Science.gov

Sample records for related interaction phenomena

  1. 10.1142/9781911299660_fmatter years Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena (lirpp Vol. 13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich

    2016-10-01

    When these proceedings of 13th international conference LASER INTERACTION AND RELATED PLASMA PHENOMENA (LIRPP) will be circulated in 1998, it is just 30 years that this conference series began. Professor Miley asked me to present some thoughts at this occasion since I am involved from the beginning to 1991 a director and then as emeritus director. The conferences were in the following years 1969, 1971, 1973, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995 and 1997 and reference to each of the conferences is simply given by the year in brackets...

  2. Understanding empathy and related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Shamasundar, C

    1999-01-01

    Over a period of time, the author arrived at a few tentative postulates concerning empathy and related processes based on some of his experiences and observations. The central theme of these postulates is, firstly, that interpersonal interaction is an interaction of the personal-space fields. Secondly, empathy, therapeutic benefit, and the professional stress are all related to the same process of interpersonal interaction. This interaction takes place as an enmeshment of personal spaces of the interacting individuals, and involves transfer of a wide range of information in the affective, cognitive, and other areas. This is because the personal spaces have fieldlike qualities analogous to what Kurt Lewin described. Thus, such phenomena as empathy, therapeutic benefit, professional stress are all consequences of the same process. It is possible to substantiate these postulates by diverse evidences in the published literature. The natural consequences of such an interpersonal interaction are empathic understanding, transfer of mood states (like hope, distress or expectancy), affective states (like anxiety, sadness, anger or hostility), ideas, images and even attitudes and values, etc. This phenomenon of transfer can explain such processes as therapeutic benefit in individual and group settings, professional stress, shared delusions, and even experimenter bias. Whether one becomes aware of such transferred information or not depends upon the intent and sensitivity of the participants.

  3. Results of literature search on dielectric properties and electron interaction phenomena related to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, J. A.; Burke, E. A.; Frederickson, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the literature search was to determine the required material properties and electron interaction parameters needed for modeling charge buildup and breakdown in insulators. A brief overview of the results of the literature search is given. A partial list of the references covered is included in a bibliography. Although inorganic insulators were also considered in the search, coverage is limited to the organics, primarily Kapton and Teflon.

  4. Studies of cell pellets: II. Osmotic properties, electroporation, and related phenomena: membrane interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Abidor, I G; Li, L H; Hui, S W

    1994-01-01

    Using the relations between pellet structure and electric properties derived from the preceding paper, the responses of rabbit erythrocyte pellets to osmotic or colloidal-osmotic effects from exchanged supernatants and from electroporation were investigated. Changing the ionic strength of the supernatant, or replacing it with dextran or poly(ethylene glycol) solutions, caused changes of Rp according to the osmotic behavior of the pellet. Rp was high and ohmic before electroporation, but dropped abruptly in the first few microseconds once the transmembrane voltage exceeded the membrane breakdown potential. After the initial drop, Rp increased as a result of the reduction of intercellular space. Rp increased regardless of whether the pellets were formed before or immediately after the pulse, indicating that porated cells experienced a slow colloidal-osmotic swelling. The intercellular or intermembrane distances between cells in a pellet, as a function of osmotic, colloidal-osmotic, and centrifugal pressures used to compress rabbit erythrocyte pellets, were deduced from the Rp measurement. This offered a unique opportunity to measure the intermembrane repulsive force in a disordered system including living cells. Electrohemolysis of pelleted cells was reduced because of limited swelling by the compactness of the pellet. Electrofusion was observed when the applied voltage per pellet membrane exceeded the breakdown voltage. The fusion yield was independent of pulse length greater than 10 microseconds, because after the breakdown of membrane resistance, voltage drop across the pellet became insignificant. Replacing the supernatant with poly(ethylene glycol) or dextran solutions, or coating pellets with unporated cell layers reduced the colloidal-osmotic swelling and hemolysis, but also reduced the electrofusion yield. These manipulations can be explored to increase electroloading and electrofusion efficiencies. PMID:7522598

  5. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    reactions in stars. In the most active galaxies known, the radiating accretion disc of the central SMBH engine easily outshines the stellar light of the entire galaxy (Blandford 1995). In addition to the light, plasma streams can emerge from the innermost regions at relativistic velocities, returning energy to the host galaxy (host) and creating jets and lobes with strong observational signatures, especially at radio and X-ray wavelengths (Wilson 2003). New insights in the wide field of SMBH/host interaction are often related to the development of new, more sensitive instruments and telescopes. For example the idea, that a high luminosity AGN may result from a merger event between two galaxies, could only develop with the upcoming high resolution and sensitive imaging capabilities needed to detect the highly distorted host galaxy morphologies of (post-)merger galaxies (Heckman et al. 1986). Furthermore multi-wavelength approaches, which combine the results of measurements at different wavelengths, often lead to new conclusions or confirm unsecured hypotheses. Thus developing a new instrument can be as valuable as combining different datasets. I follow both approaches and developed projects which (i) deal with new instrumentation and telescope technology, (ii) combine datasets from different wavelengths and resolutions, and (iii) incorporate recent theoretical models and predictions, which can be verified empirically. While some projects are more focused on investigating the power of new observational techniques, others incorporate acknowledged instruments to probe predictions based on previous observations and models and trace special phenomena of SMBH/host interaction. But in most cases aspects of all three items appear. The SMBH/host interaction results in phenomena at all linear size scales of the system, from the direct accretion of matter onto the central black hole up to radio jets crossing the entire galaxy. Thus interaction effects do not simply concentrate on the

  6. Relating Macroscopic Thermal Phenomena with Molecular Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2002-03-01

    A series of observations and activities have been developed to help students enrich their understanding of how physicists can use model building to construct self-consistent models of physical reality.* This talk will describe the instructional use of integrated microcomputer-based laboratory measurements of macroscopic phenomena and digital video analysis of simulated microscopic events to help students understand the ideal gas law, the first law of thermodynamics, and heat engines. *Workshop Physics Activity Guide (Module 3), P. Laws, (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, 1997).

  7. Bulk Rashba Semiconductors and Related Quantum Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Bahramy, Mohammad Saeed; Ogawa, Naoki

    2017-03-29

    Bithmuth tellurohalides BiTeX (X = Cl, Br and I) are model examples of bulk Rashba semiconductors, exhibiting a giant Rashba-type spin splitting among their both valence and conduction bands. Extensive spectroscopic and transport experiments combined with the state-of-the-art first-principles calculations have revealed many unique quantum phenomena emerging from the bulk Rashba effect in these systems. The novel features such as the exotic inter- and intra-band optical transitions, enhanced magneto-optical response, divergent orbital dia-/para-magnetic susceptibility and helical spin textures with a nontrivial Berry's phase in the momentum space are among the salient discoveries, all arising from this effect. Also, it is theoretically proposed and indications have been experimentally reported that bulk Rashba semiconductors such as BiTeI have the capability of becoming a topological insulator under the application of a hydrostatic pressure. Here, we overview these studies and show that BiTeX are an ideal platform to explore the next aspects of quantum matter, which could ultimately be utilized to create spintronic devices with novel functionalities.

  8. Symposium Entitled: Particle Lung Interactions: ’Overload’ Related Phenomena. A Journal of Aerosol Medicine - Deposition, Clearance, and Effects in the Lung. Volume 3, Supplement 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    J.B., MCGANDY R.B. and KENNEDY A.R. (1978). Interactions Between Polonium - 210 Alpha-Radiation, Benzo(a)pyrene, and 0.9% NaCl Solution Instillations in...Interactions: Lung Fibrogenesis By J. A. LAST, R. WU, J. CHEN, T. GELZLEICHTER, W.-M. SUN, and L.G. ARMSTRONG S-61 Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms in Asbestos ...Perhaps future studies on mechanisms underlying events occurring after low level exposure to toxic particles such as quartz or even asbestos fibers

  9. Phenomena related to CP violation at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Squillacioti, Paola; /Siena U. /INFN, Pisa

    2009-10-01

    We report recent CDF results on CP violation in B{sup -} {yields} DK{sup -} modes, where D goes to Cabibbo suppressed ({pi}{pi}, KK) or doubly cabibbo suppressed (K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) modes, which are related to CKM angle gamma. We also describe direct CP violation measurements in charmless two-body decays of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{pi} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK, p{pi} modes, which are unique to the CDF experiment. We also report on CP violation measurements in D{sup 0} {yields} h{sup +}h{sup -} modes.

  10. Solid-state flow, mechanical alloying, and melt-related phenomena for [001] single-crystal tungsten ballistic rod penetrators interacting with steel targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizana, Carlos

    This research program consists of a detailed microstructural investigation of in-target, single-crystal [001], clad (with Inconel 718) and unclad, W long-rod, ballistic penetrators. The rods were shot into rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets approximately 76 mm in thickness at impact velocities ranging from 1100 m/s to 1350 m/s. A comprehensive microstructural overview of the penetration process was obtained from this investigation. Solid-state flow/erosion, solid-state target/rod mixing as well as influencing factors such as strain rate, penetration performance, cladding interference and the interaction between target and projectile were emphasized. Some of the microstructural features observed, including deformation twins, cleaving, adiabatic shear bands and DRX support an overall solid-state penetration process. Furthermore they provide for a unifying perspective for the applicability of the hydrodynamic paradigm (DOP ≈ l∘rp/rt ) and earlier mechanistic erosion approaches. DRX and grain growth within adiabatic shear bands observed at specific high strain/strain-rate zones within the rods suggest that the projectile erodes by means of these microstructures in a solid-state form. This erosion process contributes to the performance of the rod by either allowing optimum flow of rod material which would increase penetration depth, or by maximizing rod material consumption which would reduce it. Since flow and/or erosion are also necessary in the target for perforation to occur, it is not surprising that the erosion process in the target was observed to mirror the one in the projectile. That is both target and projectile developed erosion zones with DRX facilitating the extreme deformation via dense overlapping shear band formation. Mechanical alloying and/or mixing of the target (steel) and rod (W, or W-Inconel 718) was also observed and investigated. Selective etching techniques as well as energy-dispersive x-ray mapping revealed unambiguous evidence of

  11. The emergence of collective phenomena in systems with random interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramkina, Volha

    Emergent phenomena are one of the most profound topics in modern science, addressing the ways that collectivities and complex patterns appear due to multiplicity of components and simple interactions. Ensembles of random Hamiltonians allow one to explore emergent phenomena in a statistical way. In this work we adopt a shell model approach with a two-body interaction Hamiltonian. The sets of the two-body interaction strengths are selected at random, resulting in the two-body random ensemble (TBRE). Symmetries such as angular momentum, isospin, and parity entangled with complex many-body dynamics result in surprising order discovered in the spectrum of low-lying excitations. The statistical patterns exhibited in the TBRE are remarkably similar to those observed in real nuclei. Signs of almost every collective feature seen in nuclei, namely, pairing superconductivity, deformation, and vibration, have been observed in random ensembles [3, 4, 5, 6]. In what follows a systematic investigation of nuclear shape collectivities in random ensembles is conducted. The development of the mean field, its geometry, multipole collectivities and their dependence on the underlying two-body interaction are explored. Apart from the role of static symmetries such as SU(2) angular momentum and isospin groups, the emergence of dynamical symmetries including the seniority SU(2), rotational symmetry, as well as the Elliot SU(3) is shown to be an important precursor for the existence of geometric collectivities.

  12. Analysis of interaction phenomena between liquid jets and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sang-Wook; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G.

    1995-02-01

    The interaction phenomena of high-velocity liquid jets impinging on a material surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally to gain an understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in material removal by fluidjet machining processes. Experiments were performed to determine conditions under which the liquid jet impacting a solid material will cause material removal and also to delineate possible physical mechanisms of mass removal at optimum jet-cutting conditions. We have also carried out numerical simulations of jet-induced surface pressure rises and of the material deformation and spallation behavior due to multiple droplet impacts. Results obtained from the experiments and theoretical calculations and their physical implications are also discussed.

  13. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  14. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of depression-related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Armey, Michael F; Schatten, Heather T; Haradhvala, Natasha; Miller, Ivan W

    2015-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is one research method increasingly employed to better understand the processes that underpin depression and related phenomena. In particular, EMA is well suited to the study of affect (e.g., positive and negative affect), affective responses to stress (e.g., emotion reactivity), and behaviors (e.g., activity level, sleep) that are associated with depression. Additionally, EMA can provide insights into self-harm behavior (i.e. suicide and non-suicidal self-injury), and other mood disorders (e.g. bipolar disorder) commonly associated with depressive episodes. Given the increasing availability and affordability of handheld computing devices such as smartphones, EMA is likely to play an increasingly important role in the study of depression and related phenomena in the future.

  15. DEMETER Observations of Equatorial Plasma Depletions and Related Ionospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelier, J.; Malingre, M.; Pfaff, R.; Jasperse, J.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    DEMETER, the first micro-satellite of the CNES MYRIAD program, was launched from Baikonour on June 29, 2004 on a nearly circular, quasi helio-synchronous polar orbit at ~ 715 km altitude. The DEMETER mission focuses primarily on the search for a possible coupling between seismic activity and ionospheric disturbances as well as on the effects of natural phenomena such as tropospheric thunderstorms and man-made activities on the ionosphere. The scientific payload provides fairly complete measurements of the ionospheric plasma, energetic particles above ~ 70 keV, and plasma waves, up to 20 kHz for the magnetic and 3.3 MHz for the electric components. Several studies related to space weather and ionospheric physics have been conducted over the past years. Following a brief description of the payload and the satellite modes of operation, this presentation will focus on a set of results that provide a new insight into the physics of instabilities in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. The observations were performed during the major magnetic storm of November 2004. Deep plasma depletions were observed on several night-time passes at low latitudes characterized by the decrease of the plasma density by nearly 3 orders of magnitude relative to the undisturbed plasma, and a significant abundance of molecular ions. These features can be best interpreted as resulting from the rise of the F-layer above the satellite altitude over an extended region of the ionosphere. In one of the passes, DEMETER was operated in the Burst mode and the corresponding high resolution data allowed for the discovery of two unexpected phenomena. The first one is the existence of high intensity monochromatic wave packets at the LH frequency that develop during the decay phase of intense bursts of broadband LH turbulence. The broadband LH turbulence is triggered by whistlers emitted by lightning from atmospheric thunderstorms beneath the satellite. The second unexpected feature is the detection of a

  16. Scaling of Quench Front and Entrainment-Related Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Aumiller, D. L.; Hourser, R. J.; Holowach, M. J.; Hochreiter, L. E.; Cheung, F-B.

    2002-04-01

    The scaling of thermal hydraulic systems is of great importance in the development of experiments in laboratory-scale test facilities that are used to replicate the response of full-size prototypical designs. One particular phenomenon that is of interest in experimental modeling is the quench front that develops during the reflood phase in a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) following a large-break LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The purpose of this study is to develop a scaling methodology such that the prototypical quench front related phenomena can be preserved in a laboratory-scale test facility which may have material, geometrical, fluid, and flow differences as compared to the prototypical case. A mass and energy balance on a Lagrangian quench front control volume along with temporal scaling methods are utilized in developing the quench front scaling groups for a phenomena-specific second-tier scaling analysis. A sample calculation is presented comparing the quench front scaling groups calculated for a prototypical Westinghouse 17 x 17 PWR fuel design and that of the geometry and material configuration used in the FLECHT SEASET series of experiments.

  17. Hypersonic shock-interaction phenomena applicable to space shuttle configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, J. J.; Graumann, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    The convective heat transfer distribution for space shuttle configurations is discussed. The viscous/inviscid interactions associated with the complex three dimensional flow fields are examined. Two basic conditions are considered as follows: (1) models consisting of basic elemental combinations and (2) models of specific flight vehicles. The test facilities and test programs used to obtain data on the fuselage flow field and the wing flow field are described.

  18. RELATION BETWEEN METAMORPHOSIS AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTAL PHENOMENA IN AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Uhlenhuth, Eduard

    1919-01-01

    1. The difference in time existing between the first shedding of the skin and the reduction of the gills to mere stubs without fringes is constant and unchangeable, which indicates that the fundamental cause for both is a common one. 2. This common cause is the action of iodine, and consequently both phenomena constitute, or at least are part of, the metamorphosis of the salamanders. 3. The development of the adult skin coloration and of the legs may take place either before or after metamorphosis. Iodine cannot enforce either of these phenomena. 4. The same is true of the development of the sex organs. 5. Development of the tongue and palatal teeth can be checked even in animals in which metamorphosis takes place. 6. Consequently development of the skin coloration, as well as development of the legs, sex organs, tongue, and palatal teeth are all caused by substances not identical with the substances causing metamorphosis and, since they are also all independent of each other in their development, it is probable that special chemical mechanisms exist for the development of each one of these six groups of organs. 7. This assumption is also supported by the fact that the order of development in several of these organ pairs can be changed by a difference in temperature, which would indicate that the development of each of these groups of organs is caused by chemical reactions with different temperature coefficients. 8. That the germ cells can develop in amphibians either before or after metamorphosis does not mean that the germ plasma is opposed as a unit to the somatic plasma, since other organs which are believed to be part of the somatic plasma behave in this respect like the germ cells. 9. The noteworthy feature of the amphibian metamorphosis is that instead of being controlled and kept in harmony by the organic individual the development of at least six groups of organs is controlled separately by the action of probably six different chemical mechanisms, each of

  19. Integrated Physics Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, Donald B; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Berry, Lee A; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, R; Breslau, J.; Chance, M.; Chen, J.; Choi, M.; Elwasif, Wael R; Fu, GuoYong; Harvey, R. W.; Houlberg, Wayne A; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Keyes, David E; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott; Ku, Long-Poe; McCune, Douglas; Schissel, D.; Schnack, D.; Wright, J. C.

    2007-06-01

    The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are: (A) To improve our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (B) To develop an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP).

  20. Hydrogen-methane separation processes and related phenomena. [112 references

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, J.T.; Wang, S.S.; Yang, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A thorough and up-dated literature survey has been conducted on processes for separating hydrogen and methane. This was done in conjunction with our work of developing a more energy-efficient and lower-cost process based on cyclic, fixed-bed processes using coal chars as the sorbents. Although the review has covered all hydrocarbon separation processes, the focuses were on physical adsorption phenomena and theories (for both single and mixed gases), surface and pore characteristics of coals and heat-treated coals, and the continuous or semi-continuous chromatographic separation methods. There has been a sharply increasing interest in the past 10 to 15 years in developing processes for hydrocarbon separation based on adsorption/desorption; this is particularly true since the energy costs became increasingly higher recently. The rigorous work on competitive adsorption and on the cyclic (including parametric pumping) processes has all been done in the past 13 years. On the other hand, it is disappointing to find the absence of knowledge on adsorption on coal chars and the lack of it on adsorption on raw coals as well.

  1. Relationality and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Bottero, Wendy

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores Bourdieu's account of a relational social space, and his relative neglect of social interaction within this framework. Bourdieu includes social capital as one of the key relational elements of his social space, but says much less about it than economic or cultural capital, and levels of social capital are rarely measured in his work. Bourdieu is reluctant to focus on the content of social networks as part of his rejection of substantialist thinking. The neglect of substantive networks creates problems for Bourdieu's framework, because many of Bourdieu's core concepts rest upon assumptions about their interactional properties (in particular, the prevalence of homophilous differential association) which are left unexamined. It is argued here that Bourdieu's neglect of the substance of social networks is related to the criticisms that Bourdieu's framework often encounters, and that this neglect bears re-examination, since it is helpful to think of the ways in which differentiated social networks contribute to the development of habitus, help form fields, and so constitute the intersubjective social relations within which sociality, and practice more generally, occur.

  2. Using Linguistic Phenomena to Motivate a Set of Coherence Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Alistair; Dale, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Explains rhetorical structure theory's conception of relations and why it has appeal in the domain of text generation. Outlines problems resulting from the widespread adoption of the relational concept. Surveys suggestions about how a standard set of relations could be motivated. Presents a new methodology consisting of gathering and classifying a…

  3. Interactive phenomena in supersonic jet mixing problems. I Phenomenology and numerical modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive phenomena that occur in supersonic jet mixing flowfields, and numerical modeling techniques developed to analyze such phenomena are discussed. A spatial marching procedure based on solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes jet mixing equations is presented. This procedure combines shock-capturing methodology for the analysis of supersonic mixing regions with pressure-split methodology for the analysis of subsonic mixing regions. The two regions are coupled at viscous sonic lines utilizing a viscous-characteristic coupling procedure. Specialized techniques for the treatment of jet boundary growth, strong discontinuties (Mach disks), and small embedded subsonic zones (behind Mach disks) are presented. Turbulent processes are represented by two-equation turbulence model formulations. In Part II of this article, numerical studies are presented for a variety of supersonic jet interactive phenomena.

  4. Study of shock waves and related phenomena motivated by astrophysics

    DOE PAGES

    Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; ...

    2016-04-01

    This study discusses the recent research in High-Energy-Density Physics at our Center. Our work in complex hydrodynamics is now focused on mode coupling in the Richtmyer-Meshkov process and on the supersonic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. These processes are believed to occur in a wide range of astrophysical circumstances. In radiation hydrodynamics, we are studying radiative reverse shocks relevant to cataclysmic variable stars. Our work on magnetized flows seeks to produce magnetized jets and study their interactions. We build the targets for all these experiments, and simulate them using our CRASH code. We also conduct diagnostic research, focused primarily on imaging x-ray spectroscopymore » and its applications to scattering and fluorescence.« less

  5. Study of shock waves and related phenomena motivated by astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Malamud, G.; Manuel, M.; Stefano, C. A. Di; Gamboa, E. J.; Krauland, C. M.; MacDonald, M. J.; Wan, W. C.; Young, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Stoeckl, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-04-01

    This study discusses the recent research in High-Energy-Density Physics at our Center. Our work in complex hydrodynamics is now focused on mode coupling in the Richtmyer-Meshkov process and on the supersonic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. These processes are believed to occur in a wide range of astrophysical circumstances. In radiation hydrodynamics, we are studying radiative reverse shocks relevant to cataclysmic variable stars. Our work on magnetized flows seeks to produce magnetized jets and study their interactions. We build the targets for all these experiments, and simulate them using our CRASH code. We also conduct diagnostic research, focused primarily on imaging x-ray spectroscopy and its applications to scattering and fluorescence.

  6. Study of shock waves and related phenomena motivated by astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Malamud, G.; Manuel, M.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Gamboa, E. J.; Krauland, C. M.; MacDonald, M. J.; Wan, W. C.; Young, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Stoeckl, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the recent research in High-Energy-Density Physics at our Center. Our work in complex hydrodynamics is now focused on mode coupling in the Richtmyer- Meshkov process and on the supersonic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. These processes are believed to occur in a wide range of astrophysical circumstances. In radiation hydrodynamics, we are studying radiative reverse shocks relevant to cataclysmic variable stars. Our work on magnetized flows seeks to produce magnetized jets and study their interactions. We build the targets for all these experiments, and simulate them using our CRASH code. We also conduct diagnostic research, focused primarily on imaging x-ray spectroscopy and its applications to scattering and fluorescence.

  7. The Relation between Cognitive Development and Anxiety Phenomena in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relation between cognitive development and fear, anxiety, and behavioral inhibition in a non-clinical sample of 226 Dutch children aged 4-9 years. To assess cognitive development, children were tested with Piagetian conservation tasks and a Theory-of-Mind (TOM) test. Fears were measured by means of a self-report scale completed by…

  8. Physical phenomena related to crystal growth in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism of crystal growth which may be affected by the space environment was studied. Conclusions as to the relative technical and scientific advantages of crystal growth in space over earth bound growth, without regard to economic advantage, were deduced. It was concluded that the crucibleless technique will most directly demonstrate the unique effects of the greatly reduced gravity in the space environment. Several experiments, including crucibleless crystal growth using solar energy and determination of diffusion coefficients of common dopants in liquid silicon were recommended.

  9. BiSb and spin-related thermoelectric phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jin, Hyungyu; Zheng, Yuanhua; Watzman, Sarah J.; Prakash, Arati

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the factors limiting the figure of merit zT of conventional thermoelectrics especially at cryogenic temperatures and then highlights modern approaches used to increase zT below 200 K. Two type of materials are discussed. The first are BiSb alloys, relatively conventional thermoelectrics in which the zT is enhanced by using resonant levels. The second is the spin- Seebeck effect (SSE), a new solid-state energy conversion technology. Classical thermoelectric and SSE physics are combined to provide new concepts, like magnon-drag, in which we hope to increase the performance of solid-state coolers by exploiting the spin degree of freedom.

  10. Migraine aura and related phenomena: beyond scotomata and scintillations

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, MB; Hadjikhani, N

    2013-01-01

    Migraine affects the cortical physiology and may induce dysfunction both ictally and interictally. Although visual symptoms predominate during aura, other contiguous cortical areas related to less impressive symptoms are also impaired in migraine. Answers from 72.2% migraine with aura and 48.6% of migraine without aura patients on human faces and objects recognition, colour perception, proper names recalling and memory in general showed dysfunctions suggestive of prosopagnosia, dyschromatopsia, ideational apraxia, alien hand syndrome, proper name anomia or aphasia, varying in duration and severity. Symptoms frequently occurred in a successively building-up pattern fitting with the geographical distribution of the various cortical functions. When specifically inquired, migraineurs reveal less evident symptoms that are not usually considered during routine examination. Spreading depression most likely underlies the aura symptoms progression. Interictal involvement indicates that MWA and MWoA are not completely silent outside attacks, and that both subforms of migraine may share common mechanisms. PMID:17944958

  11. Lightning and related phenomena in thunderstorms and squall lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Taylor, W. L.; Macgorman, D. R.; Brandes, E.; Mazur, V.; Arnold, R.; Marshall, T.; Christian, H.; Goodman, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    During the past few years, cooperative research on storm electricity has yielded the following results of both basic and applied interest: (1) the intracloud to cloud-to-ground flashing ratio can be as great as 40:1; (2) as storm cells in a squall line dissipate, longer flashes become predominant; (3) there are two centers of lightning activity maxima that are vertically separated, the lower maximum at about 5 km and the upper at about 12 km. In addition, (4) storms produce lightning in their upper regions at a high rate; (5) lightning appears to be related in time to convective motions; (6) positive cloud-to-ground flashes occur in the severe stage of storms and in the later, well-developed stage of squall line storms; (7) mesoscale convective complexes have been observed to have cloud-to-ground flashing rates of more than 48/min; and (8) the electric field in anvils well away from the main storm core (more than 60 km) can be very high, more than 94 kV/m.

  12. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  13. Apparatus and method for interaction phenomena with world modules in data-flow-based simulation

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Patrick G.; Gottlieb, Eric J.; McDonald, Michael J.; Oppel, III, Fred J.

    2006-08-01

    A method and apparatus accommodate interaction phenomenon in a data-flow-based simulation of a system of elements, by establishing meta-modules to simulate system elements and by establishing world modules associated with interaction phenomena. World modules are associated with proxy modules from a group of meta-modules associated with one of the interaction phenomenon. The world modules include a communication world, a sensor world, a mobility world, and a contact world. World modules can be further associated with other world modules if necessary. Interaction phenomenon are simulated in corresponding world modules by accessing member functions in the associated group of proxy modules. Proxy modules can be dynamically allocated at a desired point in the simulation to accommodate the addition of elements in the system of elements such as a system of robots, a system of communication terminals, or a system of vehicles, being simulated.

  14. The Use of the Principle of Relativity in the Interpretation of Phenomena by Undergraduate Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrocola, Mauricio; Zylbersztajn, Arden

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the extent to which the Principle of Relativity was employed by students when dealing with various phenomena. Concludes that the Principle of Relativity is not used as an heuristic tool in students' answers, and that the situations presented were not regarded as "problematic" by the students, who primarily used interpretive…

  15. Reconsideration of inviscid shock interactions and transition phenomena on double-wedge geometries in a M ∞ = 9 hypersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. M.; Myong, R. S.; Yang, Y. R.; Cho, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    Shock polar analysis as well as 2-D numerical computation technique are used to illustrate a diverse flow topology induced by shock/shock interaction in a M ∞ = 9 hypersonic flow. New flow features associated with inviscid shock wave interaction on double-wedge-like geometries are reported in this study. Transition of shock interaction, unsteady oscillation, and hysteresis phenomena in the RR ↔ MR transition, and the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena are numerically studied and analyzed.

  16. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations including ionization, dissociation and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; De Jager, C.; Cuntz, M.; Lobel, A.; Achmad, L.

    1993-01-01

    For purposes of computing shocks in stellars atmospheres and winds we have developed a generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations including ionization, dissociation, radiation and related phenomena such as excitation, rotation and vibration of molecules. The new equations are given in analytical form. They are valid as long as the internal energy E, the total pressure P, and the first adiabatic coefficient gamma(sub 1) can be evaluated. However, we have not treated shock structures. In the case of non-LTE we have to employ an approximation for gamma(sub 1) because in that case no definition exists. Our new version of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations can easily be used for many purposes including ab-initio modeling. In our derivation we introduce a parameter gamma(sub H), which is definded as the ratio of the enthalpy H (sometimes called heat function w) to the internal energy E (sometimes called U). Using this parameter we solve the equations for changing mu and (d(natural log P)/d(natural log rho))(sub ad) identically equal to gamma(sub 1) on both sides of the shock. Both gamma(sub H) and gamma(sub 1), and also mu are functions of pressure P and temperature T. We present: (1) the derivation, (2) examples of gamma(sub 1) (P,T) and gamma(sub H) (P,T) which include/exclude ionization and radiation, and (3) as an example the differences in post-shock parameters as function of the pre-shock temperature for the case with ionization and without radiation.

  17. Why does gaze enhance mimicry? Placing gaze-mimicry effects in relation to other gaze phenomena.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2014-01-01

    Eye gaze is a powerful signal, which exerts a mixture of arousal, attentional, and social effects on the observer. We recently found a behavioural interaction between eye contact and mimicry where direct gaze rapidly enhanced mimicry of hand movements ). Here, we report two detailed investigations of this effect. In Experiment 1, we compared the effects of "direct gaze", "averted gaze", and "gaze to the acting hand" on mimicry and manipulated the sequence of gaze events within a trial. Only direct gaze immediately before the hand action enhanced mimicry. In Experiment 2, we examined the enhancement of mimicry when direct gaze is followed by a "blink" or by "shut eyes", or by "occluded eyes". Enhanced mimicry relative to baseline was seen only in the blink condition. Together, these results suggest that ongoing social engagement is necessary for enhanced mimicry. These findings allow us to place the gaze-enhancement effect in the context of other reported gaze phenomena. We suggest that this effect is similar to previously reported audience effects, but is less similar to ostensive cueing effects. This has important implications for our theories of the relationships between social cues and imitation.

  18. New Phenomena in Physics Related with Single-Atom Electron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamine, Yuta; Fujiwara, Kazuto; Cho, Bokulae; Oshima, Chuhei

    We have reviewed new phenomena in physics related with development of single-atom electron sources. A collimated electron beam was emitted from the single-atom situated at the top of the nano-pyramids. The following three topics have been discussed. (1) High brightness of electron beam: High-density electrons come out of the source, and overlapping of wave functions presumably produces new phenomena including anti-bunching of electrons in vacuum. Energy spectra showed characteristic features of single-atom electron sources; additional shoulders appeared in the normal spectra. 3) Stable electron emission originates from the field evaporation.

  19. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  20. Theoretical and experimental studies of space-related plasma wave propagation and resonance phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, F. W.

    1975-01-01

    A ten year summary was given of university research on the nature and characteristics of space related plasma resonance phenomena, whistler propagation in laboratory plasmas, and theoretical and experimental studies of plasma wave propagation. Data are also given on long delayed echoes, low frequency instabilities, ionospheric heating, and backscatter, and pulse propagation. A list is included of all conference papers, publications, and reports resulting from the study.

  1. Numerical studies of wall-plasma interactions and ionization phenomena in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Zeng, Guangshang; Tang, Haibin; Huang, Yuping; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-07-01

    Wall-plasma interactions excited by ablation controlled arcs are very critical physical processes in pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs). Their effects on the ionization processes of ablated vapor into discharge plasma directly determine PPT performances. To reveal the physics governing the ionization phenomena in PPT discharge, a modified model taking into account the pyrolysis effect of heated polytetrafluoroethylene propellant on the wall-plasma interactions was developed. The feasibility of the modified model was analyzed by creating a one-dimensional simulation of a rectangular ablative PPT. The wall-plasma interaction results based on this modified model were found to be more realistic than for the unmodified model; this reflects the dynamic changes of the inflow parameters during discharge in our model. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial variations of the different plasma species in the discharge chamber were numerically studied. The numerical studies showed that polytetrafluoroethylene plasma was mainly composed of monovalent ions; carbon and fluorine ions were concentrated in the upstream and downstream discharge chamber, respectively. The results based on this modified model were in good agreement with the experimental formation times of the various plasma species. A large number of short-lived and highly ionized carbon and fluorine species (divalent and trivalent ions) were created during initial discharge. These highly ionized species reached their peak density earlier than the singly ionized species.

  2. Double Layers: Potential Formation and Related Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas: Proceedings of the 5th Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, S.

    1998-02-01

    Parallel Velocity Shear Instability (Invited) * Low-Frequency Instabilities under a Cross-Field Electric Field in a K+-C60- Plasma * 3.3 Vortex Formation * Vortex Dynamics in Low Frequency Electrostatic Turbulence * Development of Spiral-Vortex Structures of the Plasma During Rotation in a Neutral Gas * Vortex Formation of Particles in Magnetized Dusty Plasmas (Invited) * CHAPTER 4: SOLITONS, SHOCKS, WAVES AND INSTABILITIES, AND RELATED NONLINEAR PHENOMENA * 4.1 Solitons and Shocks * Refraction and Reflection of Ion Acoustic Solitons by Space Charge Sheath * 2D and 3D Solitons in Plasma: Structure, Stability, Dynamics * Solitary Waves in an Ion-Beam Multi-Component Plasma System * Shock Formation in a Q-Machine Plasma with Negative Ions * 4.2 Waves and Instabilities * Single-Ended Q-Machine as a Source of Oscillations (Invited) * Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Period Doubling of the Potential Relaxation Instability in an Electron-Rich Q-Machine Plasma * Large Amplitude Electrostatic Ion Waves in an e- - e+ - p Plasma * Measurements of Alfvén Waves around the CRIT Releases-Implications for Current Limitation in Alfvén Wings * 4.3 Nonlinear Phenomena * Self-Organization Phenomena in a Q-Machine Plasma * Nonlinearity Related to Self-Organization in a Thermionic Vacuum Arc Discharge * Spontaneous Formation of Ordered Spatio-Temporal Structures in Laboratory and Nature * Nonlinear Evolution and Stabilization of Linearly Unstable Waves in an Electron-Beam Plasma * Disruption of an Electron Hole Due to its Interaction with Ion Acoustic Waves in a Plasma * Expanding Plasma Clouds with Dust Particles (Invited) * LIST OF PARTICIPANTS * AUTHOR INDEX

  3. Haldane relation for interacting dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Mastropietro, Vieri; Lucio Toninelli, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    We consider a model of weakly interacting close-packed dimers on the two-dimensional square lattice. In a previous paper, we computed both the multi-point dimer correlations, which display non-trivial critical exponents, continuously varying with the interaction strength; and the height fluctuations, which, after proper coarse graining and rescaling, converge to a massless Gaussian field with a suitable interaction-dependent pre-factor (‘amplitude’). In this paper, we prove the identity between the critical exponent of the two-point dimer correlation and the amplitude of this massless Gaussian field. This identity is the restatement, in the context of interacting dimers, of one of the Haldane universality relations, part of his Luttinger-liquid conjecture, originally formulated in the context of one-dimensional interacting Fermi systems. Its validity is a strong confirmation of the effective massless Gaussian field description of the interacting dimer model, which was proposed on the basis of formal bosonization arguments. We also conjecture that a certain discrete curve defined at the lattice level via the Temperley bijection converges in the scaling limit to an SLE κ process, with κ depending non-trivially on the interaction and related in a simple way to the amplitude of the limiting Gaussian field.

  4. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  5. Study of Starburst/Activity/Interaction Phenomena based on the Multiple Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Gohar S.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-07-01

    The Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy (BIG) sample is the result of optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at high-galactic latitudes using the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra. Among the 1178 objects most are spiral galaxies and many have been proved to be AGN and starburst by spectroscopic observations, as well as there is a number of ULIRGs among these objects. BIG objects contain galaxy pairs, multiples, and small groups that are subject for study on the matter of the real IR-emitter in these systems. Given that these objects are powerful IR sources, they are considered as young systems indicating high rate of evolution and starburst activity exceeding 100 M o /yr. Spectroscopic observations show that all these systems are physical ones and we were able to measure the mutual distances and sizes for all components. Cross-correlations with the recent more accurate IR catalogues, such as 2MASS and WISE, as well as radio ones (NVSS, FIRST), provided accurate coordinates of the IR source and possibility to find the individual galaxy responsible for the IR. However, in almost half of the cases, IR position indicates the intermediate region between the components, which means that it comes from the system as a whole. Some more MW data have been matched to IR and radio to have an overall understanding on these systems. Given that these systems are mostly interacting/merging ones often containing AGN and most of them may be considered as powerful starbursts, it is possible to study starburst/activity/interaction phenomena and their interrelationship.

  6. Dynamic cross correlation studies of wave particle interactions in ULF phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherron, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic field observations made by satellites in the earth's magnetic field reveal a wide variety of ULF waves. These waves interact with the ambient particle populations in complex ways, causing modulation of the observed particle fluxes. This modulation is found to be a function of species, pitch angle, energy and time. The characteristics of this modulation provide information concerning the wave mode and interaction process. One important characteristic of wave-particle interactions is the phase of the particle flux modulation relative to the magnetic field variations. To display this phase as a function of time a dynamic cross spectrum program has been developed. The program produces contour maps in the frequency time plane of the cross correlation coefficient between any particle flux time series and the magnetic field vector. This program has been utilized in several studies of ULF wave-particle interactions at synchronous orbit.

  7. Believing in paranormal phenomena: relations to asymmetry of body and brain.

    PubMed

    Schulter, Günter; Papousek, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between established measures of body and brain asymmetries and individual differences in paranormal beliefs. In addition to behavioural measures of cerebral laterality, measures of facial features and finger length were taken to calculate body asymmetry scores and indicators of fluctuating asymmetry (average absolute differences between left and right body features). Both the direction and degree of laterality measures were used. In addition to that, quantitative measures of inconsistency of cerebral lateralization were obtained. Results indicated that a stronger belief in paranormal phenomena was associated with fluctuating asymmetry of finger length, and that this aspect of body asymmetry may be related to greater intraindividual variability in the degree of 'atypical' functional lateralization. This intraindividual variability index, in turn, significantly predicted strength of belief in the paranormal. Belief in the paranormal was also higher in women than men and it was negatively correlated with the education level. In sum, these findings suggest that a part of the variance of strength of belief in paranormal phenomena can be explained by patterns of functional hemispheric asymmetry that may be related to perturbations during fetal development.

  8. Trichotillomania and Non-Epileptic Seizures as Sleep-Related Dissociative Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Angulo-Franco, Melina; Bush-Martínez, Alejandra; Nenclares-Portocarrero, Alejandro; Jiménez-Genchi, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of non-epileptic seizures (NES) and trichotillomania during sleep is rare. We describe the case of an adult woman with a personal history of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity (major depression, trichotillomania, and conversion disorder), who was referred to the sleep unit because of nocturnal hair-pulling and psychomotor agitation during sleep. An all-night PSG recording with audiovisual monitoring documented seven episodes of trichotillomania and one NES, all of which arose from unequivocal wakefulness. Improvement of nocturnal behaviors was observed after long-term psychotherapy. This case illustrates that nocturnal trichotillomania and NES may be symptoms of a sleep-related dissociative disorder. Citation: Angulo-Franco M, Bush-Martínez A, Nenclares-Portocarrero A, Jiménez-Genchi A. Trichotillomania and non-epileptic seizures as sleep-related dissociative phenomena. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):271–273. PMID:25515284

  9. SMALL-SCALE LOCAL PHENOMENA RELATED TO THE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND TURBULENCE IN THE PROXIMITY OF THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Strumik, M.; Czechowski, A.; Grzedzielski, S.; Macek, W. M.; Ratkiewicz, R.

    2013-08-20

    We study processes related to magnetic reconnection and plasma turbulence occurring in the presence of the heliopause (HP) and the heliospheric current sheet. It is shown that the interaction of plasmoids initiated by magnetic reconnection may provide connections between the inner and outer heliosheath and lead to an exchange of particles between the interstellar medium and the solar wind plasma shocked at the heliospheric termination shock. The magnetic reconnection may also cause plasma density and magnetic field compressions in the proximity of the HP. We argue that these phenomena could possibly be detected by the Voyager spacecraft approaching and crossing the HP. These results could clarify the concepts of the ''magnetic highway'' and the ''heliosheath depletion region'' recently proposed to explain recent Voyager 1 observations.

  10. Numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction phenomena in viscous dominated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hai Duong

    2001-12-01

    The accurate prediction of buffet boundaries is essential in modern military aircraft and suspension bridge design in order to avoid the potentially disastrous consequences of unsteady loads. The design of lightweight structures and thermal protection systems for supersonic and hypersonic vehicles depends on the accurate prediction of the aerothermal loads, the structural temperatures and their gradients, and the structural deformations and stresses. Despite their bounded nature, limit-cycle oscillations can exhibit important amplitudes which affect the fatigue life of aircraft structures. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to develop and design an integrated multidisciplinary computational methodology for the analyses of the coupled responses exhibited by these phenomena. To simulate fluid/structure interaction problems in turbulent flows, we formulate the k--epsilon turbulence model and Reichardt's wall law in ALE form for dynamic meshes. This law is used with the generalized boundary conditions on k and epsilon of Jaeger and Dhatt and allows a closer integration to the wall compared to standard logarithmic laws and boundary conditions on k and epsilon. In order to apply the methodology to buffeting problems dominated by vortex shedding, we validate our solution approach on the square cylinder benchmark problem. There, we stress the minimization of numerical dissipation induced by an upwinding scheme, and apply our methodology to the aeroelastic stability analysis of a sectional dynamic model of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Then, we extend the three field formulation of aeroelasticity to a four-field formulation of aerothermoelasticity for the analysis of aerodynamic heating on structures. With a k--epsilon model, the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated up to a distance delta from the real wall. This gap creates a problem for the transmission of the structural temperature to the fluid system. To resolve this problem, we exchange the

  11. Some recent developments in the prediction of shock interaction phenomena at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The shock strengths for which either Edney type I or type II shock interference patterns can occur when two oblique shocks of opposite families intersect were determined graphically at Mach 10 by using logarithmic shock polar diagrams. The theoretical region of overlap for the two types of interaction was investigated by observing in the Schlieren system of the Langley 15-inch hypersonic flow apparatus the intersection of oblique shocks generated by two sharp 10 degree wedges as the wedge angles of attack and their relative positions were altered. A range of shock strengths for which either of the two interference patterns can exist was demonstrated.

  12. The value of positive psychology for health psychology: progress and pitfalls in examining the relation of positive phenomena to health.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tedeschi, Richard G

    2010-02-01

    The growth of the "positive psychology" movement reflects increased scientific and lay interest in the relation of positive phenomena to mental and physical health and the corresponding potential for interventions that promote positive feelings, thoughts, and experiences to improve health and well-being. In this article, we (1) consider research on optimism, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth that predates the contemporary emphasis on positive psychology, but has clear and increasingly well-supported connections to health psychology, (2) examine several potential mechanisms through which such positive phenomena may influence the etiology, progression, and management of illness, (3) identify four pervasive but misleading assumptions about positive phenomena that may limit both scientific research and practical application, and (4) caution against serious pitfalls of popular views of positive thinking, such as its promotion as a cure for cancer and other diseases. We conclude with recommendations for the balanced scientific investigation and application of positive phenomena.

  13. Current Transport and Onset-Related Phenomena in an MPD Thruster Modified by Applied Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Robert Carlos

    field lowered terminal voltages below 10.7 kA. These significant reductions in onset-related behaviors should lead to improved thruster lifetime and increased efficiency. These results suggest a distinctive and more effective approach to influencing the near-anode phenomena and mitigating the effects of onset with appropriately designed applied magnetic fields that differ from those used in the vast majority of conventional, so-called "applied-field MPD thrusters."

  14. A Bayesian explanation of the ‘Uncanny Valley’ effect and related psychological phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    There are a number of psychological phenomena in which dramatic emotional responses are evoked by seemingly innocuous perceptual stimuli. A well known example is the ‘uncanny valley’ effect whereby a near human-looking artifact can trigger feelings of eeriness and repulsion. Although such phenomena are reasonably well documented, there is no quantitative explanation for the findings and no mathematical model that is capable of predicting such behavior. Here I show (using a Bayesian model of categorical perception) that differential perceptual distortion arising from stimuli containing conflicting cues can give rise to a perceptual tension at category boundaries that could account for these phenomena. The model is not only the first quantitative explanation of the uncanny valley effect, but it may also provide a mathematical explanation for a range of social situations in which conflicting cues give rise to negative, fearful or even violent reactions. PMID:23162690

  15. A Bayesian explanation of the 'Uncanny Valley' effect and related psychological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roger K

    2012-01-01

    There are a number of psychological phenomena in which dramatic emotional responses are evoked by seemingly innocuous perceptual stimuli. A well known example is the 'uncanny valley' effect whereby a near human-looking artifact can trigger feelings of eeriness and repulsion. Although such phenomena are reasonably well documented, there is no quantitative explanation for the findings and no mathematical model that is capable of predicting such behavior. Here I show (using a Bayesian model of categorical perception) that differential perceptual distortion arising from stimuli containing conflicting cues can give rise to a perceptual tension at category boundaries that could account for these phenomena. The model is not only the first quantitative explanation of the uncanny valley effect, but it may also provide a mathematical explanation for a range of social situations in which conflicting cues give rise to negative, fearful or even violent reactions.

  16. A Bayesian explanation of the "Uncanny Valley" effect and related psychological phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Roger K.

    2012-11-01

    There are a number of psychological phenomena in which dramatic emotional responses are evoked by seemingly innocuous perceptual stimuli. A well known example is the `uncanny valley' effect whereby a near human-looking artifact can trigger feelings of eeriness and repulsion. Although such phenomena are reasonably well documented, there is no quantitative explanation for the findings and no mathematical model that is capable of predicting such behavior. Here I show (using a Bayesian model of categorical perception) that differential perceptual distortion arising from stimuli containing conflicting cues can give rise to a perceptual tension at category boundaries that could account for these phenomena. The model is not only the first quantitative explanation of the uncanny valley effect, but it may also provide a mathematical explanation for a range of social situations in which conflicting cues give rise to negative, fearful or even violent reactions.

  17. Characterization of Side Load Phenomena Using Measurement of Fluid/Structure Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joseph; Reed, Darren; DAgostino, Mark; Keanini, Russell; McConnaughey, Paul K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During ground-tests of most production rocket engines over the last 30 years, large asymmetric transient side loads coming from the nozzle and related steady-state vibrational loads within the nozzle have been measured. The widely varying magnitude of these loads has been large enough to fail interfacing components as well as nozzles in these engines. This paper will discuss a comprehensive test and analysis program that has been undertaken to develop a methodology to accurately predict the character and magnitude of this loading. The project to-date has incorporated analytical modeling of both the fluid flow and the nozzle structure and testing of both full-scale and sub-scale rocket nodes. Examination of the test data indicates that one of the two-nodal diameter structural modes may be interacting with flow separation from the nozzle inside-wall in a self-excited or aeroelastic vibration phenomenon. If verified, this observation will be used to develop a methodology for design and analysis. A fuller understanding of the characteristics of this vibration will provide an increase in the accuracy and confidence of side load predictions, which will be critical for the successful construction of the next generation of low-cost, reliable rocket engines.

  18. Interaction between fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena in a cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, G. D.; Navickas, J.

    1993-07-01

    A generic cryogenic upper stage is analyzed using the FLOW-3D finite-difference program. The analysis is conducted to illustrate that coupled fluid-dynamic-thermodynamic numerical modeling is feasible with existing computational technology. A long-duration simulation of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank in a cryogenic upper stage is completed with no major computational difficulties. The numerical tank is exposed to external heating and dynamic disturbances typical for such a stage including high-gravity boost, stage separation, upper-stage initial burn, low-gravity orbital coast, and engine restart. Results show that propellant sloshing and temperature distribution are highly coupled indicating that fluid-dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena cannot be modeled independently for such a system.

  19. Dissipation, interaction, and relative entropy.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, B; Granger, L; Moreau, M; Schulman, L S

    2014-03-01

    Many thermodynamic relations involve inequalities, with equality if a process does not involve dissipation. In this article we provide equalities in which the dissipative contribution is shown to involve the relative entropy (also called the Kullback-Leibler divergence). The processes considered are general time evolutions in both classical and quantum mechanics, and the initial state is sometimes thermal, sometimes partially so. As an application, the relative entropy is related to transport coefficients.

  20. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, S. R. Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  1. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  2. A study on flash sintering and related phenomena in titania and its composite with alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhar

    In 2010, Cologna et. al. [1] reported that with a help of small electric field 120 Vcm-1, the sintering temperature of 3 mol % yittria stabilized zirconia could be brought down to 850°C from 1450°C. On top of reducing the temperature requirements, the green sample could be sintered from starting density of 50% to near full density in mere 5 seconds, a sintering rate three orders of magnitude higher than conventional methods. This discovery led to the emergence of a new field of enhanced sintering with electric field, named "Flash Sintering". The objective of this thesis is to understand the phenomenological behavior of flash-sintering and related phenomena on titania and its composites with alumina at elevated temperature. The possible mechanisms to explain flash sintering are discussed: Joule heating and the avalanche of defect generation [2], both induced by the rapid rise in conductivity just before the onset of the flash. Apparently, both mechanisms play a role. The thesis covers the response of pure titania and composites of titania-alumina under flash and compared with conventional sintering. We start with the sintering behavior of pure titania and observe lowering of sintering temperature requirements with higher applied electric field. The conductivity of titania during flash is also measured, and compared with the nominal conductivity of titania at equivalent temperatures. The conductivity during flash is determined to be have a different activation energy. For the composites of titania-alumina, effect of flash on the constrained sintering was studied. It is a known fact that sintering of one component of composite slows down when the other component of a different densification rate is added to it, called constrained sintering. In our case, large inclusions of alumina particles were added to nano-grained titania green compact that hindered its densification. Flash sintering was found to be overcoming this problem and near full densification was achieved

  3. Experimental modelling of lightning interaction phenomena with a free potential conducting objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, E. N.; Lupeiko, A. V.; Petrov, N. I.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the physical processes of the development of air discharge and its interaction with free potential conducting objects. The space-time development of lightning in gaps was recorded by a motion picture camera and an optoelectronic transducer. The electric field at different points in the gap was measured using a Pockels device both in the leader stage and in the stage of the return stroke. Experimental results of the streamer zone length measurements in the gaps with lengths up to 65 meters are presented. The physical processes occurring during the interaction of positive and negative long sparks with isolated objects were investigated. The striking probability of isolated conducting spheres with different diameters and the dependence of the strike on the location of the gap are investigated.

  4. Understanding of assembly phenomena by aromatic-aromatic interactions: benzene dimer and the substituted systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Cheol; Kim, Dongwook; Jurecka, Petr; Tarakeshwar, P; Hobza, Pavel; Kim, Kwang S

    2007-05-10

    Interactions involving aromatic rings are important in molecular/biomolecular assembly and engineering. As a consequence, there have been a number of investigations on dimers involving benzene or other substituted pi systems. In this Feature Article, we examine the relevance of the magnitudes of their attractive and repulsive interaction energy components in governing the geometries of several pi-pi systems. The geometries and the associated binding energies were evaluated at the complete basis set (CBS) limit of coupled cluster theory with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples excitations [CCSD(T)] using a least biased scheme for the given data set. The results for the benzene dimer indicate that the floppy T-shaped structure (center-to-center distance: 4.96 A, with an axial benzene off-centered above the facial benzene) is isoenergetic in zero-point-energy (ZPE) corrected binding energy (D0) to the displaced-stacked structure (vertical interplanar distance: 3.54 A). However, the T-shaped structure is likely to be slightly more stable (D0 approximately equal to 2.4-2.5 kcal/mol) if quadruple excitations are included in the coupled cluster calculations. The presence of substituents on the aromatic ring, irrespective of their electron withdrawing or donating nature, leads to an increase in the binding energy, and the displaced-stacked conformations are more stabilized than the T-shaped conformers. This explains the wide prevalence of displaced stacked structures in organic crystals. Despite that the dispersion energy is dominating, the substituent as well as the conformational effects are correlated to the electrostatic interaction. This electrostatic origin implies that the substituent effect would be reduced in polar solution, but important in apolar media, in particular, for assembling processes.

  5. Interactions of chlorosulfonated polyethylene geomembranes with aliphatic esters: Sorption and diffusion phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Aminabhavi, T.M.; Munnolli, R.S.; Ortego, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    The resistance of chlorosulfonated polyethylene geomembranes to nine aliphatic esters viz., methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetoacetate, n-butyl acetate, diethyl oxalate, iso-amyl acetate, diethyl malonate, and diethyl succinate was investigated in the temperature interval 25--60 C by measuring the liquid sorption using a gravimetric method. A Fickian diffusion equation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficients, and these data were dependent on the type of ester molecules and their interactions with the geomembrane in additions to temperature and solvent concentration. The activation energy values for the diffusion process were in the range 18--41 kJ/mole and the heat of sorption varied from 0.61 to 18.50 kJ/mole. the sorption/swelling results were found to follow the first order kinetics. Solvent front velocities were calculated from the sorption data. The statistical error analysis has been presented in order to judge the reliability of the technique used. The experimental data and calculated parameters were used to discuss transport results in terms of membrane-solvent interactions. None of the esters showed any degradative effects on the geomembrane used.

  6. Effect of wake structure on blade-vortex interaction phenomena: Acoustic prediction and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallman, Judith M.; Tung, Chee; Schultz, Klaus J.; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Buchholz, Heino

    1995-01-01

    During the Higher Harmonic Control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test, extensive measurements of the rotor aerodynamics, the far-field acoustics, the wake geometry, and the blade motion for powered, descent, flight conditions were made. These measurements have been used to validate and improve the prediction of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. The improvements made to the BVI modeling after the evaluation of the test data are discussed. The effects of these improvements on the acoustic-pressure predictions are shown. These improvements include restructuring the wake, modifying the core size, incorporating the measured blade motion into the calculations, and attempting to improve the dynamic blade response. A comparison of four different implementations of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is presented. A common set of aerodynamic input has been used for this comparison.

  7. Investigation of interaction phenomena between crural fascia and muscles by using a three-dimensional numerical model.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Piero G; Pachera, Paola; Forestiero, Antonella; Natali, Arturo N

    2017-02-10

    The focus of this work is the numerical modeling of the anterior compartment of the human leg with particular attention to crural fascia. Interaction phenomena between fascia and muscles are of clinical interest to explain some pathologies, as the compartment syndrome. A first step to enhance knowledge on this topic consists in the investigation of fascia biomechanical role and its interaction with muscles in physiological conditions. A three-dimensional finite element model of the anterior compartment is developed based on anatomical data, detailing the structural conformation of crural fascia, composed of three layers, and modeling the muscles as a unique structure. Different constitutive models are implemented to describe the mechanical response of tissues. Crural fascia is modeled as a hyperelastic fiber-reinforced material, while muscle tissue via a three-element Hill's model. The numerical analysis of isotonic contraction of muscles is performed, allowing the evaluation of pressure induced within muscles and consequent stress and strain fields arising on the crural fascia. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements of the compartment radial deformation and intracompartmental pressure during concentric contraction, to validate the model. The numerical model provides a suitable description of muscles contraction of the anterior compartment and the consequent mechanical interaction with the crural fascia.

  8. A Study of Aircraft Fire Hazards Related to Natural Electrical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Frank L.; Gerstein, Melvin; Plumer, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    The problems of natural electrical phenomena as a fire hazard to aircraft are evaluated. Assessment of the hazard is made over the range of low level electrical discharges, such as static sparks, to high level discharges, such as lightning strikes to aircraft. In addition, some fundamental work is presented on the problem of flame propagation in aircraft fuel vent systems. This study consists of a laboratory investigation in five parts: (1) a study of the ignition energies and flame propagation rates of kerosene-air and JP-6-air foams, (2) a study of the rate of flame propagation of n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, and n-decane in aircraft vent ducts, (3) a study of the damage to aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel aircraft skin materials by lightning strikes, (4) a study of fuel ignition by lightning strikes to aircraft skins, and (5) a study of lightning induced flame propagation in an aircraft vent system.

  9. Temperature-dependence of stress-related phenomena at confined dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptono, Rahmat

    Efforts have been made to develop a simple but physically sound model. The model was specifically proposed to capture, explain, and estimate the temperature sensitivity and strengthening mechanism phenomena in small volume material with particular reference to the roles grain boundary and surface. Model-inspired phenomenology approach was applied to reveal the key mechanisms and find directions for a more complete constitutive model. The model was developed in the limited space where diffusion is insignificant. It was assumed that the plastic flow was predominantly governed by the thermally-activated process of dislocation glide overcoming barriers. Simple mathematical functions were formulated and evaluated to model the behavior. The figures of merit functions were fitted into the experimental data to evaluate physical parameters. Normalization was performed prior to the regression analysis to extract real variables and allow global evaluation. Behavior of the small volume materials subjected to temperature variation within the range of argument can be generally condensed, described and predicted by an exponential decay model. In particular, the models are able to explain the responsible mechanism behind the observed phenomena. Important findings had been concluded through the model application along with simplified observation and analysis. Surface is not a part of main strengthening mechanism. Thin film exhibits atypical high flow stress because of high density grain boundary and dislocation density, which is a true effect of confinement. Grain boundary strengthening becomes weaker and mechanism becomes short-range in thin films with small grains. Exponential decay model explains the temperature-dependence of flow stress behavior in small volume metallic materials with physical validity. The validity is proven by finding a direct connection of the model to the established physical mechanistic model in the field. Despite of quite a few limitations, it provides

  10. Severe wind flow of small spatial and temporal scales: The microburst and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Rita D.; Mccarthy, John

    1985-01-01

    Low-altitude winds on the meso- and microscale are the primary focus of study for the Research Applications Program (RAP) of NCAR. Local weather features such as microbursts, microburst lines, gust fronts, and convergent wind boundaries have been observed and documented extensively. A microburst is a strong, small-scale convective storm outflow which diverges horizontally in all directions upon impact with the ground (Fujita, 1981). A microburst line is composed of two or more microbursts which occur either simultaneously or consecutively, and subsequently form a diverging line of outflow. The temporal and spatial scales of these phenomena are shown. Microbursts and microburst lines generally occur on both the meso- and microscale, while gust fronts and convergent wind boundaries overlap into the mesoscale. Microbursts, in particular, not only are small spatially but are also a short-lived phenomenon. Clearly, some of these features are on a much smaller spatial and temporal scale than can be resolved by a global wind measurement. During the past three years, three experiments were held in the Denver, CO, area to observe boundary-layer winds. Their main objectives were observation and documentation of those weather features discussed above. The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project, which ran in the summer of 1982, was set up to study microbursts. The Convective Initiation Project (1984) was designed to document clear-air convergent wind boundaries, including gust fronts, and their role in convective storm initiation. This project was immediately followed by the Classify, Locate, and Avoid Wind Shear experiment that expanded upon the work done in JAWS. Details on the scales of these weather features are presented. The wind sensors used to detect these phenomena are also discussed. Concluding comments address the usefulness of a global wind measurement system as it pertains to our local scale of interest.

  11. Dense-Spray Structure and Phenomena. Part 1. Turbulence/Dispersed-Phase Interactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-15

    extended version of the SSF analysis accounted for this effect following Clift et al. (1978) and Lopes & Dukler (1986). The expression for the drag...study. Lopes & Dukler (1986) * also find enhanced drag effects, at high relative turbulence intensities, in annular two-phase 2.4.6 Particle Number...124. * Lopes, J. C. & Dukler , A. E. (1986) Droplet dynamics in vertical gas-liquid flow. A.ICh.E. ",, submitted. Modarress, D., Tan, H. & Elghobashi, S

  12. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z. R.; Crowhurst, J. C.; Grant, C. D.; Knight, K. B.; Tang, V.; Chernov, A. A.; Cook, E. G.; Lotscher, J. P.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-11-01

    We report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to 100 μs. Samples took the form of a 4 μm-thick U238 film deposited onto 8 pairs of 17 μm-thick Cu electrodes supported on a 25 μm-thick Kapton backing and sandwiched between glass plates. Materials recovered from the glass plates and around the electrode tips after passage of an arc were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Recovered materials included a variety of crystalline compounds (e.g., UO2, UC2, UCu5,) as well as mixtures of uranium and amorphous glass. Most of the materials collected on the glass plates took the form of spherules having a wide range of diameters from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The composition and size of the spherules depended on location, indicating different chemical and physical environments. A theoretical analysis we have carried out suggests that the submicron spherules presumably formed by deposition during the arc discharge, while at the same time the glass plates were strongly heated due to absorption of plasma radiation mainly by islands of deposited metals (Cu, U). The surface temperature of the glass plates is expected to have risen to ˜2300 K thus producing a liquefied glass layer, likely diffusions of the deposited metals on the hot glass surface and into this layer were accompanied by chemical reactions that gave rise to the observed materials. These results, together with the compact scale and relatively low cost, suggest that the experimental technique provides a practical approach to investigate the complex physical and chemical processes that occur when actinide-containing material interacts with the environment at high temperature, for example, during fallout formation following a nuclear detonation.

  13. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Z. R. Crowhurst, J. C.; Grant, C. D.; Knight, K. B.; Tang, V.; Chernov, A. A.; Cook, E. G.; Lotscher, J. P.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-11-28

    We report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to 100 μs. Samples took the form of a 4 μm-thick film deposited onto 8 pairs of 17 μm-thick Cu electrodes supported on a 25 μm-thick Kapton backing and sandwiched between glass plates. Materials recovered from the glass plates and around the electrode tips after passage of an arc were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Recovered materials included a variety of crystalline compounds (e.g., UO{sub 2}, UC{sub 2}, UCu{sub 5},) as well as mixtures of uranium and amorphous glass. Most of the materials collected on the glass plates took the form of spherules having a wide range of diameters from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The composition and size of the spherules depended on location, indicating different chemical and physical environments. A theoretical analysis we have carried out suggests that the submicron spherules presumably formed by deposition during the arc discharge, while at the same time the glass plates were strongly heated due to absorption of plasma radiation mainly by islands of deposited metals (Cu, U). The surface temperature of the glass plates is expected to have risen to ∼2300 K thus producing a liquefied glass layer, likely diffusions of the deposited metals on the hot glass surface and into this layer were accompanied by chemical reactions that gave rise to the observed materials. These results, together with the compact scale and relatively low cost, suggest that the experimental technique provides a practical approach to investigate the complex physical and chemical processes that occur when actinide-containing material interacts with the environment at high temperature, for example, during fallout formation following a nuclear detonation.

  14. Exploring high temperature phenomena related to post-detonation using an electric arc

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Z. R.; Crowhurst, J. C.; Grant, C. D.; Knight, K. B.; Tang, V.; Chernov, A. A.; Cook, E. G.; Lotscher, J. P.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-11-22

    Here, we report a study of materials recovered from a uranium-containing plasma generated by an electric arc. The device used to generate the arc is capable of sustaining temperatures of an eV or higher for up to . Samples took the form of a -thick film deposited onto 8 pairs of -thick Cu electrodes supported on a -thick Kapton backing and sandwiched between glass plates. Materials recovered from the glass plates and around the electrode tips after passage of an arc were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Recovered materials included a variety of crystalline compounds (e.g., UO2, UC2, UCu5,) as well as mixtures of uranium and amorphous glass. Most of the materials collected on the glass plates took the form of spherules having a wide range of diameters from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The composition and size of the spherules depended on location, indicating different chemical and physical environments. A theoretical analysis we have carried out suggests that the submicron spherules presumably formed by deposition during the arc discharge, while at the same time the glass plates were strongly heated due to absorption of plasma radiation mainly by islands of deposited metals (Cu, U). The surface temperature of the glass plates is expected to have risen to ~2300 K thus producing a liquefied glass layer, likely diffusions of the deposited metals on the hot glass surface and into this layer were accompanied by chemical reactions that gave rise to the observed materials. These results, together with the compact scale and relatively low cost, suggest that the experimental technique provides a practical approach to investigate the complex physical and chemical processes that occur when actinide-containing material interacts with the environment at high temperature, for example, during fallout formation following a nuclear detonation.

  15. Paranormal phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  16. Children's Explanations for Phenomena Related to Manned Space - Orbit, and Weightlessness: an Interview Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Donald James

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit the explanations held by sixth grade students concerning gravity, orbit, and weightlessness within the context of manned space exploration. This study was descriptive and qualitative and utilized an anthropological perspective. Each student was interviewed individually using a multistage interview approach. During these sessions videotape segments and auxiliary models focusing on the Space Shuttle were utilized to elicit the students' explanations. Each student's explanations were recorded, transcribed and summarized into statements or explanatory categories. Forty explanatory categories, concerning gravity, orbit, and weightlessness, were developed from these students individual explanations. These categories were then evaluated for accuracy by the interviewed students. Nine general explanatory frameworks, three each for the phenomena of interest were formulated from the explanatory categories. Gravity. (1) Gravity holds people and objects on the earth. (2) Air and the atmosphere influence gravity. (3) Gravity is a geocentric phenomenon. Orbit. (1) Orbiting objects move in space. (2) Force is required to maintain an object in orbit. (3) People and objects "float" when in orbit. Weightlessness. (1) Weightlessness occurs in the absence of gravity. (2) Objects "float up" as a result of weightlessness. (3) When weightless, people undergo physical and behavioral changes. This study explored the merits of two methodological approaches, the multistage interview approach and the use of videotape as an auxiliary interview material. The multistage interview approach allowed a wider range of topics to be addressed in greater depth and provided an opportunity for the subjects to clarify, or elaborate on, their previous remarks. The videotape provided an internal organization and coherence to the interviews. While tape did enhance student interest, for some students it appeared to be a significant learning experience rather than the

  17. Neurophysiological Considerations Related to Interactive Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mark S.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature from neuroscience and mass communications regarding how media affects learning and memory and relates research findings to interactive multimedia. Topics discussed include knowledge and media; neurological conceptions of memory; media and memory; and interactive multimedia and memory. (Contains 24 references.) (LRW)

  18. Transient absorption phenomena and related structural transformations in femtosecond laser-excited Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Sergey I.

    2004-09-01

    Analysis of processes affecting transient optical absorption and photogeneration of electron-hole plasma in silicon pumped by an intense NIR or visible femtosecond laser pulse has been performed taking into account the most important electron-photon, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions and, as a result, two main regimes of such laser-matter interaction have been revealed. The first regime is concerned with indirect interband optical absorption in Si, enhanced by a coherent shrinkage of its smallest indirect bandgap due to dynamic Franz-Keldysh effect (DFKE). The second regime takes place due to the critical renormalization of the Si direct bandgap along Λ-axis of its first Brillouin zone because of DFKE and the deformation potential electron-phonon interaction and occurs as intense direct single-photon excitation of electrons into one of the quadruplet of equivalent Λ-valleys in the lowest conduction band, which is split down due to the electron-phonon interaction.

  19. Observation of genetic relation among new phenomena Geminion, Chiron and mini-Centauro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The threshold energy problem of exotic type interactions is discussed on the basis of available information from the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. The genetic hypothesis is proposed as a working hypothesis to explain the discrepancy seen in cosmic ray study and CERN p bar -p collider experiments.

  20. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  1. Nonlinear quantum phenomena and biophysical aspects of complexity related to health and disease.

    PubMed

    Brizhik, L; Foletti, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss living systems as a non-linear self-interacting phenomenon, stabilized by the non-linear interaction between matter and self-created electromagnetic field. Such electromagnetic field can arise, in particular, as the radiation from electrosolitons which mediate the charge transport along macromolecules in metabolic redox processes. The non-linear nature of solitons results in an effective mechanism and leads to the synchronization of redox processes. It allows intra- and intercellular communication and long-range coherence in the system. One peculiar property of solitons is the resonant effect of external weak stimuli on their dynamics, which can explain the mechanism of low-intensity (non-thermal) electromagnetic therapies. We also discuss the stabilizing role of noise and spatial symmetry breaking in living organisms as open dissipative structures far from equilibrium, and health/disease states as the corresponding attractors of the system in the multi-parametric phase diagram. The essential role of electromagnetic potentials in self-regulation and self-healing processes is analyzed, based on the long-range matter-field interaction and fast information transfer, provided by the electromagnetic potentials.

  2. Fundamental relation between the main parameters of the thermally activated transport phenomena in complex oxide melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasik, M. M.; Gasik, M. I.; Leont'ev, L. I.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.; Griogorovich, K. V.

    2014-07-01

    The relation between the activation energy and the preexponential factor in the Arrhenius equation that describes the viscosity and electrical conductivity of oxide (slag) melts is systematically analyzed over wide composition and temperature ranges for the first time. When deriving this relation, we do not use any model concepts and assumptions concerning the structure of slag melts or the character of electric charge transfer in them. The fundamental applicability of the Meyer-Neldel rule for this relation is shown and grounded. The application of this algorithm in practice can give information on the structure of experimental data, nonobvious correlations, and possible relations of a higher order and can quantitatively predict the behavior of parameters, including the range outside experimentally determined data.

  3. A new South American network to study the atmospheric electric field and its variations related to geophysical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacza, J.; Raulin, J.-P.; Macotela, E.; Norabuena, E.; Fernandez, G.; Correia, E.; Rycroft, M. J.; Harrison, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present the capability of a new network of field mill sensors to monitor the atmospheric electric field at various locations in South America; we also show some early results. The main objective of the new network is to obtain the characteristic Universal Time diurnal curve of the atmospheric electric field in fair weather, known as the Carnegie curve. The Carnegie curve is closely related to the current sources flowing in the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit so that another goal is the study of this relationship on various time scales (transient/monthly/seasonal/annual). Also, by operating this new network, we may also study departures of the Carnegie curve from its long term average value related to various solar, geophysical and atmospheric phenomena such as the solar cycle, solar flares and energetic charged particles, galactic cosmic rays, seismic activity and specific meteorological events. We then expect to have a better understanding of the influence of these phenomena on the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit and its time-varying behavior.

  4. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J. E-mail: asc5097@psu.edu

    2014-11-10

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  5. Relating Precipitation Phenomena with MODIS Detected Hot Spots in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, E. M.; Reid, J. S.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E.; Turk, J.; Flatau, M.; Zhang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies of land use practices in SE Asia’s Maritime Continent (MC) have raised questions over potential meteorological implications including smoke-cloud interaction and changes in the regional radiation budget. Land management practices on Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula include biomass burning to clear primary forest as well as to maintain oil palm plantations. Burning is also employed for clearing unwanted remains from previous crops, rice stubble for example. However, burning activity is often dictated by weather, in particular precipitation. We studied 5 years of MODIS active fire hot spot and satellite precipitation data to investigate how observed burning activity correlated with precipitation features at four major scales: 1) Intraseasonal El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOP); 2) Seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ); 3) the 30-90 day Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO); and 4) regional convection from localized weather phenomenon (e.g., orographic, isolated thermal convection, sea breeze, etc…). It was found that observed burn patterns from each of the islands of the MC had differing responses to these four forcings. Observed burning activity on the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi correlated strongly with the ENSO and ITCZ indicies, whereas Sumatra was more influenced by the phase and strength of the MJO. Java, showing a mix of influence, exhibited strong fire activity in the morning rather than afternoon which is unusual for most burning regions. We hypothesize that these observed relationships reflect both physical land use differences and contextual bias/observability issues associated with the region’s heavy cloud cover. For further studies on smoke-meteorology interaction, our findings point to the need for a clear understanding of the meteorological context of satellite observations.

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Nonlinear Phenomena Related to the Double Layer Dynamics in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Niculescu, O.; Dimitriu, D. G.

    2010-08-04

    The periodic current bursts observed in the dynamic current-voltage characteristic of a probe in the presence of a plasma fireball in dynamic state were modeled in the frame of the scale relativity model, based on both the fractal space-time concept and the generalization of Einstein's principle of relativity to scale transformations. The double layer dynamics is described by a set of time-dependent Schroedinger-type equations and the self-structuring is given by means of the negative differential resistance. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are proven to be in very good agreement.

  7. Hemorrhagic urethritis in female-to-male transsexual. Possible androgen-related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M S; Sanchez, R L

    1987-12-01

    This article describes a case of hematuria and urethritis related to androgen stimulation in a female-to-male transsexual receiving testosterone cypionate. Biopsy of the affected urethral tissue revealed periurethral glands which demonstrated a strong positive reaction with immunoperoxidase staining for prostatic specific antigen. When the androgen stimulus was reduced, the patient's symptoms resolved. This report gives evidence for possible androgen-induced pathology in the female urethra.

  8. Fluid mechanic phenomena relating to flow control in conduits and pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayazit, Yilmaz

    first time, thereby contradicting the prior limitation to inertial laminar flow. The Taguchi method was applied to pinpoint the most important among the independent variables with respect to the dimensionless pressure drop, highlighting the importance of the porosity. Control of the liquid flow produced by a pump was analyzed as a problem of fluid-structural interaction.

  9. Electromagnetic emission memory phenomena related to LiF ionic crystal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatou, C.; Tombras, G. S.; Ninos, D.; Hadjicontis, V.

    2008-04-01

    During the uniaxial compression of LiF ionic monocrystals, acoustic and electromagnetic emissions (EME) are detected. We observed that when the compression is performed in successive loading, unloading cycles and these emissions are being monitored, no new emissions will occur unless the maximum stress of the previous cycle is exceeded, meaning that the material presents memory characteristics. This is observed not only for the acoustic emission (AE), which is the well known Kaiser effect, but for the EME as well. In other words, the material appears to memorize and reveal the previously maximum stress it suffered while being deformed. The importance of an electromagnetic memory feature of a material can be related to various applications in material science, especially when the detection of AE is not feasible or gives false alert. Such cases may very well be earthquakes' predictive indications, monitoring of mines' stability, imminent landslides, etc.

  10. Observations of solar X-ray and EUV jets and their related phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, D. E.; Bučík, R.; Guo, L.-J.; Nitta, N.

    2016-11-01

    Solar jets are fast-moving, elongated brightenings related to ejections seen in both images and spectra on all scales from barely visible chromospheric jets to coronal jets extending up to a few solar radii. The largest, most powerful jets are the source of type III radio bursts, energetic electrons and ions with greatly enhanced 3He and heavy element abundances. The frequent coronal jets from polar and equatorial coronal holes may contribute to the solar wind. The primary acceleration mechanism for all jets is believed to be release of magnetic stress via reconnection; however the energy buildup depends on the jets' source environment. In this review, we discuss how certain features of X-ray and EUV jets, such as their repetition rate and association with radio emission, depends on their underlying photospheric field configurations (active regions, polar and equatorial coronal holes, and quiet Sun).

  11. Physiological ischemia/reperfusion phenomena and their relation to endogenous melatonin production: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Sainz, Rosa M; Mayo, Juan C; León, Josefa; Reiter, Russel J

    2005-07-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion is a frequently encountered phenomenon in organisms. Prolonged ischemia followed then by reperfusion results in severe oxidative injury in tissues and organs; however, some species can tolerate such events better than others. In nature, arousal from hibernation and resurfacing from diving causes animals to experience classic ischemia/reperfusion and, somehow, these animals cope well with the potential oxidative stress. It has been documented that during these physiological ischemia/reperfusion events, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some small-molecular-weight antioxidants become elevated. For example, the potent small-molecular-weight antioxidant melatonin often attains especially high levels during these physiological ischemia/reperfusion events including during arousal from hibernation or in the newborns during delivery. Highly elevated melatonin production during these physiological ischemia/reperfusion episodes exhibits several features. First, this high melatonin production is transient and fits well with the time schedule of the physiological ischemia/reperfusion period; therefore, it is not related to the normal endogenous melatonin rhythm. Yet, this transient peak protects the animals from destructive oxidative processes that occur during these transition periods. Second, these high levels of melatonin seem to derive from several organs since pinealectomy does not totally reduce circulating levels of this agent. Third, high melatonin production present at arousal from hibernation or in the newborns at birth does not appear to be controlled by light, i.e., it occurs both during the day and at night, and the amplitudes of elevated melatonin levels are equivalent at these times. The significance of these findings is discussed herein. Based on currently available data, we hypothesize that melatonin plays an important role in the physiological ischemia/reperfusion, i.e., as a member of antioxidant defense

  12. Phenomena of pulsation tectonics related to the breakup of the eastern north American continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Robert E.

    1983-05-01

    New data from the recent IPOD drilling of DSDP Site 534 in the Blake-Bahama Basin give a definite age for the spreading-center shift involved in the breakup of the North American Atlantic margin. A basal Callovian age (~ 155 m.y.) is determined for the Blake Spur magnetic anomaly marking this spreadingcenter shift that signals the birth of the modern North Atlantic Ocean. This is some 20 m.y. younger than previously thought. An implication of this younger age for the Blake Spur event is that very high spreading rates are now required for the Jurassic outer magnetic quiet zone along the North American margin. This association of a relatively high spreading rate with a magnetic quiet zone is similar to that for the mid-Cretaceous and implies a link between the processes controlling plate spreading, which are in the upper mantle, and the processes controlling the magnetic field, which are in the outer core. A theory of pulsation tectonics involving the cyclic eruption of plumes of hot mantle material from the lowermost mantle could explain the correlation. Plumes carry heat away from the core-mantle boundary and later reach the asthenosphere and lithosphere to induce faster spreading. The pulse of fast spreading in the Jurassic apparently followed the breakup of continents bordering the North Atlantic Ocean. Other pulses of fast spreading appear to correlate with major ocean openings on various parts of the globe, implying that this might be a prevalent process. Rifting of passive margins may be controlled by the more fundamental global processes described by the theory of pulsation tectonics.

  13. Very intense geomagnetic storms and their relation to interplanetary and solar active phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajko, N. S.; Cristiani, G.; Mandrini, C. H.; Dal Lago, A.

    2013-05-01

    We revisit previous studies in which the characteristics of the solar and interplanetary sources of intense geomagnetic storms have been discussed. In this particular analysis, using the Dst time series, we consider the very intense geomagnetic storms that occurred during Solar Cycle 23 by setting a value of Dstmin⩽-200nT as threshold. After carefully examining the set of available solar and in situ observations from instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), complemented with data from the ground, we have identified and characterized the solar and interplanetary sources of each storm. That is to say, we determine the time, angular width, plane-of-the-sky, lateral expansion, and radial velocities of the source coronal mass ejection (CME), the type and heliographic location of the CME solar source region (including the characteristics of the sunspot groups), and the time duration of the associated flare. After this, we investigate the overall characteristics of the interplanetary (IP) main-phase storm driver, including the time arrival of the shock/disturbance at 1 AU, the type of associated IP structure/ejecta, the origin of a prolonged and enhanced southward component (Bs) of the IP field, and other characteristics related to the energy injected into the magnetosphere during the storm (i.e. the solar wind maximum convected electric field, Ey). The analyzed set consists of 20 events, some of these are complex and present two or more Dst minima that are, in general, due to consecutive solar events. The 20 storms are distributed along Solar Cycle 23 (which is a double-peak cycle) in such a way that 15% occurs during the rising phase of the cycle, 45% during both cycle maxima, and, surprisingly, 40% during the cycle descending phase. This latter set includes half of the superstorms and the only cycle extreme event. 85% of the storms are associated to full halo CMEs and 10% to partial halo events. One

  14. Investigation of the structure of the electromagnetic field and related phenomena, generated by the active satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Yakov L.

    1992-01-01

    A short review is given for the general frequency and angle distribution of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0)cos(omega)t, in a magnetoplasma. Detailed results of numerical calculations of (E) were made in the Very Low Frequency (VLF) and the Low Frequency (LF) bands 0.02f(sub b) is less than or equal to F is less than or equal to 0.5f(sub b) (F is approximately (4-500) kHz) in the ionosphere and magnetosphere in the altitude region Z = (800-6000) km; f(sub b) is the electron gyro-frequency of the plasmas in the discussed region f(sub b) is approximately equal to (1.1 to 0.2) MHz. The amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field line (B(sub 0)), it is the so called Axis field (E(sub 0)) and in the Storey (E(sub St)), Reversed Storey (E(sub RevSt)), and Resonance (E(sub Res)) Cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are very pronounced close to the low hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, the apex angles of the cones delta(beta) is approximately equal to (0.1 - 1) degree. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field is growing up, especially quickly at Z greater than 800 km. At Z is greater than 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of (E), in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus, the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves in the Earth magnetoplasma produces and is guided by very narrow pencil beams, similar, let us say, to laser beams.

  15. Ancient sandstone condition assessment in relation to degradation, cleaning and consolidation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdácký, Miloš; Frankeová, Dita; Slížková, Zuzana

    2015-04-01

    of cubes for non-destructive US tests and micro drilling. Then the cubes were cut into thin plates and they were tested for volumetric change due to hydric and temperature variations. That procedure allowed a comparison of results of the US tests on cubes and destructive bending tests on thin plates. The remains of these plates were used for porosity measurements. The overall test procedure was planned and carried out in a way which ensured testing of appropriately corresponding specimens. The results supplied data for studying efficiency of the consolidation treatment with silicic acid ester products in relation to three pre-treatment stone conditions, as well as to the type of sandstone cementation (the tested stones had mostly a kaolin or silica, rarely a goethit cementation). The tested stone types were documented by macroscopic and microscopic (thin section) descriptions. The results further indicate capacity of individual testing and assessment methods, and help to select methods suitable for in situ diagnostics.

  16. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)

  17. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  18. LUNAR OUTGASSING, TRANSIENT PHENOMENA, AND THE RETURN TO THE MOON. II. PREDICTIONS AND TESTS FOR OUTGASSING/REGOLITH INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Hummels, Cameron

    2009-12-20

    We follow Paper I with predictions of how gas leaking through the lunar surface could influence the regolith, as might be observed via optical transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) and related effects. We touch on several processes, but concentrate on low and high flow rate extremes, which are perhaps the most likely. We model explosive outgassing for the smallest gas overpressure at the regolith base that releases the regolith plug above it. This disturbance's timescale and affected area are consistent with observed TLPs; we also discuss other effects. For slow flow, escape through the regolith is prolonged by low diffusivity. Water, found recently in deep magma samples, is unique among candidate volatiles, capable of freezing between the regolith base and surface, especially near the lunar poles. For major outgassing sites, we consider the possible accumulation of water ice. Over geological time, ice accumulation can evolve downward through the regolith. Depending on gases additional to water, regolith diffusivity might be suppressed chemically, blocking seepage and forcing the ice zone to expand to larger areas, up to km{sup 2} scales, again, particularly at high latitudes. We propose an empirical path forward, wherein current and forthcoming technologies provide controlled, sensitive probes of outgassing. The optical transient/outgassing connection, addressed via Earth-based remote sensing, suggests imaging and/or spectroscopy, but aspects of lunar outgassing might be more covert, as indicated above. TLPs betray some outgassing, but does outgassing necessarily produce TLPs? We also suggest more intrusive techniques from radar to in situ probes. Understanding lunar volatiles seems promising in terms of resource exploitation for human exploration of the Moon and beyond, and offers interesting scientific goals in its own right. Many of these approaches should be practiced in a pristine lunar atmosphere, before significant confusing signals likely to be produced upon

  19. Triplet exciton state and related phenomena in the β -phase of poly(9,9-dioctyl)fluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, C.; King, S. M.; Dias, F.; Monkman, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    Using both time-resolved emission and cw photoinduced absorption spectroscopy as a function of temperature, the aggregation phenomena ( β -phase formation) observed in poly(9,9-dioctyl)fluorene is studied. All spectra of the β phase, including absorption, prompt and delayed fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoinduced triplet absorption feature very narrow linewidths, which are unique within the class of conjugated polymers. From the comparison of the latter data with amorphous polyfluorene, poly(9,9-diethylhexyl)fluorene, as well as with the fully planar ladder-type poly(paraphenylene), we conclude that the origin of the β phase cannot simply be an extended intrachain conjugation, but interchain interactions are involved. Furthermore, the β phase acts as an energetic trap for both singlet and triplet excitons initially created on amorphous chain segments. The delayed fluorescence kinetics of the β phase were measured at different temperatures. From the analysis of these decays within the framework of dispersive triplet migration in a Gaussian density of states distribution, further evidence is provided that the delayed fluorescence originates from triplet-triplet annihilation. At room temperature, it is clear that triplet excitons migrate over large distances, exceeding that of singlet excitons. Also, the segregation time between dispersive triplet migration and classical thermally activated hopping, is in the case of β -phase containing samples, dependent on the separation of the β -phase domains.

  20. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  1. Influence of Tailored Applied Magnetic Fields on High-Power MPD Thruster Current Transport and Onset-Related Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    magnetic field configurations enabled significant reductions in onset-related behaviors relative to self-field operation. These improvements should lead to reduced anode erosion, i.e., improved thruster lifetime, and increased thruster efficiency with the applied fields. The applied fields used in this study differ from both the topologies and relative field strengths typically used in the vast majority of conventional, so-called "applied-field MPD thrusters" (AF-MPDTs). These results suggest a distinctive and more effective approach to influencing the near-anode phenomena and mitigating the deleterious effects of onset with appropriately designed applied magnetic fields.

  2. Plasma Flow Interaction With Iter Divertor Related Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dojcinovic, I. P.

    2010-07-01

    It has been found that the plasma flow generated by quasistationary plasma accelerators can be used for simulation of high energy plasma interaction with different materials of interest for fusion experiments (Arkhipov et al. 2000, Federici et al. 2005). It is especially important for the studies of the processes such as ELMs (edge localized modes), plasma disruptions and VDEs (vertical displacement events), during which a significant part of the confined hot plasma is lost from the core to the SOL (scrape off layer) enveloping the core region. Experiments using plasma guns have been used to assess erosion from disruptions and ELMs. Namely, in this experiment modification of different targets, like molybdenum, CFC and silicon single crystal surface by the action of hydrogen and nitrogen quasistationary compression plasma flow (CPF) generated by magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) has been studied. MPC plasma flow with standard parameters (1 MJ/m^2 in 0.1 ms) can be used for simulation of transient peak thermal loads during Type I ELMs and disruptions (Dojcinovic et al. 2007). Analysis of the targets erosion, brittle destruction, melting processes, and dust formation has been performed (Dojcinovic et al. 2006). These surface phenomena are results of specific conditions during CPF interaction with target surface. The investigations are related to the fundamental aspects of high energy plasma flow interaction with different material of interest for fusion. One of the purposes is a study of competition between melting and cleavage of treated solid surface. The other is investigation of plasma interaction with first wall and divertor component materials related to the ITER experiment.

  3. Objects, Entities, Behaviors, and Interactions: A Typology of Student-Constructed Computer-Based Models of Physical Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louca, Loucas T.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Michael, Michalis; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing and evaluating student-constructed models of physical phenomena and monitoring the progress of these models. Moreover, we aimed to examine whether this framework could capture differences between models created using different computer-based modeling tools; namely, computer-based…

  4. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  5. Flow phenomena in turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creitzer, E. M.; Epstein, A. H.; Giles, M. B.; McCune, J. E.; Tan, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes work carried out at the Gas Turbine Laboratory at MIT during the period 10/20/89 - 10/19/92, as part of our multi-investigator effort on basic unsteady flow phenomena in turbomachines. Within the overall project four separate tasks are specified. These are, in brief: (1) The Influence of Inlet Temperature Nonuniformities on Turbine Heat Transfer and Dynamics; (2) Assessment of Unsteady Losses in Stator/ Rotor Interactions; (3) Unsteady Phenomena and Flowfield instabilities in Multistage Axial Compressors; (4) Vortex Wake-Compressor Blade Interaction in Cascades - A New Rapid Method for Unsteady Separation and Vorticity Flux Calculations.

  6. Experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena among women in the general population: are they related to traumatic stress and dissociation?

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyüz, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena (PNP) in the general population and their possible relations to each other and to traumatic stress and dissociation. The study was conducted on a representative female sample recruited from a town in central eastern Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis-I and Personality Disorders, and the Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire were administered to 628 women. Of these, 127 (20.2%) women reported at least 1 type of PNP and 13 (2.1%) women reported possession. Women with a dissociative disorder reported all types of possession and PNP (except telepathy) more frequently than those without. Whereas women with a trauma history in childhood and adulthood or PTSD reported possession more frequently than those without, PNP were associated with childhood trauma only. Factor analysis yielded 4 dimensions: possession by and/or contact with nonhuman entities, extrasensory communications, possession by a human entity, and precognition. These factors correlated with number of secondary features of dissociative identity disorder and Schneiderian symptoms. Latent class analysis identified 3 groups. The most traumatized group, with predominantly dissociative and trauma-related disorders, had the highest scores on all factors. Notwithstanding their presence in healthy individuals, possession and PNP were associated with trauma and dissociation in a subgroup of affected participants. Both types of experience seem to be normal human capacities of experiencing that may be involved in response to traumatic stress. Given the small numbers, this study should be considered preliminary.

  7. Ultra Sensitive Monitoring of the Geomagnetic Field Combined with Radon Emanation as a Tool for Studying Earthquake Related Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafrir, H.; Ginzburg, B.; Hrvoic, I.; Shirman, B.; Gazit-Yaari, N.; Steinitz, G.; Wilson, M.

    2003-12-01

    An ultra sensitive magnetic gradiometric system and a very sensitive, continuous radon monitoring system are located with an existing seismic array, at the Amram Geophysical Observatory near Eilat, Israel. The purpose of setting these independent technologies together was to assess their applicability as a combined tool for studying earthquake related phenomena in the Dead Sea Rift (DSR) - a geodynamically active region (seismogenic). The magnetic system consists of three GEM Systems SuperGrad magnetometers, spaced several tens of meters apart, having a sensitivity of 0.05 pT/√ {Hz}, bandwidth ranging from DC to 10 Hz and featuring very high long-term stability. Several months of on-site operation shows that the magnetic gradiometric system demonstrates: a) a new capability of ultra-high precise geomagnetic field observations at sub-pT resolution; b) enables the suppression of diurnal variations and pulsations, thus enhancing the resolution of residual shallow crustal contributions; c) the registration bandwidth provides an opportunity to analyze field variation in a wide frequency domain, which was not attainable so far. The initiative of including radon monitoring is based on the combination of: a) large multi-day temporal radon variations are recorded at the Amram site; b) part of the variation is correlated to radon signatures at other locations in the same tectonic segment; c) some of the signals are similar to the multi-day signals, from another part of the DSR, which are significantly related to weak earthquakes in the DSR (Geology, v. 31, 505-508). The operated radon system consists of alpha and gamma ray detectors, integrating at a rate of 15 minutes and having a sensitivity of below 0.1 pCi/l in the geogas. The combined geophysical system is in continuous operation since 2002. It is expected that joint analysis of long-term multi-sensor data series will reveal subtle geophysical signals that precede or follow earthquakes in the region.

  8. Interaction of deep levels and potential fluctuations in scattering and recombination phenomena in semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kažukauskas, V.; Storasta, J.; Vaitkus, J.-V.

    1996-08-01

    The complex influence of recombination centers and potential fluctuations of the band gap on the scattering and recombination phenomena in n-type semiinsulating liquid- encapsulated-Czochralski-grown GaAs were investigated by using the transient photoconductivity and photo-Hall effects. The inhomogeneities cause a hyperbolic decrease of nonequilibrium carrier concentration and the saturation of Hall mobility, while the exponential parts of the decay appear due to the recharge of deep levels. The mean recombination barrier heights of potential fluctuations were evaluated. We propose a complex ``island'' model of scattering and recombination centers, consisting of defect clusters and their associations around dislocations, surrounded by potential barriers. At low light intensities and at the temperatures below 330 K they are insulating for majority charge carriers, thus reducing an effective crystal volume and causing percolation transport effects. At the temperature higher than 330-360 K the main barrier of the island can be recharged or screened by nonequilibrium carriers and its fine barrier structure appears as an effective scatterer, causing a sharp decrease of the nonequilibrium Hall mobility. It was demonstrated that although doping with Sb reduce dislocation density, it can intensify the effect of smaller defects on transport phenomena.

  9. Fluid-structure interaction analysis applied to thermal barrier coated cooled rocket thrust chambers with subsequent local investigation of delamination phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowollik, D. S. C.; Horst, P.; Haupt, M. C.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate numerically thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems applied to realistic rocket thrust chamber conditions. A global full parametric three-dimensional (3D) modeling approach for cooled rocket thrust chambers is presented to be able to simulate the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena involved. In a subsequent analysis step, realistic mechanical and thermal boundary conditions are extracted from critical design regions of the global model and applied to a local finite element model (FEM) to analyze possible TBC delaminations by means of a Fracture Mechanics (FM) approach.

  10. Prospective Teachers' Difficulties in Interpreting Elementary Phenomena of Electrostatic Interactions: Indicators of the Status of Their Intuitive Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado, Ana Maria; Garcia-Carmona, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Student teachers were tested before and after a teaching unit on electrostatic interactions in an attempt to consider their intuitive ideas and concept development. A study was made of students' explanations of basic interactions: those between two charged bodies, and those between a charged body and a neutral body. Two indicators of the cognitive…

  11. Work Related and "Private" Social Interactions at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Inversin, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-four young professionals in their first job after apprenticeship described their task-related and private interactions at work during five days, using a variant of the Rochester Interaction Records self-observation method (Reis and Wheeler, 1991). Results showed that more task-related interactions were reported than private interactions at…

  12. Salt-induced counterion condensation and related phenomena in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-sodium halide-methanol-water quaternary systems.

    PubMed

    Das, Bijan; Chatterjee, Amritendu

    2015-05-28

    Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) in methanol-water media have been investigated conductometrically with reference to their variations with polyelectrolyte concentration, relative permittivity and the type and concentration of added electrolytes. The specific conductance data in polyelectrolyte-salt solutions were analyzed using an equation recently developed by us following the scaling description for the configuration of a polyion chain according to Dobrynin et al. Excellent quantitative agreement between the experimental results and those obtained with the new equation developed was observed. The results demonstrate that approximately 43-59% of the counterions remain free and that there has been a suppression of counterion dissociation in the presence of a salt in any given mixed solvent medium, the extent of which increases with increasing salt concentration. NaCl was found to be slightly more efficient than NaBr in suppressing the counterion-condensation in NaCMC-methanol-water systems. An increase in the amount of methanol in the media causes a reduction in the fraction of free counterions. The results further demonstrate that the monomer units experience more frictional resistance as the methanol content of the mixture increases or as the concentration of the added electrolytes increases. The results were discussed in terms of various interactions prevailing in these systems.

  13. Soluto-inertial phenomena: Designing long-range, long-lasting, surface-specific interactions in suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anirudha; Williams, Ian; Nery Azevedo, Rodrigo; Helgeson, Matthew E.; Squires, Todd M.

    2016-08-01

    Equilibrium interactions between particles in aqueous suspensions are limited to distances less than 1 μm. Here, we describe a versatile concept to design and engineer nonequilibrium interactions whose magnitude and direction depends on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles, and whose range may extend over hundreds of microns and last thousands of seconds. The mechanism described here relies on diffusiophoresis, in which suspended particles migrate in response to gradients in solution. Three ingredients are involved: a soluto-inertial “beacon” designed to emit a steady flux of solute over long time scales; suspended particles that migrate in response to the solute flux; and the solute itself, which mediates the interaction. We demonstrate soluto-inertial interactions that extend for nearly half a millimeter and last for tens of minutes, and which are attractive or repulsive, depending on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles. Experiments agree quantitatively with scaling arguments and numerical computations, confirming the basic phenomenon, revealing design strategies, and suggesting a broad set of new possibilities for the manipulation and control of suspended particles.

  14. Soluto-inertial phenomena: Designing long-range, long-lasting, surface-specific interactions in suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Anirudha; Williams, Ian; Azevedo, Rodrigo Nery; Squires, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    Equilibrium interactions between particles in aqueous suspensions are limited to distances less than 1 μm. Here, we describe a versatile concept to design and engineer nonequilibrium interactions whose magnitude and direction depends on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles, and whose range may extend over hundreds of microns and last thousands of seconds. The mechanism described here relies on diffusiophoresis, in which suspended particles migrate in response to gradients in solution. Three ingredients are involved: a soluto-inertial “beacon” designed to emit a steady flux of solute over long time scales; suspended particles that migrate in response to the solute flux; and the solute itself, which mediates the interaction. We demonstrate soluto-inertial interactions that extend for nearly half a millimeter and last for tens of minutes, and which are attractive or repulsive, depending on the surface chemistry of the suspended particles. Experiments agree quantitatively with scaling arguments and numerical computations, confirming the basic phenomenon, revealing design strategies, and suggesting a broad set of new possibilities for the manipulation and control of suspended particles. PMID:27410044

  15. Electron Scattering and Related Phenomena in Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron Lithography (SCALPEL\\footnote{SCALPEL is a trademark of Lucent Technologies.})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Masis M.

    2000-12-01

    Scattering with angular limitation projection electron lithography (SCALPEL) is a unique charged-particle projection imaging technique that employs a scattering mask with the pattern segmented between supporting struts. An aperture installed in the back-focal plane of the projection lens filters out the electrons scattered at large angles in the patterned area of the mask producing a high contrast aerial image. Various scattering phenomena involved with the energetic (100 keV) electrons carrying the mask pattern information to the wafer through the projection optics are responsible for the aerial image formation in SCALPEL@. These phenomena can be grouped into three major categories: (i) electron elastic scattering in the mask responsible for the aerial image intensity and contrast; (ii) electron inelastic scattering in the mask-membrane that might have negative effects, such as membrane charging, beam chromatic blur generation, mask heating, etc.; (iii) Coulomb interactions of electrons in the beam (space charge effect) generating a beam blur that links the system throughput and resolution. Analytical models developed to describe and quantitatively evaluate these phenomena are briefly reviewed. The implication of these models to the design and optimization of the electron projection lithography systems are discussed.

  16. Premature capacity loss in lead/acid batteries: a discussion of the antimony-free effect and related phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenkamp, A. F.

    Instances of severe capacity loss in apparently healthy lead/acid batteries have been reported over a period of many years, and are still common today. In most cases, these phenomena are linked to the use of antimony-free positive grids and are invoked by repetitive deep-discharge duties. This situation represents probably the greatest barrier to the expansion of markets for lead/acid batteries. To date, research has focused on several possible explanations for capacity loss; notably, degradation of the positive active mass (e.g., relaxable insufficient mass utilization) and the development of electrical barriers around the grid. Although much of the evidence gathered is circumstantial, it does point to the key issues that must be addressed in future work.

  17. Theory of coherence in Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena in a microwave-driven interacting magnon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, Sergio M.

    2009-05-01

    Strong experimental evidences of the formation of quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons at room temperature in a film of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) excited by microwave radiation have been recently reported. Here we present a theory for the dynamics of the magnon gas driven by a microwave field far out of equilibrium that provides rigorous support for the formation of a BEC of magnons in a YIG film magnetized in the plane. We show that if the microwave driving power exceeds a threshold value the nonlinear magnetic interactions create cooperative mechanisms for the onset of a phase transition leading to the spontaneous generation of quantum coherence and magnetic dynamic order in a macroscopic scale. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data for the intensity and the decay rate of the Brillouin light scattering from the BEC as a function of power and for the microwave emission from the uniform mode generated by the confluence of BEC magnon pairs.

  18. The LENS Facilities and Experimental Studies to Evaluate the Modeling of Boundary Layer Transition, Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction, Real Gas, Radiation and Plasma Phenomena in Contemporary CFD Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Center Body Mylar Diaphragms Nozzle Throat Evacuated Test Section Test Model Tunnel Loaded, Ready to Fire To Vacuum Tank Tunnel Started by Pressurizing ...Layer Interaction, Real Gas, Radiation and Plasma Phenomena in Contemporary CFD Codes Michael S. Holden, PhD CUBRC, Inc. 4455 Genesee Street Buffalo...Phenomena in Contemporary CFD Codes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  19. Tidal interaction: A possible explanation for geysers and other fluid phenomena in the Neptune-Triton system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. D.; Wood, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Discovery of geyser-like plumes on the surface of Triton was a highlight of Voyager 2's passage through the Neptune planetary system. Remarkable as these observations were, they were not entirely without precedent. Considering the confirmed predictions for the 1979 Voyager Jovian passage, it was logical to consider other solar system bodies beside Io where tidal effects could be a significant factor in surface processes. It was our intuition that the Neptune-Triton gravitational bond acting at high inclination to the Neptune equator and the fact that Neptune was a fluid body was significant oblateness would produce tidal and mechanical forces that could be transformed into thermal energy vented on Triton's surface. Prior to the Voyager flyby, others have noted that capture and evolution of Triton's orbit from extreme eccentricity to near circular state today would have resulted in significant tidal heating, but these analysts disregard current day forces. Our calculations indicate that the time varying forces between Neptune-Triton fall midway between those exerted in the Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Io systems, and considering the low level of other energy inputs, this source of internal energy should not be ignored when seeking an explanation for surface activity. In each planet-satellite case, residual or steady-state eccentricity causes time-varying stresses on internal satellite strata. In the case of Jupiter the residual eccentricity is due largely to Galilean satellite interactions, particularly Io-Europa, but in the case of Neptune-Triton, it is the effect of Triton's inclined orbit about an oblate primary.

  20. Hallucinations, sleep fragmentation, and altered dream phenomena in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pappert, E J; Goetz, C G; Niederman, F G; Raman, R; Leurgans, S

    1999-01-01

    In a series of consecutively randomized outpatients who had Parkinson's disease (PD), we examined the association of three behaviors: sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions. Using a log-linear model methodology, we tested the independence of each behavior. Sixty-two percent of the subjects had sleep fragmentation, 48% had altered dream phenomena, and 26% had hallucinations/illusions. Eighty-two percent of the patients with hallucinations/illusions experienced some form of sleep disorder. The three phenomena were not independent. The interaction between sleep fragmentation and altered dream phenomena was strongly statistically significant. Likewise, a significant interaction existed between altered dream phenomena and hallucinations/illusions. No interaction occurred between sleep fragmentation and hallucinations/illusions. Sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions in PD should be considered distinct but often overlapping behaviors. The close association between altered dream phenomena and hallucinations suggests that therapeutic interventions aimed at diminishing dream-related activities may have a specific positive impact on hallucinatory behavior.

  1. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  2. Factors controlling erosion/deposition phenomena related to lahars at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Rosario; Capra, Lucia; Coviello, Velio

    2016-08-01

    One of the most common phenomena at Volcán de Colima is the annual development of lahars that runs mainly through the southern ravines of the edifice. Since 2011 the study and the monitoring of these flows and of the associated rainfall has been achieved by means of an instrumented station located along the Montegrande ravine, together with the systematic surveying of cross-topographic profiles of the main channel. From these, we present the comparison of the morphological changes experimented by this ravine during the 2013, 2014 and 2015 rainy seasons. The erosion/deposition effects of 11 lahars that occurred during this period of time were quantified by means of the topographic profiles taken at the beginning and at the end of the rainy seasons and before and after the major lahar event of 11 June 2013. We identified (i) an erosive zone between 2100 and 1950 m a.s.l., 8° in slope, with an annual erosional rate of 10.3 % mainly due to the narrowness of the channel and to its high slope angle and (ii) an erosive-depositional zone, between 1900 and 1700 m a.s.l., ( ˜ 8 % erosion and ˜ 16 % deposition), characterized by a wider channel that decreases in slope angle (4°). Based on these observations, the major factors controlling the erosion/deposition rates in the Montegrande ravine are the morphology of the gully (i.e., channel bed slope and the cross section width) and the joint effect of sediment availability and accumulated rainfall. On the distal reach of the ravine, the erosion/deposition processes tend to be promoted preferentially one over the other, mostly depending on the width of the active channel. Only for extraordinary rainfall events are the largest lahars mostly erosive all along the ravine up to the distal fan where the deposition takes place. In addition, as well as the morphological characteristics of the ravine, the flow depth is a critical factor in controlling erosion, as deeper flows will promote erosion against deposition. Finally, by

  3. An experimental and numerical investigation of thermocapillary driven phenomena for evaporating menisci in capillary tubes related to microelectronics cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffone, Cosimo

    temperature revealed clearly the effect of the asymmetrical flow pattern on temperature field. The direction of the induced convection rolls can be reversed by applying a temperature gradient along the capillary wall. With the tubes plunged in a pool of liquid, it is interesting to note that providing external heating to the system can substantially change the convection patterns. In particular is was revealed that the flow is enhanced when the heating element lies below the meniscus; on the contrary, when the heating element is above the meniscus and sufficient power is provided, the flow pattern is reversed with respect to the unheated situation. This important result confirms the fact that the phenomena being studied are strongly dominated by the action of surface tension. The numerical code used is a FVM with coordinate transformation in order to take into account the curved meniscus. The code was used to first reproduce some of the results obtained experimentally and successively was used to investigate those cases not easily accessible to experiment. Good quantitative (when possible) and qualitative agreement was found between experimental and numerical results. Results gained, both of velocity and flow map, meniscus temperature and finally numerical confirmation clearly lead to the conclusion that the heat and mass transfer in such small systems is strongly affected by the mechanism taking place in the meniscus contact line region. In this work, two cases of practical interest were also examined. The first concerns a heat pipe module for micro-electronic cooling where the effect of surface coating on the fin stack unit was experimentally investigated. The second is an extension of existing heat pipe technology to cool a heavily thermally loaded nozzle of future spacecraft vehicles of high specific impulse. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Anomalous laser deflection phenomena based on the interaction of electro-optic and graded refractivity effect in Cu:KTN crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuping; Liu, Bing; Yang, Yuguo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xianshun; Hong, Guanglie; Shu, Rong; Yu, Haohai; Wang, Jiyang

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report an abnormal laser deflection phenomena based on quadratic electro-optic effect in copper doped KTN crystal. Cu:KTa0.62Nb0.38O3 block with size a×b×c = 2.8mm×2.6mm×12.5mm was used as beam deflection element. 75mrad beam deflection angle were observed under 1KV voltage when the laser beam across the c direction of the sample at room temperature. The special features of our experiment are that the direction of laser beam deflect perpendicular to the electric field direction, and the angular size and direction of the deflection beam remain unchanged when the electric field direction reverse. We believe that the interaction of graded refractivity and electro-optic effect leads to these special features. Besides of the special deflection mode, the deflection efficiency of our experiment also reached the world advanced level.

  5. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence and related phenomena for 1D shallow-water waves in a finite basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ruban, V. P.

    2012-02-15

    Different regimes of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence are simulated numerically for fully nonlinear 'one-dimensional' potential water waves in a finite-depth flume between two vertical walls. In such systems, the FPU recurrence is closely related to the dynamics of coherent structures approximately corresponding to solitons of the integrable Boussinesq system. A simplest periodic solution of the Boussinesq model, describing a single soliton between the walls, is presented in analytic form in terms of the elliptic Jacobi functions. In the numerical experiments, it is observed that depending on the number of solitons in the flume and their parameters, the FPU recurrence can occur in a simple or complicated manner, or be practically absent. For comparison, the nonlinear dynamics of potential water waves over nonuniform beds is simulated, with initial states taken in the form of several pairs of colliding solitons. With a mild-slope bed profile, a typical phenomenon in the course of evolution is the appearance of relatively high (rogue) waves, while for random, relatively short-correlated bed profiles it is either the appearance of tall waves or the formation of sharp crests at moderate-height waves.

  6. Interaction of unsteady separated flow over multi-bodies moving relatively in the same flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zheng, Xin-qian; Hou, An-ping; Lu, Ya-jun

    2005-12-01

    Unsteady separated flow is one of research frontiers in current aerodynamic. Great accomplishments have been acquired; however, most studies are on single body in a stream, such as studies on unsteady separated flows over airfoils. There are typical cases in the nature and engineering applications, in which several interacting bodies with relative motions are within the same flow field. These interacting unsteady separated flow fields not only are closely related to the phenomena of noise and flutter induced by flows, but also have strong influences on aerodynamic performances. With axial flow compressors as background, the present paper carried out studies on 'interaction of unsteady separated flow over multi-bodies moving relatively in the same flow field'. Experiment investigations carried out in the stationary annular cascade wind tunnel and the single-stage low-speed axial flow compressor experimental facility as well as relevant CFD simulations demonstrate that under properly organized interactions between all unsteady components, the time-space structure of unsteady separated flow field can be remarkably improved and the time-averaged aerodynamic performances be significantly enhanced accordingly. The maximum reduction of the loss coefficient reached 27.4% and 76.5% in the stationary annular cascade wind tunnel and the CFD simulation for single-stage axial flow compressor, respectively.

  7. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10μgL(-1)) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H2O2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H(+)-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H2O2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H(+)-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments.

  8. Gene–environment interaction in tobacco-related cancers

    PubMed Central

    Taioli, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoke and the basis for interaction between tobacco smoke and genetic factors. Examples of published papers on gene–tobacco interaction and cancer risk are presented. The assessment of gene–environment interaction in tobacco-related cancers has been more complex than originally expected for several reasons, including the multiplicity of genes involved in tobacco metabolism, the numerous substrates metabolized by the relevant genes and the interaction of smoking with other metabolic pathways. Future studies on gene–environment interaction and cancer risk should include biomarkers of smoking dose, along with markers of quantitative historical exposure to tobacco. Epigenetic studies should be added to classic genetic analyses, in order to better understand gene–environmental interaction and individual susceptibility. Other metabolic pathways in competition with tobacco genetic metabolism/repair should be incorporated in epidemiological studies to generate a more complete picture of individual cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to carcinogens. PMID:18550573

  9. Misconceptions of Emergent Semiconductor Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Katherine G.

    The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were

  10. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  11. Discovery potential for new phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, S.; Hewett, J.L.; Price, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    The authors examine the ability of future facilities to discover and interpret non-supersymmetric new phenomena. The authors first explore explicit manifestations of new physics, including extended gauge sectors, leptoquarks, exotic fermions, and technicolor models. They then take a more general approach where new physics only reveals itself through the existence of effective interactions at lower energy scales.

  12. Thomas precession and spin interaction energy in very special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjitabar, Hassan; Shojai, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Very Special Relativity (VSR), proposed by Cohen and Glashow, considers one of the subgroups of Poincaré group as the symmetry of spacetime. This paper investigates the transformations of electromagnetic fields under boosts of VSR, and by the aid of them studies the interaction energy between spin of an electron and external electromagnetic fields. Here, we argue that Thomas precession, one of the consequences of Special Relativity (SR), does not exist in HOM(2) avatar of VSR. The predictions of SR and VSR about the spin interaction energy in a certain case are compared, and despite the absence of Thomas precession in VSR, no noticeable departure is seen.

  13. Detecting remotely related proteins by their interactions and sequence similarity

    PubMed Central

    Espadaler, Jordi; Aragüés, Ramón; Eswar, Narayanan; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Querol, Enrique; Avilés, Francesc X.; Sali, Andrej; Oliva, Baldomero

    2005-01-01

    The function of an uncharacterized protein is usually inferred either from its homology to, or its interactions with, characterized proteins. Here, we use both sequence similarity and protein interactions to identify relationships between remotely related protein sequences. We rely on the fact that homologous sequences share similar interactions, and, therefore, the set of interacting partners of the partners of a given protein is enriched by its homologs. The approach was benchmarked by assigning the fold and functional family to test sequences of known structure. Specifically, we relied on 1,434 proteins with known folds, as defined in the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database, and with known interacting partners, as defined in the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP). For this subset, the specificity of fold assignment was increased from 54% for position-specific iterative blast to 75% for our approach, with a concomitant increase in sensitivity for a few percentage points. Similarly, the specificity of family assignment at the e-value threshold of 10-8 was increased from 70% to 87%. The proposed method would be a useful tool for large-scale automated discovery of remote relationships between protein sequences, given its unique reliance on sequence similarity and protein-protein interactions. PMID:15883372

  14. Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasien, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    A semi-quantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipole-dipole interactions, and H-bonding on the normal boiling points ("T[subscript b]") for a subset of simple organic systems. The model is based upon a statistical analysis using multiple linear regression on a series of straight-chain organic…

  15. The anomalous Hall effect and related transport phenomena in ferromagnetic spinel copper chromium selenium bromide, manganese-doped chalcopyrite copper gallium ditelluride, and ruthenate bismuth ruthenate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wei-Li

    One of the interesting and unsettled transport phenomena is the, so called, "anomalous Hall Effect". It generally refers to the phenomenon of a non-linear field dependence of the Hall resistivity rhoxy. An emerging idea relates to the "gauge field O" experienced by electrons. It gives rise to Berry phase accumulation. In ferromagnets, a non-vanishing O( k⃗ ) is related to the spin-orbit coupling and the time-reversal asymmetry. We show that, in the ferromagnetic spinel CuCr2Se 4-xBrx, the anomalous Hall conductivity sigma xy (normalized to per carrier, at 5K) remains unchanged with a 1000-fold increase in resistivity. From the anomalous Nernst effect, we uncover a simple relation for the off-diagonal Peltier conductivity tensor alphaxy, which is a measure of a transverse electrical current density generated per unit of applied temperature gradient. They both strongly support the anomalous-velocity theory based on the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of the electrons. An alternative way to procure O is from the spin-chirality effect. In the Mn-doped chalcopyrite semiconductor CuGaTe2, with a few percent doping, the orbitals of the Mn ions overlap to form an impurity band. Therefore, the electrons will accumulate Berry phase while hopping around the Mn ions that have a non-collinear magnetic ground state. We observed the enhanced and non-monotonic field dependence of rhoxy, which may be understood from the spin-chirality effect. Finally, we studied the Hall effect and thermopower in the ruthenate Bi3Ru3O 11. From the Hall effect, we observed field-tuning of electron and hole populations. We also found a large field dependence of the thermopower at low temperature. The origin of the colossal field-dependence in the thermopower is still an open question, but it is linked to the unusual electronic properties in the Bi3Ru3O11.

  16. Interactive relations among maternal depressive symptomatology, nutrition, and parenting.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p < 0.001). Thus, screening for poor iron status and depressive sympatomology in postpartum women may help to identify those at risk for problematic parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting.

  17. An exchange-Coulomb model potential energy surface for the Ne-CO interaction. II. Molecular beam scattering and bulk gas phenomena in Ne-CO mixtures.

    PubMed

    Dham, Ashok K; McBane, George C; McCourt, Frederick R W; Meath, William J

    2010-01-14

    Four potential energy surfaces are of current interest for the Ne-CO interaction. Two are high-level fully ab initio surfaces obtained a decade ago using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and supermolecule coupled-cluster methods. The other two are very recent exchange-Coulomb (XC) model potential energy surfaces constructed by using ab initio Heitler-London interaction energies and literature long range dispersion and induction energies, followed by the determination of a small number of adjustable parameters to reproduce a selected subset of pure rotational transition frequencies for the (20)Ne-(12)C(16)O van der Waals cluster. Testing of the four potential energy surfaces against a wide range of available experimental microwave, millimeter-wave, and mid-infrared Ne-CO transition frequencies indicated that the XC potential energy surfaces gave results that were generally far superior to the earlier fully ab initio surfaces. In this paper, two XC model surfaces and the two fully ab initio surfaces are tested for their abilities to reproduce experiment for a wide range of nonspectroscopic Ne-CO gas mixture properties. The properties considered here are relative integral cross sections and the angle dependence of rotational state-to-state differential cross sections, rotational relaxation rate constants for CO(v=2) in Ne-CO mixtures at T=296 K, pressure broadening of two pure rotational lines and of the rovibrational lines in the CO fundamental and first overtone transitions at 300 K, and the temperature and, where appropriate, mole fraction dependencies of the interaction second virial coefficient, the binary diffusion coefficient, the interaction viscosity, the mixture shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients, and the thermal diffusion factor. The XC model potential energy surfaces give results that lie within or very nearly within the experimental uncertainties for all properties considered, while the coupled-cluster ab initio surface gives

  18. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  19. Relative species abundance of replicator dynamics with sparse interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Tokita, Kei

    2016-11-01

    A theory of relative species abundance on sparsely-connected networks is presented by investigating the replicator dynamics with symmetric interactions. Sparseness of a network involves difficulty in analyzing the fixed points of the equation, and we avoid this problem by treating large self interaction u, which allows us to construct a perturbative expansion. Based on this perturbation, we find that the nature of the interactions is directly connected to the abundance distribution, and some characteristic behaviors, such as multiple peaks in the abundance distribution and all species coexistence at moderate values of u, are discovered in a wide class of the distribution of the interactions. The all species coexistence collapses at a critical value of u, u c , and this collapsing is regarded as a phase transition. To get more quantitative information, we also construct a non-perturbative theory on random graphs based on techniques of statistical mechanics. The result shows those characteristic behaviors are sustained well even for not large u. For even smaller values of u, extinct species start to appear and the abundance distribution becomes rounded and closer to a standard functional form. Another interesting finding is the non-monotonic behavior of diversity, which quantifies the number of coexisting species, when changing the ratio of mutualistic relations Δ . These results are examined by numerical simulations, which show that our theory is exact for the case without extinct species, but becomes less and less precise as the proportion of extinct species grows.

  20. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  1. Interaction between chitosan and its related enzymes: A review.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Shoko; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2017-02-20

    Chitosan-related enzymes including chitosanases, exo-β-glucosaminidases, and enzymes having chitosan-binding modules recognize ligands through electrostatic interactions between the acidic amino acids in proteins and amino groups of chitosan polysaccharides. However, in GH8 chitosanases, several aromatic residues are also involved in substrate recognition through stacking interactions, and these enzymes consequently hydrolyze β-1,4-glucan as well as chitosan. The binding grooves of these chitosanases are extended and opened at both ends of the grooves, so that the enzymes can clamp a long chitosan polysaccharide. The association/dissociation of positively charged glucosamine residues to/from the binding pocket of a GH2 exo-β-glucosaminidase controls the p Ka of the catalytic acid, thereby maintaining the high catalytic potency of the enzyme. In contrast to chitosanases, chitosan-binding modules only accommodate a couple of glucosamine residues, predominantly recognizing the non-reducing end glucosamine residue of chitosan by electrostatic interactions and a hydrogen-bonding network. These structural findings on chitosan-related enzymes may contribute to future applications for the efficient conversion of the chitin/chitosan biomass.

  2. Pump instability phenomena generated by fluid forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Rotor dynamic behavior of high energy centrifugal pumps is significantly affected by two types of fluid forces; one due to the hydraulic interaction of the impeller with the surrounding volute or diffuser and the other due to the effect of the wear rings. The available data on these forces is first reviewed. A simple one degree-of-freedom system containing these forces is analytically solved to exhibit the rotor dynamic effects. To illustrate the relative magnitude of these phenomena, an example of a multistage boiler feed pump is worked out. It is shown that the wear ring effects tend to suppress critical speed and postpone instability onset. But the volute-impeller forces tend to lower the critical speed and the instability onset speed. However, for typical boiler feed pumps under normal running clearances, the wear ring effects are much more significant than the destabilizing hydraulic interaction effects.

  3. Gene-Diet Interactions in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Sheldon; Taylor, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50 % of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation is the only available treatment option for the dry form of the disease known to slow progression of AMD. Despite an excellent understanding of genes and nutrition in AMD, there is remarkably little known about gene-diet interactions that may identify efficacious approaches to treat individuals. This review will summarize our current understanding of gene-diet interactions in AMD with a focus on animal models and human epidemiological studies.

  4. Relative Displacement Method for Track-Structure Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Óscar Ramón; Pantaleón, Marcos J.

    2014-01-01

    The track-structure interaction effects are usually analysed with conventional FEM programs, where it is difficult to implement the complex track-structure connection behaviour, which is nonlinear, elastic-plastic and depends on the vertical load. The authors developed an alternative analysis method, which they call the relative displacement method. It is based on the calculation of deformation states in single DOF element models that satisfy the boundary conditions. For its solution, an iterative optimisation algorithm is used. This method can be implemented in any programming language or analysis software. A comparison with ABAQUS calculations shows a very good result correlation and compliance with the standard's specifications. PMID:24634610

  5. Examining Classroom Interactions Related to Difference in Students' Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    Examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science using a cultural historical framework and the activity setting (AS) construct with five features: personnel, motivation, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Reports four emergent phenomena--science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over…

  6. Stochastic models for large interacting systems and related correlation inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    A very large and active part of probability theory is concerned with the formulation and analysis of models for the evolution of large systems arising in the sciences, including physics and biology. These models have in their description randomness in the evolution rules, and interactions among various parts of the system. This article describes some of the main models in this area, as well as some of the major results about their behavior that have been obtained during the past 40 years. An important technique in this area, as well as in related parts of physics, is the use of correlation inequalities. These express positive or negative dependence between random quantities related to the model. In some types of models, the underlying dependence is positive, whereas in others it is negative. We give particular attention to these issues, and to applications of these inequalities. Among the applications are central limit theorems that give convergence to a Gaussian distribution. PMID:20826441

  7. Molecular model for chirality phenomena.

    PubMed

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank H; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2016-10-21

    Chirality is a hallmark feature for molecular recognition in biology and chemical physics. We present a three-dimensional continuum model for studying chirality phenomena in condensed phases using molecular simulations. Our model system is based upon a simple four-site molecule and incorporates non-trivial kinetic behavior, including the ability to switch chirality or racemize, as well as thermodynamics arising from an energetic preference for specific chiral interactions. In particular, we introduce a chiral renormalization parameter that can locally favor either homochiral or heterochiral configurations. Using this model, we explore a range of chirality-specific phenomena, including the kinetics of chiral inversion, the mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the liquid, chirally driven liquid-liquid phase separation, and chiral crystal structures.

  8. Content-Related Interactions in Self-initiated Study Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Karen; Talanquer, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    The central goal of the present exploratory study was to investigate the nature of the content-related interactions in study groups independently organized by college organic chemistry students. We were particularly interested in the identification of the different factors that affected the emergence of opportunities for students to co-construct understanding and engage in higher levels of cognitive processing. Our results are based on the analysis of in situ observations of 34 self-initiated study sessions involving over a 100 students in three academic semesters. The investigation revealed three major types of social regulation processes, teaching, tutoring, and co-construction in the observed study sessions. However, the extent to which students engaged in each of them varied widely from one session to another. This variability was mostly determined by the specific composition of the study groups and the nature of the study tasks in which they were engaged. Decisions about how to organize the study session, the relative content knowledge and conceptual understanding expressed by the participants, as well as the cognitive level of the problems that guided group work had a strong impact on the nature of student interactions. Nevertheless, group talk in the observed study groups was mostly focused on low-level cognitive processes. The results of our work provide insights on how to better support students' productive engagement in study groups.

  9. Eighty phenomena about the self: representation, evaluation, regulation, and change

    PubMed Central

    Thagard, Paul; Wood, Joanne V.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for examining self-related aspects and phenomena. The approach includes (1) a taxonomy and (2) an emphasis on multiple levels of mechanisms. The taxonomy categorizes approximately eighty self-related phenomena according to three primary functions involving the self: representing, effecting, and changing. The representing self encompasses the ways in which people depict themselves, either to themselves or to others (e.g., self-concepts, self-presentation). The effecting self concerns ways in which people facilitate or limit their own traits and behaviors (e.g., self-enhancement, self-regulation). The changing self is less time-limited than the effecting self; it concerns phenomena that involve lasting alterations in how people represent and control themselves (e.g., self-expansion, self-development). Each self-related phenomenon within these three categories may be examined at four levels of interacting mechanisms (social, individual, neural, and molecular). We illustrate our approach by focusing on seven self-related phenomena. PMID:25870574

  10. Hypervelocity impact phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabildas, L. C.

    There is a need to determine the equations of state of materials in regimes of extreme high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates that are not attainable on current two-stage light-gas guns. Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes associated with a variety of hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences: orbital-debris impact, debris-shield designs, high-speed plasma propagation, and impact lethality applications. At very high impact velocities material properties will be dominated by phase-changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled and repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve our understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas gun techniques. Techniques that have been used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light-gas gun to 16 km/s, and their use to determine the material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory, are summarized. The newly developed hypervelocity launcher (HVL) can launch intact (macroscopic dimensions) plates to 16 km/s. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock-loading/release characteristics of materials impacted by such fliers as well as shock-induced vaporization phenomena in fully vaporized states. High-speed photography or radiography has been used to evaluate the debris propagation characteristics resulting from disc impact of thin bumper sheets at hypervelocities in excess of 10 km/s using the HVL. Examples of these experiments are provided.

  11. Hypervelocity impact phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    There is a need to determine the equations of state of materials in regimes of extreme high pressures, temperatures and strain rates that are not attainable on current two-stage light-gas guns. Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes associated with a variety of hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences-orbital-debris impact, debris-shield designs, high-speed plasma propagation, and impact lethality applications. At very high impact velocities material properties will be dominated by phase-changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled and repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve our understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas gun techniques. In this paper, techniques that have been used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s, and their use to determine the material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. The newly developed hypervelocity launcher (HVL) can launch intact (macroscopic dimensions) plates to 16 km/s. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock-loading/release characteristics of materials impacted by such fliers as well as shock-induced vaporization phenomena in fully vaporized states. High-speed photography or radiography has been used to evaluate the debris propagation characteristics resulting from disc impact of thin bumper sheets at hypervelocities in excess of 10 km/s using the HVL. Examples of these experiments are provided in this paper.

  12. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  13. Aging-related dysregulation of dopamine and angiotensin receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Dominguez-Meijide, Antonio; Valenzuela, Rita; Granado, Noelia; Moratalla, Rosario; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2014-07-01

    It is not known whether the aging-related decrease in dopaminergic function leads to the aging-related higher vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons and risk for Parkinson's disease. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in the inflammatory response, neuronal oxidative stress, and dopaminergic vulnerability via type 1 (AT1) receptors. In the present study, we observed a counterregulatory interaction between dopamine and angiotensin receptors. We observed overexpression of AT1 receptors in the striatum and substantia nigra of young adult dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-deficient mice and young dopamine-depleted rats, together with compensatory overexpression of AT2 receptors or compensatory downregulation of angiotensinogen and/or angiotensin. In aged rats, we observed downregulation of dopamine and dopamine receptors and overexpression of AT1 receptors in aged rats, without compensatory changes observed in young animals. L-Dopa therapy inhibited RAS overactivity in young dopamine-depleted rats, but was ineffective in aged rats. The results suggest that dopamine may play an important role in modulating oxidative stress and inflammation in the substantia nigra and striatum via the RAS, which is impaired by aging.

  14. Concept recognition for extracting protein interaction relations from biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, William A; Lu, Zhiyong; Johnson, Helen L; Caporaso, J Gregory; Paquette, Jesse; Lindemann, Anna; White, Elizabeth K; Medvedeva, Olga; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Background: Reliable information extraction applications have been a long sought goal of the biomedical text mining community, a goal that if reached would provide valuable tools to benchside biologists in their increasingly difficult task of assimilating the knowledge contained in the biomedical literature. We present an integrated approach to concept recognition in biomedical text. Concept recognition provides key information that has been largely missing from previous biomedical information extraction efforts, namely direct links to well defined knowledge resources that explicitly cement the concept's semantics. The BioCreative II tasks discussed in this special issue have provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate the effectiveness of concept recognition in the field of biomedical language processing. Results: Through the modular construction of a protein interaction relation extraction system, we present several use cases of concept recognition in biomedical text, and relate these use cases to potential uses by the benchside biologist. Conclusion: Current information extraction technologies are approaching performance standards at which concept recognition can begin to deliver high quality data to the benchside biologist. Our system is available as part of the BioCreative Meta-Server project and on the internet . PMID:18834500

  15. Imaging of snapping phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Guillin, R; Marchand, A J; Roux, A; Niederberger, E; Duvauferrier, R

    2012-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. Identifying the precise cause of snaps may be challenging when no abnormality is encountered on routinely performed static examinations. In this regard, dynamic imaging techniques have been developed over time, with various degrees of success. This review encompasses the main features of each imaging technique and proposes an overview of the main snapping phenomena in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:22744321

  16. Frost phenomena on Mars.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Gaffney, E S; Low, P F

    1967-01-20

    The hypothesis that the Martian wave of darkening might be a frostheaving phenomenon has been examined. Consideration of the water-vapor sorption characteristics of a silicate mineral surface at temperatures below freezing leads to the conclusion that, without strongly deliquescent salts to attract and retain liquid water in the Martian soil, frost-heaving phenomena are not to be expected on Mars. On the other hand frost-heaving phenomena involving the freezing and thawing of ammonia may be common in the soils of Jupiter.

  17. A Challenge for Developers: Preserving the Interactivity of Human Relations in a Standalone Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, F. E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the efforts taken by the Cornell Interactive Theater Ensemble to provide interactive human relations training on date rape using live dramatizations, video with facilitated audience participation, and an electronic multimedia format with decision trees for interactive involvement. (EA)

  18. Interaction of absorbing aerosols with high relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M.; Bluvshtein, N.; Abo Riziq, A.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-12-01

    One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. This interaction is dependent on the physical and chemical properties of the aerosols and on the wavelength of the incident light. Aerosols exposed to high humidity areas will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry models use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI) of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity areas, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. The validity of these assumptions is explored. The extinction coefficient and growth factor of humidified aerosols, at 80% and 90% RH, and at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelengths was measured for size-selected aerosols of ammonium sulfate, peat (a lightly absorbing humic-like substance proxy), nigrosine (a black dye to model highly absorbing substances), and a mixture of AS and nigrosine. The ratio of the humidified extinction coefficients to the dry (fRHext(%RH,Dry)) is explored. The measured fRHext(%RH,Dry) is compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory, and using the measured growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements. Moreover, the differences between assuming a core-shell structure or a homogeneous mixing of the substances is examined. We found slightly linear to no dependency of fRH(%RH,Dry) with size for absorbing substances in contrast to the decreasing exponential behavior with size for purely scattering substances, but no discernable difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 5% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference

  19. Quantum phenomena in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.

    1987-08-01

    This paper contains remarks by the author on aspects of macroscopic quantum phenomena in superconductors. Some topics discussed are: Superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUGS), charge imbalance, cylindrical dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUIDS), Geophysics, noise theory, magnetic resonance with SQUIDS, and macroscopic quantum tunneling. 23 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  20. Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrain, Paul; Corson, Dale R.; Lorrain, Francois

    Based on the classic Electromagnetic Fields and Waves by the same authors, Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Phenomena capitalizes on the older text's traditional strengths--solid physics, inventive problems, and an experimental approach--while offering a briefer, more accessible introduction to the basic principles of electromagnetism.

  1. Phase transitions and critical phenomena in the two-dimensional Ising model with dipole interactions: A short-time dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C M; Bab, M A; Mazzini, M; Rubio Puzzo, M L; Saracco, G P

    2015-10-01

    The ferromagnetic Ising model with antiferromagnetic dipole interactions is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations, focusing on the characterization of the phase transitions between the tetragonal liquid and stripe of width h phases. The dynamic evolution of the physical observables is analyzed within the short-time regime for 0.5≤δ≤1.3, where δ is the ratio between the short-range exchange and the long-range dipole interaction constants. The obtained results for the interval 0.5≤δ≤1.2 indicate that the phase transition line between the h=1 stripe and tetragonal liquid phases is continuous. This finding contributes to clarifying the controversy about the order of this transition. This controversy arises from the difficulties introduced in the simulations due to the presence of long-range dipole interactions, such as an important increase in the simulation times that limits the system size used, strong finite size effects, as well as to the existence of multiple metastable states at low temperatures. The study of the short-time dynamics of the model allows us to avoid these hindrances. Moreover, due to the fact that the finite-size effects do not significantly affect the power-law behavior exhibited in the observables within the short-time regime, the results could be attributed to those corresponding to the thermodynamic limit. As a consequence of this, a careful characterization of the critical behavior for the whole transition line is performed by giving the complete set of critical exponents.

  2. Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr; Scott W. White

    2002-06-01

    This annual report describes progress of the project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. This project, funded by the Department of Energy, is a cooperative project that assembles a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project is working to provide advanced distributed computing solutions to link database servers across the five states into a single system where data is maintained at the local level but is accessed through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. Each individual state has strengths in data gathering, data manipulation and data display, including GIS mapping, custom application development, web development, and database design. Sharing of expertise provides the critical mass of technical expertise to improve CO{sub 2} databases and data access in all states. This project improves the flow of data across servers in the five states and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The MIDCARB project is developing improved online tools to provide real-time display and analyze CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The system links together data from sources, sinks and transportation within a spatial database that can be queried online. Visualization of high quality and current data can assist decision makers by providing access to common sets of high quality data in a consistent manner.

  3. Some remarks about simulation of cosmic ray phenomena with use of nuclear interaction models based on the current SPS proton-antiproton data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrotniak, J. A.; Yodh, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    The x-y controversy is studied by introducing models with as many features (except for x and y distributions) in common, as possible, to avoid an extrapolation problem, only primary energies of 500 TeV are considered. To prove the point, Monte Carlo simulations are performed of EAS generated by 500 TeV vertical primary protons. Four different nuclear interaction models were used. Two of them are described elsewhere. Two are: (1) Model M-Y00 - with inclusive x and y distributions behaving in a scaling way; and (2) Model M-F00 - at and below ISR energies (1 TeV in Lab) exactly equivalent to the above, then gradually changing to provide the distributions in rapidity at 155 TeV as given by SPS proton-antiproton. This was achieved by gradual decrease in the scale unit in x distributions of produced secondaries, as interaction energy increases. Other modifications to the M-Y00 model were made.

  4. (Theory of weak interactions and related topics; and study of e sup + e sup minus interactions)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Lay Nam; Tze, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains brief discussions on the following topics: Higher point anomalous amplitudes; topological phase of quantum gravity; chiral symmetry breaking at finite temperature; Skyrmions as representations of current algebras; D {ge} 4 critical phenomena: self-duality, infinite dimensional symmetries and hypercomplex analyticity; D {ge} 3 topological field theories: anionic membranes and division algebras, geometric quantization by the method of orbits; and novel non-perturbative approaches. (LSP)

  5. Near real-time model to monitor SST anomalies related to undersea earthquakes and SW monsoon phenomena from TRMM-AQUA satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Subhas

    impending under-sea earthquakes sometimes leading to tsunamis. The results of the analysis for the ENSO-Monsoon rainfall relation show that the time series of SST distribution within the Nino 4 or Nino-BP regions with larger number of pixels with SSTs between 27-28° C is generally a favourable condition for normal rainfall condi-tion. While both Nino 4 and Nino-BP provide similar results, Nino-BP region is found to be a more sensitive region for such assessment of monitoring the trend of SW monsoon rainfall over India. This result has the potential to be used in the prognosis of overall rainfall pattern of the monsoon season at weekly intervals which may serve as vital information for Indian agricul-tural production. While simple geophysical models are able to explain the above correlations, more detailed modelling of the plate tectonics and heat fluxes (for undersea earthquakes) and ocean-cloud interaction/dynamics (for ENSO and Monsoon rainfall pattern) would need to be undertaken.

  6. MIDCONTINENT INTERACTIVE DIGITAL CARBON ATLAS AND RELATIONAL DATABASE (MIDCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr; Scott W. White

    2003-07-01

    This annual report describes progress in the second year of the three-year project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. This project, funded by the Department of Energy, is a cooperative project that assembles a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project is providing advanced distributed computing solutions to link database servers across the five states into a single system where data is maintained at the local level but is accessed through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. Each individual state has strengths in data gathering, data manipulation and data display, including GIS mapping, custom application development, web development, and database design. Sharing of expertise provides the critical mass of technical expertise to improve CO{sub 2} databases and data access in all states. This project improves the flow of data across servers in the five states and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. Data is being assembled to analyze CO{sub 2} sequestration potential from a single object (e.g., power plant or well) to a region and across geographic boundaries. The MIDCARB system is robust and capable of being updated from multiple sources on a daily basis. The MIDCARB project has developed improved online tools to provide real-time display and analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The MIDCARB project is a functional template for distributed data systems to address CO{sub 2} sequestration and other natural resource issues that cross the

  7. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  8. Lunar transient phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, W. S.

    1991-03-01

    Lunar transient phenomena (LTP) sightings are classified into five categories: brightenings, darkenings, reddish colorations, bluish colorations, and obscurations. There is evidence that the remaining LTP's are of lunar origin. A substantial number of sightings are independently confirmed. They have been recorded on film and spectrograms, as well as with photoelectric photometers and polarization equipment. It suggested that the LTP's may be gentle outgassings of less-than-volcanic proportions.

  9. Paramutation phenomena in plants.

    PubMed

    Pilu, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Paramutation is a particular epigenetic phenomenon discovered in Zea mays by Alexander Brink in the 1950s, and then also found in other plants and animals. Brink coined the term paramutation (from the Greek syllable "para" meaning beside, near, beyond, aside) in 1958, with the aim to differentiate paramutation from mutation. The peculiarity of paramutation with respect to other gene silencing phenomena consists in the ability of the silenced allele (named paramutagenic) to silence the other allele (paramutable) present in trans. The newly silenced (paramutated) allele remains stable in the next generations even after segregation from the paramutagenic allele and acquires paramutagenic ability itself. The inheritance behaviour of these epialleles permits a fast diffusion of a particular gene expression level/phenotype in a population even in the absence of other evolutionary influences, thus breaking the Hardy-Weinberg law. As with other gene silencing phenomena such as quelling in the fungus Neurospora crassa, transvection in Drosophila, co-suppression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) described in transgenic plants and RNA interference (RNAi) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, paramutation occurs without changes in the DNA sequence. So far the molecular basis of paramutation remains not fully understood, although many studies point to the involvement of RNA causing changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure of the silenced genes. In this review I summarize all paramutation phenomena described in plants, focusing on the similarities and differences between them.

  10. Synchronization Phenomena and Epoch Filter of Electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matani, Ayumu

    Nonlinear electrophysiological synchronization phenomena in the brain, such as event-related (de)synchronization, long distance synchronization, and phase-reset, have received much attention in neuroscience over the last decade. These phenomena contain more electrical than physiological keywords and actually require electrical techniques to capture with electroencephalography (EEG). For instance, epoch filters, which have just recently been proposed, allow us to investigate such phenomena. Moreover, epoch filters are still developing and would hopefully generate a new paradigm in neuroscience from an electrical engineering viewpoint. Consequently, electrical engineers could be interested in EEG once again or from now on.

  11. Magnetic sponge phenomena associated with interchain dipole-dipole interactions in a series of ferrimagnetic chain compounds doped with minor diamagnetic species.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Masaki; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2014-05-05

    The donor/acceptor ionic chain (i.e., the D(+)A(-) chain) [Ru2(2-MeO-4-ClPhCO2)4(BTDA-TCNQ)]·2.5(benzene) (1; 2-MeO-4-ClPhCO2(-) = 2-methoxy-4-chlorobenzoate; BTDA-TCNQ = bis(1,2,5-thiadiazolo)tetracyanoquinodimethane) is a ferrimagnetic chain with S = 3/2 from [Ru2(II,III)](+) (i.e., D(+)) and S = 1/2 from BTDA-TCNQ(•-) (i.e., A(-)), with J ≈ -100 K, in which long-range antiferromagnetic ordering at TN = 11 K occurs because interchain antiferromagnetic interactions are critical. Compound 1 undergoes a reversible crystal-to-crystal structural transformation with the elimination/absorption of the crystallization solvent to form the dried compound [Ru2(2-MeO-4-ClPhCO2)4(BTDA-TCNQ)] (1'), which has a higher TN (14 K). This change is clearly caused by the shortening of the interchain distances because the exchange coupling parameter for the chain is the same in both 1 and 1'. The chain compounds in 1 can be doped with minor diamagnetic [Rh2(II,II)] species, [{(Ru2)(1-x)(Rh2)(x)(2-MeO-4-ClPhCO2)4}(BTDA-TCNQ)]·2.5(benzene) (x = 0.03 for Rh-3%; x = 0.05 for Rh-5%; x = 0.16 for Rh-16%), which shifts the TN to lower temperatures, the magnitude of the shift being dependent on the doping ratio x (TN = 5.9 K for Rh-3%, TN = 3.7 K for Rh-5%, and TN was not observed above 1.8 K for Rh-16%). Drying a doped compound increased its TN, as was found for 1': TN = 9.9 K for Rh-3%', TN = 9.2 K for Rh-5%', and TN was not observed above 1.8 K for Rh-16%'. TN had a linear relationship with the doping ratio x of the [Rh2] species in both the fresh and dried compounds. The TN linear relationship is associated with the magnitude of the effective magnetic dipole (i.e., the average correlation length) in the chains caused by the [Rh2] defects as well as naturally generated defects in the synthetic process and with the interchain distances affected by the crystal-to-crystal transformations. These results demonstrate that slightly modifying the short-range correlation lengths, which changes

  12. The Biomolecular Interaction Network Database and related tools 2005 update

    PubMed Central

    Alfarano, C.; Andrade, C. E.; Anthony, K.; Bahroos, N.; Bajec, M.; Bantoft, K.; Betel, D.; Bobechko, B.; Boutilier, K.; Burgess, E.; Buzadzija, K.; Cavero, R.; D'Abreo, C.; Donaldson, I.; Dorairajoo, D.; Dumontier, M. J.; Dumontier, M. R.; Earles, V.; Farrall, R.; Feldman, H.; Garderman, E.; Gong, Y.; Gonzaga, R.; Grytsan, V.; Gryz, E.; Gu, V.; Haldorsen, E.; Halupa, A.; Haw, R.; Hrvojic, A.; Hurrell, L.; Isserlin, R.; Jack, F.; Juma, F.; Khan, A.; Kon, T.; Konopinsky, S.; Le, V.; Lee, E.; Ling, S.; Magidin, M.; Moniakis, J.; Montojo, J.; Moore, S.; Muskat, B.; Ng, I.; Paraiso, J. P.; Parker, B.; Pintilie, G.; Pirone, R.; Salama, J. J.; Sgro, S.; Shan, T.; Shu, Y.; Siew, J.; Skinner, D.; Snyder, K.; Stasiuk, R.; Strumpf, D.; Tuekam, B.; Tao, S.; Wang, Z.; White, M.; Willis, R.; Wolting, C.; Wong, S.; Wrong, A.; Xin, C.; Yao, R.; Yates, B.; Zhang, S.; Zheng, K.; Pawson, T.; Ouellette, B. F. F.; Hogue, C. W. V.

    2005-01-01

    The Biomolecular Interaction Network Database (BIND) (http://bind.ca) archives biomolecular interaction, reaction, complex and pathway information. Our aim is to curate the details about molecular interactions that arise from published experimental research and to provide this information, as well as tools to enable data analysis, freely to researchers worldwide. BIND data are curated into a comprehensive machine-readable archive of computable information and provides users with methods to discover interactions and molecular mechanisms. BIND has worked to develop new methods for visualization that amplify the underlying annotation of genes and proteins to facilitate the study of molecular interaction networks. BIND has maintained an open database policy since its inception in 1999. Data growth has proceeded at a tremendous rate, approaching over 100 000 records. New services provided include a new BIND Query and Submission interface, a Standard Object Access Protocol service and the Small Molecule Interaction Database (http://smid.blueprint.org) that allows users to determine probable small molecule binding sites of new sequences and examine conserved binding residues. PMID:15608229

  13. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 - 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along the

  14. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  15. [Lateralization phenomena and headache].

    PubMed

    Nattero, G; Savi, L

    1984-09-08

    Ipsilateral carotid and vertebral vasomotor phenomena are marked components of a unilateral cluster headache crisis. Investigation of lateralisation at the height of a crisis has shown that Doppler findings supplement Heick's observation of the reversible opening of both intra and extracranial arteriovenous shunts. This observation is in line with personal thermographic evidence and that of Lance indicating local hypothermia, and with Wolff's demonstration of dilatation and congestion associated with the superficial temporal artery. Personal dynamographic findings now point to a local extra-intracranial artery pressure gradient as the cause of the peripheral component of lateralisation in cluster headache.

  16. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of stars showing Wolf-Rayet phenomena are outlined along with the direction of future work. Emphasis is placed on the characteristics of W-R spectra. Specifically the following topics are covered: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions the mass loss rates; and the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. Also, a brief overview of current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R spectra are included.

  17. Website on Protein Interaction and Protein Structure Related Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, Manoj; Liang, Shoudan; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In today's world, three seemingly diverse fields - computer information technology, nanotechnology and biotechnology are joining forces to enlarge our scientific knowledge and solve complex technological problems. Our group is dedicated to conduct theoretical research exploring the challenges in this area. The major areas of research include: 1) Yeast Protein Interactions; 2) Protein Structures; and 3) Current Transport through Small Molecules.

  18. Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.

    PubMed

    Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.

  19. The Seminole Serpent Warrior At Miramar, FL, Shows Settlement Locations Enabled Environmental Monitoring Reminiscent Of the Four-corners Kokopelli-like EMF Phenomena, and Related to Earthquakes, Tornados and Hurricanes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balam Matagamon, Chan; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Certain Native Americans of the past seem to have correctly deduced that significant survival information for their tradition-respecting cultures resided in EMF-based phenomena that they were monitoring. This is based upon their myths and the place or cult-hero names they bequeathed us. The sites we have located in FL have been detectable by us visually, usually by faint blue light, or by the elicitation of pin-like prickings, by somewhat intense nervous-system response, by EMF interactions with aural electrochemical systems that can elicit tinitus, and other ways. In the northeast, Cautantowit served as a harbinger of Indian summer, and appears to be another alter ego of the EMF. The Miami, FL Tequesta site along the river clearly correlates with tornado, earthquake and hurricane locations. Sites like the Mohave Deserts giant man may have had similar significance.

  20. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  1. Synchronization phenomena in nephron-nephron interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Yip, Kay-Pong; Sosnovtseva, Olga V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2001-06-01

    Experimental data for tubular pressure oscillations in rat kidneys are analyzed in order to examine the different types of synchronization that can arise between neighboring functional units. For rats with normal blood pressure, the individual unit (the nephron) typically exhibits regular oscillations in its tubular pressure and flow variations. For such rats, both in-phase and antiphase synchronization can be demonstrated in the experimental data. For spontaneously hypertensive rats, where the pressure variations in the individual nephrons are highly irregular, signs of chaotic phase and frequency synchronization can be observed. Accounting for a hemodynamic as well as for a vascular coupling between nephrons that share a common interlobular artery, we develop a mathematical model of the pressure and flow regulation in a pair of adjacent nephrons. We show that this model, for appropriate values of the parameters, can reproduce the different types of experimentally observed synchronization.

  2. Parent-Child Interactions and Relational Aggression in Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michiels, Daisy; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Kuppens, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children's relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is provided by attachment theory. Attachment theory…

  3. The Generation of Surface-bound Exospheres via Electron-Stimulated Desorption (and Related Phenomena): Results from Apollo samples and Hermian Regolith Simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C.; Poston, M.; McLain, J. L.; Orlando, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    The generation of surface-bound exospheres present around the Moon, Mercury and other airless rocky bodies are produced primarily by the interaction of micrometeoroid impacts and charged particles from the solar wind, and magnetospheres with those surfaces. While the study of the interactions of both micrometeoroids and ion sputtering are well investigated, the contributions arising from energetic electron interactions are typically less-well established. Observations from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS), taken < 400 km from the surface, have shown a plasma cusp with energetic heavy ions (i.e. Na+- and O+-groups) for which the source has not been determined. However, the precipitation of keV electrons onto the surfaces of Mercury has recently been inferred from measurements using the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument onboard the MESSENGER spacecraft observations of the night-side of Mercury. A newly developed global kinetic transport model suggests that electron-stimulated desorption (ESD), and possibly light ion stimulated desorption (ISD), can directly yield ions that can be transported and dynamically accelerated to the plasma cusp regions observed by FIPS. In addition, keV electrons and ions from the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere frequently bombard with the lunar surface. Here, we present some of the most recent results from our ongoing work studying the effects of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD), ion-stimulated desorption (ISD) and implantation, as well as electron-stimulated desorption (ESD). Apollo samples collected from both the lunar highland and Mare regions, as well as simulants of the Mercury Regolith have been investigated. The temperature- (100-600 K) and energy-dependence (threshold - 2 keV) of ESD time-of-flight (ToF) results will be presented for these materials along with some preliminary results from our group based on photon-desorption studies of water on lunar material, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies of

  4. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down.

    The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  5. Our Professional Responsibilities Relative to Human-Animal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bustad, L. K.; Hines, L.

    1984-01-01

    An interesting area with great potential for benefiting and enriching the lives and conditions of people and animals is opening to us in research, service and teaching. By working with colleagues in other disciplines, we can develop new and creative ways to realize the great promise inherent in people-animal interactions properly studied and utilized. Veterinarians who understand that a strong human-companion animal bond can augment people's mental and physical states will help develop sound and effective companion animal programs for individuals who are lonely or handicapped and for persons in the school systems of the community, as well as its hospices, nursing and convalescent homes, prisons and other institutions. Children experiencing the deep satisfaction of interacting with animals while young will more likely become responsible pet owners and advocates as adults. The image of the profession is enhanced when children and adults see veterinarians as concerned teachers and compassionate health professionals. We as professionals will be required not only to update our knowledge and skills, but to acquire new knowledge in fields of animal and human behavior, psychology and sociology. We are needed on interdisciplinary research teams to study human-animal interactions. We will also be asked to commit time and personal energies in community programs, sometimes with no remuneration. But if skilled health professionals like veterinarians do not take the lead in establishing sound, long-term companion animal programs in their own communities, everyone will suffer including the animals. How we, as individual professionals, respond will be an important reflection of our compassion and our humanity. PMID:17422458

  6. Functional theories of thermoelectric phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eich, F. G.; Di Ventra, M.; Vignale, G.

    2017-02-01

    We review the progress that has been recently made in the application of time-dependent density functional theory to thermoelectric phenomena. As the field is very young, we emphasize open problems and fundamental issues. We begin by introducing the formal structure of thermal density functional theory, a density functional theory with two basic variables—the density and the energy density—and two conjugate fields—the ordinary scalar potential and Luttinger’s thermomechanical potential. The static version of this theory is contrasted with the familiar finite-temperature density functional theory, in which only the density is a variable. We then proceed to constructing the full time-dependent non equilibrium theory, including the practically important Kohn-Sham equations that go with it. The theory is shown to recover standard results of the Landauer theory for thermal transport in the steady state, while showing greater flexibility by allowing a description of fast thermal response, temperature oscillations and related phenomena. Several results are presented here for the first time, i.e. the proof of invertibility of the thermal response function in the linear regime, the full expression of the thermal currents in the presence of Luttinger’s thermomechanical potential, an explicit prescription for the evaluation of the Kohn-Sham potentials in the adiabatic local density approximation, a detailed discussion of the leading dissipative corrections to the adiabatic local density approximation and the thermal corrections to the resistivity that follow from it.

  7. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  8. Solution‐crystallization and related phenomena in 9,9‐dialkyl‐fluorene polymers. II. Influence of side‐chain structure

    PubMed Central

    Perevedentsev, Aleksandr; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Solution‐crystallization is studied for two polyfluorene polymers possessing different side‐chain structures. Thermal analysis and temperature‐dependent optical spectroscopy are used to clarify the nature of the crystallization process, while X‐ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal important differences in the resulting microstructures. It is shown that the planar‐zigzag chain conformation termed the β‐phase, which is observed for certain linear‐side‐chain polyfluorenes, is necessary for the formation of so‐called polymer‐solvent compounds for these polymers. Introduction of alternating fluorene repeat units with branched side‐chains prevents formation of the β‐phase conformation and results in non‐solvated, i.e. melt‐crystallization‐type, polymer crystals. Unlike non‐solvated polymer crystals, for which the chain conformation is stabilized by its incorporation into a crystalline lattice, the β‐phase conformation is stabilized by complexation with solvent molecules and, therefore, its formation does not require specific inter‐chain interactions. The presented results clarify the fundamental differences between the β‐phase and other conformational/crystalline forms of polyfluorenes. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015, 53, 1492–1506 PMID:27546983

  9. Causes of Sex Ratio Bias May Account for Unisexual Sterility in Hybrids: A New Explanation of Haldane's Rule and Related Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, L. D.; Pomiankowski, A.

    1991-01-01

    Unisexual hybrid disruption can be accounted for by interactions between sex ratio distorters which have diverged in the species of the hybrid cross. One class of unisexual hybrid disruption is described by Haldane's rule, namely that the sex which is absent, inviable or sterile is the heterogametic sex. This effect is mainly due to incompatibility between X and Y chromosomes. We propose that this incompatibility is due to a mutual imbalance between meiotic drive genes, which are more likely to evolve on sex chromosomes than autosomes. The incidences of taxa with sex chromosome drive closely matches those where Haldane's rule applies: Aves, Mammalia, Lepidoptera and Diptera. We predict that Haldane's rule is not universal but is correct for taxa with sex chromosome meiotic drive. A second class of hybrid disruption affects the male of the species regardless of which sex is heterogametic. Typically the genes responsible for this form of disruption are cytoplasmic. These instances are accounted for by the release from suppression of cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters when in a novel nuclear cytotype. Due to the exclusively maternal transmission of cytoplasm, cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters cause only female-biased sex ratios. This asymmetry explains why hybrid disruption is limited to the male. PMID:1916248

  10. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  11. Relativity constraints on the two-nucleon contact interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Girlanda, L.; Pastore, S.; Schiavilla, R.; Viviani, M.

    2010-03-15

    We construct the most general, relativistically invariant, contact Lagrangian at order Q{sup 2} in the power counting, with Q denoting the low momentum scale. A complete, but nonminimal, set of (contact) interaction terms is identified, which upon nonrelativistic reduction generate two leading independent operator combinations of order Q{sup 0} and seven subleading ones of order Q{sup 2}--a result derived previously in the heavy-baryon formulation of effective field theories (EFTs). We show that Poincare covariance of the theory requires that additional terms with fixed coefficients be included, to describe the two-nucleon potential in reference frames other than the center-of-mass frame. These terms will contribute in systems with mass number A>2, and their impact on EFT calculations of binding energies and scattering observables in these systems should be studied.

  12. Long term puzzles of the CH and CD energetics and related phenomena revisited; solutions sought through REMPI-photofragmentations of bromomethanes.

    PubMed

    Hafliðason, Arnar; Wang, Huasheng; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2016-01-21

    Ever since the pioneering work by Herzberg and Johns in 1969 (The Astrophysical Journal, 1969, 158, 399) the spectral assignment and the energetics of the fundamental molecular fragment CH, in the region of 63 000-65 000 cm(-1) (7.81-8.06 eV), have remained a puzzle to a large extent. The dissociation of bromoform and deuterated bromoform following two-photon resonance excitations to molecular Rydberg states forms the fragment species CH* and CD* in the excited state A(2)Δ(v' =0) as well as carbon and bromine atoms in the ground and first excited states, C/C* and Br/Br*. Further (1r + 1i)REMPI of CH* and CD* resonance excites the fragments to the energy region of concern, whereas the atom fragments were identified by further (2r + 1i)REMPI. Analysis based on spectral simulations, isotope shifts and comparison with other data allowed spectral identifications, assignments and partial characterization of four highly excited bound states for each of the molecular fragments (CH**/CD**); including the (3)(2)Π valence state and the (4)(2)Π Rydberg state, for the first time. Perturbations, shown as line-shifts, line-intensity and/or line-width alterations, due to the level-to-level state interactions between the bound states and predissociations by a repulsive state are recognized. Recording of C(+) signals in REMPI of several bromomethanes for a one-photon energy of about 40 333 cm(-1) allows the clarification of a mystery concerning a broad C(+) band frequently observed. This work, presented, demonstrates the usefulness of molecular REMPI for fragment analysis.

  13. Preschool Contexts and Teacher Interactions: Relations with School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Priscilla; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Foster, Stacie A.; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of early education programs promote children's learning through a mix of experiences in child- and teacher-managed contexts. The current study examined time spent in child- and teacher-managed contexts and the nature of children's experiences with teachers in these contexts as they relate to children's skill development. Participants…

  14. Interacting varying ghost dark energy models in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros; Khurshudyan, Amalya; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by recent developments in Cosmology we would like to consider an extension of the Ghost DE which we will name as varying Ghost DE. Ghost DE like other models was introduced recently as a possible way to explain accelerated expansion of the Universe. For the phenomenological origin of the varying Ghost dark energy in our Universe we can suggest an existence of some unknown dynamics between the Ghost Dark energy and a fluid which evaporated completely making sense of the proposed effect. Moreover, we assume that this was in the epochs and scales which are unreachable by present-day experiments, like in very early Universe. In this study we will investigate the model for cosmological validity. We will apply observational and causality constraints to illuminate physically correct behavior of the model from the phenomenological one. We saw that an interaction between the varying Ghost DE and cold DM (CDM) also provides a solution to the cosmological coincidence problem. And we found that the Ghost DE behaves as a fluid-like matter in early Universe.

  15. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  16. Arcjet Cathode Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  17. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  18. PPI-IRO: a two-stage method for protein-protein interaction extraction based on interaction relation ontology.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ru-Jing; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Su, Ya-Ru; Li, Jinyan

    2014-01-01

    Mining Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) from the fast-growing biomedical literature resources has been proven as an effective approach for the identification of biological regulatory networks. This paper presents a novel method based on the idea of Interaction Relation Ontology (IRO), which specifies and organises words of various proteins interaction relationships. Our method is a two-stage PPI extraction method. At first, IRO is applied in a binary classifier to determine whether sentences contain a relation or not. Then, IRO is taken to guide PPI extraction by building sentence dependency parse tree. Comprehensive and quantitative evaluations and detailed analyses are used to demonstrate the significant performance of IRO on relation sentences classification and PPI extraction. Our PPI extraction method yielded a recall of around 80% and 90% and an F1 of around 54% and 66% on corpora of AIMed and BioInfer, respectively, which are superior to most existing extraction methods.

  19. Relating drug–protein interaction network with drug side effects

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Sayaka; Pauwels, Edouard; Stoven, Véronique; Goto, Susumu; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Identifying the emergence and underlying mechanisms of drug side effects is a challenging task in the drug development process. This underscores the importance of system–wide approaches for linking different scales of drug actions; namely drug-protein interactions (molecular scale) and side effects (phenotypic scale) toward side effect prediction for uncharacterized drugs. Results: We performed a large-scale analysis to extract correlated sets of targeted proteins and side effects, based on the co-occurrence of drugs in protein-binding profiles and side effect profiles, using sparse canonical correlation analysis. The analysis of 658 drugs with the two profiles for 1368 proteins and 1339 side effects led to the extraction of 80 correlated sets. Enrichment analyses using KEGG and Gene Ontology showed that most of the correlated sets were significantly enriched with proteins that are involved in the same biological pathways, even if their molecular functions are different. This allowed for a biologically relevant interpretation regarding the relationship between drug–targeted proteins and side effects. The extracted side effects can be regarded as possible phenotypic outcomes by drugs targeting the proteins that appear in the same correlated set. The proposed method is expected to be useful for predicting potential side effects of new drug candidate compounds based on their protein-binding profiles. Supplementary information: Datasets and all results are available at http://web.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/supp/smizutan/target-effect/. Availability: Software is available at the above supplementary website. Contact: yamanishi@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp, or goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp PMID:22962476

  20. Identification of Crew-Systems Interactions and Decision Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Evans, Joni K.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Ancel, Ersin; Barr, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    NASA Vehicle System Safety Technology (VSST) project management uses systems analysis to identify key issues and maintain a portfolio of research leading to potential solutions to its three identified technical challenges. Statistical data and published safety priority lists from academic, industry and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed by NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) systems analysis personnel to identify issues and future research needs related to one of VSST's technical challenges, Crew Decision Making (CDM). The data examined in the study were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aviation Accident and Incident Data System, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident/Incident Data System and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). In addition, this report contains the results of a review of safety priority lists, information databases and other documented references pertaining to aviation crew systems issues and future research needs. The specific sources examined were: Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementation (SERFIs), Flight Deck Automation Issues (FDAI) and NTSB Most Wanted List and Open Recommendations. Various automation issues taxonomies and priority lists pertaining to human factors, automation and flight design were combined to create a list of automation issues related to CDM.

  1. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, H. J.; Luo, X. W.; Chen, Y. L.; Xu, H. Y.; Farhat, M.

    2012-11-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  2. Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena from the Correlation, Coupling and Criticality Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. H.; Hu, B. L.; Subaşi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this sequel paper we explore how macroscopic quantum phenomena can be measured or understood from the behavior of quantum correlations which exist in a quantum system of many particles or components and how the interaction strengths change with energy or scale, under ordinary situations and when the system is near its critical point. We use the nPI (master) effective action related to the Boltzmann-BBGKY / Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of equations as a tool for systemizing the contributions of higher order correlation functions to the dynamics of lower order correlation functions. Together with the large N expansion discussed in our first paper [1] we explore 1) the conditions whereby an H-theorem is obtained, which can be viewed as a signifier of the emergence of macroscopic behavior in the system. We give two more examples from past work: 2) the nonequilibrium dynamics of N atoms in an optical lattice under the large Script N (field components), 2PI and second order perturbative expansions, illustrating how N and Script N enter in these three aspects of quantum correlations, coherence and coupling strength. 3) the behavior of an interacting quantum system near its critical point, the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations and the conditions under which the system manifests infrared dimensional reduction. We also discuss how the effective field theory concept bears on macroscopic quantum phenomena: the running of the coupling parameters with energy or scale imparts a dynamical-dependent and an interaction-sensitive definition of 'macroscopia'.

  3. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-03-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor.

  4. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor. PMID:28321154

  5. Lean limit phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of flammability limits in the presence of flame interaction, and the existence of negative flame speeds are discussed. Downstream interaction between two counterflow premixed flames of different stoichiometries are experimentally studied. Various flame configurations are observed and quantified; these include the binary system of two lean or rich flames, the triplet system of a lean and a rich flame separated by a diffusion flame, and single diffusion flames with some degree of premixedness. Extinction limits are determined for methane/air and butane/air mixtures over the entire range of mixture concentrations. The results show that the extent of flame interaction depends on the separation distance between the flames which are functions of the mixtures' concentrations, the stretch rate, and the effective Lewis numbers (Le). In particular, in a positively-stretched flow field Le 1 ( 1) mixtures tend to interact strongly (weakly), while the converse holds for flames in a negatively-stretched flow. Also established was the existence of negative flames whose propagation velocity is in the same general direction as that of the bulk convective flow, being supported by diffusion alone. Their existence demonstrates the tendency of flames to resist extinction, and further emphasizes the possibility of very lean or rich mixtures to undergo combustion.

  6. Bioelectrochemistry II: Membrane Phenomena,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-11

    techniques for studying protein-lipid interactions and molecular movements in membranes. He discussed spin labels, fluorescent probes, NMR studies and recent...transduction in chloroplasts . Re reviewed the components and reactions at the two reaction centers In photosynthesis, and carefully correlated the structure...particularly useful for considering biological problems involving charge movement (e.g., ion transport, energy transduction, and electrical excitation

  7. Self field electromagnetism and quantum phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1994-07-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) has been extremely successful inits predictive capability for atomic phenomena. Thus the greatest hope for any alternative view is solely to mimic the predictive capability of quantum mechanics (QM), and perhaps its usefulness will lie in gaining a better understanding of microscopic phenomena. Many ?paradoxes? and problematic situations emerge in QED. To combat the QED problems, the field of Stochastics Electrodynamics (SE) emerged, wherein a random ?zero point radiation? is assumed to fill all of space in an attmept to explain quantum phenomena, without some of the paradoxical concerns. SE, however, has greater failings. One is that the electromagnetic field energy must be infinit eto work. We have examined a deterministic side branch of SE, ?self field? electrodynamics, which may overcome the probelms of SE. Self field electrodynamics (SFE) utilizes the chaotic nature of electromagnetic emissions, as charges lose energy near atomic dimensions, to try to understand and mimic quantum phenomena. These fields and charges can ?interact with themselves? in a non-linear fashion, and may thereby explain many quantum phenomena from a semi-classical viewpoint. Referred to as self fields, they have gone by other names in the literature: ?evanesccent radiation?, ?virtual photons?, and ?vacuum fluctuations?. Using self fields, we discuss the uncertainty principles, the Casimir effects, and the black-body radiation spectrum, diffraction and interference effects, Schrodinger's equation, Planck's constant, and the nature of the electron and how they might be understood in the present framework. No new theory could ever replace QED. The self field view (if correct) would, at best, only serve to provide some understanding of the processes by which strange quantum phenomena occur at the atomic level. We discuss possible areas where experiments might be employed to test SFE, and areas where future work may lie.

  8. Microscopical characterization of carbon materials derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in making steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks for the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group of the ICCP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predeanu, G.; Panaitescu, C.; Bălănescu, M.; Bieg, G.; Borrego, A.G.; Diez, M. A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Kwiecińska, B.; Marques, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Misz-Kennan, M.; Pusz, S.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Rodrigues, S.; Singh, A. K.; Varma, A. K.; Zdravkov, A.; Zivotić, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of petrographic textures representing the structural organization of the organic matter derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in the making of steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks.This work represents the results of the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group in Commission III of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology between the years 2009 and 2013. The round robin exercises were run on photomicrograph samples. For textural characterization of carbon materials the existing ASTM classification system for metallurgical coke was applied.These round robin exercises involved 15 active participants from 12 laboratories who were asked to assess the coal and petroleum based carbons and to identify the morphological differences, as optical texture (isotropic/anisotropic), optical type (punctiform, mosaic, fibre, ribbon, domain), and size. Four sets of digital black and white microphotographs comprising 151 photos containing 372 fields of different types of organic matter were examined. Based on the unique ability of carbon to form a wide range of textures, the results showed an increased number of carbon occurrences which have crucial role in the chosen industrial applications.The statistical method used to evaluate the results was based on the “raw agreement indices”. It gave a new and original view on the analysts' opinion by not only counting the correct answers, but also all of the knowledge and experience of the participants. Comparative analyses of the average values of the level of overall agreement performed by each analyst in the exercises during 2009–2013 showed a great homogeneity in the results, the mean value being 90.36%, with a minimum value of 83% and a maximum value of 95%.

  9. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  10. Local phenomena, chapter 3, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Oceanic and coastal phenomena with dimensions ranging to 100 km are dealt with. The two major categories discussed are waves, their generation and dynamics and ocean-land related problems. The dynamics, of surface waves in both capillary and gravity ranges indicates that microwave technology provides a superior means of measuring simultaneously the spatial and temporal properties of ocean waves. The need for basic studies of physical phenomena in support of active microwave sensing is indicated. Active microwave scattering from surface waves is discussed in terms of wave dynamics.

  11. Diversity of threshold phenomena in geophysical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The sample analysis of threshold phenomena in the lithosphere, atmosphere, and magnetosphere is conducted. The phenomena due to the flow of electric current and pore fluid in the rocks are considered, the scenario of wind-driven generation of atmospheric electricity is suggested, and the model of the geomagnetic storm time Dst variation is analyzed. An important general conclusion consists in the fact that in the geophysical media there is a wide class of threshold phenomena that are affine with phase transitions of the second kind. These phenomena are also related to the critical transitions in self-oscillatory systems with soft self-excitation. The integral representation of bifurcation diagrams for threshold phenomena is suggested. This provides a simple way to take into account the influence of the fluctuations on the transition of a system through the threshold. Fluctuations remove singularity at the threshold point and, generally, lead to a certain shifting of the threshold. The question concerning the hard transition through the threshold and several aspects of modeling the blow-up instability which is presumed to occasionally develop in the geophysical media are discussed.

  12. The making of extraordinary psychological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the extraordinary phenomena that have been central to unorthodox areas of psychological knowledge. It shows how even the agreed facts relating to mesmerism, spiritualism, psychical research, and parapsychology have been framed as evidence both for and against the reality of the phenomena. It argues that these disputes can be seen as a means through which beliefs have been formulated and maintained in the face of potentially challenging evidence. It also shows how these disputes appealed to different forms of expertise, and that both sides appealed to belief in various ways as part of the ongoing dispute about both the facts and expertise. Finally, it shows how, when a formal Psychology of paranormal belief emerged in the twentieth century, it took two different forms, each reflecting one side of the ongoing dispute about the reality of the phenomena.

  13. Extraterrestrial materials processing and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R.; Sridhar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    Several concepts for significant cost reductions in extraterrestrial resource utilization are described. After an introduction of the desirability of in situ resource utilization, several candidate chemical processes are mentioned. It is brought out that many of the key processes require fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes under reduced- and microgravity. These aspects are discussed within the broad framework of a two-phase thermal control systems. Another important aspect of space processing is that reliability and self-repairability are mandatory; automation aspects are discussed. In addition to these general considerations, the paper includes several specific processes that vary from solid electrolytic production of oxygen from carbon dioxide, to plasma-augmented reactions for reducing ilmenite on the moon.

  14. Supercritical droplet combustion and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor; Hsieh, K. C.; Shuen, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in theoretical analyses of supercritical droplet vaporization and combustion is conducted. Both hydrocarbon and cryogenic liquid droplets over a wide range of thermodynamic states are considered. Various important high-pressure effects on droplet behavior, such as thermodynamic non-ideality, transport anomaly, and property variation, are reviewed. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influence on fluid transport, gas-liquid interfacial thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibit a considerable change in the combustion mechanism at the criticl pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure. The influence of droplet size on the burning characteristics is also noted.

  15. Solar Influences on Geomagnetic and Related Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestine, E. H.

    1961-01-01

    A discussion of the geomagnetic effects of streams of electromagnetic and particular radiation from the sun. The interplay of forces between the geomagnetic field and solar streams is outlined; and the theoretical relationship between these, the solar storms, the trapped Van Allen radiations, the polar aurora, and geomagnetic field distortion are presented.

  16. Pairing phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotscheck, E.; Smith, R. A.; Jackson, A. D.

    1981-12-01

    The correlated-basis-function method is extended to deal with pairing phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. With a variational ansatz for the model wave function we derive the "correlated" analog of the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (or Balian-Werthamer), Anderson-Brinkman-Morel theory of pairing. A suitable (and well-controlled) set of approximations brings the theory into a form identical to the conventional theories, but with the bare interaction replaced by a weak effective interaction and the bare single-particle energies replaced by an effective single-particle spectrum. As usual, liquid 3He provides a very stringent test of the theory, as both the interaction and the experimental facts are pretty clear. The variational estimates for the pairing interaction are improved by nonorthogonal perturbation theory. We find the expected enhancement of the attraction in P waves, although the restriction to effective two-body interactions appears to be insufficient to generate P-wave pairing.

  17. Politico-Military Relations, a Basis for Military Interaction between Argentina and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    POLITICO -MILITARY RELATIONS, A BASIS FOR MILITARY INTERACTION BETWEEN ARGENTINA AND THE UNITED STATES N IN w Fn STRATEGY AND CAMPAIGN DEPARTMENT...FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classificationi Politico -Military Relations, A...America. Politico -Military relations. civil-military relations, military coups. military to military relations. South American democracy -con- 𔄃

  18. Measured Gene-by-Environment Interaction in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and evaluate the state of knowledge regarding the role of measured gene-by-environment interactions in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: A selective review of methodologic issues was followed by a systematic search for relevant articles on measured gene-by-environment interactions; the search…

  19. Peer-Related Social Interactions of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Development and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddlers and preschool children was carried out. Results suggested the existence of unusually marked deficits in peer interactions. Possible contributing factors were discussed. (Author/RH)

  20. Physical and Relational Aggression in Young Children: The Role of Mother-Child Interactional Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Holly N.; Menna, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent-child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3-6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through…

  1. External Catalyst Breakup Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    the liquid velocity. During a cold start contact with hydrazine leading to liquid wetting can lead to very high internal pressures as a result ot the...strength leading ultimately to bed failure. * Means to reduce the relatively large scatter ii individual particle crush strength vould eliminate a... leads to the conclusion that rapid pressure release should not resuvlt in damage t, the pellets since the presstire in the pellet closely approaches that

  2. Complexity and emergent phenomena.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T; Frey, Urs

    2011-04-01

    Complex biological systems operate under non-equilibrium conditions and exhibit emergent properties associated with correlated spatial and temporal structures. These properties may be individually unpredictable, but tend to be governed by power-law probability distributions and/or correlation. This article reviews the concepts that are invoked in the treatment of complex systems through a wide range of respiratory-related examples. Following a brief historical overview, some of the tools to characterize structural variabilities and temporal fluctuations associated with complex systems are introduced. By invoking the concept of percolation, the notion of multiscale behavior and related modeling issues are discussed. Spatial complexity is then examined in the airway and parenchymal structures with implications for gas exchange followed by a short glimpse of complexity at the cellular and subcellular network levels. Variability and complexity in the time domain are then reviewed in relation to temporal fluctuations in airway function. Next, an attempt is given to link spatial and temporal complexities through examples of airway opening and lung tissue viscoelasticity. Specific examples of possible and more direct clinical implications are also offered through examples of optimal future treatment of fibrosis, exacerbation risk prediction in asthma, and a novel method in mechanical ventilation. Finally, the potential role of the science of complexity in the future of physiology, biology, and medicine is discussed.

  3. The Role of Family Phenomena in Posttraumatic Stress in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Deatrick, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    Topic Youth face trauma that can cause posttraumatic stress (PTS). Purpose 1). To identify the family phenomena used in youth PTS research; and 2). Critically examine the research findings regarding the relationship between family phenomena and youth PTS. Sources Systematic literature review in PsycInfo, PILOTS, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. Twenty-six empirical articles met inclusion criteria. Conclusion Measurement of family phenomena included family functioning, support, environment, expressiveness, relationships, cohesion, communication, satisfaction, life events related to family, parental style of influence, and parental bonding. Few studies gave clear conceptualization of family or family phenomena. Empirical findings from the 26 studies indicate inconsistent empirical relationships between family phenomena and youth PTS, though a majority of the prospective studies support a relationship between family phenomena and youth PTS. Future directions for leadership by psychiatric nurses in this area of research and practice are recommended. PMID:21344778

  4. Dopamine/adenosine interactions involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce

    2009-12-01

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation. Accumbens DA depletions reduce the tendency of rats to work for food, and alter effort-related choice, but leave other aspects of food motivation and appetite intact. DA and adenosine receptors interact to regulate effort-related processes. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D(2) antagonists on effort-related choice, and intra-accumbens injections of a adenosine A(2A) agonist produce effects that are similar to those produced by accumbens DA depletion or antagonism. These studies have implications for understanding the neurochemical interactions that underlie activational aspects of motivation.

  5. Optimizing Laboratory Experiments for Dynamic Astrophysical Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Remington, B

    2005-09-13

    To make a laboratory experiment an efficient tool for the studying the dynamical astrophysical phenomena, it is desirable to perform them in such a way as to observe the scaling invariance with respect to the astrophysical system under study. Several examples are presented of such scalings in the area of magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, where a number of scaled experiments have been performed. A difficult issue of the effect of fine-scale dissipative structures on the global scale dissipation-free flow is discussed. The second part of the paper is concerned with much less developed area of the scalings relevant to the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a pre-formed plasma. The use of the symmetry arguments in such experiments is also considered.

  6. Conductance phenomena in microcrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, M.

    2006-02-01

    We have investigated the conduction phenomena in compacted tablets of cellulose with varying relative humidity (RH) with techniques such as Low Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy (LFDS) and Transient Current (TC) at room temperature. Two exponential decaying regions in the transient current measurements indicate two ionic species contributing to the conduction mechanism. A high power-law exponent of 9 for the conductance with moisture content has been found. The mobility initially decreases with RH up to monolayer coverage, and further water vapor increases the mobility, indicating a blocking of available positions for the charge carrier ions. When the amount of water molecules present in the tablet increases one order of magnitude, the number of charge carriers increases 5-6 orders of magnitude, suggesting a transition from a power-law increase to a linear effective medium theory for the conduction. The charge carrier dependence on RH suggests that a percolating network of water molecules adsorbed to 6-OH units on the cellulose chain span through the sample. The conductivity mechanisms in cellulose are still not clear.

  7. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-01-07

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction.

  8. The phenomenology of life phenomena--in a nursing context.

    PubMed

    Delmar, Charlotte

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and develop knowledge about life phenomena in a life-philosophical and nursing context. Knowledge about life phenomena is part of a care-ethical understanding with a focus on relations. Life phenomena are to be understood as a generalized label for the various phenomena which are given with human existence. The Danish life philosophical tradition with the perspective of life as experienced has something to say in relation to a further refinement of the phenomenology of life phenomena. The refinement will be described as an ethical and existential understanding of the phenomena of nursing. The first part of the article takes a philosophical approach to the phenomenology of life phenomena. It attempts to locate life phenomena in relation to, respectively, needs, senses, and feelings. In order to maintain an overview, the attempt is made to separate needs, senses, and feelings, although in real life these are closely interwoven. The article also describes philosophy and life phenomena in relation to nursing as an empirical field. In nursing there is a risk that life phenomena become invisible to those whose task is to help the ill person adjust to a new life situation. For the nurse, it will be a continuing task, never completed, to develop a sensory-based, situation-determined attention to the patient. And the nurse must be continually aware of whether mere 'need-oriented' nursing is controlling her professional actions as a nurse. Taking a point of departure in the nurse's sensory, situationally determined attention, the last part of the article focuses on needs, senses, and feelings in connection with the nurse being able to direct her attention to the patient's life phenomena.

  9. Toward Understanding Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing

    2015-06-01

    I hope to resume working on fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the near future. But after we completed our FRB paper, I decided to pause this project because of the lack of observational constraints. The pulsar triple system, J0733+1715, has its orbital parameters fitted to high accuracy owing to the precise timing of the central ms pulsar. The two orbits are highly hierarchical, namely Porb,1 " Porb,2, where 1 and 2 label the inner and outer white dwarf (WD) companions respectively. Moreover, their orbital planes almost coincide, providing a unique opportunity to study secular interaction associated purely with eccentricity beyond the solar system. Secular interaction only involves effect averaged over many orbits. Thus each companion can be represented by an elliptical wire with its mass distributed inversely proportional to its local orbital speed. Generally there exists a mutual torque, which vanishes only when their apsidal lines are parallel or anti-parallel. To maintain either mode, the eccentricity ratio, e1/ e2, must be of the proper value, so that both apsidal lines precess together. For J0733+1715, e1 " e2 for the parallel mode, while e 1 " e2 for the anti-parallel one. We show that the former precesses ˜10 times slower than the latter. Currently the system is dominated by the parallel mode. Although only a little anti-parallel mode survives, both eccentricities especially e1 oscillate on ˜103yr timescale. Detectable changes would occur within ˜1y. We demonstrate that the anti-parallel mode gets damped ˜10 4 times faster than its parallel brother by any dissipative process diminishing e1. If it is the tidal damping in the inner WD, we proceed to estimate its tidal quantity parameter (Q) to be ˜106, which was poorly constrained by observations. However, tidal damping may also happen during the preceding low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase or hydrogen thermal nuclear flashes. But, in both cases, the inner companion fills its Roche lobe and probably suffers

  10. Reduplication phenomena: body, mind and archetype.

    PubMed

    Garner, J

    2000-09-01

    The many biological and few psychodynamic explanations of reduplicative syndromes tend to have paralleled the dualism of the phenomenon with organic theories concentrating on form and dynamic theories emphasising content. This paper extends the contribution of psychoanalytic thinking to an elucidation of the form of the delusion. Literature on clinical and aetiological aspects of reduplicative phenomena is reviewed alongside a brief examination of psychoanalytic models not overtly related to these phenomena. The human experience of doubles as universal archetype is considered. There is an obvious aetiological role for brain lesions in delusional misidentifications, but psychological symptoms in an individual can rarely be reduced to an organic disorder. The splitting and doubling which occurs in the phenomena have resonances in cultural mythology and in theories from different schools of psychodynamic thought. For the individual patient and doctor, it is a diverting but potentially empty debate to endeavour to draw strict divisions between what is physical and what is psychological although both need to be investigated. Nevertheless, in patients in whom there is clear evidence of an organic contribution to aetiology a psychodynamic understanding may serve to illuminate the patient's experience. Organic brain disease or serious functional illness predispose to regression to earlier modes of archetypical and primitive thinking with concretization of the metaphorical and mythological world. Psychoanalytic models have a contribution in describing the form as well as the content of reduplicative phenomena.

  11. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, M. P.; Bruckner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN's were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  12. Beam-Material Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Cerutti, F.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  13. Reciprocal and Complementary Sibling Interactions: Relations with Socialization Outcomes in the Kindergarten Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Achacoso, Joseph A.; John, Aesha; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings To examine associations between sibling interaction patterns and later social outcomes in single- and two-parent families, 113 kindergarteners took part in naturalistic observations at home with siblings, classmates participated in sociometric interviews, and teachers completed behavior ratings. Sibling interactions were coded using a newly-developed 39-item checklist, and proportions of complementary and reciprocal sibling interactions computed. Complementarity occurred more among dyads where kindergartners were with toddler or infant siblings than among kindergartners with older or near-age younger siblings. Higher levels of complementarity predicted lower levels of internalizing but were not related to externalizing problems. Kindergartners’ sociometric status in the classroom differed as a function of sibling interaction patterns, with neglected and controversial children experiencing less complementarity/more reciprocity than popular, average, and rejected children. Finally, there was some evidence for differential associations of sibling interaction patterns with social outcomes for children in single- versus two-parent families: regressions testing interaction effects show sibling reciprocity positively associated with kindergartners’ social skills only in single-parent families, and complementary sibling interactions positively related to internalizing problems only in two-parent families. Implications for Practice Those working with divorcing or other single-parent families might consider sibling interactions as a potential target for social skill building. PMID:26005311

  14. Maternal ADHD: Parent-Child Interactions and Relations with Child Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…

  15. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  16. Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions for the Occupational Specialist. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Juanita B.; Boland, Jeanne M.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist interact effectively with a variety of students, teachers, co-workers and employees. Other modules in this set of three are Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational…

  17. Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Jane C.; Casey, Leanne M.

    2014-02-01

    Invasive alien flowering plants may affect native plant pollinator interactions and have knock on impacts on populations of native plants and animals. The magnitude of these impacts, however, may be modified by the relative abundance of the invasive plant and the number of flowers it presents.We tested this by examining the structure of insect-flower interaction networks in six sites with increasing levels of invasion by Rhododendron ponticum in Ireland.Neither flower-visiting insect abundance, species richness nor diversity were related to R. ponticum flower abundance, but the composition of insect communities was. The total number of flowers in a site increased with the relative abundance of R. ponticum flowers but the number of co-flowering native plant species in these sites was low (<6), making interaction networks relatively small.As a result, changes in interaction network properties (connectance, interaction evenness and network level specialisation), which correlated with R. ponticum flower abundance, were a result of the small network size rather than due to changes in the resilience of networks.Overall, we conclude that the impacts of invasive alien plants on native plant-pollinator interactions are not only species specific, but site specific, according to the abundance of flowers produced by both the invasive and the native plants.

  18. Hydrodynamic interactions between two forced objects of arbitrary shape. II. Relative translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally, such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry; for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant, and Witten, Phys. Fluids 27, 123303 (2015)], 10.1063/1.4936894. The interplay between the orientational interaction and the translational one, in most cases, leads over time to repulsion between the two objects. The repulsion is qualitatively different for self-aligning objects compared to the more symmetric case of uniform prolate spheroids. The separation between the two objects increases with time t as t1 /3 in the former case, and more strongly, as t , in the latter.

  19. Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

  20. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2010-02-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  1. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS states contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as such to the geometry at the Planck scale. In the second part, we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multicentered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  2. The early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to the ability to execute appropriate actions and to inhibit inappropriate actions for the attainment of a specific goal. Research has shown that this ability develops rapidly during the preschool years. Recently, it has been proposed that research on EF should consider the importance of social interaction. In this article, recent evidence regarding the early development of EF and its relation to social interaction has been reviewed. Research consistently showed that social interaction can influence EF skills in young children. However, the development of EF may facilitate the cognitive skills that are important for social interaction. Taken together, there might be functional dependency between the development of EF and social interaction.

  3. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2) x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment.

  4. The early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to the ability to execute appropriate actions and to inhibit inappropriate actions for the attainment of a specific goal. Research has shown that this ability develops rapidly during the preschool years. Recently, it has been proposed that research on EF should consider the importance of social interaction. In this article, recent evidence regarding the early development of EF and its relation to social interaction has been reviewed. Research consistently showed that social interaction can influence EF skills in young children. However, the development of EF may facilitate the cognitive skills that are important for social interaction. Taken together, there might be functional dependency between the development of EF and social interaction. PMID:24808885

  5. Universal relations for the two-dimensional spin-1/2 Fermi gas with contact interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj T.; Moelmer, Klaus

    2011-12-15

    We present universal relations for a two-dimensional Fermi gas with pairwise contact interactions. The derivation of these relations is made possible by obtaining the explicit form of a generalized function--selector--in the momentum representation. The selector implements the short-distance boundary condition between two fermions in a straightforward manner and leads to simple derivations of the universal relations, in the spirit of Tan's original method for the three-dimensional gas.

  6. Prediction of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks based on network topology.

    PubMed

    Acencio, Marcio Luis; Bovolenta, Luiz Augusto; Camilo, Esther; Lemke, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a systems biology disease since many investigators have demonstrated that this malignant phenotype emerges from abnormal protein-protein, regulatory and metabolic interactions induced by simultaneous structural and regulatory changes in multiple genes and pathways. Therefore, the identification of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks is crucial for better understanding cancer. As experimental techniques for determining such interactions and signaling networks are labor-intensive and time-consuming, the development of a computational approach capable to accomplish this task would be of great value. For this purpose, we present here a novel computational approach based on network topology and machine learning capable to predict oncogenic interactions and extract relevant cancer-related signaling subnetworks from an integrated network of human genes interactions (INHGI). This approach, called graph2sig, is twofold: first, it assigns oncogenic scores to all interactions in the INHGI and then these oncogenic scores are used as edge weights to extract oncogenic signaling subnetworks from INHGI. Regarding the prediction of oncogenic interactions, we showed that graph2sig is able to recover 89% of known oncogenic interactions with a precision of 77%. Moreover, the interactions that received high oncogenic scores are enriched in genes for which mutations have been causally implicated in cancer. We also demonstrated that graph2sig is potentially useful in extracting oncogenic signaling subnetworks: more than 80% of constructed subnetworks contain more than 50% of original interactions in their corresponding oncogenic linear pathways present in the KEGG PATHWAY database. In addition, the potential oncogenic signaling subnetworks discovered by graph2sig are supported by experimental evidence. Taken together, these results suggest that graph2sig can be a useful tool for investigators involved in cancer research

  7. Asymmetric current-phase relation due to spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2013-12-04

    We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the Josephson current I and phase difference φ between the superconductors satisfy the relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In the presence of magnetic field along the nanowire, the interplay between the SO interaction and Zeeman effect breaks the current-phase relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In this case, we show that the critical current depends on the current direction, which qualitatively agrees with recent experimental findings.

  8. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Sindo

    1996-10-01

    An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: * Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication * Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization * Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing * Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving * Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations * Provides a list of publicly available computer

  9. Comprehending emergent systems phenomena through direct-manipulation animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Priscilla Abel

    This study seeks to understand the type of interaction mode that best supports learning and comprehension of emergent systems phenomena. Given that the literature has established that students hold robust misconceptions of such phenomena, this study investigates the influence of using three types of interaction; speed-manipulation animation (SMN), post-manipulation animation (PMA) and direct-manipulation animation (DMA) for increasing comprehension and testing transfer of the phenomena, by looking at the effect of simultaneous interaction of haptic and visual channels on long term and working memories when seeking to comprehend emergent phenomena. The questions asked were: (1) Does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool (i.e., SMA, PMA or DMA), improve students' mental model construction of systems, thus increasing comprehension of this scientific concept? And (2) does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, give the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which can then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios? In an empirical study undergraduate and graduate students were asked to participate in one of three experimental conditions: SMA, PMA, or DMA. The results of the study found that it was the participants of the SMA treatment condition that had the most improvement in post-test scores. Students' understanding of the phenomena increased most when they used a dynamic model with few interactive elements (i.e., start, stop, and speed) that allowed for real time visualization of one's interaction on the phenomena. Furthermore, no indication was found that the learning of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, gave the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which could then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios

  10. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  11. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  12. Prediction of the Ebola virus infection related human genes using protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Cao, HuanHuan; Zhang, YuHang; Zhao, Jia; Zhu, Liucun; Wang, Yi; Li, JiaRui; Feng, Yuanming; Zhang, Ning

    2017-03-10

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). It is reported that human could be infected by EBOV with a high fatality rate. However, association factors between EBOV and host still tend to be ambiguous. According to the "guilt by association" (GBA) principle, proteins interacting with each other are very likely to function similarly or the same. Based on this assumption, we tried to obtain EBOV infection-related human genes in a protein-protein interaction network using Dijkstra algorithm. We hope it could contribute to the discovery of novel effective treatments. Finally, 15 genes were selected as potential EBOV infection-related human genes.

  13. Gravitation and Special Relativity from Compton Wave Interactions at the Planck Scale: An Algorithmic Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.

  14. Interface-Driven Phenomena in Solids: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Abdeljawad, Fadi; Foiles, Stephen M.

    2016-05-04

    The study of materials interfaces dates back over a century. In solid systems and from an engineering perspective, free surfaces and internal (grain and/or phase) boundaries influence a wide range of properties, such as thermal, electrical and optical transport, and mechanical ones. The properties and the role of interfaces has been discussed extensively in various reviews such as by Sutton and Balluffi. As the characteristic feature size of a materials system (i.e., grain size) is decreased to the nanometer scale, interface-driven physics is expected to dominate due to the increased density of such planar defects. Moreover, interfacial attributes, thermodynamics, andmore » mobility play a key role in phase transformations, such as solidification dynamics and structural transitions in solids, and in homogenization and microstructural evolution processes, such as grain growth, coarsening, and recrystallization. In summary, the set of articles published in this special topic titled: “Interface-Driven Phenomena in Solids: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Chemistry” covers topics related to microstructure evolution, segregation/adsorption phenomena and interface interactions with other materials defects.« less

  15. Interface-Driven Phenomena in Solids: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Abdeljawad, Fadi; Foiles, Stephen M.

    2016-05-04

    The study of materials interfaces dates back over a century. In solid systems and from an engineering perspective, free surfaces and internal (grain and/or phase) boundaries influence a wide range of properties, such as thermal, electrical and optical transport, and mechanical ones. The properties and the role of interfaces has been discussed extensively in various reviews such as by Sutton and Balluffi. As the characteristic feature size of a materials system (i.e., grain size) is decreased to the nanometer scale, interface-driven physics is expected to dominate due to the increased density of such planar defects. Moreover, interfacial attributes, thermodynamics, and mobility play a key role in phase transformations, such as solidification dynamics and structural transitions in solids, and in homogenization and microstructural evolution processes, such as grain growth, coarsening, and recrystallization. In summary, the set of articles published in this special topic titled: “Interface-Driven Phenomena in Solids: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Chemistry” covers topics related to microstructure evolution, segregation/adsorption phenomena and interface interactions with other materials defects.

  16. INVESTIGATIONS INTO BIOFOULING PHENOMENA IN FINE PORE AERATION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbiologically-based procedures were used to describe biofouling phenomena on fine pore aeration devices and to determine whether biofilm characteristics could be related to diffuser process performance parameters. Fine pore diffusers were obtained from five municipal wastewa...

  17. Quantum Phenomena Observed Using Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tonomura, Akira

    2011-05-06

    Electron phase microscopy based on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect principle has been used to illuminate fundamental phenomena concerning magnetism and superconductivity by visualizing quantitative magnetic lines of force. This paper deals with confirmation experiments on the AB effect, the magnetization process of tiny magnetic heads for perpendicular recording, and vortex behaviors in high-Tc superconductors.

  18. Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

  19. Interaction between droplets in a ternary microemulsion evaluated by the relative form factor method

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2007-06-15

    This paper describes the concentration dependence of the interaction between water droplets coated by a surfactant monolayer using the contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering technique. In the first part, we explain the idea of how to extract a relatively model free structure factor from the scattering data, which is called the relative form factor method. In the second part, the experimental results for the shape of the droplets (form factor) are described. In the third part the relatively model free structure factor is shown, and finally the concentration dependence of the interaction potential between droplets is discussed. The result indicates the validity of the relative form factor method, and the importance of the estimation of the model free structure factor to discuss the nature of structure formation in microemulsion systems.

  20. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  1. Animal network phenomena: insights from triadic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N.

    Games of animal conflict in networks rely heavily on computer simulation because analysis is difficult, the degree of difficulty increasing sharply with the size of the network. For this reason, virtually the entire analytical literature on evolutionary game theory has assumed either dyadic interaction or a high degree of symmetry, or both. Yet we cannot rely exclusively on computer simulation in the study of any complex system. So the study of triadic interactions has an important role to play, because triads are both the simplest groups in which asymmetric network phenomena can be studied and the groups beyond dyads in which analysis of population games is most likely to be tractable, especially when allowing for intrinsic variation. Here we demonstrate how such analyses can illuminate a variety of behavioral phenomena within networks, including coalition formation, eavesdropping (the strategic observation of contests between neighbors) and victory displays (which are performed by the winners of contests but not by the losers). In particular, we show that eavesdropping acts to lower aggression thresholds compared to games without it, and that victory displays to bystanders will be most intense when there is little difference in payoff between dominating an opponent and not subordinating.

  2. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  3. Interactions of individual perceived barriers and neighbourhood destinations with obesity-related behaviours in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; Van Lenthe, F J; Teixeira, P J; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Charreire, H; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; Glonti, K; Rutter, H; McKee, M; Nijpels, G; Brug, J

    2016-01-01

    Perceived barriers towards physical activity and healthy eating as well as local availability of opportunities (destinations in the neighbourhood) are important determinants of obesity-related behaviours in adults. Little is known, however, about how these factors interact with the behaviours. Data were analysed from 5,205 participants of the SPOTLIGHT survey, conducted in 60 neighbourhoods in urban regions of five different countries across Europe. A virtual audit was conducted to collect data on the presence of destinations in each neighbourhood. Direct associations of, and interactions between, the number of individual perceived barriers and presence of destinations with obesity-related behaviours (physical activity and dietary behaviours) were analysed using multilevel regression analyses, adjusted for key covariates. Perceiving more individual barriers towards physical activity and healthy eating was associated with lower odds of physical activity and healthy eating. The presence of destinations such as bicycle lanes, parks and supermarkets was associated with higher levels of physical activity and healthier dietary behaviours. Analyses of additive interaction terms suggested that the interaction of destinations and barriers was competitive, such that the presence of destinations influenced obesity-related behaviours most among those perceiving more barriers. These explorative findings emphasize the interest and importance of combining objective (e.g. virtual neighbourhood audit) methods and subjective (e.g. individual perceived barriers collected in a survey) to better understand how the characteristics of the residential built environment can shape obesity-related behaviours depending on individual characteristics.

  4. Appropriate Relational Messages in Direct Selling Interaction: Should Salespeople Adapt to Buyers' Communicator Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Jamie; Higgins, Gary

    1997-01-01

    Prescribes rules for appropriate behavior for the direct sales relationship. Suggests that sellers may not completely understand these rules. Determines that buyers prefer sellers who are trustworthy, composed, and task-oriented. Shows that sellers are well aware of buyers' preferences for task-related interaction but may overestimate the value of…

  5. Effects of Message Interactivity upon Relational Maintenance Strategy in Digital Communications between Organizations and the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication between organizations and the public is strategically important in shaping mutual understanding and long term relationship. The primary focus of this project was to investigate the relationship between message interactivity and relational maintenance strategy in the email communication process on organization websites. At…

  6. A Framework for Categorizing Social Interactions Related to End-of-Life Care in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Almost half of people age 85 and older who die annually in the United States die as nursing home residents, yet because it is not always clear who is close to death, not all residents who might benefit from end-of-life care receive it. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for organizing social interactions related to…

  7. The Relations among Theory of Mind, Behavioral Inhibition, and Peer Interactions in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suway, Jenna G.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Sussman, Amy L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined relations among child temperament, peer interaction, and theory of mind (ToM) development. We hypothesized that: (1) children classified as behaviorally inhibited at 24 months would show less ToM understanding at 36 months in comparison to nonbehaviorally inhibited children; (2) children who displayed negative peer…

  8. Training and Deriving Precalculus Relations: A Small-Group, Web-Interactive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinty, Jenny; Ninness, Chris; McCuller, Glen; Rumph, Robin; Goodwin, Andrea; Kelso, Ginger; Lopez, Angie; Kelly, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A small-group, web-interactive approach to teaching precalculus concepts was investigated. Following an online pretest, 3 participants were given a brief (15 min) presentation on the details of reciprocal math relations and how they operate on the coordinate axes. During baseline, participants were tested regarding their ability to construct…

  9. Three-wave interaction and Manley-Rowe relations in quantum hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Erik; Zamanian, Jens; Brodin, Gert; Brodin

    2014-08-01

    The theory for nonlinear three-wave interaction in magnetized plasmas is reconsidered using quantum hydrodynamics. The general coupling coefficients are calculated for the generalized Bohm de Broglie term. It is found that the Manley-Rowe relations are fulfilled only if the form of the particle dispersive term coincides with the standard expression. The implications of our results are discussed.

  10. Accomplishing Marginalization in Bilingual Interaction: Relational Work as a Resource for the Intersubjective Construction of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Holly R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of impoliteness by Spanish-English bilingual pre-adolescents as a resource for accomplishing identities in spontaneous conversational interactions in an elementary school setting. The theoretical approach employed integrates the concept of relational work (Locher 2004; Locher and Watts 2005), which is based on Goffman's…

  11. Relations of Parent-Youth Interactive Exchanges to Adolescent Socioemotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutt, Rachel L.; Wang, Qi; Evans, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relations of parent-youth agreement and disagreement during a joint problem-solving task and multi-methodological indices of socioemotional outcomes in adolescents (mean age = 13). One hundred and sixty-seven parents and their adolescent children participated. Each parent-youth pair played the interactive game "Jenga", and…

  12. Precision Communication: Interactive Computer Applications in Data-Based Public Relations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalupa, Frank B.; Trotter, Edgar P.

    To develop research capabilities among public relations professionals, a research teaching program was begun as part of an advanced undergraduate course using an online computer terminal system to analyze up-to-date field survey data. Students use an interactive computer program designed to provide a linking system of live research data and active…

  13. Task-Related Interactions between Kindergarten Children and Their Teachers: The Role of Emotional Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijs, Jochem T.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the emotional security of kindergarten children in dyadic task-related interactions with their teachers. In particular, it examined the interrelations between security, task behaviours (persistence and independence), social inhibition, and teachers' support. Participants were 79 kindergartners (mean age = 69.7 months) and their…

  14. Facial and Full-Length Ratings of Attractiveness Related to the Social Interactions of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory J.

    1985-01-01

    Aggressive and prosocial peer interactions were observed in 38 preschool-age children. Attractive girls received more prosocial and fewer aggressive advances than unattractive girls. There was no differential treatment of boys related to attractiveness. Results are discussed in relationship to possible developmental implications and their parallel…

  15. The outcomes of most aggressive interactions among closely related bird species are asymmetric.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Freshwater, Cameron; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions among closely related species are common, and can play an important role as a selective pressure shaping species traits and assemblages. The nature of this selective pressure depends on whether the outcomes of aggressive contests are asymmetric between species (i.e., one species is consistently dominant), yet few studies have estimated the prevalence of asymmetric versus symmetric outcomes to aggressive contests. Here we use previously published data involving 26,212 interactions between 270 species pairs of birds from 26 taxonomic families to address the question: How often are aggressive interactions among closely related bird species asymmetric? We define asymmetry using (i) the proportion of contests won by one species, and (ii) statistical tests for asymmetric outcomes of aggressive contests. We calculate these asymmetries using data summed across different sites for each species pair, and compare results to asymmetries calculated using data separated by location. We find that 80% of species pairs had aggressive outcomes where one species won 80% or more of aggressive contests. We also find that the majority of aggressive interactions among closely related species show statistically significant asymmetries, and above a sample size of 52 interactions, all outcomes are asymmetric following binomial tests. Species pairs with dominance data from multiple sites showed the same dominance relationship across locations in 93% of the species pairs. Overall, our results suggest that the outcome of aggressive interactions among closely related species are usually consistent and asymmetric, and should thus favor ecological and evolutionary strategies specific to the position of a species within a dominance hierarchy.

  16. The outcomes of most aggressive interactions among closely related bird species are asymmetric

    PubMed Central

    Freshwater, Cameron; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions among closely related species are common, and can play an important role as a selective pressure shaping species traits and assemblages. The nature of this selective pressure depends on whether the outcomes of aggressive contests are asymmetric between species (i.e., one species is consistently dominant), yet few studies have estimated the prevalence of asymmetric versus symmetric outcomes to aggressive contests. Here we use previously published data involving 26,212 interactions between 270 species pairs of birds from 26 taxonomic families to address the question: How often are aggressive interactions among closely related bird species asymmetric? We define asymmetry using (i) the proportion of contests won by one species, and (ii) statistical tests for asymmetric outcomes of aggressive contests. We calculate these asymmetries using data summed across different sites for each species pair, and compare results to asymmetries calculated using data separated by location. We find that 80% of species pairs had aggressive outcomes where one species won 80% or more of aggressive contests. We also find that the majority of aggressive interactions among closely related species show statistically significant asymmetries, and above a sample size of 52 interactions, all outcomes are asymmetric following binomial tests. Species pairs with dominance data from multiple sites showed the same dominance relationship across locations in 93% of the species pairs. Overall, our results suggest that the outcome of aggressive interactions among closely related species are usually consistent and asymmetric, and should thus favor ecological and evolutionary strategies specific to the position of a species within a dominance hierarchy. PMID:28070465

  17. Stability and restoration phenomena in competitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uechi, Lisa; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    A conservation law along with stability, recovering phenomena, and characteristic patterns of a nonlinear dynamical system have been studied and applied to physical, biological, and ecological systems. In our previous study, we proposed a system of symmetric 2n-dimensional conserved nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, competitive systems described by a 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical (ND) model with external perturbations are applied to population cycles and recovering phenomena of systems from microbes to mammals. The famous 10-year cycle of population density of Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare is numerically analyzed. We find that a nonlinear dynamical system with a conservation law is stable and generates a characteristic rhythm (cycle) of population density, which we call the standard rhythm of a nonlinear dynamical system. The stability and restoration phenomena are strongly related to a conservation law and the balance of a system. The standard rhythm of population density is a manifestation of the survival of the fittest to the balance of a nonlinear dynamical system.

  18. Seismoelectric Phenomena in Fluid-Saturated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Block, G I; Harris, J G

    2005-04-22

    Seismoelectric phenomena in sediments arise from acoustic wave-induced fluid motion in the pore space, which perturbs the electrostatic equilibrium of the electric double layer on the grain surfaces. Experimental techniques and the apparatus built to study this electrokinetic (EK) effect are described and outcomes for studies of seismoelectric phenomena in loose glass microspheres and medium-grain sand are presented. By varying the NaCl concentration in the pore fluid, we measured the conductivity dependence of two kinds of EK behavior: (1) the electric fields generated within the samples by the passage of transmitted acoustic waves, and (2) the electromagnetic wave produced at the fluid-sediment interface by the incident acoustic wave. Both phenomena are caused by relative fluid motion in the sediment pores--this feature is characteristic of poroelastic (Biot) media, but not predicted by either viscoelastic fluid or solid models. A model of plane-wave reflection from a fluid-sediment interface using EK-Biot theory leads to theoretical predictions that compare well to the experimental data for both sand and glass microspheres.

  19. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase interacts with fragile X related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yun; Tian, Shuai; Wang, Zongbao; Wang, Changbo; Chen, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yang; He, Shuya

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), fragile X related 1 protein (FXR1P) and FXR2P are the members of the FMR protein family. These proteins contain two KH domains and a RGG box, which are characteristic of RNA binding proteins. The absence of FMRP, causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of hereditary mental retardation. FXR1P is expressed throughout the body and important for normal muscle development, and its absence causes cardiac abnormality. To investigate the functions of FXR1P, a screen was performed to identify FXR1P-interacting proteins and determine the biological effect of the interaction. The current study identified CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase (CMAS) as an interacting protein using the yeast two-hybrid system, and the interaction between FXR1P and CMAS was validated in yeast using a β-galactosidase assay and growth studies with selective media. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation was used to analyze the FXR1P/CMAS association and immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to detect expression and intracellular localization of the proteins. The results of the current study indicated that FXR1P and CMAS interact, and colocalize in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of HEK293T and HeLa cells. Accordingly, a fragile X related 1 (FXR1) gene overexpression vector was constructed to investigate the effect of FXR1 overexpression on the level of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside 1 (GM1). The results of the current study suggested that FXR1P is a tissue-specific regulator of GM1 levels in SH-SY5Y cells, but not in HEK293T cells. Taken together, the results initially indicate that FXR1P interacts with CMAS, and that FXR1P may enhance the activation of sialic acid via interaction with CMAS, and increase GM1 levels to affect the development of the nervous system, thus providing evidence for further research into the pathogenesis of FXS. PMID:27357083

  20. Novel Measure of Driver and Vehicle Interaction Demonstrates Transient Changes Related to Alerting

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Justin R.; Kerick, Scott E.; McDowell, Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Driver behavior and vehicle-road kinematics have been shown to change over prolonged periods of driving; however, the interaction between these two indices has not been examined. Here we develop a measure that examines how drivers turn the steering wheel relative to heading error velocity, which the authors call the relative steering wheel compensation (RSWC). The RSWC transiently changes on a short time scale coincident with a verbal query embedded within the study paradigm. In contrast, more traditional variables are dynamic over longer time scales consistent with previous research. The results suggest drivers alter their behavioral output (steering wheel correction) relative to sensory input (vehicle heading error velocity) on a distinct temporal scale and may reflect an interaction of alerting and control. PMID:25356659

  1. Single event phenomena: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, W. E.; Coss, J. R.

    1989-04-01

    Single event phenomena (SEP) are effects resulting from a single particle inducing a significant response in an integrated circuit. SEP are of greatest concern to spacecraft designers but are becoming of concern to avionics and large earth-bound electronic systems due to the continual reduction in size (which increases SEP sensitivity) of circuit elements. The phenomena include soft error and multiple errors in memory cells or logic latches, latchup, MOSFET power device burnout, MNOS punch-through and transients. Cyclotron and Van de Graaff accelerators are used to produce heavy ions, protons and neutrons which induce SEP effects. Methods of testing are described. Solutions to SEP are varied, but include parts substitutions or redesign and software solutions which will be described.

  2. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1984-09-01

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability.

  3. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena.

    PubMed

    Maroney, O J E

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  4. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  5. New phenomena searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  6. Visualization of solidification front phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1993-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental platform which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Because of the wide-spread use of this experimental technique in space-based research, it has become apparent that a better understanding of all the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  8. Unsteady Aerodynamic Phenomena in Turbomachines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    The first part of a systematic variation of important parameters shows their influence on the aerodynamic forces and moments coefficients . 2-2...real physical phenomena. Besides, for reasons of stability it in necessary to introduce an additional damping coefficient , which depends on the... coefficients for the "Fourth Standard Configu- ration No. 4" /10/, using a mesh with 51 x 17 points (Fig. I). This grid represents a typical section of

  9. Predicting disease-related proteins based on clique backbone in protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Tang, Xianglong

    2014-01-01

    Network biology integrates different kinds of data, including physical or functional networks and disease gene sets, to interpret human disease. A clique (maximal complete subgraph) in a protein-protein interaction network is a topological module and possesses inherently biological significance. A disease-related clique possibly associates with complex diseases. Fully identifying disease components in a clique is conductive to uncovering disease mechanisms. This paper proposes an approach of predicting disease proteins based on cliques in a protein-protein interaction network. To tolerate false positive and negative interactions in protein networks, extending cliques and scoring predicted disease proteins with gene ontology terms are introduced to the clique-based method. Precisions of predicted disease proteins are verified by disease phenotypes and steadily keep to more than 95%. The predicted disease proteins associated with cliques can partly complement mapping between genotype and phenotype, and provide clues for understanding the pathogenesis of serious diseases.

  10. A study of the relative effectiveness and cost of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Furniss, M. A.; Potter, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a number of experiments to illuminate the relative effectiveness and costs of computerized information retrieval in the interactive mode are reported. It was found that for equal time spent in preparing the search strategy, the batch and interactive modes gave approximately equal recall and relevance. The interactive mode however encourages the searcher to devote more time to the task and therefore usually yields improved output. Engineering costs as a result are higher in this mode. Estimates of associated hardware costs also indicate that operation in this mode is more expensive. Skilled RECON users like the rapid feedback and additional features offered by this mode if they are not constrained by considerations of cost.

  11. Autistic phenomena in The Adventures of Pinocchio.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that the protagonist of Carlo Collodi's The Adventures of Pinocchio illustrates numerous autistic phenomena such as communication difficulties, sensory and perceptual distortions and mindblindness. While Pinocchio is viewed as a literary construct with contraindications of autism, it will be argued that his autistic traits are sufficient to suggest the possibility that Collodi had a partial intuition of the syndrome 60 years before it was identified by Leo Kanner. Approaching Collodi's text in this manner is taken as an opportunity to survey and reflect upon the psychoanalytic literature on autism and to position it in relation to contemporary theories from cognitive neuroscience.

  12. Concentration-related response potentiometric titrations to study the interaction of small molecules with large biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Daems, Devin; De Wael, Karolien; Van Camp, Guy; Nagels, Luc J

    2014-12-16

    In the present paper, the utility of a special potentiometric titration approach for recognition and calculation of biomolecule/small-molecule interactions is reported. This approach is fast, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive in comparison to the other methods for the determination of the association constant values (Ka) and the interaction energies (ΔG). The potentiometric titration measurement is based on the use of a classical polymeric membrane indicator electrode in a solution of the small-molecule ligand. The biomolecule is used as a titrant. The potential is measured versus a reference electrode and transformed into a concentration-related signal over the entire concentration interval, also at low concentrations, where the millivolt (y-axis) versus log canalyte (x-axis) potentiometric calibration curve is not linear. In the procedure, Ka is calculated for the interaction of cocaine with a cocaine binding aptamer and with an anticocaine antibody. To study the selectivity and cross-reactivity, other oligonucleotides and aptamers are tested, as well as other small ligand molecules such as tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate, metergoline, lidocaine, and bromhexine. The calculated Ka compared favorably to the value reported in the literature using surface plasmon resonance. The potentiometric titration approach called "concentration-related response potentiometry" is used to study molecular interaction for seven macromolecular target molecules and four small-molecule ligands.

  13. Data analysis and interpretation related to space system/environment interactions at LEO altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. John; Schunk, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Several studies made on the interaction of active systems with the LEO space environment experienced from orbital or suborbital platforms are covered. The issue of high voltage space interaction is covered by theoretical modeling studies of the interaction of charged solar cell arrays with the ionospheric plasma. The theoretical studies were complemented by experimental measurements made in a vacuum chamber. The other active system studied was the emission of effluent from a space platform. In one study the emission of plasma into the LEO environment was studied by using initially a 2-D model, and then extending this model to 3-D to correctly take account of plasma motion parallel to the geomagnetic field. The other effluent studies related to the releases of neutral gas from an orbiting platform. One model which was extended and used determined the density, velocity, and energy of both an effluent gas and the ambient upper atmospheric gases over a large volume around the platform. This model was adapted to study both ambient and contaminant distributions around smaller objects in the orbital frame of reference with scale sizes of 1 m. The other effluent studies related to the interaction of the released neutral gas with the ambient ionospheric plasma. An electrostatic model was used to help understand anomalously high plasma densities measured at times in the vicinity of the space shuttle orbiter.

  14. Strongly interacting p -wave Fermi gas in two dimensions: Universal relations and breathing mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Cai; Zhang, Shizhong

    2017-02-01

    The contact is an important concept that characterizes the universal properties of a strongly interacting quantum gas. It appears in both thermodynamic (energy, pressure, etc.) and dynamic quantities (radio-frequency and Bragg spectroscopies, etc.) of the system. Very recently, the concept of contact was extended to higher partial waves; in particular, the p -wave contacts have been experimentally probed in recent experiments. So far, discussions on p -wave contacts have been limited to three dimensions. In this paper, we generalize the p -wave contacts to two dimensions and derive a series of universal relations, including the adiabatic relations, high-momentum distribution, virial theorem, and pressure relation. At the high-temperature and low-density limit, we calculate the p -wave contacts explicitly using virial expansion. A formula which directly connects the shift of the breathing-mode frequency and the p -wave contacts is given in a harmonically trapped system. Finally, we also derive the relationships between interaction parameters in three- and two-dimensional Fermi gases and discuss possible experimental realization of a two-dimensional Fermi gas with p -wave interactions.

  15. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  16. Interpersonal interactions, job demands and work-related outcomes in pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Caroline A; Nadkarni, Anagha

    2012-04-01

    Objectives  The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between job demands of pharmacists and resources in the form of interpersonal interactions and its association with work-related outcomes such as organizational and professional commitment, job burnout, professional identity and job satisfaction. The job demands-resources (JD-R) model served as the theoretical framework. Methods  Subjects for the study were drawn from the Pharmacy Manpower Project Database (n = 1874). A 14-page mail-in survey measured hospital pharmacists' responses on the frequency of occurrence of various job-related scenarios as well as work-related outcomes. The study design was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Responses were collected on a Likert scale. Descriptive statistics, reliability analyses and correlational and multiple regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Key findings  The 566 pharmacists (30% response rate) who responded to the survey indicated that high-demand/pleasant encounters and low-demand/pleasant encounters occurred more frequently in the workplace. The strongest correlations were found between high-demand/unpleasant encounters and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Multiple regression analyses indicated that when controlling for demographic factors high-demand/unpleasant encounters were negatively related to affective organizational commitment and positively related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Low-demand/pleasant encounters were positively related to frequency and intensity of personal accomplishment. Low-demand/unpleasant encounters were significantly and negatively related to professional commitment, job satisfaction and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion, while high-demand/pleasant encounters were also related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion Conclusion  Support was found for the JD-R model and the proposed interaction effects

  17. Light flash phenomena induced by HzE particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, P. J.; Pease, V. P.

    1980-01-01

    Astronauts and Apollo and Skylab missions have reported observing a variety of visual phenomena when their eyes are closed and adapted to darkness. These phenomena have been collectively labelled as light flashes. Visual phenomena which are similar in appearance to those observed in space have been demonstrated at the number of accelerator facilities by expressing the eyes of human subjects to beams of various types of radiation. In some laboratory experiments Cerenkov radiation was found to be the basis for the flashes observed while in other experiments Cerenkov radiation could apparently be ruled out. Experiments that differentiate between Cerenkov radiation and other possible mechanisms for inducing visual phenomena was then compared. The phenomena obtained in the presence and absence of Cerenkov radiation were designed and conducted. A new mechanism proposed to explain the visual phenomena observed by Skylab astronauts as they passed through the South Atlantic Anomaly, namely nuclear interactions in and near the sensitive layer of the retina, is covered. Also some studies to search for similar transient effects of space radiation on sensors and microcomputer memories are described.

  18. The Shuttle era - A challenge to the earth scientist. [observations of land, ocean and atmosphere phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlberger, W. R.; Wilmarth, V. R.

    1977-01-01

    Satellite observations of large-scale earth features and phenomena, with either instruments or astronauts, are discussed on the basis of earlier experience (mainly Skylab). Off-nadir views and photographs by astronauts have provided valuable supplements to instrument nadir views, providing cross-checks through remote sensing at different angles, different altitudes, and in different seasons. New information on plate tectonics, global cooling/drying trends, global oceanographic data (changing positions of major ocean current patterns, evolution of warm and cold eddies and their relation to sea temperatures and concentrations of marine fauna, location of internal sea waves, interactions between ocean currents and atmosphere, plankton blooms), storm development, snow cover patterns, lake and sea ice growth, sand-dune patterns, desert storms blown out to sea, effects of grazing and swidden agriculture, and other earth features and phenomena are surveyed.

  19. Certain relativistic phenomena in crystal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee-Seng, Lim

    1980-01-01

    Relativistic unsteady phenomena are established for a crystalline medium with unaligned sets of permittivity and permeability principal axes, but incorporating a compounded uniaxiality about some nonprincipal direction. All effects originate from a suddenly activated, arbitrarily oriented, maintained line current conducted with a finite velocity v. Integral representations studied in another paper (Chee-Seng) are applied. The original coordinate system is subjected to a series of rotational and translational, scaled and unscaled transformations. No specific coordinate frame is strictly adhered to. Instead, it is often expedient and advantageous to exploit several reference frames simultaneously in the course of the analysis and interpretations. The electric field is directly related to a net scalar field Δ involving another scalar Ψ and its complement Ψ¯ which can be deduced from Ψ; Ψ and Ψ¯ are associated with two expanding, inclined ellipsoidal wavefronts ξ and ξ¯; these are cocentered at the current origin and touch each other twice along the uniaxis. Elsewhere, ξ leads ξ¯. For a source current faster than ξ:vt ∈ extξ, Ψ≢0 within a finite but growing ''ice-cream cone'' domain, its nontrivial composition being χ-1/2 inside ξ and 2χ-1/2 inside part of a tangent cone from the advancing current edge vt to, and terminating at, ξ; the function χ vanishes along such a tangent cone. Alternatively, for a source current slower than ξ:vt∈ intξ, if vt is avoided, χ≳0 everywhere, while Ψ=χ-1/2 inside ξ but vanishes identically outside ξ. However, the crucial scalar field Δ depends on three separate current-velocity regimes. Over a slow regime: vt∈ intξ¯, Δ is nontrivial inside ξ wherein it is discontinuous across ξ¯. Over an intermediate regime: vt ∈ intξ extξ¯, Δ takes four distinct forms on 12 adjacent domains bounded by ξ, ξ¯ and a double-conical tangent surface linking vt to ξ¯. But for a fast regime: vt∈ ext

  20. Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgoloupis, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)

  1. On the relation between friction losses and pressure pulsations caused by Rotor Stator interaction on the Francis-99 turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østby, Petter T. K.; Tore Billdal, Jan; Haugen, Bjørn; Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    High head Francis runners are subject to pressure pulsations caused by rotor stator interaction. To ensure safe operation of such turbines, it is important to be able to predict these pulsations. For turbine manufacturers it is often a dilemma whether to perform very advanced and time consuming CFD calculations or to rely on simpler calculations to save development time. This paper tries to evaluate simplifications of the CFD model while still capturing the RSI phenomena and ensuring that the calculation does not underpredict the pressure amplitudes. The effects which turbulence modeling, wall friction, viscosity and mesh have on the pressure amplitudes will be investigated along with time savings with each simplification. The hypothesis is that rotor stator interaction is manly driven by inviscid flow and can therefore be modeled by the Euler equations.

  2. Teaching wave phenomena via biophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Daniel; Robbins, Mark; Leheny, Robert; Wonnell, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Over the past several years we have developed a two-semester second-year physics course sequence for students in the biosciences, tailored in part to the needs of undergraduate biophysics majors. One semester, ``Biological Physics,'' is based on the book of that name by P. Nelson. This talk will focus largely on the other semester, ``Wave Phenomena with Biophysical Applications,'' where we provide a novel introduction to the physics of waves, primarily through the study of experimental probes used in the biosciences that depend on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Topic covered include: Fourier analysis, sound and hearing, diffraction - culminating in an analysis of x-ray fiber diffraction and its use in the determination of the structure of DNA - geometrical and physical optics, the physics of modern light microscopy, NMR and MRI. Laboratory exercises tailored to this course will also be described.

  3. The demystification of autoscopic phenomena: experimental propositions.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Christine; Blanke, Olaf

    2005-06-01

    Autoscopic phenomena (AP) are rare, illusory visual experiences during which the subject has the impression of seeing a second own body in extrapersonal space. AP consist of out-of-body experience, autoscopic hallucination, and heautoscopy. Recent neurologic reports support the role of multisensory integration deficits of body-related information and vestibular dysfunctions in AP at the temporo-parietal junction. A caveat to test the underlying neurologic and cognitive mechanisms of AP has been their rare and spontaneous occurrence. Recent evidence linked AP to mental own-body imagery engaging brain mechanisms at the temporo-parietal junction. These recent observations open a new avenue for testing AP-related cognitive mechanisms in selected clinical and normal populations. We review evidence on several clinical syndromes (psychosis, depression, anxiety, depersonalization, body dysmorphic disorder), suggesting that some of these syndromes may relate to AP-proneness, thereby leading to testable propositions for future research on body and self processing in addition to AP.

  4. Arabidopsis thaliana AUCSIA-1 Regulates Auxin Biology and Physically Interacts with a Kinesin-Related Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pii, Youry; Korte, Arthur; Spena, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Aucsia is a green plant gene family encoding 44–54 amino acids long miniproteins. The sequenced genomes of most land plants contain two Aucsia genes. RNA interference of both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Aucsia genes (SlAucsia-1 and SlAucsia-2) altered auxin sensitivity, auxin transport and distribution; it caused parthenocarpic development of the fruit and other auxin-related morphological changes. Here we present data showing that the Aucsia-1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana alters, by itself, root auxin biology and that the AtAUCSIA-1 miniprotein physically interacts with a kinesin-related protein. The AtAucsia-1 gene is ubiquitously expressed, although its expression is higher in roots and inflorescences in comparison to stems and leaves. Two allelic mutants for AtAucsia-1 gene did not display visible root morphological alterations; however both basipetal and acropetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) root transport was reduced as compared with wild-type plants. The transcript steady state levels of the auxin efflux transporters ATP BINDING CASSETTE subfamily B (ABCB) ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCB19 were reduced in ataucsia-1 plants. In ataucsia-1 mutant, lateral root growth showed an altered response to i) exogenous auxin, ii) an inhibitor of polar auxin transport and iii) ethylene. Overexpression of AtAucsia-1 inhibited primary root growth. In vitro and in vivo protein-protein interaction experiments showed that AtAUCSIA-1 interacts with a 185 amino acids long fragment belonging to a 2712 amino acids long protein of unknown function (At4g31570). Bioinformatics analysis indicates that the AtAUCSIA-1 interacting protein (AtAUCSIA-1IP) clusters with a group of CENP-E kinesin-related proteins. Gene ontology predictions for the two proteins are consistent with the hypothesis that the AtAUCSIA-1/AtAUCSIA-1IP complex is involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton dynamics underlying auxin biology. PMID:22911780

  5. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2015-01-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  6. Interaction of Complement Factor H and Fibulin3 in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, M. Keith; Tsai, Jen-Yue; Mishra, Sanghamitra; Campos, Maria; Jaworski, Cynthia; Fariss, Robert N.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Wistow, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of vision loss. It is associated with development of characteristic plaque-like deposits (soft drusen) in Bruch’s membrane basal to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). A sequence variant (Y402H) in short consensus repeat domain 7 (SCR7) of complement factor H (CFH) is associated with risk for “dry” AMD. We asked whether the eye-targeting of this disease might be related to specific interactions of CFH SCR7 with proteins expressed in the aging human RPE/choroid that could contribute to protein deposition in drusen. Yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) screens of a retinal pigment epithelium/choroid library derived from aged donors using CFH SCR7 baits detected an interaction with EFEMP1/Fibulin 3 (Fib3), which is the locus for an inherited macular degeneration and also accumulates basal to macular RPE in AMD. The CFH/Fib3 interaction was validated by co-immunoprecipitation of native proteins. Quantitative Y2H and ELISA assays with different recombinant protein constructs both demonstrated higher affinity for Fib3 for the disease-related CFH 402H variant. Immuno-labeling revealed colocalization of CFH and Fib3 in globular deposits within cholesterol-rich domains in soft drusen in two AMD donors homozygous for CFH 402H (H/H). This pattern of labeling was quite distinct from those seen in examples of eyes with Y/Y and H/Y genotypes. The CFH 402H/Fib3 interaction could contribute to the development of pathological aggregates in soft drusen in some patients and as such might provide a target for therapeutic intervention in some forms of AMD. PMID:23840815

  7. Toward a Molecular-Based Understanding of High-Temperature Solvation Phenomena in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, A.A.; Cummings, P.T.; Kusalik, P.G.; Simonson, J.M.

    1999-10-30

    The theoretical treatment of the solvation phenomenon of simple ions in aqueous solutions has been rather difficult, despite the apparent simplicity of the system. Long-range solvent-screened electrostatic interactions, coupled to the large variation (with state conditions) of the dielectric permittivity of water, give rise to a variety of rather complex solvation phenomena including dielectric saturation, electrostriction, and ion association. Notably, ion solvation in high-temperature/pressure aqueous solutions plays a leading role in hydrothermal chemistry, such as in the natural formation of ore deposits, the corrosion in boilers and reactors, and in high-temperature microbiology. Tremendous effort has been invested in the study of hydrothermal solutions to determine their thermodynamic, transport, and spectroscopic properties with the goal of elucidating the solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions over a wide range of state conditions. It is precisely at these conditions where our understanding and predictive capabilities are most precarious, in part, as a result of the coexistence of processes with two rather different length scales, i.e., short-ranged (solvation) and long-ranged (compressibility-driven) phenomena (Chialvo and Cummings 1994a). The latter feature makes hydrothermal systems extremely challenging to model, unless we are able to isolate the (compressibility-driven) propagation of the density perturbation from the (solvation-related) finite-density perturbation phenomena (Chialvo and Cummings 1995a).

  8. CMP‑N‑acetylneuraminic acid synthetase interacts with fragile X related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun; Tian, Shuai; Wang, Zongbao; Wang, Changbo; Chen, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yang; He, Shuya

    2016-08-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), fragile X related 1 protein (FXR1P) and FXR2P are the members of the FMR protein family. These proteins contain two KH domains and a RGG box, which are characteristic of RNA binding proteins. The absence of FMRP, causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of hereditary mental retardation. FXR1P is expressed throughout the body and important for normal muscle development, and its absence causes cardiac abnormality. To investigate the functions of FXR1P, a screen was performed to identify FXR1P‑interacting proteins and determine the biological effect of the interaction. The current study identified CMP‑N‑acetylneuraminic acid synthetase (CMAS) as an interacting protein using the yeast two‑hybrid system, and the interaction between FXR1P and CMAS was validated in yeast using a β‑galactosidase assay and growth studies with selective media. Furthermore, co‑immunoprecipitation was used to analyze the FXR1P/CMAS association and immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to detect expression and intracellular localization of the proteins. The results of the current study indicated that FXR1P and CMAS interact, and colocalize in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of HEK293T and HeLa cells. Accordingly, a fragile X related 1 (FXR1) gene overexpression vector was constructed to investigate the effect of FXR1 overexpression on the level of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside 1 (GM1). The results of the current study suggested that FXR1P is a tissue‑specific regulator of GM1 levels in SH‑SY5Y cells, but not in HEK293T cells. Taken together, the results initially indicate that FXR1P interacts with CMAS, and that FXR1P may enhance the activation of sialic acid via interaction with CMAS, and increase GM1 levels to affect the development of the nervous system, thus providing evidence for further research into the pathogenesis of FXS.

  9. The interaction of extraversion and anxiety sensitivity on social anxiety: evidence of specificity relative to depression.

    PubMed

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Rutter, Lauren A; Brown, Timothy A

    2014-05-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion have been linked to the etiologies and course of anxiety and mood disorders, such that neuroticism is broadly associated with numerous disorders and extraversion is most strongly associated with social anxiety and depression. While previous research has established the broad associations between temperament and emotional disorders, less is known about the specific, proximal factors that are associated with them, and very few studies have situated these risk factors into a larger etiological model that specifies how they may relate to one another. The current study examined the interaction of extraversion and anxiety sensitivity (AS) in predicting social anxiety symptoms in a large, diagnostically diverse clinical sample (N=826). Symptoms were assessed with self-report and dimensional interview measures, and regression analyses were performed examining the main effects and interaction of extraversion and AS (examining both total and lower-order components) on social anxiety. Results showed that at higher levels of AS, the inverse relationship between extraversion and social anxiety was stronger, and the social concerns component of AS is responsible for this effect. This interaction was also observed with regard to depression symptoms, but the interaction was not present after accounting for shared variance (i.e., comorbidity) between depression and social anxiety symptoms. Clinical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  10. Relative stability of the FCC and HCP polymorphs with interacting polymers.

    PubMed

    Mahynski, Nathan A; Kumar, Sanat K; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2015-01-14

    Recent work [Mahynski et al., Nat. Commun., 2014, 5, 4472] has demonstrated that the addition of long linear homopolymers thermodynamically biases crystallizing hard-sphere colloids to produce the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) polymorph over the closely related face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the polymers and colloids are purely repulsive. In this report, we investigate the effects of thermal interactions on each crystal polymorph to explore the possibility of stabilizing the FCC crystal structure over the HCP. We find that the HCP polymorph remains at least as stable as its FCC counterpart across the entire range of interactions we explored, where interactions were quantified by the reduced second virial coefficient, -1.50 < B < 1.01. This metric conveniently characterizes the crossover from entropically to energetically dominated systems at B ≈ 0. While the HCP relies on its octahedral void arrangement for enhanced stability when B > 0, its tetrahedral voids produce a similar effect when B < 0 (i.e. when energetics dominate). Starting from this, we derive a mean-field expression for the free energy of an infinitely-dilute polymer adsorbed in the crystal phase for nonzero B. Our results reveal that co-solute biasing of a single polymorph can still be observed in experimentally realizable scenarios when the colloids and polymers have attractive interactions, and provide a possible explanation for the experimental finding that pure FCC crystals are elusive in these binary mixtures.

  11. Sensory interaction between 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and oxidation-related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Coetzee, C; Brand, J; Emerton, G; Jacobson, Daniel A; Silva Ferreira, A C; Du Toit, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims:Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensorial interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine with aldehydes typically originating from oxidation of white wines, methional and phenylacetaldehyde. Methods and Results: Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained panel. The concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold value to high values reported in wine. Combinations of the four compounds were also evaluated sensorially. Depending on the concentration of the compounds, methional had a strong suppressive effect on the intensity of attributes contributed by 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, such as grapefruit and guava, whereas methional and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine enhanced the intensity of certain attributes, which included cooked beans and cooked potato. Conclusions: Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and compounds related to oxidation depending on concentration of the compounds. Oxidation-derived compounds such as methional can suppress pleasant aroma attributes linked to volatile thiols, while contributing negative attributes especially in the presence of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Significance of the Study: This study highlights the importance of preserving fresh and fruity flavours while preventing the formation of unwanted aldehydes due to interactions that can influence the overall aroma profile of the wine. This study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of oxidised Sauvignon Blanc wine.

  12. Habitat effects on the relative importance of trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions.

    PubMed

    Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ewanchuk, Patrick J; Matassa, Catherine M

    2006-11-01

    Classical views of trophic cascades emphasize the primacy of consumptive predator effects on prey populations to the transmission of indirect effects [density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)]. However, trophic cascades can also emerge without changes in the density of interacting species because of non-consumptive predator effects on prey traits such as foraging behaviour [trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs)]. Although ecologists appreciate this point, measurements of the relative importance of each indirect predator effect are rare. Experiments with a three-level, rocky shore food chain containing an invasive predatory crab (Carcinus maenas), an intermediate consumer (the snail, Nucella lapillus) and a basal resource (the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides) revealed that the strength of TMIIs is comparable with, or exceeds, that of DMIIs. Moreover, the sign and strength of each indirect predator effect depends on whether it is measured in risky or refuge habitats. Because habitat shifts are often responsible for the emergence of TMIIs, attention to the sign and strength of these interactions in both habitats will improve our understanding of the link between individual behaviour and community dynamics.

  13. Sensory interaction between 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and oxidation-related compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Coetzee, C; Brand, J; Emerton, G; ...

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims:Wine aroma is influenced by complex interactions between various wine constituents. This study investigated the sensorial interactive effects of Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine with aldehydes typically originating from oxidation of white wines, methional and phenylacetaldehyde. Methods and Results: Spiked model wines were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis using a trained panel. The concentration of each compound varied from below aroma threshold value to high values reported in wine. Combinations of the four compounds were also evaluated sensorially. Depending on the concentration of the compounds, methional had a strong suppressive effect on the intensity of attributes contributedmore » by 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, such as grapefruit and guava, whereas methional and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine enhanced the intensity of certain attributes, which included cooked beans and cooked potato. Conclusions: Complex sensory interactions may occur between Sauvignon Blanc impact compounds and compounds related to oxidation depending on concentration of the compounds. Oxidation-derived compounds such as methional can suppress pleasant aroma attributes linked to volatile thiols, while contributing negative attributes especially in the presence of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Significance of the Study: This study highlights the importance of preserving fresh and fruity flavours while preventing the formation of unwanted aldehydes due to interactions that can influence the overall aroma profile of the wine. This study may also contribute to the sensory characterisation of oxidised Sauvignon Blanc wine.« less

  14. Protein function prediction using neighbor relativity in protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Sobhan; Rahgozar, Masoud; Rahimi, Amir

    2013-04-01

    There is a large gap between the number of discovered proteins and the number of functionally annotated ones. Due to the high cost of determining protein function by wet-lab research, function prediction has become a major task for computational biology and bioinformatics. Some researches utilize the proteins interaction information to predict function for un-annotated proteins. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called "Neighbor Relativity Coefficient" (NRC) based on interaction network topology which estimates the functional similarity between two proteins. NRC is calculated for each pair of proteins based on their graph-based features including distance, common neighbors and the number of paths between them. In order to ascribe function to an un-annotated protein, NRC estimates a weight for each neighbor to transfer its annotation to the unknown protein. Finally, the unknown protein will be annotated by the top score transferred functions. We also investigate the effect of using different coefficients for various types of functions. The proposed method has been evaluated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens interaction networks. The performance analysis demonstrates that NRC yields better results in comparison with previous protein function prediction approaches that utilize interaction network.

  15. Definition of the molecular basis for estrogen receptor-related receptor-alpha-cofactor interactions.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Dwyer, Mary A; McDonnell, Donald P

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor-alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that does not appear to require a classical small molecule ligand to facilitate its interaction with coactivators and/or hormone response elements within target genes. Instead, the apo-receptor is capable of interacting in a constitutive manner with coactivators that stimulate transcription by acting as protein ligands. We have screened combinatorial phage libraries for peptides that selectively interact with ERRalpha to probe the architecture of the ERRalpha-coactivator pocket. In this manner, we have uncovered a fundamental difference in the mechanism by which this receptor interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha, as compared with members of the steroid receptor coactivator subfamily of coactivators. Our findings suggest that it may be possible to develop ERRalpha ligands that exhibit different pharmacological activities as a consequence of their ability to differentially regulate coactivator recruitment. In addition, these findings have implications beyond ERRalpha because they suggest that subtle alterations in the structure of the activation function-2 pocket within any nuclear receptor may enable differential recruitment of coactivators, an observation of notable pharmaceutical importance.

  16. A double-mutant collection targeting MAP kinase related genes in Arabidopsis for studying genetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Heng; Krysan, Patrick J

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are conserved in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are approximately 80 genes encoding MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3K), 10 genes encoding MAP kinase kinases (MAP2K), and 20 genes encoding MAP kinases (MAPK). Reverse genetic analysis has failed to reveal abnormal phenotypes for a majority of these genes. One strategy for uncovering gene function when single-mutant lines do not produce an informative phenotype is to perform a systematic genetic interaction screen whereby double-mutants are created from a large library of single-mutant lines. Here we describe a new collection of 275 double-mutant lines derived from a library of single-mutants targeting genes related to MAP kinase signaling. To facilitate this study, we developed a high-throughput double-mutant generating pipeline using a system for growing Arabidopsis seedlings in 96-well plates. A quantitative root growth assay was used to screen for evidence of genetic interactions in this double-mutant collection. Our screen revealed four genetic interactions, all of which caused synthetic enhancement of the root growth defects observed in a MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) single-mutant line. Seeds for this double-mutant collection are publicly available through the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center. Scientists interested in diverse biological processes can now screen this double-mutant collection under a wide range of growth conditions in order to search for additional genetic interactions that may provide new insights into MAP kinase signaling.

  17. MATERNAL ROLE CONFUSION: RELATIONS TO MATERNAL ATTACHMENT AND MOTHER–CHILD INTERACTION FROM INFANCY TO ADOLESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    VULLIEZ-COADY, LAURIANE; OBSUTH, INGRID; TORREIRO-CASAL, MONICA; ELLERTSDOTTIR, LYDIA; LYONS-RUTH, KARLEN

    2014-01-01

    Self-reports of role confusion with the parent in childhood are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. However, role-confusion has been studied primarily from the point of view of the child. The current study evaluated an instrument for assessing role confusion from maternal interviews rather than from child observations or self-reports in adulthood. Fifty-one mothers participating in a longitudinal study since their own child’s infancy were administered the Experiences of Caregiving Interview (C. George & J. Solomon, 1996) when the child was age 20. Interviews were coded using the newly developed Parental Assessment of Role Confusion (PARC; L. Vulliez-Coady & K. Lyons-Ruth, 2009). Maternal PARC scores were related to observational measures of role-confusion in interaction with the child both in infancy and late adolescence. PARC scores also were related to mothers’ hostile-helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview (C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1984, 1985, 1986) and to the extent of Unresolved loss, but not Unresolved Trauma. PARC scores also were related to mothers’ self-reports of helplessness experienced in the parenting role. Discriminant validity of the PARC was demonstrated in that role confusion on the PARC was not related to hostile or disoriented forms of parent–child interaction. Implications for clinical assessment of role confusion are discussed. PMID:25544789

  18. Critical phenomena on k -booklets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassberger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We define a "k -booklet" to be a set of k semi-infinite planes with -∞ phenomena: self-avoiding random walks, the Ising model, and percolation. For k =2 , a booklet is equivalent to a single infinite lattice, and for k =1 to a semi-infinite lattice. In both these cases the systems show standard critical phenomena. This is not so for k ≥3 . Self-avoiding walks starting at y =0 show a first-order transition at a shifted critical point, with no power-behaved scaling laws. The Ising model and percolation show hybrid transitions, i.e., the scaling laws of the standard models coexist with discontinuities of the order parameter at y ≈0 , and the critical points are not shifted. In the case of the Ising model, ergodicity is already broken at T =Tc , and not only for T

  19. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  20. Gene-Environment Interactions of Circadian-Related Genes for Cardiometabolic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Follis, Jack L.; Smith, Caren E.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Garaulet, Marta; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Hruby, Adela; Jacques, Paul F.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Bartz, Traci M.; Kovanen, Leena; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Jonsson, Anna; Muka, Taulant; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Mikkilä, Vera; Ordovás, José M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Common circadian-related gene variants associate with increased risk for metabolic alterations including type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about whether diet and sleep could modify associations between circadian-related variants (CLOCK-rs1801260, CRY2-rs11605924, MTNR1B-rs1387153, MTNR1B-rs10830963, NR1D1-rs2314339) and cardiometabolic traits (fasting glucose [FG], HOMA-insulin resistance, BMI, waist circumference, and HDL-cholesterol) to facilitate personalized recommendations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations and interactions between dietary intake/sleep duration and selected variants on cardiometabolic traits from 15 cohort studies including up to 28,190 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. RESULTS We observed significant associations between relative macronutrient intakes and glycemic traits and short sleep duration (<7 h) and higher FG and replicated known MTNR1B associations with glycemic traits. No interactions were evident after accounting for multiple comparisons. However, we observed nominally significant interactions (all P < 0.01) between carbohydrate intake and MTNR1B-rs1387153 for FG with a 0.003 mmol/L higher FG with each additional 1% carbohydrate intake in the presence of the T allele, between sleep duration and CRY2-rs11605924 for HDL-cholesterol with a 0.010 mmol/L higher HDL-cholesterol with each additional hour of sleep in the presence of the A allele, and between long sleep duration (≥9 h) and MTNR1B-rs1387153 for BMI with a 0.60 kg/m2 higher BMI with long sleep duration in the presence of the T allele relative to normal sleep duration (≥7 to <9 h). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that lower carbohydrate intake and normal sleep duration may ameliorate cardiometabolic abnormalities conferred by common circadian-related genetic variants

  1. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  2. Ambroise August Liébeault and psychic phenomena.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Carlos S

    2009-10-01

    Some nineteenth-century hypnosis researchers did not limit their interest to the study of the conventional psychological and behavioral aspects of hypnosis, but also studied and wrote about psychic phenomena such as mental suggestion and clairvoyance. One example, and the topic of this paper, was French physician Ambroise August Liébeault (1823-1904), who influenced the Nancy school of hypnosis. Liébeault wrote about mental suggestion, clairvoyance, mediumship, and even so-called poltergeists. Some of his writings provide conventional explanations of the phenomena. Still of interest today, Liébeault's writings about psychic phenomena illustrate the overlap that existed during the nineteenth-century between hypnosis and psychic phenomena--an overlap related to the potentials of the mind and its subconscious activity.

  3. The Interaction between Speed Camera Enforcement and Speed-Related Mass Media Publicity in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, M. H.; Newstead, S. V.; Diamantopoulou, K.; Oxley, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to measure the presence of any interaction between the effect of mobile covert speed camera enforcement and the effect of intensive mass media road safety publicity with speed-related themes. During 1999, the Victoria Police varied the levels of speed camera activity substantially in four Melbourne police districts according to a systematic plan. Camera hours were increased or reduced by 50% or 100% in respective districts for a month at a time, during months when speed-related publicity was present and during months when it was absent. Monthly frequencies of casualty crashes, and their severe injury outcome, in each district during 1996–2000 were analysed to test the effects of the enforcement, publicity and their interaction. Reductions in crash frequency were associated monotonically with increasing levels of speed camera ticketing, and there was a statistically significant 41% reduction in fatal crash outcome associated with very high camera activity. High publicity awareness was associated with 12% reduction in crash frequency. The interaction between the enforcement and publicity was not statistically significant. PMID:12941230

  4. Zinc–gene interaction related to inflammatory/immune response in ageing

    PubMed Central

    Malavolta, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The pivotal role played by zinc–gene interaction in affecting some relevant cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and heat shock proteins (HSP70-2) in ageing, successful ageing (nonagenarians) and the most common age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and infections, is now recognized. The polymorphisms of genes codifying proteins related to the inflammation are predictive on one hand in longevity, on the other hand they are associated with atherosclerosis or severe infections. Since the health life-span has a strong genetic component, which in turn also affected by nutritional factors like zinc, the association of these polymorphisms with innate immune response, zinc ion bioavailability and Metallothioneins (MT) homeostasis is an useful tool to unravel the role played by zinc–gene interactions in longevity, especially due to the inability of MT in zinc release in ageing and chronic inflammation. In ageing, this last fact leads to depressed innate immune response for host defence. In contrast, in very old age the inflammation is lower with subsequent more zinc ion bioavailability, less MT gene expression and satisfactory innate immunity. Therefore, the zinc–gene (IL-6, TNF-α, Hsp70-2) interactions, via MT homeostasis, are crucial to achieve successful ageing. PMID:18850188

  5. An analysis of multi-type relational interactions in FMA using graph motifs with disjointness constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Luo, Lingyun; Ogbuji, Chime; Joslyn, Cliff; Mejino, Jose; Sahoo, Satya S

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of multiple types of relationships among anatomical classes in the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) can provide inferred information valuable for quality assurance. This paper introduces a method called Motif Checking (MOCH) to study the effects of such multi-relation type interactions for detecting logical inconsistencies as well as other anomalies represented by the motifs. MOCH represents patterns of multi-type interaction as small labeled (with multiple types of edges) sub-graph motifs, whose nodes represent class variables, and labeled edges represent relational types. By representing FMA as an RDF graph and motifs as SPARQL queries, fragments of FMA are automatically obtained as auditing candidates. Leveraging the scalability and reconfigurability of Semantic Web Technology, we performed exhaustive analyses of a variety of labeled sub-graph motifs. The quality assurance feature of MOCH comes from the distinct use of a subset of the edges of the graph motifs as constraints for disjointness, whereby bringing in rule-based flavor to the approach as well. With possible disjointness implied by antonyms, we performed manual inspection of the resulting FMA fragments and tracked down sources of abnormal inferred conclusions (logical inconsistencies), which are amendable for programmatic revision of the FMA. Our results demonstrate that MOCH provides a unique source of valuable information for quality assurance. Since our approach is general, it is applicable to any ontological system with an OWL representation.

  6. Interaction between the RGS6 gene and psychosocial stress on obesity-related traits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-03-31

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and arises from the interactions between environmental factors and multiple genes. Psychosocial stress may affect the risk for obesity, modifying food intake and choice. A recent study suggested regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a novel candidate gene for obesity in terms of reward-related feeding under stress. In this study, we tried to verify the unidentified connection between RGS6 and human obesity with psychosocial stress in a Korean population. A total of 1,462 adult subjects, who participated in the Korean Association Resource cohort project, were included for this analysis. Obesity-related traits including waist circumference, body mass index, and visceral adipose tissue were recorded. A total of 4 intronic SNPs for the RGS6 gene were used for this study. We found that interactions between SNP rs2239219 and psychosocial stress are significantly associated with abdominal obesity (p = 0.007). As risk allele of this SNP increased, prevalence of abdominal obesity under high-stress conditions gradually increased (p = 0.013). However, we found no SNPs-by-stress interaction effect on other adiposity phenotypes. This study suggests that RGS6 is closely linked to stress-induced abdominal obesity in Korean adults.

  7. Hippocampus and striatum: dynamics and interaction during acquisition and sleep-related motor sequence memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Geneviève; King, Bradley R; Maquet, Pierre; Doyon, Julien

    2013-11-01

    While several models of memory consolidation have previously associated hippocampal activity with declarative memory, there is now increasing evidence that the hippocampus also plays a crucial role in procedural memory. Here, we review recent human functional neuroimaging studies demonstrating that the hippocampus is involved in the acquisition and sleep-related consolidation of procedural memories, and motor sequence-based skills in particular. More specifically, we present evidence that hippocampal activity and its functional interactions with other brain structures, particularly competition with the striatum, contribute to initial learning of sequential motor behavior. Interestingly, these early cerebral representations in the hippocampus and striatum, which may interact through the prefrontal cortex, can even predict subsequent sleep-related memory consolidation processes. We propose that sleep can reorganize the activity within, as well as the functional interactions between, these structures, ultimately favoring overnight performance enhancement. Finally, we conclude by offering insights into the respective roles of these structures in procedural memory consolidation processes. We argue that, in the context of motor sequence memory consolidation, the hippocampal system triggers subsequent sleep-dependent performance enhancement whereas the striatal system is involved in the maintenance of the motor behavior over time.

  8. Relative advantages of thin-layer Navier-Stokes and interactive boundary-layer procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U.; Chang, K. C.; Cebeci, T.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical procedures for solving the thin-shear-layer Navier-Stokes equations and for the interaction of solutions to inviscid and boundary-layer equations are described and evaluated. To allow appraisal of the numerical and fluid dynamic abilities of the two schemes, they have been applied to one airfoil as a function of angle of attack at two slightly different Reynolds numbers. The NACA 0012 airfoil has been chosen because it allows comparison with measured lift, drag, and moment and with surface-pressure distributions. Calculations have been performed with algebraic eddy-viscosity formulations, and they include consideration of transition. The results are presented in a form that allows easy appraisal of the accuracy of both procedures and of the relative costs. The interactive procedure is computationally efficient but restrictive relative to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes procedure. The latter procedure does a better job of predicting drag than does the former. In both procedures, the location of transition is crucial for accurate or detailed computations, particularly at high angles of attack. When the upstream influence of pressure field through the shear layer is important, the thin-layer Navier-Stokes procedure has an edge over the interactive procedure.

  9. New theoretical treatment of ion resonance phenomena.

    PubMed

    Vincze, G; Szasz, A; Liboff, A R

    2008-07-01

    Despite experimental evidence supporting ICR-like interactions in biological systems, to date there is no reasonable theoretical explanation for this phenomenon. The parametric resonance approach introduced by Lednev has enjoyed limited success in predicting the response as a function of the ratio of AC magnetic intensity to that of the DC field, explaining the results in terms of magnetically induced changes in the transition probability of calcium binding states. In the present work, we derive an expression for the velocity of a damped ion with arbitrary q/m under the influence of the Lorentz force. Series solutions to the differential equations reveal transient responses as well as resonance-like terms. One fascinating result is that the expressions for ionic drift velocity include a somewhat similar Bessel function dependence as was previously obtained for the transition probability in parametric resonance. However, in the present work, not only is there an explicit effect due to damping, but the previous Bessel dependence now occurs as a subset of a more general solution, including not only the magnetic field AC/DC ratio as an independent variable, but also the ratio of the cyclotronic frequency Omega to the applied AC frequency omega. In effect, this removes the necessity to explain the ICR interaction as stemming from ion-protein binding sites. We hypothesize that the selectively enhanced drift velocity predicted in this model can explain ICR-like phenomena as resulting from increased interaction probabilities in the vicinity of ion channel gates.

  10. Identifying Novel Candidate Genes Related to Apoptosis from a Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baoman; Yuan, Fei; Kong, Xiangyin; Hu, Lan-Dian; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (PCD) that occurs in multicellular organisms. This process of normal cell death is required to maintain the balance of homeostasis. In addition, some diseases, such as obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, can be cured through apoptosis, which produces few side effects. An effective comprehension of the mechanisms underlying apoptosis will be helpful to prevent and treat some diseases. The identification of genes related to apoptosis is essential to uncover its underlying mechanisms. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify novel candidate genes related to apoptosis. First, protein-protein interaction information was used to construct a weighted graph. Second, a shortest path algorithm was applied to the graph to search for new candidate genes. Finally, the obtained genes were filtered by a permutation test. As a result, 26 genes were obtained, and we discuss their likelihood of being novel apoptosis-related genes by collecting evidence from published literature. PMID:26543496

  11. Responsibility and impulsivity and their interaction in relation to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Smári, Jakob; Bouranel, Guethrún; Thornóra Eiethsdóttir, Sigríethur

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, the role of responsibility and impulsivity and their interaction in obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated. The obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised (OCI-R), an attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity self-report scale (AD/HD-SR), the responsibility attitudes scale (RAS), Eysenck's impulsiveness/venturesomeness/empathy questionnaire (IVE), the community epidemiological survey-depression (CES-D) and the Penn State worry questionnaire (PSWQ) were administered to a sample of 405 Icelandic university students. Responsibility attitudes (RAS) and impulsivity measures were significantly related to scores on the OCI-R total scale, even when depression had been taken into consideration. The interaction between responsibility and hyperactivity/impulsivity added to the prediction of OCI-R scores over and above simple effects.

  12. Annual grass invasion in sagebrush steppe: the relative importance of climate, soil properties and biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sheel; Sheley, Roger L

    2016-06-01

    The invasion by winter-annual grasses (AGs) such as Bromus tectorum into sagebrush steppe throughout the western USA is a classic example of a biological invasion with multiple, interacting climate, soil and biotic factors driving the invasion, although few studies have examined all components together. Across a 6000-km(2) area of the northern Great Basin, we conducted a field assessment of 100 climate, soil, and biotic (functional group abundances, diversity) factors at each of 90 sites that spanned an invasion gradient ranging from 0 to 100 % AG cover. We first determined which biotic and abiotic factors had the strongest correlative relationships with AGs and each resident functional group. We then used regression and structural equation modeling to explore how multiple ecological factors interact to influence AG abundance. Among biotic interactions, we observed negative relationships between AGs and biodiversity, perennial grass cover, resident species richness, biological soil crust cover and shrub density, whereas perennial and annual forb cover, tree cover and soil microbial biomass had no direct linkage to AG. Among abiotic factors, AG cover was strongly related to climate (increasing cover with increasing temperature and aridity), but had weak relationships with soil factors. Our structural equation model showed negative effects of perennial grasses and biodiversity on AG cover while integrating the negative effects of warmer climate and positive influence of belowground processes on resident functional groups. Our findings illustrate the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate on invasive abundance, while soil properties appear to have stronger relationships with resident biota than with invasives.

  13. Interactions of TRIS [tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane] and related buffers with peptide backbone: thermodynamic characterization.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2010-10-21

    In a situation which is far from ideal, many buffers have been found to be quite reactive, besides maintaining their stable pH values. On the basis of apparent transfer free energies (ΔG(tr)'), through solubility measurements the interactions of zwitterionic glycine peptides: glycine (Gly), diglycine (Gly(2)), triglycine (Gly(3)), and tetraglycine (Gly(4)), with several common neutral pH, amine-based buffers have been studied. The biological buffers studied in this work, including TRIS, TES, TAPS, TAPSO, and TABS are structurally related and all contain TRIS groups. These buffers have pK(a) values ranging from 7.5-9.0, which allow them to be used in biological, biochemical or environmental studies. We observed negative values of ΔG(tr)' for Gly(3) and Gly(4) from water to buffer, indicating that the interactions are favorable. However, the ΔG(tr)' values are positive for Gly and Gly(2), revealing unfavorable interactions, which except for the latter in TRIS buffer are negative. The surprising result in our data is the unexpected extraordinarily high favorable interactions between TRIS buffer and peptides (in comparison with the effect of the most common denaturants, urea and guanidine hydrochloride). The transfer free energies (ΔG(tr)') of the peptide backbone unit (-CH(2)C=O-NH-) contributions have been estimated from ΔG(tr)' values. We have also investigated the interactions of TRIS buffer with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), as a globular protein, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, UV-Visible absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results indicated that TRIS buffer stabilized the BSA molecules.

  14. Development of Expectancies about Own- and Other-Gender Group Interactions and Their School-Related Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Naomi C. Z.; Martin, Carol L.; Field, Ryan D.; Cook, Rachel E.; Lee, Jieun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's expectancies about interactions with own- and other-gender peers. Goals were to examine expectancies about the outcomes related to own- versus other-gender group interactions, assess cohort and temporal changes in expectancies, and assess the effect of expectancies on school-related outcomes. Students in second and…

  15. Relations between Children's Levels of Responsiveness and Resistance, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Social Behaviors with Peers in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Daniela; Neitzel, Carin

    2017-01-01

    Children's peer relationships have their origins in family relationships. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children's levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and tests a model of the direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with…

  16. The role of polyglutamine expansion and protein context in disease-related huntingtin/lipid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Kathleen Anne

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is defined by the accumulation of nanoscale aggregates comprised of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Aggregation is directly caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) domain in htt, leading to a diverse population of aggregate species, such as oligomers, fibrils, and annular aggregates. Furthermore, the length of this polyQ domain is directly related to onset and severity of disease. The first 17 amino acids on the N-terminus (N17) and the polyproline domain on the C-terminal side of the polyQ domain have been shown to further modulate the aggregation process. Additionally, N17 appears to have lipid binding properties as htt interacts with a variety of membrane-containing structures present in cells, such as organelles, and interactions with these membrane surfaces may further modulate htt aggregation. To investigate the interaction between htt exon1 and lipid bilayers, in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly monitor the aggregation of htt exon1 constructs with varying Q-length (35Q, 46Q, 51Q, and myc- 53Q) or synthetic peptides with different polyQ domain flanking sequences (KK-Q35-KK, KK-Q 35-P10-KK, N17-Q35-KK, and N 17-Q35-P10-KK) on supported lipid membranes comprised of total brain lipid extract. The exon1 fragments accumulated on the lipid membranes, causing disruption of the membrane, in a polyQ dependent manner. By adding N-terminal tags to the htt exon1 fragments, the interaction with the lipid bilayer was impeded. The KK-Q35-KK and KK-Q 35-P10-KK peptides had no appreciable interaction with lipid bilayers. Interestingly, polyQ peptides with the N17 flanking sequence interacted with the bilayer. N17-Q35-KK formed discrete aggregates on the bilayer, but there was minimal membrane disruption. The N17-Q35-P10-KK peptide interacted more aggressively with the lipid bilayer in a manner reminiscent of the htt exon1 proteins.

  17. Relational evolution of effectively interacting group field theory quantum gravity condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pithis, Andreas G. A.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2017-03-01

    We study the impact of effective interactions onto relationally evolving group field theory (GFT) condensates based on real-valued fields. In a first step we show that a free condensate configuration in an isotropic restriction settles dynamically into a low-spin configuration of the quantum geometry. This goes hand in hand with the accelerated and exponential expansion of its volume, as well as the vanishing of its relative uncertainty which suggests the classicalization of the quantum geometry. The dynamics of the emergent space can then be given in terms of the classical Friedmann equations. In contrast to models based on complex-valued fields, solutions avoiding the singularity problem can only be found if the initial conditions are appropriately chosen. We then turn to the analysis of the influence of effective interactions on the dynamics by studying in particular the Thomas-Fermi regime. In this context, at the cost of fine-tuning, an epoch of inflationary expansion of quantum geometric origin can be implemented. Finally, and for the first time, we study anisotropic GFT condensate configurations and show that such systems tend to isotropize quickly as the value of the relational clock grows. This paves the way to a more systematic investigation of anisotropies in the context of GFT condensate cosmology.

  18. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  19. Power and control in interactions between journalists and health-related industries: the view from industry.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Bronwen; Lipworth, Wendy L; Forsyth, Rowena; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The mass media is a major source of health information for the public, and as such the quality and independence of health news reporting is an important concern. Concerns have been expressed that journalists reporting on health are increasingly dependent on their sources--including representatives of industries responsible for manufacturing health-related products--for story ideas and content. Many critics perceive an imbalance of power between journalists and industry sources, with industry being in a position of relative power, however the empirical evidence to support this view is limited. The analysis presented here--which is part of a larger study of industry-journalist relationships--draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives of health-related industries in Australia to inductively examine their perceptions of power relations between industry and journalists. Participants painted a picture in which journalists, rather than themselves, were in a position to control the nature, extent, and outcome of their interactions with industry sources. Our results resonate with the concept of "mediatisation" as it has been applied in the domain of political reporting. It appears that, from the perspective of industry representatives, the imposition of media logic on health-related industries may inappropriately influence the information that the public receives about health-related products.

  20. Instability phenomena in plasticity: Modelling and computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E.; Steinmann, P.; Miehe, C.

    1995-12-01

    We presented aspects and results related to the broad field of strain localization with special focus on large strain elastoplastic response. Therefore, we first re-examined issues related to the classification of discontinuities and the classical description of localization with a particular emphasis on an Eulerian geometric representation. We touched the problem of mesh objectivity and discussed results of a particular regularization method, namely the micropolar approach. Generally, regularization has to preserve ellipticity and to reflect the underlying physics. For example ductile materials have to be modelled including viscous effects whereas geomaterials are adequately described by the micropolar approach. Then we considered localization phenomena within solids undergoing large strain elastoplastic deformations. Here, we documented the influence of isotropic damage on the failure analysis. Next, the interesting influence of an orthotropic yield condition on the spatial orientation of localized zones has been studied. Finally, we investigated the localization condition for an algorithmic model of finite strain single crystal plasticity.

  1. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  2. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin

  3. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  4. Electromagnetic interaction of split-ring resonators: The role of separation and relative orientation.

    PubMed

    Feth, Nils; König, Michael; Husnik, Martin; Stannigel, Kai; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin; Linden, Stefan

    2010-03-29

    Extinction cross-section spectra of split-ring-resonator dimers have been measured at near-infrared frequencies with a sensitive spatial modulation technique. The resonance frequency of the dimer's coupled mode as well as its extinction cross-section and its quality factor depend on the relative orientation and separation of the two split-ring resonators. The findings can be interpreted in terms of electric and magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. Numerical calculations based on a Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain approach are in good agreement with the experiments and support our physical interpretation.

  5. Three-Dimensional Interactive Atlas of Cranial Nerve-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nowinski, W.L.; Chua, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomical knowledge of the cranial nerves (CN) is fundamental in education, research and clinical practice. Moreover, understanding CN-related pathology with underlying neuroanatomy and the resulting neurological deficits is of vital importance. To facilitate CN knowledge anatomy and pathology understanding, we created an atlas of CN-related disorders, which is a three-dimensional (3D) interactive tool correlating CN pathology with the underlying surface and sectional neuroanatomy as well as the resulting neurological deficits. A computer platform was developed with: 1) anatomy browser along with the normal brain atlas (built earlier); 2) simulator of CN lesions; 3) tools to label CN-related pathology; and 4) CN pathology database with lesions and disorders, and the resulting signs, symptoms and/or syndromes. The normal neuroanatomy comprises about 2,300 3D components subdivided into modules. Cranial nerves contain more than 600 components: all 12 pairs of cranial nerves (CN I – CN XII) and the brainstem CN nuclei. The CN pathology database was populated with 36 lesions compiled from clinical textbooks. The initial view of each disorder was preset in terms of lesion location and size, surrounding surface and sectional neuroanatomy, and disorder and neuroanatomy labeling. Moreover, path selection from a CN nucleus to a targeted organ further enhances pathology-anatomy relationships. This atlas of CN-related disorders is potentially useful to a wide variety of users ranging from medical students and residents to general practitioners, neuroradiologists and neurologists, as it contains both normal brain anatomy and CN-related pathology correlated with neurological disorders presented in a visual and interactive way. PMID:23859281

  6. Turbulent phenomena in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Kalgin, Igor V; Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2011-01-01

    Protein folding and hydrodynamic turbulence are two long-standing challenges, in molecular biophysics and fluid dynamics, respectively. The theories of these phenomena have been developed independently and used different formalisms. Here we show that the protein folding flows can be surprisingly similar to turbulent fluid flows. Studying a benchmark model protein (an SH3 domain), we have found that the flows for the slow folding trajectories of the protein, in which a partly formed N- and C-terminal β sheet hinders the RT loop from attaching to the protein core, have many properties of turbulent flows of a fluid. The flows are analyzed in a three-dimensional (3D) space of collective variables, which are the numbers of native contacts between the terminal β strands, between the RT loop and the protein core, and the rest of the native contacts. We have found that the flows have fractal nature and are filled with 3D eddies; the latter contain strange attractors, at which the tracer flow paths behave as saddle trajectories. Two regions of the space increment have been observed, in which the flux variations are self-similar with the scaling exponent h=1/3, in surprising agreement with the Kolmogorov inertial range theory of turbulence. In one region, the cascade of protein rearrangements is directed from larger to smaller scales (net folding), and in the other, it is oppositely directed (net unfolding). Folding flows for the fast trajectories are essentially "laminar" and do not have the property of self-similarity. Based on the results of our study, we infer, and support this inference by simulations, that the origin of the similarity between the protein folding and turbulent motion of a fluid is in a cascade mechanism of structural transformations in the systems that underlies these phenomena.

  7. Physical phenomena and the microgravity response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The living biological cell is not a sack of Newtonian fluid containing systems of chemical reactions at equilibrium. It is a kinetically driven system, not a thermodynamically driven system. While the cell as a whole might be considered isothermal, at the scale of individual macromolecular events there is heat generated, and presumably sharp thermal gradients exist at the submicron level. Basic physical phenomena to be considered when exploring the cell's response to inertial acceleration include particle sedimentation, solutal convection, motility electrokinetics, cytoskeletal work, and hydrostatic pressure. Protein crystal growth experiments, for example, illustrate the profound effects of convection currents on macromolecular assembly. Reaction kinetics in the cell vary all the way from diffusion-limited to life-time limited. Transport processes vary from free diffusion, to facilitated and active transmembrane transport, to contractile-protein-driven motility, to crystalline immobilization. At least four physical states of matter exist in the cell: aqueous, non-aqueous, immiscible-aqueous, and solid. Levels of order vary from crystalline to free solution. The relative volumes of these states profoundly influence the cell's response to inertial acceleration. Such subcellular phenomena as stretch-receptor activation, microtubule re-assembly, synaptic junction formation, chemotactic receptor activation, and statolith sedimentation were studied recently with respect to both their basic mechanisms and their responsiveness to inertial acceleration. From such studies a widespread role of cytoskeletal organization is becoming apparent.

  8. Violence-related PTSD and neural activation when seeing emotionally charged male–female interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aue, Tatjana; Suardi, Francesca; Kutlikova, Hana; Cordero, Maria I.; Rossignol, Ana Sancho; Favez, Nicolas; Rusconi Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that involves impaired regulation of the fear response to traumatic reminders. This study tested how women with male-perpetrated interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD) differed in their brain activation from healthy controls (HC) when exposed to scenes of male–female interaction of differing emotional content. Sixteen women with symptoms of IPV-PTSD and 19 HC participated in this study. During magnetic resonance imaging, participants watched a stimulus protocol of 23 different 20 s silent epochs of male–female interactions taken from feature films, which were neutral, menacing or prosocial. IPV-PTSD participants compared with HC showed (i) greater dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation in response to menacing vs prosocial scenes and (ii) greater anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right hippocampus activation and lower ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activty in response to emotional vs neutral scenes. The fact that IPV-PTSD participants compared with HC showed lower activity of the ventral ACC during emotionally charged scenes regardless of the valence of the scenes suggests that impaired social perception among IPV-PTSD patients transcends menacing contexts and generalizes to a wider variety of emotionally charged male–female interactions. PMID:25062841

  9. Predicting relative toxicity and interactions of divalent metal ions: Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence assay

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.C.; McCloskey, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Both relative toxicity and interactions between paired metal ions were predicted with least-squares linear regression and various ion characteristics. Microtox{reg_sign} 15 min EC50s (expressed as free ion) for Ca(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) were most effectively modeled with the constant for the first hydrolysis (K{sub H} for M{sup n+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} MOH{sup a{minus}1} + H{sup +}) although other ion characteristics were also significant in regression models. The {vert_bar}log K{sub H}{vert_bar} is correlated with metal ion affinity to intermediate ligands such as many biochemical functional groups with O donor atoms. Further, ordination of metals according to ion characteristics, e.g., {vert_bar}log K{sub H}{vert_bar} facilitated prediction of paired metal interactions. Pairing metals with strong tendencies to complex with intermediate or soft ligands such as those with O or S donor atoms resulted in strong interactions.

  10. Associations between Relational Pronoun Usage and the Quality of Early Family Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Galdiolo, Sarah; Roskam, Isabelle; Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; De Mol, Jan; Dewinne, Laura; Vandaudenard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined the relationships of relational pronouns used in parental conversation to the quality of early family interactions, as indexed by Family Alliance (FA). We hypothesized that more positive family interactions were associated with the use of more we-pronouns (e.g., we, us, our; we-ness) and fewer I- and you-pronouns (e.g., I, me, you, your; separateness) by both mothers and fathers. Our statistical model using a multilevel modeling framework and two levels of analysis (i.e., a couple level and an individual level) was tested on 47 non-referred families (n = 31 primiparous families; child’s age, M = 15.75 months, SD = 2.73) with we-ness and separateness as outcomes and FA functions as between-dyads variables. Analyses revealed that we-ness within the parental couple was only positively associated with family affect sharing while separateness was negatively associated with different FA functions (e.g., communication mistakes). Our main finding suggested that the kinds of personal pronouns used by parental couples when discussing children’s education would be associated to the emotional quality of the family interactions. PMID:27847495

  11. [Non-epileptic motor paroxysmal phenomena in wakefulness in childhood].

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Víctor L; Arberas, Claudia L

    2013-09-06

    Paroxysmal events in childhood are a challenge for pediatric neurologists, given its highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations, often difficult to distinguish between phenomena of epileptic seizure or not. The non-epileptic paroxysmal episodes are neurological phenomena, with motor, sensory symptoms, and/or sensory impairments, with or without involvement of consciousness, epileptic phenomena unrelated, so no electroencephalographic correlative expression between or during episodes. From the clinical point of view can be classified into four groups: motor phenomena, syncope, migraine (and associated conditions) and acute psychiatric symptoms. In this paper we analyze paroxysmal motor phenomena in awake children, dividing them according to their clinical manifestations: extrapyramidal episodes (paroxysmal kinesiogenic, non kinesiogenic and not related to exercise dyskinesias, Dopa responsive dystonia) and similar symptoms of dystonia (Sandifer syndrome); manifestations of startle (hyperekplexia); episodic eye and head movements (benign paroxysmal tonic upward gaze nistagmus deviation); episodic ataxia (familial episodic ataxias, paroxysmal benign vertigo); stereotyped and phenomena of self-gratification; and myoclonic events (benign myoclonus of early infancy). The detection of these syndromes will, in many cases, allow an adequate genetic counseling, initiate a specific treatment and avoid unnecessary additional studies. Molecular studies have demonstrated a real relationship between epileptic and non-epileptic basis of many of these entities and surely the identification of the molecular basis and understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in many of them allow us, in the near future will benefit our patients.

  12. Self-consistent linear response for the spin-orbit interaction related properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    of compounds with low crystal symmetry. The fruitfulness of this approach for the analysis of complex magnetic structures is illustrated in a number of examples, including the quantitative description of the spin canting in YTiO3 and LaMnO3, formation of the spin-spiral order in BiFeO3, and the magnetic inversion symmetry breaking in BiMnO3, which gives rise to both ferroelectric activity and DM interactions, responsible for the ferromagnetism. In all these cases, the use of SCLR tremendously reduces the computational efforts related to the search for noncollinear magnetic structures in the ground state.

  13. a Dynamical Model with Next-Nearest Interaction in Relative Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Yuncai; Liu, Fuqiang

    By introducing the velocity difference between the preceding car and the car before the preceding one into the optimal velocity model (OVM), we present an extended dynamical model which takes into account the next-nearest-neighbor interaction in relative velocity. The stability condition of this model is derived by considering a small perturbation around the uniform flow solution and the validity of our theoretical analysis is also confirmed by direct simulations. The analytic and simulation results indicate that traffic congestion is suppressed efficiently by incorporating the effect of new consideration. Moreover, the effect of the new consideration is investigated by numerical simulation. In particular, the jamming flow, the current-density relation, and the propagation speed of small disturbance are examined in detail by varying various values of the parameter.

  14. Examining relations of entertainment with social interaction motives and team identification.

    PubMed

    Gau, Li-Shiue; Wann, Daniel L; James, Jeffrey D

    2010-10-01

    The goal was to investigate a potential causal pattern between the motives of sport spectators and team identification by using a cross-lagged panel design. Questionnaires were completed by 229 participants at the beginning and end of one NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) college football season for 4 mo. in the USA. The questionnaire included three items for each motive (Social Interaction and Entertainment), three items measuring team identification, and demographic items. The relation of Entertainment at Time 1 to team identification at Time 2 was larger than the relation of team identification at Time 1 to Entertainment at Time 2. This suggests that the motivation of Entertainment may lead to the formation of team identification more than team identification leads to Entertainment. However, the motive of Social Interaction did not show the same pattern. As results of this study suggested some spectator sport motives might lead to identification with a team, the hypothesis that all motives would be the basis of team identification might not be correct.

  15. Preferential accumulation and enhanced relative velocity of inertial droplets due to interactions with homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateson, Colin; Aliseda, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    We present results from wind tunnel experiments on the evolution of small inertial (d ~ 10 - 200 μm) water droplets in homogeneous, isotropic, slowly decaying grid turbulence. High-speed imaging and a Particle Tracking algorithm are used to calculate relative velocity distributions. We analyze the preferential concentration, via the 2D Radial Distribution Function, and enhanced relative velocity of droplets resulting from their inertial interactions with the underlying turbulence. The two-dimensional particle velocities, measured from multi-image tracks along a streamwise plane, are conditionally analyzed with respect to the distance from the nearest particle. We focus on the non-normality of the statistics for the particle-particle separation velocity component to examine the influence of the inertial interaction with the turbulence on the dynamics of the droplets. We observe a negative bias (in the mean and mode) in the separation velocity of particles for short separations, signaling a tendency of particles to collide more frequently than a random agitation by turbulence would predict. The tails of the distribution are interpreted in terms of the collision/coalescence process and the probability of collisions that do not lead to coalescence.

  16. Human Height Is Positively Related to Interpersonal Dominance in Dyadic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Across cultures, taller stature is linked to increased social status, but the potential reasons why this should be are unclear. One potential explanation is that taller individuals are more likely to win a dyadic confrontation with a competitor (i.e., they are more dominant), which leads to higher social rank. Although some previous studies have shown that perceptions of status or dominance are related to height, and are therefore consistent with such an explanation, there is surprisingly little research testing whether height actually has any influence on the behavioural outcomes in real-life social interactions. Here, we present three naturalistic observational studies demonstrating that height predicts interpersonal dominance during brief dyadic interactions. Study 1 investigated the likelihood of giving way in a narrow passage (N = 92); Study 2 investigated giving way in a busy shopping street, plus the likelihood of colliding with another individual (N = 1,108); and Study 3 investigated the likelihood of maintaining a linear path while walking, and potentially entering another individual’s personal space (N = 1,056). We conclude that human height is positively related to interpersonal dominance, and may well contribute to the widely observed positive association between height and social status. PMID:25719490

  17. Emotion-related personality traits and peer social standing: unique and interactive effects in cyberbullying behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the unique and interactive effects of emotion-related personality traits (i.e., callousness and uncaring traits) and peer social standing (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity) on cyberbullying behaviors in preadolescents. A total of 529 preadolescents (247 boys, 46.69%) were recruited from an Italian middle school (Mage=12 years and 7 months; SD=1 year and 2 months). The participants primarily consisted of Italian children (91.12%). A series of binary logistic regression analyses parted by gender were conducted to examine the main and interactive effects of self-reported emotion-related variables and peer-reported social standing in the prediction of self-reported cyberbullying behaviors, while controlling for cyber victimization and grade effects. In girls, an uncaring disposition was directly associated with cyberbullying behaviors, whereas in boys this association only emerged for those with low perceived popularity. Our results indicated that, in developing anti(cyber)bullying programs, school researchers and practitioners should jointly consider individual and contextual factors.

  18. An automated system for retrieving herb-drug interaction related articles from MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuo; Friedman, Carol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    An automated, user-friendly and accurate system for retrieving herb-drug interaction (HDIs) related articles in MEDLINE can increase the safety of patients, as well as improve the physicians’ article retrieving ability regarding speed and experience. Previous studies show that MeSH based queries associated with negative effects of drugs can be customized, resulting in good performance in retrieving relevant information, but no study has focused on the area of herb-drug interactions (HDI). This paper adapted the characteristics of HDI related papers and created a multilayer HDI article searching system. It achieved a sensitivity of 92% at a precision of 93% in a preliminary evaluation. Instead of requiring physicians to conduct PubMed searches directly, this system applies a more user-friendly approach by employing a customized system that enhances PubMed queries, shielding users from having to write queries, dealing with PubMed, or reading many irrelevant articles. The system provides automated processes and outputs target articles based on the input. PMID:27570662

  19. An Analysis of Multi-type Relational Interactions in FMA Using Graph Motifs with Disjointness Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guo Qiang; Luo, Lingyun; Ogbuji, Chime; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Mejino, Jose; Sahoo, Satya S.

    2012-11-24

    The interaction of multiple types of relationships among anatomical classes in the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) can provide inferred information valuable for quality assurance. This paper introduces a method called Motif Checking (MOCH) to study the effects of such multi-relation type interactions. MOCH represents patterns of multitype interaction as small labeled sub-graph motifs, whose nodes represent class variables, and labeled edges represent relational types. By representing FMA as an RDF graph and motifs as SPARQL queries, fragments of FMA are automatically obtained as auditing candidates. Leveraging the scalability and reconfigurability of Semantic Web Technology (OWL, RDF and SPARQL) and Virtuoso, we performed exhaustive analyses of three 2-node motifs, resulting in 638 matching FMA configurations; twelve 3-node motifs, resulting in 202,960 configurations. Using the Principal Ideal Explorer (PIE) methodology as an extension of MOCH, we were able to identify 755 root nodes with 4,100 respective descendants with opposing antonyms in their class names for arbitrary-length motifs. With possible disjointness implied by antonyms, we performed manual inspection of a subset of the resulting FMA fragments and tracked down a source of abnormal inferred conclusions (captured by the motifs), coming from a gender-neutral class being modeled as a part of gender-specific class, such as “Urinary system” is a part of “Female human body.” Our results demonstrate that MOCH and PIE provide a unique source of valuable information for quality assurance. Since our approach is general, it is applicable to any ontological system with an OWL representation.

  20. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  1. Mathematical methods of studying physical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades, substantial theoretical and experimental progress was achieved in understanding the quantum nature of physical phenomena that serves as the foundation of present and future quantum technologies. Quantum correlations like the entanglement of the states of composite systems, the phenomenon of quantum discord, which captures other aspects of quantum correlations, quantum contextuality and, connected with these phenomena, uncertainty relations for conjugate variables and entropies, like Shannon and Rényi entropies, and the inequalities for spin states, like Bell inequalities, reflect the recently understood quantum properties of micro and macro systems. The mathematical methods needed to describe all quantum phenomena mentioned above were also the subject of intense studies in the end of the last, and beginning of the new, century. In this section of CAMOP 'Mathematical Methods of Studying Physical Phenomena' new results and new trends in the rapidly developing domain of quantum (and classical) physics are presented. Among the particular topics under discussion there are some reviews on the problems of dynamical invariants and their relations with symmetries of the physical systems. In fact, this is a very old problem of both classical and quantum systems, e.g. the systems of parametric oscillators with time-dependent parameters, like Ermakov systems, which have specific constants of motion depending linearly or quadratically on the oscillator positions and momenta. Such dynamical invariants play an important role in studying the dynamical Casimir effect, the essence of the effect being the creation of photons from the vacuum in a cavity with moving boundaries due to the presence of purely quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field in the vacuum. It is remarkable that this effect was recently observed experimentally. The other new direction in developing the mathematical approach in physics is quantum tomography that provides a new vision of

  2. Pseudospin-mediated phenomena in photonic graphene (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Daohong; Efremedis, Nikos; Chen, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    "Photonic graphene" has been demonstrated as a useful platform to study fundamental physics such as edge states and topological insulators. Recently, we have demonstrated pseudospin-mediated generation of topological charges in photonic graphene. Due to sublattice degree of freedom, charge flipping is observed as the sublattices are selectively excited. Our experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulation as well as by theoretical analysis of the 2D Dirac-Weyl equations. In this talk, we will discuss such pseudospin-related phenomena due to the sublattice degree of freedom, along with our recent work on related phenomena due to the graphene valley degree of freedom.

  3. Scaling relations of halo cores for self-interacting dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Henry W.; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2016-03-01

    Using a simple analytic formalism, we demonstrate that significant dark matter self-interactions produce halo cores that obey scaling relations nearly independent of the underlying particle physics parameters such as the annihilation cross section and the mass of the dark matter particle. For dwarf galaxies, we predict that the core density ρ{sub c} and the core radius r{sub c} should obey ρ{sub c} r{sub c} ≈ 41 M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} with a weak mass dependence ∼ M{sup 0.2}. Remarkably, such a scaling relation has recently been empirically inferred. Scaling relations involving core mass, core radius, and core velocity dispersion are predicted and agree well with observational data. By calibrating against numerical simulations, we predict the scatter in these relations and find them to be in excellent agreement with existing data. Future observations can test our predictions for different halo masses and redshifts.

  4. Discovery of new candidate genes related to brain development using protein interaction information.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Human brain development is a dramatic process composed of a series of complex and fine-tuned spatiotemporal gene expressions. A good comprehension of this process can assist us in developing the potential of our brain. However, we have only limited knowledge about the genes and gene functions that are involved in this biological process. Therefore, a substantial demand remains to discover new brain development-related genes and identify their biological functions. In this study, we aimed to discover new brain-development related genes by building a computational method. We referred to a series of computational methods used to discover new disease-related genes and developed a similar method. In this method, the shortest path algorithm was executed on a weighted graph that was constructed using protein-protein interactions. New candidate genes fell on at least one of the shortest paths connecting two known genes that are related to brain development. A randomization test was then adopted to filter positive discoveries. Of the final identified genes, several have been reported to be associated with brain development, indicating the effectiveness of the method, whereas several of the others may have potential roles in brain development.

  5. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  6. Geographical Variations in the Interaction of Relative Age Effects in Youth and Adult Elite Soccer.

    PubMed

    Steingröver, Christina; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph; Helsen, Werner F; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes' birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players' age position within the age band with regard to players' birth year and birth month. Study 1 tests for an interaction of two different types of relative age effects among data from participants in the last five Under-17 FIFA World Cups (2007-2015). Analyses revealed a significant global within-year effect and varying birthdate distributions were found between confederations. Even stronger effects were found for constituent year effects. For the total sample, a multi-way frequency analysis (MFA) revealed an interaction with a pattern of a stronger within-year effect for the younger year group. This study highlights the need to consider interactions between different types of age effects. The main aim of Study 2 was to test for carry-over effects from previously found constituent year effects among players participating in the 2014 soccer World Cup and, therefore, to test for long-term effects of age grouping structures used during earlier stages of talent development. A secondary purpose of this study was to replicate findings on the existence of within-year effects and to test whether effects vary between continental confederations. No significant interaction between constituent year and within-year effects was shown by the MFA among the World Cup sample and previous findings on varying within-year effects were replicated. Results indicate that long-term effects of age grouping structures in earlier high-level talent

  7. Geographical Variations in the Interaction of Relative Age Effects in Youth and Adult Elite Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Steingröver, Christina; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph; Helsen, Werner F.; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes’ birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players’ age position within the age band with regard to players’ birth year and birth month. Study 1 tests for an interaction of two different types of relative age effects among data from participants in the last five Under-17 FIFA World Cups (2007–2015). Analyses revealed a significant global within-year effect and varying birthdate distributions were found between confederations. Even stronger effects were found for constituent year effects. For the total sample, a multi-way frequency analysis (MFA) revealed an interaction with a pattern of a stronger within-year effect for the younger year group. This study highlights the need to consider interactions between different types of age effects. The main aim of Study 2 was to test for carry-over effects from previously found constituent year effects among players participating in the 2014 soccer World Cup and, therefore, to test for long-term effects of age grouping structures used during earlier stages of talent development. A secondary purpose of this study was to replicate findings on the existence of within-year effects and to test whether effects vary between continental confederations. No significant interaction between constituent year and within-year effects was shown by the MFA among the World Cup sample and previous findings on varying within-year effects were replicated. Results indicate that long-term effects of age grouping structures in earlier high

  8. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  9. Novel nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involve processes in nuclear targets at intermediate energies. A range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena-exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction were discussed as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Several areas were also reviewed where there has been significant theoretical progress determining the form of hadron and nuclear wave functions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. A possible interpretation was also discussed of the large spin correlation A/sub NN/ in proton-proton scattering, and how relate this effect to an energy and angular dependence of color transparency in nuclei. 76 refs., 24 figs.

  10. Analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Taylor, Roy A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation of phenomena associated with the oblique hypervelocity impact of spherical projectiles on multisheet aluminum structures. A model that can be employed in the design of meteoroid and space debris protection systems for space structures is developed. The model consists of equations that relate crater and perforation damage of a multisheet structure to parameters such as projectile size, impact velocity, and trajectory obliquity. The equations are obtained through a regression analysis of oblique hypervelocity impact test data. This data shows that the response of a multisheet structure to oblique impact is significantly different from its response to normal hypervelocity impact. It was found that obliquely incident projectiles produce ricochet debris that can severely damage panels or instrumentation located on the exterior of a space structure. Obliquity effects of high-speed impact must, therefore, be considered in the design of any structure exposed to a meteoroid or space debris environement.

  11. Electronic phenomena at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Drickamer, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research is undertaken either to investigate intrinsically high pressure phenomena or in order to get a better understanding of the effect of the chemical environment on properties or processes at one atmosphere. Studies of electronic properties which fall in each area are presented. Many molecules and complexes can assume in the excited state different molecular arrangements and intermolecular forces depending on the medium. Their luminescence emission is then very different in a rigid or a fluid medium. With pressure one can vary the viscosity of the medium by a factor of 10/sup 7/ and thus control the distribution and rate of crossing between the excited state conformations. In rare earth chelates the efficiency of 4f-4f emission of the rare earth is controlled by the feeding from the singlet and triplet levels of the organic ligand. These ligand levels can be strongly shifted by pressure. A study of the effect of pressure on the emission efficiency permits one to understand the effect of ligand chemistry at one atmosphere. At high pressure electronic states can be sufficiently perturbed to provide new ground states. In EDA complexes these new ground states exhibit unusual chemical reactivity and new products.

  12. Monitoring of Transient Lunar Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Timothy; Farber, Ryan; Ahrendts, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP’s) are described as short-lived changes in the brightness of areas on the face of the Moon. TLP research is characterized by the inability to substantiate, reproduce, and verify findings. Our current research includes the analysis of lunar images taken with two Santa Barbara Instrument Group (SBIG) ST8-E CCD cameras mounted on two 0.36m Celestron telescopes. On one telescope, we are using a sodium filter, and on the other an H-alpha filter, imaging approximately one-third of the lunar surface. We are focusing on two regions: Hyginus and Ina. Ina is of particular interest because it shows evidence of recent activity (Schultz, P., Staid, M., Pieters, C. Nature, Volume 444, Issue 7116, pp. 184-186, 2006). A total of over 50,000 images have been obtained over approximately 35 nights and visually analyzed to search for changes. As of March, 2014, no evidence of TLPs has been found. We are currently developing a Matlab program to do image analysis to detect TLPs that might not be apparent by visual inspection alone.

  13. Breakdown phenomena in rf windows

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.

    1995-07-05

    The multipactor and flashover phenomena of alumina rf windows used in high-power klystrons have been investigated. Multipactoring due to the high yield of secondary electron emission takes place during rf operation. A spectrum analysis of the luminescence due to multipactoring shows that multipactor electron bombardment causes an F-center of alumina, thus leading to surface melting. From the results of a high-power examination of rf windows with several kinds of alumina ceramics, it was found that an alumina material with a crystallized grain-boundary and without any voids between the boundaries, thus having a low loss-tangent value, is not liable to F-centers, even under multipactoring. Flashovers in a tree-like pattern of alumina luminescence occasionally take place on a TiN-coated surface. From the results of surface-charging measurements and high-power examinations of annealed alumina disks, the flashover phenomenon is considered to be an avalanche of electrons which have been trapped in mechanically introduced defects. The effectivenesses of multipactor-suppressing coatings and of a field-reduced window structure were also examined. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  14. Interaction of graphene-related materials with human intestinal cells: an in vitro approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucki, M.; Rupper, P.; Sarrieu, C.; Melucci, M.; Treossi, E.; Schwarz, A.; León, V.; Kraegeloh, A.; Flahaut, E.; Vázquez, E.; Palermo, V.; Wick, P.

    2016-04-01

    Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell viability of exposed Caco-2 cells in respect to untreated GRM could be detected. Furthermore, we explored the interaction of four different GO and Caco-2 cells to identify relevant physicochemical properties for the establishment of a material property-biological response relationship. Despite close interaction with the cell surface and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), no acute toxicity was found for any of the applied GO (concentration range 0-80 μg ml-1) after 24 h and 48 h exposure. Graphene nanoplatelet aggregates led to low acute toxicity at high concentrations, indicating that aggregation, the number of layers or the C/O ratio have a more pronounced effect on the cell viability than the lateral size alone.Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell

  15. Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: Relations to couples’ interactive reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Inna; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F.; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Summary Romantic relationships can have a profound effect on adults’ health and well-being whereas the inability to maintain intimate bonds has been associated with physical and emotional distress. Studies in monogamous mammalian species underscore the central role of oxytocin (OT) in pair-bonding and human imaging studies implicate OT-rich brain areas in early romantic love. To assess the role of OT in romantic attachment, we examined plasma OT in 163 young adults: 120 new lovers (60 couples) three months after the initiation of their romantic relationship and 43 non-attached singles. Twenty-five of the 36 couples who stayed together were seen again six months later. Couples were observed in dyadic interactions and were each interviewed regarding relationship-related thoughts and behaviors. OT was significantly higher in new lovers compared to singles, F(1, 152) = 109.33, p < .001, which may suggest increased activity of the oxytocinergic system during the early stages of romantic attachment. These high levels of OT among new lovers did not decrease six months later and showed high individual stability. OT correlated with the couples’ interactive reciprocity, including social focus, positive affect, affectionate touch, and synchronized dyadic states, and with anxieties and worries regarding the partner and the relationship, findings which parallel those described for parent–infant bonding. OT levels at the first assessment differentiated couples who stayed together six months later from those who separated during this period. Regression analysis showed that OT predicted interactive reciprocity independent of sex, relationship duration, and the partner’s OT. Findings suggest that OT may play an important role at the first stages of romantic attachment and lend support to evolutionary models suggesting that parental and romantic attachment share underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms. PMID:22281209

  16. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C A F; Walker, F J; Ahn, C H; Ismail-Beigi, S

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  17. Brain galanin system genes interact with life stresses in depression-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Hullam, Gabor; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Antal, Peter; Anderson, Ian Muir; Hökfelt, Tomas G. M.; Deakin, J. F. William; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Galanin is a stress-inducible neuropeptide and cotransmitter in serotonin and norepinephrine neurons with a possible role in stress-related disorders. Here we report that variants in genes for galanin (GAL) and its receptors (GALR1, GALR2, GALR3), despite their disparate genomic loci, conferred increased risk of depression and anxiety in people who experienced childhood adversity or recent negative life events in a European white population cohort totaling 2,361 from Manchester, United Kingdom and Budapest, Hungary. Bayesian multivariate analysis revealed a greater relevance of galanin system genes in highly stressed subjects compared with subjects with moderate or low life stress. Using the same method, the effect of the galanin system genes was stronger than the effect of the well-studied 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). Conventional multivariate analysis using general linear models demonstrated that interaction of galanin system genes with life stressors explained more variance (1.7%, P = 0.005) than the life stress-only model. This effect replicated in independent analysis of the Manchester and Budapest subpopulations, and in males and females. The results suggest that the galanin pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression in humans by increasing the vulnerability to early and recent psychosocial stress. Correcting abnormal galanin function in depression could prove to be a novel target for drug development. The findings further emphasize the importance of modeling environmental interaction in finding new genes for depression. PMID:24706871

  18. Neural similarity between encoding and retrieval is related to memory via hippocampal interactions.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Maureen; Wing, Erik A; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    A fundamental principle in memory research is that memory is a function of the similarity between encoding and retrieval operations. Consistent with this principle, many neurobiological models of declarative memory assume that memory traces are stored in cortical regions, and the hippocampus facilitates the reactivation of these traces during retrieval. The present investigation tested the novel prediction that encoding-retrieval similarity can be observed and related to memory at the level of individual items. Multivariate representational similarity analysis was applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during encoding and retrieval of emotional and neutral scenes. Memory success tracked fluctuations in encoding-retrieval similarity across frontal and posterior cortices. Importantly, memory effects in posterior regions reflected increased similarity between item-specific representations during successful recognition. Mediation analyses revealed that the hippocampus mediated the link between cortical similarity and memory success, providing crucial evidence for hippocampal-cortical interactions during retrieval. Finally, because emotional arousal is known to modulate both perceptual and memory processes, similarity effects were compared for emotional and neutral scenes. Emotional arousal was associated with enhanced similarity between encoding and retrieval patterns. These findings speak to the promise of pattern similarity measures for evaluating memory representations and hippocampal-cortical interactions.

  19. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context

    PubMed Central

    terHorst, Casey P.; Lennon, Jay T.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant–microbe interactions. PMID:24789894

  20. Exploring and Exploiting Disease Interactions from Multi-Relational Gene and Phenotype Networks

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Darcy A.; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of electronic health care records is unlocking the potential for novel studies on understanding and modeling disease co-morbidities based on both phenotypic and genetic data. Moreover, the insurgence of increasingly reliable phenotypic data can aid further studies on investigating the potential genetic links among diseases. The goal is to create a feedback loop where computational tools guide and facilitate research, leading to improved biological knowledge and clinical standards, which in turn should generate better data. We build and analyze disease interaction networks based on data collected from previous genetic association studies and patient medical histories, spanning over 12 years, acquired from a regional hospital. By exploring both individual and combined interactions among these two levels of disease data, we provide novel insight into the interplay between genetics and clinical realities. Our results show a marked difference between the well defined structure of genetic relationships and the chaotic co-morbidity network, but also highlight clear interdependencies. We demonstrate the power of these dependencies by proposing a novel multi-relational link prediction method, showing that disease co-morbidity can enhance our currently limited knowledge of genetic association. Furthermore, our methods for integrated networks of diverse data are widely applicable and can provide novel advances for many problems in systems biology and personalized medicine. PMID:21829475

  1. Sites of interaction between aldolase and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein in plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, Carlos A; Coppens, Isabelle; Hol, Wim G J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2003-12-01

    Gliding motility and host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites are empowered by an acto-myosin motor located underneath the parasite plasma membrane. The motor is connected to host cell receptors through trans-membrane invasins belonging to the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family. A recent study indicates that aldolase bridges the cytoplasmic tail of MIC2, the homologous TRAP protein in Toxoplasma, and actin. Here, we confirm these unexpected findings in Plasmodium sporozoites and identify conserved features of the TRAP family cytoplasmic tail required to bind aldolase: a subterminal tryptophan residue and two noncontiguous stretches of negatively charged amino acids. The aldolase substrate and other compounds that bind to the active site inhibit its interaction with TRAP and with F-actin, suggesting that the function of the motor is metabolically regulated. Ultrastructural studies in salivary gland sporozoites localize aldolase to the periphery of the secretory micronemes containing TRAP. Thus, the interaction between aldolase and the TRAP tail takes place during or preceding the biogenesis of the micronemes. The release of their contents in the anterior pole of the parasite upon contact with the target cells should bring simultaneously aldolase, TRAP and perhaps F-actin to the proper subcellular location where the motor is engaged.

  2. Exploring Divisibility and Summability of 'Photon' Wave Packets in Nonlinear Optical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha; Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2009-01-01

    Formulations for second and higher harmonic frequency up and down conversions, as well as multi photon processes directly assume summability and divisibility of photons. Quantum mechanical (QM) interpretations are completely congruent with these assumptions. However, for linear optical phenomena (interference, diffraction, refraction, material dispersion, spectral dispersion, etc.), we have a profound dichotomy. Most optical engineers innovate and analyze all optical instruments by propagating pure classical electromagnetic (EM) fields using Maxwell s equations and gives only lip-service to the concept "indivisible light quanta". Further, irrespective of linearity or nonlinearity of the phenomena, the final results are always registered through some photo-electric or photo-chemical effects. This is mathematically well modeled by a quadratic action (energy absorption) relation. Since QM does not preclude divisibility or summability of photons in nonlinear & multi-photon effects, it cannot have any foundational reason against these same possibilities in linear optical phenomena. It implies that we must carefully revisit the fundamental roots behind all light-matter interaction processes and understand the common origin of "graininess" and "discreteness" of light energy.

  3. The interaction between gut microbiota and age-related changes in immune function and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota and gut immune systems interact each other, maintaining a condition of homeostasis in the context of the intestinal habitat. However, both systems undergo modifications in elderly, thus accounting for a low grade inflammatory status which, in turn, may evolve toward more severe pathological conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon rectal cancer. In addition, in western societies dietary habits may negatively influence the microbiota composition, also altering gut immune response which is per se impaired in elderly. In order to prevent the outcome of aged-related disease, supplementation of nutraceuticals able to correct abnormalities of both immune system and microbiota has become more frequent than in the past. In this respect, a better identification of components of the aged microbiota as well as a deeper analysis of gut mucosal immunity function should be pursued. PMID:23915308

  4. Interacting spin-wave dispersion relations of ferrimagnetic Heisenberg chains with crystal-field anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano-Carrillo, E.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2010-11-01

    We study the effect of crystal-field anisotropy on the dispersion relations of mixed-spin (S,s) alternating chains by using the interacting spin-wave theory and the density-matrix renormalization group algorithm. For the easy-plane anisotropy case we find that the spin-wave results fail to describe the ground-state properties of the systems under consideration, whereas for the easy-axis anisotropy regime the method demonstrates a surprising efficiency showing, for example for the system (S,s)=(3/2,1/2), a discrepancy from the density-matrix renormalization group of about 0.0006% for the ground-state energy and of 2% for the sublattice magnetizations.

  5. Sex-related toxicity of somatostatin and its interaction with pentobarbital and strychnine.

    PubMed

    Caprino, L; Borrelli, F; Antonetti, F; Cantelmo, A

    1983-06-01

    The intravenous LD50 of the hypothalamic tetradecapeptide somatostatin was determined in mice and rats of both sexes. It was found that somatostatin has a sex-related toxicity both in mice and rats. The interaction of low and high doses of peptide with the LD50s of two central nervous system (CNS) drugs, namely pentobarbital and strychnine, was also studied in male and female mice. Differential effects were observed as follows: a very low dose (0.1 mg/kg) of somatostatin does not affect the toxicity of these compounds, whereas the injection of 1 mg/kg of peptide increased pentobarbital toxicity and decreased the toxicity of strychnine. However, an increase in the toxicity of both substances was obtained with very high non-lethal doses of peptide (20 and 30 mg/kg, in female and male mice, respectively).

  6. Effects of Online Interaction and Instructor Presence on Students' Satisfaction and Success with Online Undergraduate Public Relations Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jensen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student success, failure, withdrawal, and satisfaction in online public relations courses based on instructor-student interaction, student-student interaction, and instructor presence. Student passing rates, D/F rates, withdrawal rates, and evaluations of instruction were compiled from fifty-one online PR courses run over the…

  7. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  8. Genes related to antioxidant metabolism are involved in Methylobacterium mesophilicum-soybean interaction.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Welington Luiz; Santos, Daiene Souza; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Salgueiro-Londoño, Jennifer Katherine; Camargo-Neves, Aline Aparecida; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega

    2015-10-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacterial species that are widespread in natural environments, such as soils, stream water and plants. When in association with plants, this genus colonizes the host plant epiphytically and/or endophytically. This association is known to promote plant growth, induce plant systemic resistance and inhibit plant infection by phytopathogens. In the present study, we focused on evaluating the colonization of soybean seedling-roots by Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6. We focused on the identification of the key genes involved in the initial step of soybean colonization by methylotrophic bacteria, which includes the plant exudate recognition and adaptation by planktonic bacteria. Visualization by scanning electron microscopy revealed that M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes soybean roots surface effectively at 48 h after inoculation, suggesting a mechanism for root recognition and adaptation before this period. The colonization proceeds by the development of a mature biofilm on roots at 96 h after inoculation. Transcriptomic analysis of the planktonic bacteria (with plant) revealed the expression of several genes involved in membrane transport, thus confirming an initial metabolic activation of bacterial responses when in the presence of plant root exudates. Moreover, antioxidant genes were mostly expressed during the interaction with the plant exudates. Further evaluation of stress- and methylotrophic-related genes expression by qPCR showed that glutathione peroxidase and glutathione synthetase genes were up-regulated during the Methylobacterium-soybean interaction. These findings support that glutathione (GSH) is potentially a key molecule involved in cellular detoxification during plant root colonization. In addition to methylotrophic metabolism, antioxidant genes, mainly glutathione-related genes, play a key role during soybean exudate recognition and adaptation, the first step in

  9. The Solar Wind and Geomagnetic Activity as a Function of Time Relative to Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherron, Robert L.; Weygand, James

    2006-01-01

    Corotating interaction regions during the declining phase of the solar cycle are the cause of recurrent geomagnetic storms and are responsible for the generation of high fluxes of relativistic electrons. These regions are produced by the collision of a high-speed stream of solar wind with a slow-speed stream. The interface between the two streams is easily identified with plasma and field data from a solar wind monitor upstream of the Earth. The properties of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field are systematic functions of time relative to the stream interface. Consequently the coupling of the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere produces a predictable sequence of events. Because the streams persist for many solar rotations it should be possible to use terrestrial observations of past magnetic activity to predict future activity. Also the high-speed streams are produced by large unipolar magnetic regions on the Sun so that empirical models can be used to predict the velocity profile of a stream expected at the Earth. In either case knowledge of the statistical properties of the solar wind and geomagnetic activity as a function of time relative to a stream interface provides the basis for medium term forecasting of geomagnetic activity. In this report we use lists of stream interfaces identified in solar wind data during the years 1995 and 2004 to develop probability distribution functions for a variety of different variables as a function of time relative to the interface. The results are presented as temporal profiles of the quartiles of the cumulative probability distributions of these variables. We demonstrate that the storms produced by these interaction regions are generally very weak. Despite this the fluxes of relativistic electrons produced during those storms are the highest seen in the solar cycle. We attribute this to the specific sequence of events produced by the organization of the solar wind relative to the stream interfaces. We also

  10. Influence of SO2-related interactions on PM2.5 formation in iron ore sintering.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiyun; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Yang; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Tao

    2016-11-21

    The formation of PM2.5 (aerosol particulate matters less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in association with SO2 emission during sintering process has been studied by dividing the whole sintering process into 6 typical sampling stages. A low-pressure cascade impactor was used to collect PM2.5 by automatically segregating particulates into 6 sizes. It was found that strong correlation was existed between the emission properties of PM2.5 and SO2. Wet mixture layer (over-wetted layer and raw mixture layer) had the function to simultaneously capture SO2 and PM2.5 during the early sintering stages, and released them back into flue gas mainly in the flue gas temperature-rising period. CaSO4 crystals comprised the main SO2-related PM2.5 during the disappearing process of over-wetted layer, which was able to form perfect individual crystals or to form particles with complex chemical compositions. Besides the existence of individual CaSO4 crystals, mixed crystals of K2SO4-CaSO4 in PM2.5 were also found during the first half of the temperature-rising period of flue gas. The interaction between fine-grained Ca-based fluxes, potassium vapors and SO2 was the potential source of SO2-related PM2.5. IMPLICATION STATEMENTS The emission property of PM2.5 and SO2 throughout the sintering process exhibited well similarity. This phenomenon tightened the relationship between the formation of PM2.5 and the emission of SO2. Through revealing the properties of SO2-related PM2.5 during sintering process, the potential interaction between fine-grained Ca-based fluxes, potassium vapors and SO2 was found to be the source of SO2-related PM2.5. This information can serve as the guidance to develop efficient techniques to control the formation and emission of PM2.5 in practical sintering plants.

  11. Ultraviolet observations of astronomical phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to study various aspects of mass loss in stars of different types. The observational part of the research was directed at three Cepheid variables; the archival part of the research was directed at hot stars (for information on corotating interaction regions) and at cool giants (for study of variability in the mass losing part of the atmosphere).

  12. Collective Phenomena in Macroscopic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, G.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2007-08-01

    for high and low B plasmas / E. Tassi, P. J. Morrison and D. Grasso -- Non locality of collective effects related to dynamical friction in elliptical galaxies / S.E. Arena and G. Bertin -- Evolution of a satellite dragged in by dynamical friction towards the center of a galaxy / S.E. Arena, G. Bertin and T. Liseykina -- Investigation of free decaying turbulence in a trapped pure electron plasma / G. Bettega ... [et al.] -- Structures of charge sheaths and transition layers in ion sources / M. Cavenago -- Generation of plasma perturbations under collisionless interaction of super-Alfvenic flows / G. Dudnikova, T. Liseykina and K. Vshivkov -- Program package for 3D Pic model of plasma fiber / P. Kulhanek and D. Bren -- A Stochastic approach to generalized quantum dynamics with collective long-range forces / A. Lavagno -- Filling of Electrostatic Plasma Lens for Ion-Beam-Focusing by electrons against direction of electric field due to non-linear vortex behavior / V. Maslov -- Thermal barrier formation for plasma electrons and ions in kind of connected solitary dip and hump of electric potential near ECR points in cylindrical trap / V. Maslov ... [et al.] -- Excitation of solitary wake-field by relativistic electron bunch and laser pulse / V. Maslov, A. Egorov and I. Onishchenko -- Enhancement of ion beam charge states by electron vortices in a plasma optical device / V. Maslov, A. Goncharov and I. Brown -- Wake-field mechanism of ion quasi-crystal formation in nonequilibrium dusty plasmas of technological devices / V. Maslov ... [et al.] -- Spiral perturbation in separator for extraction of heavy drops from plasma flow / V. Maslov ... [et al.] -- Fractional relaxation equation from AC universality in disordered solids / A. V. Milovanov, K. Rypdal and J. J. Rasmussen -- Vortices in two-dimensional rotating bose-Einstein condensates / T. Rindler-Daller -- Studying instability of 3D collisionless systems on Stochastic trajectories / V. N. Snytnikov and E. A. Kuksheva

  13. Plasma Waves Related to Solar Wind - Moon Interaction Observed by WFC onboard KAGUYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Y.; Kitaguchi, S.; Kanatani, K.; Goto, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Omura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Nishino, M. N.; Saito, Y.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2010-12-01

    The waveform capture (WFC) [1] is one of the subsystems of the Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) [2,3] on board the KAGUYA spacecraft. The WFC measures two components of electric wave signals detected by the two orthogonal 30 m tip-to-tip antennas from 100Hz to 1MHz. By taking advantage of a moon orbiter, the WFC is expected to measure plasma waves related to solar wind-moon interaction, mini-magnetospheres caused by magnetic anomaly on the lunar surface, and radio emissions to be observed from the moon. Because the moon is basically non-magnetized, the solar wind particles directly hit the lunar surface and a plasma cavity called the “lunar wake” is created behind the moon. Around the terminator of the moon, sudden density decrease derived from local plasma frequency was observed by WFC when the moon was in the solar wind. In addition, because of the difference of thermal speed between ions and electrons, electrons first attempt to refill the cavity, which causes an electric field at the boundary region of the wake and ions are assumed to be accelerated by the DC E-field. The wake boundary, therefore, could be a source region of plasma waves caused by this instability. On the other hand, there are numbers of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface and it was suggested that a kind of mini-magnetosphere might be constructed as a result of interaction between the solar wind and these magnetic anomalies. According to our plasma wave observation, intense wave activities below several kHz were frequently observed over these magnetic anomalies. It was found that the spatial distribution of plasma wave clearly corresponds to the magnetic anomalies, especially around the South Pole Aitken basin, and also depends on the solar wind parameters; intense wave was observed over magnetic anomalies when the solar wind velocity was slow while wave originated from magnetic anomalies was not clearly recognized when the solar wind velocity was high. It was also found that the wave

  14. Nonlinear pulse propagation phenomena in ion-doped dielectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeter, Gabor; Kis, Zsolt; Hohenester, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    We theoretically analyze pulse propagation in a medium of inhomogeneously broadened two-level quantum systems, which have a vibrational degree of freedom with respect to the center-of-mass coordinate. This system mimics local mode oscillations of rare-earth-metal-ion dopants in dielectric crystals that are coupled to electronic transitions. We show the emergence of various nonlinear optical phenomena, such as self-induced transparency or the nonlinear interaction between two pulses coupling to different electrovibrational transitions. Interaction between the pulses makes it possible to generate various Raman sidebands of the incident fields and to tune the location where they are generated. We also demonstrate controlled population transfer between electrovibrational states of the ions at specific points along the propagation axis. Similarities and differences between our results and other pulse propagation phenomena of few-level quantum systems are discussed.

  15. A Photochemical Reactor for the Study of Kinetics and Adsorption Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Gil, M. L. A.; Alcantara, R.; Botella, C.; Martin, J.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between light and matter is examined with the help of a photochemical experiment. This experiment is useful for the investigation of heterogeneous catalysis, semiconductor properties and adsorption phenomena.

  16. S-Matrix Theory of Ultrafast Optical Phenomena in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Alex V.

    1997-08-01

    A formalism for describing optical and transport properties of semiconductors excited by ultrashort laser pulses is presented. In contrast to existing theories, the quantum dynamics is described in terms of appropriately generalized single-particle wavefunctions (S-matrix) instead of the ensemble-averaged observables such as distribution functions. TheS-matrix is an operator that relates Heisenberg second quantization operators at finite times to their values in a vacuum state prior to excitation. The explicit form of theS-matrix is given by a perturbative expansion whose terms contain pairs of creation and annihilation operators. The coefficients of the expansion are found using a specially developed diagram technique for Coulomb systems. The first (c-number) term of this expansion is formed from single-electron wavefunctions in an optically excited noninteracting system. In real space, these wavefunctions are well-defined wavepackets whose properties can be investigated analytically. Linear and nonlinear ultrafast optical phenomena are controlled by overlap between conduction and valence band wavepackets. Specific cases of noninteracting electrons, coherent interactions leading to excitonic effects, and the incoherent scattering in the Born approximation are analysed within theS-matrix approach.

  17. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  18. Anomalous random telegraph noise and temporary phenomena in resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Francesco Maria; Larcher, Luca; Padovani, Andrea; Pavan, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive examination of the characteristics of complex Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) signals in Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices with TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN structure. Initially, the anomalous RTN (aRTN) is investigated through careful systematic experiment, dedicated characterization procedures, and physics-based simulations to gain insights into the physics of this phenomenon. The experimentally observed RTN parameters (amplitude of the current fluctuations, capture and emission times) are analyzed in different operating conditions. Anomalous behaviors are characterized and their statistical characteristics are evaluated. Physics-based simulations considering both the Coulomb interactions among different defects in the device and the possible existence of defects with metastable states are exploited to suggest a possible physical origin of aRTN. The same simulation framework is also shown to be able to predict other temporary phenomena related to RTN, such as the temporary change in RTN stochastic properties or the sudden and iterative random appearing and vanishing of RTN fluctuations always exhibiting the same statistical characteristics. Results highlight the central role of the electrostatic interactions among individual defects and the trapped charge in describing RTN and related phenomena.

  19. Investigation of mesoscale meteorological phenomena as observed by geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite imagery plus conventional synoptic observations were used to examine three mesoscale systems recently observed by the GOES-EAST satellite. The three systems are an arc cloud complex (ACC), mountain lee wave clouds and cloud streets parallel to the wind shear. Possible gravity-wave activity is apparent in all three cases. Of particular interest is the ACC because of its ability to interact with other mesoscale phenomena to produce or enhance convection.

  20. Receptome: Interactions between three pain-related receptors or the "Triumvirate" of cannabinoid, opioid and TRPV1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Zádor, Ferenc; Wollemann, Maria

    2015-12-01

    A growing amount of data demonstrates the interactions between cannabinoid, opioid and the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. These interactions can be bidirectional, inhibitory or excitatory, acute or chronic in their nature, and arise both at the molecular level (structurally and functionally) and in physiological processes, such as pain modulation or perception. The interactions of these three pain-related receptors may also reserve important and new therapeutic applications for the treatment of chronic pain or inflammation. In this review, we summarize the main findings on the interactions between the cannabinoid, opioid and the TRPV1 receptor regarding to pain modulation.

  1. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  2. Beyond a Dichotomic Approach, the Case of Colour Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viennot, L.; de Hosson, C.

    2012-01-01

    This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment concerning colour phenomena. This teaching experiment is designed in order to make students consider not only the spectral composition of light but also its intensity, and to consider the absorption of light by a pigment as relative, instead of as total or zero. Eight…

  3. Radioactive γ/β tracer to explore dangerous technogenic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorsky, P. M.; Yakovleva, V. S.; Makarov, E. O.; Firstov, P. P.; Kondratyeva, A. G.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A radioactive γ/β tracer to explore dangerous technogenic phenomena has been proposed: the ratio of the measured flux density of β- and γ-radiations in the surface layer of the atmosphere. The time dependence analysis of the ratio of β- and γ-pulse count rate has been carried out. A significant increase of the γ/β ratio was recorded under the cyclone passing through Japan (Fukushima) to Kamchatka. The proposed γ/β tracer can be a very sensitive indicator of nonstationary processes related to hazardous natural and technogenic phenomena.

  4. RELAP5-3D code validation for RBMK phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  5. RELAP5-3D Code Validation for RBMK Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, James Ebberly

    1999-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena.

  6. Effects of computer-assisted instruction on selected interaction skills related to responsible sexuality.

    PubMed

    Kann, L K

    1987-09-01

    This study examined effects of computer-assisted instruction on decision-making, assertiveness, and interpersonal communication related to responsible sexuality. Health science classes from four secondary schools in three midwestern states participated in the quasi-experimental study. The Experimental Group (n = 151) received simulation-based CAI, while Control Group #1 (n = 147) received regular classroom instruction, and Control Group #2 (n = 93) received no intervention. A 46-item questionnaire was administered to determine changes in the dependent variables. Findings indicated CAI, but not RCI, effectively improved decision-making knowledge and behavior, assertiveness knowledge and behavior, and interpersonal communication knowledge, attitude, and behavior. However, CAI did not improve assertiveness attitude. Over a five-week period, the effectiveness of CAI decayed for the knowledge variables. The effectiveness of CAI varied according to subject's gender, grade, and school-community setting. Results suggest simulation-based CAI provides an instructional approach that promotes positive change in some interaction skills related to responsible sexuality without many of the risks inherent in regular classroom instruction involving such sensitive topics.

  7. Ultrashort Phenomena in Biochemistry and Biological Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splinter, Robert

    2014-11-01

    In biological phenomena there are indications that within the long pulse-length of the action potential on millisecond scale, there is additional ultrashort perturbation encoding that provides the brain with detailed information about the origin (location) and physiological characteristics. The objective is to identify the mechanism-of-action providing the potential for encoding in biological signal propagation. The actual molecular processes involved in the initiation of the action potential have been identified to be in the femtosecond and pico-second scale. The depolarization process of the cellular membrane itself, leading to the onset of the actionpotential that is transmitted to the brain, however is in the millisecond timeframe. One example of the femtosecond chemical interaction is the photoresponse of bacteriorhodopsin. No clear indication for the spatial encoding has so far been verified. Further research will be required on a cellular signal analysis level to confirm or deny the spatial and physiological encoding in the signal wave-trains of intercellular communications and sensory stimuli. The pathological encoding process for cardiac depolarization is however very pronounced and validated, however this electro-chemical process is in the millisecond amplitude and frequency modulation spectrum.

  8. Crisis phenomena after stroke reflected in an existential perspective.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, I; Jansson, L; Norberg, A

    1999-01-01

    The study gains a deeper understanding of crisis phenomena emerging after stroke and focuses on these phenomena viewed in an existential perspective. Ten stroke victims narrated their experiences of their new life situation in open-ended interviews, conducted during the first few months after discharge. The participants were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. This analysis disclosed an extremely distressing situation related to the individuals' struggle to manage in various dimensions of life. The phenomena were intertwined in a complex way and the critical interpretation involved a transcendence to the existential dimension of life. The situation was metaphorically depicted as "a struggle in the darkness" in a "boundary situation," where the issues ultimately touched on life and death, fate and future, meaning and meaninglessness. The study indicates the significance of existential issues pervading the seemingly concrete struggle to manage life after stroke.

  9. Solar Wind Interaction with Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Relation to Albedo Swirls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Harrison, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hood, L. L.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer onboard Lunar Prospector has observed the solar wind interaction with remanent crustal magnetic fields at altitudes from 20 to 120 km. This interaction may be responsible for the formation of albedo swirls.

  10. Taiwanese members' report of verbal interactions and their relations to demographic variables in the group counseling process.

    PubMed

    Pan, Peter Jen Der; Deng, Liang-Yu F; Tsai, Shiou-Ling; Chang, Shona S H

    2011-06-01

    The purpose was to examine differences in verbal interactions during the group counseling process and the relationship between perceived verbal interactions and members' demographic variables. 42 participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of four counseling groups. Based on the Hill Interaction Matrix, Quadrant 4 verbal interactions, consisting of Speculative and Confrontative verbal behaviors in Personal and Relationship levels, were perceived significantly more often at the closing stage than at the initial stage. Furthermore, the perceived verbal interactions were related to the demographic variables of sex, educational level, and group experience, but not acquaintanceship. The findings suggested that the higher ratings of perceived Speculative and Confrontative verbal behaviors and the lower ratings of Assertive and Silence verbal interactions must be interpreted cautiously from a cross-cultural perspective, especially in Asian cultures.

  11. Relative importance and interactions of furan precursors in sterilised, vegetable-based food systems.

    PubMed

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Buvé, Carolien; Vanratingen, Koen; Kebede, Biniam T; Goos, Peter; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation strategies aimed at an intervention in the reaction pathways for furan formation (e.g., by adjusting precursor concentrations) might offer an additional route for furan reduction in sterilised, vegetable-based foods, without adverse effects on other food safety or quality attributes. As a first step towards product reformulation, the aim of the present study was to determine the relative importance and interactions of possible furan precursors in these types of foods. Based on an I-optimal experimental design, potato purée (naturally low in furan precursors) was spiked with known amounts of sugars, ascorbic acid, olive oil and β-carotene, and subjected to a thermal sterilisation. Significant correlations were observed between furan concentrations after thermal treatment and starting concentrations of ascorbic acid and monosaccharides (i.e., fructose and glucose). Ascorbic acid had a clear furan-reducing effect as an antioxidant by protecting (polyunsaturated) fatty acids against oxidative degradation. Fructose and glucose were the main precursors, which can most probably be attributed to their high, but realistic, concentrations in the product. The contributions of fatty acids and β-carotene were strongly dependent on redox interactions with other food constituents. In the same potato purées, only low concentrations (0-2 ng g(-1) purée) of 2-methylfuran were detected, indicating that the direct importance of the spiked food constituents as a precursor for methylfuran formation was rather small. Based on the results of this study, reducing the amount of monosaccharides or adjusting the redox conditions of the matrix are suggested as two possible approaches for furan mitigation on the product side.

  12. Diacetyl and related flavorant α-Diketones: Biotransformation, cellular interactions, and respiratory-tract toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anders, M W

    2017-02-05

    Exposure to diacetyl and related α-diketones causes respiratory-tract damage in humans and experimental animals. Chemical toxicity is often associated with covalent modification of cellular nucleophiles by electrophilic chemicals. Electrophilic α-diketones may covalently modify nucleophilic arginine residues in critical proteins and, thereby, produce the observed respiratory-tract pathology. The major pathway for the biotransformation of α-diketones is reduction to α-hydroxyketones (acyloins), which is catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamilies. Reduction of α-diketones to the less electrophilic acyloins is a detoxication pathway for α-diketones. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex may play a significant role in the biotransformation of diacetyl to CO2. The interaction of toxic electrophilic chemicals with cellular nucleophiles can be predicted by the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) principle. Application of the HSAB principle to the interactions of electrophilic α-diketones with cellular nucleophiles shows that α-diketones react preferentially with arginine residues. Furthermore, the respiratory-tract toxicity and the quantum-chemical reactivity parameters of diacetyl and replacement flavorant α-diketones are similar. Hence, the identified replacement flavorant α-diketones may pose a risk of flavorant-induced respiratory-tract toxicity. The calculated indices for the reaction of α-diketones with arginine support the hypothesis that modification of protein-bound arginine residues is a critical event in α-diketone-induced respiratory-tract toxicity.

  13. Understanding the Physics of changing mass phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermeijer, A. L.

    2008-05-01

    Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee jumper. These phenomena are also interesting as topics for challenging student projects, and used as such by Dutch high school students. I will take these phenomena as the context in which I like to demonstrate the possibilities of ICT in the learning process of physics. Especially dynamical modeling enables us to describe these phenomena in an elegant way and with knowledge of high school mathematics. Furthermore tools for video-analysis and data from measurements with sensors allow us to study the phenomena in experiments. This example demonstrates the level of implementation of ICT in Physics Education in The Netherlands [1].

  14. The phenomena of Pine's "four psychologies": their contrast and interplay as exhibited in the Beatles' "white album".

    PubMed

    Brog, M A

    1995-01-01

    Psychoanalytically informed clinicians are frequently challenged with recognizing and integrating into their work the diverse phenomena central to differing psychoanalytic theoretical frameworks. In addressing this dilemma, Pine has formulated a "multiple model" that recognizes the qualitatively different psychological phenomena and the distinct motivational forces emphasized by what he calls "the four psychologies of psychoanalysis," the psychologies of drive, ego, object relations and self. This model makes it possible to describe individual personality organizations in terms of psychological hierarchies of the phenomena of the four psychologies. Use of this model promotes a particular kind of listening stance that facilitates recognition and use of a wide variety of clinical data. The usefulness of this model is demonstrated through its application to a creative work, the Beatles' "White Album." This application shows the utility of Pine's psychological hierarchies in describing differing personality organizations, the "multiple functions" mental events can represent through serving the motives of multiple psychologies, and the frequent interactions that occur between the differing psychological phenomena. Pine's model facilitates a recognition that an important quality found in works by the Beatles is their demonstration in strikingly clear form, of the qualitatively different aspects of human experience emphasized by the four psychologies. The accessibility of Beatles music makes it a potentially valuable teaching tool for demonstrating Pine's model.

  15. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  16. Parents' psychological well-being and parental self-efficacy in relation to the family's triadic interaction.

    PubMed

    Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy Scaiola, Chloé; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Junttila, Niina; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether a parent's psychological well-being and/or self-efficacy relate to interaction within the family. This study is part of a Finnish follow-up study called Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-Being of Children (STEPS;). The study group included 120 families. Mother's and father's social anxiety and depression were assessed during pregnancy and at 18 months of the child's age using self-report questionnaires; the mother's and father's self-efficacy were assessed at 18 months using a parental self-efficacy scale validated within the STEPS study. Mother-father-child triadic interaction was studied at 18 months within a Lausanne Triadic Play setting. Results showed that maternal symptoms of depression during pregnancy and maternal social anxiety at 18 months were related to triadic interaction within the family. There was no relation between father's psychological well-being and triadic interaction within the family. Father's self-efficacy in teaching tasks and the Mother's self-efficacy in emotional support were associated with family interaction. The findings suggest that maternal psychological well-being and self-efficacy in emotional support may be important components of family triadic interaction whereas paternal self-efficacy in teaching tasks seems to support family coordination in triadic interaction.

  17. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  18. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.

  19. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related is required for accurate congression and segregation of chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Joo

    2010-12-01

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1r) is known to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which occurs continuously in non-dividing cells. This study reports a new function for HIP1r in mitosis. Green fluorescent protein-fused HIP1r localizes to the mitotic spindles. Depletion of HIP1r by RNA interference induces misalignment of chromosomes and prolonged mitosis, which is associated with decreased proliferation of HIP1r-deficeint cells. Chromosome misalignment leads to missegregation and ultimately production of multinucleated cells. Depletion of HIP1r causes persistent activation of the spindle checkpoint in misaligned chromosomes. These findings suggest that HIP1r plays an important role in regulating the attachment of spindle microtubules to chromosomes during mitosis, an event that is required for accurate congression and segregation of chromosomes. This finding may provide new insights that improve the understanding of various human diseases involving HIP1r as well as its fusion genes.

  20. Adaptation of hybrid human-computer interaction systems using EEG error-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Biasiucci, Andrea; Forster, Killian; Roggen, Daniel; Troster, Gerhard; Millan, Jose Del R

    2010-01-01

    Performance improvement in both humans and artificial systems strongly relies in the ability of recognizing erroneous behavior or decisions. This paper, that builds upon previous studies on EEG error-related signals, presents a hybrid approach for human computer interaction that uses human gestures to send commands to a computer and exploits brain activity to provide implicit feedback about the recognition of such commands. Using a simple computer game as a case study, we show that EEG activity evoked by erroneous gesture recognition can be classified in single trials above random levels. Automatic artifact rejection techniques are used, taking into account that subjects are allowed to move during the experiment. Moreover, we present a simple adaptation mechanism that uses the EEG signal to label newly acquired samples and can be used to re-calibrate the gesture recognition system in a supervised manner. Offline analysis show that, although the achieved EEG decoding accuracy is far from being perfect, these signals convey sufficient information to significantly improve the overall system performance.

  1. Relative electron density determination using a physics based parameterization of photon interactions in medical DECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Abbema, Joanne K.; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Brandenburg, Sytze; van der Graaf, Emiel R.

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy and particle therapy treatment planning require accurate knowledge of the electron density and elemental composition of the tissues in the beam path to predict the local dose deposition. We describe a method for the analysis of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images that provides the electron densities and effective atomic numbers of tissues. The CT measurement process is modelled by system weighting functions, which apply an energy dependent weighting to the parameterization of the total cross section for photon interactions with matter. This detailed parameterization is based on the theoretical analysis of Jackson and Hawkes and deviates, at most, 0.3% from the tabulated NIST values for the elements H to Zn. To account for beam hardening in the object as present in the CT image we implemented an iterative process employing a local weighting function, derived from the method proposed by Heismann and Balda. With this method effective atomic numbers between 1 and 30 can be determined. The method has been experimentally validated on a commercially available tissue characterization phantom with 16 inserts made of tissue substitutes and aluminium that has been scanned on a dual source CT system with tube potentials of 100 kV and 140 kV using a clinical scan protocol. Relative electron densities of all tissue substitutes have been determined with accuracy better than 1%. The presented DECT analysis method thus provides high accuracy electron densities and effective atomic numbers for radiotherapy and especially particle therapy treatment planning.

  2. Covariant Evolutionary Event Analysis for Base Interaction Prediction Using a Relational Database Management System for RNA

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weijia; Ozer, Stuart; Gutell, Robin R.

    2010-01-01

    With an increasingly large amount of sequences properly aligned, comparative sequence analysis can accurately identify not only common structures formed by standard base pairing but also new types of structural elements and constraints. However, traditional methods are too computationally expensive to perform well on large scale alignment and less effective with the sequences from diversified phylogenetic classifications. We propose a new approach that utilizes coevolutional rates among pairs of nucleotide positions using phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships of the organisms of aligned sequences. With a novel data schema to manage relevant information within a relational database, our method, implemented with a Microsoft SQL Server 2005, showed 90% sensitivity in identifying base pair interactions among 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from Bacteria, at a scale 40 times bigger and 50% better sensitivity than a previous study. The results also indicated covariation signals for a few sets of cross-strand base stacking pairs in secondary structure helices, and other subtle constraints in the RNA structure. PMID:20502534

  3. Relative electron density determination using a physics based parameterization of photon interactions in medical DECT.

    PubMed

    van Abbema, Joanne K; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Greuter, Marcel J W; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Brandenburg, Sytze; van der Graaf, Emiel R

    2015-05-07

    Radiotherapy and particle therapy treatment planning require accurate knowledge of the electron density and elemental composition of the tissues in the beam path to predict the local dose deposition. We describe a method for the analysis of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images that provides the electron densities and effective atomic numbers of tissues. The CT measurement process is modelled by system weighting functions, which apply an energy dependent weighting to the parameterization of the total cross section for photon interactions with matter. This detailed parameterization is based on the theoretical analysis of Jackson and Hawkes and deviates, at most, 0.3% from the tabulated NIST values for the elements H to Zn. To account for beam hardening in the object as present in the CT image we implemented an iterative process employing a local weighting function, derived from the method proposed by Heismann and Balda. With this method effective atomic numbers between 1 and 30 can be determined. The method has been experimentally validated on a commercially available tissue characterization phantom with 16 inserts made of tissue substitutes and aluminium that has been scanned on a dual source CT system with tube potentials of 100 kV and 140 kV using a clinical scan protocol. Relative electron densities of all tissue substitutes have been determined with accuracy better than 1%. The presented DECT analysis method thus provides high accuracy electron densities and effective atomic numbers for radiotherapy and especially particle therapy treatment planning.

  4. Hyperplasia-adenoma sequence in pituitary tumorigenesis related to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Lagonigro, Maria Stefania; Magri, Flavia; Koziak, Maria; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Brauner, Raja; Bouligand, Jerome; Junier, Marie Pierre; Di Rocco, Federico; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Beckers, Albert; Roux, François Xavier; Daly, Adrian F; Chiovato, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenomas that usually occur as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Detailed pathological and tumor genetic data on AIP mutation-related pituitary adenomas are not sufficient. Non-identical twin females presented as adolescents to the emergency department with severe progressive headache caused by large pituitary macroadenomas require emergency neurosurgery; one patient had incipient pituitary apoplexy. Post-surgically, the patients were found to have silent somatotrope adenomas on pathological examination. Furthermore, the light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies demonstrated tumors of virtually identical characteristics. The adenomas were accompanied by multiple areas of pituitary hyperplasia, which stained positively for GH, indicating somatotrope hyperplasia. Genetic analyses of the FIPA kindred revealed a novel E216X mutation of the AIP gene, which was present in both the affected patients and the unaffected father. Molecular analysis of surgical specimens revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the adenoma but showed that LOH was not present in the hyperplastic pituitary tissue from either patient. AIP immunostaining confirmed normal staining in the hyperplastic tissue and decreased staining in the adenoma in the tumors from both patients. These results demonstrate that patients with AIP germline mutation can present with silent somatotrope pituitary adenomas. The finding of somatotrope hyperplasia unaccompanied by AIP LOH suggests that LOH at the AIP locus might be a late event in a potential progression from hyperplastic to adenomatous tissue.

  5. Structure-function relations of strigolactone analogs: activity as plant hormones and plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Maja; Prandi, Cristina; Occhiato, Ernesto G; Tabasso, Silvia; Wininger, Smadar; Resnick, Nathalie; Steinberger, Yosef; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) have several functions as signaling molecules in their interactions with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic weeds Orobanche and Striga. SLs are also a new class of plant hormone regulating plant development. In all three organisms, a specific and sensitive receptor-mediated perception system is suggested. By comparing the activity of synthetic SL analogs on Arabidopsis root-hair elongation, Orobanche aegyptiaca seed germination, and hyphal branching of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices, we found that each of the tested organisms differs in its response to the various examined synthetic SL analogs. Structure-function relations of the SL analogs suggest substitutions on the A-ring as the cause of this variation. Moreover, the description of competitive antagonistic analogs suggests that the A-ring of SL can affect not only affinity to the receptor, but also the molecule's ability to activate it. The results support the conclusion that Arabidopsis, Orobanche, and AM fungi possess variations in receptor sensitivity to SL analogs, probably due to variation in SL receptors among the different species.

  6. On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, R.G.; Dunne, B.J.

    1986-08-01

    Theoretical explication of a growing body of empirical data on consciousness-related anomalous phenomena is unlikely to be achieved in terms of known physical processes. Rather, it will first be necessary to formulate the basic role of consciousness in the definition of reality before such anomalous experience can adequately be represented. This paper takes the position that reality is constituted only in the interaction of consciousness with its environment, and therefore that any scheme of conceptual organization developed to represent that reality must reflect the processes of consciousness as well as those of its environment. In this spirit, the concepts and formalisms of elementary quantum mechanics, as originally proposed to explain anomalous atomic-scale physical phenomena, are appropriated via metaphor to represent the general characteristics of consciousness interacting with any environment. More specifically, if consciousness is represented by a quantum mechanical wave function, and its environment by an appropriate potential profile, Schrodinger wave mechanics defines eigenfunctions and eigenvalues that can be associated with the cognitive and emotional experiences of that consciousness in that environment. To articulate this metaphor it is necessary to associate certain aspects of the formalism, such as the coordinate system, the quantum numbers, and even the metric itself, with various impressionistic descriptors of consciousness, such as its intensity, perspective, approach/avoidance attitude, balance between cognitive and emotional activity, and receptive/assertive disposition.

  7. Interaction of electromagnetic energy with biological material — relation to food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponne, Carina T.; Bartels, Paul V.

    1995-04-01

    For food scientists and technologists, the interaction of electromagnetic energy with enzymes, microorganisms and other food compounds is important in optimizing process efficiency and/or product quality. To be able to implement research findings on interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter, theories and experimental data from various disciplines are summarized and placed in a food processing context. Interaction of electromagnetic energy with an object can take place at microscopic and macroscopic levels. Energy penetration and the formation of (inhomogeneous) temperature profiles in the object as a whole have to be taken into account before interaction at cellular and molecular levels can be studied.

  8. Interaction of nanoparticles with proteins: relation to bio-reactivity of the nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Saptarshi, Shruti R; Duschl, Albert; Lopata, Andreas L

    2013-07-19

    Interaction of nanoparticles with proteins is the basis of nanoparticle bio-reactivity. This interaction gives rise to the formation of a dynamic nanoparticle-protein corona. The protein corona may influence cellular uptake, inflammation, accumulation, degradation and clearance of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the nanoparticle surface can induce conformational changes in adsorbed protein molecules which may affect the overall bio-reactivity of the nanoparticle. In depth understanding of such interactions can be directed towards generating bio-compatible nanomaterials with controlled surface characteristics in a biological environment. The main aim of this review is to summarise current knowledge on factors that influence nanoparticle-protein interactions and their implications on cellular uptake.

  9. Relating a Jet-Surface Interaction Experiment to a Commercial Supersonic Transport Aircraft Using Numerical Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance F. III; Friedlander, David

    2017-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed for a commercial supersonic transport aircraft concept and experimental hardware models designed to represent the installed propulsion system of the conceptual aircraft in an upcoming test campaign. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the effects of jet-surface interactions from supersonic aircraft on airport community noise. RANS simulations of the commercial supersonic transport aircraft concept were performed to relate the representative experimental hardware to the actual aircraft. RANS screening simulations were performed on the proposed test hardware to verify that it would be free from potential rig noise and to predict the aerodynamic forces on the model hardware to assist with structural design. The simulations showed a large region of separated flow formed in a junction region of one of the experimental configurations. This was dissimilar with simulations of the aircraft and could invalidate the noise measurements. This configuration was modified and a subsequent RANS simulation showed that the size of the flow separation was greatly reduced. The aerodynamic forces found on the experimental models were found to be relatively small when compared to the expected loads from the model’s own weight.Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were completed for two configurations of a three-stream inverted velocity profile (IVP) nozzle and a baseline single-stream round nozzle (mixed-flow equivalent conditions). For the Sideline and Cutback flow conditions, while the IVP nozzles did not reduce the peak turbulent kinetic energy on the lower side of the jet plume, the IVP nozzles did significantly reduce the size of the region of peak turbulent kinetic energy when compared to the jet plume of the baseline nozzle cases. The IVP nozzle at Sideline conditions did suffer a region of separated flow from the inner stream nozzle splitter that did produce an intense, but small, region of

  10. PSYCHOSOCIAL PHENOMENA AND BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IZUMI, KIYOSHI

    THE DEPTH OF PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSIDERATION VARIES WITH ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTION. THESE FACTORS INCREASE AS A BUILDING USAGE BECOMES MORE ANTHROPOPHILIC. SITUATIONS RELATING TO AMBIGUOUS DESIGN MUST BE ELIMINATED IN BUILDING DESIGN. PROBLEMS INVOLVING VISUAL PERCEPTION SUCH AS (1) GLASS DOORS, (2) APPARENT INSECURITY OF STRUCTURE, (3) AMBIGUOUS SYMBOLIC…

  11. Interaction of zinc oxide clusters with molecules related to the sulfur vulcanization of polyolefins ("rubber").

    PubMed

    Steudel, Ralf; Steudel, Yana

    2006-11-15

    The vulcanization of rubber by sulfur is a large-scale industrial process that is only poorly understood, especially the role of zinc oxide, which is added as an activator. We used the highly symmetrical cluster Zn(4)O(4) (T(d)) as a model species to study the thermodynamics of the initial interaction of various vulcanization-related molecules with ZnO by DFT methods, mostly at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level. The interaction energy of Lewis bases with Zn(4)O(4) increases in the following order: COCSSH.

  12. Preface: cardiac control pathways: signaling and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Sideman, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular functions and coordinates cellular activity. Transfer of ions and signaling molecules and their interactions with appropriate receptors, transmembrane transport, and the consequent intracellular interactions and functional cellular response represent a complex system of interwoven phenomena of transport, signaling, conformational changes, chemical activation, and/or genetic expression. The well-being of the cell thus depends on a harmonic orchestration of all these events and the existence of control mechanisms that assure the normal behavior of the various parameters involved and their orderly expression. The ability of cells to sustain life by perceiving and responding correctly to their microenvironment is the basis for development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Natural deviations, or human-induced interference in the signaling pathways and/or inter- and intracellular transport and information transfer, are responsible for the generation, modulation, and control of diseases. The present overview aims to highlight some major topics of the highly complex cellular information transfer processes and their control mechanisms. Our goal is to contribute to the understanding of the normal and pathophysiological phenomena associated with cardiac functions so that more efficient therapeutic modalities can be developed. Our objective in this volume is to identify and enhance the study of some basic passive and active physical and chemical transport phenomena, physiological signaling pathways, and their biological consequences.

  13. Prediction of Disease-Related Interactions between MicroRNAs and Environmental Factors Based on a Semi-Supervised Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing; Liu, Ming-Xi; Cui, Qing-Hua; Yan, Gui-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) can functionally interact with a number of environmental factors (EFs) and their interactions critically affect phenotypes and diseases. Therefore, in-silico inference of disease-related miRNA-EF interactions is becoming crucial not only for the understanding of the mechanisms by which miRNAs and EFs contribute to disease, but also for disease diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In this paper, we analyzed the human miRNA-EF interaction data and revealed that miRNAs (EFs) with similar functions tend to interact with similar EFs (miRNAs) in the context of a given disease, which suggests a potential way to expand the current relation space of miRNAs, EFs, and diseases. Based on this observation, we further proposed a semi-supervised classifier based method (miREFScan) to predict novel disease-related interactions between miRNAs and EFs. As a result, the leave-one-out cross validation has shown that miREFScan obtained an AUC of 0.9564, indicating that miREFScan has a reliable performance. Moreover, we applied miREFScan to predict acute promyelocytic leukemia-related miRNA-EF interactions. The result shows that forty-nine of the top 1% predictions have been confirmed by experimental literature. In addition, using miREFScan we predicted and publicly released novel miRNA-EF interactions for 97 human diseases. Finally, we believe that miREFScan would be a useful bioinformatic resource for the research about the relationships among miRNAs, EFs, and human diseases. PMID:22937049

  14. [Power relations in mother-child interactions in neurodermatitis constitutionalis atopica (atopic dermatitis)].

    PubMed

    Prochazka, P; von Uslar, A

    1989-10-15

    Considering the different types of mothers under the aspect of distribution of power in the relationship between mother and child, we find the dominating form of upbringing mainly during the postwar years. This form comprises both the authoritative and the over-protective ways of bringing up. As a reaction, we now observe an excessive increase of the submissive type of mothers tending to compliant education: With the help of a free upbringing, they want to make their children capable of expressing their feelings freely. As these children are not told their personal limits, they become unadaptable to their social environment and develop a thirst of power. These phenomena are increasingly observed among children with atopic dermatitis.

  15. Structural Basis for Small G Protein Effector Interaction of Ras-related Protein 1 (Rap1) and Adaptor Protein Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rong; Draheim, Kyle M.; Liu, Weizhi; Calderwood, David A.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2012-09-17

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) affect 0.1-0.5% of the population resulting in leaky vasculature and severe neurological defects. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped-1) mutations associate with {approx}40% of familial CCMs. KRIT1 is an effector of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) GTPase. Rap1 relocalizes KRIT1 from microtubules to cell membranes to impact integrin activation, potentially important for CCM pathology. We report the 1.95 {angstrom} co-crystal structure of KRIT1 FERM domain in complex with Rap1. Rap1-KRIT1 interaction encompasses an extended surface, including Rap1 Switch I and II and KRIT1 FERM F1 and F2 lobes. Rap1 binds KRIT1-F1 lobe using a GTPase-ubiquitin-like fold interaction but binds KRIT1-F2 lobe by a novel interaction. Point mutagenesis confirms the interaction. High similarity between KRIT1-F2/F3 and talin is revealed. Additionally, the mechanism for FERM domains acting as GTPase effectors is suggested. Finally, structure-based alignment of each lobe suggests classification of FERM domains as ERM-like and TMFK-like (talin-myosin-FAK-KRIT-like) and that FERM lobes resemble domain 'modules.'

  16. Stochastic roots of growth phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.; Giorno, V.

    2014-05-01

    We show that the Gompertz equation describes the evolution in time of the median of a geometric stochastic process. Therefore, we induce that the process itself generates the growth. This result allows us further to exploit a stochastic variational principle to take account of self-regulation of growth through feedback of relative density variations. The conceptually well defined framework so introduced shows its usefulness by suggesting a form of control of growth by exploiting external actions.

  17. Interactions Quality in Moodle as Perceived by Learners and Its Relation with Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify learners' perceptions of the quality of interaction in Moodle and investigate the effects of gender, grade point average (GPA), individualized learning experiences and their experiences in using Moodle factors in perceiving the quality of interaction. A questionnaire was used to collect data after being…

  18. Research on Teachers' Characteristics in Relation to a Cognitive-Learning Based Interactive Videodisc System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Martha B.; Cambre, Marjorie A.

    This pilot study explored teacher characteristics as they influenced the use of "Exploring Nepal," a cognitive learning-based interactive video system for middle school students. Specifically, the study sought to narrow down a variety of teacher characteristics that may influence the quality of their interaction with the videodisk. The…

  19. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteins interacting with LASP-1 and their association with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fan-Yun; Zhu, Ting; Li, Nan; Cai, Yun-Fei; Zhou, Kai; Wei, Xiao; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2017-01-01

    LIM and SH3 domain protein (LASP-1) is responsible for the development of several types of human cancers via the interaction with other proteins; however, the precise biological functions of proteins interacting with LASP-1 are not fully clarified. Although the role of LASP-1 in hepatocarcinogenesis has been reported, the implication of LASP-1 interactors in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clearly evaluated. We obtained information regarding LASP-1 interactors from public databases and published studies. Via bioinformatics analysis, we found that LASP-1 interactors were related to distinct molecular functions and associated with various biological processes. Through an integrated network analysis of the interaction and pathways of LASP-1 interactors, cross-talk between different proteins and associated pathways was found. In addition, LASP-1 and several its interactors are significantly altered in HBV-related HCC through microarray analysis and could form a complex co-expression network. In the disease, LASP-1 and its interactors were further predicted to be regulated by a complex interaction network composed of different transcription factors. Besides, numerous LASP-1 interactors were associated with various clinical factors and related to the survival and recurrence of HBV-related HCC. Taken together, these results could help enrich our understanding of LASP-1 interactors and their relationships with HBV-related HCC. PMID:28266596

  20. A Brief Survey of Activity Phenomena in Cosmic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    An attempt is done to unify the variety of physical active phenomena observed in various cosmic objects belonging to the all hierarchical levels. The dark energy carrier is suggested to interact with the baryonic matter and provide the activity energy through the injection from "the main reservoir". The concept that the Hubble flow is not possible for non-cosmological shorter scales where the baryonic objects are believed to be gravitationally bound is considered in a few words to show that it is a simple extrapolation of the a priori hypothesis on the formation of cosmic objects. Some observational facts are pointed to show that expansion phenomena at shorter scales could be explained using the Hubble law only. The physical consequences of dark energy exchange with the atomic nuclei and "gravitationally bound" objects are considered.

  1. Phenomena associated with magma expansion into a drift

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, E. S.

    2002-01-01

    One of the significant threats to the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository has been identified as the possibility of intersection of the underground structure by a basaltic intrusion. Based on the geology of the region, it is assumed that such an intrusion would consist of an alkali basalt similar to the nearby Lathrop Wells cone, which has been dated at about 78 ka. The threat of radioactive release may be either from eruption through the surface above the repository of basalt that had been contaminated or from migration through ground water of radionucleides released as a result of damage to waste packages that interact with the magma. As part of our study of these threats, we are analyzing the phenomena associated with magma expansion into drifts in tuff. The early phenomena of the encounter of volatile-rich basaltic magma with a drift are discussed here.

  2. Expert- Demonstrating Reentry Aerothermodinamics Phenomena From A System Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massobrio, F.; Passarelli, G.; Gavira-Izquierdo, J.; Ratti, F.

    2011-05-01

    EXPERT is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to provide the scientific community with quality data on critical aero-thermodynamic phenomena encountered during hypersonic flights as well as to provide industry with system experience of re-entry vehicle manufacturing and development of hypersonic instrumentation. EXPERT is equipped with 14 experiments provided by several scientific institutions all around Europe. The experiments address major aerothermodinamics phenomena: TPS material characterization, surface catalysis and oxidation, plasma spectroscopy, laminar to turbulent transition, flow separation and reattachment, shock-boundary layer interactions, base flow characteristic and aerodynamic characterization of flap control surfaces. The paper focus on the status of the EXPERT project: the design activities and the on going manufacturing, the main challenges and the expected flight data results. EXPERT will benefit future atmospheric re- entry activities ranging from cargo to human orbital transportation systems as well as re-usable launchers and scientific probes.

  3. Protein Crystallization: Specific Phenomena and General Insights on Crystallization Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, F.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental and simulation studies of the nucleation and growth kinetics of proteins have revealed phenomena that are specific for macromolecular crystallization, and others that provide a more detailed understanding of solution crystallization in general. The more specific phenomena, which include metastable liquid-liquid phase separations and gelation prior to solid nucleation, are due to the small ratio of the intermolecular interaction-range to the size of molecules involved. The apparently more generally applicable mechanisms include the cascade-like formation of macrosteps, as an intrinsic morphological instability that roots in the coupled bulk transport and nonlinear interface kinetics in systems with mixed growth rate control. Analyses of this nonlinear response provide (a) criteria for the choice of bulk transport conditions to minimize structural defect formation, and (b) indications that the "slow" protein crystallization kinetics stems from the mutual retardation of growth steps.

  4. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena is hindered by the difficulties of devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system, and determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-yr cycle, and meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, an 11-yr variation, or a 22-yr variation.

  5. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena has to date foundered on the two difficulties of (1) devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system; and (2) determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-year cycle, while meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, or an 11-year variation, or a 22-year variation.

  6. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  7. Analysis of nuclear reactor instability phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The phenomena known as density-wave instability often occurs in phase change systems, such as boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRS). Our current understanding of density-wave oscillations is in fairly good shape for linear phenomena (eg, the onset of instabilities) but is not very advanced for non-linear phenomena [Lahey and Podowski, 1989]. In particular, limit cycle and chaotic instability modes are not well understood in boiling systems such as current and advanced generation BWRs (eg, SBWR). In particular, the SBWR relies on natural circulation and is thus inherently prone to problems with density-wave instabilities. The purpose of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of nonlinear nuclear-coupled density-wave instability phenomena in BWRS. This research builds on the work of Achard et al [1985] and Clausse et al [1991] who showed, respectively, that Hopf bifurcations and chaotic oscillations may occur in boiling systems.

  8. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    SciTech Connect

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site.

  9. Understanding the interaction between psychosocial stress and immune-related diseases: a stepwise progression.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2007-11-01

    For many years, anecdotal evidence and clinical observations have suggested that exposure to psychosocial stress can affect disease outcomes in immune-related disorders such as viral infections, chronic autoimmune diseases and tumors. Experimental evidence in humans supporting these observations was, however, lacking. Studies published in the last 2 decades in Brain, Behavior and Immunity and other journals have demonstrated that acute and chronic psychological stress can induce pronounced changes in innate and adaptive immune responses and that these changes are predominantly mediated via neuroendocrine mediators from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal axis. In addition, psychological stress has predicted disease outcomes using sophisticated models such as viral challenge, response to vaccination, tracking of herpesvirus latency, exploration of tumor metastasis and healing of experimental wounds, as well as epidemiological investigations of disease progression and mortality. These studies have contributed significantly to our understanding that the neuroendocrine-immune interaction is disturbed in many pathophysiological conditions, that stress can contribute to this disturbance, and that malfunction in these communication pathways can play a significant role in the progression of disease processes. There are, however, significant gaps in the extant literature. In the coming decade(s), it will be essential to further analyze neuroendocrine-immune communication during disease states and to define the specific pathways linking the central nervous system to the molecular events that control important disease-relevant processes. This knowledge will provide the basis for new therapeutic pharmacological and non-pharmacological behavioral approaches to the treatment of chronic diseases via specific modulation of nervous system-immune system communication.

  10. Cysteine-rich domains related to Frizzled receptors and Hedgehog-interacting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-01-01

    Frizzled and Smoothened are homologous seven-transmembrane proteins functioning in the Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways, respectively. They harbor an extracellular cysteine-rich domain (FZ-CRD), a mobile evolutionary unit that has been found in a number of other metazoan proteins and Frizzled-like proteins in Dictyostelium. Domains distantly related to FZ-CRDs, in Hedgehog-interacting proteins (HHIPs), folate receptors and riboflavin-binding proteins (FRBPs), and Niemann-Pick Type C1 proteins (NPC1s), referred to as HFN-CRDs, exhibit similar structures and disulfide connectivity patterns compared with FZ-CRDs. We used computational analyses to expand the homologous set of FZ-CRDs and HFN-CRDs, providing a better understanding of their evolution and classification. First, FZ-CRD-containing proteins with various domain compositions were identified in several major eukaryotic lineages including plants and Chromalveolata, revealing a wider phylogenetic distribution of FZ-CRDs than previously recognized. Second, two new and distinct groups of highly divergent FZ-CRDs were found by sensitive similarity searches. One of them is present in the calcium channel component Mid1 in fungi and the uncharacterized FAM155 proteins in metazoans. Members of the other new FZ-CRD group occur in the metazoan-specific RECK (reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs) proteins that are putative tumor suppressors acting as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases. Finally, sequence and three-dimensional structural comparisons helped us uncover a divergent HFN-CRD in glypicans, which are important morphogen-binding heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Such a finding reinforces the evolutionary ties between the Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways and underscores the importance of gene duplications in creating essential signaling components in metazoan evolution. PMID:22693159

  11. Climate change threatens endangered plant species by stronger and interacting water-related stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud P.; Witte, Jan-Philip M.; van Bodegom, Peter M.; van Dam, Jos C.; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2-concentration, temperature and rainfall variability are all expected to increase in the near future. The resulting increased dynamics of soil moisture contents, together with increased plant physiological demands for both oxygen and water, will lead to an increased occurrence of wet and dry extremes of plant stresses, i.e., of oxygen and drought stress, respectively, alone and in interaction. The use of indirect environmental variables in previous studies and a focus on individual stresses rather than their combined effects has hampered understanding of the causal impact of climate change on plant species composition through changes in abiotic site conditions. Here, we use process-based simulations of oxygen and drought stresses in conjunction with a downscaled national version of IPCC scenarios in order to show that these stresses will increase (on average by ˜20% at sites where both stresses occur) in a warmer and more variable future (2050) climate. These two types of stresses will increasingly coincide, i.e. both stresses will occur more often (but not at the same time) within a single vegetation plot. We further show that this increased coincidence of water-related stresses will negatively affect the future occurrence of currently endangered plant species (causing a reduction of ˜16%), while apparently no such decrease will occur among common species. Individual stresses did not appear to affect the occurrence of endangered plant species. Consequently, our study demonstrates that species that are already threatened under the current climate will suffer most from the effects of climate change.

  12. Interaction phenomena at reactive metal/ceramic interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, S. M.; Billings, G. W.; Indacochea, J. E.

    2000-11-03

    The objective of this study was to understand the interface chemical reactions between stable ceramics and reactive liquid metals, and developing microstructure. Experiments were conducted at elevated temperatures where small metal samples of Zr and Zr-alloy were placed on top of selected oxide and non-oxide ceramic substrates (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrN, ZrC, and HfC). The sample stage was heated in high-purity argon to about 2000 C, held in most cases for five minutes at the peak temperature, and then cooled to room temperature at {approximately}20 c/min. An external video camera was used to monitor the in-situ wetting and interface reactions. Post-test examinations of the systems were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was determined that the Zr and the Zr-alloy are very active in the wetting of stable ceramics at elevated temperatures. In addition, in some systems, such as Zr/ZrN, a reactive transition phase formed between the ceramic and the metal. In other systems, such as Zr/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Zr/ZrC and Zr/HfC, no reaction products formed, but a continuous and strong joint developed under these circumstances also.

  13. Advances in Simulation of Wave Interaction with Extended MHD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, Donald B; Abla, Gheni; D'Azevedo, Ed F; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Berry, Lee A; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, R; Breslau, Joshua; Chance, M.; Chen, J.; Choi, M.; Elwasif, Wael R; Foley, S.; Fu, GuoYong; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Jenkins, T; Keyes, David E; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott; Ku, Long-Poe; Lynch, Vickie E; McCune, Douglas; Ramos, J.; Schissel, D.; Schnack,; Wright, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: 1) recent improvements to the IPS, 2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, 3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamk discharges using IPS facilities, and 4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.

  14. Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, Donald B; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, Randall B; Breslau, Joshua; Elwasif, Wael R; Foley, S.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott E; Ku, Long-Poe; McCune, Douglas; Ramos, J.; Schissel, David P; Schnack, Dalton D

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: (1) recent improvements to the IPS, (2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, (3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamak discharges using IPS facilities, and (4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.

  15. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  16. Hearing impairment risk and interaction of folate metabolism related gene polymorphisms in an aging study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent investigations demonstrated many genetic contributions to the development of human age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), however, reports of factors associated with a reduction in the ARHI risk are rare. Folate metabolism is essential for cellular functioning. Despite the extensive investigations regarding the roles of folate metabolism related gene polymorphisms in the pathophysiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, cardio-cerebrovascular disease, and atherosclerosis, little is known about the association with ARHI. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms on the risk of hearing impairment in middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Methods Data were collected from community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 40-84 years who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging biennially between 1997 and 2008. We analyzed cumulative data (5,167 samples in accumulated total) using generalized estimating equations. Results The MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with a reduced risk of hearing impairment only when the subjects were wild-type homozygotes for MTR A2756G. The per-T allele odds ratio of MTHFR for the risk of developing hearing impairment was 0.7609 (95% CI: 0.6178-0.9372) in the MTR AA genotype. In addition, a subgroup analysis demonstrated that the favorable effect of the MTHFR 677T allele on the risk of developing hearing impairment was independent of folate and homocysteine level, whereas plasma total homocysteine level was independently associated with an increased risk of developing hearing impairment. The interactive effect of gene polymorphisms associated with folate metabolism may modify the risk of developing hearing impairment after middle age. These results contribute to the elucidation of the causes of ARHI. Conclusions The present study has found that the MTHFR 677T allele has a favorable effect on a

  17. Relativistic resonance and decay phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Hai V.

    2015-04-01

    The exact relation τ = ℏ/Γ between the width Γ of a resonance and the lifetime τ for the decay of this resonance could not be obtained in standard quantum theory based on the Hilbert space or Schwartz space axiom in non-relativistic physics as well as in the relativistic regime. In order to obtain the exact relation, one has to modify the Hilbert space axiom or the Schwartz space axiom and choose new boundary conditions based on the Hardy space axioms in which the space of the states and the space of the observables are described by two different Hardy spaces. As consequences of the new Hardy space axioms, one obtains, instead of the symmetric time evolution for the states and the observables, asymmetrical time evolutions for the states and observables which are described by two semi-groups. A relativistic resonance obeying the exponential time evolution can be described by a relativistic Gamow vector, which is defined as superposition of the exact out-plane wave states with a Breit-Wigner energy distribution of the width Γ.

  18. Interaction of Physio-Medical and Psychosocial Variables in Age-Related Functional Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, D. A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between level of social interaction and task performance in elderly males (N=25). Results indicated that social activity was positively correlated with learning performance, increased life satisfaction, and more positive attitudes toward older people. (JAC)

  19. Scaling Considerations Related to Interactions of Hydrologics, Pedologic and Geomorphic Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic, pedologic, and geomorphic processes are strongly interrelated and affected by scale. These interactions exert important controls on runoff generation, preferential flow, contaminant transport, surface erosion, and mass wasting. Measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K...

  20. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  1. Extreme subseasonal tropical air-sea interactions and their relation to ocean thermal stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Ian D.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with extreme, rapid timescale tropical air-sea interactions and the influence of large-scale oceanic conditions on these interactions. The focus is on two types of extreme events: equatorial Indian Ocean cooling events and tropical cyclones. Cooling events occur on timescales of a few days to several weeks, in which atmospheric forcing causes Sea Surface Temperature (SST) cooling in the range of 1--5K, in both observational and coupled climate models. Cooling events are driven by changes in air-sea enthalpy fluxes and Ekman upwelling. Because the cooling due to Ekman upwelling depends on thermocline depth, large-scale oceanic conditions influence SST cooling. La Nina and negative Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are conducive to a shallower southwest equatorial thermocline, resulting in greater intraseasonal SST cooling during these interannual events; El Nino and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions lead to a deeper thermocline and reduced SST cooling. Results indicate that cooling events are related to the eastward propagation of convective patterns that resemble the Madden-Julian Oscillation. For tropical cyclones, the response of intensity to cyclone-induced SST cooling was explored over 10-years of observational data. For slow moving (V/ f < 100km) tropical cyclones, it was found that the SST cooling response increases along with storm intensity from category 0--2 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. However, from category 2--5 the magnitude of SST cooling decreases. This result confirms model predictions indicating a prominent role for oceanic feedback controlling tropical cyclone intensity. Thus, only storms that develop in regions containing deep mixed layer and thermocline can achieve high intensity, and entrainment cooling is weaker for these storms. The SST-intensity response in observations was compared to the GFDL Hurricane Forecast Model (GHM) for the periods 2005 and 2006--2009. The GHM was modified in 2006 to include a

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Excited State Electron Transfer and Related Phenomena: Conference Held in Honour of Zbigniew R. Grabowski in Pultusk, Poland on September 27-October 2, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    structure shown in Fig. 1 pyridine- substituted free base porphyrin (2HP) has been attached to a zinc por- phyrin (ZnP) dimer by tailoring the distance of...Aromatic Schiff Bases and Related Molecules K. Kownacki* A. Graboi.ska *, B. O.s¶iiska * and L. Kaczmnarek .. Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish...Dependent Charge Transfer in Self-Organized Porphyrin -Quinone Compounds. 20:00 D. BIRCH: Energy and Electron Transfer in Bilayer Membranes. 20:15 W. ZIEGS

  3. Main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to alcohol dependence among urban male firefighters.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schuhmann, Bailee B; Smith, Lia J; Tran, Jana

    2017-05-01

    Depression, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use are highly prevalent among firefighters. However, no study has evaluated the interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to alcohol use among firefighters. The current study examined main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in terms of alcohol dependence symptoms, positive alcohol dependence screen, and drinks per occasion. Participants included 2707 male urban firefighters. There was a main effect of posttraumatic stress in relation to all alcohol-related outcomes and a main effect of depression only for alcohol dependence symptoms. There was a significant interaction of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to symptoms of alcohol dependence, positive screen for alcohol dependence, and number of drinks per occasion. Interactions were evident above main effects and covariates (age, presence of a spouse/partner, tenure in the fire department, history of active duty in the U.S. armed forces, and racial/ethnic minority status). Overall, heightened depression was positively associated with alcohol-related outcomes for those with lower but not higher levels of posttraumatic stress in all models. Posttraumatic stress and depression may pose unique interactive risks for alcohol dependence in urban male firefighters. Implications for clinical intervention in firefighters are discussed.

  4. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  5. Entropy-Driven Cutoff Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancia, Carlo; Nardi, Francesca R.; Scoppola, Benedetto

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we present, in the context of Diaconis' paradigm, a general method to detect the cutoff phenomenon. We use this method to prove cutoff in a variety of models, some already known and others not yet appeared in literature, including a non-reversible random walk on a cylindrical lattice. All the given examples clearly indicate that a drift towards the opportune quantiles of the stationary measure could be held responsible for this phenomenon. In the case of birth-and-death chains this mechanism is fairly well understood; our work is an effort to generalize this picture to more general systems, such as systems having stationary measure spread over the whole state space or systems in which the study of the cutoff may not be reduced to a one-dimensional problem. In those situations the drift may be looked for by means of a suitable partitioning of the state space into classes; using a statistical mechanics language it is then possible to set up a kind of energy-entropy competition between the weight and the size of the classes. Under the lens of this partitioning one can focus the mentioned drift and prove cutoff with relative ease.

  6. Regulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton by an Interaction of IQGAP Related Protein GAPA with Filamin and Cortexillin I

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Daniela; Müller, Rolf; Rivero, Francisco; Faix, Jan; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2010-01-01

    Filamin and Cortexillin are F-actin crosslinking proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum allowing actin filaments to form three-dimensional networks. GAPA, an IQGAP related protein, is required for cytokinesis and localizes to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Here we describe a novel interaction with Filamin which is required for cytokinesis and regulation of the F-actin content. The interaction occurs through the actin binding domain of Filamin and the GRD domain of GAPA. A similar interaction takes place with Cortexillin I. We further report that Filamin associates with Rac1a implying that filamin might act as a scaffold for small GTPases. Filamin and activated Rac associate with GAPA to regulate actin remodelling. Overexpression of filamin and GAPA in the various strains suggests that GAPA regulates the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with Filamin and that it controls cytokinesis through association with Filamin and Cortexillin. PMID:21085675

  7. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Depletion interactions in a cylindric pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Xin; Gao, Hai-Xia; Li, Chun-Shu; Xiao, Chang-Ming

    2009-08-01

    In a colloidal system confined by a small cylindric pipeline, the depletion interaction between two large spheres is different to the system confined by two plates, and the influence on depletion interaction from the pipeline is related to both the size and shape of it. In this paper, the depletion interactions in the systems confined by pipelines of different sizes or different shapes are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that the influence on depletion force from the cylindric pipeline is stronger than that from two parallel plates, and the depletion force will be strengthened when the diameter of the cylinder is decreased. In addition, we also find that the depletion interaction is rather affected if the shape change of the pipeline is slightly changed, and the influence on depletion force from the shape change is stronger than that from the size change.

  8. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels.

  9. Developmental aspects of the interaction between narcissism, self-esteem and object relations.

    PubMed

    Dare, C; Holder, A

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the history, within psycho-analysis, of narcissism and shows that it cannot be understood as a unitary concept. This is reflected in much of the extensive literature on the topic. The definition of narcissism solely in terms of the libidinal drive cathexis of the self representation is rejected. Instead, narcissism is defined as the sum of the positively-coloured feeling states attached to the self-representation. By pursuing a developmental investigation of narcissistic and opposing phenomena, the multiple sources which contribute to or detract from the overall level of self-esteem are demonstrated. Such an investigation clarifies the close relationship between the concepts of self-esteem, well-being and narcissism, and differentiating definitions are put forward. The term 'counter-narcissistic' is introduced to denote the negative contributions to self-esteem which detract from the narcissistic input. The interplay between the contributions to the overall quality of self-esteem, deriving on the one hand from somatic and instinctual drive sources, and on the other from object relationships, exemplifies the multiple origins of its qualities at any one time. This interplay is pursued through the sequential developmental phases from infancy to the oedipal level in order to show the complex epigenesis of narcissism, counter-narcissism and self-esteem.

  10. Threshold phenomena in soft matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhibin

    Although two different fields are covered, this thesis is mainly focused on some threshold behaviors in both liquid crystal field and fluid dynamic systems. A method of rubbed polyimide is used to obtain pretilt. Sufficiently strong rubbing of a polyimide (SE-1211) results in a large polar pretilt of liquid crystal director with respect to the homeotropic orientation. There exists a threshold rubbing strength required to induce nonzero pretilt. For the homologous liquid crystal series alkyl-cyanobyphenyl, we found that the threshold rubbing strength is a monotonic function of the number of methylene units. A dual easy axis model is then used to explain the results. Freedericksz transition measurements have been used to determine the quadratical and quartic coefficients associated with the molecules' tilt with respect to the layer normal in surface-induced smectic layers in the nematic phase above the smectic-A-nematic phase transition temperature. Both the quadratic and quartic coefficients are consistent with the scaling relationship as predicted in theory, and their ratio is approximately constant. A Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiment is performed by using a magnetic field gradient to draw down a low density but highly paramagnetic fluid below a more dense fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell. When turning off the magnetic field, the RT instability occurs in situ and the growth of the most unstable wavevector is measured as a function of time. The wavelength of the RT instability along with the growth rate was measured as a function of capillary number (which is related to the density difference and interfacial tension between two fluids). A theory for the instability that permits different viscosities for two immiscible fluids was developed, and good agreement was found with the experimental results. The technique of magnetic levitation promises to broaden significantly the accessible parameter space of gravitational interfacial instability experiments. A method is

  11. Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent-Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…

  12. Young Children's Trust Beliefs in Peers: Relations to Social Competence and Interactive Behaviors in a Peer Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Jui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between children's trust beliefs and social competence as well as social preference. In addition, this study examined how children with different trust belief profiles may differ in their peer interactive behaviors. A total of 47 children ages 5 to 6 participated in this study.…

  13. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  14. Trust-Based Relational Intervention[TM]: Interactive Principles for Adopted Children with Special Social-Emotional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Karyn B.; Cross, David R.; Pennings, Jacquelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Children who experience abuse, neglect, and/or trauma are disproportionately represented among those who deteriorate into challenging and pervasive behavioral disorders. The TrustBased Relational Intervention [TM] Interactive Principles, described in this article, have been used effectively in a variety of settings, including camps, homes,…

  15. Subclinical negative symptoms and the anticipation, experience and recall of emotions related to social interactions: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Engel, Maike; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2015-12-15

    Healthy individuals use anticipated and recalled emotions to guide their decisions to seek out social interactions. It is unknown whether individuals with negative symptoms of schizophrenia, who are commonly observed to socially withdraw, show a bias in anticipation and recall of emotions related to a social interaction. To close this knowledge gap, this study examines whether higher levels of subclinical negative symptoms are associated with less positive and more negative anticipated and recalled emotions related to a social interaction. In a mixed model design participants were instructed to either predict or to experience and then recall emotions related to a simulated social inclusion- or exclusion-interaction. Disregarding the type of situation, participants with higher levels of subclinical negative symptoms anticipated more intense fear than participants with lower levels of subclinical negative symptoms. Divided by type of situation, however, participants with higher levels of negative symptoms experienced and recalled more sadness related to being socially included and even recalled more positive emotions after being excluded. These specific associations are likely to reflect negative expectations about potentially rewarding social situations in people with negative symptoms. A replication in populations with clinically relevant negative symptoms and inclusion of measures to assess memory is warranted.

  16. The Implementation, Evaluation and Refinement of the Home-School-Community Relations Interaction Model. Technical Report No. 414.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karges, Marjorie L.

    One of the objectives of this study was to implement the school-community relations model of interaction to determine whether the specified patterns and processes were viable. Implementation began with a needs assessment, followed by an operational process involving four approaches: (1) a schoolwide focus on reporting pupil progress; (2) a…

  17. A Study of Power Relations in Doctor-Patient Interactions in Selected Hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores power relations in clinical interactions in Nigeria. It seeks to investigate the use of power between doctors and patients during consultations on patient-centred approach to medicine in selected public and private hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective is to establish how doctors' projection of power, using the…

  18. Cosmic superstring gravitational lensing phenomena: Predictions for networks of (p,q) strings

    SciTech Connect

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Wyman, Mark

    2005-12-15

    The unique, conical space-time created by cosmic strings brings about distinctive gravitational lensing phenomena. The variety of these distinctive phenomena is increased when the strings have nontrivial mutual interactions. In particular, when strings bind and create junctions, rather than intercommute, the resulting configurations can lead to novel gravitational lensing patterns. In this brief note, we use exact solutions to characterize these phenomena, the detection of which would be strong evidence for the existence of complex cosmic string networks of the kind predicted by string theory-motivated cosmic string models. We also correct some common errors in the lensing phenomenology of straight cosmic strings.

  19. Reconsidering risk: adapting public policies to intergenerational determinants and biosocial interactions in health-related needs.

    PubMed

    Strully, Kate W; Conley, Dalton

    2004-12-01

    According to recent research, interactions between infant health and environment can play crucial roles in clustering health and economic disadvantage among certain families. Researchers have provided a clear example of such intergenerational biosocial cycles when they document that interactions between parental low birth weight status and prenatal environment are associated with the risk of a low birth weight, and that interactions between a child's birth weight status and early childhood environment are associated with adult socioeconomic outcomes. In this article, we consider how existing policies may be revised to more effectively address such interactions between social and biological risk categories. We are particularly concerned in this discussion with revising risk categories so they can encompass biological risk, social risk, and developmental frameworks. A framework of biosocial risk is quite flexible and may be applied to a variety of issues and programs; however, in this article we focus on the single case of low birth weight to illustrate our argument. In considering specific applications, we further explore how attention to biosocial interactions may reshape Medicaid, special education, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families.

  20. Heliospheric Consecuences of Solar Activity In Several Interplanetary Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Mendoza, B.; Lara, A.; Maravilla, D.

    We have done an analysis of several phenomena related to solar activity such as the total magnetic flux, coronal hole area and sunspots, investigated its long trend evolu- tion over several solar cycles and its possible relationships with interplanetary shocks, sudden storm commencements at earth and cosmic ray variations. Our results stress the physical connection between the solar magnetic flux emergence and the interplan- etary medium dynamics, in particular the importance of coronal hole evolution in the structuring of the heliosphere.

  1. Diffraction phenomena in elastic scattering of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, V.V.; Shebeko, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    Nuclear diffraction phenomena in elastic scattering of heavy ions are studied in the intermediate energy range. Examination is carried out using the strong absorption models for the S-matrix in the angular momentum representation. New asymptotic expressions for the diffraction scattering amplitudes are obtained. The main attention is paid to the study of the relation between the Fresnel and the Fraunhofer parts of the amplitudes obtained in different regions of scattering angles.

  2. Aerothermodynamic flow phenomena of the airframe-integrated supersonic combustion ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.

    1992-01-01

    The unique component flow phenomena is discussed of the airframe-integrated supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) in a format geared towards new players in the arena of hypersonic propulsion. After giving an overview of the scramjet aerothermodynamic cycle, the characteristics are then covered individually of the vehicle forebody, inlet, combustor, and vehicle afterbody/nozzle. Attention is given to phenomena such as inlet speeding, inlet starting, inlet spillage, fuel injection, thermal choking, and combustor-inlet interaction.

  3. Qualities of Peer Relations on Social Networking Websites: Predictions from Negative Mother-Teen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between characteristics of teenagers’ relationships with their mothers and their later socializing behavior and peer relationship quality online. At age 13, teenagers and their mothers participated in an interaction in which mothers’ and adolescents’ behavior undermining autonomy and relatedness was observed, and indicators of teens’ depressive symptoms and social anxiety were assessed. At age 20, youth self-reported on their online behaviors, youths’ social networking webpages were observationally coded to assess peer relationship quality online, and symptoms of depression and social anxiety were reassessed. Results suggested that problematic mother-teen relationships were predictive of youths’ later preference for online communication and greater likelihood of forming a friendship with someone met online, yet poorer quality in online relationships. Findings are discussed within a developmental framework suggesting the importance of considering youths’ family interactions during early adolescence as predictors of future online socializing behavior and online interactions with peers. PMID:21860584

  4. Relations between parents' interactive style in dyadic and triadic play and toddlers' symbolic capacity.

    PubMed

    Keren, M; Feldman, R; Namdari-Weinbaum, I; Spitzer, S; Tyano, S

    2005-10-01

    Play has a major role in the evaluation and treatment of young children referred to mental health clinicians. The present study examined parental correlates of preschoolers' symbolic play during dyadic and triadic play interactions. Boys' play contained more aggressive themes, and girls' contained more nurturing themes. Mothers displayed more caring themes during play with both sons and daughters, and fathers displayed more repair and construction themes. Mothers' and fathers' facilitative- creative interaction style in dyadic play predicted the level of the child's symbolic play. Co-parenting style marked by cooperation and autonomy predicted symbolic play during a triadic family session. Child intelligence predicted symbolic play beyond the parent's style during triadic but not dyadic interactions. The findings have implications for early intervention directed at increasing symbolic play in young children.

  5. Resistive switching phenomena: A review of statistical physics approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Shinbuhm; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-08-31

    Here we report that resistive switching (RS) phenomena are reversible changes in the metastable resistance state induced by external electric fields. After discovery ~50 years ago, RS phenomena have attracted great attention due to their potential application in next-generation electrical devices. Considerable research has been performed to understand the physical mechanisms of RS and explore the feasibility and limits of such devices. There have also been several reviews on RS that attempt to explain the microscopic origins of how regions that were originally insulators can change into conductors. However, little attention has been paid to the most important factor in determining resistance: how conducting local regions are interconnected. Here, we provide an overview of the underlying physics behind connectivity changes in highly conductive regions under an electric field. We first classify RS phenomena according to their characteristic current–voltage curves: unipolar, bipolar, and threshold switchings. Second, we outline the microscopic origins of RS in oxides, focusing on the roles of oxygen vacancies: the effect of concentration, the mechanisms of channel formation and rupture, and the driving forces of oxygen vacancies. Third, we review RS studies from the perspective of statistical physics to understand connectivity change in RS phenomena. We discuss percolation model approaches and the theory for the scaling behaviors of numerous transport properties observed in RS. Fourth, we review various switching-type conversion phenomena in RS: bipolar-unipolar, memory-threshold, figure-of-eight, and counter-figure-of-eight conversions. Finally, we review several related technological issues, such as improvement in high resistance fluctuations, sneak-path problems, and multilevel switching problems.

  6. Resistive switching phenomena: A review of statistical physics approaches

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Shinbuhm; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-08-31

    Here we report that resistive switching (RS) phenomena are reversible changes in the metastable resistance state induced by external electric fields. After discovery ~50 years ago, RS phenomena have attracted great attention due to their potential application in next-generation electrical devices. Considerable research has been performed to understand the physical mechanisms of RS and explore the feasibility and limits of such devices. There have also been several reviews on RS that attempt to explain the microscopic origins of how regions that were originally insulators can change into conductors. However, little attention has been paid to the most important factor inmore » determining resistance: how conducting local regions are interconnected. Here, we provide an overview of the underlying physics behind connectivity changes in highly conductive regions under an electric field. We first classify RS phenomena according to their characteristic current–voltage curves: unipolar, bipolar, and threshold switchings. Second, we outline the microscopic origins of RS in oxides, focusing on the roles of oxygen vacancies: the effect of concentration, the mechanisms of channel formation and rupture, and the driving forces of oxygen vacancies. Third, we review RS studies from the perspective of statistical physics to understand connectivity change in RS phenomena. We discuss percolation model approaches and the theory for the scaling behaviors of numerous transport properties observed in RS. Fourth, we review various switching-type conversion phenomena in RS: bipolar-unipolar, memory-threshold, figure-of-eight, and counter-figure-of-eight conversions. Finally, we review several related technological issues, such as improvement in high resistance fluctuations, sneak-path problems, and multilevel switching problems.« less

  7. [Spiritual phenomena occurring in everybody and health].

    PubMed

    Krsiak, M

    2008-01-01

    The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.

  8. All Tcf HMG box transcription factors interact with Groucho-related co-repressors

    PubMed Central

    Brantjes, Helen; Roose, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Tcf/Lef family transcription factors are the downstream effectors of the Wingless/Wnt signal transduction pathway. Upon Wingless/Wnt signalling, β-catenin translocates to the nucleus, interacts with Tcf (1–3) and thus activates transcription of target genes (4,5). Tcf factors also interact with members of the Groucho (Grg/TLE) family of transcriptional co-repressors (6). We have now tested all known mammalian Groucho family members for their ability to interact specifically with individual Tcf/Lef family members. Transcriptional activation by any Tcf could be repressed by Grg-1, Grg-2/TLE-2, Grg-3 and Grg-4 in a reporter assay. Specific interactions between Tcf and Grg proteins may be achieved in vivo by tissue- or cell type-limited expression. To address this, we determined the expression of all Tcf and Grg/TLE family members in a panel of cell lines. Within any cell line, several Tcfs and TLEs are co-expressed. Thus, redundancy in Tcf/Grg interactions appears to be the rule. The ‘long’ Groucho family members containing five domains are repressors of Tcf-mediated transactivation, whereas Grg-5, which only contains the first two domains, acts as a de-repressor. As previously shown for Drosophila Groucho, we show that long Grg proteins interact with histone deacetylase-1. Although Grg-5 contains the GP homology domain that mediates HDAC binding in long Grg proteins, Grg-5 fails to bind this co-repressor, explaining how it can de-repress transcription. PMID:11266540

  9. Computer modelling of nanoscale diffusion phenomena at epitaxial interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailov, M.; Ranguelov, B.

    2014-05-01

    The present study outlines an important area in the application of computer modelling to interface phenomena. Being relevant to the fundamental physical problem of competing atomic interactions in systems with reduced dimensionality, these phenomena attract special academic attention. On the other hand, from a technological point of view, detailed knowledge of the fine atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces correlates with a large number of practical problems in materials science. Typical examples are formation of nanoscale surface patterns, two-dimensional superlattices, atomic intermixing at an epitaxial interface, atomic transport phenomena, structure and stability of quantum wires on surfaces. We discuss here a variety of diffusion mechanisms that control surface-confined atomic exchange, formation of alloyed atomic stripes and islands, relaxation of pure and alloyed atomic terraces, diffusion of clusters and their stability in an external field. The computational model refines important details of diffusion of adatoms and clusters accounting for the energy barriers at specific atomic sites: smooth domains, terraces, steps and kinks. The diffusion kinetics, integrity and decomposition of atomic islands in an external field are considered in detail and assigned to specific energy regions depending on the cluster stability in mass transport processes. The presented ensemble of diffusion scenarios opens a way for nanoscale surface design towards regular atomic interface patterns with exotic physical features.

  10. Investigation of collective phenomena in dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhunusiri, Wellalage Don Suranga

    I study dusty plasma produced by electrostatically confining melamine formaldehyde microparticles in a radio-frequency glow discharge plasma. Dusty plasma is a mixture of particles of solid matter (dust), electrons, ions, and neutral gas atoms. The dust particles have a very high charge and a mass compared to the electrons and ions in the ambient plasma. As a consequence, a dusty plasma exhibits collective phenomena such as dust acoustic waves, crystallization, and melting. The discrete nature of dust particles gives rise to compressibility. In this thesis I report findings of four tasks that were performed to investigate dust acoustic waves, compressibility, and melting. First, the nonlinear phenomenon of synchronization was characterized experimentally for the dust acoustic wave propagating in a dust cloud with many layers. I find four synchronized states, with frequencies that are multiples of 1, 2, 3, and 1/2 of the driving frequency. Comparing to phenomena that are typical of the van der Pol paradigm, I find that synchronization of the dust acoustic wave exhibits the signature of the suppression mechanism but not that of the phaselocking mechanism. Additionally, I find that the synchronization of the dust acoustic wave exhibits three characteristics that differ from the van der Pol paradigm: a threshold amplitude that can be seen in the Arnold tongue diagram, a branching of the 1:1 harmonic tongue at its lower extremity, and a nonharmonic state. Second, to assess which physical processes are important for a dust acoustic instability, I derived dispersion relations that encompass more physical processes than commonly done. I investigated how various physical processes affect a dust acoustic wave by solving these dispersion relations using parameters from a typical dust acoustic wave experiment. I find that the growth rate diminishes for large ion currents. I also find that the compressibility, a measure of the coupling between the dust particles, have a strong

  11. Galanin receptor 2-neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor interactions in the dentate gyrus are related with antidepressant-like effects.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Manuel; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Millón, Carmelo; Gago, Belén; Flores-Burgess, Antonio; Santín, Luis; Fuxe, Kjell; Narváez, José Angel; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida

    2016-11-01

    Galanin (GAL) and the NPYY1 agonist play a role in mood regulation and both neuropeptides interact in several central functions. The present study examined the interaction between Galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) and Neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the Hippocampus in relation to depression-like behavior. Using receptor autoradiography, in situ hybridization and in situ proximity ligation assay an interaction between GALR and NPYY1R was demonstrated in the DG probably involving the formation of GALR2-NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes. These complexes were specifically observed in the polymorphic and subgranular subregions of the DG, where both receptors were found to colocalize. Moreover, this GALR2/NPYY1R interaction was linked to an enhancement of the antidepressive-like behavior mediated by NPYY1R in the forced swimming test. Specific cells populations within DG subregions may be involved in this behavioral effect since the coactivation of GALR2 and NPYY1R enhances the NPYY1R-mediated reduction in the number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei in the polymorphic region. These results indicate that GALR2/NPYY1R interactions can provide a novel integrative mechanism in DG in depression-related behavior and may give the basis for the development of drugs targeting GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the DG of the hippocampus for the treatment of depression.

  12. Isotropic periodic sum for multipole interactions and a vector relation for calculation of the Cartesian multipole tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongwu; Pickard, Frank C.; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2016-10-01

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a method to calculate long-range interactions based on the homogeneity of simulation systems. By using the isotropic periodic images of a local region to represent remote structures, long-range interactions become a function of the local conformation. This function is called the IPS potential; it folds long-ranged interactions into a short-ranged potential and can be calculated as efficiently as a cutoff method. It has been demonstrated that the IPS method produces consistent simulation results, including free energies, as the particle mesh Ewald (PME) method. By introducing the multipole homogeneous background approximation, this work derives multipole IPS potentials, abbreviated as IPSMm, with m being the maximum order of multipole interactions. To efficiently calculate the multipole interactions in Cartesian space, we propose a vector relation that calculates a multipole tensor as a dot product of a radial potential vector and a directional vector. Using model systems with charges, dipoles, and/or quadrupoles, with and without polarizability, we demonstrate that multipole interactions of order m can be described accurately with the multipole IPS potential of order 2 or m - 1, whichever is higher. Through simulations with the multipole IPS potentials, we examined energetic, structural, and dynamic properties of the model systems and demonstrated that the multipole IPS potentials produce very similar results as PME with a local region radius (cutoff distance) as small as 6 Å.

  13. Qualities of Peer Relations on Social Networking Websites: Predictions from Negative Mother-Teen Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations between characteristics of teenagers' relationships with their mothers and their later socializing behavior and peer relationship quality online. At age 13, teenagers and their mothers participated in an interaction in which mothers' and adolescents' behavior undermining autonomy and relatedness was observed and…

  14. Interactions between Obesity-Related Copy Number Variants and Dietary Behaviors in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Li, Zhenli; Wang, Hao; Yang, Min; Liang, Li; Fu, Junfen; Wang, Chunling; Ling, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shuai; Xu, Yuyang; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated as an important genetic marker of obesity, and gene-environment interaction has been found to modulate risk of obesity. To evaluate the associations between CNVs and childhood obesity, as well as the interactions between CNVs and dietary behaviors, we recruited 534 obese children and 508 controls from six cities in China and six candidate CNVs were screened through published genome-wide studies (GWAS) on childhood obesity. We found three loci (10q11.22, 4q25 and 11q11) to be significantly associated with obesity after false discovery rate (FDR) correction (all the p ≤ 0.05). Cumulative effect of the three positive loci was measured by the genetic risk score (GRS), showing a significant relationship with the risk of obesity (Ptrend < 0.001). The OR of obesity increased to 21.38 (95% CI = 21.19–21.55) among the 10q11.22 deletion carriers who had meat-based diets, indicating prominent multiplicative interaction (MI) between deletions of 10q11.22 and preference for a meat-based diet. Simultaneous deletions of 5q13.2 and duplications of 6q14.1 had significant MI with a preference for salty foods. Our results suggested that CNVs may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of childhood obesity, and the CNV-diet interactions modulate the risk of obesity. PMID:25912042

  15. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching…

  16. Interactive host cells related to Mycoplasma suis α-enolase by yeast two-hybrid analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingming; Jia, Lijun; Li, Jixu; Xue, Shujiang; Gao, Xu; Yu, Longzheng; Zhang, Shoufa

    2014-10-01

    Mycoplasma suis belongs to the haemotrophic mycoplasmas, which colonise the red blood cells of a wide range of vertebrates. Adhesion to red blood cells is the crucial step in the unique lifecycle of M. suis. In addition to MSG1 protein, α-enolase is the second adhesion protein of M. suis, and may be involved in the adhesion of M. suis to porcine red blood cells (RBC). To simulate the environment of the RBC, we established the cDNA library of swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen α-enolase interactive proteins in the PBMC line. Alignment with the NCBI database revealed four interactive proteins: beta-actin, 60S ribosomal protein L11, clusterin precursor and endonuclease/reverse transcriptase. However, the M. suis α-enolase interactive proteins in the PBMC cDNA library obtained in the current study provide valuable information about the host cell interactions of the M. suis α-enolase protein.

  17. Concepts relating magnetic interactions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Davis, J C Séamus; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2013-10-29

    Unconventional superconductivity (SC) is said to occur when Cooper pair formation is dominated by repulsive electron-electron interactions, so that the symmetry of the pair wave function is other than an isotropic s-wave. The strong, on-site, repulsive electron-electron interactions that are the proximate cause of such SC are more typically drivers of commensurate magnetism. Indeed, it is the suppression of commensurate antiferromagnetism (AF) that usually allows this type of unconventional superconductivity to emerge. Importantly, however, intervening between these AF and SC phases, intertwined electronic ordered phases (IP) of an unexpected nature are frequently discovered. For this reason, it has been extremely difficult to distinguish the microscopic essence of the correlated superconductivity from the often spectacular phenomenology of the IPs. Here we introduce a model conceptual framework within which to understand the relationship between AF electron-electron interactions, IPs, and correlated SC. We demonstrate its effectiveness in simultaneously explaining the consequences of AF interactions for the copper-based, iron-based, and heavy-fermion superconductors, as well as for their quite distinct IPs.

  18. What Is Librarian 2.0--New Competencies or Interactive Relations? A Library Professional Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvila, Isto; Holmberg, Kim; Kronqvist-Berg, Maria; Nivakoski, Outi; Widén, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Library 2.0 is a change in the way libraries interact with their users. Technological developments on the Web have had a major influence on these changes. The change also places new requirements on librarians' competencies and skills. This research investigates how librarians themselves see this change in terms of their work identity and working…

  19. The Interactions of Federal and Related State Education Programs. Volume II: State Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Richard P., Ed.

    This collection of case studies of eight states--California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Mexico, New York, Virginia, Wyoming--documents a 1981-82 investigation of federal and state administrative interactions across a select sample of federal education programs. To represent a wide spectrum of political, economic, and institutional…

  20. Concepts relating magnetic interactions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated superconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. C. Séamus; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional superconductivity (SC) is said to occur when Cooper pair formation is dominated by repulsive electron–electron interactions, so that the symmetry of the pair wave function is other than an isotropic s-wave. The strong, on-site, repulsive electron–electron interactions that are the proximate cause of such SC are more typically drivers of commensurate magnetism. Indeed, it is the suppression of commensurate antiferromagnetism (AF) that usually allows this type of unconventional superconductivity to emerge. Importantly, however, intervening between these AF and SC phases, intertwined electronic ordered phases (IP) of an unexpected nature are frequently discovered. For this reason, it has been extremely difficult to distinguish the microscopic essence of the correlated superconductivity from the often spectacular phenomenology of the IPs. Here we introduce a model conceptual framework within which to understand the relationship between AF electron–electron interactions, IPs, and correlated SC. We demonstrate its effectiveness in simultaneously explaining the consequences of AF interactions for the copper-based, iron-based, and heavy-fermion superconductors, as well as for their quite distinct IPs. PMID:24114268