field at various locations in South America; we also show some early results. The main objective of the new network is to obtain the characteristic Universal Time diurnal curve of the atmospheric electric field in fair weather, known as the Carnegie curve. The Carnegie curve is closely related to the current sources flowing in the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit so that another goal is the study of this relationship on various time scales (transient/monthly/seasonal/annual). Also, by operating this new network, we may also study departures of the Carnegie curve from its long term average value related to various solar, geophysical and atmospheric phenomena such as the solar cycle, solar flares and energetic charged particles, galactic cosmic rays, seismic activity and specific meteorological events. We then expect to have a better understanding of the influence of these phenomena on the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit and its time-varying behavior.

  17. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J. E-mail: asc5097@psu.edu

    2014-11-10

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  18. Relating Precipitation Phenomena with MODIS Detected Hot Spots in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, E. M.; Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E.; Turk, J.; Flatau, M.; Zhang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies of land use practices in SE Asia’s Maritime Continent (MC) have raised questions over potential meteorological implications including smoke-cloud interaction and changes in the regional radiation budget. Land management practices on Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula include biomass burning to clear primary forest as well as to maintain oil palm plantations. Burning is also employed for clearing unwanted remains from previous crops, rice stubble for example. However, burning activity is often dictated by weather, in particular precipitation. We studied 5 years of MODIS active fire hot spot and satellite precipitation data to investigate how observed burning activity correlated with precipitation features at four major scales: 1) Intraseasonal El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOP); 2) Seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); 3) the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO); and 4) regional convection from localized weather phenomenon (e.g., orographic, isolated thermal convection, sea breeze, etc…). It was found that observed burn patterns from each of the islands of the MC had differing responses to these four forcings. Observed burning activity on the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi correlated strongly with the ENSO and ITCZ indicies, whereas Sumatra was more influenced by the phase and strength of the MJO. Java, showing a mix of influence, exhibited strong fire activity in the morning rather than afternoon which is unusual for most burning regions. We hypothesize that these observed relationships reflect both physical land use differences and contextual bias/observability issues associated with the region’s heavy cloud cover. For further studies on smoke-meteorology interaction, our findings point to the need for a clear understanding of the meteorological context of satellite observations.

  19. Portal aspects of memory overlay in psychoanalysis. An object relations contribution to screen memory phenomena.

    PubMed

    Spero, M H

    1990-01-01

    Distortion in screen memories illustrates the unique manner in which part-object representations unite perceptions from different temporal periods. "Portal" aspects of a given source memory designate anachronistic distortions borrowed from perceptions at a subsequent time when the source memory and its full emotional significance attempted access to consciousness. The unconscious perception of recall at the subsequent occasion is represented by the appearance of portal details in the source dream. The portal concept is related to object relations theory and the psychology of memory.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electron spin resonance and related phenomena of low-dimensional electronic systems in III V compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisels, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    In this work, dc and high-frequency transport phenomena directed primarily at spin properties in two-dimensional electronic systems (2DES) and the quantum Hall effect (QHE) are reviewed. The spin properties are probed by electron spin resonance (ESR). The experimental methods used are presented and the theoretical background based on k sdot p theory is given. The effects of further reducing the dimensionality are discussed in the context of experiments on zero-dimensional systems, 'quantum dots'. To place this work in perspective, the ESR of 'bulk', three-dimensional systems and of strained bulk materials is also treated. Experimental results are presented to clarify the origin of the interaction between the 2DES and the electromagnetic radiation responsible for ESR. These results are compared with theoretical work on the electric dipole and magnetic dipole oscillator strength. The magnetic dipole interaction is found to dominate. The 2DES is subject to electron-electron interaction effects. While no influence on the resonance energy, in accordance with 'Kohn's theorem', is found, indications of many-body effects on the temperature dependence of the spin polarization of the ESR are observed. This is in accordance with other experimental and theoretical works which also found (or predicted) the formation of states with reduced spin polarization. While the influence of the interactions between electrons on the ESR frequency is absent, the hyperfine interaction between electrons and nuclei causes a shift (called the Overhauser shift) of the position of the ESR when the nuclei are spin polarized. Experimental results indicate that the appearance of this shift coincides with magnetic field regions where the plateaus of the quantum Hall effect are present.

  1. Nineteenth century research on naturally occurring cell death and related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P G; Clarke, S

    1996-02-01

    Research on naturally occurring cell death is older than current opinion gives credit. More than 100 nineteenth century publications deal with it, and we review most of these. Soon after the establishment of the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann, Carl Vogt (1842) reported cell death in the notochord and adjacent cartilage of metamorphic toads. Subsequent landmark discoveries included the massive cell death that occurs in pupating diptera (Weismann 1864), chondrocyte death during endochondral ossification (Stieda 1872), phagocytosis associated with cell death in the muscles of metamorphic toads (Metschnikoff 1883), chromatolytic (apoptotic) cell death in ovarian follicles (Flemming 1885), the reinterpretation of "Sarkoplasten" as "Sarkolyten" in metamorphic amphibia (Mayer 1886), the programmed loss of an entire population of neurons in fish embryos (Beard 1889), the death of scattered myocytes and myofibres in mammalian muscle (Felix 1889), and the death of many motor and sensory neurons in chick embryos (Collin 1906). Other lines of nineteenth century research established concepts important for understanding cell death, notably trophic interactions between neurons and their targets, and intercellular competition. PMID:8742050

  2. Fluid mechanic phenomena relating to flow control in conduits and pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayazit, Yilmaz

    first time, thereby contradicting the prior limitation to inertial laminar flow. The Taguchi method was applied to pinpoint the most important among the independent variables with respect to the dimensionless pressure drop, highlighting the importance of the porosity. Control of the liquid flow produced by a pump was analyzed as a problem of fluid-structural interaction.

  3. Investigation of the structure of the electromagnetic field and related phenomena, generated by the active satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Yakov L.

    1992-01-01

    A short review is given for the general frequency and angle distribution of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0)cos(omega)t, in a magnetoplasma. Detailed results of numerical calculations of (E) were made in the Very Low Frequency (VLF) and the Low Frequency (LF) bands 0.02f(sub b) is less than or equal to F is less than or equal to 0.5f(sub b) (F is approximately (4-500) kHz) in the ionosphere and magnetosphere in the altitude region Z = (800-6000) km; f(sub b) is the electron gyro-frequency of the plasmas in the discussed region f(sub b) is approximately equal to (1.1 to 0.2) MHz. The amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field line (B(sub 0)), it is the so called Axis field (E(sub 0)) and in the Storey (E(sub St)), Reversed Storey (E(sub RevSt)), and Resonance (E(sub Res)) Cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are very pronounced close to the low hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, the apex angles of the cones delta(beta) is approximately equal to (0.1 - 1) degree. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field is growing up, especially quickly at Z greater than 800 km. At Z is greater than 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of (E), in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus, the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves in the Earth magnetoplasma produces and is guided by very narrow pencil beams, similar, let us say, to laser beams.

  4. Ancient sandstone condition assessment in relation to degradation, cleaning and consolidation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdácký, Miloš; Frankeová, Dita; Slížková, Zuzana

    2015-04-01

    of cubes for non-destructive US tests and micro drilling. Then the cubes were cut into thin plates and they were tested for volumetric change due to hydric and temperature variations. That procedure allowed a comparison of results of the US tests on cubes and destructive bending tests on thin plates. The remains of these plates were used for porosity measurements. The overall test procedure was planned and carried out in a way which ensured testing of appropriately corresponding specimens. The results supplied data for studying efficiency of the consolidation treatment with silicic acid ester products in relation to three pre-treatment stone conditions, as well as to the type of sandstone cementation (the tested stones had mostly a kaolin or silica, rarely a goethit cementation). The tested stone types were documented by macroscopic and microscopic (thin section) descriptions. The results further indicate capacity of individual testing and assessment methods, and help to select methods suitable for in situ diagnostics.

  5. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  6. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  7. LUNAR OUTGASSING, TRANSIENT PHENOMENA, AND THE RETURN TO THE MOON. II. PREDICTIONS AND TESTS FOR OUTGASSING/REGOLITH INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Hummels, Cameron

    2009-12-20

    We follow Paper I with predictions of how gas leaking through the lunar surface could influence the regolith, as might be observed via optical transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) and related effects. We touch on several processes, but concentrate on low and high flow rate extremes, which are perhaps the most likely. We model explosive outgassing for the smallest gas overpressure at the regolith base that releases the regolith plug above it. This disturbance's timescale and affected area are consistent with observed TLPs; we also discuss other effects. For slow flow, escape through the regolith is prolonged by low diffusivity. Water, found recently in deep magma samples, is unique among candidate volatiles, capable of freezing between the regolith base and surface, especially near the lunar poles. For major outgassing sites, we consider the possible accumulation of water ice. Over geological time, ice accumulation can evolve downward through the regolith. Depending on gases additional to water, regolith diffusivity might be suppressed chemically, blocking seepage and forcing the ice zone to expand to larger areas, up to km{sup 2} scales, again, particularly at high latitudes. We propose an empirical path forward, wherein current and forthcoming technologies provide controlled, sensitive probes of outgassing. The optical transient/outgassing connection, addressed via Earth-based remote sensing, suggests imaging and/or spectroscopy, but aspects of lunar outgassing might be more covert, as indicated above. TLPs betray some outgassing, but does outgassing necessarily produce TLPs? We also suggest more intrusive techniques from radar to in situ probes. Understanding lunar volatiles seems promising in terms of resource exploitation for human exploration of the Moon and beyond, and offers interesting scientific goals in its own right. Many of these approaches should be practiced in a pristine lunar atmosphere, before significant confusing signals likely to be produced upon

  8. Influence of Tailored Applied Magnetic Fields on High-Power MPD Thruster Current Transport and Onset-Related Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    magnetic field configurations enabled significant reductions in onset-related behaviors relative to self-field operation. These improvements should lead to reduced anode erosion, i.e., improved thruster lifetime, and increased thruster efficiency with the applied fields. The applied fields used in this study differ from both the topologies and relative field strengths typically used in the vast majority of conventional, so-called "applied-field MPD thrusters" (AF-MPDTs). These results suggest a distinctive and more effective approach to influencing the near-anode phenomena and mitigating the deleterious effects of onset with appropriately designed applied magnetic fields.

  9. Nano-domains and related phenomena in congruent lithium tantalate single crystals studied by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    Nanodomains and their related phenomena in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystals are studied using scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM). We carried out two specific investigations: super higher order nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy studies on thick multi-domain congruent CLT single crystals and electrical conduction in nanodomains in thin CLT single crystals. First, without using a special sharp tip, we achieve improved lateral resolution in SNDM through the measurement of super higher order nonlinearity up to the fourth order. We also found a marked enhancement of nonlinear dielectric constants when the applied tip-sample voltage exceeded a particular threshold value. This is due to domain nucleation activated by a huge electric field under the tip. Low frequencies (less than a few hundred hertz) do not enhance nonlinearity. An effectively lower electric field caused by ion conduction in the sample under the tip is a possible reason for the frequency-dependent characteristics of the enhanced nonlinearity for the applied voltage. Finally, electrical current flow behavior was investigated for nanodomains formed in a thin CLT single-crystal plate. When the nanodomains are relatively large, with diameters of about 100 nm, current flow is detected along the domain wall. However, when the nanodomains were about 40 nm or smaller in size, current flowed through the entire nanodomain. Schottky-like rectifying behavior was observed. A clear temperature dependence of the current is found, indicating that the conduction mechanism for nanodomains in CLT may involve thermally activated carrier hopping.

  10. Occasional Addresses by Edward Teller at Conferences of Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena (LIRPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Miley, George H.

    2016-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Futurology of High Intensity Lasers (LIRPP Vol. 3A) * Lecture in Connection with the Edward Teller Medal Award (LIRPP Vol. 10) * Photo of the First Recipients of the Edward Teller Medal in 1991 * Photos from the Edward Teller Medal Celebration in 1997 * Photo with Participants of the LIRPP No. 12 Conference, 1995 * Photo with Edward Teller Medalists at IFSA01, Kyoto, 2001 * Keynote Address: The Edward Teller Lecture (LIRPP Vol. 11) * Keynote Address: Dr. Edward Teller (LIRPP Vol. 12) * Teller Award Presentation and Keynote Address (LIRPP Vol. 13) * Laudations of Awardees 1991-1995 (LIRPP Vol. 13) * Laudations of Awardees 1999-2003

  11. Objects, Entities, Behaviors, and Interactions: A Typology of Student-Constructed Computer-Based Models of Physical Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louca, Loucas T.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Michael, Michalis; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing and evaluating student-constructed models of physical phenomena and monitoring the progress of these models. Moreover, we aimed to examine whether this framework could capture differences between models created using different computer-based modeling tools; namely, computer-based…

  12. Studies of Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena: I. Origin of Broken Particle-Hole Symmetry in Critical Fluids. I. Phase Transitions of Interacting Membranes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond Ethan

    The longstanding problem of the precise correspondence between critical phenomena in fluids and ferromagnets is resolved in Part I through a synthesis of mean field theory, exact results for lattice models, field-theoretic techniques, and by extensive quantitative comparison with experiment. Emphasis is placed on the origin of broken particle-hole symmetry in fluids as reflected in the form of the critical point scaling fields and in systematic variations in certain nonuniversal critical amplitudes with molecular polarizability. Those trends and the degree to which the scaling axes are linearly mixed versions of the bare "thermal" and "magnetic" fields in particle-hole symmetric systems are shown both for lattice models and real fluids to be intimately related to the presence of many-body interactions of the Axilrod-Teller type. A quantitatively accurate microscopic expression for the field-mixing operator of fluids is derived on the basis of an exact Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation relating the fluid Hamiltonian to that of a Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. A phenomenological theory of the phase behavior of multilamellar liquid crystals of hydrated phospholipid bilayers is developed in Part II, and its predictions tested by extensive comparison with experiment. A Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional based on the elastic properties of two coupled monolayers is proposed to describe intrabilayer ordering, and the phenomenon of structural phase transitions driven by membrane interactions is described by incorporating in addition the attractive dispersion interactions and repulsive "hydration" forces acting between membranes. The theory indicates and experiments support a connection between the pseudocriticality of the bilayer transitions and the large susceptibility of the in-plane order to membrane interactions. The pseudocriticality in turn is suggested to arise from the analog of a capillary critical point accessible by finite-size effects. Theoretical phase

  13. Investigation of metallurgical phenomena related to process and product development by means of High Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diéguez-Salgado, U.; Michelic, S.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-03-01

    An increased interest for high temperature metallurgical processes appeared during the last decades, in order to achieve the high quality requirements in steel products. A defined steel cleanness and microstructure essentially influence the final product quality. The high temperatures involved in metallurgical processes and the lack of in situ observations do not only complicate the verification of simulation model predictions but also make significant conclusions regarding the industrial processes difficult. For that reason, new tools and techniques are necessary to develop. By combining the advances of a laser, confocal optics and an infrared image furnace, the High Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (HTCSLM) is a strong tool which enables high temperature in situ observations of different metallurgical phenomena. Next to solidification processes and phase transformations also the behavior of inclusions at different interfaces in the system steel-slag-refractory can be observed. The present study focuses on the aspects of inclusion agglomeration in the liquid steel and the inclusion behavior at the steel/refractory interface in two different steel grades. Out of the obtained experimental data, attraction forces are calculated and compared. This information provides an important basis for a better understanding of inclusion behavior in industrial processes and the therewith related process optimization, like for example the clogging phenomenon during continuous casting.

  14. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  15. Concerning theory of non linear phenomena of the suparradiative type in two levels objects systems, interacting with quantum bosonic field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogolyubov, N. N., Jr.; Kazaryan, A. R.; Kurbatov, A. M.; Neskoromnyi, V. N.

    1987-10-01

    The dynamics of a sysem of two levels radiators with a quantum electromagnetic field in the approximation of a " rotating wave" is studied . The exact Bogoliubov kynetic equation for the ful inversion and two times Greens functions for a system of radiators, in which the operators of the Bose fields do not enters explicitly, is derived by the method of exclusion of Bose-operators. Conditions are obtained, for which the irreversible relaxation of an excited system occurs by a superradiative mechanism, in the approximation of the smallness of the interaction constant, on the basis of the ideea of the scales yerarchy of the characteristic times. The relation with the superradiative experiment in impure cristals is discussed.

  16. Experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena among women in the general population: are they related to traumatic stress and dissociation?

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyüz, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena (PNP) in the general population and their possible relations to each other and to traumatic stress and dissociation. The study was conducted on a representative female sample recruited from a town in central eastern Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis-I and Personality Disorders, and the Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire were administered to 628 women. Of these, 127 (20.2%) women reported at least 1 type of PNP and 13 (2.1%) women reported possession. Women with a dissociative disorder reported all types of possession and PNP (except telepathy) more frequently than those without. Whereas women with a trauma history in childhood and adulthood or PTSD reported possession more frequently than those without, PNP were associated with childhood trauma only. Factor analysis yielded 4 dimensions: possession by and/or contact with nonhuman entities, extrasensory communications, possession by a human entity, and precognition. These factors correlated with number of secondary features of dissociative identity disorder and Schneiderian symptoms. Latent class analysis identified 3 groups. The most traumatized group, with predominantly dissociative and trauma-related disorders, had the highest scores on all factors. Notwithstanding their presence in healthy individuals, possession and PNP were associated with trauma and dissociation in a subgroup of affected participants. Both types of experience seem to be normal human capacities of experiencing that may be involved in response to traumatic stress. Given the small numbers, this study should be considered preliminary. PMID:24228817

  17. Experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena among women in the general population: are they related to traumatic stress and dissociation?

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyüz, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena (PNP) in the general population and their possible relations to each other and to traumatic stress and dissociation. The study was conducted on a representative female sample recruited from a town in central eastern Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis-I and Personality Disorders, and the Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire were administered to 628 women. Of these, 127 (20.2%) women reported at least 1 type of PNP and 13 (2.1%) women reported possession. Women with a dissociative disorder reported all types of possession and PNP (except telepathy) more frequently than those without. Whereas women with a trauma history in childhood and adulthood or PTSD reported possession more frequently than those without, PNP were associated with childhood trauma only. Factor analysis yielded 4 dimensions: possession by and/or contact with nonhuman entities, extrasensory communications, possession by a human entity, and precognition. These factors correlated with number of secondary features of dissociative identity disorder and Schneiderian symptoms. Latent class analysis identified 3 groups. The most traumatized group, with predominantly dissociative and trauma-related disorders, had the highest scores on all factors. Notwithstanding their presence in healthy individuals, possession and PNP were associated with trauma and dissociation in a subgroup of affected participants. Both types of experience seem to be normal human capacities of experiencing that may be involved in response to traumatic stress. Given the small numbers, this study should be considered preliminary.

  18. Effect of anisotropic exchange interactions and short-range phenomena on superfluidity in a homogeneous dipolar Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corro, I.; Martin, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a simple numerical method that allows us to calculate the BCS superfluid transition temperature Tc precisely for any interaction potential. We apply it to a polarized, ultracold Fermi gas with long-range, anisotropic, dipolar interactions and include the effects of anisotropic exchange interactions. We pay particular attention to the short-range behavior of dipolar gases and reexamine current renormalization methods. In particular, we find that dimerization of both atoms and molecules significantly hampers the formation of a superfluid. The end result is that at high density or interaction strengths, we find Tc is orders of magnitude lower than previous calculations.

  19. Tail phenomena. [of Halley's comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Niedner, M. B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of tail phenomena is presented based on worldwide submissions to the Large-Scale Phenomena Discipline Specialist Team of the International Halley Watch. Examples of tail phenomena and science are presented along with estimates of total expected yield from the Network. The archive of this material will clearly be very valuable for studying the solar-wind/comet interaction during the 1985-1986 apparition of Halley's Comet.

  20. Accuracy of recent potential energy surfaces for the He-N2 interaction. II. Molecular beam scattering and bulk gas relaxation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Fortún Stoker, Jamie; Dham, Ashok K.; McCourt, Frederick R. W.; Dickinson, Alan S.

    2008-06-01

    A new semiempirical exchange-Coulomb model potential energy surface for the N2-He interaction was reported recently [A. K. Dham et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 054302 (2007)] and, using it, the temperature dependence of bulk gas properties of N2-He mixtures, such as the second virial coefficient and traditional transport phenomena, most of which depend primarily on the isotropic component of the interaction potential energy surface, was determined. Values of these properties, along with values calculated using two high-quality ab initio potential energy surfaces [C.-H. Hu and A. J. Thakkar, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 2541 (1996); K. Patel et al., ibid 119, 909 (2003)] were compared critically to available experimental data. The present paper reports on the ability of the same three potential energy surfaces to predict state-to-state and total differential cross sections, total integral cross sections, and the temperature dependence of bulk gas relaxation phenomena (including magnetic field effects on transport coefficients). While all three potential energy surfaces give total differential and higher speed integral scattering results that fall within the experimental uncertainties, integral scattering results and state-to-state differential cross section measurements consistently exceed the calculated values. All three surfaces give similar agreement with the relaxation properties of N2-He binary mixtures, with the semiempirical exchange-Coulomb model potential energy surface giving slightly better overall agreement with experiment than the two ab initio potential energy surfaces.

  1. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, S. R.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 1017. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  2. Soluto-inertial phenomena: Designing long-range, long-lasting, surface-specific interactions in suspensions.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anirudha; Williams, Ian; Azevedo, Rodrigo Nery; Helgeson, Matthew E; Squires, Todd M

    2016-08-01

    Equilibrium interactions between particles in aqueous suspensions are limited to distances less than 1 μm. Here, we describe a versatile concept to design and engineer nonequilibrium interactions whose magnitude and direction depends on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles, and whose range may extend over hundreds of microns and last thousands of seconds. The mechanism described here relies on diffusiophoresis, in which suspended particles migrate in response to gradients in solution. Three ingredients are involved: a soluto-inertial "beacon" designed to emit a steady flux of solute over long time scales; suspended particles that migrate in response to the solute flux; and the solute itself, which mediates the interaction. We demonstrate soluto-inertial interactions that extend for nearly half a millimeter and last for tens of minutes, and which are attractive or repulsive, depending on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles. Experiments agree quantitatively with scaling arguments and numerical computations, confirming the basic phenomenon, revealing design strategies, and suggesting a broad set of new possibilities for the manipulation and control of suspended particles. PMID:27410044

  3. Soluto-inertial phenomena: Designing long-range, long-lasting, surface-specific interactions in suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anirudha; Williams, Ian; Nery Azevedo, Rodrigo; Helgeson, Matthew E.; Squires, Todd M.

    2016-08-01

    Equilibrium interactions between particles in aqueous suspensions are limited to distances less than 1 μm. Here, we describe a versatile concept to design and engineer nonequilibrium interactions whose magnitude and direction depends on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles, and whose range may extend over hundreds of microns and last thousands of seconds. The mechanism described here relies on diffusiophoresis, in which suspended particles migrate in response to gradients in solution. Three ingredients are involved: a soluto-inertial “beacon” designed to emit a steady flux of solute over long time scales; suspended particles that migrate in response to the solute flux; and the solute itself, which mediates the interaction. We demonstrate soluto-inertial interactions that extend for nearly half a millimeter and last for tens of minutes, and which are attractive or repulsive, depending on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles. Experiments agree quantitatively with scaling arguments and numerical computations, confirming the basic phenomenon, revealing design strategies, and suggesting a broad set of new possibilities for the manipulation and control of suspended particles.

  4. Soluto-inertial phenomena: Designing long-range, long-lasting, surface-specific interactions in suspensions.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anirudha; Williams, Ian; Azevedo, Rodrigo Nery; Helgeson, Matthew E; Squires, Todd M

    2016-08-01

    Equilibrium interactions between particles in aqueous suspensions are limited to distances less than 1 μm. Here, we describe a versatile concept to design and engineer nonequilibrium interactions whose magnitude and direction depends on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles, and whose range may extend over hundreds of microns and last thousands of seconds. The mechanism described here relies on diffusiophoresis, in which suspended particles migrate in response to gradients in solution. Three ingredients are involved: a soluto-inertial "beacon" designed to emit a steady flux of solute over long time scales; suspended particles that migrate in response to the solute flux; and the solute itself, which mediates the interaction. We demonstrate soluto-inertial interactions that extend for nearly half a millimeter and last for tens of minutes, and which are attractive or repulsive, depending on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles. Experiments agree quantitatively with scaling arguments and numerical computations, confirming the basic phenomenon, revealing design strategies, and suggesting a broad set of new possibilities for the manipulation and control of suspended particles.

  5. Is there conscious choice in directed mutation, phenocopies, and related phenomena? An answer based on quantum measurement theory.

    PubMed

    Goswami, A; Todd, D

    1997-01-01

    In a previous article (Goswami, 1997), it was suggested that an application of quantum measurement theory under the auspices of a monistic idealist ontology (that consciousness is the ground of being) can solve many difficult problems of neo-Darwinism, e.g., alternating rapid creativity and homeostasis observed in evolution and the directionality, origin, and nature of life. In this article, we propose an epigenetic quantum mechanism to explain the connection of developmental processes and evolution, as has been evidenced in such controversial phenomena as directed mutation and phenocopies.

  6. Theory of coherence in Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena in a microwave-driven interacting magnon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, Sergio M.

    2009-05-01

    Strong experimental evidences of the formation of quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons at room temperature in a film of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) excited by microwave radiation have been recently reported. Here we present a theory for the dynamics of the magnon gas driven by a microwave field far out of equilibrium that provides rigorous support for the formation of a BEC of magnons in a YIG film magnetized in the plane. We show that if the microwave driving power exceeds a threshold value the nonlinear magnetic interactions create cooperative mechanisms for the onset of a phase transition leading to the spontaneous generation of quantum coherence and magnetic dynamic order in a macroscopic scale. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data for the intensity and the decay rate of the Brillouin light scattering from the BEC as a function of power and for the microwave emission from the uniform mode generated by the confluence of BEC magnon pairs.

  7. Tidal interaction: A possible explanation for geysers and other fluid phenomena in the Neptune-Triton system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, W. D.; Wood, C. L.

    1993-03-01

    Discovery of geyser-like plumes on the surface of Triton was a highlight of Voyager 2's passage through the Neptune planetary system. Remarkable as these observations were, they were not entirely without precedent. Considering the confirmed predictions for the 1979 Voyager Jovian passage, it was logical to consider other solar system bodies beside Io where tidal effects could be a significant factor in surface processes. It was our intuition that the Neptune-Triton gravitational bond acting at high inclination to the Neptune equator and the fact that Neptune was a fluid body was significant oblateness would produce tidal and mechanical forces that could be transformed into thermal energy vented on Triton's surface. Prior to the Voyager flyby, others have noted that capture and evolution of Triton's orbit from extreme eccentricity to near circular state today would have resulted in significant tidal heating, but these analysts disregard current day forces. Our calculations indicate that the time varying forces between Neptune-Triton fall midway between those exerted in the Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Io systems, and considering the low level of other energy inputs, this source of internal energy should not be ignored when seeking an explanation for surface activity. In each planet-satellite case, residual or steady-state eccentricity causes time-varying stresses on internal satellite strata. In the case of Jupiter the residual eccentricity is due largely to Galilean satellite interactions, particularly Io-Europa, but in the case of Neptune-Triton, it is the effect of Triton's inclined orbit about an oblate primary.

  8. Tidal interaction: A possible explanation for geysers and other fluid phenomena in the Neptune-Triton system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. D.; Wood, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Discovery of geyser-like plumes on the surface of Triton was a highlight of Voyager 2's passage through the Neptune planetary system. Remarkable as these observations were, they were not entirely without precedent. Considering the confirmed predictions for the 1979 Voyager Jovian passage, it was logical to consider other solar system bodies beside Io where tidal effects could be a significant factor in surface processes. It was our intuition that the Neptune-Triton gravitational bond acting at high inclination to the Neptune equator and the fact that Neptune was a fluid body was significant oblateness would produce tidal and mechanical forces that could be transformed into thermal energy vented on Triton's surface. Prior to the Voyager flyby, others have noted that capture and evolution of Triton's orbit from extreme eccentricity to near circular state today would have resulted in significant tidal heating, but these analysts disregard current day forces. Our calculations indicate that the time varying forces between Neptune-Triton fall midway between those exerted in the Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Io systems, and considering the low level of other energy inputs, this source of internal energy should not be ignored when seeking an explanation for surface activity. In each planet-satellite case, residual or steady-state eccentricity causes time-varying stresses on internal satellite strata. In the case of Jupiter the residual eccentricity is due largely to Galilean satellite interactions, particularly Io-Europa, but in the case of Neptune-Triton, it is the effect of Triton's inclined orbit about an oblate primary.

  9. Hallucinations, sleep fragmentation, and altered dream phenomena in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pappert, E J; Goetz, C G; Niederman, F G; Raman, R; Leurgans, S

    1999-01-01

    In a series of consecutively randomized outpatients who had Parkinson's disease (PD), we examined the association of three behaviors: sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions. Using a log-linear model methodology, we tested the independence of each behavior. Sixty-two percent of the subjects had sleep fragmentation, 48% had altered dream phenomena, and 26% had hallucinations/illusions. Eighty-two percent of the patients with hallucinations/illusions experienced some form of sleep disorder. The three phenomena were not independent. The interaction between sleep fragmentation and altered dream phenomena was strongly statistically significant. Likewise, a significant interaction existed between altered dream phenomena and hallucinations/illusions. No interaction occurred between sleep fragmentation and hallucinations/illusions. Sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions in PD should be considered distinct but often overlapping behaviors. The close association between altered dream phenomena and hallucinations suggests that therapeutic interventions aimed at diminishing dream-related activities may have a specific positive impact on hallucinatory behavior.

  10. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  11. Factors controlling erosion/deposition phenomena related to lahars at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Rosario; Capra, Lucia; Coviello, Velio

    2016-08-01

    One of the most common phenomena at Volcán de Colima is the annual development of lahars that runs mainly through the southern ravines of the edifice. Since 2011 the study and the monitoring of these flows and of the associated rainfall has been achieved by means of an instrumented station located along the Montegrande ravine, together with the systematic surveying of cross-topographic profiles of the main channel. From these, we present the comparison of the morphological changes experimented by this ravine during the 2013, 2014 and 2015 rainy seasons. The erosion/deposition effects of 11 lahars that occurred during this period of time were quantified by means of the topographic profiles taken at the beginning and at the end of the rainy seasons and before and after the major lahar event of 11 June 2013. We identified (i) an erosive zone between 2100 and 1950 m a.s.l., 8° in slope, with an annual erosional rate of 10.3 % mainly due to the narrowness of the channel and to its high slope angle and (ii) an erosive-depositional zone, between 1900 and 1700 m a.s.l., ( ˜ 8 % erosion and ˜ 16 % deposition), characterized by a wider channel that decreases in slope angle (4°). Based on these observations, the major factors controlling the erosion/deposition rates in the Montegrande ravine are the morphology of the gully (i.e., channel bed slope and the cross section width) and the joint effect of sediment availability and accumulated rainfall. On the distal reach of the ravine, the erosion/deposition processes tend to be promoted preferentially one over the other, mostly depending on the width of the active channel. Only for extraordinary rainfall events are the largest lahars mostly erosive all along the ravine up to the distal fan where the deposition takes place. In addition, as well as the morphological characteristics of the ravine, the flow depth is a critical factor in controlling erosion, as deeper flows will promote erosion against deposition. Finally, by

  12. Rare disease relations through common genes and protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Novo, Sara; Pazos, Florencio; Chagoyen, Monica

    2016-06-01

    ODCs (Orphan Disease Connections), available at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/odcs, is a novel resource to explore potential molecular relations between rare diseases. These molecular relations have been established through the integration of disease susceptibility genes and human protein-protein interactions. The database currently contains 54,941 relations between 3032 diseases.

  13. Expansion of the Universe -- Mistake of Edwin Hubble? Cosmological Redshift and Related Electromagnetic Phenomena in Static Lobachevskian (Hyperbolic) Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brzeski, J. G.

    2008-06-01

    As an alternative to the Big Bang (the standard model), we present a mathematical theory of cosmological redshift. We show that a fundamental formula of Lobachevskian (hyperbolic) geometry describes cosmological redshift and the Doppler effect as well. As presented here, the cosmological redshift preserves wavelength ratios (it shifts uniformly the whole electromagnetic spectrum), it is scale invariant, it is a monotonically increasing function of distance, and it is source independent. It agrees with all experimental data. The distortion introduced by imaging from hyperbolic into Euclidean space and the limitations of Special Relativity are discussed. Physical observations in Lobachevskian space are discussed and the new formula relating redshift and/or Doppler shift to aberration is given. An analysis is presented of an erroneous origin of Hubble's so called velocity distance law.

  14. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence and related phenomena for 1D shallow-water waves in a finite basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ruban, V. P.

    2012-02-15

    Different regimes of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence are simulated numerically for fully nonlinear 'one-dimensional' potential water waves in a finite-depth flume between two vertical walls. In such systems, the FPU recurrence is closely related to the dynamics of coherent structures approximately corresponding to solitons of the integrable Boussinesq system. A simplest periodic solution of the Boussinesq model, describing a single soliton between the walls, is presented in analytic form in terms of the elliptic Jacobi functions. In the numerical experiments, it is observed that depending on the number of solitons in the flume and their parameters, the FPU recurrence can occur in a simple or complicated manner, or be practically absent. For comparison, the nonlinear dynamics of potential water waves over nonuniform beds is simulated, with initial states taken in the form of several pairs of colliding solitons. With a mild-slope bed profile, a typical phenomenon in the course of evolution is the appearance of relatively high (rogue) waves, while for random, relatively short-correlated bed profiles it is either the appearance of tall waves or the formation of sharp crests at moderate-height waves.

  15. The relation of cool flames and auto-ignition phenomena to process safety at elevated pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    Pekalski, A A; Zevenbergen, J F; Pasman, H J; Lemkowitz, S M; Dahoe, A E; Scarlett, B

    2002-07-01

    The cool-flame phenomenon can occur in fuel-oxygen (air) mixtures within the flammable range and outside the flammable range, at fuel-rich compositions, at temperatures below the auto-ignition temperature (AIT). It is caused by chemical reactions occurring spontaneously at relatively low temperatures and is favoured by elevated pressure. The hazards that cool flames generate are described. These vary from spoiling a product specification through contamination and explosive decomposition of condensed peroxides to the appearance of unexpected normal (hot) flame (two-stage ignition).

  16. Computer Simulations of Critical Phenomena in Systems with Long-Range Interactions: a Study of Ising Dipoles and Self-Organized Criticality in Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huang-Jian

    This thesis discusses scaling and critical behavior of two different models. One model describes Ising dipoles, originates in condensed matter physics, and depicts equilibrium critical phenomena. The other model, taken from the earth sciences, describes faulting instabilities and the resulting earthquakes, and involves self-organized criticality--a non-equilibrium phenomenon. Both models are characterized by long range interactions, with a resulting sensitivity to boundary conditions. The ordering properties of Ising dipoles on lattices are studied in a mean field theory and by Monte Carlo simulations. The mean field theory is manifestly shape independent in zero external field. In the case of dipoles on a diluted lattice the mean field theory predicts a critical concentration above which the low temperature phase is ferroelectric (or anti-ferroelectric depending on the lattice structure). Extensive Monte Carlo simulation results are in agreement with those of mean field theory. We propose a finite size scaling form that includes logarithmic corrections for systems at the critical dimensionality. In the case of dipoles on a body centered tetragonal lattice we found that the finite scaling form significantly improved the data collapse over the scaling form with mean field exponents. With lattice parameters appropriate to the Ising ferromagnetic compound LiHoF_4, we obtain a ferromagnetic transition temperature T -1.51 K in excellent agreement with experiment. This indicates that the material LiHoF_4 is dominated by the dipole-dipole interaction: since in the simulations we only include dipole dipole interactions. For dipoles on the simple cubic lattice, the ordered state is made up of anti-ferromagnetic rows. The critical exponents obtained by finite size scaling are beta~ 1/7, gamma ~ 8/7 and o~ 1/7. These results are in good agreement with those of high temperature series expansions. A model of self-organized ruptures in an elastic medium is developed; and applied

  17. Material laws and related uncommon phenomena in the electromagnetic response of type-II superconductors in longitudinal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, H. S.; Badía-Majós, A.; López, C.

    2011-11-01

    Relying on our theoretical approach for the superconducting critical state problem in 3D magnetic field configurations, we present an exhaustive analysis of the electrodynamic response for the so-called longitudinal transport problem in the slab geometry. A wide set of experimental conditions have been considered, including modulation of the applied magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel (longitudinal) to the transport current density. The main objective of our work was to characterize the role of the macroscopic material law that should properly account for the underlying mechanisms of flux cutting and depinning. The intriguing occurrence of negative current patterns and the enhancement of the transport current flow along the center of the superconducting sample are reproduced as a straightforward consequence of the magnetically induced internal anisotropy. Moreover, we show that, related to a maximal projection of the current density vector onto the local magnetic field, a maximal transport current density occurs somewhere within the sample. The elusive measurement of the flux cutting threshold (critical value of such parallel component J_{ {c} \\parallel } ) is suggested on the basis of local measurements of the transport current density. Finally, we show that a high correlation exists between the evolution of the transport current density and the appearance of paramagnetic peak structures in terms of the applied longitudinal magnetic field.

  18. Debris Flows and Related Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancey, C.

    Torrential floods are a major natural hazard, claiming thousands of lives and millions of dollars in lost property each year in almost all mountain areas on the Earth. After a catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helen in the USA in May 1980, water from melting snow, torrential rains from the eruption cloud, and water displaced from Spirit Lake mixed with deposited ash and debris to produce very large debris flows and cause extensive damage and loss of life [1]. During the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia, more than 20,000 people perished when a large debris flow triggered by the rapid melting of snow and ice at the volcano summit, swept through the town of Armero [2]. In 1991, the eruption of Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines disperses more than 5 cubic kilometres of volcanic ash into surrounding valleys. Much of that sediment has subsequently been mobilised as debris flows by typhoon rains and has devastated more than 300 square kilometres of agricultural land. Even, in Eur opean countries, recent events that torrential floods may have very destructive effects (Sarno and Quindici in southern Italy in May 1998, where approximately 200 people were killed). The catastrophic character of these floods in mountainous watersheds is a consequence of significant transport of materials associated with water flows. Two limiting flow regimes can be distinguished. Bed load and suspension refer to dilute transport of sediments within water. This means that water is the main agent in the flow dynamics and that the particle concentration does not exceed a few percent. Such flows are typically two-phase flows. In contrast, debris flows are mas s movements of concentrated slurries of water, fine solids, rocks and boulders. As a first approximation, debris flows can be treated as one-phase flows and their flow properties can be studied using classical rheological methods. The study of debris flows is a very exciting albeit immature science, made up of disparate elements borrowed from geomorphology, geology, hydrology, soil mechanics, and fluid mechanics. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to physical aspects of debris flows, with specific attention directed to their rheological features. Despite attempts to provide a coherent view on the topic, coverage is incomplete and the reader is referred to a series of papers and books. Three books are particularly commendable [3-5]. Some review papers provide interesting overviews, introducing the newcomers to the field to the main concepts [6-8]. The background material in rheology can be found in Chaps. 2 and 3.

  19. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  20. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  1. Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasien, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    A semi-quantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipole-dipole interactions, and H-bonding on the normal boiling points ("T[subscript b]") for a subset of simple organic systems. The model is based upon a statistical analysis using multiple linear regression on a series of straight-chain organic…

  2. Interactions of antimicrobial combinations in vitro: the relativity of synergism.

    PubMed

    Blaser, J

    1990-01-01

    Interactions of combinations of netilmicin, amikacin, piperacillin, imipenem, azlocillin, ceftazidime or moxalactam were studied in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Microtiter checkerboard technique was compared with standard killing curve method and with killing curves obtained in kinetic in vitro models mimicking single or multiple dosing regimens according to human pharmacokinetics. Antibiotic combinations were classified as antagonistic, indifferent or synergistic. Disagreement between classification by checkerboard and by kinetic model was found in 14 of 33 combinations studied (42%). Further analysis by standard killing curve method demonstrated that synergism or antagonism is a relative, not an absolute feature of drug combinations against given pathogens. Factors contributing to disagreements included the concentrations studied relative to the bacterial sensitivity, the ratio of concentrations of the two drugs tested, the size of the bacterial inoculum and the endpoint of the interaction assessment. Standard in vitro methods do not consider changes of antibiotic concentrations over time during combination therapy. Concentrations studied are defined according to bacterial sensitivity (fractions of MIC). Therefore, they may or may not relate to those at the infected site. The observed discrepancies between standard methods for testing drug interaction and a model which more closely reflects human pharmacokinetics support the argument that standard synergy testing provides incomplete data to reliably design clinical combination therapy.

  3. Expression and interaction analysis of Arabidopsis Skp1-related genes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoki; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Kuromori, Takashi; Hirayama, Takashi; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shimada, Hiroaki; Matsui, Minami

    2004-01-01

    Specific protein degradation has been observed in several aspects of development and differentiation in many organisms. One example of such proteolysis is regulated by protein polyubiquitination that is promoted by the SCF complex consisting of Skp1, cullin, and an F-box protein. We examined the activities of the Arabidopsis Skp1-related proteins (ASKs). Among 19 annotated ASK genes, we isolated 16 of the corresponding cDNAs (ASK1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19), and examined their gene products for interactions with 24 representatives of F-box proteins carrying various classes of the C-terminal domains using the yeast two-hybrid system. As a result, we found diverse binding specificities: ASK1, ASK2, ASK11 and ASK12 interacted well with COI1, FKF1, UFO-like protein, LRR-containing F-box proteins, and other F-box proteins with unknown C-terminal motifs. We also observed specific interaction between F-box proteins and ASK3, ASK9, ASK13, ASK14, ASK16 and ASK18. In contrast, we detected no interaction between any of the 12 ASK proteins and F-box proteins containing CRFA, CRFB or CRFC domains. Both histochemical and RT-PCR analysis of eight ASK genes expression revealed unique expression patterns for the respective genes. PMID:14749489

  4. Wave propagation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenenboom, P. H. L.

    The phenomenon of wave propagation is encountered frequently in a variety of engineering disciplines. It has been realized that for a growing number of problems the solution can only be obtained by discretization of the boundary. Advantages of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) over domain-type methods are related to the reduction of the number of space dimensions and of the modelling effort. It is demonstrated how the BEM can be applied to wave propagation phenomena by establishing the fundamental relationships. A numerical solution procedure is also suggested. In connection with a discussion of the retarded potential formulation, it is shown how the wave propagation problem can be cast into a Boundary Integral Formulation (BIF). The wave propagation problem in the BIF can be solved by time-successive evaluation of the boundary integrals. The example of pressure wave propagation following a sodium-water reaction in a Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor steam generator is discussed.

  5. Gene-Diet Interactions in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Sheldon; Taylor, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50 % of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation is the only available treatment option for the dry form of the disease known to slow progression of AMD. Despite an excellent understanding of genes and nutrition in AMD, there is remarkably little known about gene-diet interactions that may identify efficacious approaches to treat individuals. This review will summarize our current understanding of gene-diet interactions in AMD with a focus on animal models and human epidemiological studies.

  6. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  7. Relative displacement method for track-structure interaction.

    PubMed

    Schanack, Frank; Ramos, Óscar Ramón; Reyes, Juan Patricio; Pantaleón, Marcos J

    2014-01-01

    The track-structure interaction effects are usually analysed with conventional FEM programs, where it is difficult to implement the complex track-structure connection behaviour, which is nonlinear, elastic-plastic and depends on the vertical load. The authors developed an alternative analysis method, which they call the relative displacement method. It is based on the calculation of deformation states in single DOF element models that satisfy the boundary conditions. For its solution, an iterative optimisation algorithm is used. This method can be implemented in any programming language or analysis software. A comparison with ABAQUS calculations shows a very good result correlation and compliance with the standard's specifications. PMID:24634610

  8. Relative Displacement Method for Track-Structure Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Óscar Ramón; Pantaleón, Marcos J.

    2014-01-01

    The track-structure interaction effects are usually analysed with conventional FEM programs, where it is difficult to implement the complex track-structure connection behaviour, which is nonlinear, elastic-plastic and depends on the vertical load. The authors developed an alternative analysis method, which they call the relative displacement method. It is based on the calculation of deformation states in single DOF element models that satisfy the boundary conditions. For its solution, an iterative optimisation algorithm is used. This method can be implemented in any programming language or analysis software. A comparison with ABAQUS calculations shows a very good result correlation and compliance with the standard's specifications. PMID:24634610

  9. Stochastic models for large interacting systems and related correlation inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    A very large and active part of probability theory is concerned with the formulation and analysis of models for the evolution of large systems arising in the sciences, including physics and biology. These models have in their description randomness in the evolution rules, and interactions among various parts of the system. This article describes some of the main models in this area, as well as some of the major results about their behavior that have been obtained during the past 40 years. An important technique in this area, as well as in related parts of physics, is the use of correlation inequalities. These express positive or negative dependence between random quantities related to the model. In some types of models, the underlying dependence is positive, whereas in others it is negative. We give particular attention to these issues, and to applications of these inequalities. Among the applications are central limit theorems that give convergence to a Gaussian distribution. PMID:20826441

  10. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  11. Light-induced phenomena in one-component gas: The transport phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chermyaninov, I. V.; Chernyak, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the theory of transport processes in a one-component gas located in the capillary under the action of resonant laser radiation and the temperature and pressure gradients. The expressions for the kinetic coefficients determining heat and mass transport in the gas are obtained on the basis of the modified Boltzmann equations for the excited and unexcited particles. The Onsager reciprocal relations for cross kinetic coefficients are proven for all Knudsen numbers and for any law interaction of gas particles with each other and boundary surface. Light-induced phenomena associated with the possible non-equilibrium stationary states of system are analyzed.

  12. Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Gastin, P B

    2001-01-01

    There are 3 distinct yet closely integrated processes that operate together to satisfy the energy requirements of muscle. The anaerobic energy system is divided into alactic and lactic components, referring to the processes involved in the splitting of the stored phosphagens, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr), and the nonaerobic breakdown of carbohydrate to lactic acid through glycolysis. The aerobic energy system refers to the combustion of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen. The anaerobic pathways are capable of regenerating ATP at high rates yet are limited by the amount of energy that can be released in a single bout of intense exercise. In contrast, the aerobic system has an enormous capacity yet is somewhat hampered in its ability to delivery energy quickly. The focus of this review is on the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during single bouts of maximal exercise. A particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the aerobic energy system during high intensity exercise. Attempts to depict the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during maximal exercise first appeared in the 1960s and 1970s. While insightful at the time, these representations were based on calculations of anaerobic energy release that now appear questionable. Given repeated reproduction over the years, these early attempts have lead to 2 common misconceptions in the exercise science and coaching professions. First, that the energy systems respond to the demands of intense exercise in an almost sequential manner, and secondly, that the aerobic system responds slowly to these energy demands, thereby playing little role in determining performance over short durations. More recent research suggests that energy is derived from each of the energy-producing pathways during almost all exercise activities. The duration of maximal exercise at which equal contributions are derived from the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems appears to

  13. Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Gastin, P B

    2001-01-01

    There are 3 distinct yet closely integrated processes that operate together to satisfy the energy requirements of muscle. The anaerobic energy system is divided into alactic and lactic components, referring to the processes involved in the splitting of the stored phosphagens, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr), and the nonaerobic breakdown of carbohydrate to lactic acid through glycolysis. The aerobic energy system refers to the combustion of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen. The anaerobic pathways are capable of regenerating ATP at high rates yet are limited by the amount of energy that can be released in a single bout of intense exercise. In contrast, the aerobic system has an enormous capacity yet is somewhat hampered in its ability to delivery energy quickly. The focus of this review is on the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during single bouts of maximal exercise. A particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the aerobic energy system during high intensity exercise. Attempts to depict the interaction and relative contribution of the energy systems during maximal exercise first appeared in the 1960s and 1970s. While insightful at the time, these representations were based on calculations of anaerobic energy release that now appear questionable. Given repeated reproduction over the years, these early attempts have lead to 2 common misconceptions in the exercise science and coaching professions. First, that the energy systems respond to the demands of intense exercise in an almost sequential manner, and secondly, that the aerobic system responds slowly to these energy demands, thereby playing little role in determining performance over short durations. More recent research suggests that energy is derived from each of the energy-producing pathways during almost all exercise activities. The duration of maximal exercise at which equal contributions are derived from the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems appears to

  14. The Diurnal, Multiday and Seasonal Evolution of Rn-222 Within Rocks Along the Dead Sea Transform in Relevance to Earthquakes Related Phenomena.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafrir, H.

    2007-12-01

    by the interplay of the ambient temperature gradient at the outside rock/air interface. The delay is a result of the Radon migration time towards the tunnel and back, within the fracture rock porous media. An additional external detector (at 7 meter borehole), present a clear daily correlation between the Radon and the temporal variation of the outdoor temperature, but with a delay of only 2-4 hours. Furthermore, the multi-day and the seasonal variation of the radon emanation also delineate the same interconnection with the ambient temperature. The non-linear relation between the intensity of the radon anomalies and the ambience temperature may explain the reduction of the intensities by factor of 2-5 during the winters (November-March). Similar relations occur at the shallow sites of NW Dead Sea shore, between part of the radon anomalies and the temporal variation of the environmental temperature. The rest of the radon signals could be related to other geophysical processes such as earthquakes (Geology, v. 31, 505-508). Similar phenomena have been observed in worldwide corporate research in Canada and India.

  15. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  16. Molecular model for chirality phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2016-10-01

    Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.

  17. Eighty phenomena about the self: representation, evaluation, regulation, and change

    PubMed Central

    Thagard, Paul; Wood, Joanne V.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for examining self-related aspects and phenomena. The approach includes (1) a taxonomy and (2) an emphasis on multiple levels of mechanisms. The taxonomy categorizes approximately eighty self-related phenomena according to three primary functions involving the self: representing, effecting, and changing. The representing self encompasses the ways in which people depict themselves, either to themselves or to others (e.g., self-concepts, self-presentation). The effecting self concerns ways in which people facilitate or limit their own traits and behaviors (e.g., self-enhancement, self-regulation). The changing self is less time-limited than the effecting self; it concerns phenomena that involve lasting alterations in how people represent and control themselves (e.g., self-expansion, self-development). Each self-related phenomenon within these three categories may be examined at four levels of interacting mechanisms (social, individual, neural, and molecular). We illustrate our approach by focusing on seven self-related phenomena. PMID:25870574

  18. A Challenge for Developers: Preserving the Interactivity of Human Relations in a Standalone Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, F. E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the efforts taken by the Cornell Interactive Theater Ensemble to provide interactive human relations training on date rape using live dramatizations, video with facilitated audience participation, and an electronic multimedia format with decision trees for interactive involvement. (EA)

  19. {alpha}-decay and fusion phenomena in heavy ion collisions using nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from relativistic mean-field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, BirBikram; Sahu, B. B.; Patra, S. K.

    2011-06-15

    Nucleus-nucleus potentials are determined in the framework of the double-folding model for a new microscopic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction relativistic mean field-3-Yukawa (R3Y) derived from the popular relativistic mean-field theory Lagrangian, and the results are compared for the use of Michigan-3-Yukawa (M3Y) effective NN interactions. The double-folding potentials so obtained are further taken up in the context of the preformed cluster model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators and the barrier penetration model to study respectively the ground-state (g.s.) {alpha}-decay and low-energy fusion reactions. In this paper, using PCM, we deduce empirically the {alpha} preformation probability P{sub 0}{sup {alpha}(emp)} from experimental data on a few g.s. {alpha} decays in the trans-lead region. For fusion reactions, two projectile-target systems {sup 12}C+{sup 208}Pb and {sup 16}O+{sup 208}Pb are selected for calculating the barrier energies as well positions, fusion cross sections ({sigma}{sub fus}), and fusion barrier distribution [D(E{sub c.m.})]. The barrier energies and positions change for the R3Y NN interactions in comparison with those of the M3Y NN interactions. We find that in the {alpha}-decay studies the values of P{sub 0}{sup {alpha}(emp)}(R3Y) are similar to those of P{sub 0}{sup {alpha}(emp)}(M3Y). Further, both NN interactions give similar {sigma}{sub fus} values using the Wong formula specifically when the R3Y NN interaction calculated {sigma}{sub fus} values are reduced by 1.5 times, and the results are in agreement with the experimental data for both the systems, especially for the higher energies. Results for D(E{sub c.m.}) are also quite similar for both choices of NN interaction.

  20. Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr; Scott W. White

    2002-06-01

    This annual report describes progress of the project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. This project, funded by the Department of Energy, is a cooperative project that assembles a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project is working to provide advanced distributed computing solutions to link database servers across the five states into a single system where data is maintained at the local level but is accessed through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. Each individual state has strengths in data gathering, data manipulation and data display, including GIS mapping, custom application development, web development, and database design. Sharing of expertise provides the critical mass of technical expertise to improve CO{sub 2} databases and data access in all states. This project improves the flow of data across servers in the five states and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The MIDCARB project is developing improved online tools to provide real-time display and analyze CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The system links together data from sources, sinks and transportation within a spatial database that can be queried online. Visualization of high quality and current data can assist decision makers by providing access to common sets of high quality data in a consistent manner.

  1. Hypervelocity impact phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    There is a need to determine the equations of state of materials in regimes of extreme high pressures, temperatures and strain rates that are not attainable on current two-stage light-gas guns. Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes associated with a variety of hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences-orbital-debris impact, debris-shield designs, high-speed plasma propagation, and impact lethality applications. At very high impact velocities material properties will be dominated by phase-changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled and repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve our understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas gun techniques. In this paper, techniques that have been used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s, and their use to determine the material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. The newly developed hypervelocity launcher (HVL) can launch intact (macroscopic dimensions) plates to 16 km/s. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock-loading/release characteristics of materials impacted by such fliers as well as shock-induced vaporization phenomena in fully vaporized states. High-speed photography or radiography has been used to evaluate the debris propagation characteristics resulting from disc impact of thin bumper sheets at hypervelocities in excess of 10 km/s using the HVL. Examples of these experiments are provided in this paper.

  2. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  3. Stress pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is an introductory discussion of stress pulse phenomena in simple solids and fluids. Stress pulse phenomena is a very rich and complex field that has been studied by many scientists and engineers. This paper describes the behavior of stress pulses in idealized materials. Inviscid fluids and simple solids are realistic enough to illustrate the basic behavior of stress pulses. Sections 2 through 8 deal with the behavior of pressure pulses. Pressure is best thought of as the average stress at a point. Section 9 deals with shear stresses which are most important in studying solids.

  4. Imaging of snapping phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Guillin, R; Marchand, A J; Roux, A; Niederberger, E; Duvauferrier, R

    2012-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. Identifying the precise cause of snaps may be challenging when no abnormality is encountered on routinely performed static examinations. In this regard, dynamic imaging techniques have been developed over time, with various degrees of success. This review encompasses the main features of each imaging technique and proposes an overview of the main snapping phenomena in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:22744321

  5. MIDCONTINENT INTERACTIVE DIGITAL CARBON ATLAS AND RELATIONAL DATABASE (MIDCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr; Scott W. White

    2003-07-01

    This annual report describes progress in the second year of the three-year project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. This project, funded by the Department of Energy, is a cooperative project that assembles a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project is providing advanced distributed computing solutions to link database servers across the five states into a single system where data is maintained at the local level but is accessed through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. Each individual state has strengths in data gathering, data manipulation and data display, including GIS mapping, custom application development, web development, and database design. Sharing of expertise provides the critical mass of technical expertise to improve CO{sub 2} databases and data access in all states. This project improves the flow of data across servers in the five states and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. Data is being assembled to analyze CO{sub 2} sequestration potential from a single object (e.g., power plant or well) to a region and across geographic boundaries. The MIDCARB system is robust and capable of being updated from multiple sources on a daily basis. The MIDCARB project has developed improved online tools to provide real-time display and analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The MIDCARB project is a functional template for distributed data systems to address CO{sub 2} sequestration and other natural resource issues that cross the

  6. Phase transitions and critical phenomena in the two-dimensional Ising model with dipole interactions: A short-time dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C M; Bab, M A; Mazzini, M; Rubio Puzzo, M L; Saracco, G P

    2015-10-01

    The ferromagnetic Ising model with antiferromagnetic dipole interactions is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations, focusing on the characterization of the phase transitions between the tetragonal liquid and stripe of width h phases. The dynamic evolution of the physical observables is analyzed within the short-time regime for 0.5≤δ≤1.3, where δ is the ratio between the short-range exchange and the long-range dipole interaction constants. The obtained results for the interval 0.5≤δ≤1.2 indicate that the phase transition line between the h=1 stripe and tetragonal liquid phases is continuous. This finding contributes to clarifying the controversy about the order of this transition. This controversy arises from the difficulties introduced in the simulations due to the presence of long-range dipole interactions, such as an important increase in the simulation times that limits the system size used, strong finite size effects, as well as to the existence of multiple metastable states at low temperatures. The study of the short-time dynamics of the model allows us to avoid these hindrances. Moreover, due to the fact that the finite-size effects do not significantly affect the power-law behavior exhibited in the observables within the short-time regime, the results could be attributed to those corresponding to the thermodynamic limit. As a consequence of this, a careful characterization of the critical behavior for the whole transition line is performed by giving the complete set of critical exponents.

  7. Some remarks about simulation of cosmic ray phenomena with use of nuclear interaction models based on the current SPS proton-antiproton data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrotniak, J. A.; Yodh, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    The x-y controversy is studied by introducing models with as many features (except for x and y distributions) in common, as possible, to avoid an extrapolation problem, only primary energies of 500 TeV are considered. To prove the point, Monte Carlo simulations are performed of EAS generated by 500 TeV vertical primary protons. Four different nuclear interaction models were used. Two of them are described elsewhere. Two are: (1) Model M-Y00 - with inclusive x and y distributions behaving in a scaling way; and (2) Model M-F00 - at and below ISR energies (1 TeV in Lab) exactly equivalent to the above, then gradually changing to provide the distributions in rapidity at 155 TeV as given by SPS proton-antiproton. This was achieved by gradual decrease in the scale unit in x distributions of produced secondaries, as interaction energy increases. Other modifications to the M-Y00 model were made.

  8. Quantum phenomena in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.

    1987-08-01

    This paper contains remarks by the author on aspects of macroscopic quantum phenomena in superconductors. Some topics discussed are: Superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUGS), charge imbalance, cylindrical dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUIDS), Geophysics, noise theory, magnetic resonance with SQUIDS, and macroscopic quantum tunneling. 23 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  9. Neutron Star Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1998-01-01

    Various phenomena involving neutron stars are addressed. Electron-positron production in the near magnetosphere of gamma-ray pulsars is discussed along with magnetic field evolution in spun-up and spinning-down pulsars. Glitches and gamma-ray central engines are also discussed.

  10. Near real-time model to monitor SST anomalies related to undersea earthquakes and SW monsoon phenomena from TRMM-AQUA satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Subhas

    impending under-sea earthquakes sometimes leading to tsunamis. The results of the analysis for the ENSO-Monsoon rainfall relation show that the time series of SST distribution within the Nino 4 or Nino-BP regions with larger number of pixels with SSTs between 27-28° C is generally a favourable condition for normal rainfall condi-tion. While both Nino 4 and Nino-BP provide similar results, Nino-BP region is found to be a more sensitive region for such assessment of monitoring the trend of SW monsoon rainfall over India. This result has the potential to be used in the prognosis of overall rainfall pattern of the monsoon season at weekly intervals which may serve as vital information for Indian agricul-tural production. While simple geophysical models are able to explain the above correlations, more detailed modelling of the plate tectonics and heat fluxes (for undersea earthquakes) and ocean-cloud interaction/dynamics (for ENSO and Monsoon rainfall pattern) would need to be undertaken.

  11. 17 CFR 232.406T - Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Interactive Data Files. 232.406T Section 232.406T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE....406T Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files. (a) Scope. Section 232.406T addresses the liability for the Interactive Data File. An Interactive Data File is subject to the same...

  12. 17 CFR 232.406T - Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Interactive Data Files. 232.406T Section 232.406T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE....406T Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files. (a) Scope. Section 232.406T addresses the liability for the Interactive Data File. An Interactive Data File is subject to the same...

  13. 17 CFR 232.406T - Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Interactive Data Files. 232.406T Section 232.406T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE....406T Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files. (a) Scope. Section 232.406T addresses the liability for the Interactive Data File. An Interactive Data File is subject to the same...

  14. 17 CFR 232.406T - Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Interactive Data Files. 232.406T Section 232.406T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE....406T Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files. (a) Scope. Section 232.406T addresses the liability for the Interactive Data File. An Interactive Data File is subject to the same...

  15. Limited interactions in flocks: relating model simulations to empirical data

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Franks, Daniel W.; Wood, A. Jamie

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of self-organization resulting in coordinated collective motion has received wide attention from a range of scientists interested in both its technical and biological relevance. Models have been highly influential in highlighting how collective motion can be produced from purely local interactions between individuals. Typical models in this field are termed ‘metric’ because each individual only reacts to conspecifics within a fixed distance. A recent large-scale study has, however, provided evidence that interactions ruling collective behaviour occur between a fixed number of nearest neighbours (‘topological’ framework). Despite their importance in clarifying the nature of the mechanism underlying animal interactions, these findings have yet to be produced by either metric or topological models. Here, we present an original individual-based model of collective animal motion that reproduces the previous findings. Our approach bridges the current gap between previous model analysis and recent evidence, and presents a framework for further study. PMID:20826476

  16. Positron impact ionisation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxom, J.

    A magnetically guided beam of nearly-monoenergetic slow positrons has been used to study positron impact ionisation phenomena in gases. A novel hemispherical scattering cell incorporating an efficient ion extraction and detection system has been developed and has been utilised throughout this work. The energy spectra for the electrons ejected around 0° relative to the incident beam, following positron impact ionisation of Ar, have been measured by a time-of-flight method and a retarding electric field analyzer. The angular acceptance of the electron detection system has been estimated and used to compare the measured spectra with the double differential cross-sections calculated by Mandal et al (1986), Sil et al (1991) and Schultz and Reinhold (1990). The importance of the electron-capture-to-the-continuum process is discussed in this context and found to be minor at small forward angles, in contrast to the case of heavy positively charged projectiles. The apparatus was modified to produce a pulsed beam of slow positrons and utilised to measure in detail the total ionisation cross-section (Qt+) for a variety of atomic and molecular targets. For Ar, He and H2, Qt+ which includes contributions from Ps formation, has been subtracted from corresponding total cross-sections, in order to deduce the behaviour of the elastic scattering cross-section (Qel) in the vicinity of the Ps formation threshold (Eps). Here a small change in the gradient of Qel, has been found. The energy dependencies of the Qt+ for He, Ne and Ar, close to Eps have been interpreted in terms of threshold theory. In the case of Ar the outgoing Ps appears to be predominantly s-wave in character. For He and Ne the analysis suggests that the Ps contains significant contributions from a number of partial waves. In the case of O 2, structure in Qt+ has been found, which is attributed to coupling between two inelastic channels, namely Ps formation and excitation to the Schuman-Runge continuum.

  17. Website on Protein Interaction and Protein Structure Related Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, Manoj; Liang, Shoudan; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In today's world, three seemingly diverse fields - computer information technology, nanotechnology and biotechnology are joining forces to enlarge our scientific knowledge and solve complex technological problems. Our group is dedicated to conduct theoretical research exploring the challenges in this area. The major areas of research include: 1) Yeast Protein Interactions; 2) Protein Structures; and 3) Current Transport through Small Molecules.

  18. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  19. Synchronization Phenomena and Epoch Filter of Electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matani, Ayumu

    Nonlinear electrophysiological synchronization phenomena in the brain, such as event-related (de)synchronization, long distance synchronization, and phase-reset, have received much attention in neuroscience over the last decade. These phenomena contain more electrical than physiological keywords and actually require electrical techniques to capture with electroencephalography (EEG). For instance, epoch filters, which have just recently been proposed, allow us to investigate such phenomena. Moreover, epoch filters are still developing and would hopefully generate a new paradigm in neuroscience from an electrical engineering viewpoint. Consequently, electrical engineers could be interested in EEG once again or from now on.

  20. Paramutation phenomena in plants.

    PubMed

    Pilu, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Paramutation is a particular epigenetic phenomenon discovered in Zea mays by Alexander Brink in the 1950s, and then also found in other plants and animals. Brink coined the term paramutation (from the Greek syllable "para" meaning beside, near, beyond, aside) in 1958, with the aim to differentiate paramutation from mutation. The peculiarity of paramutation with respect to other gene silencing phenomena consists in the ability of the silenced allele (named paramutagenic) to silence the other allele (paramutable) present in trans. The newly silenced (paramutated) allele remains stable in the next generations even after segregation from the paramutagenic allele and acquires paramutagenic ability itself. The inheritance behaviour of these epialleles permits a fast diffusion of a particular gene expression level/phenotype in a population even in the absence of other evolutionary influences, thus breaking the Hardy-Weinberg law. As with other gene silencing phenomena such as quelling in the fungus Neurospora crassa, transvection in Drosophila, co-suppression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) described in transgenic plants and RNA interference (RNAi) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, paramutation occurs without changes in the DNA sequence. So far the molecular basis of paramutation remains not fully understood, although many studies point to the involvement of RNA causing changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure of the silenced genes. In this review I summarize all paramutation phenomena described in plants, focusing on the similarities and differences between them.

  1. New phenomena in interaction of intense ultrashort light pulses with transparent materials: from 3D self-assembled nanostructures to quill writing and nonreciprocal photosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, Peter G.; Beresna, Martynas; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Svirko, Yuri P.

    2010-02-01

    Recently a remarkable phenomenon in ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials has been reported manifesting itself as a change in material modification by reversing the writing direction. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the pulse front tilt is responsible for the occurrence of directional dependence. Additionally, an anisotropic cavitation was observed in the vicinity of the focus at high fluences. The bubbles, formed in the bulk of the glass, can be trapped and manipulated in the plane perpendicular to the light propagation direction by controlling the laser writing direction relative to the tilt of the pulse front. Another intriguing effect recently discovered occurs when the direction of the femtosecond laser beam is reversed from +Z to - Z directions, the structures written in a lithium niobate crystal are mirror images when translating the beam along the +Y and -Y directions. In contrast to glass, the directional dependence of writing in lithium niobate depends on the orientation of the crystal with respect to the direction of the beam movement and the light propagation direction. A theoretical model was created to demonstrate how in the lithium niobate, the nonreciprocal photosensitivity manifests itself as a changing the sign of the light-induced current when the light propagation direction is reversed. Therefore, in a non-centrosymmetric medium, modification of the material can be different when light propagates in opposite directions.

  2. Age-related fascicle-tendon interaction in repetitive hopping.

    PubMed

    Hoffrén, Merja; Ishikawa, Masaki; Avela, Janne; Komi, Paavo V

    2012-12-01

    Increasing age can influence the interaction of muscle fascicles and tendon during dynamic movements. The object of the present study was to examine occurrence and possible reasons for the age-specific behavior of fascicles and tendons and their interaction during hopping with different intensities. Nine young and 24 elderly subjects performed repetitive hopping with maximal effort as well as with 50, 65, 75 and 90 % intensities. During hopping joint kinematics and ground reaction, forces were measured together with recordings of ultrasound images of both the fascicle and the muscle-tendon junction part of the gastrocnemius medialis (GaM) muscle. The results showed that fascicle behavior during the braking phase of hopping was clearly age specific in nature with more fascicle shortening in the young (p < 0.001). In addition, the fascicle shortening increased in young subjects with increasing intensity (p < 0.05). At the instant of ground contact, the elderly subjects demonstrated decreased fascicle length with increasing hopping intensity (p < 0.01). Thereafter in the braking phase, the elderly showed much smaller changes in fascicle length as compared to the young. In contrast to the fascicles, the GaM outer tendon did not show major age-specific differences in stretching and shortening amplitudes during hopping although the peak tendon forces were clearly lower in the elderly (p < 0.001). These results suggest that GaM outer tendon behavior is not influenced greatly with increasing age. It is further suggested that when aging modifies the fascicle-tendon interaction, it is primarily due to the age-specific difference in the fascicle level. This notion poses a question that as compared to the young, the elderly individuals may have a different fascicle behavior for optimal SSC locomotion such as hopping.

  3. Our professional responsibilities relative to human-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Bustad, L K; Hines, L

    1984-10-01

    An interesting area with great potential for benefiting and enriching the lives and conditions of people and animals is opening to us in research, service and teaching. By working with colleagues in other disciplines, we can develop new and creative ways to realize the great promise inherent in people-animal interactions properly studied and utilized.Veterinarians who understand that a strong human-companion animal bond can augment people's mental and physical states will help develop sound and effective companion animal programs for individuals who are lonely or handicapped and for persons in the school systems of the community, as well as its hospices, nursing and convalescent homes, prisons and other institutions. Children experiencing the deep satisfaction of interacting with animals while young will more likely become responsible pet owners and advocates as adults. The image of the profession is enhanced when children and adults see veterinarians as concerned teachers and compassionate health professionals.We as professionals will be required not only to update our knowledge and skills, but to acquire new knowledge in fields of animal and human behavior, psychology and sociology. We are needed on interdisciplinary research teams to study human-animal interactions. We will also be asked to commit time and personal energies in community programs, sometimes with no remuneration. But if skilled health professionals like veterinarians do not take the lead in establishing sound, long-term companion animal programs in their own communities, everyone will suffer including the animals. How we, as individual professionals, respond will be an important reflection of our compassion and our humanity. PMID:17422458

  4. Our Professional Responsibilities Relative to Human-Animal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bustad, L. K.; Hines, L.

    1984-01-01

    An interesting area with great potential for benefiting and enriching the lives and conditions of people and animals is opening to us in research, service and teaching. By working with colleagues in other disciplines, we can develop new and creative ways to realize the great promise inherent in people-animal interactions properly studied and utilized. Veterinarians who understand that a strong human-companion animal bond can augment people's mental and physical states will help develop sound and effective companion animal programs for individuals who are lonely or handicapped and for persons in the school systems of the community, as well as its hospices, nursing and convalescent homes, prisons and other institutions. Children experiencing the deep satisfaction of interacting with animals while young will more likely become responsible pet owners and advocates as adults. The image of the profession is enhanced when children and adults see veterinarians as concerned teachers and compassionate health professionals. We as professionals will be required not only to update our knowledge and skills, but to acquire new knowledge in fields of animal and human behavior, psychology and sociology. We are needed on interdisciplinary research teams to study human-animal interactions. We will also be asked to commit time and personal energies in community programs, sometimes with no remuneration. But if skilled health professionals like veterinarians do not take the lead in establishing sound, long-term companion animal programs in their own communities, everyone will suffer including the animals. How we, as individual professionals, respond will be an important reflection of our compassion and our humanity. PMID:17422458

  5. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  6. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 - 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along the

  7. Kinematics of Interacting ICMEs and Related Forbush Decrease: Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maričić, D.; Vršnak, B.; Dumbović, M.; Žic, T.; Roša, D.; Hržina, D.; Lulić, S.; Romštajn, I.; Bušić, I.; Salamon, K.; Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A.; Bostanjyan, N.; Chilingarian, A.; Mailyan, B.; Arakelyan, K.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Mujić, N.

    2014-01-01

    We study heliospheric propagation and some space weather aspects of three Earth-directed interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), successively launched from the active region AR 11158 in the period 13 - 15 February 2011. From the analysis of the ICME kinematics, morphological evolution, and in situ observations, we infer that the three ICMEs interacted on their way to Earth, arriving together at 1 AU as a single interplanetary disturbance. Detailed analysis of the in situ data reveals complex internal structure of the disturbance, where signatures of the three initially independent ICMEs could be recognized. The analysis also reveals compression and heating of the middle ICME, as well as ongoing magnetic reconnection between the leading and the middle ICME. We present evidence showing that the propagation of these two, initially slower ICMEs, was boosted by the fastest, third ICME. Finally, we employ the ground-based cosmic ray observations, to show that this complex disturbance produced a single cosmic ray event, i.e., a simple Forbush decrease (FD). The results presented provide a better understanding of the ICME interactions and reveal effects that should be taken into account in forecasting of the arrival of such compound structures.

  8. The Seminole Serpent Warrior At Miramar, FL, Shows Settlement Locations Enabled Environmental Monitoring Reminiscent Of the Four-corners Kokopelli-like EMF Phenomena, and Related to Earthquakes, Tornados and Hurricanes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balam Matagamon, Chan; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Certain Native Americans of the past seem to have correctly deduced that significant survival information for their tradition-respecting cultures resided in EMF-based phenomena that they were monitoring. This is based upon their myths and the place or cult-hero names they bequeathed us. The sites we have located in FL have been detectable by us visually, usually by faint blue light, or by the elicitation of pin-like prickings, by somewhat intense nervous-system response, by EMF interactions with aural electrochemical systems that can elicit tinitus, and other ways. In the northeast, Cautantowit served as a harbinger of Indian summer, and appears to be another alter ego of the EMF. The Miami, FL Tequesta site along the river clearly correlates with tornado, earthquake and hurricane locations. Sites like the Mohave Deserts giant man may have had similar significance.

  9. Interactive voice response technology to measure HIV-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kerstin E E; Johnson, Christopher J

    2009-11-01

    Computerized telephone technology has garnered increasing interest as an assessment tool specifically for the collection of daily, near-contemporaneous self-reports of HIV risk behaviors. In this review, we discuss advantages and recent applications of interactive voice response technology (IVR) to HIV risk behavior research, including feasibility studies, assessment mode comparisons between IVR and alternative self-reporting methods, and unique findings derived from event-level data analyses illuminating risk factors for unprotected intercourse on within-person level. We also review reactivity effects of daily IVR self-reports and applications of IVR systems in risk behavior intervention research. We conclude that IVR is a feasible and highly promising tool for various research and health care applications that should be considered more frequently for use in HIV-risk populations.

  10. Preschool Contexts and Teacher Interactions: Relations with School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Priscilla; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Foster, Stacie A.; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of early education programs promote children's learning through a mix of experiences in child- and teacher-managed contexts. The current study examined time spent in child- and teacher-managed contexts and the nature of children's experiences with teachers in these contexts as they relate to children's skill development. Participants…

  11. Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.

    PubMed

    Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.

  12. The Generation of Surface-bound Exospheres via Electron-Stimulated Desorption (and Related Phenomena): Results from Apollo samples and Hermian Regolith Simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C.; Poston, M.; McLain, J. L.; Orlando, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    The generation of surface-bound exospheres present around the Moon, Mercury and other airless rocky bodies are produced primarily by the interaction of micrometeoroid impacts and charged particles from the solar wind, and magnetospheres with those surfaces. While the study of the interactions of both micrometeoroids and ion sputtering are well investigated, the contributions arising from energetic electron interactions are typically less-well established. Observations from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS), taken < 400 km from the surface, have shown a plasma cusp with energetic heavy ions (i.e. Na+- and O+-groups) for which the source has not been determined. However, the precipitation of keV electrons onto the surfaces of Mercury has recently been inferred from measurements using the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument onboard the MESSENGER spacecraft observations of the night-side of Mercury. A newly developed global kinetic transport model suggests that electron-stimulated desorption (ESD), and possibly light ion stimulated desorption (ISD), can directly yield ions that can be transported and dynamically accelerated to the plasma cusp regions observed by FIPS. In addition, keV electrons and ions from the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere frequently bombard with the lunar surface. Here, we present some of the most recent results from our ongoing work studying the effects of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD), ion-stimulated desorption (ISD) and implantation, as well as electron-stimulated desorption (ESD). Apollo samples collected from both the lunar highland and Mare regions, as well as simulants of the Mercury Regolith have been investigated. The temperature- (100-600 K) and energy-dependence (threshold - 2 keV) of ESD time-of-flight (ToF) results will be presented for these materials along with some preliminary results from our group based on photon-desorption studies of water on lunar material, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies of

  13. Relating Things and Stuff via ObjectProperty Interactions.

    PubMed

    Min Sun; Byung-Soo Kim; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL '09 segmentation dataset. PMID:26353309

  14. Relating Things and Stuff via Object Property Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2013-10-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL'09 segmentation dataset. PMID:24101332

  15. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  16. PPI-IRO: a two-stage method for protein-protein interaction extraction based on interaction relation ontology.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ru-Jing; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Su, Ya-Ru; Li, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Mining Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) from the fast-growing biomedical literature resources has been proven as an effective approach for the identification of biological regulatory networks. This paper presents a novel method based on the idea of Interaction Relation Ontology (IRO), which specifies and organises words of various proteins interaction relationships. Our method is a two-stage PPI extraction method. At first, IRO is applied in a binary classifier to determine whether sentences contain a relation or not. Then, IRO is taken to guide PPI extraction by building sentence dependency parse tree. Comprehensive and quantitative evaluations and detailed analyses are used to demonstrate the significant performance of IRO on relation sentences classification and PPI extraction. Our PPI extraction method yielded a recall of around 80% and 90% and an F1 of around 54% and 66% on corpora of AIMed and BioInfer, respectively, which are superior to most existing extraction methods. PMID:25757257

  17. PPI-IRO: a two-stage method for protein-protein interaction extraction based on interaction relation ontology.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ru-Jing; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Su, Ya-Ru; Li, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Mining Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) from the fast-growing biomedical literature resources has been proven as an effective approach for the identification of biological regulatory networks. This paper presents a novel method based on the idea of Interaction Relation Ontology (IRO), which specifies and organises words of various proteins interaction relationships. Our method is a two-stage PPI extraction method. At first, IRO is applied in a binary classifier to determine whether sentences contain a relation or not. Then, IRO is taken to guide PPI extraction by building sentence dependency parse tree. Comprehensive and quantitative evaluations and detailed analyses are used to demonstrate the significant performance of IRO on relation sentences classification and PPI extraction. Our PPI extraction method yielded a recall of around 80% and 90% and an F1 of around 54% and 66% on corpora of AIMed and BioInfer, respectively, which are superior to most existing extraction methods.

  18. Identification of Crew-Systems Interactions and Decision Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Evans, Joni K.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Ancel, Ersin; Barr, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    NASA Vehicle System Safety Technology (VSST) project management uses systems analysis to identify key issues and maintain a portfolio of research leading to potential solutions to its three identified technical challenges. Statistical data and published safety priority lists from academic, industry and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed by NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) systems analysis personnel to identify issues and future research needs related to one of VSST's technical challenges, Crew Decision Making (CDM). The data examined in the study were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aviation Accident and Incident Data System, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident/Incident Data System and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). In addition, this report contains the results of a review of safety priority lists, information databases and other documented references pertaining to aviation crew systems issues and future research needs. The specific sources examined were: Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementation (SERFIs), Flight Deck Automation Issues (FDAI) and NTSB Most Wanted List and Open Recommendations. Various automation issues taxonomies and priority lists pertaining to human factors, automation and flight design were combined to create a list of automation issues related to CDM.

  19. Unidentified phenomena - Unusual plasma behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakian, S. V.; Kovalenok, V. V.

    1992-06-01

    The paper describes observations of a phenomenon belonging to the UFO category and the possible causes of these events. Special attention is given to an event which occurred during the night of September 19-20, 1974, when a huge 'star' was observed over Pertrozavodsk (Russia), consisting of a bright-white luminous center, emitting beams of light, and a less bright light-blue shell. The star gradually formed a cometlike object with a tail consisting of beams of light and started to descend. It is suggested that this event was related to cosmic disturbances caused by an occurrence of unusually strong solar flares. Other examples are presented that relate unusual phenomena observed in space to the occurrence of strong magnetic turbulence events.

  20. Relation and Interactions among Reading Fluency and Competence for Adult Education Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily E.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from an academically diverse sample of 276 adult basic and secondary education learners extends understanding of the relation of and interactions between oral reading fluency and reading competence indices. Significant interactions between total word rate and word error rate that differed in relation to two measures of…

  1. Interaction in the Research Interview and Drug-Related Disclosures among Respondents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Interviewers and respondents judged interview interactions during a survey of drug-related sentiments. Pronounced variability in interviewer-respondent judgements occurred in unanticipated ways related to gender, role, and ethnicity of participants. Positive interaction yielded different respondent cognitions and reports of illicit drug ingestion…

  2. Solution‐crystallization and related phenomena in 9,9‐dialkyl‐fluorene polymers. II. Influence of side‐chain structure

    PubMed Central

    Perevedentsev, Aleksandr; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Solution‐crystallization is studied for two polyfluorene polymers possessing different side‐chain structures. Thermal analysis and temperature‐dependent optical spectroscopy are used to clarify the nature of the crystallization process, while X‐ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal important differences in the resulting microstructures. It is shown that the planar‐zigzag chain conformation termed the β‐phase, which is observed for certain linear‐side‐chain polyfluorenes, is necessary for the formation of so‐called polymer‐solvent compounds for these polymers. Introduction of alternating fluorene repeat units with branched side‐chains prevents formation of the β‐phase conformation and results in non‐solvated, i.e. melt‐crystallization‐type, polymer crystals. Unlike non‐solvated polymer crystals, for which the chain conformation is stabilized by its incorporation into a crystalline lattice, the β‐phase conformation is stabilized by complexation with solvent molecules and, therefore, its formation does not require specific inter‐chain interactions. The presented results clarify the fundamental differences between the β‐phase and other conformational/crystalline forms of polyfluorenes. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015, 53, 1492–1506 PMID:27546983

  3. Causes of Sex Ratio Bias May Account for Unisexual Sterility in Hybrids: A New Explanation of Haldane's Rule and Related Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, L. D.; Pomiankowski, A.

    1991-01-01

    Unisexual hybrid disruption can be accounted for by interactions between sex ratio distorters which have diverged in the species of the hybrid cross. One class of unisexual hybrid disruption is described by Haldane's rule, namely that the sex which is absent, inviable or sterile is the heterogametic sex. This effect is mainly due to incompatibility between X and Y chromosomes. We propose that this incompatibility is due to a mutual imbalance between meiotic drive genes, which are more likely to evolve on sex chromosomes than autosomes. The incidences of taxa with sex chromosome drive closely matches those where Haldane's rule applies: Aves, Mammalia, Lepidoptera and Diptera. We predict that Haldane's rule is not universal but is correct for taxa with sex chromosome meiotic drive. A second class of hybrid disruption affects the male of the species regardless of which sex is heterogametic. Typically the genes responsible for this form of disruption are cytoplasmic. These instances are accounted for by the release from suppression of cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters when in a novel nuclear cytotype. Due to the exclusively maternal transmission of cytoplasm, cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters cause only female-biased sex ratios. This asymmetry explains why hybrid disruption is limited to the male. PMID:1916248

  4. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down.

    The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  5. Long term puzzles of the CH and CD energetics and related phenomena revisited; solutions sought through REMPI-photofragmentations of bromomethanes.

    PubMed

    Hafliðason, Arnar; Wang, Huasheng; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2016-01-21

    Ever since the pioneering work by Herzberg and Johns in 1969 (The Astrophysical Journal, 1969, 158, 399) the spectral assignment and the energetics of the fundamental molecular fragment CH, in the region of 63 000-65 000 cm(-1) (7.81-8.06 eV), have remained a puzzle to a large extent. The dissociation of bromoform and deuterated bromoform following two-photon resonance excitations to molecular Rydberg states forms the fragment species CH* and CD* in the excited state A(2)Δ(v' =0) as well as carbon and bromine atoms in the ground and first excited states, C/C* and Br/Br*. Further (1r + 1i)REMPI of CH* and CD* resonance excites the fragments to the energy region of concern, whereas the atom fragments were identified by further (2r + 1i)REMPI. Analysis based on spectral simulations, isotope shifts and comparison with other data allowed spectral identifications, assignments and partial characterization of four highly excited bound states for each of the molecular fragments (CH**/CD**); including the (3)(2)Π valence state and the (4)(2)Π Rydberg state, for the first time. Perturbations, shown as line-shifts, line-intensity and/or line-width alterations, due to the level-to-level state interactions between the bound states and predissociations by a repulsive state are recognized. Recording of C(+) signals in REMPI of several bromomethanes for a one-photon energy of about 40 333 cm(-1) allows the clarification of a mystery concerning a broad C(+) band frequently observed. This work, presented, demonstrates the usefulness of molecular REMPI for fragment analysis. PMID:26674135

  6. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  7. Detection of moisture and moisture related phenomena from Skylab. [correlation of brightness and antenna temperature with soil moisture for Texas and Kansas test sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleman, J. R.; Pogge, E. C.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Hardy, N.; Lin, W.; League, L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab 2 data for June 5, 1973 (Texas site) relates favorably with previously calculated aircraft data when correlating brightness temperature to soil moisture. However, more detailed work is needed to determine the corrected surface temperature. In addition, correlations between the S194 antenna temperature and soil moisture have been obtained for five sets of Skylab data. The best correlations were obtained for the surface to one inch depth in four cases and for surface to two inches depth for the fifth case. Correlation coefficients for the surface to one inch depth were -0.98, -0.95, -0.90, -0.82, and -0.80.

  8. Interactions among memory-related centers in the brain.

    PubMed

    Shu, Si Yun; Wu, Yong Ming; Bao, Xin Min; Leonard, Brian

    2003-03-01

    The structures associated with learning and memory have been widely studied for over 100 years. The idea of the famous neuropsychologist K.S. Lashley, that learning and memory are stored diffusely in the brain, dominated neuroscience in the early half of Twentieth Century. Since Scoville reported in 1957 a persistent impairment of recent memory caused by bilateral medial temporal lobe resection in a patient, the concept that different brain structures play different roles in learning and memory has been established, but the structures were thought to work separately. The connections and functional influences between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, thalamus and hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and thalamus, amygdala and hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert and medial temporal lobe system, and amygdala and thalamus were successively reported. The marginal division (MrD) is a pan-shaped structure consisting of spindle-shaped neurons at the caudal margin of the neostriatum in the mammalian brain. The MrD has been shown to contribute to associative learning and declarative memory by behavioral study in rats and by functional magnetic resonance image study in humans. Lesions in the MrD influenced the learning and memory function of the basal nucleus of Meynert and attenuated hippocampal long-term potentiation. The MrD is likely, based on its position, advanced development in higher mammalian brains, abundant and swift blood supply, and complex connections, to be an important subcortical memory center in the brain. The above-mentioned studies demonstrated that memory-related centers could influence each other and play different roles. Therefore, we propose that there are very possibly hierachical memory centers in the brain.

  9. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  10. Use of phenomena identification and ranking (PIRT) process in research related to design certification of the AP600 advanced passive light water reactor (LWR)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Eltawila, F.

    1996-07-01

    The AP600 LWR is a new advanced passive design that has been submitted to the USNRC for design certification. Within the certification process the USNRC will perform selected system thermal hydraulic response audit studies to help confirm parts of the vendor`s safety analysis submittal. Because of certain innovative design features of the safety systems, new experimental data and related advances in the system thermal hydraulic analysis computer code are being developed by the USNRC. The PIRT process is being used to focus the experimental and analytical work to obtain a sufficient and cost effective research effort. The objective of this paper is to describe the application and most significant results of the PIRT process, including several innovative features needed in the application to accommodate the short design certification schedule. The short design certification schedule has required that many aspects of the USNRC experimental and analytical research be performed in parallel, rather than in series as was normal for currently operating LWRS. This has required development and use of management techniques that focus and integrate the various diverse parts of the research. The original PIRTs were based on inexact knowledge of an evolving reactor design, and concentrated on the new passive features of the design. Subsequently, the PIRTs have evolved in two more stages as the design became more firm and experimental and analytical data became available. A fourth and final stage is planned and in progress to complete the PIRT development. The PIRTs existing at the end of each development stage have been used to guide the experimental program, scaling analyses and code development supporting the audit studies.

  11. "Ion spectral gaps" and stationary "Nose structures" in the quiet inner magnetosphere: observations from the ION experiment onboard the INTERBALL satellite, modeling and relations between these two phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzulukova, N.; Ganushkina, N.; Kovrazhkin, R.; Pulkkinen, T.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Glazunov, A.

    2003-04-01

    We analyze measurements of ion spectral gaps (ISGs) and "nose structures" observed by the ION particle spectrometer onboard the INTERBALL-2 satellite. ISGs are a sharp decreases of H+ flux at a particular narrow energy range, and were first observed by McIlwain (1972) onboard the geostationary satellite ATS-5 during relatively quiet times. Clear examples of ISG in the morning, dayside, evening and nightside sectors of the magnetosphere are selected for detailed analysis and modeling. To obtain a model ISG, the trajectories of ions drifting in the equatorial plane from their nightside source to the observation point were computed for the energy range 0.1-15 keV. It is shown that the ISGs observed by the ION spectrometer throughout the inner magnetosphere are the result of superposition of the two effects: 1. ISGs due to excessive drift time for particular "resonant energy" ions from the source to the observation point; 2. ISGs due to the existence of "forbidden" zones disconnected from the source in a particular energy range. Both factors were described in the literature, but considered separately, while the observed global pattern actually includes both of them but in particular MLT sectors. The term "nose structures" was first introduced by Smith and Hoffman (1974) to describe the penetration of particles H+ in the inner magnetosphere during substorms. From statistical analysis of ION spectrometer observations it is clear seen that the nose structures not only the characteristic of the substorm processes but its are often observed in the quiet magnetosphere. From modeling of observed by ION spectrometer nose structures we conclude that these nose structures are formed together with ISGs from "forbidden" zones, and can be observed in all MLT sectors on L-shells 4.5 - 6. We call this type of nose structures "stationary nose structures" to distinguish its from substorm nose structures, and to underline the formation of stationary nose structures due to motion of H

  12. Something Blossoms in Between: Silence-Phenomena as a Bordering Notions in Psychology.

    PubMed

    Lehmann Oliveros, Olga V

    2016-03-01

    Mysterious yet unavoidable, silence-phenomena appear to us in inherent ambiguity. In its plurality of meanings, phenomena related to silence are often perceived as overwhelming because they transcend the communicative capacity of language making it a challenge for cultural psychology to understand its involvement in our processes of making sense of experience and existence. Human growth and development involve processes where presence, void and content, voice, sound and noise, motion, transition and stillness, have dialectic interactions. In this article I discuss silence-phenomena as a bordering notion in terms of its discursive quality, the silent quality of speech, and the awareness of the ineffable. In addition, I highlight the possible implications of such notion in the understanding of affect from the perspective of Semiotic Cultural Psychology. I also emphasize the importance of considering psychological borders as multi-dimensional, taking the phenomenological experience of temporality as an illustration, which is also related to high emotional involvement of attention.

  13. Something Blossoms in Between: Silence-Phenomena as a Bordering Notions in Psychology.

    PubMed

    Lehmann Oliveros, Olga V

    2016-03-01

    Mysterious yet unavoidable, silence-phenomena appear to us in inherent ambiguity. In its plurality of meanings, phenomena related to silence are often perceived as overwhelming because they transcend the communicative capacity of language making it a challenge for cultural psychology to understand its involvement in our processes of making sense of experience and existence. Human growth and development involve processes where presence, void and content, voice, sound and noise, motion, transition and stillness, have dialectic interactions. In this article I discuss silence-phenomena as a bordering notion in terms of its discursive quality, the silent quality of speech, and the awareness of the ineffable. In addition, I highlight the possible implications of such notion in the understanding of affect from the perspective of Semiotic Cultural Psychology. I also emphasize the importance of considering psychological borders as multi-dimensional, taking the phenomenological experience of temporality as an illustration, which is also related to high emotional involvement of attention. PMID:26232279

  14. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  15. Visualization of bioelectric phenomena.

    PubMed

    Palmer, T C; Simpson, E V; Kavanagh, K M; Smith, W M

    1992-01-01

    Biomedical investigators are currently able to acquire and analyze physiological and anatomical data from three-dimensional structures in the body. Often, multiple kinds of data can be recorded simultaneously. The usefulness of this information, either for exploratory viewing or for presentation to others, is limited by the lack of techniques to display it in intuitive, accessible formats. Unfortunately, the complexity of scientific visualization techniques and the inflexibility of commercial packages deter investigators from using sophisticated visualization methods that could provide them added insight into the mechanisms of the phenomena under study. Also, the sheer volume of such data is a problem. High-performance computing resources are often required for storage and processing, in addition to visualization. This chapter describes a novel, language-based interface that allows scientists with basic programming skills to classify and render multivariate volumetric data with a modest investment in software training. The interface facilitates data exploration by enabling experimentation with various algorithms to compute opacity and color from volumetric data. The value of the system is demonstrated using data from cardiac mapping studies, in which multiple electrodes are placed in an on the heart to measure the cardiac electrical activity intrinsic to the heart and its response to external stimulation.

  16. Solar Magnetic Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanslmeier, Arnold; Veronig, Astrid; Messerotti, Mauro

    This book contains the proceedings of the Summerschool and Workshop "Solar Magnetic Phenomena" held from 25 August to 5 September 2003 at the Solar Observatory Kanzelhoehe, which belongs to the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. The book contains the contributions from six invited lecturers, They give an overview on the following topics: observations of the photosphere and chromosphere, solar flares observations and theory, coronal mass ejections and the relevance of magnetic helicity, high-energy radiation from the Sun, the physics of solar prominences and highlights from the SOHO mission. The lectures contain about 25 to 30 pages each and provide a valuable introduction to the topics mentioned above. The comprehensive lists of references at the end of each contribution enable the interested reader to go into more detail. The second part of the book contains contributed papers. These papers were presented and discussed in the workshop sessions during the afternoons. The sessions stimulated intensive discussions between the participants and the lecturers.

  17. Arcjet Cathode Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  18. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  19. Investigating the students' understanding of surface phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Kastro Mohamad

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated students' understanding of surface phenomena. The main purpose for conducting this research endeavor was to understand how students think about a complex topic about which they have little direct or formal instruction. The motivation for focusing on surface phenomena stemmed from an interest in integrating research and education. Despite the importance of surfaces and interfaces in research laboratories, in technological applications, and in everyday experiences, no previous systematic effort was done on pedagogy related to surface phenomena. The design of this research project was qualitative, exploratory, based on a Piagetian semi-structured clinical piloted interview, focused on obtaining a longitudinal view of the intended sample. The sampling was purposeful and the sample consisted of forty-four undergraduate students at Kansas State University. The student participants were enrolled in physics classes that spanned a wide academic spectrum. The data were analyzed qualitatively. The main themes that emerged from the analysis were: (a) students used analogies when confronted with novel situations, (b) students mixed descriptions and explanations, (c) students used the same explanation for several phenomena, (d) students manifested difficulties transferring the meaning of vocabulary across discipline boundaries, (e) in addition to the introductory chemistry classes, students used everyday experiences and job-related experiences as sources of knowledge, and (f) students' inquisitiveness and eagerness to investigate and discuss novel phenomena seemed to peak about the time students were enrolled in second year physics classes.

  20. Species interactions-area relationships: biological invasions and network structure in relation to island area.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2010-06-22

    The relationship between species number and island area is a fundamental rule in ecology. However, the extent to which interactions with exotic species and how the structure of species interactions is related to island area remain unexplored. Here, I document the relationship between island area and (i) interactions with exotic species and (ii) network structure of species interactions in the context of mutualistic interactions between ants and extrafloral nectary-bearing plants on the oceanic Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan. Pooled data contained 122 interactions among 19 plant (including five exotic) and 23 ant (including 20 exotic) species. Of the observed interactions, 82.8 per cent involved at least one exotic species, ranging from 68.2 to 86.4 per cent among islands. The number of links including exotic species increased in proportion to island area, although the number of links excluding exotic species did not. These results indicate that the number of interactions with exotic species increased in proportion to island area. Connectance, or the proportion of interactions actually observed among all possible interactions, decreased with island area. Nestedness, an asymmetry index in the species interaction network, also decreased with island area. Therefore, island area affects both the number of interactions with exotic species and the network structure.

  1. Microscopical characterization of carbon materials derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in making steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks for the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group of the ICCP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predeanu, G.; Panaitescu, C.; Bălănescu, M.; Bieg, G.; Borrego, A.G.; Diez, M. A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Kwiecińska, B.; Marques, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Misz-Kennan, M.; Pusz, S.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Rodrigues, S.; Singh, A. K.; Varma, A. K.; Zdravkov, A.; Zivotić, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of petrographic textures representing the structural organization of the organic matter derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in the making of steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks.This work represents the results of the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group in Commission III of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology between the years 2009 and 2013. The round robin exercises were run on photomicrograph samples. For textural characterization of carbon materials the existing ASTM classification system for metallurgical coke was applied.These round robin exercises involved 15 active participants from 12 laboratories who were asked to assess the coal and petroleum based carbons and to identify the morphological differences, as optical texture (isotropic/anisotropic), optical type (punctiform, mosaic, fibre, ribbon, domain), and size. Four sets of digital black and white microphotographs comprising 151 photos containing 372 fields of different types of organic matter were examined. Based on the unique ability of carbon to form a wide range of textures, the results showed an increased number of carbon occurrences which have crucial role in the chosen industrial applications.The statistical method used to evaluate the results was based on the “raw agreement indices”. It gave a new and original view on the analysts' opinion by not only counting the correct answers, but also all of the knowledge and experience of the participants. Comparative analyses of the average values of the level of overall agreement performed by each analyst in the exercises during 2009–2013 showed a great homogeneity in the results, the mean value being 90.36%, with a minimum value of 83% and a maximum value of 95%.

  2. Peer-Related Social Interactions of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Development and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddlers and preschool children was carried out. Results suggested the existence of unusually marked deficits in peer interactions. Possible contributing factors were discussed. (Author/RH)

  3. Imitative Learning from a Third-Party Interaction: Relations with Self-Recognition and Perspective Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Katherine H.; Akhtar, Nameera

    2008-01-01

    Young children's ability to learn something new from a third-party interaction may be related to the ability to imagine themselves in the third-party interaction. This imaginative ability presupposes an understanding of self-other equivalence, which is manifested in an objective understanding of the self and an understanding of others' subjective…

  4. High and Low Consensus Groups: A Content and Relational Interaction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeStephen, Rolayne S.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed the complete interaction of high and low consensus groups in a basic small group course. Interaction analysis indicated that both the relational and content levels of communication are significantly different for high versus low consensus groups. The conclusion that increased feedback leads to decision satisfaction was confirmed. (JAC)

  5. Physical and Relational Aggression in Young Children: The Role of Mother-Child Interactional Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Holly N.; Menna, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent-child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3-6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through…

  6. Measured Gene-by-Environment Interaction in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and evaluate the state of knowledge regarding the role of measured gene-by-environment interactions in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: A selective review of methodologic issues was followed by a systematic search for relevant articles on measured gene-by-environment interactions; the search…

  7. Supercritical droplet combustion and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor; Hsieh, K. C.; Shuen, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in theoretical analyses of supercritical droplet vaporization and combustion is conducted. Both hydrocarbon and cryogenic liquid droplets over a wide range of thermodynamic states are considered. Various important high-pressure effects on droplet behavior, such as thermodynamic non-ideality, transport anomaly, and property variation, are reviewed. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influence on fluid transport, gas-liquid interfacial thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibit a considerable change in the combustion mechanism at the criticl pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure. The influence of droplet size on the burning characteristics is also noted.

  8. Relations between Hormone Levels and Observational Measures of Aggressive Behavior of Young Adolescents in Family Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoff-Germain, Gale; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Relations between hormone levels and aggressive behavior of adolescents in family interactions were examined. Higher estradiol and androstenedione levels were associated with higher degrees of aggressive behaviors in girls. Findings for boys were sparse. (PCB)

  9. Autistic phenomena in neurotic patients.

    PubMed

    Klien, S

    1980-01-01

    I have described a group of patients who are seemingly successful in their professional and social lives, and who seek analysis ostensibly for professional reasons or for minor difficulties in their relationship. However, sooner or later they reveal phenomena which are strikingly similar to those observed in so-called autistic children. These autistic phenomena are characterized by an almost impenetrable encapsulation of part of the personality, mute and implacable resistance to change, and a lack of real emotional contact either with themselves or the analyst. Progress of the analysis reveals an underlying intense fear of pain, and of death, disintegration or breakdown. These anxieties occur as a reaction to real or feared separation, especially when commitment to analysis deepens. In the case I have described in detail the patient used various projective processes to deflect painful emotions either into other people, including the analyst, or into their own bodies. As a consequence the various objects or organs of the body swell up and became suffused with rage as a result of having to contain the unwanted feelings. This process leads in turn to intense persecutory fears and a heightened sensitivity to the analyst's tone of voice and facial expression. It would seem that the initial hypersensitivity of part of the personality is such as to lead it to anticipate danger to such an extent that it expels feelings even before they reach awareness. The sooner the analyst realizes the existence of this hidden part of the patient the less the danger of the analysis becoming an endless and meaningless intellectual dialogue and the greater the possibilities of the patient achieving a relatively stable equilibrium. Although the analyst has to live through a great deal of anxiety with the patient I feel that ultimately the results make it worth while.

  10. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  11. Relaxation phenomena in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this article we discuss how the assumptions of self-similarity imposed on the distribution of independently relaxing modes, as well as on their amplitude and characteristic times, manifest in the global relaxation phenomena. We also review recent applications of such approach to the description of relaxation phenomena in microemulsions and molecular glasses.

  12. Network of Spaces and Interaction-Related Behaviors in Adult Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Mahbub; Boyle, Diane K.; Crosser, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using three spatial network measures of “space syntax”, this correlational study describes four interaction-related behaviors among three groups of users in relation to visibility and accessibility of spaces in four adult intensive care units (ICUs) of different size, geometry, and specialty. Systematic field observations of interaction-related behaviors show significant differences in spatial distribution of interaction-related behaviors in the ICUs. Despite differences in unit characteristics and interaction-related behaviors, the study finds that when nurses and physicians “interact while sitting” they prefer spaces that help maintain a high level of environmental awareness; that when nurses “walk” and “interact while walking” they avoid spaces with better global access and visibility; and that everyone in ICUs “walk” more in spaces with higher control over neighboring spaces. It is argued that such consistent behavioral patterns occur due to the structural similarities of spatial networks over and above the more general functional similarities of ICUs. PMID:25469838

  13. Evidence for universal relations describing a gas with p-wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciuk, Christopher; Trotzky, Stefan; Smale, Scott; Yu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Shizhong; Thywissen, Joseph H.

    2016-06-01

    In dilute gases, a set of universal relations, known as the contact relations, directly connects thermodynamics and microscopic properties. So far, they have been established only for interactions with s-wave symmetry--that is, without relative angular momentum. Here we report measurements of two new physical quantities, the p-wave contacts, and, using recently proposed relations, present evidence that they encode the universal aspects of p-wave interactions. Our experiments use an ultracold Fermi gas of 40K, in which s-wave interactions are suppressed by polarizing the sample, whereas p-wave interactions are enhanced by working near a scattering resonance. Using time-resolved spectroscopy, we study how correlations in the system develop after quenching the atoms into an interacting state. By combining quasi-steady-state measurements with new contact relations, we infer an attractive p-wave interaction energy as large as half the Fermi energy. Our results reveal new ways to understand and characterize the properties of a resonant p-wave quantum gas.

  14. Deep inelastic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    Nucleon structure as seen in the context of deep inelastic scattering is discussed. The lectures begin with consideration of the quark-parton model. The model forms the basis of understanding lepton-nucleon inelastic scattering. As improved data in lepton-nucleon scattering at high energies became available, the quark-parton model failed to explain some crucial features of these data. At approximately the same time a candidate theory of strong interactions based on a SU(3) gauge theory of color was being discussed in the literature, and new ideas on the explanation of inelastic scattering data became popular. A new theory of strong interactions, now called quantum chromodynamics provides a new framework for understanding the data, with a much stronger theoretical foundation, and seems to explain well the features of the data. The lectures conclude with a look at some recent experiments which provide new data at very high energies. These lectures are concerned primarily with charged lepton inelastic scattering and to a lesser extent with neutrino results. Furthermore, due to time and space limitations, topics such as final state hadron studies, and multi-muon production are omitted here. The lectures concentrate on the more central issues: the quark-parton model and concepts of scaling, scale breaking and the ideas of quantum chromodynamics, the Q/sup 2/ dependence of structure function, moments, and the important parameter R.

  15. Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions: Relations with Socialization Outcomes in the Kindergarten Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Achacoso, Joseph A.; John, Aesha; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings To examine associations between sibling interaction patterns and later social outcomes in single- and two-parent families, 113 kindergarteners took part in naturalistic observations at home with siblings, classmates participated in sociometric interviews, and teachers completed behavior ratings. Sibling interactions were coded using a newly-developed 39-item checklist, and proportions of complementary and reciprocal sibling interactions computed. Complementarity occurred more among dyads where kindergartners were with toddler or infant siblings than among kindergartners with older or near-age younger siblings. Higher levels of complementarity predicted lower levels of internalizing but were not related to externalizing problems. Kindergartners’ sociometric status in the classroom differed as a function of sibling interaction patterns, with neglected and controversial children experiencing less complementarity/more reciprocity than popular, average, and rejected children. Finally, there was some evidence for differential associations of sibling interaction patterns with social outcomes for children in single- versus two-parent families: regressions testing interaction effects show sibling reciprocity positively associated with kindergartners’ social skills only in single-parent families, and complementary sibling interactions positively related to internalizing problems only in two-parent families. Implications for Practice Those working with divorcing or other single-parent families might consider sibling interactions as a potential target for social skill building. PMID:26005311

  16. Maternal ADHD: Parent-Child Interactions and Relations with Child Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…

  17. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  18. 17 CFR 232.406T - Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary rule related to Interactive Data Files. 232.406T Section 232.406T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION REGULATION S-T-GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC FILINGS Xbrl-Related Documents §...

  19. Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Jane C.; Casey, Leanne M.

    2014-02-01

    Invasive alien flowering plants may affect native plant pollinator interactions and have knock on impacts on populations of native plants and animals. The magnitude of these impacts, however, may be modified by the relative abundance of the invasive plant and the number of flowers it presents.We tested this by examining the structure of insect-flower interaction networks in six sites with increasing levels of invasion by Rhododendron ponticum in Ireland.Neither flower-visiting insect abundance, species richness nor diversity were related to R. ponticum flower abundance, but the composition of insect communities was. The total number of flowers in a site increased with the relative abundance of R. ponticum flowers but the number of co-flowering native plant species in these sites was low (<6), making interaction networks relatively small.As a result, changes in interaction network properties (connectance, interaction evenness and network level specialisation), which correlated with R. ponticum flower abundance, were a result of the small network size rather than due to changes in the resilience of networks.Overall, we conclude that the impacts of invasive alien plants on native plant-pollinator interactions are not only species specific, but site specific, according to the abundance of flowers produced by both the invasive and the native plants.

  20. Beam-Material Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Cerutti, F.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  1. Utilizing target-ligand interaction information in fingerprint searching for ligands of related targets.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lu; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2009-07-01

    Protein-ligand interaction information is captured by determination of interacting fragments (IF) of ligands available in complex X-ray structures. From IF, fingerprints (IF-FP) are calculated for similarity searching. Previously, we have shown that IF-FP often produce higher search performance than general structural fragment- or key-type fingerprints. In this study, we introduce the transfer of target-ligand interaction information from one target to a related one for which no structural information is available. Thus, IFs from a crystallographic target B-ligand complex are incorporated into structural key fingerprints of known ligands for target A. Similarity searching using these IF transfer fingerprints (IF-TFP) is shown to further increase the search performance of conventional ligand fingerprints. Thus, interaction information can be transferred between related targets in order to support ligand-based fingerprint search calculations for targets for which no structural information is currently available.

  2. Relations of Parent-Youth Interactive Exchanges to Adolescent Socioemotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Hutt, Rachel L.; Wang, Qi; Evans, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations of parent-youth agreement and disagreement during a joint problem-solving task and multi-methodological indices of socioemotional outcomes in adolescents (Mean age = 13). One hundred and sixty seven parents and their adolescent children participated. Each parent-youth pair played the interactive game Jenga, and their interactions were analyzed for frequency of elaborations (agreement during three or more conversational turns) and negotiations (disagreement during three or more conversational turns). Elaborations during parent-youth interactions were related to less negative classroom behavior, better self-regulation, and more task persistence in youth. Findings are discussed in light of the importance of parent-youth interaction and youth autonomy in adolescent socioemotional development. PMID:24031158

  3. The early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to the ability to execute appropriate actions and to inhibit inappropriate actions for the attainment of a specific goal. Research has shown that this ability develops rapidly during the preschool years. Recently, it has been proposed that research on EF should consider the importance of social interaction. In this article, recent evidence regarding the early development of EF and its relation to social interaction has been reviewed. Research consistently showed that social interaction can influence EF skills in young children. However, the development of EF may facilitate the cognitive skills that are important for social interaction. Taken together, there might be functional dependency between the development of EF and social interaction. PMID:24808885

  4. Effect of genotype x alcoholism interaction on linkage analysis of an alcoholism-related quantitative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Arya, Rector; Dyer, Thomas D; Warren, Diane M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Almasy, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Studies have shown that genetic and environmental factors and their interactions affect several alcoholism phenotypes. Genotype x alcoholism (GxA) interaction refers to the environmental (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) influences on the autosomal genes contributing to variation in an alcoholism-related quantitative phenotype. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GxA interaction on the detection of linkage for alcoholism-related phenotypes. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism relating to 1,388 subjects as part of Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 problem 1. We analyzed the MXDRNK phenotype to detect GxA interaction using SOLAR. Upon detecting significant interaction, we conducted variance-component linkage analyses using microsatellite marker data. For maximum number of drinks per a 24 hour period, the highest LODs were observed on chromosomes 1, 4, and 13 without GxA interaction. Interaction analysis yielded four regions on chromosomes 1, 4, 13, and 15. On chromosome 4, a maximum LOD of 1.5 at the same location as the initial analysis was obtained after incorporating GxA interaction effects. However, after correcting for extra parameters, the LOD score was reduced to a corrected LOD of 1.1, which is similar to the LOD observed in the non-interaction analysis. Thus, we see little differences in LOD scores, while some linkage regions showed large differences in the magnitudes of estimated quantitative trait loci heritabilities between the alcoholic and non-alcoholic groups. These potential hints of differences in genetic effect may influence future analyses of variants under these linkage peaks.

  5. A review of impulsive phase phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejager, C.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review is given of impulsive phase phenomena in support of the models used to compute the energies of the different components of the flares under study. The observational characteristics of the impulsive phase are discussed as well as the evidence for multi-thermal or non-thermal phenomena. The significance of time delays between hard X-rays and microwaves is discussed in terms of electron beams and Alfven waves, two-step acceleration, and secondary bursts at large distances from the primary source. Observations indicating the occurrence of chromospheric evaporation, coronal explosions, and thermal conduction fronts are reviewed briefly, followed by the gamma ray and neutron results. Finally, a preferred flare scenario and energy source are presented involving the interactions in a complex of magnetic loops with the consequent reconnection and electron acceleration.

  6. Optimizing Laboratory Experiments for Dynamic Astrophysical Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Remington, B

    2005-09-13

    To make a laboratory experiment an efficient tool for the studying the dynamical astrophysical phenomena, it is desirable to perform them in such a way as to observe the scaling invariance with respect to the astrophysical system under study. Several examples are presented of such scalings in the area of magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, where a number of scaled experiments have been performed. A difficult issue of the effect of fine-scale dissipative structures on the global scale dissipation-free flow is discussed. The second part of the paper is concerned with much less developed area of the scalings relevant to the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a pre-formed plasma. The use of the symmetry arguments in such experiments is also considered.

  7. WESF natural phenomena hazards survey

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    A team of engineers conducted a systematic natural hazards phenomena (NPH) survey for the 225-B Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The survey is an assessment of the existing design documentation to serve as the structural design basis for WESF, and the Interim Safety Basis (ISB). The lateral force resisting systems for the 225-B building structures, and the anchorages for the WESF safety related systems were evaluated. The original seismic and other design analyses were technically reviewed. Engineering judgment assessments were made of the probability of NPH survival, including seismic, for the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems. The method for the survey is based on the experience of the investigating engineers,and documented earthquake experience (expected response) data.The survey uses knowledge on NPH performance and engineering experience to determine the WESF strengths for NPH resistance, and uncover possible weak links. The survey, in general, concludes that the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems are designed and constructed commensurate with the current Hanford Site design criteria.

  8. Asymmetric current-phase relation due to spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2013-12-04

    We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the Josephson current I and phase difference φ between the superconductors satisfy the relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In the presence of magnetic field along the nanowire, the interplay between the SO interaction and Zeeman effect breaks the current-phase relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In this case, we show that the critical current depends on the current direction, which qualitatively agrees with recent experimental findings.

  9. Pendulum Phenomena and the Assessment of Scientific Inquiry Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Phenomena associated with the "pendulum" present numerous opportunities for assessing higher order human capabilities related to "scientific inquiry" and the "discovery" of natural law. This paper illustrates how systematic "assessment of scientific inquiry capabilities", using "pendulum" phenomena, can provide a useful tool for classroom teachers…

  10. Toward Understanding Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing

    2015-06-01

    I hope to resume working on fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the near future. But after we completed our FRB paper, I decided to pause this project because of the lack of observational constraints. The pulsar triple system, J0733+1715, has its orbital parameters fitted to high accuracy owing to the precise timing of the central ms pulsar. The two orbits are highly hierarchical, namely Porb,1 " Porb,2, where 1 and 2 label the inner and outer white dwarf (WD) companions respectively. Moreover, their orbital planes almost coincide, providing a unique opportunity to study secular interaction associated purely with eccentricity beyond the solar system. Secular interaction only involves effect averaged over many orbits. Thus each companion can be represented by an elliptical wire with its mass distributed inversely proportional to its local orbital speed. Generally there exists a mutual torque, which vanishes only when their apsidal lines are parallel or anti-parallel. To maintain either mode, the eccentricity ratio, e1/ e2, must be of the proper value, so that both apsidal lines precess together. For J0733+1715, e1 " e2 for the parallel mode, while e 1 " e2 for the anti-parallel one. We show that the former precesses ˜10 times slower than the latter. Currently the system is dominated by the parallel mode. Although only a little anti-parallel mode survives, both eccentricities especially e1 oscillate on ˜103yr timescale. Detectable changes would occur within ˜1y. We demonstrate that the anti-parallel mode gets damped ˜10 4 times faster than its parallel brother by any dissipative process diminishing e1. If it is the tidal damping in the inner WD, we proceed to estimate its tidal quantity parameter (Q) to be ˜106, which was poorly constrained by observations. However, tidal damping may also happen during the preceding low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase or hydrogen thermal nuclear flashes. But, in both cases, the inner companion fills its Roche lobe and probably suffers

  11. Gravitation and Special Relativity from Compton Wave Interactions at the Planck Scale: An Algorithmic Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.

  12. Relation and interactions among reading fluency and competence for adult education learners

    PubMed Central

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily E.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from an academically diverse sample of 276 adult basic and secondary education learners extends understanding of the relation of and interactions between oral reading fluency and reading competence indices. Significant interactions between total word rate and word error rate that differed in relation to two measures of reading competence suggest that adult literacy instructors should emphasize fluency instruction to a greater or lesser degree depending on whether the major goal of instruction is academic reading (e.g., being able to comprehend a textbook) or functional reading (e.g., being able to fill out a job application). PMID:23935242

  13. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, M. P.; Bruckner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN's were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  14. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.P.; Bruckner, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN`s) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN`s were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  15. Relative substituent position on the strength of π-π stacking interactions

    PubMed Central

    Emenike, Bright U.; Alverez, Celeste N.; Rakovan, John; Kirschbaum, Kristin; Jain, Nirbhay

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that the relative position of the arene substituents have a profound influence on the strength of π-π stacking in the 9-benzyl substituted triptycene system. A new series of model compounds (3a-i) capable of revealing quantitatively π-π stacking interactions was studied. This series of compounds (3a-i) has an ortho substituted methyl group in one of the two interacting arenes and the syn/anti ratios were determined and compared to a series previously studied compounds (4a-i) that have a para methyl group on the corresponding arene. A greater than 50% increase in the strength of π-π stacking interactions was observed with the methyl group in the ortho position comparing to that in the para position. No difference in π-π stacking interactions was observed when the other aromatic ring was a pentafluorobenzoate group. PMID:20209117

  16. Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

  17. Effects of Message Interactivity upon Relational Maintenance Strategy in Digital Communications between Organizations and the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication between organizations and the public is strategically important in shaping mutual understanding and long term relationship. The primary focus of this project was to investigate the relationship between message interactivity and relational maintenance strategy in the email communication process on organization websites. At…

  18. Training and Deriving Precalculus Relations: A Small-Group, Web-Interactive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinty, Jenny; Ninness, Chris; McCuller, Glen; Rumph, Robin; Goodwin, Andrea; Kelso, Ginger; Lopez, Angie; Kelly, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A small-group, web-interactive approach to teaching precalculus concepts was investigated. Following an online pretest, 3 participants were given a brief (15 min) presentation on the details of reciprocal math relations and how they operate on the coordinate axes. During baseline, participants were tested regarding their ability to construct…

  19. Accomplishing Marginalization in Bilingual Interaction: Relational Work as a Resource for the Intersubjective Construction of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Holly R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of impoliteness by Spanish-English bilingual pre-adolescents as a resource for accomplishing identities in spontaneous conversational interactions in an elementary school setting. The theoretical approach employed integrates the concept of relational work (Locher 2004; Locher and Watts 2005), which is based on Goffman's…

  20. Parenting Behavior Dimensions and Child Psychopathology: Specificity, Task Dependency, and Interactive Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Annalise; Weiss, Bahr; Harris, Vicki; Catron, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specificity of relations between parent or caregiver behaviors and childhood internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 70 fourth-grade children (64% boys, M age = 9.7 years). Specificity was assessed via (a) unique effects, (b) differential effects, and (c) interactive effects. When measured as unique and…

  1. Relations between Social Contingency in Mother-Child Interaction and 2-Year-Olds' Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, C. Cybele

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationships between social contingency in mother-child interaction and the social competence of 47 two-year-olds from low-income families. Found that social contingency was related to children's use of self-regulatory strategies but not to empathic responsiveness. Child negative emotionality and gender contributed to explanations of…

  2. Microteaching Lesson Study: Mentor Interaction Structure and Its Relation to Elementary Preservice Mathematics Teacher Knowledge Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Roxanne V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS) and three possible MLS mentor interaction structures during the debriefing sessions in relation to elementary preservice teacher development of knowledge for teaching. One hundred three elementary preservice teachers enrolled in five different sections of a mathematics methods course at a…

  3. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  4. Facial and Full-Length Ratings of Attractiveness Related to the Social Interactions of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory J.

    1985-01-01

    Aggressive and prosocial peer interactions were observed in 38 preschool-age children. Attractive girls received more prosocial and fewer aggressive advances than unattractive girls. There was no differential treatment of boys related to attractiveness. Results are discussed in relationship to possible developmental implications and their parallel…

  5. A Framework for Categorizing Social Interactions Related to End-of-Life Care in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Almost half of people age 85 and older who die annually in the United States die as nursing home residents, yet because it is not always clear who is close to death, not all residents who might benefit from end-of-life care receive it. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for organizing social interactions related to…

  6. Adolescents' Relational Schemas and Their Subjective Understanding of Romantic Relationship Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin D.; Welsh, Deborah P.; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between adolescents' relational schemas and their subjective understanding of interactions in the context of male-female romantic relationships. We employed an innovative multimodal methodology: the video-recall system [Welsh, D. P., & Dickson, J. W. (2005). Video-recall procedures for examining subjective…

  7. Comprehending emergent systems phenomena through direct-manipulation animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Priscilla Abel

    This study seeks to understand the type of interaction mode that best supports learning and comprehension of emergent systems phenomena. Given that the literature has established that students hold robust misconceptions of such phenomena, this study investigates the influence of using three types of interaction; speed-manipulation animation (SMN), post-manipulation animation (PMA) and direct-manipulation animation (DMA) for increasing comprehension and testing transfer of the phenomena, by looking at the effect of simultaneous interaction of haptic and visual channels on long term and working memories when seeking to comprehend emergent phenomena. The questions asked were: (1) Does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool (i.e., SMA, PMA or DMA), improve students' mental model construction of systems, thus increasing comprehension of this scientific concept? And (2) does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, give the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which can then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios? In an empirical study undergraduate and graduate students were asked to participate in one of three experimental conditions: SMA, PMA, or DMA. The results of the study found that it was the participants of the SMA treatment condition that had the most improvement in post-test scores. Students' understanding of the phenomena increased most when they used a dynamic model with few interactive elements (i.e., start, stop, and speed) that allowed for real time visualization of one's interaction on the phenomena. Furthermore, no indication was found that the learning of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, gave the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which could then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios

  8. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase interacts with fragile X related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yun; Tian, Shuai; Wang, Zongbao; Wang, Changbo; Chen, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yang; He, Shuya

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), fragile X related 1 protein (FXR1P) and FXR2P are the members of the FMR protein family. These proteins contain two KH domains and a RGG box, which are characteristic of RNA binding proteins. The absence of FMRP, causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of hereditary mental retardation. FXR1P is expressed throughout the body and important for normal muscle development, and its absence causes cardiac abnormality. To investigate the functions of FXR1P, a screen was performed to identify FXR1P-interacting proteins and determine the biological effect of the interaction. The current study identified CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase (CMAS) as an interacting protein using the yeast two-hybrid system, and the interaction between FXR1P and CMAS was validated in yeast using a β-galactosidase assay and growth studies with selective media. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation was used to analyze the FXR1P/CMAS association and immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to detect expression and intracellular localization of the proteins. The results of the current study indicated that FXR1P and CMAS interact, and colocalize in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of HEK293T and HeLa cells. Accordingly, a fragile X related 1 (FXR1) gene overexpression vector was constructed to investigate the effect of FXR1 overexpression on the level of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside 1 (GM1). The results of the current study suggested that FXR1P is a tissue-specific regulator of GM1 levels in SH-SY5Y cells, but not in HEK293T cells. Taken together, the results initially indicate that FXR1P interacts with CMAS, and that FXR1P may enhance the activation of sialic acid via interaction with CMAS, and increase GM1 levels to affect the development of the nervous system, thus providing evidence for further research into the pathogenesis of FXS. PMID:27357083

  9. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  10. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  11. Novel Measure of Driver and Vehicle Interaction Demonstrates Transient Changes Related to Alerting

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Justin R.; Kerick, Scott E.; McDowell, Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Driver behavior and vehicle-road kinematics have been shown to change over prolonged periods of driving; however, the interaction between these two indices has not been examined. Here we develop a measure that examines how drivers turn the steering wheel relative to heading error velocity, which the authors call the relative steering wheel compensation (RSWC). The RSWC transiently changes on a short time scale coincident with a verbal query embedded within the study paradigm. In contrast, more traditional variables are dynamic over longer time scales consistent with previous research. The results suggest drivers alter their behavioral output (steering wheel correction) relative to sensory input (vehicle heading error velocity) on a distinct temporal scale and may reflect an interaction of alerting and control. PMID:25356659

  12. Novel measure of driver and vehicle interaction demonstrates transient changes related to alerting.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Justin R; Kerick, Scott E; McDowell, Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    Driver behavior and vehicle-road kinematics have been shown to change over prolonged periods of driving; however, the interaction between these two indices has not been examined. Here we develop a measure that examines how drivers turn the steering wheel relative to heading error velocity, which the authors call the relative steering wheel compensation (RSWC). The RSWC transiently changes on a short time scale coincident with a verbal query embedded within the study paradigm. In contrast, more traditional variables are dynamic over longer time scales consistent with previous research. The results suggest drivers alter their behavioral output (steering wheel correction) relative to sensory input (vehicle heading error velocity) on a distinct temporal scale and may reflect an interaction of alerting and control.

  13. Electrokinetic phenomena and dielectrophoresis in charged colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. P.; Karttunen, Mikko; Yu, K. W.; Dong, L.

    2003-03-01

    AC electrokinetic phenomena, i.e., electrorotation, dielectrophoresis and traveling wave dielectrophoresis, have gained an increasing amount of attention. This is due to their wide range of applications from cancer research to identifying and separating parasites, cell populations and viruses, and even to design of nanomotors. Despite the number of applications, there is need for a theory that treats the different aspects of electrokinetic phenomena on an equal footing starting from the general underlying physical principles. Here, we present a theoretical study of dielectrophoretic (DEP) crossover spectrum of two polarizable particles under the action of a nonuniform AC electric field. For two approaching particles, the mutual polarization interaction yields a change in their respective dipole moments, and hence, in the DEP crossover spectrum. We use the multiple image method to study the induced polarization effects and using spectral representation theory, an analytic expression for the DEP force is derived. Our results shows that the mutual polarization effects can change the crossover frequency at which the DEP force changes sign. The results are in agreement with recent experimental observations. Importantly, this approach goes beyond the standard theory and helps to clarify the important question of the underlying polarization mechanisms. The extension to dense systems and relation to electrorotation is discussed.

  14. Interface-Driven Phenomena in Solids: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Abdeljawad, Fadi; Foiles, Stephen M.

    2016-05-04

    The study of materials interfaces dates back over a century. In solid systems and from an engineering perspective, free surfaces and internal (grain and/or phase) boundaries influence a wide range of properties, such as thermal, electrical and optical transport, and mechanical ones. The properties and the role of interfaces has been discussed extensively in various reviews such as by Sutton and Balluffi. As the characteristic feature size of a materials system (i.e., grain size) is decreased to the nanometer scale, interface-driven physics is expected to dominate due to the increased density of such planar defects. Moreover, interfacial attributes, thermodynamics, andmore » mobility play a key role in phase transformations, such as solidification dynamics and structural transitions in solids, and in homogenization and microstructural evolution processes, such as grain growth, coarsening, and recrystallization. In summary, the set of articles published in this special topic titled: “Interface-Driven Phenomena in Solids: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Chemistry” covers topics related to microstructure evolution, segregation/adsorption phenomena and interface interactions with other materials defects.« less

  15. Alpha shape and Delaunay triangulation in studies of protein-related interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiqiang; Yan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more 3D protein structures have become available, which has made the analysis of large molecular structures much easier. There is a strong demand for geometric models for the study of protein-related interactions. Alpha shape and Delaunay triangulation are powerful tools to represent protein structures and have advantages in characterizing the surface curvature and atom contacts. This review presents state-of-the-art applications of alpha shape and Delaunay triangulation in the studies on protein-DNA, protein-protein, protein-ligand interactions and protein structure analysis.

  16. Bion and Tustin: the autistic phenomena.

    PubMed

    Korbivcher, Celia Fix

    2013-08-01

    This article examines the implications of the proposal of autistic transformations within the general context of Bion's theory of Transformations. The aim is to confirm the coherence of this proposal of autistic transformations within the overall structure of Bion's theory of Transformations. She examines the relation between emotional links and their negatives, particularly -K. She questions in which of the dimensions of the mind the autistic phenomena are located, the relation between autistic phenomena and beta elements, and where to place them in the Grid. The author tries to form metapsychological support for the incorporation of the autistic area in Bion's theory of Transformations. She argues that, despite the incongruence and imprecision of this incorporation, such autistic phenomena cannot be excluded from the complexus of the human mind and should therefore be accounted for in Bion's transformations. She discusses the idea that the theory of transformations includes the field of the neurosis and psychosis and deals with emotions, whereas the autistic area is dominated by sensations. The author asks how to add the autistic area to Bion's theory. Clinical material of a child for whom the non-psychotic part of the personality predominates and who presents autistic nuclei provides material for the discussion.

  17. INVESTIGATIONS INTO BIOFOULING PHENOMENA IN FINE PORE AERATION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbiologically-based procedures were used to describe biofouling phenomena on fine pore aeration devices and to determine whether biofilm characteristics could be related to diffuser process performance parameters. Fine pore diffusers were obtained from five municipal wastewa...

  18. A study of the relative effectiveness and cost of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Furniss, M. A.; Potter, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a number of experiments to illuminate the relative effectiveness and costs of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode are reported. It was found that for equal time spent in preparing the search strategy, the batch and interactive modes gave approximately equal recall and relevance. The interactive mode however encourages the searcher to devote more time to the task and therefore usually yields improved output. Engineering costs as a result are higher in this mode. Estimates of associated hardware costs also indicate that operation in this mode is more expensive. Skilled RECON users like the rapid feedback and additional features offered by this mode if they are not constrained by considerations of cost.

  19. Predicting disease-related proteins based on clique backbone in protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Tang, Xianglong

    2014-01-01

    Network biology integrates different kinds of data, including physical or functional networks and disease gene sets, to interpret human disease. A clique (maximal complete subgraph) in a protein-protein interaction network is a topological module and possesses inherently biological significance. A disease-related clique possibly associates with complex diseases. Fully identifying disease components in a clique is conductive to uncovering disease mechanisms. This paper proposes an approach of predicting disease proteins based on cliques in a protein-protein interaction network. To tolerate false positive and negative interactions in protein networks, extending cliques and scoring predicted disease proteins with gene ontology terms are introduced to the clique-based method. Precisions of predicted disease proteins are verified by disease phenotypes and steadily keep to more than 95%. The predicted disease proteins associated with cliques can partly complement mapping between genotype and phenotype, and provide clues for understanding the pathogenesis of serious diseases.

  20. Quantum Phenomena Observed Using Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tonomura, Akira

    2011-05-06

    Electron phase microscopy based on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect principle has been used to illuminate fundamental phenomena concerning magnetism and superconductivity by visualizing quantitative magnetic lines of force. This paper deals with confirmation experiments on the AB effect, the magnetization process of tiny magnetic heads for perpendicular recording, and vortex behaviors in high-Tc superconductors.

  1. Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

  2. Interactivity and reward-related neural activation during a serious videogame.

    PubMed

    Cole, Steven W; Yoo, Daniel J; Knutson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether playing a "serious" interactive digital game (IDG)--the Re-Mission videogame for cancer patients--activates mesolimbic neural circuits associated with incentive motivation, and if so, whether such effects stem from the participatory aspects of interactive gameplay, or from the complex sensory/perceptual engagement generated by its dynamic event-stream. Healthy undergraduates were randomized to groups in which they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) as they either actively played Re-Mission or as they passively observed a gameplay audio-visual stream generated by a yoked active group subject. Onset of interactive game play robustly activated mesolimbic projection regions including the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens, as well as a subregion of the parahippocampal gyrus. During interactive gameplay, subjects showed extended activation of the thalamus, anterior insula, putamen, and motor-related regions, accompanied by decreased activation in parietal and medial prefrontal cortex. Offset of interactive gameplay activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate. Between-group comparisons of within-subject contrasts confirmed that mesolimbic activation was significantly more pronounced in the active playgroup than in the passive exposure control group. Individual difference analyses also found the magnitude of parahippocampal activation following gameplay onset to correlate with positive attitudes toward chemotherapy assessed both at the end of the scanning session and at an unannounced one-month follow-up. These findings suggest that IDG-induced activation of reward-related mesolimbic neural circuits stems primarily from participatory engagement in gameplay (interactivity), rather than from the effects of vivid and dynamic sensory stimulation.

  3. Interactivity and Reward-Related Neural Activation during a Serious Videogame

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Yoo, Daniel J.; Knutson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether playing a “serious” interactive digital game (IDG) – the Re-Mission videogame for cancer patients – activates mesolimbic neural circuits associated with incentive motivation, and if so, whether such effects stem from the participatory aspects of interactive gameplay, or from the complex sensory/perceptual engagement generated by its dynamic event-stream. Healthy undergraduates were randomized to groups in which they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) as they either actively played Re-Mission or as they passively observed a gameplay audio-visual stream generated by a yoked active group subject. Onset of interactive game play robustly activated mesolimbic projection regions including the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens, as well as a subregion of the parahippocampal gyrus. During interactive gameplay, subjects showed extended activation of the thalamus, anterior insula, putamen, and motor-related regions, accompanied by decreased activation in parietal and medial prefrontal cortex. Offset of interactive gameplay activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate. Between-group comparisons of within-subject contrasts confirmed that mesolimbic activation was significantly more pronounced in the active playgroup than in the passive exposure control group. Individual difference analyses also found the magnitude of parahippocampal activation following gameplay onset to correlate with positive attitudes toward chemotherapy assessed both at the end of the scanning session and at an unannounced one-month follow-up. These findings suggest that IDG-induced activation of reward-related mesolimbic neural circuits stems primarily from participatory engagement in gameplay (interactivity), rather than from the effects of vivid and dynamic sensory stimulation. PMID:22442733

  4. Identifying Gastric Cancer Related Genes Using the Shortest Path Algorithm and Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Li, Li-Peng; Ren, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, as one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide, causes about 800,000 deaths per year. Up to now, the mechanism underlying this disease is still not totally uncovered. Identification of related genes of this disease is an important step which can help to understand the mechanism underlying this disease, thereby designing effective treatments. In this study, some novel gastric cancer related genes were discovered based on the knowledge of known gastric cancer related ones. These genes were searched by applying the shortest path algorithm in protein-protein interaction network. The analysis results suggest that some of them are indeed involved in the biological process of gastric cancer, which indicates that they are the actual gastric cancer related genes with high probability. It is hopeful that the findings in this study may help promote the study of this disease and the methods can provide new insights to study various diseases. PMID:24729971

  5. Animal network phenomena: insights from triadic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N.

    Games of animal conflict in networks rely heavily on computer simulation because analysis is difficult, the degree of difficulty increasing sharply with the size of the network. For this reason, virtually the entire analytical literature on evolutionary game theory has assumed either dyadic interaction or a high degree of symmetry, or both. Yet we cannot rely exclusively on computer simulation in the study of any complex system. So the study of triadic interactions has an important role to play, because triads are both the simplest groups in which asymmetric network phenomena can be studied and the groups beyond dyads in which analysis of population games is most likely to be tractable, especially when allowing for intrinsic variation. Here we demonstrate how such analyses can illuminate a variety of behavioral phenomena within networks, including coalition formation, eavesdropping (the strategic observation of contests between neighbors) and victory displays (which are performed by the winners of contests but not by the losers). In particular, we show that eavesdropping acts to lower aggression thresholds compared to games without it, and that victory displays to bystanders will be most intense when there is little difference in payoff between dominating an opponent and not subordinating.

  6. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  7. Several lipid-related gene polymorphisms interact with overweight/obesity to modulate blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Yan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Xiao-Li; Long, Xing-Jiang; Miao, Lin; Liu, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Lin; Li, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overweight/obesity on blood pressure levels. The present study was undertaken to detect 10 lipid-related gene SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaII hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G > A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C > T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C > T, the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP) rs3757354, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 978 normal weight and 751 overweight/obese subjects. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The genotypes of ACAT-1 AC, LIPC GA and AA, and SCARB1 TT; LDL-R A-A- and LIPC GA; and SCARB1 TT were interacted with overweight/obesity to increase systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) levels; respectively. The genotypes of ACAT-1 CC; ACAT-1 AA and CC were interacted with overweight/obesity to decrease SBP, PP levels (p < 0.01-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and overweight/obesity. PMID:23109900

  8. Data analysis and interpretation related to space system/environment interactions at LEO altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. John; Schunk, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Several studies made on the interaction of active systems with the LEO space environment experienced from orbital or suborbital platforms are covered. The issue of high voltage space interaction is covered by theoretical modeling studies of the interaction of charged solar cell arrays with the ionospheric plasma. The theoretical studies were complemented by experimental measurements made in a vacuum chamber. The other active system studied was the emission of effluent from a space platform. In one study the emission of plasma into the LEO environment was studied by using initially a 2-D model, and then extending this model to 3-D to correctly take account of plasma motion parallel to the geomagnetic field. The other effluent studies related to the releases of neutral gas from an orbiting platform. One model which was extended and used determined the density, velocity, and energy of both an effluent gas and the ambient upper atmospheric gases over a large volume around the platform. This model was adapted to study both ambient and contaminant distributions around smaller objects in the orbital frame of reference with scale sizes of 1 m. The other effluent studies related to the interaction of the released neutral gas with the ambient ionospheric plasma. An electrostatic model was used to help understand anomalously high plasma densities measured at times in the vicinity of the space shuttle orbiter.

  9. Concentration-related response potentiometric titrations to study the interaction of small molecules with large biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Daems, Devin; De Wael, Karolien; Van Camp, Guy; Nagels, Luc J

    2014-12-16

    In the present paper, the utility of a special potentiometric titration approach for recognition and calculation of biomolecule/small-molecule interactions is reported. This approach is fast, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive in comparison to the other methods for the determination of the association constant values (Ka) and the interaction energies (ΔG). The potentiometric titration measurement is based on the use of a classical polymeric membrane indicator electrode in a solution of the small-molecule ligand. The biomolecule is used as a titrant. The potential is measured versus a reference electrode and transformed into a concentration-related signal over the entire concentration interval, also at low concentrations, where the millivolt (y-axis) versus log canalyte (x-axis) potentiometric calibration curve is not linear. In the procedure, Ka is calculated for the interaction of cocaine with a cocaine binding aptamer and with an anticocaine antibody. To study the selectivity and cross-reactivity, other oligonucleotides and aptamers are tested, as well as other small ligand molecules such as tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate, metergoline, lidocaine, and bromhexine. The calculated Ka compared favorably to the value reported in the literature using surface plasmon resonance. The potentiometric titration approach called "concentration-related response potentiometry" is used to study molecular interaction for seven macromolecular target molecules and four small-molecule ligands.

  10. Meaning-Related and Print-Related Interactions between Preschoolers and Parents during Shared Book Reading and Their Associations with Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined interactions between preschool children and parents during shared book reading by analyzing parental self-report data. Using confirmatory factor analytic procedures and structural equation modeling, this study developed a scale measuring meaning-related and print-related reading interactions and examined their associations with…

  11. Universal Relations for a Fermi Gas Close to a p-Wave Interaction Resonance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhua; Thywissen, Joseph H; Zhang, Shizhong

    2015-09-25

    We investigate the properties of a spinless Fermi gas close to a p-wave interaction resonance. We show that the effects of interaction near a p-wave resonance are captured by two contacts, which are related to the variation of energy with the p-wave scattering volume v and with the effective range R in two adiabatic theorems. Exact pressure and virial relations are derived. We show how the two contacts determine the leading and subleading asymptotic behavior of the momentum distribution (∼1/k^{2} and ∼1/k^{4}) and how they can be measured experimentally by radio-frequency and photoassociation spectroscopies. Finally, we evaluate the two contacts at high temperature with a virial expansion.

  12. Universal Relations for a Fermi Gas Close to a p -Wave Interaction Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Thywissen, Joseph H.; Zhang, Shizhong

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the properties of a spinless Fermi gas close to a p -wave interaction resonance. We show that the effects of interaction near a p -wave resonance are captured by two contacts, which are related to the variation of energy with the p -wave scattering volume v and with the effective range R in two adiabatic theorems. Exact pressure and virial relations are derived. We show how the two contacts determine the leading and subleading asymptotic behavior of the momentum distribution (˜1 /k2 and ˜1 /k4) and how they can be measured experimentally by radio-frequency and photoassociation spectroscopies. Finally, we evaluate the two contacts at high temperature with a virial expansion.

  13. Heterotrimeric G proteins interact with defense-related receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Sicilia, María Nieves; Trusov, Yuri; Maruta, Natsumi; Chakravorty, David; Zhang, Yuelin; Botella, José Ramón

    2015-09-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G-proteins) are versatile signaling elements conserved in Eukaryotes. In animals G-proteins relay signals from 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular downstream effectors; however, the existence of GPCRs in plants is controversial. Contrastingly, a surplus of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) provides signal recognition at the plant cell surface. It is established that G proteins are involved in plant defense and suggested that they relay signals from defense-related RLKs. However, it is unclear how the signaling is conducted, as physical interaction between the RLKs and G proteins has not been demonstrated. Using yeast split-ubiquitin system and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation assays, we demonstrate physical interaction between the Gα, Gγ1 and Gγ2 subunits, and the defense-related RD-type receptor like kinases CERK1, BAK1 and BIR1. At the same time, no interaction was detected with the non-RD RLK FLS2. We hypothesize that G-proteins mediate signal transduction immediately downstream of the pathogenesis-related RLKs.

  14. Interpersonal interactions, job demands and work-related outcomes in pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Caroline A; Nadkarni, Anagha

    2012-04-01

    Objectives  The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between job demands of pharmacists and resources in the form of interpersonal interactions and its association with work-related outcomes such as organizational and professional commitment, job burnout, professional identity and job satisfaction. The job demands-resources (JD-R) model served as the theoretical framework. Methods  Subjects for the study were drawn from the Pharmacy Manpower Project Database (n = 1874). A 14-page mail-in survey measured hospital pharmacists' responses on the frequency of occurrence of various job-related scenarios as well as work-related outcomes. The study design was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Responses were collected on a Likert scale. Descriptive statistics, reliability analyses and correlational and multiple regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Key findings  The 566 pharmacists (30% response rate) who responded to the survey indicated that high-demand/pleasant encounters and low-demand/pleasant encounters occurred more frequently in the workplace. The strongest correlations were found between high-demand/unpleasant encounters and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Multiple regression analyses indicated that when controlling for demographic factors high-demand/unpleasant encounters were negatively related to affective organizational commitment and positively related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Low-demand/pleasant encounters were positively related to frequency and intensity of personal accomplishment. Low-demand/unpleasant encounters were significantly and negatively related to professional commitment, job satisfaction and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion, while high-demand/pleasant encounters were also related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion Conclusion  Support was found for the JD-R model and the proposed interaction effects

  15. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  16. Interpersonal interactions, job demands and work-related outcomes in pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Caroline A; Nadkarni, Anagha

    2012-04-01

    Objectives  The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between job demands of pharmacists and resources in the form of interpersonal interactions and its association with work-related outcomes such as organizational and professional commitment, job burnout, professional identity and job satisfaction. The job demands-resources (JD-R) model served as the theoretical framework. Methods  Subjects for the study were drawn from the Pharmacy Manpower Project Database (n = 1874). A 14-page mail-in survey measured hospital pharmacists' responses on the frequency of occurrence of various job-related scenarios as well as work-related outcomes. The study design was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Responses were collected on a Likert scale. Descriptive statistics, reliability analyses and correlational and multiple regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Key findings  The 566 pharmacists (30% response rate) who responded to the survey indicated that high-demand/pleasant encounters and low-demand/pleasant encounters occurred more frequently in the workplace. The strongest correlations were found between high-demand/unpleasant encounters and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Multiple regression analyses indicated that when controlling for demographic factors high-demand/unpleasant encounters were negatively related to affective organizational commitment and positively related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Low-demand/pleasant encounters were positively related to frequency and intensity of personal accomplishment. Low-demand/unpleasant encounters were significantly and negatively related to professional commitment, job satisfaction and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion, while high-demand/pleasant encounters were also related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion Conclusion  Support was found for the JD-R model and the proposed interaction effects

  17. Interactions between energy supply and transportation-related energy use, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, T. J.; Ison, J. W.; Geinzer, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of ENTRANS and some of its policy analysis applications are described. ENTRANS is a computer simulator model of the interactions between energy supply and transportation related energy use. It includes a complete representation of the characteristics of transportation supply (public transit, carpooling, highways, and autos) and of households' travel related decisions (car type, travel mode, trip length, and frequency choices). The model is capable of analyzing a wide range of policies designed to change automobile fuel use. The results of several detailed policy analyses are described.

  18. Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Block, G I; Harris, J G

    2005-04-22

    Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

  19. Stability and restoration phenomena in competitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uechi, Lisa; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    A conservation law along with stability, recovering phenomena, and characteristic patterns of a nonlinear dynamical system have been studied and applied to physical, biological, and ecological systems. In our previous study, we proposed a system of symmetric 2n-dimensional conserved nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, competitive systems described by a 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical (ND) model with external perturbations are applied to population cycles and recovering phenomena of systems from microbes to mammals. The famous 10-year cycle of population density of Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare is numerically analyzed. We find that a nonlinear dynamical system with a conservation law is stable and generates a characteristic rhythm (cycle) of population density, which we call the standard rhythm of a nonlinear dynamical system. The stability and restoration phenomena are strongly related to a conservation law and the balance of a system. The standard rhythm of population density is a manifestation of the survival of the fittest to the balance of a nonlinear dynamical system.

  20. Functional features, biological pathways, and protein interaction networks of addiction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2010-05-01

    Addictions are chronic and common brain disorders affected by many genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Recent genome-wide linkage and association studies have revealed several promising genomic regions and multiple genes relating to addictions. To explore the underlying biological processes in the development of addictions, we used 62 genes recently reviewed by Li and Burmeister (2009) as representative addiction-related genes, and then we investigated their features in gene function, pathways, and protein interaction networks. We performed enrichment tests of their Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and of their pathways in the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) system. The tests revealed that these addiction-related genes were highly enriched in neurodevelopment-related processes. Interestingly, we found circadian rhythm signaling in one of the enriched pathways. Moreover, these addiction-related genes tended to have higher connectivity and shorter characteristic shortest-path distances compared to control genes in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. This investigation is the first of such kind in addiction studies, and it is useful for further addiction candidate-gene prioritization and verification, thus helping us to better understand molecular mechanisms of addictions.

  1. Altered cognition-related brain activity and interactions with acute pain in migraine

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Khan, Shariq A.; Keaser, Michael L.; Hubbard, Catherine S.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of migraine on neural cognitive networks. However, cognitive dysfunction is increasingly being recognized as a comorbidity of chronic pain. Pain appears to affect cognitive ability and the function of cognitive networks over time, and decrements in cognitive function can exacerbate affective and sensory components of pain. We investigated differences in cognitive processing and pain–cognition interactions between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched healthy controls using an fMRI block-design with two levels of task difficulty and concurrent heat (painful and not painful) stimuli. Across groups, cognitive networks were recruited in response to a difficult cognitive task, and a pain–task interaction was found in the right (contralateral to pain stimulus) posterior insula (pINS), such that activity was modulated by decreasing the thermal pain stimulus or by engaging the difficult cognitive task. Migraine patients had less task-related deactivation within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) compared to controls. These regions have been reported to have decreased cortical thickness and cognitive-related deactivation within other pain populations, and are also associated with pain regulation, suggesting that the current findings may reflect altered cognitive function and top-down regulation of pain. During pain conditions, patients had decreased task-related activity, but more widespread task-related reductions in pain-related activity, compared to controls, suggesting cognitive resources may be diverted from task-related to pain-reduction-related processes in migraine. Overall, these findings suggest that migraine is associated with altered cognitive-related neural activity, which may reflect altered pain regulatory processes as well as broader functional restructuring. PMID:25610798

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana AUCSIA-1 Regulates Auxin Biology and Physically Interacts with a Kinesin-Related Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pii, Youry; Korte, Arthur; Spena, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Aucsia is a green plant gene family encoding 44–54 amino acids long miniproteins. The sequenced genomes of most land plants contain two Aucsia genes. RNA interference of both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Aucsia genes (SlAucsia-1 and SlAucsia-2) altered auxin sensitivity, auxin transport and distribution; it caused parthenocarpic development of the fruit and other auxin-related morphological changes. Here we present data showing that the Aucsia-1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana alters, by itself, root auxin biology and that the AtAUCSIA-1 miniprotein physically interacts with a kinesin-related protein. The AtAucsia-1 gene is ubiquitously expressed, although its expression is higher in roots and inflorescences in comparison to stems and leaves. Two allelic mutants for AtAucsia-1 gene did not display visible root morphological alterations; however both basipetal and acropetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) root transport was reduced as compared with wild-type plants. The transcript steady state levels of the auxin efflux transporters ATP BINDING CASSETTE subfamily B (ABCB) ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCB19 were reduced in ataucsia-1 plants. In ataucsia-1 mutant, lateral root growth showed an altered response to i) exogenous auxin, ii) an inhibitor of polar auxin transport and iii) ethylene. Overexpression of AtAucsia-1 inhibited primary root growth. In vitro and in vivo protein-protein interaction experiments showed that AtAUCSIA-1 interacts with a 185 amino acids long fragment belonging to a 2712 amino acids long protein of unknown function (At4g31570). Bioinformatics analysis indicates that the AtAUCSIA-1 interacting protein (AtAUCSIA-1IP) clusters with a group of CENP-E kinesin-related proteins. Gene ontology predictions for the two proteins are consistent with the hypothesis that the AtAUCSIA-1/AtAUCSIA-1IP complex is involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton dynamics underlying auxin biology. PMID:22911780

  3. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  4. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1984-09-01

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability.

  5. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena.

    PubMed

    Maroney, O J E

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  6. Emergent Phenomena via Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapaport, D. C.

    Emergent phenomena are unusual because they are not obvious consequences of the design of the systems in which they appear, a feature no less relevant when they are being simulated. Several systems that exhibit surprisingly rich emergent behavior, each studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, are described: (i) Modeling self-assembly processes associated with virus growth reveals the ability to achieve error-free assembly, where paradoxically, near-maximum yields are due to reversible bond formation. (ii) In fluids studied at the atomistic level, complex hydrodynamic phenomena in rotating and convecting fluids - the Taylor- Couette and Rayleigh-Bénard instabilities - can be reproduced, despite the limited length and time scales accessible by MD. (iii) Segregation studies of granular mixtures in a rotating drum reproduce the expected, but counterintuitive, axial and radial segregation, while for the case of a vertically vibrated layer a novel form of horizontal segregation is revealed.

  7. CMP‑N‑acetylneuraminic acid synthetase interacts with fragile X related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun; Tian, Shuai; Wang, Zongbao; Wang, Changbo; Chen, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yang; He, Shuya

    2016-08-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), fragile X related 1 protein (FXR1P) and FXR2P are the members of the FMR protein family. These proteins contain two KH domains and a RGG box, which are characteristic of RNA binding proteins. The absence of FMRP, causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of hereditary mental retardation. FXR1P is expressed throughout the body and important for normal muscle development, and its absence causes cardiac abnormality. To investigate the functions of FXR1P, a screen was performed to identify FXR1P‑interacting proteins and determine the biological effect of the interaction. The current study identified CMP‑N‑acetylneuraminic acid synthetase (CMAS) as an interacting protein using the yeast two‑hybrid system, and the interaction between FXR1P and CMAS was validated in yeast using a β‑galactosidase assay and growth studies with selective media. Furthermore, co‑immunoprecipitation was used to analyze the FXR1P/CMAS association and immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to detect expression and intracellular localization of the proteins. The results of the current study indicated that FXR1P and CMAS interact, and colocalize in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of HEK293T and HeLa cells. Accordingly, a fragile X related 1 (FXR1) gene overexpression vector was constructed to investigate the effect of FXR1 overexpression on the level of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside 1 (GM1). The results of the current study suggested that FXR1P is a tissue‑specific regulator of GM1 levels in SH‑SY5Y cells, but not in HEK293T cells. Taken together, the results initially indicate that FXR1P interacts with CMAS, and that FXR1P may enhance the activation of sialic acid via interaction with CMAS, and increase GM1 levels to affect the development of the nervous system, thus providing evidence for further research into the pathogenesis of FXS.

  8. Cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouteillon, J.; Poignet, J. C.; Rameau, J. J.

    1993-02-01

    Although aluminum is one of the world's highest production-volume primary metals, it is particularly costly to produce for a variety of factors, not the least of which are the expenses associated with electrolytic reduction. Based on the scale of global aluminum processing, even minor improvements in the electrowinning technology can result in significant savings of resources. Thus, from this perspective, the following reviews recent studies of cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning.

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  10. New phenomena searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  11. Matched-Pairs Analysis of Co-Worker Interactions in Relation to Opportunity, Type of Job, and Placement Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Frank R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study, involving 85 workers with and without disabilities, found few differences in coworker relations and interactions. Of nine interaction categories, coworkers without disabilities interacted more among themselves in only one--befriending off the job. Individual workers with disabilities in light industry occupations experienced less…

  12. Structure-based modeling of head-related transfer functions towards interactive customization of binaural sound systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Navarun

    2003-10-01

    One of the most popular techniques for creating spatialized virtual sounds is based on the use of Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs). HRTFs are signal processing models that represent the modifications undergone by the acoustic signal as it travels from a sound source to each of the listener's eardrums. These modifications are due to the interaction of the acoustic waves with the listener's torso, shoulders, head and pinnae, or outer ears. As such, HRTFs are somewhat different for each listener. For a listener to perceive synthesized 3-D sound cues correctly, the synthesized cues must be similar to the listener's own HRTFs. One can measure individual HRTFs using specialized recording systems, however, these systems are prohibitively expensive and restrict the portability of the 3-D sound system. HRTF-based systems also face several computational challenges. This dissertation presents an alternative method for the synthesis of binaural spatialized sounds. The sound entering the pinna undergoes several reflective, diffractive and resonant phenomena, which determine the HRTF. Using signal processing tools, such as Prony's signal modeling method, an appropriate set of time delays and a resonant frequency were used to approximate the measured Head-Related Impulse Responses (HRIRs). Statistical analysis was used to find out empirical equations describing how the reflections and resonances are determined by the shape and size of the pinna features obtained from 3D images of 15 experimental subjects modeled in the project. These equations were used to yield "Model HRTFs" that can create elevation effects. Listening tests conducted on 10 subjects show that these model HRTFs are 5% more effective than generic HRTFs when it comes to localizing sounds in the frontal plane. The number of reversals (perception of sound source above the horizontal plane when actually it is below the plane and vice versa) was also reduced by 5.7%, showing the perceptual effectiveness of this

  13. Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions.

    PubMed

    Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

    2006-11-01

    Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging behaviour [trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs)]. Although ecologists appreciate this point, measurements of the relative importance of each indirect predator effect are rare. Experiments with a three-level, rocky shore food chain containing an invasive predatory crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus) and a basal resource (the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides) revealed that the strength of TMIIs is comparable with, or exceeds, that of DMIIs. Moreover, the sign and strength of each indirect predator effect depends on whether it is measured in risky or refuge habitats. Because habitat shifts are often responsible for the emergence of TMIIs, attention to the sign and strength of these interactions in both habitats will improve our understanding of the link between individual behaviour and community dynamics.

  14. Unusual role of epilayer–substrate interactions in determining orientational relations in van der Waals epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Siegel, David A.; Chen, Wei; Liu, Peizhi; Guo, Junjie; Duscher, Gerd; Zhao, Chong; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; McCarty, Kevin F.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gu, Gong

    2014-01-01

    Using selected-area low-energy electron diffraction analysis, we showed strict orientational alignment of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) crystallites with Cu(100) surface lattices of Cu foil substrates during atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. In sharp contrast, the graphene–Cu(100) system is well-known to assume a wide range of rotations despite graphene’s crystallographic similarity to h-BN. Our density functional theory calculations uncovered the origin of this surprising difference: The crystallite orientation is determined during nucleation by interactions between the cluster’s edges and the substrate. Unlike the weaker B– and N–Cu interactions, strong C–Cu interactions rearrange surface Cu atoms, resulting in the aligned geometry not being a distinct minimum in total energy. The discovery made in this specific case runs counter to the conventional wisdom that strong epilayer–substrate interactions enhance orientational alignment in epitaxy and sheds light on the factors that determine orientational relation in van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials. PMID:25385622

  15. Protein function prediction using neighbor relativity in protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Sobhan; Rahgozar, Masoud; Rahimi, Amir

    2013-04-01

    There is a large gap between the number of discovered proteins and the number of functionally annotated ones. Due to the high cost of determining protein function by wet-lab research, function prediction has become a major task for computational biology and bioinformatics. Some researches utilize the proteins interaction information to predict function for un-annotated proteins. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called "Neighbor Relativity Coefficient" (NRC) based on interaction network topology which estimates the functional similarity between two proteins. NRC is calculated for each pair of proteins based on their graph-based features including distance, common neighbors and the number of paths between them. In order to ascribe function to an un-annotated protein, NRC estimates a weight for each neighbor to transfer its annotation to the unknown protein. Finally, the unknown protein will be annotated by the top score transferred functions. We also investigate the effect of using different coefficients for various types of functions. The proposed method has been evaluated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens interaction networks. The performance analysis demonstrates that NRC yields better results in comparison with previous protein function prediction approaches that utilize interaction network.

  16. Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions.

    PubMed

    Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

    2006-11-01

    Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging behaviour [trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs)]. Although ecologists appreciate this point, measurements of the relative importance of each indirect predator effect are rare. Experiments with a three-level, rocky shore food chain containing an invasive predatory crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus) and a basal resource (the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides) revealed that the strength of TMIIs is comparable with, or exceeds, that of DMIIs. Moreover, the sign and strength of each indirect predator effect depends on whether it is measured in risky or refuge habitats. Because habitat shifts are often responsible for the emergence of TMIIs, attention to the sign and strength of these interactions in both habitats will improve our understanding of the link between individual behaviour and community dynamics. PMID:17040327

  17. Relative stability of the FCC and HCP polymorphs with interacting polymers.

    PubMed

    Mahynski, Nathan A; Kumar, Sanat K; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2015-01-14

    Recent work [Mahynski et al., Nat. Commun., 2014, 5, 4472] has demonstrated that the addition of long linear homopolymers thermodynamically biases crystallizing hard-sphere colloids to produce the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) polymorph over the closely related face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the polymers and colloids are purely repulsive. In this report, we investigate the effects of thermal interactions on each crystal polymorph to explore the possibility of stabilizing the FCC crystal structure over the HCP. We find that the HCP polymorph remains at least as stable as its FCC counterpart across the entire range of interactions we explored, where interactions were quantified by the reduced second virial coefficient, -1.50 < B < 1.01. This metric conveniently characterizes the crossover from entropically to energetically dominated systems at B ≈ 0. While the HCP relies on its octahedral void arrangement for enhanced stability when B > 0, its tetrahedral voids produce a similar effect when B < 0 (i.e. when energetics dominate). Starting from this, we derive a mean-field expression for the free energy of an infinitely-dilute polymer adsorbed in the crystal phase for nonzero B. Our results reveal that co-solute biasing of a single polymorph can still be observed in experimentally realizable scenarios when the colloids and polymers have attractive interactions, and provide a possible explanation for the experimental finding that pure FCC crystals are elusive in these binary mixtures.

  18. Non-equilibrium Stokes-Einstein relation via active microrheology of hydrodynamically interacting suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Henry; Zia, Roseanna

    In our recently developed non-equilibrium Stokes-Einstein relation, we showed that, in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions, the stress in a suspension is given by a balance between fluctuation and dissipation. Here, we generalize our theory for systems of hydrodynamically interacting colloids, via active microrheology, where motion of a Brownian probe through the medium reveals rheological properties. The strength of probe forcing compared to the entropic restoring force defines a Peclet number, Pe. In the absence of hydrodynamics, the first normal stress difference and the osmotic pressure scale as Pe4 and Pe2 respectively when probe forcing is weak, and uniformly as Pe for strong probe forcing. As hydrodynamics become important, interparticle forces give way to lubrication interactions. Hydrodynamic coupling leads to a new low-Pe scaling of the first normal stress difference and the osmotic pressure as Pe2, and high-Pe scaling as Peδ, where 0.799 <= δ <= 1 as hydrodynamics vary from strong to weak. For the entire range of the strength of hydrodynamic interactions and probe forcing, the new phenomenological theory is shown to agree with standard micromechanical definitions of the stress. We further draw a connection between the stress and the energy storage in a suspension, and the entropic nature of such storage is identified.

  19. Gene-Environment Interactions of Circadian-Related Genes for Cardiometabolic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Follis, Jack L.; Smith, Caren E.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Garaulet, Marta; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Hruby, Adela; Jacques, Paul F.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Bartz, Traci M.; Kovanen, Leena; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Jonsson, Anna; Muka, Taulant; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Mikkilä, Vera; Ordovás, José M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Common circadian-related gene variants associate with increased risk for metabolic alterations including type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about whether diet and sleep could modify associations between circadian-related variants (CLOCK-rs1801260, CRY2-rs11605924, MTNR1B-rs1387153, MTNR1B-rs10830963, NR1D1-rs2314339) and cardiometabolic traits (fasting glucose [FG], HOMA-insulin resistance, BMI, waist circumference, and HDL-cholesterol) to facilitate personalized recommendations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations and interactions between dietary intake/sleep duration and selected variants on cardiometabolic traits from 15 cohort studies including up to 28,190 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. RESULTS We observed significant associations between relative macronutrient intakes and glycemic traits and short sleep duration (<7 h) and higher FG and replicated known MTNR1B associations with glycemic traits. No interactions were evident after accounting for multiple comparisons. However, we observed nominally significant interactions (all P < 0.01) between carbohydrate intake and MTNR1B-rs1387153 for FG with a 0.003 mmol/L higher FG with each additional 1% carbohydrate intake in the presence of the T allele, between sleep duration and CRY2-rs11605924 for HDL-cholesterol with a 0.010 mmol/L higher HDL-cholesterol with each additional hour of sleep in the presence of the A allele, and between long sleep duration (≥9 h) and MTNR1B-rs1387153 for BMI with a 0.60 kg/m2 higher BMI with long sleep duration in the presence of the T allele relative to normal sleep duration (≥7 to <9 h). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that lower carbohydrate intake and normal sleep duration may ameliorate cardiometabolic abnormalities conferred by common circadian-related genetic variants

  20. Hippocampus and striatum: dynamics and interaction during acquisition and sleep-related motor sequence memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Geneviève; King, Bradley R; Maquet, Pierre; Doyon, Julien

    2013-11-01

    While several models of memory consolidation have previously associated hippocampal activity with declarative memory, there is now increasing evidence that the hippocampus also plays a crucial role in procedural memory. Here, we review recent human functional neuroimaging studies demonstrating that the hippocampus is involved in the acquisition and sleep-related consolidation of procedural memories, and motor sequence-based skills in particular. More specifically, we present evidence that hippocampal activity and its functional interactions with other brain structures, particularly competition with the striatum, contribute to initial learning of sequential motor behavior. Interestingly, these early cerebral representations in the hippocampus and striatum, which may interact through the prefrontal cortex, can even predict subsequent sleep-related memory consolidation processes. We propose that sleep can reorganize the activity within, as well as the functional interactions between, these structures, ultimately favoring overnight performance enhancement. Finally, we conclude by offering insights into the respective roles of these structures in procedural memory consolidation processes. We argue that, in the context of motor sequence memory consolidation, the hippocampal system triggers subsequent sleep-dependent performance enhancement whereas the striatal system is involved in the maintenance of the motor behavior over time.

  1. Relative advantages of thin-layer Navier-Stokes and interactive boundary-layer procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U.; Chang, K. C.; Cebeci, T.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical procedures for solving the thin-shear-layer Navier-Stokes equations and for the interaction of solutions to inviscid and boundary-layer equations are described and evaluated. To allow appraisal of the numerical and fluid dynamic abilities of the two schemes, they have been applied to one airfoil as a function of angle of attack at two slightly different Reynolds numbers. The NACA 0012 airfoil has been chosen because it allows comparison with measured lift, drag, and moment and with surface-pressure distributions. Calculations have been performed with algebraic eddy-viscosity formulations, and they include consideration of transition. The results are presented in a form that allows easy appraisal of the accuracy of both procedures and of the relative costs. The interactive procedure is computationally efficient but restrictive relative to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes procedure. The latter procedure does a better job of predicting drag than does the former. In both procedures, the location of transition is crucial for accurate or detailed computations, particularly at high angles of attack. When the upstream influence of pressure field through the shear layer is important, the thin-layer Navier-Stokes procedure has an edge over the interactive procedure.

  2. Fungal genes related to calcium homeostasis and signalling are upregulated in symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Arnould, Christine; Wipf, Daniel; Zhao, Bin; van Tuinen, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular calcium levels generate signalling events and regulate different cellular processes. Whilst the implication of Ca(2+) in plant responses during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions is well documented, nothing is known about the regulation or role of this secondary messenger in the fungal symbiont. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of putatively Ca(2+)-related genes of Glomus intraradices BEG141 encoding five proteins involved in membrane transport and one nuclear protein kinase, was investigated during the AM symbiosis. Expression profiles related to successful colonization of host roots were observed in interactions of G. intraradices with roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula (line J5) compared to the mycorrhiza-defective mutant dmi3/Mtsym13. Symbiotic fungal activity was monitored using stearoyl-CoA desaturase and phosphate transporter genes. Laser microdissection based-mapping of fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal root tissues indicated that the Ca(2+)-related genes were differentially upregulated in arbuscules and/or in intercellular hyphae. The spatio-temporal variations in gene expression suggest that the encoded proteins may have different functions in fungal development or function during symbiosis development. Full-length cDNA obtained for two genes with interesting expression profiles confirmed a close similarity with an endoplasmic reticulum P-type ATPase and a Vcx1-like vacuolar Ca(2+) ion transporter functionally characterized in other fungi and involved in the regulation of cell calcium pools. Possible mechanisms are discussed in which Ca(2+)-related proteins G. intraradices BEG141 may play a role in mobilization and perception of the intracellular messenger by the AM fungus during symbiotic interactions with host roots.

  3. Genome-wide contribution of genotype by environment interaction to variation of diabetes-related traits.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Arnett, Donna K; Lee, Yu-Chi; Shen, Jian; Parnell, Laurence D; Smith, Caren E; Richardson, Kris; Li, Duo; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ordovás, José M; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene approaches have identified many genetic variants that contribute to disease risk as main effects, the impact of genotype by environment (GxE) interactions remains rather under-surveyed. To explore the importance of GxE interactions for diabetes-related traits, a tool for Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) was used to examine GxE variance contribution of 15 macronutrients and lifestyle to the total phenotypic variance of diabetes-related traits at the genome-wide level in a European American population. GCTA identified two key environmental factors making significant contributions to the GxE variance for diabetes-related traits: carbohydrate for fasting insulin (25.1% of total variance, P-nominal = 0.032) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (24.2% of total variance, P-nominal = 0.035), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) for HOMA-β-cell-function (39.0% of total variance, P-nominal = 0.005). To demonstrate and support the results from GCTA, a GxE GWAS was conducted with each of the significant dietary factors and a control E factor (dietary protein), which contributed a non-significant GxE variance. We observed that GxE GWAS for the environmental factor contributing a significant GxE variance yielded more significant SNPs than the control factor. For each trait, we selected all significant SNPs produced from GxE GWAS, and conducted anew the GCTA to estimate the variance they contributed. We noted the variance contributed by these SNPs is higher than that of the control. In conclusion, we utilized a novel method that demonstrates the importance of genome-wide GxE interactions in explaining the variance of diabetes-related traits.

  4. Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.

  5. Interactions among lead, cadmium, and arsenic in relation to porphyrin excretion patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, B A; Mahaffey, K R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) on the mitrochondrion with emphasis on alteration of mitochondrial heme biosynthetic pathway. The information was used to examine results of a Pb x Cd x As interaction study which employed urinary porphyrin excretion patterns as one assessment criterion. Data from the study showed that dietary Pb produced increased urinary excretion of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin. Dietary exposure to organic or inorganic As caused increased excretion of uroporphyrin and to a lesser extent coproporphyrin, while dietary Cd caused no significant changes in urinary levels of any of the porphyrins measured. The combination of Pb plus As produced an additive effect on coproporphyrin excretion but not that of either ALA or uroporphyrin. These data are discussed in relation to utilization of urinary porphyrins for assessing toxicity and elemental interactions. PMID:720307

  6. Interactions of TRIS [tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane] and related buffers with peptide backbone: thermodynamic characterization.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2010-10-21

    In a situation which is far from ideal, many buffers have been found to be quite reactive, besides maintaining their stable pH values. On the basis of apparent transfer free energies (ΔG(tr)'), through solubility measurements the interactions of zwitterionic glycine peptides: glycine (Gly), diglycine (Gly(2)), triglycine (Gly(3)), and tetraglycine (Gly(4)), with several common neutral pH, amine-based buffers have been studied. The biological buffers studied in this work, including TRIS, TES, TAPS, TAPSO, and TABS are structurally related and all contain TRIS groups. These buffers have pK(a) values ranging from 7.5-9.0, which allow them to be used in biological, biochemical or environmental studies. We observed negative values of ΔG(tr)' for Gly(3) and Gly(4) from water to buffer, indicating that the interactions are favorable. However, the ΔG(tr)' values are positive for Gly and Gly(2), revealing unfavorable interactions, which except for the latter in TRIS buffer are negative. The surprising result in our data is the unexpected extraordinarily high favorable interactions between TRIS buffer and peptides (in comparison with the effect of the most common denaturants, urea and guanidine hydrochloride). The transfer free energies (ΔG(tr)') of the peptide backbone unit (-CH(2)C=O-NH-) contributions have been estimated from ΔG(tr)' values. We have also investigated the interactions of TRIS buffer with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), as a globular protein, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, UV-Visible absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results indicated that TRIS buffer stabilized the BSA molecules.

  7. Interactions of several lipid-related gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Cao, Xiao-Li; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Miao, Lin; Long, Xing-Jiang; Liu, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Lin; Li, Meng

    2012-01-01

    The interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect nine lipid-related SNPs and their interactions with cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaⅡ, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 935 nonsmokers and 845 smokers. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The frequencies of genotypes (ACAT-1 and LIPG), alleles (ABCA-1), and both genotypes and alleles (LDL-R, LIPC, PPARD and SCARB1) were different between nonsmokers and smokers (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of pulse pressure (PP, ABCA-1), and systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and PP (LIPC) in nonsmokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of SBP (ABCA-1, ACAT-1, LIPG and PCSK9), DBP (ACAT-1, LDL-R, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD), and PP (LIPC, LIPG, MTHFR and PCSK9) in smokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1, ACAT-1 and PCSK9; ACAT-1, LDL-R, MTHFR and PCSK9; and ABCA-1, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD were shown interactions with cigarette smoking to influence SBP, DBP and PP levels (P < 0.05-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between the nonsmokers and smokers might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and cigarette smoking. PMID:22606049

  8. Uncommon corrosion phenomena of archaeological bronze alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingo, G. M.; de Caro, T.; Riccucci, C.; Khosroff, S.

    2006-06-01

    In the framework of the EFESTUS project (funded by the European Commission, contract No. ICA3-CT-2002-10030) the corrosion products of a large number of archaeological bronze artefacts are investigated by means of the combined use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (OM) and tentative correlation of their nature with the chemical composition of the artefacts and the burial context is proposed. The results provide good insight into the corrosion layers and evidence in some bronze Roman coins and artefacts; the occurrence of uncommon corrosion phenomena that give rise to the formation of a yellowish-green complex chlorine-phosphate of lead (pyromorphite, (PbCl)Pb4(PO4)3) and of a gold-like thick layer of an iron and copper sulphide (chalcopyrite, CuFeS2). The micro-chemical and micro-structural results show that the coins were buried in a soil enriched in phosphorus for the accidental presence of a large amount of decomposing fragments of bones or in an anaerobic and humus rich soil where the chalcopyrite layer has been produced via the interaction between the iron of the soil, the copper of the coin and the sulphur produced by the decomposition of organic matter in an almost oxygen free environment. Finally, some unusual periodic corrosion phenomena occurring in high tin bronze mirrors found at Zama (Tunisia) are described.

  9. Effects of electrostatic correlations on electrokinetic phenomena.

    PubMed

    Storey, Brian D; Bazant, Martin Z

    2012-11-01

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena is based on the mean-field approximation that the electric field acting on an individual ion is self-consistently determined by the local mean charge density. This paper considers situations, such as concentrated electrolytes, multivalent electrolytes, or solvent-free ionic liquids, where the mean-field approximation breaks down. A fourth-order modified Poisson equation is developed that captures the essential features in a simple continuum framework. The model is derived as a gradient approximation for nonlocal electrostatics of interacting effective charges, where the permittivity becomes a differential operator, scaled by a correlation length. The theory is able to capture subtle aspects of molecular simulations and allows for simple calculations of electrokinetic flows in correlated ionic fluids. Charge-density oscillations tend to reduce electro-osmotic flow and streaming current, and overscreening of surface charge can lead to flow reversal. These effects also help to explain the suppression of induced-charge electrokinetic phenomena at high salt concentrations. PMID:23214872

  10. The role of polyglutamine expansion and protein context in disease-related huntingtin/lipid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Kathleen Anne

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is defined by the accumulation of nanoscale aggregates comprised of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Aggregation is directly caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) domain in htt, leading to a diverse population of aggregate species, such as oligomers, fibrils, and annular aggregates. Furthermore, the length of this polyQ domain is directly related to onset and severity of disease. The first 17 amino acids on the N-terminus (N17) and the polyproline domain on the C-terminal side of the polyQ domain have been shown to further modulate the aggregation process. Additionally, N17 appears to have lipid binding properties as htt interacts with a variety of membrane-containing structures present in cells, such as organelles, and interactions with these membrane surfaces may further modulate htt aggregation. To investigate the interaction between htt exon1 and lipid bilayers, in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly monitor the aggregation of htt exon1 constructs with varying Q-length (35Q, 46Q, 51Q, and myc- 53Q) or synthetic peptides with different polyQ domain flanking sequences (KK-Q35-KK, KK-Q 35-P10-KK, N17-Q35-KK, and N 17-Q35-P10-KK) on supported lipid membranes comprised of total brain lipid extract. The exon1 fragments accumulated on the lipid membranes, causing disruption of the membrane, in a polyQ dependent manner. By adding N-terminal tags to the htt exon1 fragments, the interaction with the lipid bilayer was impeded. The KK-Q35-KK and KK-Q 35-P10-KK peptides had no appreciable interaction with lipid bilayers. Interestingly, polyQ peptides with the N17 flanking sequence interacted with the bilayer. N17-Q35-KK formed discrete aggregates on the bilayer, but there was minimal membrane disruption. The N17-Q35-P10-KK peptide interacted more aggressively with the lipid bilayer in a manner reminiscent of the htt exon1 proteins.

  11. Harsh Parenting and Fearfulness in Toddlerhood Interact to Predict Amplitudes of Preschool Error-Related Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children’s risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. PMID:24721466

  12. Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems.

  13. Power and control in interactions between journalists and health-related industries: the view from industry.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Bronwen; Lipworth, Wendy L; Forsyth, Rowena; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The mass media is a major source of health information for the public, and as such the quality and independence of health news reporting is an important concern. Concerns have been expressed that journalists reporting on health are increasingly dependent on their sources--including representatives of industries responsible for manufacturing health-related products--for story ideas and content. Many critics perceive an imbalance of power between journalists and industry sources, with industry being in a position of relative power, however the empirical evidence to support this view is limited. The analysis presented here--which is part of a larger study of industry-journalist relationships--draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives of health-related industries in Australia to inductively examine their perceptions of power relations between industry and journalists. Participants painted a picture in which journalists, rather than themselves, were in a position to control the nature, extent, and outcome of their interactions with industry sources. Our results resonate with the concept of "mediatisation" as it has been applied in the domain of political reporting. It appears that, from the perspective of industry representatives, the imposition of media logic on health-related industries may inappropriately influence the information that the public receives about health-related products. PMID:24796423

  14. Power and control in interactions between journalists and health-related industries: the view from industry.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Bronwen; Lipworth, Wendy L; Forsyth, Rowena; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The mass media is a major source of health information for the public, and as such the quality and independence of health news reporting is an important concern. Concerns have been expressed that journalists reporting on health are increasingly dependent on their sources--including representatives of industries responsible for manufacturing health-related products--for story ideas and content. Many critics perceive an imbalance of power between journalists and industry sources, with industry being in a position of relative power, however the empirical evidence to support this view is limited. The analysis presented here--which is part of a larger study of industry-journalist relationships--draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives of health-related industries in Australia to inductively examine their perceptions of power relations between industry and journalists. Participants painted a picture in which journalists, rather than themselves, were in a position to control the nature, extent, and outcome of their interactions with industry sources. Our results resonate with the concept of "mediatisation" as it has been applied in the domain of political reporting. It appears that, from the perspective of industry representatives, the imposition of media logic on health-related industries may inappropriately influence the information that the public receives about health-related products.

  15. The Shuttle era - A challenge to the earth scientist. [observations of land, ocean and atmosphere phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlberger, W. R.; Wilmarth, V. R.

    1977-01-01

    Satellite observations of large-scale earth features and phenomena, with either instruments or astronauts, are discussed on the basis of earlier experience (mainly Skylab). Off-nadir views and photographs by astronauts have provided valuable supplements to instrument nadir views, providing cross-checks through remote sensing at different angles, different altitudes, and in different seasons. New information on plate tectonics, global cooling/drying trends, global oceanographic data (changing positions of major ocean current patterns, evolution of warm and cold eddies and their relation to sea temperatures and concentrations of marine fauna, location of internal sea waves, interactions between ocean currents and atmosphere, plankton blooms), storm development, snow cover patterns, lake and sea ice growth, sand-dune patterns, desert storms blown out to sea, effects of grazing and swidden agriculture, and other earth features and phenomena are surveyed.

  16. Light flash phenomena induced by HzE particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, P. J.; Pease, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    Astronauts and Apollo and Skylab missions have reported observing a variety of visual phenomena when their eyes are closed and adapted to darkness. These phenomena have been collectively labelled as light flashes. Visual phenomena which are similar in appearance to those observed in space have been demonstrated at the number of accelerator facilities by expressing the eyes of human subjects to beams of various types of radiation. In some laboratory experiments Cerenkov radiation was found to be the basis for the flashes observed while in other experiments Cerenkov radiation could apparently be ruled out. Experiments that differentiate between Cerenkov radiation and other possible mechanisms for inducing visual phenomena was then compared. The phenomena obtained in the presence and absence of Cerenkov radiation were designed and conducted. A new mechanism proposed to explain the visual phenomena observed by Skylab astronauts as they passed through the South Atlantic Anomaly, namely nuclear interactions in and near the sensitive layer of the retina, is covered. Also some studies to search for similar transient effects of space radiation on sensors and microcomputer memories are described.

  17. Certain relativistic phenomena in crystal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee-Seng, Lim

    1980-01-01

    Relativistic unsteady phenomena are established for a crystalline medium with unaligned sets of permittivity and permeability principal axes, but incorporating a compounded uniaxiality about some nonprincipal direction. All effects originate from a suddenly activated, arbitrarily oriented, maintained line current conducted with a finite velocity v. Integral representations studied in another paper (Chee-Seng) are applied. The original coordinate system is subjected to a series of rotational and translational, scaled and unscaled transformations. No specific coordinate frame is strictly adhered to. Instead, it is often expedient and advantageous to exploit several reference frames simultaneously in the course of the analysis and interpretations. The electric field is directly related to a net scalar field Δ involving another scalar Ψ and its complement Ψ¯ which can be deduced from Ψ; Ψ and Ψ¯ are associated with two expanding, inclined ellipsoidal wavefronts ξ and ξ¯; these are cocentered at the current origin and touch each other twice along the uniaxis. Elsewhere, ξ leads ξ¯. For a source current faster than ξ:vt ∈ extξ, Ψ≢0 within a finite but growing ''ice-cream cone'' domain, its nontrivial composition being χ-1/2 inside ξ and 2χ-1/2 inside part of a tangent cone from the advancing current edge vt to, and terminating at, ξ; the function χ vanishes along such a tangent cone. Alternatively, for a source current slower than ξ:vt∈ intξ, if vt is avoided, χ≳0 everywhere, while Ψ=χ-1/2 inside ξ but vanishes identically outside ξ. However, the crucial scalar field Δ depends on three separate current-velocity regimes. Over a slow regime: vt∈ intξ¯, Δ is nontrivial inside ξ wherein it is discontinuous across ξ¯. Over an intermediate regime: vt ∈ intξ extξ¯, Δ takes four distinct forms on 12 adjacent domains bounded by ξ, ξ¯ and a double-conical tangent surface linking vt to ξ¯. But for a fast regime: vt∈ ext

  18. Transport phenomena in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bear, Jacob; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    The Advanced Study Institute on Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, held July 14-23, 1985 in Newark, Del. and directed by Jacob Bear (Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa) and M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York), under the auspices of NATO, was a sequel to the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) held in 1982 (proceedings published as Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, J. Bear, and M.Y. Corapcioglu (Ed.), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1984). The meeting was attended by 106 participants and lecturers from 21 countries.As in the first NATO/ASI, the objective of this meeting—which was a combination of a conference of experts and a teaching institute— was to present and discuss selected topics of transport in porous media. In selecting topics and lecturers, an attempt was made to bridge the gap that sometimes exists between research and practice. An effort was also made to demonstrate the unified approach to the transport of mass of a fluid phase, components of a fluid phase, momentum, and heat in a porous medium domain. The void space may be occupied by a single fluid phase or by a number of such phases; each fluid may constitute a multicomponent system; the solid matrix may be deformable; and the whole process of transport in the system may take place under nonisothermal conditions, with or without phase changes. Such phenomena are encountered in a variety of disciplines, e.g., petroleum engineering, civil engineering (in connection with groundwater flow and contamination), soil mechanics, and chemical engineering. One of the goals of the 1985 NATO/ASI, as in the 1982 institute, was to bring together experts from all these disciplines and enhance communication among them.

  19. Predicting relative toxicity and interactions of divalent metal ions: Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence assay

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.C.; McCloskey, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Both relative toxicity and interactions between paired metal ions were predicted with least-squares linear regression and various ion characteristics. Microtox{reg_sign} 15 min EC50s (expressed as free ion) for Ca(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) were most effectively modeled with the constant for the first hydrolysis (K{sub H} for M{sup n+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} MOH{sup a{minus}1} + H{sup +}) although other ion characteristics were also significant in regression models. The {vert_bar}log K{sub H}{vert_bar} is correlated with metal ion affinity to intermediate ligands such as many biochemical functional groups with O donor atoms. Further, ordination of metals according to ion characteristics, e.g., {vert_bar}log K{sub H}{vert_bar} facilitated prediction of paired metal interactions. Pairing metals with strong tendencies to complex with intermediate or soft ligands such as those with O or S donor atoms resulted in strong interactions.

  20. Structure soil structure interaction effects: Seismic analysis of safety related collocated concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.

    2000-06-20

    The Process, Purification and Stack Buildings are collocated safety related concrete shear wall structures with plan dimensions in excess of 100 feet. An important aspect of their seismic analysis was the determination of structure soil structure interaction (SSSI) effects, if any. The SSSI analysis of the Process Building, with one other building at a time, was performed with the SASSI computer code for up to 50 frequencies. Each combined model had about 1500 interaction nodes. Results of the SSSI analysis were compared with those from soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis of the individual buildings, done with ABAQUS and SASSI codes, for three parameters: peak accelerations, seismic forces and the in-structure floor response spectra (FRS). The results may be of wider interest due to the model size and the potential applicability to other deep soil layered sites. Results obtained from the ABAQUS analysis were consistently higher, as expected, than those from the SSI and SSSI analyses using the SASSI. The SSSI effect between the Process and Purification Buildings was not significant. The Process and Stack Building results demonstrated that under certain conditions a massive structure can have an observable effect on the seismic response of a smaller and less stiff structure.

  1. Interaction of graphene-related materials with human intestinal cells: an in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Kucki, M; Rupper, P; Sarrieu, C; Melucci, M; Treossi, E; Schwarz, A; León, V; Kraegeloh, A; Flahaut, E; Vázquez, E; Palermo, V; Wick, P

    2016-04-28

    Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell viability of exposed Caco-2 cells in respect to untreated GRM could be detected. Furthermore, we explored the interaction of four different GO and Caco-2 cells to identify relevant physicochemical properties for the establishment of a material property-biological response relationship. Despite close interaction with the cell surface and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), no acute toxicity was found for any of the applied GO (concentration range 0-80 μg ml(-1)) after 24 h and 48 h exposure. Graphene nanoplatelet aggregates led to low acute toxicity at high concentrations, indicating that aggregation, the number of layers or the C/O ratio have a more pronounced effect on the cell viability than the lateral size alone. PMID:27064646

  2. Critical phenomena of invariant circles

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, B.; Shi, J. ); Kim, S. )

    1991-04-15

    Some novel critical phenomena are discovered in a class of nonanalytic twist maps. It is found that the degree of inflection {ital z} plays a role reminiscent of that of dimensionality in phase transitions with {ital z}=2 and 3 corresponding to the lower and upper critical dimensions, respectively. Moreover, recurrence of invariant circles has also been observed. An inverse residue criterion,'' complementary to the residue criterion'' for the determination of the disappearance point, is introduced to determine the reappearance point of invariant circles.

  3. Toward a Molecular-Based Understanding of High-Temperature Solvation Phenomena in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, A.A.; Cummings, P.T.; Kusalik, P.G.; Simonson, J.M.

    1999-10-30

    The theoretical treatment of the solvation phenomenon of simple ions in aqueous solutions has been rather difficult, despite the apparent simplicity of the system. Long-range solvent-screened electrostatic interactions, coupled to the large variation (with state conditions) of the dielectric permittivity of water, give rise to a variety of rather complex solvation phenomena including dielectric saturation, electrostriction, and ion association. Notably, ion solvation in high-temperature/pressure aqueous solutions plays a leading role in hydrothermal chemistry, such as in the natural formation of ore deposits, the corrosion in boilers and reactors, and in high-temperature microbiology. Tremendous effort has been invested in the study of hydrothermal solutions to determine their thermodynamic, transport, and spectroscopic properties with the goal of elucidating the solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions over a wide range of state conditions. It is precisely at these conditions where our understanding and predictive capabilities are most precarious, in part, as a result of the coexistence of processes with two rather different length scales, i.e., short-ranged (solvation) and long-ranged (compressibility-driven) phenomena (Chialvo and Cummings 1994a). The latter feature makes hydrothermal systems extremely challenging to model, unless we are able to isolate the (compressibility-driven) propagation of the density perturbation from the (solvation-related) finite-density perturbation phenomena (Chialvo and Cummings 1995a).

  4. Teaching wave phenomena via biophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Daniel; Robbins, Mark; Leheny, Robert; Wonnell, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Over the past several years we have developed a two-semester second-year physics course sequence for students in the biosciences, tailored in part to the needs of undergraduate biophysics majors. One semester, ``Biological Physics,'' is based on the book of that name by P. Nelson. This talk will focus largely on the other semester, ``Wave Phenomena with Biophysical Applications,'' where we provide a novel introduction to the physics of waves, primarily through the study of experimental probes used in the biosciences that depend on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Topic covered include: Fourier analysis, sound and hearing, diffraction - culminating in an analysis of x-ray fiber diffraction and its use in the determination of the structure of DNA - geometrical and physical optics, the physics of modern light microscopy, NMR and MRI. Laboratory exercises tailored to this course will also be described.

  5. Doxazosin-carrageenan interactions: a novel approach for studying drug-polymer interactions and relation to controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Matej; Baumgartner, Saša; Kos, Petra; Kogej, Ksenija

    2011-12-12

    When a cationic drug like doxazosin mesylate (DM) is incorporated into matrix tablets made of anionic polyelectrolytes carrageenans (CARRs) of different types (κ-, ι-, λ-CARR), DM-CARR interactions have a strong impact on drug release. To investigate these interactions, special DM ion-selective membrane electrode was made and applied for construction of binding isotherms. Isotherms were treated by the Zimm-Bragg theory and cooperative binding model. It was demonstrated that binding of doxazosin cations, DH(+), to CARRs is cooperative. It starts at very low drug concentrations with strong electrostatic interactions followed by aggregation of DH(+) ions. Hydrophobic interactions between bound DH(+) substantially contribute to the extent of binding. The strength of interactions increases with increasing negative charge of CARRs. At saturation, the number of DM molecules bound per repeat unit depends on the charge and steric distribution of binding sites on CARRs. Drug release rates of DM from CARR matrices were in accordance with the cooperativity binding constants: the weakest binding resulted in the fastest release. However it was proven that prolonged drug release is possible only by several processes running simultaneously, i.e., by swelling and erosion of CARR matrices on one side and electrostatic interactions and cooperativity effects on the other.

  6. The demystification of autoscopic phenomena: experimental propositions.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Christine; Blanke, Olaf

    2005-06-01

    Autoscopic phenomena (AP) are rare, illusory visual experiences during which the subject has the impression of seeing a second own body in extrapersonal space. AP consist of out-of-body experience, autoscopic hallucination, and heautoscopy. Recent neurologic reports support the role of multisensory integration deficits of body-related information and vestibular dysfunctions in AP at the temporo-parietal junction. A caveat to test the underlying neurologic and cognitive mechanisms of AP has been their rare and spontaneous occurrence. Recent evidence linked AP to mental own-body imagery engaging brain mechanisms at the temporo-parietal junction. These recent observations open a new avenue for testing AP-related cognitive mechanisms in selected clinical and normal populations. We review evidence on several clinical syndromes (psychosis, depression, anxiety, depersonalization, body dysmorphic disorder), suggesting that some of these syndromes may relate to AP-proneness, thereby leading to testable propositions for future research on body and self processing in addition to AP.

  7. Performance goals in conflictual social interactions: towards the distinction between two modes of relational conflict regulation.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Nicolas; Darnon, Céline; Mugny, Gabriel; Quiamzade, Alain; Pulfrey, Caroline; Dompnier, Benoît; Butera, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    Socio-cognitive conflict has been defined as a situation of confrontation with a disagreeing other. Previous research suggests that individuals can regulate conflict in a relational way, namely by focusing on social comparison between relative levels of competences. Relational conflict regulation has been described as yielding particularly negative effects on social interactions and learning, but has been understudied. The present research addresses the question of the origin of relational conflict regulation by introducing a fundamental distinction between two types of regulation, one based on the affirmation of one's own point of view and the invalidation of the other's (i.e., 'competitive' regulation), the other corresponding to the protection of self-competence via compliance (i.e., 'protective' regulation). Three studies show that these modes of relational conflict regulation result from the endorsement of distinct performance goals, respectively, performance-approach goals (trying to outperform others) and performance-avoidance goals (avoiding performing more poorly than others). Theoretical implications for the literature on both conflict regulation and achievement goals are discussed.

  8. Hadronic interactions in large N_c QCD: Studies of excited baryon decays and scattering relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakin, Daniel C.

    Decays and scattering events are two of the principal ways to learn about particle physics. Decays, in which a particle spontaneously disintegrates and we examine the debris, are quantified by a decay width. The decay of a resonance state provides information about the structure of the state and the interaction between its components. In particular, we can learn about the dynamics of quarks and gluons by studying the decay of hadrons. Scattering, in which particles are directed towards each other and interact, are quantified by partial-wave amplitudes. These amplitudes give us information about the interaction between the scattered particles. In principle, all of hadronic physics follows from quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which describes the interactions of quarks and gluons. However, the techniques of perturbation theory are not applicable to QCD at low energy because the strong coupling constant (the natural choice for the expansion parameter) is large at the energy scale of hadronic physics. A powerful model-independent method is the 1/Nc expansion in which the number of quark color degrees of freedom (Nc) is treated as a large number. This thesis presents the application of the 1/ Nc expansion to the calculation of physical observables for excited baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and pion photoproduction. The framework of the contracted SU(4) group that emerges in large Nc QCD is applied to the study of excited baryon decays. The Nc power scaling of the excited baryon's decay width depends on the symmetry of its spin-flavor wavefunction. The scaling with Nc for different symmetries is discussed in the context of a quark-shell model that permits mixing of different symmetry types. The subtle issues concerning the legitimacy of applying the contracted SU(4) group theory to excited baryons are discussed. The contracted SU(4) spin-flavor symmetry severely restricts the angular momentum and isospin dependence of partial-wave amplitudes. The consequences of this

  9. An automated system for retrieving herb-drug interaction related articles from MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuo; Friedman, Carol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    An automated, user-friendly and accurate system for retrieving herb-drug interaction (HDIs) related articles in MEDLINE can increase the safety of patients, as well as improve the physicians’ article retrieving ability regarding speed and experience. Previous studies show that MeSH based queries associated with negative effects of drugs can be customized, resulting in good performance in retrieving relevant information, but no study has focused on the area of herb-drug interactions (HDI). This paper adapted the characteristics of HDI related papers and created a multilayer HDI article searching system. It achieved a sensitivity of 92% at a precision of 93% in a preliminary evaluation. Instead of requiring physicians to conduct PubMed searches directly, this system applies a more user-friendly approach by employing a customized system that enhances PubMed queries, shielding users from having to write queries, dealing with PubMed, or reading many irrelevant articles. The system provides automated processes and outputs target articles based on the input. PMID:27570662

  10. Human Height Is Positively Related to Interpersonal Dominance in Dyadic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Across cultures, taller stature is linked to increased social status, but the potential reasons why this should be are unclear. One potential explanation is that taller individuals are more likely to win a dyadic confrontation with a competitor (i.e., they are more dominant), which leads to higher social rank. Although some previous studies have shown that perceptions of status or dominance are related to height, and are therefore consistent with such an explanation, there is surprisingly little research testing whether height actually has any influence on the behavioural outcomes in real-life social interactions. Here, we present three naturalistic observational studies demonstrating that height predicts interpersonal dominance during brief dyadic interactions. Study 1 investigated the likelihood of giving way in a narrow passage (N = 92); Study 2 investigated giving way in a busy shopping street, plus the likelihood of colliding with another individual (N = 1,108); and Study 3 investigated the likelihood of maintaining a linear path while walking, and potentially entering another individual’s personal space (N = 1,056). We conclude that human height is positively related to interpersonal dominance, and may well contribute to the widely observed positive association between height and social status. PMID:25719490

  11. An automated system for retrieving herb-drug interaction related articles from MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo; Friedman, Carol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    An automated, user-friendly and accurate system for retrieving herb-drug interaction (HDIs) related articles in MEDLINE can increase the safety of patients, as well as improve the physicians' article retrieving ability regarding speed and experience. Previous studies show that MeSH based queries associated with negative effects of drugs can be customized, resulting in good performance in retrieving relevant information, but no study has focused on the area of herb-drug interactions (HDI). This paper adapted the characteristics of HDI related papers and created a multilayer HDI article searching system. It achieved a sensitivity of 92% at a precision of 93% in a preliminary evaluation. Instead of requiring physicians to conduct PubMed searches directly, this system applies a more user-friendly approach by employing a customized system that enhances PubMed queries, shielding users from having to write queries, dealing with PubMed, or reading many irrelevant articles. The system provides automated processes and outputs target articles based on the input. PMID:27570662

  12. Electronic polarizability, optical basicity, and interaction parameter of La2O3 and related glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, T.; Benino, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Komatsu, T.; Sato, R.; Dimitrov, V.

    2002-03-01

    The electronic polarizability and optical basicity of La2O3 and related glasses have been determined from ultraviolet absorption spectra and calculations based on the Lorentz-Lorenz equation. The optical basicity for La2O3 oxide is found to be 1.07, being much larger compared with typical glass-forming oxides such as B2O3 (0.42) and SiO2 (0.48) but being similar to heavy element oxides such as TeO2 (0.93). The Yamashita and Kurosawa's interaction parameter of La2O3 is 0.03 Å-3, indicating that La2O3 is classified as a normal ionic (basic) oxide, i.e., an ionic bonding character in the La3+-O bond is proposed. Close correlations are confirmed among optical basicity, interaction parameter, and oxygen 1s binding energy in x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectra for La2O3-P2O5 and other La2O3-containing glasses. It is found from XPS and Raman spectra that La3+ ions in La2O3-P2O5 glasses act as network modifiers, supporting an ionic bonding character in the La3+-O bond. The parameters related to electronic polarizability in La2O3 determined in the present study would be useful for the design of rare-earth containing optical functional glasses.

  13. Preferential accumulation and enhanced relative velocity of inertial droplets due to interactions with homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateson, Colin; Aliseda, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    We present results from wind tunnel experiments on the evolution of small inertial (d ~ 10 - 200 μm) water droplets in homogeneous, isotropic, slowly decaying grid turbulence. High-speed imaging and a Particle Tracking algorithm are used to calculate relative velocity distributions. We analyze the preferential concentration, via the 2D Radial Distribution Function, and enhanced relative velocity of droplets resulting from their inertial interactions with the underlying turbulence. The two-dimensional particle velocities, measured from multi-image tracks along a streamwise plane, are conditionally analyzed with respect to the distance from the nearest particle. We focus on the non-normality of the statistics for the particle-particle separation velocity component to examine the influence of the inertial interaction with the turbulence on the dynamics of the droplets. We observe a negative bias (in the mean and mode) in the separation velocity of particles for short separations, signaling a tendency of particles to collide more frequently than a random agitation by turbulence would predict. The tails of the distribution are interpreted in terms of the collision/coalescence process and the probability of collisions that do not lead to coalescence.

  14. Emotion-related personality traits and peer social standing: unique and interactive effects in cyberbullying behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the unique and interactive effects of emotion-related personality traits (i.e., callousness and uncaring traits) and peer social standing (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity) on cyberbullying behaviors in preadolescents. A total of 529 preadolescents (247 boys, 46.69%) were recruited from an Italian middle school (Mage=12 years and 7 months; SD=1 year and 2 months). The participants primarily consisted of Italian children (91.12%). A series of binary logistic regression analyses parted by gender were conducted to examine the main and interactive effects of self-reported emotion-related variables and peer-reported social standing in the prediction of self-reported cyberbullying behaviors, while controlling for cyber victimization and grade effects. In girls, an uncaring disposition was directly associated with cyberbullying behaviors, whereas in boys this association only emerged for those with low perceived popularity. Our results indicated that, in developing anti(cyber)bullying programs, school researchers and practitioners should jointly consider individual and contextual factors.

  15. Construction of polycythemia vera protein interaction network and prediction of related biological functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, L-J; Cao, X-J; Zhou, C; Sun, Y; Lv, Q-L; Feng, F-B; Zhang, Y-Y; Sun, C-G

    2016-01-01

    Here, polycythemia vera (PV)-related genes were screened by the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), and literature pertaining to the identified genes was extracted and a protein-protein interaction network was constructed using various Cytoscape plugins. Various molecular complexes were detected using the Clustervize plugin and a gene ontology-enrichment analysis of the biological pathways, molecular functions, and cellular components of the selected molecular complexes were identified using the BiNGo plugin. Fifty-four PV-related genes were identified in OMIM. The protein-protein interaction network contains 5 molecular complexes with correlation integral values >4. These complexes regulated various biological processes (peptide tyrosinase acidification, cell metabolism, and macromolecular biosynthesis), molecular functions (kinase activity, receptor binding, and cytokine activity), and the cellular components were mainly concentrated in the nucleus, intracellular membrane-bounded organelles, and extracellular region. These complexes were associated with the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway, neurotrophic factor signaling pathway, and Wnt signaling pathway, which were correlated with chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:26909922

  16. An Analysis of Multi-type Relational Interactions in FMA Using Graph Motifs with Disjointness Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guo Qiang; Luo, Lingyun; Ogbuji, Chime; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Mejino, Jose; Sahoo, Satya S.

    2012-11-24

    The interaction of multiple types of relationships among anatomical classes in the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) can provide inferred information valuable for quality assurance. This paper introduces a method called Motif Checking (MOCH) to study the effects of such multi-relation type interactions. MOCH represents patterns of multitype interaction as small labeled sub-graph motifs, whose nodes represent class variables, and labeled edges represent relational types. By representing FMA as an RDF graph and motifs as SPARQL queries, fragments of FMA are automatically obtained as auditing candidates. Leveraging the scalability and reconfigurability of Semantic Web Technology (OWL, RDF and SPARQL) and Virtuoso, we performed exhaustive analyses of three 2-node motifs, resulting in 638 matching FMA configurations; twelve 3-node motifs, resulting in 202,960 configurations. Using the Principal Ideal Explorer (PIE) methodology as an extension of MOCH, we were able to identify 755 root nodes with 4,100 respective descendants with opposing antonyms in their class names for arbitrary-length motifs. With possible disjointness implied by antonyms, we performed manual inspection of a subset of the resulting FMA fragments and tracked down a source of abnormal inferred conclusions (captured by the motifs), coming from a gender-neutral class being modeled as a part of gender-specific class, such as “Urinary system” is a part of “Female human body.” Our results demonstrate that MOCH and PIE provide a unique source of valuable information for quality assurance. Since our approach is general, it is applicable to any ontological system with an OWL representation.

  17. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  18. Visual phenomena, disturbances, and hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, D T

    1996-01-01

    The visual system and its processing of sensory information can be affected in a variety of ways that may be either normal or associated with numerous disorders and diseases. Visual images produced by the intrinsic components of the eyes are often normal and are known as entoptic phenomena. In contrast, the visual system may be disrupted by various disorders and pathologic processes, which can result in metamorphopsia, transient loss of vision, and positive scotomas. Such disruptions can be secondary to retinal and optic nerve disease, migraines associated with visual auras, and cerebrovascular and neurologic diseases; they can also be side effects of certain drugs. In addition, the visual system may process incoming sensory information in such a way that what is seen is perceived incorrectly, i.e. illusion; or the visual system may produce images of things not really there, i.e. hallucination. Various types of visual phenomena, disturbances, and hallucinations are discussed. The numerous visual presentations need to be differentiated so that appropriate treatment, management, and patient education can be rendered.

  19. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  20. Discovery of New Candidate Genes Related to Brain Development Using Protein Interaction Information

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Human brain development is a dramatic process composed of a series of complex and fine-tuned spatiotemporal gene expressions. A good comprehension of this process can assist us in developing the potential of our brain. However, we have only limited knowledge about the genes and gene functions that are involved in this biological process. Therefore, a substantial demand remains to discover new brain development-related genes and identify their biological functions. In this study, we aimed to discover new brain-development related genes by building a computational method. We referred to a series of computational methods used to discover new disease-related genes and developed a similar method. In this method, the shortest path algorithm was executed on a weighted graph that was constructed using protein-protein interactions. New candidate genes fell on at least one of the shortest paths connecting two known genes that are related to brain development. A randomization test was then adopted to filter positive discoveries. Of the final identified genes, several have been reported to be associated with brain development, indicating the effectiveness of the method, whereas several of the others may have potential roles in brain development. PMID:25635857

  1. Content-related interactions and methods of reasoning within self-initiated organic chemistry study groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Karen Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of content processing, and types of reasoning processes used by students within their groups. Our analysis showed that groups engaged in predominantly three types of interactions when discussing chemistry content: co-construction, teaching, and tutoring. Although each group engaged in each of these types of interactions at some point, their prevalence varied between groups and group members. Our analysis suggests that the types of interactions that were most common depended on the relative content knowledge of the group members as well as on the difficulty of the tasks in which they were engaged. Additionally, we were interested in characterizing the reasoning methods used by students within their study groups. We found that students used a combination of three content-relevant methods of reasoning: model-based reasoning, case-based reasoning, or rule-based reasoning, in conjunction with one chemically-irrelevant method of reasoning: symbol-based reasoning. The most common way for groups to reason was to use rules, whereas the least common way was for students to work from a model. In general, student reasoning correlated strongly to the subject matter to which students were paying attention, and was only weakly related to student interactions. Overall, results from this study may help instructors to construct appropriate tasks to guide what and how students study outside of the classroom. We found that students had a decidedly strategic approach in their study groups, relying heavily on material provided by their instructors, and using the reasoning strategies that resulted in the lowest levels of content processing. We suggest

  2. Interaction of organophosphate pesticides and related compounds with the androgen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Hiroto; Yoshikawa, Hiromichi; Gaido, Kevin W; Ross, Susan M; DeLisle, Robert K; Welsh, William J; Richard, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Identification of several environmental chemicals capable of binding to the androgen receptor (AR) and interfering with its normal function has heightened concern about adverse effects across a broad spectrum of environmental chemicals. We previously demonstrated AR antagonist activity of the organophosphate (OP) pesticide fenitrothion. In this study, we characterized AR activity of analogues of fenitrothion to probe the structural requirements for AR activity among related chemicals. AR activity was measured using HepG2 human hepatoma cells transfected with human AR plus an androgen-responsive luciferase reporter gene, MMTV-luc. AR antagonist activity decreased as alkyl chain length of the phosphoester increased, whereas electron-donating properties of phenyl substituents of the tested compounds did not influence AR activity. Oxon derivatives of fenitrothion, which are more likely to undergo hydrolytic degradation, had no detectable AR antagonist activity. Molecular modeling results suggest that hydrogen-bond energies and the maximum achievable interatomic distance between two terminal H-bond capable sites may influence both the potential to interact with the AR and the nature of the interaction (agonist vs. antagonist) within this series of chemicals. This hypothesis is supported by the results of recent AR homology modeling and crystallographic studies relative to agonist- and antagonist-bound AR complexes. The present results are placed in the context of structure-activity knowledge derived from previous modeling studies as well as studies aimed toward designing nonsteroidal antiandrogen pharmaceuticals. Present results extend understanding of the structural requirements for AR activity to a new class of nonsteroidal, environmental, OP-related chemicals. PMID:12676613

  3. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  4. Mathematical methods of studying physical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades, substantial theoretical and experimental progress was achieved in understanding the quantum nature of physical phenomena that serves as the foundation of present and future quantum technologies. Quantum correlations like the entanglement of the states of composite systems, the phenomenon of quantum discord, which captures other aspects of quantum correlations, quantum contextuality and, connected with these phenomena, uncertainty relations for conjugate variables and entropies, like Shannon and Rényi entropies, and the inequalities for spin states, like Bell inequalities, reflect the recently understood quantum properties of micro and macro systems. The mathematical methods needed to describe all quantum phenomena mentioned above were also the subject of intense studies in the end of the last, and beginning of the new, century. In this section of CAMOP 'Mathematical Methods of Studying Physical Phenomena' new results and new trends in the rapidly developing domain of quantum (and classical) physics are presented. Among the particular topics under discussion there are some reviews on the problems of dynamical invariants and their relations with symmetries of the physical systems. In fact, this is a very old problem of both classical and quantum systems, e.g. the systems of parametric oscillators with time-dependent parameters, like Ermakov systems, which have specific constants of motion depending linearly or quadratically on the oscillator positions and momenta. Such dynamical invariants play an important role in studying the dynamical Casimir effect, the essence of the effect being the creation of photons from the vacuum in a cavity with moving boundaries due to the presence of purely quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field in the vacuum. It is remarkable that this effect was recently observed experimentally. The other new direction in developing the mathematical approach in physics is quantum tomography that provides a new vision of

  5. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP): Phenomena, simulation, and hardening. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning natural and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena, simulation, and hardening. Topics include analyses, evaluations, and simulations of EMP interactions, and EMP coupling with various susceptible systems, devices, objects, and materials. Protective methods and technology for specific devices and overall premises are included along with testing methodologies and experimental results from simulated EMP phenomena. Computer aided analysis of EMP phenomena is also included. (Contains a minimum of 240 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP): Phenomena, simulation, and hardening. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning natural and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena, simulation, and hardening. Topics include analyses, evaluations, and simulations of EMP interactions, and EMP coupling with various susceptible systems, devices, objects, and materials. Protective methods and technology for specific devices and overall premises are included along with testing methodologies and experimental results from simulated EMP phenomena. Computer aided analysis of EMP phenomena is also included. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  8. Interaction of graphene-related materials with human intestinal cells: an in vitro approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucki, M.; Rupper, P.; Sarrieu, C.; Melucci, M.; Treossi, E.; Schwarz, A.; León, V.; Kraegeloh, A.; Flahaut, E.; Vázquez, E.; Palermo, V.; Wick, P.

    2016-04-01

    Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell viability of exposed Caco-2 cells in respect to untreated GRM could be detected. Furthermore, we explored the interaction of four different GO and Caco-2 cells to identify relevant physicochemical properties for the establishment of a material property-biological response relationship. Despite close interaction with the cell surface and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), no acute toxicity was found for any of the applied GO (concentration range 0-80 μg ml-1) after 24 h and 48 h exposure. Graphene nanoplatelet aggregates led to low acute toxicity at high concentrations, indicating that aggregation, the number of layers or the C/O ratio have a more pronounced effect on the cell viability than the lateral size alone.Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell

  9. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin

  10. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  11. Affective processing in natural scene viewing: valence and arousal interactions in eye-fixation-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Simola, Jaana; Le Fevre, Kevin; Torniainen, Jari; Baccino, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    Attention is drawn to emotionally salient stimuli. The present study investigates processing of emotionally salient regions during free viewing of emotional scenes that were categorized according to the two-dimensional model comprising of valence (unpleasant, pleasant) and arousal (high, low). Recent studies have reported interactions between these dimensions, indicative of stimulus-evoked approach or withdrawal tendencies. We addressed the valence and arousal effects when emotional items were embedded in complex real-world scenes by analyzing both eye movement behavior and eye-fixation-related potentials (EFRPs) time-locked to the critical event of fixating the emotionally salient items for the first time. Both data sets showed an interaction between the valence and arousal dimensions. First, the fixation rates and gaze durations on emotionally salient regions were enhanced for unpleasant versus pleasant images in the high arousal condition. In the low arousal condition, both measures were enhanced for pleasant versus unpleasant images. Second, the EFRP results at 140-170 ms [P2] over the central site showed stronger responses for high versus low arousing images in the unpleasant condition. In addition, the parietal LPP responses at 400-500 ms post-fixation were enhanced for stimuli reflecting congruent stimulus dimensions, that is, stronger responses for high versus low arousing images in the unpleasant condition and stronger responses for low versus high arousing images in the pleasant condition. The present findings support the interactive two-dimensional approach, according to which the integration of valence and arousal recruits brain regions associated with action tendencies of approach or withdrawal.

  12. Antifungal Pisum sativum defensin 1 interacts with Neurospora crassa cyclin F related to the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Denise S; Pereira, Iuri B; Fragel-Madeira, Lucianne; Medeiros, Luciano N; Cabral, Luiz M; Faria, Jane; Bellio, Maria; Campos, Reinaldo C; Linden, Rafael; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2007-01-30

    Plant defensins, components of the plant innate immune system, are cationic cysteine-rich antifungal peptides. Evidence from the literature [Thevissen, K., et al. (2003) Peptides 24, 1705-1712] has demonstrated that patches of fungi membrane containing mannosyldiinositolphosphorylceramide and glucosylceramides are selective binding sites for the plant defensins isolated from Dahlia merckii and Raphanus sativus, respectively. Whether plant defensins interact directly or indirectly with fungus intracellular targets is unknown. To identify physical protein-protein interactions, a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system was performed using the antifungal plant peptide Pisum sativum defensin 1 (Psd1) as the bait. Target proteins were screened within a Neurospora crassa cDNA library. Nine out of 11 two-hybrid candidates were nuclear proteins. One clone, detected with high frequency per screening, presented sequence similarity to a cyclin-like protein, with F-box and WD-repeat domains, related to the cell cycle control. GST pull-down assay corroborated in vitro this two-hybrid interaction. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of FITC-conjugated Psd1 and DAPI-stained fungal nuclei showed in vivo the colocalization of the plant peptide Psd1 and the nucleus. Analysis of the DNA content of N. crassa conidia using flow cytometry suggested that Psd1 directed cell cycle impairment and caused conidia to undergo endoreduplication. The developing retina of neonatal rats was used as a model to observe the interkinetic nuclear migration during proliferation of an organized tissue from the S toward the M phase of the cell cycle in the presence of Psd1. The results demonstrated that the plant defensin Psd1 regulates interkinetic nuclear migration in retinal neuroblasts. PMID:17240982

  13. Physical phenomena and the microgravity response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The living biological cell is not a sack of Newtonian fluid containing systems of chemical reactions at equilibrium. It is a kinetically driven system, not a thermodynamically driven system. While the cell as a whole might be considered isothermal, at the scale of individual macromolecular events there is heat generated, and presumably sharp thermal gradients exist at the submicron level. Basic physical phenomena to be considered when exploring the cell's response to inertial acceleration include particle sedimentation, solutal convection, motility electrokinetics, cytoskeletal work, and hydrostatic pressure. Protein crystal growth experiments, for example, illustrate the profound effects of convection currents on macromolecular assembly. Reaction kinetics in the cell vary all the way from diffusion-limited to life-time limited. Transport processes vary from free diffusion, to facilitated and active transmembrane transport, to contractile-protein-driven motility, to crystalline immobilization. At least four physical states of matter exist in the cell: aqueous, non-aqueous, immiscible-aqueous, and solid. Levels of order vary from crystalline to free solution. The relative volumes of these states profoundly influence the cell's response to inertial acceleration. Such subcellular phenomena as stretch-receptor activation, microtubule re-assembly, synaptic junction formation, chemotactic receptor activation, and statolith sedimentation were studied recently with respect to both their basic mechanisms and their responsiveness to inertial acceleration. From such studies a widespread role of cytoskeletal organization is becoming apparent.

  14. Critical phenomena in one dimension from a Bethe ansatz perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiwen

    2014-08-01

    This article briefly reviews recent theoretical developments in quantum critical phenomena in one-dimensional (1D) integrable quantum gases of cold atoms. We present a discussion on quantum phase transitions, universal thermodynamics, scaling functions and correlations for a few prototypical exactly solved models, such as the Lieb-Liniger Bose gas, the spin-1 Bose gas with antiferromagnetic spin-spin interaction, the two-component interacting Fermi gas as well as spin-3/2 Fermi gases. We demonstrate that their corresponding Bethe ansatz solutions provide a precise way to understand quantum many-body physics, such as quantum criticality, Luttinger liquids (LLs), the Wilson ratio, Tan's Contact, etc. These theoretical developments give rise to a physical perspective using integrability for uncovering experimentally testable phenomena in systems of interacting bosonic and fermonic ultracold atoms confined to 1D.

  15. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context.

    PubMed

    Terhorst, Casey P; Lennon, Jay T; Lau, Jennifer A

    2014-06-22

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant-microbe interactions.

  16. Visuo-tactile interactions in the congenitally deaf: a behavioral and event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Hauthal, Nadine; Debener, Stefan; Rach, Stefan; Sandmann, Pascale; Thorne, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory deprivation is known to be accompanied by alterations in visual processing. Yet not much is known about tactile processing and the interplay of the intact sensory modalities in the deaf. We presented visual, tactile, and visuo-tactile stimuli to congenitally deaf and hearing individuals in a speeded detection task. Analyses of multisensory responses showed a redundant signals effect that was attributable to a coactivation mechanism in both groups, although the redundancy gain was less in the deaf. In line with these behavioral results, on a neural level, there were multisensory interactions in both groups that were again weaker in the deaf. In hearing but not deaf participants, somatosensory event-related potential N200 latencies were modulated by simultaneous visual stimulation. A comparison of unisensory responses between groups revealed larger N200 amplitudes for visual and shorter N200 latencies for tactile stimuli in the deaf. Furthermore, P300 amplitudes were also larger in the deaf. This group difference was significant for tactile and approached significance for visual targets. The differences in visual and tactile processing between deaf and hearing participants, however, were not reflected in behavior. Both the behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) results suggest more pronounced multisensory interaction in hearing than in deaf individuals. Visuo-tactile enhancements could not be explained by perceptual deficiency, but could be partly attributable to inverse effectiveness. PMID:25653602

  17. Metabolism, interactions, and bacterial mutagenicity of nitrogen-containing aromatic hydrocarbons and related chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Microbial mutagenicity assays were combined with high pressure liquid chromatography analysis to evaluate the interactions of binary and complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds. The maximum mutagenic response was 2083 net revertants per 50 micrograms induced by the direct-acting 2-nitrofluorene, while benzo(a)pyrene induced 345 net revertants at a dose of 25 micrograms per plate with metabolic activation. The direct-acting 2-nitro-7/8-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induced 1934 net revertants per 25 micrograms without activation, while 4-nitrobiphenyl induced 1095 net revertants per 250 micrograms with metabolic activation. When binary mixtures of nitro-polychlorinated biphenyls were tested in the mutagenicity assay, the primary interaction observed was inhibition, while synergism was observed with mixtures of nitro-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. Binary mixtures of 2-nitro-1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or pentachlorophenol with benzo(a)pyrene produced synergism, while strictly additive effects were observed with octa- or heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and benzo(a)pyrene mixtures. HPLC analysis of the mixtures indicated that pre-incubation of benzo(a)pyrene with 2-nitro-1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increased the quantity of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-, and 9,10-dihydrodiol metabolites detected.

  18. Brain galanin system genes interact with life stresses in depression-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Hullam, Gabor; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Antal, Peter; Anderson, Ian Muir; Hökfelt, Tomas G. M.; Deakin, J. F. William; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Galanin is a stress-inducible neuropeptide and cotransmitter in serotonin and norepinephrine neurons with a possible role in stress-related disorders. Here we report that variants in genes for galanin (GAL) and its receptors (GALR1, GALR2, GALR3), despite their disparate genomic loci, conferred increased risk of depression and anxiety in people who experienced childhood adversity or recent negative life events in a European white population cohort totaling 2,361 from Manchester, United Kingdom and Budapest, Hungary. Bayesian multivariate analysis revealed a greater relevance of galanin system genes in highly stressed subjects compared with subjects with moderate or low life stress. Using the same method, the effect of the galanin system genes was stronger than the effect of the well-studied 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). Conventional multivariate analysis using general linear models demonstrated that interaction of galanin system genes with life stressors explained more variance (1.7%, P = 0.005) than the life stress-only model. This effect replicated in independent analysis of the Manchester and Budapest subpopulations, and in males and females. The results suggest that the galanin pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression in humans by increasing the vulnerability to early and recent psychosocial stress. Correcting abnormal galanin function in depression could prove to be a novel target for drug development. The findings further emphasize the importance of modeling environmental interaction in finding new genes for depression. PMID:24706871

  19. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context.

    PubMed

    Terhorst, Casey P; Lennon, Jay T; Lau, Jennifer A

    2014-06-22

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant-microbe interactions. PMID:24789894

  20. When openness to experience and conscientiousness are related to creative behavior: an interactional approach.

    PubMed

    George, J M; Zhou, J

    2001-06-01

    This study adopted an interactional approach to understanding how 2 of the Five-Factor traits, openness to experience and conscientiousness, are related to creative behavior in the workplace. Openness to experience is theorized to result in high levels of creative behavior and conscientiousness is theorized to result in low levels of creative behavior when the situation allows for the manifestation of the trait influences. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that openness to experience would result in high levels of creative behavior if feedback valence were positive and job holders were presented with a heuristic task that allowed them to be creative. The authors also hypothesized that conscientiousness would result in low levels of creative behavior if supervisors engaged in close monitoring and coworkers were unsupportive. The authors tested their hypotheses in a sample of office workers, and 5 out of the 6 hypotheses were supported. PMID:11419810

  1. Effects of Online Interaction and Instructor Presence on Students' Satisfaction and Success with Online Undergraduate Public Relations Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jensen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student success, failure, withdrawal, and satisfaction in online public relations courses based on instructor-student interaction, student-student interaction, and instructor presence. Student passing rates, D/F rates, withdrawal rates, and evaluations of instruction were compiled from fifty-one online PR courses run over the…

  2. The Relation of Parent-Child Interaction Qualities to Social Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Erin L.; Manangan, Christen N.; Sparrow, Joanne K.; Wilson, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between parent-child interactions and the development of social skills in 42 children (21 typically developing and 21 with autism spectrum disorders) between the ages of 3 years, 0 months and 6 years, 11 months. We expected that positive parent-child interaction qualities would be related to children's social…

  3. [Non-epileptic motor paroxysmal phenomena in wakefulness in childhood].

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Víctor L; Arberas, Claudia L

    2013-09-01

    Paroxysmal events in childhood are a challenge for pediatric neurologists, given its highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations, often difficult to distinguish between phenomena of epileptic seizure or not. The non-epileptic paroxysmal episodes are neurological phenomena, with motor, sensory symptoms, and/or sensory impairments, with or without involvement of consciousness, epileptic phenomena unrelated, so no electroencephalographic correlative expression between or during episodes. From the clinical point of view can be classified into four groups: motor phenomena, syncope, migraine (and associated conditions) and acute psychiatric symptoms. In this paper we analyze paroxysmal motor phenomena in awake children, dividing them according to their clinical manifestations: extrapyramidal episodes (paroxysmal kinesiogenic, non kinesiogenic and not related to exercise dyskinesias, Dopa responsive dystonia) and similar symptoms of dystonia (Sandifer syndrome); manifestations of startle (hyperekplexia); episodic eye and head movements (benign paroxysmal tonic upward gaze nistagmus deviation); episodic ataxia (familial episodic ataxias, paroxysmal benign vertigo); stereotyped and phenomena of self-gratification; and myoclonic events (benign myoclonus of early infancy). The detection of these syndromes will, in many cases, allow an adequate genetic counseling, initiate a specific treatment and avoid unnecessary additional studies. Molecular studies have demonstrated a real relationship between epileptic and non-epileptic basis of many of these entities and surely the identification of the molecular basis and understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in many of them allow us, in the near future will benefit our patients.

  4. Relationship between drug interactions and drug-related negative clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cremades, Javier; Gonzalo, Mario; Arrebola, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Drug interactions may represent an iatrogenic risk that should be controlled in community pharmacies at the dispensing level. Aim We analyzed the association between potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and negative clinical outcomes. Methods We used dispensing data from two community pharmacies: instances where drug dispensing was associated with a potential DDI and a comparison group of randomized dispensing operations with no potential DDI. In cases where potential DDIs were detected, we analyzed the underlying negative clinical outcomes. Age and gender data were included in the analysis. Results During the study period, we registered 417 potential DDIs. The proportion of women and age were higher in the study group than in the comparison group. The average potential DDIs per patient was 1.31 (SD=0.72). The Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmacéuticos (CGCOF) database did not produce an alert in 2.4% of the cases. Over-the-counter medication use was observed in 5% of the potential DDI cases. The drugs most frequently involved in potential DDIs were acenocoumarol, calcium salts, hydrochlorothiazide, and alendronic acid, whereas the most predominant potential DDIs were calcium salts and bisphosphonates, oral antidiabetics and thiazide diuretics, antidiabetics and glucose, and oral anticoagulant and paracetamol. The existence of a drug-related negative clinical outcome was observed only in 0.96% of the potential DDI cases (50% safety cases and 50% effectiveness cases). Conclusions Only a small proportion of the detected potential DDIs lead to medication negative outcomes. Considering the drug-related negative clinical outcomes encountered, tighter control would be recommended in potential DDIs with NSAIDs or benzodiazepines. PMID:25147590

  5. Hikurangi Margin: Geology, Flow Rates, Water-Rock Interaction and Relative Fluid Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The subaerial part of the Hikurangi Accretionary Prism (HAP) has nearly 330 sources of saline waters (2000-26000 mg/kg Cl), SO4-rich waters, CH4-rich gases and occasional oil seeps discharging from springs, mud volcanoes and gas vents from -37.5o to -41.3o latitude, 80-100 km from the subduction margin. Discharge areas, occupying <0.01 to 11 ha each, form a band about 500 km in length with widths ranging from 25 km in the south to 75-100 km in the north and centre. All fluid discharges are cold except for two hot springs in the central and N segments and another 6 on the W margin of the HAP. The total flow rate along the HAP is at least 10 x 108L/a, with nearly 50% contributed by cold discharges. Most fluid manifestations emerge along NE-trending faults and minor structures such as anticlines and synclines. However in the N, where fluids are also discharged along NW- and EW-trending structures within the allochton, manifestations are relatively more abundant (>150 sites), discharging nearly 45% of the annual surface fluid volume along the HAP. Fluid discharges in the HAP, based on chemical and isotopic fluid compositions, consist of subducted waters derived from clay water of hydration (<50%) and seawater that had interacted at varying degrees with organic-containing sedimentary rocks at depth at different temperatures. Discharges from the central segment exhibit the lowest degree of water-rock interaction and have the highest inferred subsurface temperatures (median: 110oC compared to S at 80oC and N at 90oC), suggesting (1) more recent influx of subducted waters and (2) more rapid upflow of fluids from depth, relative to the S and N. Fluids in the S segment exhibit the highest degree of water-rock interaction suggesting longer residence time at depth, or slower fluid movement to the surface due to thicker crust or greater fluid channel tortuosity. The high concentration of isotopic He in the central and N fluids can be due to deep and highly permeable faults that

  6. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  7. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  8. [The concept of "elementary phenomena": a contribution to the diagnostic symptomatology of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Kato, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the concept of "elementary phenomena", which was used by K. Jaspers and the French Lacanian school of thought for the differential diagnosis of psychosis. This concept can provide a useful index of schizophrenia (especially paranoid schizophrenia). We psychiatrists can use elementary phenomena as a qualitative index of schizophrenia, not as a quantitative index (as is used by an operational diagnosis system). For Jaspers, elementary phenomena have 5 features: (1) elementary phenomena arise primarily (not deducted by preceding psychical experience), (2) elementary phenomena arise as a non-sensical experience, (3) elementary phenomena invade the schizophrenic patient immediately, (4) elementary phenomena have an "overwhelming power" on the patient, and (5) elementary phenomena underlie psychotic symptoms in the later stage. Jaspers thought of elementary phenomena as a primary expression of his "process", which is thought to be a specific cause of endogenous psychoses. In France, Lacan inherited Jaspers' elementary phenomena. In his doctoral dissertation (1932), Lacan stressed that delusions arise "primarily". He thought that delusional interpretation is not deducted by any other preceding psychical experience, and is one of the elementary phenomena. Later, in the 1950s, Lacan aimed to "define Jaspers' process by the most radical determinants of man's relation to the signifier", and he redefined elementary phenomena as a sudden emergence of an enigmatic signifier and non-sensical power to the patient. We propose that Jaspers is one of the founders of modern descriptive psychopathology, and it is important to take note of his description. PMID:22897023

  9. [Pregnant women's experiences and expressions related to the interaction with the health system: a photoethnographic approach].

    PubMed

    Melleiro, Marta Maria; Gualda, Dulce Maria Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This ethnographic study aimed to understand women's experiences related to their contact with the health system due to pregnancy. Cultural Anthropology and Ethnography were used as a theoretical-methodological reference framework. Data were collected through participant observation, photographical resources and interviews. The pictures were taken by pregnant women, who received prenatal care at the Basic Health Units in the area covered by the school hospital, which was considered the cultural scenario for this study. The data were presented as a narrative and were analyzed through the Interpretative and Biographical Method. Data resulted in eight categories, which gave rise to three cultural themes, by means of which the collaborators recover and classify their experiences, in order to ratify the results of important events considered positive or to reconsider the negative events. Next, they glimpse at the birth process in all of its dimensions. The eye of the camera sometimes allowed them to register and absorb facts, and sometimes avoided the capturing of things that would be difficult for them to elaborate at that moment. The findings of this study allowed for a comprehensive view on the collaborators' cultural knowledge, in relation to their interaction with the health system, as well as their expectations in the pregnancy-puerperal cycle. PMID:15303207

  10. Sex differences in patterns of relations between family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smojver-Ažić, Sanja; Bezinović, Petar

    2011-01-01

    Aim To gain insight into the relations between protective/risk family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls. Method A self-reported cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1191 secondary school students (617 girls and 574 boys) aged from 14 to 19 years, with a median of 16, from all secondary schools in the Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia in January and February 2010. Students reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions about the relationship with their mother and father, family activities, and parents’ conflict resolution strategies. Data were analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the effects of family supportive and harmful interactions on depressive symptoms in girls and boys. Results Depressive symptoms were reported often and very often by 19.1% of girls and 15.8% of boys. Girls’ assessment of the family relations was significantly more positive than boys’, including the assessment of family activities, constructive family conflict resolution, or father’s and mother’s warmth and affection. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the examined family variables accounted for 16.3% of the variance of depressive symptoms in boys and for 17.2% in girls. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a difference in the relation of family variables and depressive symptoms between boys and girls. Depressive symptoms in girls were more linked to the lack of protective family factors (9.9% of the explained variance in girls vs 5.5% in boys), while depressive symptoms in boys were more linked to the existence of harmful family factors (10.8% of the explained variance in boys vs 7.3% in girls). Conclusion Family activities and the father's warmth and affection have a higher significance for girls than for boys, while destructive parental conflict and the mother's aggression and hostility are equally significant for both girls and boys. These results indicate the targets for

  11. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  12. Density-functional theory of thermoelectric phenomena.

    PubMed

    Eich, F G; Di Ventra, M; Vignale, G

    2014-05-16

    We introduce a nonequilibrium density-functional theory of local temperature and associated local energy density that is suited for the study of thermoelectric phenomena. The theory rests on a local temperature field coupled to the energy-density operator. We identify the excess-energy density, in addition to the particle density, as the basic variable, which is reproduced by an effective noninteracting Kohn-Sham system. A novel Kohn-Sham equation emerges featuring a time-dependent and spatially varying mass which represents local temperature variations. The adiabatic contribution to the Kohn-Sham potentials is related to the entropy viewed as a functional of the particle and energy density. Dissipation can be taken into account by employing linear response theory and the thermoelectric transport coefficients of the electron gas.

  13. Analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles on multisheet aluminum structures. A model that can be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations that relate crater and perforation damage of a multisheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multisheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to a meteoroid or space debris environement.

  14. Novel nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involve processes in nuclear targets at intermediate energies. A range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena-exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction were discussed as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Several areas were also reviewed where there has been significant theoretical progress determining the form of hadron and nuclear wave functions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. A possible interpretation was also discussed of the large spin correlation A/sub NN/ in proton-proton scattering, and how relate this effect to an energy and angular dependence of color transparency in nuclei. 76 refs., 24 figs.

  15. Transient phenomena in compressor stations during surge

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, K.K. )

    1994-01-01

    Transient phenomena are generally inherent in the operation of compressor stations: These are either fast or slow transients. A model describing the governing equation for the gas dynamics, control system, compressor and turbine shaft inertias has been developed. The effect of these inertias is manifested by an example of a compressor station operating near the surge control line. Another example deals with a station that has a cooler placed in the recycle path. This alters the rate at which the compressor shaft decelerates upon shutdown and may cause backward spinning depending on the relative magnitude of the shaft inertia with respect to the cooler volume. Backward spinning of compressor shaft has detrimental effects on dry seals and is undesirable. It was found that by keeping the recycle value closed upon shutdown, the rate of shaft deceleration will be reduced.

  16. Taiwanese members' report of verbal interactions and their relations to demographic variables in the group counseling process.

    PubMed

    Pan, Peter Jen Der; Deng, Liang-Yu F; Tsai, Shiou-Ling; Chang, Shona S H

    2011-06-01

    The purpose was to examine differences in verbal interactions during the group counseling process and the relationship between perceived verbal interactions and members' demographic variables. 42 participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of four counseling groups. Based on the Hill Interaction Matrix, Quadrant 4 verbal interactions, consisting of Speculative and Confrontative verbal behaviors in Personal and Relationship levels, were perceived significantly more often at the closing stage than at the initial stage. Furthermore, the perceived verbal interactions were related to the demographic variables of sex, educational level, and group experience, but not acquaintanceship. The findings suggested that the higher ratings of perceived Speculative and Confrontative verbal behaviors and the lower ratings of Assertive and Silence verbal interactions must be interpreted cautiously from a cross-cultural perspective, especially in Asian cultures. PMID:21879624

  17. Relative importance and interactions of furan precursors in sterilised, vegetable-based food systems.

    PubMed

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Buvé, Carolien; Vanratingen, Koen; Kebede, Biniam T; Goos, Peter; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation strategies aimed at an intervention in the reaction pathways for furan formation (e.g., by adjusting precursor concentrations) might offer an additional route for furan reduction in sterilised, vegetable-based foods, without adverse effects on other food safety or quality attributes. As a first step towards product reformulation, the aim of the present study was to determine the relative importance and interactions of possible furan precursors in these types of foods. Based on an I-optimal experimental design, potato purée (naturally low in furan precursors) was spiked with known amounts of sugars, ascorbic acid, olive oil and β-carotene, and subjected to a thermal sterilisation. Significant correlations were observed between furan concentrations after thermal treatment and starting concentrations of ascorbic acid and monosaccharides (i.e., fructose and glucose). Ascorbic acid had a clear furan-reducing effect as an antioxidant by protecting (polyunsaturated) fatty acids against oxidative degradation. Fructose and glucose were the main precursors, which can most probably be attributed to their high, but realistic, concentrations in the product. The contributions of fatty acids and β-carotene were strongly dependent on redox interactions with other food constituents. In the same potato purées, only low concentrations (0-2 ng g(-1) purée) of 2-methylfuran were detected, indicating that the direct importance of the spiked food constituents as a precursor for methylfuran formation was rather small. Based on the results of this study, reducing the amount of monosaccharides or adjusting the redox conditions of the matrix are suggested as two possible approaches for furan mitigation on the product side. PMID:26605424

  18. Relating diseases by integrating gene associations and information flow through protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Hamaneh, Mehdi Bagheri; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Identifying similar diseases could potentially provide deeper understanding of their underlying causes, and may even hint at possible treatments. For this purpose, it is necessary to have a similarity measure that reflects the underpinning molecular interactions and biological pathways. We have thus devised a network-based measure that can partially fulfill this goal. Our method assigns weights to all proteins (and consequently their encoding genes) by using information flow from a disease to the protein interaction network and back. Similarity between two diseases is then defined as the cosine of the angle between their corresponding weight vectors. The proposed method also provides a way to suggest disease-pathway associations by using the weights assigned to the genes to perform enrichment analysis for each disease. By calculating pairwise similarities between 2534 diseases, we show that our disease similarity measure is strongly correlated with the probability of finding the diseases in the same disease family and, more importantly, sharing biological pathways. We have also compared our results to those of MimMiner, a text-mining method that assigns pairwise similarity scores to diseases. We find the results of the two methods to be complementary. It is also shown that clustering diseases based on their similarities and performing enrichment analysis for the cluster centers significantly increases the term association rate, suggesting that the cluster centers are better representatives for biological pathways than the diseases themselves. This lends support to the view that our similarity measure is a good indicator of relatedness of biological processes involved in causing the diseases. Although not needed for understanding this paper, the raw results are available for download for further study at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/qmbpmn/DiseaseRelations/.

  19. Relative importance and interactions of furan precursors in sterilised, vegetable-based food systems.

    PubMed

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Buvé, Carolien; Vanratingen, Koen; Kebede, Biniam T; Goos, Peter; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation strategies aimed at an intervention in the reaction pathways for furan formation (e.g., by adjusting precursor concentrations) might offer an additional route for furan reduction in sterilised, vegetable-based foods, without adverse effects on other food safety or quality attributes. As a first step towards product reformulation, the aim of the present study was to determine the relative importance and interactions of possible furan precursors in these types of foods. Based on an I-optimal experimental design, potato purée (naturally low in furan precursors) was spiked with known amounts of sugars, ascorbic acid, olive oil and β-carotene, and subjected to a thermal sterilisation. Significant correlations were observed between furan concentrations after thermal treatment and starting concentrations of ascorbic acid and monosaccharides (i.e., fructose and glucose). Ascorbic acid had a clear furan-reducing effect as an antioxidant by protecting (polyunsaturated) fatty acids against oxidative degradation. Fructose and glucose were the main precursors, which can most probably be attributed to their high, but realistic, concentrations in the product. The contributions of fatty acids and β-carotene were strongly dependent on redox interactions with other food constituents. In the same potato purées, only low concentrations (0-2 ng g(-1) purée) of 2-methylfuran were detected, indicating that the direct importance of the spiked food constituents as a precursor for methylfuran formation was rather small. Based on the results of this study, reducing the amount of monosaccharides or adjusting the redox conditions of the matrix are suggested as two possible approaches for furan mitigation on the product side.

  20. Interactive effects of contaminants and climate-related stressors: high temperature increases sensitivity to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, David A; Salice, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    An emerging issue in environmental toxicology is in understanding how climate change will alter responses of organisms to chemical contaminants. The objective of the present study was to characterize the interactive effects of cadmium and elevated temperature on life-stage-specific responses in the freshwater snail Physa pomilia. We exposed developing eggs, juveniles, and adults to Cd (5 µg/L, 15 µg/L, and 25 µg/L for eggs, and 250 µg/L for juveniles and adults) and 2 temperatures of 25 °C (control) and 35 °C (upper range of tolerance). In the absence of Cd, time to hatch was shorter at 35 °C compared with 25 °C, demonstrating a stimulatory effect of the higher temperature. However, when egg masses were reared at 35 °C and exposed to Cd, hatching success was significantly lower, and time-to-hatching was significantly longer. The effects of the higher temperature and Cd on newly hatched neonate survival were additive, except at the highest Cd concentration, at which effects of the 2 stressors were greater than additive. Overall, within the combined stressor treatments, adult snails generally survived significantly longer than did juvenile snails, and both were more tolerant than developing snails. Many climate projection models predict future increases in global temperatures. The present study shows that combined stressors may produce greater-than-additive effects, challenging predictive power. More studies are needed to better characterize the interactive effects of chemical contaminants and stressors related to climate change.

  1. Monitoring of Transient Lunar Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Timothy; Farber, Ryan; Ahrendts, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP’s) are described as short-lived changes in the brightness of areas on the face of the Moon. TLP research is characterized by the inability to substantiate, reproduce, and verify findings. Our current research includes the analysis of lunar images taken with two Santa Barbara Instrument Group (SBIG) ST8-E CCD cameras mounted on two 0.36m Celestron telescopes. On one telescope, we are using a sodium filter, and on the other an H-alpha filter, imaging approximately one-third of the lunar surface. We are focusing on two regions: Hyginus and Ina. Ina is of particular interest because it shows evidence of recent activity (Schultz, P., Staid, M., Pieters, C. Nature, Volume 444, Issue 7116, pp. 184-186, 2006). A total of over 50,000 images have been obtained over approximately 35 nights and visually analyzed to search for changes. As of March, 2014, no evidence of TLPs has been found. We are currently developing a Matlab program to do image analysis to detect TLPs that might not be apparent by visual inspection alone.

  2. Electronic phenomena at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Drickamer, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research is undertaken either to investigate intrinsically high pressure phenomena or in order to get a better understanding of the effect of the chemical environment on properties or processes at one atmosphere. Studies of electronic properties which fall in each area are presented. Many molecules and complexes can assume in the excited state different molecular arrangements and intermolecular forces depending on the medium. Their luminescence emission is then very different in a rigid or a fluid medium. With pressure one can vary the viscosity of the medium by a factor of 10/sup 7/ and thus control the distribution and rate of crossing between the excited state conformations. In rare earth chelates the efficiency of 4f-4f emission of the rare earth is controlled by the feeding from the singlet and triplet levels of the organic ligand. These ligand levels can be strongly shifted by pressure. A study of the effect of pressure on the emission efficiency permits one to understand the effect of ligand chemistry at one atmosphere. At high pressure electronic states can be sufficiently perturbed to provide new ground states. In EDA complexes these new ground states exhibit unusual chemical reactivity and new products.

  3. Novel collective phenomena in high-energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusling, Kevin; Li, Wei; Schenke, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The observation of long-range rapidity correlations among particles in high-multiplicity p-p and p-Pb collisions has created new opportunities for investigating novel high-density QCD phenomena in small colliding systems. We review experimental results related to the study of collective phenomena in small systems at RHIC and the LHC along with the related developments in theory and phenomenology. Perspectives on possible future directions for research are discussed with the aim of exploring emergent QCD phenomena.

  4. SynSysNet: integration of experimental data on synaptic protein–protein interactions with drug-target relations

    PubMed Central

    von Eichborn, Joachim; Dunkel, Mathias; Gohlke, Björn O.; Preissner, Sarah C.; Hoffmann, Michael F.; Bauer, Jakob M. J.; Armstrong, J. D.; Schaefer, Martin H.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Le Novere, Nicolas; Croning, Michael D. R.; Grant, Seth G. N.; van Nierop, Pim; Smit, August B.; Preissner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We created SynSysNet, available online at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/synsysnet, to provide a platform that creates a comprehensive 4D network of synaptic interactions. Neuronal synapses are fundamental structures linking nerve cells in the brain and they are responsible for neuronal communication and information processing. These processes are dynamically regulated by a network of proteins. New developments in interaction proteomics and yeast two-hybrid methods allow unbiased detection of interactors. The consolidation of data from different resources and methods is important to understand the relation to human behaviour and disease and to identify new therapeutic approaches. To this end, we established SynSysNet from a set of ∼1000 synapse specific proteins, their structures and small-molecule interactions. For two-thirds of these, 3D structures are provided (from Protein Data Bank and homology modelling). Drug-target interactions for 750 approved drugs and 50 000 compounds, as well as 5000 experimentally validated protein–protein interactions, are included. The resulting interaction network and user-selected parts can be viewed interactively and exported in XGMML. Approximately 200 involved pathways can be explored regarding drug-target interactions. Homology-modelled structures are downloadable in Protein Data Bank format, and drugs are available as MOL-files. Protein–protein interactions and drug-target interactions can be viewed as networks; corresponding PubMed IDs or sources are given. PMID:23143269

  5. Exploring Divisibility and Summability of 'Photon' Wave Packets in Nonlinear Optical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha; Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2009-01-01

    Formulations for second and higher harmonic frequency up and down conversions, as well as multi photon processes directly assume summability and divisibility of photons. Quantum mechanical (QM) interpretations are completely congruent with these assumptions. However, for linear optical phenomena (interference, diffraction, refraction, material dispersion, spectral dispersion, etc.), we have a profound dichotomy. Most optical engineers innovate and analyze all optical instruments by propagating pure classical electromagnetic (EM) fields using Maxwell s equations and gives only lip-service to the concept "indivisible light quanta". Further, irrespective of linearity or nonlinearity of the phenomena, the final results are always registered through some photo-electric or photo-chemical effects. This is mathematically well modeled by a quadratic action (energy absorption) relation. Since QM does not preclude divisibility or summability of photons in nonlinear & multi-photon effects, it cannot have any foundational reason against these same possibilities in linear optical phenomena. It implies that we must carefully revisit the fundamental roots behind all light-matter interaction processes and understand the common origin of "graininess" and "discreteness" of light energy.

  6. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  7. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, C. A. F.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.; Ismail-Beigi, S.

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  8. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  9. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  10. A Photochemical Reactor for the Study of Kinetics and Adsorption Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Gil, M. L. A.; Alcantara, R.; Botella, C.; Martin, J.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between light and matter is examined with the help of a photochemical experiment. This experiment is useful for the investigation of heterogeneous catalysis, semiconductor properties and adsorption phenomena.

  11. Geoeffectiveness of Magnetic Storms Driven by Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) and Ejecta-Related Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N. E.; Mitchell, E. J.; Knipp, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the energetics of magnetic storms associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). We analyze storms driven by CIRs and compare to those driven by ejecta-related events to determine how they differ in overall properties and in particular in their distribution of energy. To compare these different types of events, we look at events with comparable input parameters such as the epsilon parameter and note the properties of the resulting storms. We estimate the energy output by looking at the ring current and ionospheric Joule heating and auroral precipitation derived from Dst* and the PC index. In general, ejecta-driven storms seem to produce more intense events, as parameterized by Dst*, but they are not as long-lasting, and in many cases do not deposit the same amount of energy. This is observed even for events which are estimated to have similar total input quantities, such as epsilon. This may be related to the high speed of the solar wind, in that an increased magnetosonic Mach number may influence the reconnection rate and therefore the coupling. Additionally, we find that the energy output in the recovery phase of CIR-driven storms correlates highly with energy input during recovery, suggesting that the system is still being driven by the solar wind in recovery. This is different from what we find with ejecta-driven storms, which depend more on input energy from the main phase. Additionally, we find the efficiency of the coupling to vary greatly from CIR to ejecta-driven storms, with the CIR storms coupling substantially more efficiently.

  12. Interaction of noise-induced permanent threshold shift and age-related threshold shift.

    PubMed

    Mills, J H; Boettcher, F A; Dubno, J R

    1997-03-01

    Current medical-legal practices as well as an international standard (ISO 1999) assume the permanent threshold shifts produced by exposure to noise add (in dB) to the threshold shifts caused by increased chronological age (presbyacusis). This assumption, known as the additivity rule, was tested in an animal model. Mongolian gerbils, born and raised in a quiet vivarium, were exposed at age 18 months to a 3.5-kHz pure tone for 1 h at 113 dB SPL. At 6-weeks post-exposure, permanent threshold shifts in the exposed ear were approximately 20 dB in the 4- to 8-kHz region. Thresholds in the nonexposed, control ear were unaffected by the exposure. Animals were then allowed to age in the quiet vivarium until age 36 months and then were retested. Thus in a given animal, aging-only effects were assessed in one ear (internal control) and noise-plus-aging effects were assessed in the other (test) ear. A second control was mean age-related threshold shift measured in 48 gerbils who were born and raised in the quiet vivarium. This group is referred to as a non-noise-exposed population (population control). Using the additivity rule, predictions with either the internal or population control significantly overestimated noise-plus-aging effects. Use of the ISO 1999 compression factor reduced the overestimations by 0-5 dB. The intensity rule produced the most accurate predictions. These results suggest that the interaction of noise-induced permanent threshold shift and age-related threshold shift is not straightforward and that current medical-legal methods using the additivity rule overestimate the contribution of "noise effects". PMID:9069635

  13. Relative electron density determination using a physics based parameterization of photon interactions in medical DECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Abbema, Joanne K.; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Brandenburg, Sytze; van der Graaf, Emiel R.

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy and particle therapy treatment planning require accurate knowledge of the electron density and elemental composition of the tissues in the beam path to predict the local dose deposition. We describe a method for the analysis of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images that provides the electron densities and effective atomic numbers of tissues. The CT measurement process is modelled by system weighting functions, which apply an energy dependent weighting to the parameterization of the total cross section for photon interactions with matter. This detailed parameterization is based on the theoretical analysis of Jackson and Hawkes and deviates, at most, 0.3% from the tabulated NIST values for the elements H to Zn. To account for beam hardening in the object as present in the CT image we implemented an iterative process employing a local weighting function, derived from the method proposed by Heismann and Balda. With this method effective atomic numbers between 1 and 30 can be determined. The method has been experimentally validated on a commercially available tissue characterization phantom with 16 inserts made of tissue substitutes and aluminium that has been scanned on a dual source CT system with tube potentials of 100 kV and 140 kV using a clinical scan protocol. Relative electron densities of all tissue substitutes have been determined with accuracy better than 1%. The presented DECT analysis method thus provides high accuracy electron densities and effective atomic numbers for radiotherapy and especially particle therapy treatment planning.

  14. Covariant Evolutionary Event Analysis for Base Interaction Prediction Using a Relational Database Management System for RNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weijia; Ozer, Stuart; Gutell, Robin R

    2009-01-01

    With an increasingly large amount of sequences properly aligned, comparative sequence analysis can accurately identify not only common structures formed by standard base pairing but also new types of structural elements and constraints. However, traditional methods are too computationally expensive to perform well on large scale alignment and less effective with the sequences from diversified phylogenetic classifications. We propose a new approach that utilizes coevolutional rates among pairs of nucleotide positions using phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships of the organisms of aligned sequences. With a novel data schema to manage relevant information within a relational database, our method, implemented with a Microsoft SQL Server 2005, showed 90% sensitivity in identifying base pair interactions among 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from Bacteria, at a scale 40 times bigger and 50% better sensitivity than a previous study. The results also indicated covariation signals for a few sets of cross-strand base stacking pairs in secondary structure helices, and other subtle constraints in the RNA structure. PMID:20502534

  15. Covariant Evolutionary Event Analysis for Base Interaction Prediction Using a Relational Database Management System for RNA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weijia; Ozer, Stuart; Gutell, Robin R.

    2010-01-01

    With an increasingly large amount of sequences properly aligned, comparative sequence analysis can accurately identify not only common structures formed by standard base pairing but also new types of structural elements and constraints. However, traditional methods are too computationally expensive to perform well on large scale alignment and less effective with the sequences from diversified phylogenetic classifications. We propose a new approach that utilizes coevolutional rates among pairs of nucleotide positions using phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships of the organisms of aligned sequences. With a novel data schema to manage relevant information within a relational database, our method, implemented with a Microsoft SQL Server 2005, showed 90% sensitivity in identifying base pair interactions among 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from Bacteria, at a scale 40 times bigger and 50% better sensitivity than a previous study. The results also indicated covariation signals for a few sets of cross-strand base stacking pairs in secondary structure helices, and other subtle constraints in the RNA structure. PMID:20502534

  16. Hyperplasia-adenoma sequence in pituitary tumorigenesis related to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Lagonigro, Maria Stefania; Magri, Flavia; Koziak, Maria; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Brauner, Raja; Bouligand, Jerome; Junier, Marie Pierre; Di Rocco, Federico; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Beckers, Albert; Roux, François Xavier; Daly, Adrian F; Chiovato, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenomas that usually occur as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Detailed pathological and tumor genetic data on AIP mutation-related pituitary adenomas are not sufficient. Non-identical twin females presented as adolescents to the emergency department with severe progressive headache caused by large pituitary macroadenomas require emergency neurosurgery; one patient had incipient pituitary apoplexy. Post-surgically, the patients were found to have silent somatotrope adenomas on pathological examination. Furthermore, the light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies demonstrated tumors of virtually identical characteristics. The adenomas were accompanied by multiple areas of pituitary hyperplasia, which stained positively for GH, indicating somatotrope hyperplasia. Genetic analyses of the FIPA kindred revealed a novel E216X mutation of the AIP gene, which was present in both the affected patients and the unaffected father. Molecular analysis of surgical specimens revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the adenoma but showed that LOH was not present in the hyperplastic pituitary tissue from either patient. AIP immunostaining confirmed normal staining in the hyperplastic tissue and decreased staining in the adenoma in the tumors from both patients. These results demonstrate that patients with AIP germline mutation can present with silent somatotrope pituitary adenomas. The finding of somatotrope hyperplasia unaccompanied by AIP LOH suggests that LOH at the AIP locus might be a late event in a potential progression from hyperplastic to adenomatous tissue. PMID:21450940

  17. Error-related EEG potentials generated during simulated brain-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Ferrez, Pierre W; del R Millan, José

    2008-03-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are prone to errors in the recognition of subject's intent. An elegant approach to improve the accuracy of BCIs consists in a verification procedure directly based on the presence of error-related potentials (ErrP) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded right after the occurrence of an error. Several studies show the presence of ErrP in typical choice reaction tasks. However, in the context of a BCI, the central question is: "Are ErrP also elicited when the error is made by the interface during the recognition of the subject's intent?"; We have thus explored whether ErrP also follow a feedback indicating incorrect responses of the simulated BCI interface. Five healthy volunteer subjects participated in a new human-robot interaction experiment, which seem to confirm the previously reported presence of a new kind of ErrP. However, in order to exploit these ErrP, we need to detect them in each single trial using a short window following the feedback associated to the response of the BCI. We have achieved an average recognition rate of correct and erroneous single trials of 83.5% and 79.2%, respectively, using a classifier built with data recorded up to three months earlier.

  18. Relative electron density determination using a physics based parameterization of photon interactions in medical DECT.

    PubMed

    van Abbema, Joanne K; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Greuter, Marcel J W; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Brandenburg, Sytze; van der Graaf, Emiel R

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy and particle therapy treatment planning require accurate knowledge of the electron density and elemental composition of the tissues in the beam path to predict the local dose deposition. We describe a method for the analysis of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images that provides the electron densities and effective atomic numbers of tissues. The CT measurement process is modelled by system weighting functions, which apply an energy dependent weighting to the parameterization of the total cross section for photon interactions with matter. This detailed parameterization is based on the theoretical analysis of Jackson and Hawkes and deviates, at most, 0.3% from the tabulated NIST values for the elements H to Zn. To account for beam hardening in the object as present in the CT image we implemented an iterative process employing a local weighting function, derived from the method proposed by Heismann and Balda. With this method effective atomic numbers between 1 and 30 can be determined. The method has been experimentally validated on a commercially available tissue characterization phantom with 16 inserts made of tissue substitutes and aluminium that has been scanned on a dual source CT system with tube potentials of 100 kV and 140 kV using a clinical scan protocol. Relative electron densities of all tissue substitutes have been determined with accuracy better than 1%. The presented DECT analysis method thus provides high accuracy electron densities and effective atomic numbers for radiotherapy and especially particle therapy treatment planning. PMID:25905890

  19. Molecular interactions and solubilization of structurally related meso-porphyrin photosensitizers by amphiphilic block copolymers (Pluronics).

    PubMed

    Sobczyński, Jan; Smistad, Gro; Hegge, Anne Bee; Kristensen, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The influence of four Pluronics block copolymers (i.e. F68, P123, F127, and L44) on the aggregation and solubilization of five structurally related meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin photosensitizers (PS) as model compounds for use in Photodynamic Therapy of cancer (PDT) was evaluated. Interactions between the PSs and Pluronics were studied at micromolar concentration by means of UV-Vis absorption spectrometry and by kinematic viscosity (υ) and osmolarity measurements at millimolar concentrations. Pluronic micelles were characterized by size and zeta potential (ζ) measurements. The morphology of selected PS-Pluronic assemblies was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). While hydrophobic 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl) porphine (THPP) seemed to be solubilized in the Pluronic micellar cores, amphiphilic di(monoethanolammonium) meso-tetraphenyl porphine disulphonate (TPPS2a) was likely bound to the micellar palisade layer. Hydrophilic PSs like 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (4-trimethylaniliniumphenyl) porphine (TAPP) seemed to form complexes with Pluronic unimers and to be distributed among the micellar coronas. TPPS2a aggregated into a network which could be broken at Pluronic concentration [Formula: see text] cmc, but would reconstitute in the presence of tonicity adjusting agents, e.g. sodium chloride (NaCl) or glucose. PMID:25027806

  20. Adaptation of hybrid human-computer interaction systems using EEG error-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Biasiucci, Andrea; Forster, Killian; Roggen, Daniel; Troster, Gerhard; Millan, Jose Del R

    2010-01-01

    Performance improvement in both humans and artificial systems strongly relies in the ability of recognizing erroneous behavior or decisions. This paper, that builds upon previous studies on EEG error-related signals, presents a hybrid approach for human computer interaction that uses human gestures to send commands to a computer and exploits brain activity to provide implicit feedback about the recognition of such commands. Using a simple computer game as a case study, we show that EEG activity evoked by erroneous gesture recognition can be classified in single trials above random levels. Automatic artifact rejection techniques are used, taking into account that subjects are allowed to move during the experiment. Moreover, we present a simple adaptation mechanism that uses the EEG signal to label newly acquired samples and can be used to re-calibrate the gesture recognition system in a supervised manner. Offline analysis show that, although the achieved EEG decoding accuracy is far from being perfect, these signals convey sufficient information to significantly improve the overall system performance.

  1. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.

  2. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use. PMID:25621672

  3. Anomalous random telegraph noise and temporary phenomena in resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Francesco Maria; Larcher, Luca; Padovani, Andrea; Pavan, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive examination of the characteristics of complex Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) signals in Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices with TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN structure. Initially, the anomalous RTN (aRTN) is investigated through careful systematic experiment, dedicated characterization procedures, and physics-based simulations to gain insights into the physics of this phenomenon. The experimentally observed RTN parameters (amplitude of the current fluctuations, capture and emission times) are analyzed in different operating conditions. Anomalous behaviors are characterized and their statistical characteristics are evaluated. Physics-based simulations considering both the Coulomb interactions among different defects in the device and the possible existence of defects with metastable states are exploited to suggest a possible physical origin of aRTN. The same simulation framework is also shown to be able to predict other temporary phenomena related to RTN, such as the temporary change in RTN stochastic properties or the sudden and iterative random appearing and vanishing of RTN fluctuations always exhibiting the same statistical characteristics. Results highlight the central role of the electrostatic interactions among individual defects and the trapped charge in describing RTN and related phenomena.

  4. Seismically-induced sloshing phenomena in LMFBR reactor tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.C.; Liu, W.K.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.

    1982-01-01

    A coupled fluid-structure interaction solution procedure for analyzing seismically-induced sloshing phenomena in fluid-tank systems is presented. Both rigid and flexible tanks are considered. Surface-wave effects are also included. Results demonstrate that tank flexibility could affect the free surface-wave amplitude and the sloshing pressuare if the natural frequency of the fluid-structure system is below 5 Hz. Furthermore, the presence of higher sloshing modes do enhance the post-earthquake sloshing response.

  5. Investigation of mesoscale meteorological phenomena as observed by geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite imagery plus conventional synoptic observations were used to examine three mesoscale systems recently observed by the GOES-EAST satellite. The three systems are an arc cloud complex (ACC), mountain lee wave clouds and cloud streets parallel to the wind shear. Possible gravity-wave activity is apparent in all three cases. Of particular interest is the ACC because of its ability to interact with other mesoscale phenomena to produce or enhance convection.

  6. Critical Phenomena in Liquid-Liquid Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, D. T.

    2000-04-01

    Critical phenomena provide intriguing and essential insight into many issues in condensed matter physics because of the many length scales involved. Large density or concentration fluctuations near a system's critical point effectively mask the identity of the system and produce universal phenomena that have been well studied in simple liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid systems. Such systems have provided useful model systems to test theoretical predictions which can then be extended to more complicated systems. Along various thermodynamic paths, several quantities exhibit a simple power-law dependence close to the critical point. The critical exponents describing these relationships are universal and should depend only on a universality class determined by the order-parameter and spatial dimensionality of the system. Liquid gas, binary fluid mixtures, uniaxial ferromagnetism, polymer-solvent, and protein solutions all belong to the same (Ising model) universality class. The diversity of critical systems that can be described by universal relations indicates that experimental measurements on one system should yield the same information as on another. Our experimental investigations have tested existing theory and also extended universal behavior into new areas. By measuring the coexistence curve, heat capacity, thermal expansion and static light scattering (turbidity) in various liquid-liquid and polymer-solvent systems, we have determined critical exponents and amplitudes that have sometimes confirmed and other times challenged current theory. Recent experiments investigating the heat capacity and light scattering in a liquid-liquid mixture very close to the critical point will be discussed. This research is currently supported by The Petroleum Research Fund and by NASA grant NAG8-1433 with some student support from NSF-DMR 9619406.

  7. Interaction of nanoparticles with proteins: relation to bio-reactivity of the nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Saptarshi, Shruti R; Duschl, Albert; Lopata, Andreas L

    2013-07-19

    Interaction of nanoparticles with proteins is the basis of nanoparticle bio-reactivity. This interaction gives rise to the formation of a dynamic nanoparticle-protein corona. The protein corona may influence cellular uptake, inflammation, accumulation, degradation and clearance of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the nanoparticle surface can induce conformational changes in adsorbed protein molecules which may affect the overall bio-reactivity of the nanoparticle. In depth understanding of such interactions can be directed towards generating bio-compatible nanomaterials with controlled surface characteristics in a biological environment. The main aim of this review is to summarise current knowledge on factors that influence nanoparticle-protein interactions and their implications on cellular uptake.

  8. Beyond a Dichotomic Approach, the Case of Colour Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viennot, L.; de Hosson, C.

    2012-01-01

    This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment concerning colour phenomena. This teaching experiment is designed in order to make students consider not only the spectral composition of light but also its intensity, and to consider the absorption of light by a pigment as relative, instead of as total or zero. Eight…

  9. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  10. Interaction of zinc oxide clusters with molecules related to the sulfur vulcanization of polyolefins ("rubber").

    PubMed

    Steudel, Ralf; Steudel, Yana

    2006-11-15

    The vulcanization of rubber by sulfur is a large-scale industrial process that is only poorly understood, especially the role of zinc oxide, which is added as an activator. We used the highly symmetrical cluster Zn(4)O(4) (T(d)) as a model species to study the thermodynamics of the initial interaction of various vulcanization-related molecules with ZnO by DFT methods, mostly at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level. The interaction energy of Lewis bases with Zn(4)O(4) increases in the following order: COCSSH.

  11. Interaction of zinc oxide clusters with molecules related to the sulfur vulcanization of polyolefins ("rubber").

    PubMed

    Steudel, Ralf; Steudel, Yana

    2006-11-15

    The vulcanization of rubber by sulfur is a large-scale industrial process that is only poorly understood, especially the role of zinc oxide, which is added as an activator. We used the highly symmetrical cluster Zn(4)O(4) (T(d)) as a model species to study the thermodynamics of the initial interaction of various vulcanization-related molecules with ZnO by DFT methods, mostly at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level. The interaction energy of Lewis bases with Zn(4)O(4) increases in the following order: COCSSH. PMID:16953504

  12. Radioactive γ/β tracer to explore dangerous technogenic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorsky, P. M.; Yakovleva, V. S.; Makarov, E. O.; Firstov, P. P.; Kondratyeva, A. G.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A radioactive γ/β tracer to explore dangerous technogenic phenomena has been proposed: the ratio of the measured flux density of β- and γ-radiations in the surface layer of the atmosphere. The time dependence analysis of the ratio of β- and γ-pulse count rate has been carried out. A significant increase of the γ/β ratio was recorded under the cyclone passing through Japan (Fukushima) to Kamchatka. The proposed γ/β tracer can be a very sensitive indicator of nonstationary processes related to hazardous natural and technogenic phenomena.

  13. RELAP5-3D Code Validation for RBMK Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, James Ebberly

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  14. RELAP5-3D code validation for RBMK phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  15. Connecting with The Biggest Loser: an extended model of parasocial interaction and identification in health-related reality TV shows.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan; Yoo, Jina H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates audience responses to health-related reality TV shows in the setting of The Biggest Loser. It conceptualizes a model for audience members' parasocial interaction and identification with cast members and explores antecedents and outcomes of parasocial interaction and identification. Data analysis suggests the following direct relationships: (1) audience members' exposure to the show is positively associated with parasocial interaction, which in turn is positively associated with identification, (2) parasocial interaction is positively associated with exercise self-efficacy, whereas identification is negatively associated with exercise self-efficacy, and (3) exercise self-efficacy is positively associated with exercise behavior. Indirect effects of parasocial interaction and identification on exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior are also significant. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:24579692

  16. Electric utility/advocacy group interaction: A case history report on the key outcomes of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Schexnayder, S. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Altman, J.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the findings derived from ten case studies of activities undertaken by energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) to influence the use of cost-effective Demand-Side Management (DSM) by electric utilities and to promote Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). Nine of these ten cases included some form of interactive effort involving utilities and, in almost all cases, other nonutility parties (NUPs) as well. All ten cases also included other EEAG activities. Key findings of the study include the following: interactive efforts had substantially greater effects on utility DSM usage and on relations among the involved parties than on regulatory policy; other EEAG activities had the great effect on regulatory policy and the least direct effect on utility DSM usage; and the discernible overall effects of interactive efforts were somewhat greater than those of the EEAGs' other activities, which often had less tangible and immediate effects.

  17. Surface phenomena in plasma environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Ferguson, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma interactions and their effects on materials depend on a number of factors, including the pre-existing environment, the properties of surface materials and the characteristics of the system. An additional dimension is the question of mission: some payloads may be much more sensitive to plasma interactions than others. As an example, a payload whose objective is to measure the ambient environment will be more sensitive to any effects than will a power system. Material specific effects include charging and its associated effects, which can result in short- and long-term damage. Selection of materials for a particular application requires consideration of all factors and assessment of effects due to all causes. Proper selection and suitability determination requires analysis to identify the actual environment combined with testing under exposure to single and combined environment factors.

  18. Dynamical magnetoelectric phenomena of multiferroic skyrmions.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Seki, Shinichiro

    2015-12-23

    Magnetic skyrmions, vortex-like swirling spin textures characterized by a quantized topological invariant, realized in chiral-lattice magnets are currently attracting intense research interest. In particular, their dynamics under external fields is an issue of vital importance both for fundamental science and for technical application. Whereas observations of magnetic skyrmions has been limited to metallic magnets so far, their realization was also discovered in a chiral-lattice insulating magnet Cu2OSeO3 in 2012. Skyrmions in the insulator turned out to exhibit multiferroic nature with spin-induced ferroelectricity. Strong magnetoelectric coupling between noncollinear skyrmion spins and electric polarizations mediated by relativistic spin-orbit interaction enables us to drive motion and oscillation of magnetic skyrmions by application of electric fields instead of injection of electric currents. Insulating materials also provide an environment suitable for detection of pure spin dynamics through spectroscopic measurements owing to the absence of appreciable charge excitations. In this article, we review recent theoretical and experimental studies on multiferroic properties and dynamical magnetoelectric phenomena of magnetic skyrmions in insulators. We argue that multiferroic skyrmions show unique coupled oscillation modes of magnetizations and polarizations, so-called electromagnon excitations, which are both magnetically and electrically active, and interference between the electric and magnetic activation processes leads to peculiar magnetoelectric effects in a microwave frequency regime. PMID:26624202

  19. Belowground interactions shift the relative importance of direct and indirect genetic effects.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2013-06-01

    Intraspecific genetic variation can affect decomposition, nutrient cycling, and interactions between plants and their associated belowground communities. However, the effects of genetic variation on ecosystems can also be indirect, meaning that genes in a focal plant may affect ecosystems by altering the phenotype of interacting (i.e., neighboring) individuals. We manipulated genotype identity, species identity, and the possibility of belowground interactions between neighboring Solidago plants. We hypothesized that, because our plants were nitrogen (N) limited, the most important interactions between focal and neighbor plants would occur belowground. More specifically, we hypothesized that the genotypic identity of a plant's neighbor would have a larger effect on belowground biomass than on aboveground biomass, but only when neighboring plants were allowed to interact belowground. We detected species- and genotype-level variation for aboveground biomass and ramet production. We also found that belowground biomass and ramet production depended on the interaction of neighbor genotype identity and the presence or absence of belowground interactions. Additionally, we found that interspecific indirect genetic effects (IIGEs; changes in focal plant traits due to the genotype identity of a heterospecific neighbor) had a greater effect size on belowground biomass than did focal genotype; however, this effect only held in pots that allowed belowground interactions. These results expand the types of natural processes that can be attributed to genotypes by showing that, under certain conditions, a plant's phenotype can be strongly determined by the expression of genes in its neighbor. By showing that IIGEs are dependent upon plants being able to interact belowground, our results also provide a first step for thinking about how genotype-based, belowground interactions influence the evolutionary outcomes of plant-neighbor interactions. PMID:23789078

  20. Belowground interactions shift the relative importance of direct and indirect genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific genetic variation can affect decomposition, nutrient cycling, and interactions between plants and their associated belowground communities. However, the effects of genetic variation on ecosystems can also be indirect, meaning that genes in a focal plant may affect ecosystems by altering the phenotype of interacting (i.e., neighboring) individuals. We manipulated genotype identity, species identity, and the possibility of belowground interactions between neighboring Solidago plants. We hypothesized that, because our plants were nitrogen (N) limited, the most important interactions between focal and neighbor plants would occur belowground. More specifically, we hypothesized that the genotypic identity of a plant's neighbor would have a larger effect on belowground biomass than on aboveground biomass, but only when neighboring plants were allowed to interact belowground. We detected species- and genotype-level variation for aboveground biomass and ramet production. We also found that belowground biomass and ramet production depended on the interaction of neighbor genotype identity and the presence or absence of belowground interactions. Additionally, we found that interspecific indirect genetic effects (IIGEs; changes in focal plant traits due to the genotype identity of a heterospecific neighbor) had a greater effect size on belowground biomass than did focal genotype; however, this effect only held in pots that allowed belowground interactions. These results expand the types of natural processes that can be attributed to genotypes by showing that, under certain conditions, a plant's phenotype can be strongly determined by the expression of genes in its neighbor. By showing that IIGEs are dependent upon plants being able to interact belowground, our results also provide a first step for thinking about how genotype-based, belowground interactions influence the evolutionary outcomes of plant-neighbor interactions. PMID:23789078

  1. The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect

    1992-07-01

    The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE) was established to provide a natural phenomena (NP) engineering oversight role within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). In this oversight role CNPE`s goals are to provide coordination and direction of activities related to earthquake and other natural phenomena engineering, including development of hazard definition, development of design criteria, conducting new facility design, development and conducting of testing, performance of analysis and vulnerability studies, development of analysis methodology, and provision of support for preparation of safety analysis reports for the five MMES sites. In conducting these activities it is CNPE`s goal to implement the elements of Total Quality Management (TQM) in a cost-effective manner, providing its customers with a quality product. This report describes 1990--1991 activities.

  2. Fluctuation theory of critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    It is assumed that critical phenomena are generated by density wave fluctuations carrying a certain kinetic energy. It is noted that all coupling equations for critical indices are obtained within the context of this hypothesis. Critical indices are evaluated for 15 liquids more accurately than when using the current theory of critical phenomena.

  3. Integration and Interpersonal Relations: Interactions between Disabled Children and Their Non-Disabled Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Philip

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on several studies that used discourse analysis to interpret the linguistic interactions between students with special educational needs in segregated and integrated settings. Results indicated that integrated settings were characterized by "didactic" interactions, while segregated settings showed "familiar" behavior. (DB)

  4. Interactions Quality in Moodle as Perceived by Learners and Its Relation with Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify learners' perceptions of the quality of interaction in Moodle and investigate the effects of gender, grade point average (GPA), individualized learning experiences and their experiences in using Moodle factors in perceiving the quality of interaction. A questionnaire was used to collect data after being…

  5. A Method of Extracting Sentences Related to Protein Interaction from Literature using a Structure Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Yoshikazu; Munna, Md. Ahaduzzaman; Ohkawa, Takenao

    Because a protein expresses its function through interaction with other substrates, it is vital to create a database of protein interaction. Since the total volume of information on protein interaction is described in terms of thousands of literatures, it is nearly impossible to extract all this information manually. Although extraction systems for interaction information based on the template matching method have already been developed, it is not possible to match all the sentences with interaction information due to the extent of sentence complexity. We propose a method of extracting sentences with interaction information independent of sentence structure. In a protein-compound complex structure, the interacting residue is near to its partner. The distance between them can be calculated by using the structure data in the PDB database, with a short distance indicating that the sentences associated with them might describe the interaction information. In a free-protein structure, the distance cannot be calculated because the coordinates of the protein's partner are not registered in the structure data. Hence, we use the homology protein structure data, which is complexed with the protein's parter. The proposed method was applied to seven literatures written about protein-compound complexes and four literatures written about free proteins, obtaining F-measures of 71% and 72%, respectively.

  6. Structural Basis for Small G Protein Effector Interaction of Ras-related Protein 1 (Rap1) and Adaptor Protein Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rong; Draheim, Kyle M.; Liu, Weizhi; Calderwood, David A.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2012-09-17

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) affect 0.1-0.5% of the population resulting in leaky vasculature and severe neurological defects. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped-1) mutations associate with {approx}40% of familial CCMs. KRIT1 is an effector of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) GTPase. Rap1 relocalizes KRIT1 from microtubules to cell membranes to impact integrin activation, potentially important for CCM pathology. We report the 1.95 {angstrom} co-crystal structure of KRIT1 FERM domain in complex with Rap1. Rap1-KRIT1 interaction encompasses an extended surface, including Rap1 Switch I and II and KRIT1 FERM F1 and F2 lobes. Rap1 binds KRIT1-F1 lobe using a GTPase-ubiquitin-like fold interaction but binds KRIT1-F2 lobe by a novel interaction. Point mutagenesis confirms the interaction. High similarity between KRIT1-F2/F3 and talin is revealed. Additionally, the mechanism for FERM domains acting as GTPase effectors is suggested. Finally, structure-based alignment of each lobe suggests classification of FERM domains as ERM-like and TMFK-like (talin-myosin-FAK-KRIT-like) and that FERM lobes resemble domain 'modules.'

  7. Development of Expectancies About Own- and Other-Gender Group Interactions and Their School-Related Consequences.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Naomi C Z; Martin, Carol L; Field, Ryan D; Cook, Rachel E; Lee, Jieun

    2016-09-01

    This study examined children's expectancies about interactions with own- and other-gender peers. Goals were to examine expectancies about the outcomes related to own- versus other-gender group interactions, assess cohort and temporal changes in expectancies, and assess the effect of expectancies on school-related outcomes. Students in second and fourth grades (N = 412, 47% girls, Mage  = 7.15 and 9.10 years, respectively) were followed longitudinally for 1 year. Results supported hypotheses that social costs and inclusion-enjoyment that children expect in interactions with own- and other-gender peers represent four constructs. Expectancies varied by gender, age, and differentially predicted school outcomes with inclusion expectancies more strongly relating to outcomes than cost expectancies. Implications of children's expectancies about gendered contexts are discussed. PMID:27684396

  8. Cysteine-rich domains related to Frizzled receptors and Hedgehog-interacting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-01-01

    Frizzled and Smoothened are homologous seven-transmembrane proteins functioning in the Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways, respectively. They harbor an extracellular cysteine-rich domain (FZ-CRD), a mobile evolutionary unit that has been found in a number of other metazoan proteins and Frizzled-like proteins in Dictyostelium. Domains distantly related to FZ-CRDs, in Hedgehog-interacting proteins (HHIPs), folate receptors and riboflavin-binding proteins (FRBPs), and Niemann-Pick Type C1 proteins (NPC1s), referred to as HFN-CRDs, exhibit similar structures and disulfide connectivity patterns compared with FZ-CRDs. We used computational analyses to expand the homologous set of FZ-CRDs and HFN-CRDs, providing a better understanding of their evolution and classification. First, FZ-CRD-containing proteins with various domain compositions were identified in several major eukaryotic lineages including plants and Chromalveolata, revealing a wider phylogenetic distribution of FZ-CRDs than previously recognized. Second, two new and distinct groups of highly divergent FZ-CRDs were found by sensitive similarity searches. One of them is present in the calcium channel component Mid1 in fungi and the uncharacterized FAM155 proteins in metazoans. Members of the other new FZ-CRD group occur in the metazoan-specific RECK (reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs) proteins that are putative tumor suppressors acting as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases. Finally, sequence and three-dimensional structural comparisons helped us uncover a divergent HFN-CRD in glypicans, which are important morphogen-binding heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Such a finding reinforces the evolutionary ties between the Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways and underscores the importance of gene duplications in creating essential signaling components in metazoan evolution. PMID:22693159

  9. Unitarity, analyticity, dispersion relations, and resonances in strongly interacting WLWL, ZLZL, and h h scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Rafael L.; Dobado, Antonio; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2015-04-01

    If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector turns out to be strongly interacting, the actively investigated effective theory for longitudinal gauge bosons plus Higgs can be efficiently extended to cover the regime of saturation of unitarity (where the perturbative expansion breaks down). This is achieved by dispersion relations, whose subtraction constants and left cut contribution can be approximately obtained in different ways, giving rise to different unitarization procedures. We illustrate the ideas with the inverse amplitude method, one version of the N/D method, and another improved version of the K matrix. In the three cases we get partial waves which are unitary, analytical with the proper left and right cuts, and in some cases poles in the second Riemann sheet that can be understood as dynamically generated resonances. In addition, they reproduce at next to leading order the perturbative expansion for the five partial waves not vanishing (up to J =2 ), and they are renormalization scale (μ ) independent. Also the unitarization formalisms are extended to the coupled channel case. Then we apply the results to the elastic scattering amplitude for the longitudinal components of the gauge bosons V =W ,Z at high energy. We also compute h h →h h and the inelastic process V V →h h which are coupled to the elastic V V channel for custodial isospin I =0 . We numerically compare the three methods for various values of the low-energy couplings and explain the reasons for the differences found in the I =J =1 partial wave. Then we study the resonances appearing in the different elastic and coupled channels in terms of the effective Lagrangian parameters.

  10. Arabidopsis scaffold protein RACK1A interacts with diverse environmental stress and photosynthesis related proteins.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Nabanita; Dozier, Uvetta; Deslandes, Laurent; Somssich, Imre E; Ullah, Hemayet

    2013-05-01

    Scaffold proteins are known to regulate important cellular processes by interacting with multiple proteins to modulate molecular responses. RACK1 (Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1) is a WD-40 type scaffold protein, conserved in eukaryotes, from Chlamydymonas to plants and humans, expresses ubiquitously and plays regulatory roles in diverse signal transduction and stress response pathways. Here we present the use of Arabidopsis RACK1A, the predominant isoform of a 3-member family, as a bait to screen a split-ubiquitin based cDNA library. In total 97 proteins from dehydration, salt stress, ribosomal and photosynthesis pathways are found to potentially interact with RACK1A. False positive interactions were eliminated following extensive selection based growth potentials. Confirmation of a sub-set of selected interactions is demonstrated through the co-transformation with individual plasmid containing cDNA and the respective bait. Interaction of diverse proteins points to a regulatory role of RACK1A in the cross-talk between signaling pathways. Promoter analysis of the stress and photosynthetic pathway genes revealed conserved transcription factor binding sites. RACK1A is known to be a multifunctional protein and the current identification of potential interacting proteins and future in vivo elucidations of the physiological basis of such interactions will shed light on the possible molecular mechanisms that RACK1A uses to regulate diverse signaling pathways.

  11. [Food ingestion in ruminants: modalities and associated phenomena].

    PubMed

    Dulphy, J P; Faverdin, P

    1987-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the literature on modalities of food intake in ruminants and their main associated phenomena. Firstly, circadian distribution of feeding and ruminating activities has been examined. Ruminants spend a large part of their time chewing. Their meals have been described in detail; changes in rates of intake, time spent eating, the effect of restricting the amount fed or the period of feed accessibility have been discussed. When food is distributed, the animals have a "long" meal. These meals have been analysed in relation to the type of animal and the feed offered. The other meals ("small" meals) have been briefly described. The paper next examines the phenomena associated with meals, or induced by them, and implied in the control of food intake. Forestomach motricity varies according to ruminant feeding behavior and plays a basic role in digesta transit. Rumen content varies with the meal and its chemical composition due to the arrival in the rumen of food, water and saliva. Rumination may require 600 to 650 min/day and is important in the comminution and sorting of rumen particles. The digestive phenomena associated with meals are related to control of intake. The influence of rumen fill has been thoroughly discussed. Finally, main humoral changes due to intake have been reviewed. The influence of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and metabolites has been discussed as well as the role of glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. Among the hormones, insulin and glucagon seem to play an important role in controlling food intake. The amounts of gastrointestinal hormones increase during intake and may also play an important part. Despite a net improvement in the knowledge of phenomena related to intake, much still remains to be done in setting up models to describe these phenomena in relation to feeding activities and to aid in understanding the mechanisms controlling feed intake in ruminants.

  12. Interaction of Physio-Medical and Psychosocial Variables in Age-Related Functional Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, D. A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between level of social interaction and task performance in elderly males (N=25). Results indicated that social activity was positively correlated with learning performance, increased life satisfaction, and more positive attitudes toward older people. (JAC)

  13. Scaling Considerations Related to Interactions of Hydrologics, Pedologic and Geomorphic Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic, pedologic, and geomorphic processes are strongly interrelated and affected by scale. These interactions exert important controls on runoff generation, preferential flow, contaminant transport, surface erosion, and mass wasting. Measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K...

  14. Extreme subseasonal tropical air-sea interactions and their relation to ocean thermal stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Ian D.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with extreme, rapid timescale tropical air-sea interactions and the influence of large-scale oceanic conditions on these interactions. The focus is on two types of extreme events: equatorial Indian Ocean cooling events and tropical cyclones. Cooling events occur on timescales of a few days to several weeks, in which atmospheric forcing causes Sea Surface Temperature (SST) cooling in the range of 1--5K, in both observational and coupled climate models. Cooling events are driven by changes in air-sea enthalpy fluxes and Ekman upwelling. Because the cooling due to Ekman upwelling depends on thermocline depth, large-scale oceanic conditions influence SST cooling. La Nina and negative Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are conducive to a shallower southwest equatorial thermocline, resulting in greater intraseasonal SST cooling during these interannual events; El Nino and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions lead to a deeper thermocline and reduced SST cooling. Results indicate that cooling events are related to the eastward propagation of convective patterns that resemble the Madden-Julian Oscillation. For tropical cyclones, the response of intensity to cyclone-induced SST cooling was explored over 10-years of observational data. For slow moving (V/ f < 100km) tropical cyclones, it was found that the SST cooling response increases along with storm intensity from category 0--2 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. However, from category 2--5 the magnitude of SST cooling decreases. This result confirms model predictions indicating a prominent role for oceanic feedback controlling tropical cyclone intensity. Thus, only storms that develop in regions containing deep mixed layer and thermocline can achieve high intensity, and entrainment cooling is weaker for these storms. The SST-intensity response in observations was compared to the GFDL Hurricane Forecast Model (GHM) for the periods 2005 and 2006--2009. The GHM was modified in 2006 to include a

  15. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  16. Daily Temperature Fluctuations Alter Interactions between Closely Related Species of Marine Nematodes.

    PubMed

    De Meester, Nele; Dos Santos, Giovanni A P; Rigaux, Annelien; Valdes, Yirina; Derycke, Sofie; Moens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In addition to an increase in mean temperature, climate change models predict decreasing amplitudes of daily temperature fluctuations. In temperate regions, where daily and seasonal fluctuations are prominent, such decreases in daily temperature fluctuations can have a pronounced effect on the fitness of species and on the outcome of species interactions. In this study, the effect of a temperature regime with daily fluctuations versus a constant temperature on the fitness and interspecific interactions of three cryptic species of the marine nematode species complex of Litoditis marina (Pm I, Pm III and Pm IV) were investigated. In a lab experiment, different combinations of species (monospecific treatment: Pm I and Pm IV and Pm III alone; two-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV; three-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV + Pm III) were subjected to two different temperature regimes: one constant and one fluctuating temperature. Our results showed that fluctuating temperature had minor or no effects on the population fitness of the three species in monocultures. In contrast, interspecific interactions clearly influenced the fitness of all three species, both positively and negatively. Temperature regime did have a substantial effect on the interactions between the species. In the two-species treatment, temperature regime altered the interaction from a sort of mutualism to commensalism. In addition, the strength of the interspecific interactions changed depending on the temperature regime in the three-species treatment. This experiment confirms that interactions between the species can change depending on the abiotic environment; these results show that it is important to incorporate the effect of fluctuations on interspecific interactions to predict the effect of climate change on biodiversity. PMID:26147103

  17. Daily Temperature Fluctuations Alter Interactions between Closely Related Species of Marine Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    De Meester, Nele; Dos Santos, Giovanni A. P.; Rigaux, Annelien; Valdes, Yirina; Derycke, Sofie; Moens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In addition to an increase in mean temperature, climate change models predict decreasing amplitudes of daily temperature fluctuations. In temperate regions, where daily and seasonal fluctuations are prominent, such decreases in daily temperature fluctuations can have a pronounced effect on the fitness of species and on the outcome of species interactions. In this study, the effect of a temperature regime with daily fluctuations versus a constant temperature on the fitness and interspecific interactions of three cryptic species of the marine nematode species complex of Litoditis marina (Pm I, Pm III and Pm IV) were investigated. In a lab experiment, different combinations of species (monospecific treatment: Pm I and Pm IV and Pm III alone; two-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV; three-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV + Pm III) were subjected to two different temperature regimes: one constant and one fluctuating temperature. Our results showed that fluctuating temperature had minor or no effects on the population fitness of the three species in monocultures. In contrast, interspecific interactions clearly influenced the fitness of all three species, both positively and negatively. Temperature regime did have a substantial effect on the interactions between the species. In the two-species treatment, temperature regime altered the interaction from a sort of mutualism to commensalism. In addition, the strength of the interspecific interactions changed depending on the temperature regime in the three-species treatment. This experiment confirms that interactions between the species can change depending on the abiotic environment; these results show that it is important to incorporate the effect of fluctuations on interspecific interactions to predict the effect of climate change on biodiversity. PMID:26147103

  18. On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, R.G.; Dunne, B.J.

    1986-08-01

    Theoretical explication of a growing body of empirical data on consciousness-related anomalous phenomena is unlikely to be achieved in terms of known physical processes. Rather, it will first be necessary to formulate the basic role of consciousness in the definition of reality before such anomalous experience can adequately be represented. This paper takes the position that reality is constituted only in the interaction of consciousness with its environment, and therefore that any scheme of conceptual organization developed to represent that reality must reflect the processes of consciousness as well as those of its environment. In this spirit, the concepts and formalisms of elementary quantum mechanics, as originally proposed to explain anomalous atomic-scale physical phenomena, are appropriated via metaphor to represent the general characteristics of consciousness interacting with any environment. More specifically, if consciousness is represented by a quantum mechanical wave function, and its environment by an appropriate potential profile, Schrodinger wave mechanics defines eigenfunctions and eigenvalues that can be associated with the cognitive and emotional experiences of that consciousness in that environment. To articulate this metaphor it is necessary to associate certain aspects of the formalism, such as the coordinate system, the quantum numbers, and even the metric itself, with various impressionistic descriptors of consciousness, such as its intensity, perspective, approach/avoidance attitude, balance between cognitive and emotional activity, and receptive/assertive disposition.

  19. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Depletion interactions in a cylindric pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Xin; Gao, Hai-Xia; Li, Chun-Shu; Xiao, Chang-Ming

    2009-08-01

    In a colloidal system confined by a small cylindric pipeline, the depletion interaction between two large spheres is different to the system confined by two plates, and the influence on depletion interaction from the pipeline is related to both the size and shape of it. In this paper, the depletion interactions in the systems confined by pipelines of different sizes or different shapes are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that the influence on depletion force from the cylindric pipeline is stronger than that from two parallel plates, and the depletion force will be strengthened when the diameter of the cylinder is decreased. In addition, we also find that the depletion interaction is rather affected if the shape change of the pipeline is slightly changed, and the influence on depletion force from the shape change is stronger than that from the size change.

  20. Age-related changes of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, G; Correra, M; Bianco, G; De Cata, A; Balzanelli, M; Giuliani, A; Tarquini, R

    1997-01-01

    Numerous interactions exist among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, mediated by neurotransmitters, hormones and cytokines. The function of these systems shows patterns of circadian rhythmicity and a number of age-related changes in the 24-hour hormonal and nonhormonal rhythms have been found in older human beings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of altered integration among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in older adults. Cortisol, melatonin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) serum levels were measured and lymphocyte subpopulation analyses were performed on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours from seven healthy young subjects aged 36-58 years (mean age +/- s.e. 45.28 +/- 3.31) and from seven healthy old subjects aged 65-78 years (mean age +/- s.e. 68.57 +/- 1.91). There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in the observed values of CD20 (total B cells, higher in the young subjects, t = 2.48, P = 0.028) and CD25 (activated T cells with expression of the alpha chain of IL-2 receptor, higher in elderly subjects, t = -2.23, P = 0.045); DR+ T cells were also higher in elderly subjects, T=34.0, P=0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the observed values of CD2(total T lymphocytes), CD4 (helper/inducer T cells), CD8 (suppressor/cytotoxic T cells), CD4/CD8 ratio, CD16 (natural killer cells), HLA-DR (B cells and activated T cells), TcR delta 1 (epitope of the constant domain of delta chain of T-cell receptor 1), cortisol, melatonin, TRH, TSH, FT4" GH, IGF-I, IL-2. In the group of younger subjects a clear circadian rhythm was validated for the time-qualified changes of all the factors studied, with the exception of CD16, FT4 and IL-2. In the group of elderly subjects a clear circadian rhythm was validated for the nyctohemeral changes

  1. Phosphorus-arsenic interactions in variable-charge soils in relation to arsenic mobility and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bolan, Nanthi; Mahimairaja, Santiago; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Choppala, Girish

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components of soil. The objective of this study was to examine P-As interaction in variable-charge allophanic soils in relation to P-induced As mobilization and bioavailability. In this work, the effect of P on arsenate [As(V)] adsorption and desorption was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity. The effect of P on As uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants was examined using a solution culture, and a soil plant growth experiment involving two As-spiked allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity, and a field As-contaminated sheep dip soil. Arsenate adsorption increased with an increase in the anion adsorption capacity of soils. The addition of P resulted in an increase in As desorption, and the effect was more pronounced in the case of allophanic soil. In the case of both As-spiked soils and field contaminated sheep-dip soil, application of P increased the desorption of As, thereby increasing its bioavailability. The effect of P on As uptake was more pronounced in the high anion adsorbing allophanic than low adsorbing non-allophanic soil. In the case of solution culture, As phytoavailability decreased with increasing concentration of P which is attributed to the competition of P for As uptake by roots. While increasing P concentration in solution decreased the uptake of As, it facilitated the translocation of As from root to shoot. The net effect of P on As phytoavailability in soils depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The P-induced mobilization of As could be employed in the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. However, care must be taken to minimize the leaching of As mobilized through the P-induced desorption, thereby resulting in groundwater and off site contamination.

  2. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels. PMID:27351343

  3. Localization of p0071-interacting proteins, plakophilin-related armadillo-repeat protein-interacting protein (PAPIN) and ERBIN, in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hideki; Hirabayashi, Susumu; Iizuka, Toshihiko; Ohnishi, Hirohide; Fujita, Toshiro; Hata, Yutaka

    2002-10-10

    PAPIN has six PDZ domains and interacts with p0071, a catenin-related protein. Recent studies have revealed that catenins determine the subcellular localization of some PDZ proteins. We have examined whether the localization of PAPIN is determined by p0071 in epithelial cells. PAPIN was localized not only on the lateral membrane but also on the apical membrane, where p0071 was absent. The targeting to both membranes was mediated by the middle region of PAPIN and did not require the p0071-interacting PDZ domain. In cells that came into contact, PAPIN was diffusely distributed on the plasma membrane, while p0071 was concentrated at immature cell-cell contacts. When epithelial cells were exposed to the low concentration of calcium, p0071 was internalized, whereas PAPIN remained on the plasma membrane. We also confirmed that the interaction with p0071 was not essential for the membrane targeting of ERBIN, a recently identified p0071- and ErbB2-binding protein. PAPIN, p0071, and ERBIN formed a complex in 293T cells. Furthermore, ERBIN and ErbB2 were colocalized with PAPIN on the lateral membrane. These findings suggest that PAPIN, p0071, and ERBIN come to the cell-cell contacts independently and interact with each other on the lateral membrane.

  4. [THE CRISIS PHENOMENA AND HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Tishuk, E A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis was carried out concerning impact of cyclicity of social economic development on population health of the Russian Federation. The conclusions are made related to necessity of determining priorities of development of national system of population health care. PMID:27116830

  5. Preface: cardiac control pathways: signaling and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Sideman, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular functions and coordinates cellular activity. Transfer of ions and signaling molecules and their interactions with appropriate receptors, transmembrane transport, and the consequent intracellular interactions and functional cellular response represent a complex system of interwoven phenomena of transport, signaling, conformational changes, chemical activation, and/or genetic expression. The well-being of the cell thus depends on a harmonic orchestration of all these events and the existence of control mechanisms that assure the normal behavior of the various parameters involved and their orderly expression. The ability of cells to sustain life by perceiving and responding correctly to their microenvironment is the basis for development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Natural deviations, or human-induced interference in the signaling pathways and/or inter- and intracellular transport and information transfer, are responsible for the generation, modulation, and control of diseases. The present overview aims to highlight some major topics of the highly complex cellular information transfer processes and their control mechanisms. Our goal is to contribute to the understanding of the normal and pathophysiological phenomena associated with cardiac functions so that more efficient therapeutic modalities can be developed. Our objective in this volume is to identify and enhance the study of some basic passive and active physical and chemical transport phenomena, physiological signaling pathways, and their biological consequences.

  6. [Interactive relations between agroecosystem and economic system in Loess Hilly Region--a case of Zhifanggou small watershed, Ansai County].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Ji-Jun

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation data in 1938-2007 and by using the evaluation method of ecosystem service value and the ecological footprint theory, the ecosystem service value and ecological footprint in Zhifanggou watershed of Loess Hilly Region were calculated, with the interactive relations between agroecosystem and economic system in the watershed analyzed. From 1938 to 2007, Zhifanggou watershed experienced three development stages, i.e., ecological environment destruction with backwardness of economy (1938-1975), eco-environment restoration with rapid development of economy (1975-2000), and well-maintained ecological environment with stable growth of economy (2000-2007). The interactive relations of the eco-economic systems manifested as ecological deterioration, eco-economic adaptive regulation, and eco-economic benign interaction.

  7. Developmental aspects of the interaction between narcissism, self-esteem and object relations.

    PubMed

    Dare, C; Holder, A

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the history, within psycho-analysis, of narcissism and shows that it cannot be understood as a unitary concept. This is reflected in much of the extensive literature on the topic. The definition of narcissism solely in terms of the libidinal drive cathexis of the self representation is rejected. Instead, narcissism is defined as the sum of the positively-coloured feeling states attached to the self-representation. By pursuing a developmental investigation of narcissistic and opposing phenomena, the multiple sources which contribute to or detract from the overall level of self-esteem are demonstrated. Such an investigation clarifies the close relationship between the concepts of self-esteem, well-being and narcissism, and differentiating definitions are put forward. The term 'counter-narcissistic' is introduced to denote the negative contributions to self-esteem which detract from the narcissistic input. The interplay between the contributions to the overall quality of self-esteem, deriving on the one hand from somatic and instinctual drive sources, and on the other from object relationships, exemplifies the multiple origins of its qualities at any one time. This interplay is pursued through the sequential developmental phases from infancy to the oedipal level in order to show the complex epigenesis of narcissism, counter-narcissism and self-esteem.

  8. Interaction phenomena at reactive metal/ceramic interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, S. M.; Billings, G. W.; Indacochea, J. E.

    2000-11-03

    The objective of this study was to understand the interface chemical reactions between stable ceramics and reactive liquid metals, and developing microstructure. Experiments were conducted at elevated temperatures where small metal samples of Zr and Zr-alloy were placed on top of selected oxide and non-oxide ceramic substrates (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrN, ZrC, and HfC). The sample stage was heated in high-purity argon to about 2000 C, held in most cases for five minutes at the peak temperature, and then cooled to room temperature at {approximately}20 c/min. An external video camera was used to monitor the in-situ wetting and interface reactions. Post-test examinations of the systems were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was determined that the Zr and the Zr-alloy are very active in the wetting of stable ceramics at elevated temperatures. In addition, in some systems, such as Zr/ZrN, a reactive transition phase formed between the ceramic and the metal. In other systems, such as Zr/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Zr/ZrC and Zr/HfC, no reaction products formed, but a continuous and strong joint developed under these circumstances also.

  9. Assistance in Science-Related Parent-Child Interactions: Problem Solving in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R.; And Others

    This study sought to connect the science activity educational approach to the higher cognitive development of students using a relatively new learning model, the Cultural Historical theory, based upon the work of Vygotsky. The theory advances the concept that children's intellectual development occurs in interactions with an adult or more capable…

  10. What Motivates Students to Learn? Contribution of Student-to-Student Relations, Student-Faculty Interaction and Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugutt, John; Chemosit, Caroline C.

    2009-01-01

    This study used standard multiple linear regression to investigate relationships between student motivation, critical thinking skills, student-to-student relations, and student-faculty interaction with a sample of 2,190 undergraduate students. The study used measures first developed by Ellett, Culross, McMullen, and Rugutt, (1996), and later…

  11. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  12. Young Children's Trust Beliefs in Peers: Relations to Social Competence and Interactive Behaviors in a Peer Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Jui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between children's trust beliefs and social competence as well as social preference. In addition, this study examined how children with different trust belief profiles may differ in their peer interactive behaviors. A total of 47 children ages 5 to 6 participated in this…

  13. Subclinical negative symptoms and the anticipation, experience and recall of emotions related to social interactions: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Engel, Maike; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2015-12-15

    Healthy individuals use anticipated and recalled emotions to guide their decisions to seek out social interactions. It is unknown whether individuals with negative symptoms of schizophrenia, who are commonly observed to socially withdraw, show a bias in anticipation and recall of emotions related to a social interaction. To close this knowledge gap, this study examines whether higher levels of subclinical negative symptoms are associated with less positive and more negative anticipated and recalled emotions related to a social interaction. In a mixed model design participants were instructed to either predict or to experience and then recall emotions related to a simulated social inclusion- or exclusion-interaction. Disregarding the type of situation, participants with higher levels of subclinical negative symptoms anticipated more intense fear than participants with lower levels of subclinical negative symptoms. Divided by type of situation, however, participants with higher levels of negative symptoms experienced and recalled more sadness related to being socially included and even recalled more positive emotions after being excluded. These specific associations are likely to reflect negative expectations about potentially rewarding social situations in people with negative symptoms. A replication in populations with clinically relevant negative symptoms and inclusion of measures to assess memory is warranted.

  14. The relative importance of trait vs. genetic differentiation for the outcome of interactions among plant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jessica M; Stachowicz, John J

    2016-01-01

    Functional trait differences and genetic distance are increasingly used as metrics to predict the. outcome of species interactions and the maintenance of diversity. We apply these ideas to intraspecific diversity for the seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass), by explicitly testing the influence of trait distance and genetic relatedness on the outcome of pairwise interactions among eelgrass genotypes. Increasing trait distance (but not relatedness) between eelgrass genotypes decreased the likelihood that both would persist over a year-long field experiment, contrary to our expectations based on niche partitioning. In plots in which one genotype excluded another, the biomass and growth of the remaining genotype increased with the trait distance and genetic relatedness of the initial pair, presumably due to a legacy of past interactions. Together these results suggest that sustained competition among functionally similar genotypes did not produce a clear winner, but rapid exclusion occurred among genotypes with distinct trait combinations. Borrowing from coexistence theory, we argue that fitness differences between genotypes with distinct traits overwhelmed any stabilizing effects of niche differentiation. Previously observed effects of eelgrass genetic diversity on performance may rely on nonadditive interactions among multiple genotypes or sufficient environmental heterogeneity to increase stabilizing forces and/or interactions. PMID:27008778

  15. Age-related audiovisual interactions in the superior colliculus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Costa, M; Piché, M; Lepore, F; Guillemot, J-P

    2016-04-21

    It is well established that multisensory integration is a functional characteristic of the superior colliculus that disambiguates external stimuli and therefore reduces the reaction times toward simple audiovisual targets in space. However, in a condition where a complex audiovisual stimulus is used, such as the optical flow in the presence of modulated audio signals, little is known about the processing of the multisensory integration in the superior colliculus. Furthermore, since visual and auditory deficits constitute hallmark signs during aging, we sought to gain some insight on whether audiovisual processes in the superior colliculus are altered with age. Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10-12 months) and aged (21-22 months) rats. Looming circular concentric sinusoidal (CCS) gratings were presented alone and in the presence of sinusoidally amplitude modulated white noise. In both groups of rats, two different audiovisual response interactions were encountered in the spatial domain: superadditive, and suppressive. In contrast, additive audiovisual interactions were found only in adult rats. Hence, superior colliculus audiovisual interactions were more numerous in adult rats (38%) than in aged rats (8%). These results suggest that intersensory interactions in the superior colliculus play an essential role in space processing toward audiovisual moving objects during self-motion. Moreover, aging has a deleterious effect on complex audiovisual interactions.

  16. The relative importance of trait vs. genetic differentiation for the outcome of interactions among plant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jessica M; Stachowicz, John J

    2016-01-01

    Functional trait differences and genetic distance are increasingly used as metrics to predict the. outcome of species interactions and the maintenance of diversity. We apply these ideas to intraspecific diversity for the seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass), by explicitly testing the influence of trait distance and genetic relatedness on the outcome of pairwise interactions among eelgrass genotypes. Increasing trait distance (but not relatedness) between eelgrass genotypes decreased the likelihood that both would persist over a year-long field experiment, contrary to our expectations based on niche partitioning. In plots in which one genotype excluded another, the biomass and growth of the remaining genotype increased with the trait distance and genetic relatedness of the initial pair, presumably due to a legacy of past interactions. Together these results suggest that sustained competition among functionally similar genotypes did not produce a clear winner, but rapid exclusion occurred among genotypes with distinct trait combinations. Borrowing from coexistence theory, we argue that fitness differences between genotypes with distinct traits overwhelmed any stabilizing effects of niche differentiation. Previously observed effects of eelgrass genetic diversity on performance may rely on nonadditive interactions among multiple genotypes or sufficient environmental heterogeneity to increase stabilizing forces and/or interactions.

  17. Stochastic roots of growth phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.; Giorno, V.

    2014-05-01

    We show that the Gompertz equation describes the evolution in time of the median of a geometric stochastic process. Therefore, we induce that the process itself generates the growth. This result allows us further to exploit a stochastic variational principle to take account of self-regulation of growth through feedback of relative density variations. The conceptually well defined framework so introduced shows its usefulness by suggesting a form of control of growth by exploiting external actions.

  18. Geodetic aspects of seismological phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Peter; Denis, Carlo

    2010-02-01

    Seismology is related to many problems of geodesy. The energy production of our planet is rather close to energy consumption of the Earth so that the energy balance can be disturbed significantly by minor processes acting on global scale. From this point of view the effect of tidal triggering of earthquakes is discussed by the study of tidal stress tensor components expressed in spherical system of coordinates. Tidal friction influences through the despinning of the axial rotation the geometrical flattening. This flattening variation causes stresses along the longitude and this phenomenon is closely related to the seismic energy release. Until now there is no unambiguous success to relate changes of the Earth orientation parameters with seismicity. Present-day accuracy of the length of day variations is not sufficient yet to detect spin variation generated by the greatest earthquakes. The polar motion is probably more sensitive to earthquakes and then there is a chance to detect the polar displacements generated by seismic events. In the last section of the present contribution, the strain rates derived from the static seismic moments and from space geodetic observations are compared. Future geodetic strain rate data will be useful in earthquake prediction.

  19. Preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRT) for SBWR start-up stability

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Wulff, K.W.

    1997-03-01

    Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRT) have been developed for start-up transient for SBWP. The information used for PIRT came from RAMONA-4B and TRACG analyses of the transient and from related small scale tests. The transient was divided into four distinct phases, namely, Subcooled Core Heat-up, Subcooled Chimney, Saturated Chimney and Power Ascension. The assessment criterion selected was Minimum Critical Power Ratio. The SBWR system was divided into ten components. A total of 33 distinct phenomena among the components were identified. The Phase I has 28 ranked phenomena with 17 low, 6 medium and 5 high ranking. The Phase II has 39 ranked phenomena with 18 low, 13 median and 8 high ranking. The Phase III has 47 ranked phenomena with 22 low, 10 medium and 15 high ranking. The Phase IV has 46 ranked phenomena with 16 low, 12 medium and 18 high ranking. 12 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Relations between parents' interactive style in dyadic and triadic play and toddlers' symbolic capacity.

    PubMed

    Keren, M; Feldman, R; Namdari-Weinbaum, I; Spitzer, S; Tyano, S

    2005-10-01

    Play has a major role in the evaluation and treatment of young children referred to mental health clinicians. The present study examined parental correlates of preschoolers' symbolic play during dyadic and triadic play interactions. Boys' play contained more aggressive themes, and girls' contained more nurturing themes. Mothers displayed more caring themes during play with both sons and daughters, and fathers displayed more repair and construction themes. Mothers' and fathers' facilitative- creative interaction style in dyadic play predicted the level of the child's symbolic play. Co-parenting style marked by cooperation and autonomy predicted symbolic play during a triadic family session. Child intelligence predicted symbolic play beyond the parent's style during triadic but not dyadic interactions. The findings have implications for early intervention directed at increasing symbolic play in young children.

  1. The fragility of intergroup relations: divergent effects of delayed audiovisual feedback in intergroup and intragroup interaction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Adam R; West, Tessa V; Dovidio, John F; Powers, Stacie Renfro; Buck, Ross; Henning, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Intergroup interactions between racial or ethnic majority and minority groups are often stressful for members of both groups; however, the dynamic processes that promote or alleviate tension in intergroup interaction remain poorly understood. Here we identify a behavioral mechanism-response delay-that can uniquely contribute to anxiety and promote disengagement from intergroup contact. Minimally acquainted White, Black, and Latino participants engaged in intergroup or intragroup dyadic conversation either in real time or with a subtle temporal disruption (1-s delay) in audiovisual feedback. Whereas intergroup dyads reported greater anxiety and less interest in contact after engaging in delayed conversation than after engaging in real-time conversation, intragroup dyads reported less anxiety in the delay condition than they did after interacting in real time. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for understanding intergroup communication and social dynamics and for promoting positive intergroup contact.

  2. Qualities of Peer Relations on Social Networking Websites: Predictions from Negative Mother-Teen Interactions.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, David E; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P

    2011-09-01

    This study examined associations between characteristics of teenagers' relationships with their mothers and their later socializing behavior and peer relationship quality online. At age 13, teenagers and their mothers participated in an interaction in which mothers' and adolescents' behavior undermining autonomy and relatedness was observed, and indicators of teens' depressive symptoms and social anxiety were assessed. At age 20, youth self-reported on their online behaviors, youths' social networking webpages were observationally coded to assess peer relationship quality online, and symptoms of depression and social anxiety were reassessed. Results suggested that problematic mother-teen relationships were predictive of youths' later preference for online communication and greater likelihood of forming a friendship with someone met online, yet poorer quality in online relationships. Findings are discussed within a developmental framework suggesting the importance of considering youths' family interactions during early adolescence as predictors of future online socializing behavior and online interactions with peers. PMID:21860584

  3. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena is hindered by the difficulties of devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system, and determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-yr cycle, and meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, an 11-yr variation, or a 22-yr variation.

  4. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena has to date foundered on the two difficulties of (1) devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system; and (2) determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-year cycle, while meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, or an 11-year variation, or a 22-year variation.

  5. Phenomena associated with magma expansion into a drift

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, E. S.

    2002-01-01

    One of the significant threats to the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository has been identified as the possibility of intersection of the underground structure by a basaltic intrusion. Based on the geology of the region, it is assumed that such an intrusion would consist of an alkali basalt similar to the nearby Lathrop Wells cone, which has been dated at about 78 ka. The threat of radioactive release may be either from eruption through the surface above the repository of basalt that had been contaminated or from migration through ground water of radionucleides released as a result of damage to waste packages that interact with the magma. As part of our study of these threats, we are analyzing the phenomena associated with magma expansion into drifts in tuff. The early phenomena of the encounter of volatile-rich basaltic magma with a drift are discussed here.

  6. A Brief Survey of Activity Phenomena in Cosmic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    An attempt is done to unify the variety of physical active phenomena observed in various cosmic objects belonging to the all hierarchical levels. The dark energy carrier is suggested to interact with the baryonic matter and provide the activity energy through the injection from "the main reservoir". The concept that the Hubble flow is not possible for non-cosmological shorter scales where the baryonic objects are believed to be gravitationally bound is considered in a few words to show that it is a simple extrapolation of the a priori hypothesis on the formation of cosmic objects. Some observational facts are pointed to show that expansion phenomena at shorter scales could be explained using the Hubble law only. The physical consequences of dark energy exchange with the atomic nuclei and "gravitationally bound" objects are considered.

  7. Energetic studies on DNA-peptide interaction in relation to the enthalpy-entropy compensation paradox.

    PubMed

    Yang, Robin C K; Huang, Jonathan T B; Chien, Shih-Chuan; Huang, Roy; Jeng, Kee-Ching G; Chen, Yen-Chung; Liao, Mokai; Wu, Jia-Rong; Hung, Wei-Kang; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ling; Waring, Michael J; Sheh, Leung

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to interpret the energetic basis of complex DNA-peptide interactions according to a novel allosteric interaction network approach. In common with other designed peptides, five new conjugates incorporating the XPRK or XHypRK motif (Hyp = hydroxyproline) attached to a N-methylpyrrole (Py) tract with a basic tail have been found to display cooperative binding to DNA involving multiple monodentate as well as interstrand bidentate interactions. Using quantitative DNase I footprinting it appears that allosteric communication via cooperative binding to multiple sites on complementary DNA strands corresponds to two different types of DNA-peptide interaction network. Temperature variation experiments using a dodecapeptide RY-12 show that lower temperature (25 °C) favor a circuit type of allosteric interaction network, whereas higher temperatures (31 and 37 °C) afford only a partial-circuit type of network. Circular dichroism studies show that our five peptides induce significant local conformational changes in DNA via the minor groove, with apparently dimeric binding stoichiometry. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that these peptides, together with another seven for comparison, are strongly exothermic upon binding to a model 13-mer DNA duplex, characterized by ΔH ranging from -14.7 to -74.4 kcal mol(-1), and also high TΔS ranging from -6.5 to -65.9 kcal mol(-1). Multiple monodentate and bidentate interactions, as well as ionic forces that mediate positive cooperativity in sequence recognition, are consistent with a dramatic decrease in entropy and a 'tightening' effect of DNA conformation. Distinctive enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) relationships are demonstrated for the interaction of all twelve designed peptides with DNA, affording a straight line of slope close to unity when ΔH is plotted versus TΔS, with a y-axis intercept (average ΔG) corresponding to -8.5 kcal mol(-1), while the observed ΔG ranges from -8.2 to -9.1 kcal mol(-1) for

  8. Computational modelling of microfluidic capillary breakup phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Sprittles, James; Oliver, Jim

    2013-11-01

    Capillary breakup phenomena occur in microfluidic flows when liquid volumes divide. The fundamental process of breakup is a key factor in the functioning of a number of microfluidic devices such as 3D-Printers or Lab-on-Chip biomedical technologies. It is well known that the conventional model of breakup is singular as pinch-off is approached, but, despite this, theoretical predictions of the global flow on the millimetre-scale appear to agree well with experimental data, at least until the topological change. However, as one approaches smaller scales, where interfacial effects become more dominant, it is likely that such unphysical singularities will influence the global dynamics of the drop formation process. In this talk we develop a computational framework based on the finite element method capable of resolving diverse spatio-temporal scales for the axisymmetric breakup of a liquid jet, so that the pinch-off dynamics can be accurately captured. As well as the conventional model, we discuss the application of the interface formation model to this problem, which allows the pinch-off to be resolved singularity-free, and has already been shown to produce improved flow predictions for related ``singular'' capillary flows.

  9. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  10. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site.

  11. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  12. Assembly of the Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-3 (BLOC-3) and Its Interaction with Rab9*

    PubMed Central

    Kloer, Daniel P.; Rojas, Raul; Ivan, Viorica; Moriyama, Kengo; van Vlijmen, Thijs; Murthy, Namita; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; van der Sluijs, Peter; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2010-01-01

    The Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a genetic hypopigmentation and bleeding disorder caused by defective biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as melanosomes and platelet dense bodies. HPS arises from mutations in any of 8 genes in humans and 16 genes in mice. Two of these genes, HPS1 and HPS4, encode components of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-3 (BLOC-3). Herein we show that recombinant HPS1-HPS4 produced in insect cells can be efficiently isolated as a 1:1 heterodimer. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals that this complex has a molecular mass of 146 kDa, equivalent to that of the native complex and to the sum of the predicted molecular masses of HPS1 and HPS4. This indicates that HPS1 and HPS4 interact directly in the absence of any other protein as part of BLOC-3. Limited proteolysis and deletion analyses show that both subunits interact with one another throughout most of their lengths with the sole exception of a long, unstructured loop in the central part of HPS4. An interaction screen reveals a specific and strong interaction of BLOC-3 with the GTP-bound form of the endosomal GTPase, Rab9. This interaction is mediated by HPS4 and the switch I and II regions of Rab9. These characteristics indicate that BLOC-3 might function as a Rab9 effector in the biogenesis of LROs. PMID:20048159

  13. Interactions between Obesity-Related Copy Number Variants and Dietary Behaviors in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Li, Zhenli; Wang, Hao; Yang, Min; Liang, Li; Fu, Junfen; Wang, Chunling; Ling, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shuai; Xu, Yuyang; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated as an important genetic marker of obesity, and gene-environment interaction has been found to modulate risk of obesity. To evaluate the associations between CNVs and childhood obesity, as well as the interactions between CNVs and dietary behaviors, we recruited 534 obese children and 508 controls from six cities in China and six candidate CNVs were screened through published genome-wide studies (GWAS) on childhood obesity. We found three loci (10q11.22, 4q25 and 11q11) to be significantly associated with obesity after false discovery rate (FDR) correction (all the p ≤ 0.05). Cumulative effect of the three positive loci was measured by the genetic risk score (GRS), showing a significant relationship with the risk of obesity (Ptrend < 0.001). The OR of obesity increased to 21.38 (95% CI = 21.19–21.55) among the 10q11.22 deletion carriers who had meat-based diets, indicating prominent multiplicative interaction (MI) between deletions of 10q11.22 and preference for a meat-based diet. Simultaneous deletions of 5q13.2 and duplications of 6q14.1 had significant MI with a preference for salty foods. Our results suggested that CNVs may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of childhood obesity, and the CNV-diet interactions modulate the risk of obesity. PMID:25912042

  14. The Impact of Marital Functioning on Children's Peer Relations: An Interactional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Mari

    The relationship between marital distress and children's level of functioning was examined in a study in which children were observed in peer and family interactions. Couples were considered distressed if both partners scored below the mean on the Marital Adjustment Test. The subjects were members of five families with distressed couples and eight…

  15. Concepts relating magnetic interactions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Davis, J C Séamus; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2013-10-29

    Unconventional superconductivity (SC) is said to occur when Cooper pair formation is dominated by repulsive electron-electron interactions, so that the symmetry of the pair wave function is other than an isotropic s-wave. The strong, on-site, repulsive electron-electron interactions that are the proximate cause of such SC are more typically drivers of commensurate magnetism. Indeed, it is the suppression of commensurate antiferromagnetism (AF) that usually allows this type of unconventional superconductivity to emerge. Importantly, however, intervening between these AF and SC phases, intertwined electronic ordered phases (IP) of an unexpected nature are frequently discovered. For this reason, it has been extremely difficult to distinguish the microscopic essence of the correlated superconductivity from the often spectacular phenomenology of the IPs. Here we introduce a model conceptual framework within which to understand the relationship between AF electron-electron interactions, IPs, and correlated SC. We demonstrate its effectiveness in simultaneously explaining the consequences of AF interactions for the copper-based, iron-based, and heavy-fermion superconductors, as well as for their quite distinct IPs.

  16. Direct Observation of Peer-Related Social Interaction: Outcomes for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer; McKenney, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in social relatedness with same-age peers are a defining characteristic of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and are likely to manifest themselves during social interactions with typically developing peers in classroom settings. Researchers have documented that children with Autism Spectrum Disorders engage in low rates of…

  17. Image Theory and Career Aspirations: Indirect and Interactive Effects of Status-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Dahling, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study applied Image Theory (Beach, 1990) to test how different components of a person's value image (i.e., perceived social status identity and conformity to masculine and feminine gender role norms) interact to influence trajectories toward high career aspirations (i.e., high value for status in one's work and aspirations for…

  18. Ethical Issues Relating to Teaching via an Interactive Two-Way Television System (ITV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Karen Jarrett

    The information age has introduced new methods of delivering educational materials to students. One method is two-way interactive television (ITV). As more schools utilize ITV, for distance education and other educational purposes, certain administrative, legal, and ethical issues need to be addressed. This paper focuses on human and ethical…

  19. Techniques for optimizing human-machine information transfer related to real-time interactive display systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for the development of real-time displays are reviewed. Of particular interest are the psychological aspects of design such as the layout, color selection, real-time response rate, and the interactivity of displays. Some existing Western Aeronautical Test Range displays are analyzed.

  20. Techniques for optimizing human-machine information transfer related to real-time interactive display systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years the needs of ground-based researcher-analysts to access real-time engineering data in the form of processed information has expanded rapidly. Fortunately, the capacity to deliver that information has also expanded. The development of advanced display systems is essential to the success of a research test activity. Those developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR), range from simple alphanumerics to interactive mapping and graphics. These unique display systems are designed not only to meet basic information display requirements of the user, but also to take advantage of techniques for optimizing information display. Future ground-based display systems will rely heavily not only on new technologies, but also on interaction with the human user and the associated productivity with that interaction. The psychological abilities and limitations of the user will become even more important in defining the difference between a usable and a useful display system. This paper reviews the requirements for development of real-time displays; the psychological aspects of design such as the layout, color selection, real-time response rate, and interactivity of displays; and an analysis of some existing WATR displays.