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Sample records for related mycoplasma species

  1. Demonstration of neuraminidase activity in Mycoplasma neurolyticum and of neuraminidase proteins in three canine Mycoplasma species.

    PubMed

    Berčič, Rebeka Lucijana; Cizelj, Ivanka; Benčina, Mateja; Narat, Mojca; Bradbury, Janet M; Dovč, Peter; Benčina, Dušan

    2012-03-23

    Neuraminidases are virulence factors in many pathogenic microorganisms. They are present also in some Mycoplasma species that cause disease in birds, dogs and alligators. Thirty-seven Mycoplasma species have been examined previously for neuraminidase (sialidase) activity, whereas many of the species causing disease in man, ruminants, pigs, rodents and other animals have not. In this study neuraminidase enzymatic activity (NEAC) was examined in 45 previously untested Mycoplasma species, including those causing diseases in man, farm animals and laboratory animals. The only species in which NEAC was found was Mycoplasma neurolyticum, specifically, its type strain (Type A(T)) which is capable of inducing neurologic signs in inoculated young mice and rats. The NEAC of washed cells was relatively weak, but it differed even more than 10-fold among cells of cultures derived from individual colonies of M. neurolyticum. A weak NEAC was also detected in the supernatant of the M. neurolyticum broth culture. Canine Mycoplasma spp. with high sialidase activity reported previously, Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma cynos and Mycoplasma molare had 100-fold more NEAC than M. neurolyticum, but apparent differences in NEAC levels existed among strains of M. canis and of M. cynos. Zymograms using neuraminidase-specific chromogenic substrate were used to show proteins having NEAC. In M. canis (a field isolate Larissa and the type strain PG14(T)), M. cynos (isolate 896) and M. molare (type strain H542(T)) proteins with NEAC had molecular masses of ∼130kDa, 105kDa and 110kDa, respectively. Identification of these neuraminidases could provide the basis for their molecular characterization.

  2. Mycoplasma species isolated from harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoplodon bidens) stranded in Scottish waters.

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; McAuliffe, Laura; Dagleish, Mark P; Barley, Jason; Howie, Fiona; Nicholas, Robin A J; Ayling, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma species were recovered from 10 cetacean carcasses that stranded around Scotland. Mycoplasma phocicerebrale was isolated from the lungs of three harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) as well as from the liver of one of these animals. Novel Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the lungs of five additional harbor porpoises and the kidney of another. In addition an isolate closely related to Mycoplasma species 13CL was obtained from the kidney of a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoplodon bidens). The role of these Mycoplasma species in the disease of cetaceans, their host specificity, diversity, and any relation to cetacean strandings are unknown.

  3. One test microbial diagnostic microarray for identification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and other Mycoplasma species.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, A; Sacchini, F; Krasteva, I; Zilli, K; Scacchia, M; Beaurepaire, C; Nantel, A; Pini, A

    2012-11-01

    The present study describes the use of microarray technology for rapid identification and differentiation of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from other mycoplasmas that may be pathogenic to ruminants, including those of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, genetically and antigenically strictly correlated with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. A microarray containing genetic sequences of 55 different bacterial species from Acholeplasma, Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma and Ureaplasma genera was constructed. Sequences to genes of interest were collected in FASTA format from NCBI. The collected sequences were processed with OligoPicker software. Oligonucleotides were then checked for their selectivity with BLAST searches in GenBank. The microarray was tested with ATCC/NCTC strains of Mycoplasma spp. of veterinary importance in ruminants including Mycoplasma belonging to the mycoides cluster as well as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri field strains. The results showed that but one ATCC/NCTC reference strains hybridized with their species-specific sequences showed a profile/signature different and distinct from each other. The heat-map of the hybridization results for the nine genes interrogated for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides demonstrated that the reference strain Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides PG1 was positive for all of the gene sequences spotted on the microarray. CBPP field, vaccine and reference strains were all typed to be M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, and seven of the nine strains gave positive hybridization results for all of the nine genes. Two Italian strains were negative for some of the genes. Comparison with non-Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides reference strains showed some positive signals or considerable homology to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides genes. As expected, some correlations were observed between the strictly genetically and antigenically correlated Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and

  4. Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov., a fast growing Mycoplasma species isolated from wild Caprinae.

    PubMed

    Jores, Joerg; Fischer, Anne; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thomann, Andreas; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M; Schnee, Christiane; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Heller, Martin; Frey, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Five Mycoplasma strains from wild Caprinae were analyzed: four from Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) which died at the Berlin Zoo between 1993 and 1994, one from a Rocky Mountain goat collected in the USA prior to 1987. These five strains represented a population different from the populations belonging to the 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' as tested using multi locus sequence typing, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene (rrs), genomic sequence based in silico as well as laboratory DNA-DNA hybridization, and the analysis of phenotypic traits in particular their exceptionally rapid growth all confirmed that they do not belong to any Mycoplasma species described to date. We therefore suggest these strains represent a novel species, for which we propose the name Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov. The type strain is G5847(T) (=DSM 26019(T)=NCTC 13622(T)) [corrected].

  5. Investigations into the seasonal presence of Mycoplasma species in fattening lambs.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sara; Galapero, Javier; Rey, Joaquín; Pérez, Carlos Javier; Ramos, Alfonso; Rosales, Rubén; Ayling, Roger; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Gómez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    The presence of infection with Mycoplasma species in association with lung consolidation, environmental temperature and relative humidity was investigated in 410 clinically healthy fattening lambs from five different feedlots in Extremadura (southwestern Spain). Isolates of Mycoplasma species were obtained (n= 117), including Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (n = 18) and Mycoplasma arginini (n = 99). Two seasonal periods were identified. The first period, which included February, March, September, October, and November, had an average temperature of 17.5 ± 4.7 °C and a relative humidity of 61.3 ± 15.8%. The second seasonal period, which included the months from April to August, had an average temperature of 22.9 ± 5.5 °C and a relative humidity of 48.4 ± 10.7%. Most Mycoplasma species were isolated from the second seasonal period, indicating that higher temperatures and lower relative humidity favour the presence of Mycoplasma species. M. arginini was also associated with lung consolidation.

  6. A Mycoplasma species of Emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n = 7) and wood turtles (n = 4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US.

  7. Persistence of Functional Protein Domains in Mycoplasma Species and their Role in Host Specificity and Synthetic Minimal Life

    PubMed Central

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Koehorst, Jasper J.; Vermeij, Paul; Slagman, Simen-Jan; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are the smallest self-replicating organisms and obligate parasites of a specific vertebrate host. An in-depth analysis of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest forms of life on Earth succeeded in subverting complex hosts with highly sophisticated immune systems. In this study we present a genome-scale comparison, focused on identification of functional protein domains, of 80 publically available mycoplasma genomes which were consistently re-annotated using a standardized annotation pipeline embedded in a semantic framework to keep track of the data provenance. We examined the pan- and core-domainome and studied predicted functional capability in relation to host specificity and phylogenetic distance. We show that the pan- and core-domainome of mycoplasma species is closed. A comparison with the proteome of the “minimal” synthetic bacterium JCVI-Syn3.0 allowed us to classify domains and proteins essential for minimal life. Many of those essential protein domains, essential Domains of Unknown Function (DUFs) and essential hypothetical proteins are not persistent across mycoplasma genomes suggesting that mycoplasma species support alternative domain configurations that bypass their essentiality. Based on the protein domain composition, we could separate mycoplasma species infecting blood and tissue. For selected genomes of tissue infecting mycoplasmas, we could also predict whether the host is ruminant, pig or human. Functionally closely related mycoplasma species, which have a highly similar protein domain repertoire, but different hosts could not be separated. This study provides a concise overview of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species, which can be used as a basis to further understand host-pathogen interaction or to design synthetic minimal life. PMID:28224116

  8. Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

    2013-12-01

    Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species.

  9. Comparison of the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in dogs with and without respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Bianka S; Raufeisen, Katharina; Weber, Karin; Laberke, Siija; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in dogs with and without signs of respiratory disease. Bronchoalveolarlavage fluid (BALF) and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 29 dogs with respiratory diseases (RD) and 16 dogs without signs of RD that were euthanised because of other diseases. Samples were tested for Mycoplasma species by PCR and culture, and sequencing was performed in Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples. Pharyngeal swabs were positive for Mycoplasma species by PCR in 91.7% of dogs with RD and 86.7% of dogs without signs of RD (p = 1.000); BALF samples were PCR-positive in 37.9% of dogs with RD and 18.8% of dogs without signs of RD (p = 0.194) Mycoplasmo culture of BALF was positive in 28.6% of dogs with RD and in 18.8% without signs of RD (p = 0.730). When culture and PCR were compared, there was no significant difference in the detection rate of Mycoplasma species (p = 0.658) Sequencing detected different Mycoplasma species. Out of these, however, Mycoplasma cynos was isolated from four dogs with RD. There is no significant difference in the prevalence of Mycoplasma species between dogs with RD and dogs without evidence of RD; however, Mycoplasma cynos seems to be associated with respiratory disease.

  10. Infection with hemotropic Mycoplasma species in patients with or without extensive arthropod or animal contact.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Compton, Sarah M; Trull, Chelsea L; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Mozayeni, B Robert; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-10-01

    PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA gene was used to test individuals with and without extensive arthropod and animal contact for the possibility of hemotropic mycoplasma infection. The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasma infection (4.7%) was significantly greater in previously reported cohorts of veterinarians, veterinary technicians, spouses of veterinary professionals, and others with extensive arthropod exposure and/or frequent animal contact than in a previously reported cohort of patients examined by a rheumatologist because of chronic joint pain or evidence of small-vessel disease (0.7%). Based upon DNA sequence analysis, a Mycoplasma ovis-like species was the most prevalent organism detected; however, infection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" and a potentially novel, but incompletely characterized, hemotropic Mycoplasma species was also documented. Historical exposure to animals and arthropod vectors that can harbor hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. should be considered during epidemiological investigations and in the evaluation of individual patients.

  11. Detection of feline Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma and chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Bianka S; Richter, Petra; Weber, Karin; Mueller, Ralf S; Wess, Gerhard; Zenker, Isabella; Hartmann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of inflammatory lower airway disease in cats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma (FA) and chronic bronchitis (CB). The study population consisted of 17 cats with FA/CB, and 14 sick cats without clinical and historical signs of respiratory disease, which were euthanased for various other reasons. Nasal swabs, nasal lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were taken from patients from both groups. Mycoplasma species culture with modified Hayflick agar and Mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on all samples followed by sequencing of all Mycoplasma species-positive samples for differentiation of subspecies. PCR testing detected significantly more Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples than Mycoplasma culture (P = 0.021). When cats with oropharyngeal contamination were excluded from comparison, the numbers of Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples in the group with FA/CB (6/17) and the control group (4/9) were not significantly different (P = 0.6924). While all nasal samples of the cats with FA/CB were negative for Mycoplasma organisms, five samples in the control group (P = 0.041) were positive on PCR. Sequencing revealed Mycoplasma felis in all PCR-positive samples. Mycoplasma species can be detected in the lower airways of cats with FA/CB, as well as in the BALF of sick cats without respiratory signs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the possibility that Mycoplasma species represent commensals of the lower respiratory tract of cats.

  12. A novel rapid DNA microarray assay enables identification of 37 Mycoplasma species and highlights multiple Mycoplasma infections.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Christiane; Schulsse, Samuel; Hotzel, Helmut; Ayling, Roger D; Nicholas, Robin A J; Schubert, Evelyn; Heller, Martin; Ehricht, Ralf; Sachse, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasmas comprise a conglomerate of pathogens and commensals occurring in humans and animals. The genus Mycoplasma alone contains more than 120 species at present, and new members are continuously being discovered. Therefore, it seems promising to use a single highly parallel detection assay rather than develop separate tests for each individual species. In this study, we have designed a DNA microarray carrying 70 oligonucleotide probes derived from the 23S rRNA gene and 86 probes from the tuf gene target regions. Following a PCR amplification and biotinylation step, hybridization on the array was shown to specifically identify 31 Mycoplasma spp., as well as 3 Acholeplasma spp. and 3 Ureaplasma spp. Members of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster can be recognized at subgroup level. This procedure enables parallel detection of Mollicutes spp. occurring in humans, animals or cell culture, from mono- and multiple infections, in a single run. The main advantages of the microarray assay include ease of operation, rapidity, high information content, and affordability. The new test's analytical sensitivity is equivalent to that of real-time PCR and allows examination of field samples without the need for culture. When 60 field samples from ruminants and birds previously analyzed by denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were tested by the microarray assay both tests identified the same agent in 98.3% of the cases. Notably, microarray testing revealed an unexpectedly high proportion (35%) of multiple mycoplasma infections, i.e., substantially more than DGGE (15%). Two of the samples were found to contain four different Mycoplasma spp. This phenomenon deserves more attention, particularly its implications for epidemiology and treatment.

  13. Survival and replication of Mycoplasma species in recycled bedding sand and association with mastitis on dairy farms in Utah.

    PubMed

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Corbett, R; Harding, R; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp., usually Mycoplasma bovis, are important bovine pathogens that can cause mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, and arthritis. The currently documented routes of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. are through contaminated milking equipment and by direct animal contact. The existence of environmental sources for Mycoplasma spp. and their role in transmission and clinical disease is poorly characterized. Mycoplasma spp. (confirmed as M. bovis in 2 of 4 samples tested using PCR) was found in recycled bedding sand originating from a dairy experiencing an outbreak of clinical mycoplasma mastitis. Mycoplasma spp. were subsequently found in bedding sand from 2 other dairies whose bulk-tank milk was mycoplasma-positive. The association between the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and mycoplasma mastitis in cows was further investigated using a pile of recycled sand from dairy 1. Study objectives included the determination of factors associated with the concentration of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and the duration of survival of mycoplasmas in the sand. We also evaluated the efficacy of 2 disinfectants at 2 different concentrations each for the elimination of Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated sand. Mycoplasma spp. survived in the sand pile for 8 mo. The concentration of Mycoplasma spp. within the sand pile was directly related to temperature and precipitation. It was also positively associated with the growth of gram-negative microorganisms, suggesting the possibility of the formation of a biofilm. Ideal temperatures for replication of Mycoplasma spp. occurred between 15 and 20 degrees C. Moisture in the sand and movement of the sand pile also appeared to play a role in replication of mycoplasmas. We found that 0.5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine were efficacious in eliminating Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated bedding sand. Recycled bedding sand could be an environmental source of Mycoplasma spp., including M. bovis

  14. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalshingi, Habu A; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Gouws, Johan; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2015-06-08

    Biochemical and molecular analysis were conducted on 34 strains of Mycoplasma species isolated between 2003 and 2009 from the genital tract of clinically healthy Dorper sheep and sheep with ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis. Earlier publications identified the causative agent as Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The aims of the study were to characterise Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep with polymerase chain reaction assay, cloning and gene sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results revealed six predominant Mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium laidlawii, MmmLC, Mycoplasma sp. ovine/caprine serogroup II and M. canadense. Sequencing of the 34 isolates were analysed using phylogenetic methods, and 18 (50%) were identified as M. arginini with 99% - 100% similarity to M. arginini from England and Sweden. Six isolates showed 99% similarity to M. bovigenitalium strains from Turkey and Germany. Two isolates had 99% similarity to an M. sp. ovine/caprine sero group II from the United Kingdom. BLAST for two isolates revealed 99% similarity to Acholeplasma laidlawii from India, another two were 99% similar to MmmLC strain from Sweden, two showed 98% similarity to Mycoplasma sp. Usp 120 from Brazil, and two isolates have a 97% - 99% similarity to M. mm. Jcv1 strain from the United States of America. Finally, one isolate showed similarity of 99% to Mycoplasma canadense strain from Italy. The findings support the hypothesis that ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa (SA) is a multifactorial disease with involvement of different Mycoplasma species.

  15. Studies into the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in small ruminants in Benue State, North-central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akwuobu, Chinedu A; Ayling, Roger D; Chah, Kennedy Foinkfu; Oboegbulem, Stephen I

    2014-08-01

    The indicative prevalence of respiratory Mycoplasma species in small ruminants (SR) was determined in North-central Nigeria. Nasal swabs from 172 sheep and 336 goats from the Northeast, Northwest and South Senatorial Districts of Benue State were examined. Initial Mycoplasma isolation used Mycoplasma culture techniques followed by digitonin sensitivity testing. Species identification was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, Mycoplasma organisms were isolated from 131 (25.8 %) of the 508 SR examined. Prevalence rates of 18.1 and 29.8 % were recorded for sheep and goats, respectively. A total of 135 isolates of Mycoplasma belonging to three different species were identified: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (127), Mycoplasma arginini (7) and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (1). More than one Mycoplasma species were detected in four (3.1 %) of the 131 confirmed Mycoplasma positive cultures. Mycoplasma was isolated from 16.2 and 29.1 % of animals with and without respiratory signs, respectively. The high isolation rate of mycoplasmas in apparently healthy and clinically sick sheep and goats in this study indicates a carrier status in these SR which may constitute a serious problem in disease control.

  16. Pilot study to evaluate the role of Mycoplasma species in cat bite abscesses.

    PubMed

    Torres-Henderson, Camille; Hesser, Jeff; Hyatt, Doreene R; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with β-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the β-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovecin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and β-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to β-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class.

  17. Widespread infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas in bats in Spain, including a hemoplasma closely related to "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis".

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; López-Roig, Marc; Delicado, Verónica; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Esperón, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Molecular analyses of blood samples revealed infection with hemoplasmas in 97% of 31 cave bats captured in three caves in North-Eastern Spain. The characterization of 1250 bp of the 16S rRNA gene in 29 of the positive bats identified two different groups of sequences. Twenty-two Schreibers' bats (Miniopterus schreibersii) and one long-eared bat (Myotis capaccinii) shared one group, composed of seven closely related sequences. These sequences showed an identity of about 97% with "Candidatus Mycoplasma hemohominis" and the phylogenetic branch including bat and human sequences showed a 100% bootstrap value, supporting a close phylogenetic relationship between these hemoplasmas. The second group, representing a potentially novel species, was composed of a single sequence shared by six Schreibers' bats that had 91% identity with the recently reported hemoplasma from little brown bats in North America. Large bat aggregations in roosting caves probably benefits intra and inter-species transmission explaining the high observed prevalence.

  18. Mycoplasma species in cats with lower airway disease: improved detection and species identification using a polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Reed, Nicki; Simpson, Kerry; Ayling, Roger; Nicholas, Robin; Gunn-Moore, Danielle

    2012-12-01

    There is some evidence that Mycoplasma species may be associated with lower airway disease in cats. Retrospective and prospective studies were carried out on a total population of 76 cats but failed to identify any cases of Mycoplasma species infection by bacterial culture alone. The overall prevalence of bacterial infection (15.8%) was also lower than that identified in previous studies. When a molecular detection technique, the PCR-DGGE, was employed the prevalence of Mycoplasma species detected was 15.4%, with M felis, M gateae and M feliminutum species identified, although the significance of these Mycoplasma species in feline lower airway disease remains in question. However, the PCR-DGGE technique allowed species identification and indicated the presence of M feliminutum, a species not previously isolated from the lower airways of cats.

  19. Integrative conjugative elements are widespread in field isolates of Mycoplasma species pathogenic for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Florence; Mick, Virginie; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Marenda, Marc Serge; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Citti, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Comparative genomics have revealed massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between Mycoplasma species sharing common ruminant hosts. Further results pointed toward an integrative conjugative element (ICE) as an important contributor of HGT in the small-ruminant-pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae. To estimate the prevalence of ICEs in ruminant mycoplasmas, we surveyed their occurrence in a collection of 166 field strains representing 4 (sub)species that are recognized as major pathogens. Based on available sequenced genomes, we first defined the conserved, minimal ICE backbone as composed of 4 coding sequences (CDSs) that are evenly distributed and predicted to be essential for ICE chromosomal integration-excision and horizontal transfer. Screening of the strain collection revealed that these 4 CDSs are well represented in ruminant Mycoplasma species, suggesting widespread occurrence of ICEs. Yet their prevalence varies within and among species, with no correlation found with the individual strain history. Extrachromosomal ICE forms were also often detected, suggesting that ICEs are able to circularize in all species, a first and essential step in ICE horizontal transfer. Examination of the junction of the circular forms and comparative sequence analysis of conserved CDSs clearly pointed toward two types of ICE, the hominis and spiroplasma types, most likely differing in their mechanism of excision-integration. Overall, our data indicate the occurrence and maintenance of functional ICEs in a large number of field isolates of ruminant mycoplasmas. These may contribute to genome plasticity and gene exchanges and, presumably, to the emergence of diverse genotypes within pathogenic mycoplasmas of veterinary importance.

  20. Short communication: The effect of centrifugation and resuspension on the recovery of Mycoplasma species from milk.

    PubMed

    Punyapornwithaya, V; Fox, L K; Gay, G M; Hancock, D D; Alldredge, J R

    2009-09-01

    Low sensitivity of a single bulk tank milk culture is a major limitation for detection of mycoplasma organisms. We hypothesized that sedimentation of Mycoplasma spp. in a milk sample by centrifugation followed by resuspension in a small volume of fluid before agar plating would increase the ability to detect Mycoplasma spp. compared with direct conventional culture. The experiment was conducted to determine recovery of Mycoplasma spp. from milk as affected by 1) treatment (centrifugation vs. conventional method); 2) 2 species (Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma californicum and 4 strains for each species); and 3) 4 different concentrations of Mycoplasma spp. (1,000, 100, 10, and 1 cfu/mL). A 5-mL portion of mycoplasma suspension from each strain was inoculated into 45 mL of fresh bulk tank milk to achieve concentrations of 1,000, 100, 10, and 1 cfu/mL. Treatment samples were vigorously mixed and centrifuged at 5,000 x g for 30 min. Control samples were vigorously mixed. All samples were plated on modified Hayflick agar. Plates were incubated at 37 degrees C and 5% CO(2) for 5 d. Mean (+/-SE) log(10) mycoplasma counts (cfu/mL) in the treatment groups (1.91 +/- 0.15) were higher than those in the control groups (1.70 +/- 0.16). Recovery of at least 1 mycoplasma colony on agar culture was 100% in both treatment and control groups at high, medium, and low concentrations. At the lowest concentration, recovery of at least 1 mycoplasma colony on agar culture in treatment and control groups was 75% (n = 12/16) and 18.75% (n = 3/16), respectively. Centrifugation of milk followed by suspension in a smaller volume of saline before conventional culture increased the ability to detect mycoplasma microorganisms in the milk sample compared with controls. Recovery by centrifugation appeared best at the lowest concentration where detection of a positive sample was 4 times more likely than when conventional methods were used.

  1. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples.

  2. Detection of multiple Mycoplasma species in bulk tank milk samples using real-time PCR and conventional culture and comparison of test sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to further validate a SYBR PCR protocol for Mycoplasma spp. by comparing it with standard microbial culture in the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in bulk tank milk samples. Additionally, we identified Mycoplasma spp. present by analysis of PCR-generated amplicons [dissociation (melt) temperature (T(m)), length, and DNA sequence]. The research presented herein tests the hypothesis that the SYBR PCR protocol is as sensitive as conventional culture for the detection of Mycoplasma spp. in bulk tank milk samples. Mycoplasmas cause several important disease syndromes in cattle, including mastitis in dairy cows. The standard diagnostic method at the herd level has been microbial isolation of mycoplasmas on 1 of several specialized media and speciation through biochemical or immunological techniques; repeated sampling schemes are recommended. The development of a real-time SYBR PCR protocol offers advantages in decrease of time to detection, cost, and complexity. The T(m) of the double-stranded DNA generated from the PCR reaction was used to detect the presence of and tentatively identify the species of mycoplasmas other than Mycoplasma bovis. In the SYBR PCR protocol, the presence of multiple species of mycoplasmas is indicated by an atypical dissociation curve. Gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the amplicons was used to confirm the mycoplasma species present when a non-M. bovis organism was detected (T(m) not equal to M. bovis) and used to identify all the mycoplasma species present for the samples with atypical dissociation curves. Mycoplasma bovis was identified in 83% of SYBR PCR mycoplasma-positive bulk tank samples. Another mycoplasma was identified either alone or in addition to M. bovis in 25% of SYBR PCR mycoplasma-positive bulk tank milk samples. Four species of mycoplasma other than M. bovis (Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, and Mycoplasma gateae) were identified in bulk tank milk samples

  3. Development of a bead-based multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of multiple Mycoplasma species.

    PubMed

    Righter, Daniel J; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Call, Douglas R; McElwain, Terry F

    2011-12-15

    We describe the development and analytical validation of a 7-plex polymerase chain reaction assay coupled to a bead-based liquid suspension array for detection of multiple ruminant Mycoplasma spp. The assay employs a combination of newly designed and previously validated primer-probe sets that target genetic loci specific for Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmSC) and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp). Analytical sensitivity for the targeted Mycoplasma species ranged from 10 fg to 1 pg of purified gDNA extracted from broth cultures (approximately 8-800 MmmSC genome equivalents). In silico comparison of primers and probes, and analytical assessment with a range of near-neighbor Mycoplasma species and multiple bacterial respiratory pathogens demonstrated 100% analytical specificity of the assay. To assess assay performance and diagnostic specificity, 192 bovine respiratory samples were analyzed by incorporating a high throughput DNA extraction platform. The assay correctly classified all samples as negative for MmmSC or Mccp. All 33 field samples confirmed as positive for M. bovis by sequencing the uvrC gene were positive in the assay. The results from this study indicate that the bead-based liquid suspension array will provide a reliable, analytically sensitive and specific platform to simultaneously interrogate ruminant respiratory samples for multiple Mycoplasma species, including M. mycoides cluster organisms that are exotic to the United States. Sequential addition of primer-probe sets to the assay did not significantly impact analytical sensitivity of individual primer-probe combinations, suggesting that expanding the assay to include more Mycoplasma species will not compromise overall performance.

  4. Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese.

    PubMed

    Stipkovits, L; Szathmary, S

    2012-11-01

    Production of ducks and geese in certain parts of the world is very important. Mycoplasma diseases cause significant losses to the duck and goose industry. This review summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of mycoplasma diseases of ducks and geese and the involvement of the various mycoplasma species in their pathogenesis. The role of mycoplasma infections in the development of clinical signs, pathological lesions, and mortality of challenged birds is demonstrated in challenge experiments. Transmission of mycoplasma in the ovary and eggs resulting in the reduction of egg production and an increase of embryo mortality has been shown in challenge experiments as well as in field studies. The susceptibility of many mycoplasma isolates of the most important mycoplasma species of duck and goose origin were tested and showed relatively high average minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin, tilosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and enrofloxacin but not for tiamulin. The successful treatment of mycoplasma infections with antibiotics in ducks and geese should be selected based on the minimum inhibitory concentration values against the mycoplasmas isolated from the flock.

  5. Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Foissac, X; Gaurivaud, P; Laigret, F; Renaudin, J; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2001-10-01

    Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas were discovered by electron microscopy, in 1967, long after the discovery and culture in 1898 of the first pathogenic mycoplasma of animal origin, Mycoplasma mycoides. Mycoplasmas are Eubacteria of the class Mollicutes, a group of organisms phylogenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Their more characteristic features reside in the small size of their genomes, the low guanine (G) plus cytosine (C) content of their genomic DNA and the lack of a cell wall. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are responsible for several hundred diseases and belong to two groups: the phytoplasmas and the spiroplasmas. The phytoplasmas (previously called MLOs, for mycoplasma like organisms) were discovered first; they are pleiomorphic, and have so far resisted in vitro cultivation. Phytoplasmas represent the largest group of plant pathogenic Mollicutes. Only three plant pathogenic spiroplasmas are known today. Spiroplasma citri, the agent of citrus stubborn was discovered and cultured in 1970 and shown to be helical and motile. S. kunkelii is the causal agent of corn stunt. S. phoeniceum, responsible for periwinkle yellows, was discovered in Syria. There are many other spiroplasmas associated with insects and ticks. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in which circulates the photosynthetically-enriched sap, the food for many phloem-feeding insects (aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, etc.). Interestingly, phytopathogenic mycoplasmas are very specifically transmitted by leafhoppers or psyllid species. In this paper, the most recent knowledge on phytopathogenic mycoplasmas in relation with their insect and plant habitats is presented as well as the experiments carried out to control plant mycoplasma diseases, by expression of mycoplasma-directed-antibodies in plants (plantibodies).

  6. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2010-11-01

    Three species of hemotropic mycoplasmas are known to infect cats worldwide, Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum." These organisms were previously known as Haemobartonella felis, but are now known to be mycoplasmas. Assays based on polymerase chain reaction technology are the most sensitive and specific diagnostic tests available for these organisms. M haemofelis is the most pathogenic species, and causes hemolytic anemia in immunocompetent cats. Other differential diagnoses for hemolytic anemia should be considered in cats testing positive for "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," because the presence of these organisms is not always associated with anemia. Blood from infected cats should be handled with care because of the potential zoonotic nature of hemoplasma infections. The treatment of choice for cats with clinical disease is doxycycline.

  7. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-02-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the final MIC had to be read 2 days after color changes had stopped. MICs of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline were low for the three Mycoplasma species tested. MICs of chlortetracycline were 8 to 16 times higher than MICs of the other tetracyclines. Spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, lincomycin, and clindamycin were effective against all strains of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. The quinolones were highly effective against M. hyopneumoniae but less effective against M. hyorhinis. The susceptibility patterns for M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare were similar.

  8. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-01-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the final MIC had to be read 2 days after color changes had stopped. MICs of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline were low for the three Mycoplasma species tested. MICs of chlortetracycline were 8 to 16 times higher than MICs of the other tetracyclines. Spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, lincomycin, and clindamycin were effective against all strains of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. The quinolones were highly effective against M. hyopneumoniae but less effective against M. hyorhinis. The susceptibility patterns for M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare were similar. PMID:2024954

  9. A PCR assay and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism combination identifying the 3 primary Mycoplasma species causing mastitis.

    PubMed

    Boonyayatra, S; Fox, L K; Besser, T E; Sawant, A; Gay, J M; Raviv, Z

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the current research was to develop real-time PCR assays with improved sensitivity and the capacity to simultaneously speciate the 3 most common mycoplasma mastitis agents: Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma californicum, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. Real-time PCR was chosen because it provides rapid results. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used as the gold standard for evaluating candidate real-time PCR assays. To ascertain the real-time PCR assay specificity, reference strains of Mycoplasma species, Acholeplasma axanthum, and common gram-positive and gram-negative mastitis pathogens were tested. No cross-reactions were observed. Mycoplasma spp. isolated from bovine milk samples (n=228) and other organ sites (n=40) were tested by the real-time PCR assays and the partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing assay. Overall accuracy of this novel real-time PCR was 98.51%; 4 of 228 isolates identified as M. bovis by the partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing assay were identified as both M. bovis and M. californicum by real-time PCR. Subsequent amplicon sequencing suggested the presence of both M. bovis and M. californicum in these 4 samples. Using a cycle threshold of 37, the detection limits for real-time PCR were 10 copies of DNA template for both M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium, and 1 copy for M. californicum. This real-time PCR assay is a diagnostic technique that may be used as a screening tool or as a confirmation test for mycoplasma mastitis.

  10. Ageing-related changes in Mycoplasma canadense membranes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G E; Sotomayor, C P

    1992-01-01

    Fluidity and composition of cell membranes during progression of Mycoplasma canadense cultures grown in a serum-free medium was assessed. The fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene at 25 degrees C of intact cells and liposomes in the exponential and stationary phases of growth was compared. A decrease in fluidity and an increase in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was detected in cell membranes on aging. Nevertheless, membrane density remained unaltered although the molar ratio of cholesterol to phospholipids decreased. It is proposed that the increase in lipid order is primarily due to the increase in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated membrane fatty acids, being the diminished molar ratio of cholesterol to phospholipids involved in the reduced unsaturated fatty acid uptake.

  11. Identification of a Novel Mycoplasma Species in a Patient With Septic Arthritis of the Hip and Seal Finger.

    PubMed

    Westley, Benjamin P; Horazdovsky, Ryan D; Michaels, Dina L; Brown, Daniel R

    2016-02-15

    An Alaska Native hunter developed fever, swollen finger, and septic hips after harvesting seals. Evaluation of hip tissue by 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction and sequencing revealed a putative novel mycoplasma species. We report the identification of this organism and describe the first known case of disseminated seal finger mycoplasmosis.

  12. Use of polymerase chain reactions to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma imitans, Mycoplasma iowae, Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae in birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Lueschow, D; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Certain Mycoplasma spp. are pathogens of poultry, but little is known of the role of mycoplasmas in disease of birds of prey. Species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for the detection of the poultry pathogens Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma imitans, Mycoplasma iowae, Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae were therefore evaluated for use in birds of prey. The specificities of the PCR methods were established using avian and other mycoplasmas and also selected walled bacteria. The sensitivities of the different PCR assays varied between 100 fg and 10 pg DNA. Fifty-three tracheal swabs from healthy captive and free-ranging birds of prey were then investigated using these PCRs, and in no case was an amplicon obtained for M. gallisepticum/M. imitans, M. iowae or M. synoviae. Species-specific primers for M. meleagridis amplified a product from eight birds of prey but restriction enzyme analysis as well as sequencing of PCR products demonstrated these results to be false positives. Alignment studies of the sequenced products with the 16S rRNA gene sequence of various Mycoplasma species in GenBank demonstrated an identity of 91% to M. meleagridis but of 98% to Mycoplasma buteonis or Mycoplasma gallopavonis. Isolation and attempted identification of these mycoplasmas suggested it may be a previously unrecognized species.

  13. Semi-automated relative quantification of cell culture contamination with mycoplasma by Photoshop-based image analysis on immunofluorescence preparations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Yerneni, Lakshmana K

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination in cell culture is a serious setback for the cell-culturist. The experiments undertaken using contaminated cell cultures are known to yield unreliable or false results due to various morphological, biochemical and genetic effects. Earlier surveys revealed incidences of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures to range from 15 to 80%. Out of a vast array of methods for detecting mycoplasma in cell culture, the cytological methods directly demonstrate the contaminating organism present in association with the cultured cells. In this investigation, we report the adoption of a cytological immunofluorescence assay (IFA), in an attempt to obtain a semi-automated relative quantification of contamination by employing the user-friendly Photoshop-based image analysis. The study performed on 77 cell cultures randomly collected from various laboratories revealed mycoplasma contamination in 18 cell cultures simultaneously by IFA and Hoechst DNA fluorochrome staining methods. It was observed that the Photoshop-based image analysis on IFA stained slides was very valuable as a sensitive tool in providing quantitative assessment on the extent of contamination both per se and in comparison to cellularity of cell cultures. The technique could be useful in estimating the efficacy of anti-mycoplasma agents during decontaminating measures.

  14. Role of Relative Humidity in the Survival of Airborne Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. N.; Bailey, G. D.; Hatch, M. T.

    1968-01-01

    Aerosols of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were studied at several relative humidities at a controlled temperature of 27 C. Production of an experimentally reproducible aerosol required preatomization of the organism in its suspending fluid and was dependent on the type of fluid used in atomization as well as on the procedures used to produce an aerosol. The airborne particles studied were within the range of epidemiological significance, with most being 2 μm or less in diameter. Survival of the airborne mycoplasma in these particles was found to be best at very low and at very high humidities. The most lethal relative humidity levels were at 60 and 80%, at which levels fewer than 1% of the organisms survived over a 4-hr observation period. However, survival of the organism at most relative humidity levels was such that long-term infectivity could be expected from aerosols of M. pneumoniae. Because of the extreme sensitivity of M. pneumoniae at critical humidity levels, control of the airborne transmission of these organisms may be possible in selected spaces. PMID:5686020

  15. Comparison of culture and a multiplex probe PCR for identifying Mycoplasma species in bovine milk, semen and swab samples

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Alysia M.; House, John K.; Hazelton, Mark S.; Bosward, Katrina L.; Sheehy, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are a major cause of mastitis, arthritis and pneumonia in cattle, and have been associated with reproductive disorders in cows. While culture is the traditional method of identification the use of PCR has become more common. Several investigators have developed PCR protocols to detect M. bovis in milk, yet few studies have evaluated other sample types or other important Mycoplasma species. Therefore the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay to detect M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium, and evaluate its analytical performance against traditional culture of bovine milk, semen and swab samples. The PCR specificity was determined and the limit of detection evaluated in spiked milk, semen and swabs. The PCR was then compared to culture on 474 field samples from individual milk, bulk tank milk (BTM), semen and swab (vaginal, preputial, nose and eye) samples. Specificity analysis produced appropriate amplification for all M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium isolates. Amplification was not seen for any of the other Mollicutes or eubacterial isolates. The limit of detection of the PCR was best in milk, followed by semen and swabs. When all three Mycoplasma species were present in a sample, the limit of detection increased. When comparing culture and PCR, overall there was no significant difference in the proportion of culture and PCR positive samples. Culture could detect significantly more positive swab samples. No significant differences were identified for semen, individual milk or BTM samples. PCR identified five samples with two species present. Culture followed by 16S-23S rRNA sequencing did not enable identification of more than one species. Therefore, the superior method for identification of M. bovis, M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium may be dependent on the sample type being analysed, and whether the identification of multiple target species is required. PMID:28264012

  16. Mycoplasma detection and isolation from one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Mederos-Iriarte, Lidia E; Poveda, José B; Poveda, Carlos G; Vega-Orellana, Orestes M; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Corbera, Juan A; Ramírez, Ana S

    2014-10-01

    In scientific literature, a small amount of information is found concerning mycoplasmosis in camel species. Mycoplasma (M.) arginini, Acholeplasma (A.) laidlawii, and Acholeplasma oculi have been reported to be isolated from these host species. Serologically positive results have been reported for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC type, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, and M. mycoides subsp. capri. The aims of this study were to detect, isolate, and identify mycoplasmas from camels (Camelus dromedarius). Initially, saliva and ear smears plus conjunctival and vaginal secretions were taken from five female animals, but only conjunctival secretions in three male animals, all belonging to the same farm. An unknown mycoplasma was isolated from one of the vagina samples. Additionally, another unknown and uncultured mycoplasma was detected with molecular biology in the same sample. In the second stage, 23 vaginal secretions were taken from the same farm plus another secretion from a different one. Ten isolates of the same unknown and previously isolated mycoplasma were detected, nine of them recovered from the vagina of female camels. Some mycoplasmas have been related to reproductive disorders; however, there is no evidence that the isolated mycoplasmas are related to such disorders.

  17. Mm19, a Mycoplasma meleagridis Major Surface Nuclease that Is Related to the RE_AlwI Superfamily of Endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Elhem; Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, Boutheina

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma meleagridis infection is widespread in turkeys, causing poor growth and feathering, airsacculitis, osteodystrophy, and reduction in hatchability. Like most mycoplasma species, M. meleagridis is characterized by its inability to synthesize purine and pyrimidine nucleotides de novo. Consistent with this intrinsic deficiency, we here report the cloning, expression, and characterization of a M. meleagridis gene sequence encoding a major surface nuclease, referred to as Mm19. Mm19 consists of a 1941- bp ORF encoding a 646-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 74,825 kDa. BLASTP analysis revealed a significant match with the catalytic/dimerization domain of type II restriction enzymes of the RE_AlwI superfamily. This finding is consistent with the genomic location of Mm19 sequence, which dispalys characteristics of a typical type II restriction-modification locus. Like intact M. meleagridis cells, the E. coli-expressed Mm19 fusion product was found to exhibit a nuclease activity against plasmid DNA, double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and RNA. The Mm19-associated nuclease activity was consistently enhanced with Mg2+ divalent cations, a hallmark of type II restriction enzymes. A rabbit hyperimmune antiserum raised against the bacterially expressed Mm19 strongly reacted with M. meleagridis intact cells and fully neutralized the surface-bound nuclease activity. Collectively, the results show that M. meleagridis expresses a strong surface-bound nuclease activity, which is the product of a single gene sequence that is related to the RE_AlwI superfamily of endonucleases. PMID:27010566

  18. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Walking pneumonia; Community-acquired pneumonia - mycoplasma; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Mycoplasma pneumonia usually affects people younger than 40. People who live or work in crowded areas such ...

  19. Secretomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare reveal differences associated to pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paes, Jéssica A; Lorenzatto, Karina R; de Moraes, Sofia N; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-02-10

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare cohabit the porcine respiratory tract. However, M. hyopneumoniae causes the porcine enzootic pneumonia, while M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Comparative analyses demonstrated high similarity between these species, which includes the sharing of all predicted virulence factors. Nevertheless, studies related to soluble secretomes of mycoplasmas were little known, although they are important for bacterial-host interactions. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis between the soluble secreted proteins repertoires of the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and its closely related commensal Mycoplasma flocculare. For that, bacteria were cultured in medium with reduced serum concentration and secreted proteins were identified by a LC-MS/MS proteomics approach. Altogether, 62 and 26 proteins were identified as secreted by M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare, respectively, being just seven proteins shared between these bacteria. In M. hyopneumoniae secretome, 15 proteins described as virulence factors were found; while four putative virulence factors were identified in M. flocculare secretome. For the first time, clear differences related to virulence were found between these species, helping to elucidate the pathogenic nature of M. hyopneumoniae to swine hosts.

  20. Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Laleh; Farzaneh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affect cell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research, industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contamination and detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the ways in which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species in cell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importance of mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasma contamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6. available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sources of mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detection methods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture. PMID:23508237

  1. Adaptation of mycoplasmas to antimicrobial agents: Acholeplasma laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediate the export of ciprofloxacin and a mutant gene related to the antibiotic target.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, Elena S; Baranova, Natalia B; Mouzykantov, Alexey A; Grigorieva, Tatiana Yu; Davydova, Marina N; Trushin, Maxim V; Chernova, Olga A; Chernov, Vladislav M

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrated that extracellular membrane vesicles are involved with the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones by mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes). This study assessed the differences in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among strains of Acholeplasma laidlawii PG8. The mechanisms of mycoplasma resistance to antibiotics may be associated with a mutation in a gene related to the target of quinolones, which could modulate the vesiculation level. A. laidlawii extracellular vesicles mediated the export of the nucleotide sequences of the antibiotic target gene as well as the traffic of ciprofloxacin. These results may facilitate the development of effective approaches to control mycoplasma infections, as well as the contamination of cell cultures and vaccine preparations.

  2. Mycoplasma viruses.

    PubMed

    Maniloff, J

    1988-01-01

    Unlike bacterial viruses that infect cells bounded by a cell wall, mycoplasma viruses have evolved to enter and propagate in mycoplasma cells bounded only by a single lipid-protein cell membrane. In addition, mycoplasmas have the smallest amount of genetic information of any known cells, so their complexity is constrained by a limited genetic coding capacity. As a consequence of these host cell differences, mycoplasma viruses have been found to have a variety of structures and replication strategies which are different from those of the bacterial viruses. This article is a critical review of mycoplasma viruses infecting the genera Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma, and Mycoplasma; included are data on classification, morphology and structure, biological and physical properties, chemical composition, and productive and lysogenic replication cycles.

  3. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C Micha; Baylis, Sally A; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the "1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection" (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing.

  4. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Sally A.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the “1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection” (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing. PMID:26070671

  5. Swine and Poultry Pathogens: the Complete Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a Strain of Mycoplasma synoviae†

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Carvalho, Marcos O.; Pinto, Paulo M.; Almeida, Darcy F.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Almeida, Rosana; Alves-Filho, Leonardo; Assunção, Enedina N.; Azevedo, Vasco A. C.; Bogo, Maurício R.; Brigido, Marcelo M.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Burity, Helio A.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Camargo, Sandro S.; Carepo, Marta S.; Carraro, Dirce M.; de Mattos Cascardo, Júlio C.; Castro, Luiza A.; Cavalcanti, Gisele; Chemale, Gustavo; Collevatti, Rosane G.; Cunha, Cristina W.; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Dambrós, Bibiana P.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Falcão, Clarissa; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Felipe, Maria S. S.; Fiorentin, Laurimar; Franco, Gloria R.; Freitas, Nara S. A.; Frías, Diego; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Guimarães, Claudia T.; Hungria, Mariangela; Jardim, Sílvia N.; Krieger, Marco A.; Laurino, Jomar P.; Lima, Lucymara F. A.; Lopes, Maryellen I.; Loreto, Élgion L. S.; Madeira, Humberto M. F.; Manfio, Gilson P.; Maranhão, Andrea Q.; Martinkovics, Christyanne T.; Medeiros, Sílvia R. B.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Neiva, Márcia; Ramalho-Neto, Cicero E.; Nicolás, Marisa F.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Paixão, Roger F. C.; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Pereira, Maristela; Pereira-Ferrari, Lilian; Piffer, Itamar; Pinto, Luciano S.; Potrich, Deise P.; Salim, Anna C. M.; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schmitt, Renata; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene S.; Schuck, Adriana F.; Seuanez, Hector N.; Silva, Denise W.; Silva, Rosane; Silva, Sérgio C.; Soares, Célia M. A.; Souza, Kelly R. L.; Souza, Rangel C.; Staats, Charley C.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2005-01-01

    This work reports the results of analyses of three complete mycoplasma genomes, a pathogenic (7448) and a nonpathogenic (J) strain of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae; the genome sizes of the three strains were 920,079 bp, 897,405 bp, and 799,476 bp, respectively. These genomes were compared with other sequenced mycoplasma genomes reported in the literature to examine several aspects of mycoplasma evolution. Strain-specific regions, including integrative and conjugal elements, and genome rearrangements and alterations in adhesin sequences were observed in the M. hyopneumoniae strains, and all of these were potentially related to pathogenicity. Genomic comparisons revealed that reduction in genome size implied loss of redundant metabolic pathways, with maintenance of alternative routes in different species. Horizontal gene transfer was consistently observed between M. synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our analyses indicated a likely transfer event of hemagglutinin-coding DNA sequences from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae. PMID:16077101

  6. Multi-primer qPCR assay capable of highly efficient and specific detection of the vast majority of all known Mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Salling, H K; Bang-Christensen, S R

    2016-05-01

    Mycoplasma bacteria are able to pass through sterilizing grade filters due to their small size and lack of a cell wall, making them a common contaminant of biopharmaceutical productions. The classical method for detecting Mycoplasma is described in the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur) 2.6.7. The method takes 28 days to perform, due to the slow growing nature of some Mycoplasma species. The Ph.Eur has described Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) as a rapid alternative to the classical method. Here we present the development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay capable of unambiguous detection of Mycoplasma with high sensitivity and specificity. The broadness of detection and the specificity towards Mycoplasma has been investigated by in silico analysis of the primer sequences followed by testing on purified Mycoplasma DNA as well as DNA from closely related genera. The assay will in all probability detect at least 356 species and strains of Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma and Acholeplasma with high sensitivity. To our knowledge this assay has the most uniform amplification efficiency over the broadest range of species and it is extremely specific towards Mycoplasma. With appropriate validation, the assay can be applied as a powerful tool for rapid Mycoplasma detection in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  7. Relative virulence in bison and cattle of bison-associated genotypes of Mycoplasma bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from bovine respiratory disease complex. It has recently emerged as a major health problem in bison, causing pharyngitis, pneumonia, arthritis, dystocia and abortion. In cattle, M. b...

  8. Detection of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. arginini in bighorn sheep using enrichment culture coupled with genus- and species-specific polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Glen C; Drew, Mark L; Cassirer, E Frances; Ward, Alton C S

    2012-04-01

    Mycoplasma species are of interest as possible primary pathogens in the pneumonia complex of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Previous investigations have not commonly detected low frequencies of Mycoplasma spp. from free-ranging bighorn sheep, possibly due to the fastidious and slow growth of these organisms. We developed a culture protocol that employed an average initial 3-day enrichment culture in liquid Hayflick broth in a CO(2)-enhanced atmosphere. The broth was plated to solid Hayflick medium and the cultures observed for growth for up to 30 days. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA isolated from the enrichment broth and on isolates obtained from culture using Mycoplasma genus-specific PCR assays and species-specific PCR assays for M. arginini and M. ovipneumoniae. Some cultures that grew on Hayflick plates were picked as single colonies but were mixed because two organisms may grow together and appear as a single colony. Culture and PCR tests produced similar results for M. arginini, but for M. ovipneumoniae, culture alone was less accurate than PCR. Use of genus-specific primers also may allow detection of other species in samples negative for M. arginini and M. ovipneumoniae. Two methods of transport from field to laboratory (Port-a-Cul™ tubes, cryoprotectant in liquid N(2) and Fisher Transport System) gave similar results under our study conditions.

  9. General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Daubenspeck, James M.; Jordan, David S.; Simmons, Warren; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a cell wall, flagella, fimbria, and other extracellular appendages and the possession of only a single membrane render the mycoplasmas structurally simplistic and ideal model organisms for the study of glycoconjugates. Most species have genomes of about 800 kb and code for few proteins predicted to have a role in glycobiology. The murine pathogens Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis have only a single gene annotated as coding for a glycosyltransferase but synthesize glycolipid, polysaccharide and glycoproteins. Previously, it was shown that M. arthritidis glycosylated surface lipoproteins through O-linkage. In the current study, O-linked glycoproteins were similarly found in M. pulmonis and both species of mycoplasma were found to also possess N-linked glycans at residues of asparagine and glutamine. Protein glycosylation occurred at numerous sites on surface-exposed lipoproteins with no apparent amino acid sequence specificity. The lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae also are glycosylated. Glycosylation was dependent on the glycosidic linkages from host oligosaccharides. As far as we are aware, N-linked glycoproteins have not been previously described in Gram-positive bacteria, the organisms to which the mycoplasmas are phylogenetically related. The findings indicate that the mycoplasma cell surface is heavily glycosylated with implications for the modulation of mycoplasma-host interactions. PMID:26599081

  10. Genomic characterization of symbiotic mycoplasmas from the stomach of deep-sea isopod bathynomus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Huang, Jiao-Mei; Wang, Shao-Lu; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Danchin, Antoine; He, Li-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Deep-sea isopod scavengers such as Bathynomus sp. are able to live in nutrient-poor environments, which is likely attributable to the presence of symbiotic microbes in their stomach. In this study we recovered two draft genomes of mycoplasmas, Bg1 and Bg2, from the metagenomes of the stomach contents and stomach sac of a Bathynomus sp. sample from the South China Sea (depth of 898 m). Phylogenetic trees revealed a considerable genetic distance to other mycoplasma species for Bg1 and Bg2. Compared with terrestrial symbiotic mycoplasmas, the Bg1 and Bg2 genomes were enriched with genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) and sodium-driven symporters responsible for the uptake of sugars, amino acids and other carbohydrates. The genome of mycoplasma Bg1 contained sialic acid lyase and transporter genes, potentially enabling the bacteria to attach to the stomach sac and obtain organic carbons from various cell walls. Both of the mycoplasma genomes contained multiple copies of genes related to proteolysis and oligosaccharide degradation, which may help the host survive in low-nutrient conditions. The discovery of the different types of mycoplasma bacteria in the stomach of this deep-sea isopod affords insights into symbiotic model of deep-sea animals and genomic plasticity of mycoplasma bacteria.

  11. Submasseteric abscess caused by Mycoplasma salivarium infection.

    PubMed

    Grisold, Andrea J; Hoenigl, Martin; Leitner, Eva; Jakse, Klaus; Feierl, Gebhard; Raggam, Reinhard B; Marth, Egon

    2008-11-01

    Mycoplasma salivarium preferentially resides in the human oral cavity. Unlike other Mycoplasma species, M. salivarium has not been regarded as a pathogen, although one case of M. salivarium-caused arthritis in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia has been reported. We describe the first case of submasseteric abscess caused by M. salivarium.

  12. Detection of Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma californicum in dairy cattle from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tamiozzo, Pablo J; Estanguet, Abel A; Maito, Julia; Tirante, Liliana; Pol, Martin; Giraudo, José A

    2014-01-01

    Different species of Mycoplasma can affect bovine cattle, causing several diseases. PCR sequencing and further analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region have shown a significant interspecies variability among Mollicutes. Sixteen suspected isolates of Mycoplasma spp. obtained from milk samples from dairy herds were amplified (16S-23S rRNA ITS region). Fourteen out of those 16 suspected Mycoplasma spp. isolates were PCR-positive. To confirm the identity of Mycoplasma bovis, these 14 isolates were tested by another species-specific PCR. Seven of the isolates rendered a positive result. The products of 16S-23S rRNA ITS PCR from one isolate that was identified as M. bovis and from two other isolates, identified as non- M. bovis were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. The three sequences (A, B and C) showed 100% similarity with M. bovis, Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma californicum respectively.

  13. Molecular detection of Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' in cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Michihito; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2008-11-25

    Blood samples from 78 cattle were tested for hemoplasma infection using molecular methods. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that 17 cattle were infected with Mycoplasma wenyonii, while 13 were infected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos'. Four animals were infected with both species. This is the first study to report hemoplasma species infection among cattle in Japan.

  14. Interactive host cells related to Mycoplasma suis α-enolase by yeast two-hybrid analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingming; Jia, Lijun; Li, Jixu; Xue, Shujiang; Gao, Xu; Yu, Longzheng; Zhang, Shoufa

    2014-10-01

    Mycoplasma suis belongs to the haemotrophic mycoplasmas, which colonise the red blood cells of a wide range of vertebrates. Adhesion to red blood cells is the crucial step in the unique lifecycle of M. suis. In addition to MSG1 protein, α-enolase is the second adhesion protein of M. suis, and may be involved in the adhesion of M. suis to porcine red blood cells (RBC). To simulate the environment of the RBC, we established the cDNA library of swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen α-enolase interactive proteins in the PBMC line. Alignment with the NCBI database revealed four interactive proteins: beta-actin, 60S ribosomal protein L11, clusterin precursor and endonuclease/reverse transcriptase. However, the M. suis α-enolase interactive proteins in the PBMC cDNA library obtained in the current study provide valuable information about the host cell interactions of the M. suis α-enolase protein.

  15. Contagious agalactia due to Mycoplasma spp. in small dairy ruminants: epidemiology and prospects for diagnosis and control.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Paterna, Ana; De la Fe, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Contagious agalactia (CA) is a serious disease of small dairy ruminants that has a substantial economic impact on the goat and sheep milk industries. The main aetiological agent of the disease is Mycoplasma agalactiae, although other species, such as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and Mycoplasma putrefaciens, are pathogenic in goats. There are two clinical-epidemiological states of CA in sheep and goats; herds and flocks may exhibit outbreaks of CA or may be chronically infected, the latter with a high incidence of subclinical mastitis and only occasional clinical cases. The complex epidemiology of CA is related to the genetic characteristics and mechanisms of molecular variation of the Mycoplasma spp. involved, along with presence of CA-mycoplasmas in wild ruminant species. In goats, the situation is particularly complex and asymptomatic carriers have been detected in chronically infected herds. The coexistence of other non-pathogenic mycoplasmas in the herd further complicates the diagnosis of CA and the design of efficient strategies to control the disease. Routes of infection, such as the venereal route, may be involved in the establishment of chronic infection in herds. Current challenges include the need for improved diagnostic methods for detection of chronic and subclinical infections and for the design of more efficient vaccines.

  16. Mycoplasma agassizii sp., nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Mary E.; Brown, D.R.; Kelin, P.A.; McLaughlin, G.S.; Schumacher, Isabella M.; Jacobson, E.R.; Adams, H.P.; Tully, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies were performed on seven mycoplasma isolates that were recovered from the upper respiratory tract of clinically ill desert tortoises. The isolates were serologically related to each other but serologically distinct from previously described species. Unique mycoplasma species-specific 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were found in the proposed type strain. The name Mycoplasma agassizii is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is PS6T (=ATCC 700616T) which caused upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in experimentally infected tortoises.

  17. Gliding Motility of Mycoplasma mobile on Uniform Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Taishi; Hamaguchi, Tasuku

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The binding and gliding of Mycoplasma mobile on a plastic plate covered by 53 uniform oligosaccharides were analyzed. Mycoplasmas bound to and glided on only 21 of the fixed sialylated oligosaccharides (SOs), showing that sialic acid is essential as the binding target. The affinities were mostly consistent with our previous results on the inhibitory effects of free SOs and suggested that M. mobile recognizes SOs from the nonreducing end with four continuous sites as follows. (i and ii) A sialic acid at the nonreducing end is tightly recognized by tandemly connected two sites. (iii) The third site is recognized by a loose groove that may be affected by branches. (iv) The fourth site is recognized by a large groove that may be enhanced by branches, especially those with a negative charge. The cells glided on uniform SOs in manners apparently similar to those of the gliding on mixed SOs. The gliding speed was related inversely to the mycoplasma's affinity for SO, suggesting that the detaching step may be one of the speed determinants. The cells glided faster and with smaller fluctuations on the uniform SOs than on the mixtures, suggesting that the drag caused by the variation in SOs influences gliding behaviors. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma is a group of bacteria generally parasitic to animals and plants. Some Mycoplasma species form a protrusion at a pole, bind to solid surfaces, and glide in the direction of the protrusion. These procedures are essential for parasitism. Usually, mycoplasmas glide on mixed sialylated oligosaccharides (SOs) derived from glycoprotein and glycolipid. Since gliding motility on uniform oligosaccharides has never been observed, this study gives critical information about recognition and interaction between receptors and SOs. PMID:26148712

  18. Development of fluorescence expression tools to study host-mycoplasma interactions and validation in two distant mycoplasma clades.

    PubMed

    Bonnefois, Tiffany; Vernerey, Marie-Stéphanie; Rodrigues, Valérie; Totté, Philippe; Puech, Carinne; Ripoll, Chantal; Thiaucourt, François; Manso-Silván, Lucía

    2016-10-20

    Fluorescence expression tools for stable and innocuous whole mycoplasma cell labelling have been developed. A Tn4001-derivative mini-transposon affording unmarked, stable mutagenesis in mycoplasmas was modified to allow the constitutive, high-level expression of mCherry, mKO2 and mNeonGreen. These tools were used to introduce the respective fluorescent proteins as chromosomal tags in the phylogenetically distant species Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and Mycoplasma bovis. The production, selection and characterisation of fluorescent clones were straightforward and resulted in the unprecedented observation of red and green fluorescent mycoplasma colonies in the two species, with no apparent cytotoxicity. Equivalent fluorescence expression levels were quantified by flow cytometry in both species, suggesting that these tools can be broadly applied in mycoplasmas. A macrophage infection assay was performed to assess the usefulness of mNeonGreen-expressing strains for monitoring mycoplasma infections, and notably cell invasion. The presence of fluorescent mycoplasmas inside live phagocytic cells was detected and quantified by flow cytometry and corroborated by confocal microscopy, which allowed the identification of individual mycoplasmas in the cytoplasm of infected cells. The fluorescence expression tools developed in this study are suitable for host-pathogen interaction studies and offer innumerable perspectives for the functional analysis of mycoplasmas both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Systemic Disease in Vaal Rhebok (Pelea capreolus) Caused by Mycoplasmas in the Mycoides Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Melissa M.; Stalis, Ilse H.; Clippinger, Tracy L.; Busch, Martin; Nordhausen, Robert; Maalouf, Gabriel; Schrenzel, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    In the winter of 2002, an outbreak of mycoplasma infection in Vaal rhebok (Pelea capreolus) originating from South Africa occurred 15 weeks after their arrival in San Diego, Calif. Three rhebok developed inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, signs related to pulmonary or arthral dysfunction, and sepsis. All three rhebok died or were euthanized. Primary postmortem findings were erosive tracheitis, pleuropneumonia, regional cellulitis, and necrotizing lymphadenitis. Mycoplasmas were detected in numerous tissues by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. The three deceased rhebok were coinfected with ovine herpesvirus-2, and two animals additionally had a novel gammaherpesvirus. However, no lesions indicative of herpesvirus were seen microscopically in any animal. The rheboks' mycoplasmas were characterized at the level of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and the fructose biphosphate aldolase gene. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to address the possibility of infection with multiple strains. Two of the deceased rhebok were infected with a single strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, and the third animal had a single, unique strain most closely related to Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony. A PCR survey of DNA samples from 46 other ruminant species demonstrated the presence of several species of mycoplasmas in the mycoides cluster, including a strain of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum identical to that found in two of the rhebok. These findings demonstrate the pervasiveness of mycoplasmas in the mycoides cluster in small ruminants and the potential for interspecies transmission and disease when different animal taxa come in contact. PMID:15750104

  20. Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Clark, H W

    1965-11-01

    Clark, Harold W. (The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.). Sedimentation counting and morphology of Mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 90:1373-1386. 1965.-The sedimentation technique for counting viral particles was applied to the quantitation and morphological identification of Mycoplasma in broth cultures. Mycoplasma, apparently in their native form, firmly adhered to the surface, when sedimented on glass cover slips or onto electron microscope grids. The sedimented cover slip preparations stained with crystal violet could be readily counted in the light microscope. The cultures sedimented onto electron microscope grids were readily counted at low magnification and provided excellent preparations for morphological examination at higher magnifications. It was found that air-dried Mycoplasma particles were enlarged considerably because of excessive flattening. Fixation of sedimented Mycoplasma particles in diluted OsO(4) prior to air drying yielded a more realistic morphology, with various sizes and shapes in the stages of the growth cycle exhibited. A new technique of differentially staining Mycoplasma colonies on agar plates was developed to facilitate the quantitation of viable colony-forming units for comparison with total counts. The use of plastic or Parafilm gaskets for dry mounting was developed to facilitate the handling and examination of the stained cover slip preparations. The results of this investigation indicated that the growth cycle of some Mycoplasma species includes a stage of hexadic fission with the cleavage of minimal reproductive units (less than 100 mmu) containing a limited deoxyribonucleic acid genetic coding molecule (approximately 4 x 10(6)).

  1. Functional characterization of the RuvB homologs from Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed

    Estevão, Silvia; Sluijter, Marcel; Hartwig, Nico G; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Vink, Cornelis

    2011-12-01

    Homologous recombination between repeated DNA elements in the genomes of Mycoplasma species has been hypothesized to be a crucial causal factor in sequence variation of antigenic proteins at the bacterial surface. To investigate this notion, studies were initiated to identify and characterize the proteins that form part of the homologous DNA recombination machinery in Mycoplasma pneumoniae as well as Mycoplasma genitalium. Among the most likely participants of this machinery are homologs of the Holliday junction migration motor protein RuvB. In both M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium, genes have been identified that have the capacity to encode RuvB homologs (MPN536 and MG359, respectively). Here, the characteristics of the MPN536- and MG359-encoded proteins (the RuvB proteins from M. pneumoniae strain FH [RuvB(FH)] and M. genitalium [RuvB(Mge)], respectively) are described. Both RuvB(FH) and RuvB(Mge) were found to have ATPase activity and to bind DNA. In addition, both proteins displayed divalent cation- and ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity on partially double-stranded DNA substrates. The helicase activity of RuvB(Mge), however, was significantly lower than that of RuvB(FH). Interestingly, we found RuvB(FH) to be expressed exclusively by subtype 2 strains of M. pneumoniae. In strains belonging to the other major subtype (subtype 1), a version of the protein is expressed (the RuvB protein from M. pneumoniae strain M129 [RuvB(M129)]) that differs from RuvB(FH) in a single amino acid residue (at position 140). In contrast to RuvB(FH), RuvB(M129) displayed only marginal levels of DNA-unwinding activity. These results demonstrate that M. pneumoniae strains (as well as closely related Mycoplasma spp.) can differ significantly in the function of components of their DNA recombination and repair machinery.

  2. Survey of plasmids in various mycoplasmas.

    PubMed Central

    Harasawa, R.; Barile, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-three strains representing 15 distinct Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Spiroplasma species were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic patterns of the DNAs of three strains, Mycoplasma sp. strain 747, Spiroplasma mirum strain SMCA, and M. hominis strain 1257, suggested the presence of a plasmid with molecular weights of approximately 70, 10, and 9 megadaltons, respectively. The functions of these plasmids are currently unknown. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6679154

  3. Detection and prevention of mycoplasma hominis infection

    DOEpatents

    DelVecchio, Vito G.; Gallia, Gary L.; McCleskey, Ferne K.

    1997-01-21

    The present invention is directed to a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Mycoplasma hominis using M. hominis-specific probes, oligonucleotides or antibodies. In particular a target sequence can be amplified by in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, detected by nucleic acid hybridization using the subject probes and oligonucleotides or detected by immunoassay using M. hominis-specific antibodies. M. hominis-specific nucleic acids which do not recognize or hybridize to genomic nucleic acid of other Mycoplasma species are also provided.

  4. [Pathogenic factors of mycoplasma].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are smallest organisms capable of self-replication and cause various diseases in human. Especially, Mycoplasma pneumoniae is known as an etiological agent of pneumonia. From 2010 to 2012, epidemics of M. pneumoniae infections were reported worldwide (e.g., in France, Israel, and Japan). In the diseases caused by mycoplasmas, strong inflammatory responses induced by mycoplasmas have been thought to be important. However, mycoplasmas lack of cell wall and do not possess inflammation-inducing endotoxin such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We purified inflammation-inducing factors from pathogenic mycoplasmas and identified that they were lipoproteins. Lipoproteins derived from mycoplasmas induced inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. In addition, we demonstrated that cytadherent property of M. pneumoniae played an important role in induction of inflammatory responses. Cytadherent property of M. pneumoniae induced inflammatory responses through TLR2 independent pathway. TLR4, inflammasomes, and autophagy were involved in this TLR2 independent induction of inflammatory responses.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.

  6. Mycoplasma iguanae sp. nov., from a green iguana (Iguana iguana) with vertebral disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Demcovitz, D L; Plourdé, D R; Potter, S M; Hunt, M E; Jones, R D; Rotstein, D S

    2006-04-01

    Strain 2327T, first cultured from vertebral abscesses of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) collected in Florida, USA, was readily distinguished from all previously described mollicutes by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Strain 2327T lacks a cell wall, ferments glucose, does not hydrolyse arginine, aesculin or urea and is sensitive to digitonin. Western blots distinguished the novel isolate serologically from the most closely related members of the Mycoplasma neurolyticum cluster. On the basis of these data, the isolate represents a novel species for which the name Mycoplasma iguanae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 2327T (=ATCC BAA-1050T = NCTC 11745T).

  7. Genes Found Essential in Other Mycoplasmas Are Dispensable in Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shukriti; Markham, Philip F.; Browning, Glenn F.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are regarded to be useful models for studying the minimum genetic complement required for independent survival of an organism. Mycoplasma bovis is a globally distributed pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, otitis media and reproductive tract disease, and genome sequences of three strains, the type strain PG45 and two strains isolated in China, have been published. In this study, several Tn4001 based transposon constructs were generated and used to create a M. bovis PG45 insertional mutant library. Direct genome sequencing of 319 independent insertions detected disruptions in 129 genes in M. bovis, 48 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC and 99 of which had homologues in Mycoplasma agalactiae. Sixteen genes found to be essential in previous studies on other mycoplasma species were found to be dispensable. Five of these genes have previously been predicted to be part of the core set of 153 essential genes in mycoplasmas. Thus this study has extended the list of non-essential genes of mycoplasmas from that previously generated by studies in other species. PMID:24897538

  8. Identification of cross-reactive antigens between Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma arthritidis.

    PubMed Central

    Minion, F C; Brown, M B; Cassell, G H

    1984-01-01

    Serological cross-reactivity between Mycoplasma pulmonis and Mycoplasma arthritidis was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoanalysis of electrophoretic blots, and protein A immunoprecipitation reactions. The results demonstrate that one-way cross-reactivity was present in both hyperimmunized and naturally infected rats and that the predominant cross-reactive antigens were M. pulmonis surface proteins. Distinct immunoblot patterns were demonstrated for M. pulmonis and M. arthritidis, allowing differentiation of the two species. The response to M. arthritidis antigens during natural infections differed greatly from that during hyperimmunization. Evidence suggested that nonprotein antigens were major determinants eliciting the antibody response to this mycoplasma. Images PMID:6690399

  9. Survey of infectious agents in the endangered Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes): high prevalence and diversity of hemotrophic mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Javier; Altet, Laura; Napolitano, Constanza; Sastre, Natalia; Hidalgo, Ezequiel; Dávila, José Antonio; Millán, Javier

    2013-12-27

    Very little is known about the diseases affecting the Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes), which is considered to be one of the most endangered carnivores worldwide. Blood samples of 30 foxes captured on Chiloé Island (Chile) were tested with a battery of PCR assays targeting the following pathogens: Ehrlichia/Anaplasma sp., Rickettsia sp., Bartonella sp., Coxiella burnetti, Borrelia sp., Mycoplasma sp., Babesia sp., Hepatozoon canis, Hepatozoon felis, Leishmania donovani complex, and Filariae. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in 17 samples (56.7%, 95% Confidence Intervals= 38.2-73.7). Of these, 15 infections were caused by a Mycoplasma belonging to the M. haemofelis/haemocanis (Mhf/Mhc) group, whereas two were caused by a Mycoplasma showing between 89% and 94% identity with different Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis from felids and rodents hemoplasmas. The analysis of the sequence of the RNA subunit of the RNase P gene of 10 of the foxes positive for Mhf/Mhc showed that eight were infected with M. haemocanis (Mhc), one with a Mycoplasma showing 94% identity with Mhc, and one by M. haemofelis (Mhf). One of the foxes positive for Mhc was infected with a Ricketssia closely related to R. felis. All foxes were negative for the other studied pathogens. Our results are of interest because of the unexpectedly high prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. detected, the variability of species identified, the presence of a potentially new species of hemoplasma, and the first time a hemoplasma considered to be a feline pathogen (Mhf) has been identified in a canid. Though external symptoms were not observed in any of the infected foxes, further clinical and epidemiological studies are necessary to determine the importance of hemoplasma infection in this unique species.

  10. Use of Real-Time PCR To Detect and Quantify Mycoplasma haemofelis and “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” DNA

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Chris R.; Day, Michael J.; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim J.; Harbour, Dave A.

    2003-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay using Taqman probes was developed to detect and quantify Mycoplasma haemofelis and “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” in feline blood samples. The assay was rapid and sensitive and was successfully used to monitor the in vivo kinetics of cats experimentally infected with each species. PMID:12517888

  11. Competitor internal standards for quantitative detection of mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, M K; Rashidbaigi, A; Testa, D; Liao, M J

    1995-05-01

    Homologous internal controls were used as competitor DNA in the polymerase chain reaction for the quantitative detection of mycoplasma DNA. PCR primer sets were designed on the basis of the most conserved nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of mycoplasma species. Amplification of this gene was examined in five different mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma orale, M. hyorhinus, M. synoviae, M. gallisepticum and M. pneumoniae. To evaluate the primers, a number of different cell lines were assayed for the detection of mycoplasma infections. All positive cell lines showed a distinct product on agarose gels while uninfected cells showed no DNA amplification. Neither bacterial nor eukaryotic DNA produced any cross-reaction with the primers used, thus confirming their specificity. Internal control DNA to be used for quantitation was constructed by modifying the sizes of the wild-type amplified products and cloning them in plasmid vectors. These controls used the same primer binding sites as the wild-type and the amplified products were differentiated by a size difference. The detection limits for all the mycoplasma species by competitive quantitative PCR were estimated to range from 4 to 60 genome copies per assay as determined by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. These internal standards also serve as positive controls in PCR-based detection of mycoplasma DNA, and therefore accidental contamination of test samples with wild-type positive controls can be eliminated. The quantitative PCR method developed will be useful in monitoring the progression and significance of mycoplasma in the disease process.

  12. Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum and Mycoplasma haemocanis infections in dogs from the United States.

    PubMed

    Compton, S M; Maggi, R G; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2012-12-01

    Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc) and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum (CMhp) have been described in dogs. Historically, microscopic visualization of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. has occurred most often in immunocompromised or splenectomized dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the Mhc and CMhp prevalences among dogs from the United States. Novel 16S rRNA and RNAseP gene PCR assays were used to amplify hemotropic Mycoplasma species DNA for GenBank sequence alignment. Among the study population, hemoplasma prevalence was 1.3% (7 out of 506), with Mhc and CMhp prevalences of 0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Two of six CMhp-infected dogs were co-infected with a Bartonella sp., and a third dog was seroreactive to Bartonella henselae antigens. The prevalence of Mhc and CMhp in this study was low; potential blood donors should be screened; and dogs and people can be co-infected with hemoplasma and Bartonella spp.

  13. Putative essential and core-essential genes in Mycoplasma genomes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Zhang, Randy Ren

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma, which was used to create the first "synthetic life", has been an important species in the emerging field, synthetic biology. However, essential genes, an important concept of synthetic biology, for both M. mycoides and M. capricolum, as well as 14 other Mycoplasma with available genomes, are still unknown. We have developed a gene essentiality prediction algorithm that incorporates information of biased gene strand distribution, homologous search and codon adaptation index. The algorithm, which achieved an accuracy of 80.8% and 78.9% in self-consistence and cross-validation tests, respectively, predicted 5880 essential genes in the 16 Mycoplasma genomes. The intersection set of essential genes in available Mycoplasma genomes consists of 153 core essential genes. The predicted essential genes (available from pDEG, tubic.tju.edu.cn/pdeg) and the proposed algorithm can be helpful for studying minimal Mycoplasma genomes as well as essential genes in other genomes.

  14. Putative essential and core-essential genes in Mycoplasma genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Zhang, Randy Ren

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma, which was used to create the first “synthetic life”, has been an important species in the emerging field, synthetic biology. However, essential genes, an important concept of synthetic biology, for both M. mycoides and M. capricolum, as well as 14 other Mycoplasma with available genomes, are still unknown. We have developed a gene essentiality prediction algorithm that incorporates information of biased gene strand distribution, homologous search and codon adaptation index. The algorithm, which achieved an accuracy of 80.8% and 78.9% in self-consistence and cross-validation tests, respectively, predicted 5880 essential genes in the 16 Mycoplasma genomes. The intersection set of essential genes in available Mycoplasma genomes consists of 153 core essential genes. The predicted essential genes (available from pDEG, tubic.tju.edu.cn/pdeg) and the proposed algorithm can be helpful for studying minimal Mycoplasma genomes as well as essential genes in other genomes. PMID:22355572

  15. Role of Serum Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgA, IgM, and IgG in the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-Related Pneumonia in School-Age Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Huang, Eng-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Min; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Yi-Chuan; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Niu, Chen-Kuang; Yu, Hong-Ren

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is important so that appropriate antibiotic treatment can be initiated to reduce the misuse of drugs and resistance rates. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of recent primary infection but can persist for several months after initial infection. It has been suggested that anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin A (IgA) can be a reliable indicator for recent M. pneumoniae infection in adults. We investigated the clinical diagnostic value of M. pneumoniae IgA in school-age children and adolescents with M. pneumoniae-related pneumonia. Eighty children with pneumonia and seropositive for M. pneumoniae IgM or with a 4-fold increase of anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin G (IgG) were enrolled from May 2015 to March 2016. The titers of M. pneumoniae IgA, IgM, and IgG, the clinical features, and laboratory examinations of blood, C-reactive protein, and liver enzymes were analyzed. The initial positivity rates for M. pneumoniae IgM and IgA upon admission to the hospital were 63.6 and 33.8%, respectively. One week after admission, the cumulative positivity rates for M. pneumoniae IgM and IgA increased to 97.5 and 56.3%, respectively. Detection of M. pneumoniae IgM was more sensitive than detection of M. pneumoniae IgA for the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae-related pneumonia in school-age children and adolescents; however, paired sera are necessary for a more accurate diagnosis.

  16. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Mycoplasma arginini Infection

    PubMed Central

    Silló, Pálma; Pintér, Dóra; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mazán, Mercedes; Wikonkál, Norbert; Pónyai, Katinka; Volokhov, Dmitriy V.; Chizhikov, Vladimir E.; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) with generalized sclerodermiform skin lesions developed over a 19-month period in a previously healthy 23-year-old man. Although we confirmed EF by skin histology and laboratory tests, the recurrent fevers and the clinical observation of sclerotic prepuce with urethritis indicated further bacteriological analysis by conventional microbiological and DNA-based tests. Urethra cultures were positive for an arginine-hydrolyzing mycoplasma and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The patient also had serum IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based qualitative detection. Mycoplasma arginini was isolated from two independent venous blood serum samples and was identified by conventional microbiological tests and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes (GenBank sequence accession numbers HM179555 and HM179556, respectively). M. arginini genomic DNA also was detected by species-specific PCR in the skin lesion biopsy sample. Treatment with corticosteroids and long-term courses of selected antibiotics led to remission of skin symptoms and normalization of laboratory values. This report provides the first evidence of EF associated with mycoplasma infection and the second report of human infection with M. arginini and therefore suggests that this mycoplasma infection might have contributed to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:22189109

  17. Detection and prevalence of four different hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in Eastern North Carolina American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2017-02-01

    Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are globally emerging, obligate parasitic, epierythrocytic bacteria that infect many vertebrates, including humans. Hemoplasma infection can cause acute life-threatening symptoms or lead to a chronic sub-clinical carrier state. Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. transmission, prevalence, and host specificity are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma species in blood from 68 free-ranging black bears from the eastern coast of North Carolina. DNA amplification of Mycoplasma 16S rRNA gene identified four distinct species infecting 34/68 (50%) of the black bear blood samples, including Candidatus M. haematoparvum. The high prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in this wildlife species highlights the importance of understanding intra and inter species transmission. Black bears may play a role in the transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. between animals, arthropod vectors, and humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate black bears as a potential reservoir for hemotropic Mycoplasma infections.

  18. Quantitative assessment of Mycoplasma hemadsorption activity by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Luis; González-González, Luis; Costa, Manuela; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    A number of adherent mycoplasmas have developed highly complex polar structures that are involved in diverse aspects of the biology of these microorganisms and play a key role as virulence factors by promoting adhesion to host cells in the first stages of infection. Attachment activity of mycoplasma cells has been traditionally investigated by determining their hemadsorption ability to red blood cells and it is a distinctive trait widely examined when characterizing the different mycoplasma species. Despite the fact that protocols to qualitatively determine the hemadsorption or hemagglutination of mycoplasmas are straightforward, current methods when investigating hemadsorption at the quantitative level are expensive and poorly reproducible. By using flow cytometry, we have developed a procedure to quantify rapidly and accurately the hemadsorption activity of mycoplasmas in the presence of SYBR Green I, a vital fluorochrome that stains nucleic acids, allowing to resolve erythrocyte and mycoplasma cells by their different size and fluorescence. This method is very reproducible and permits the kinetic analysis of the obtained data and a precise hemadsorption quantification based on standard binding parameters such as the dissociation constant K d. The procedure we developed could be easily implemented in a standardized assay to test the hemadsorption activity of the growing number of clinical isolates and mutant strains of different mycoplasma species, providing valuable data about the virulence of these microorganisms.

  19. The role of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Murtha, Amy P; Edwards, James M

    2014-12-01

    Genital mycoplasmas are frequently found in the vaginal flora across socioeconomic and ethnic groups and have been demonstrated to be involved in adverse perinatal outcomes. Both Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp cause inflammation potentially leading to spontaneous preterm birth and PPROM as well as postdelivery infectious complications and neonatal infections. Herein we have provided an overview of the existing literature and supportive evidence for genital mycoplasma's role in perinatal complications. Future research will need to focus on clearly delineating the species, allowing for discrimination of their effects.

  20. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of AZD0914 against Human Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Crabb, Donna M.; Duffy, Lynn B.; Huband, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, susceptibilities were determined for AZD0914, a spiropyrimidinetrione DNA gyrase inhibitor, azithromycin, doxycycline, and levofloxacin against Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species. The activity of AZD0914 was comparable to that of levofloxacin and doxycycline against Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The AZD0914 MIC90 against Mycoplasma hominis was 8-fold greater than that for levofloxacin. The AZD0914 MIC90 against Ureaplasma species was 4-fold less than that for azithromycin and 8-fold less than that for levofloxacin and doxycycline. PMID:25824220

  1. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  2. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.

  3. A Compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Gretchen L.; Kinjo, Takeshi; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, “walking” pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review. PMID:27148202

  4. Identification and purification of arginine deiminase that originated from Mycoplasma arginini.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, K; Fukuda, S; Wada, Y; Taniai, M; Suzuki, M; Kimura, T; Ohno, T; Yamamoto, K; Azuma, I

    1990-01-01

    A lymphocyte blastogenesis inhibitory factor, (LBIF), was purified from the culture supernatant of human histiocytic lymphoma U937 by fast protein liquid chromatography. In this study, we demonstrated, first, that LBIF originated from a mycoplasma, Mycoplasma arginini, infecting U937 cells, and second, that LBIF bore the arginine deiminase activity. The implication of in vivo immunosuppression induced by arginine-utilizing mycoplasma species is discussed. Images PMID:2370103

  5. Emergence, re-emergence, spread and host species crossing of Mycoplasma bovis in the Austrian Alps caused by a single endemic strain.

    PubMed

    Spergser, Joachim; Macher, Kathrin; Kargl, Munkhtsetseg; Lysnyansky, Inna; Rosengarten, Renate

    2013-06-28

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis was identified and reported in Austria as agent of infection and disease in cattle only once, namely in 2005 associated with a case of mastitis in a smallholding, but in 2007 it unexpectedly emerged as the cause of a devastating disease outbreak in a dairy herd of 100 individuals and spill over infection to pigs, both kept on the same mountain pasture. In 2008, M. bovis remained endemic at a low level in this region followed by the re-emergence of the agent in 2009 and a dramatic spread of the disease to further Alpine areas and their foothills in 2010 and 2011. From these outbreaks, a total of 94 M. bovis isolates including 7 porcine isolates were selected for genotyping. Two molecular tools, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and multi-locus variable number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were chosen to identify strain types involved in these outbreaks and to trace routes of infection and dynamics of dissemination. With both typing methods, the majority of Alpine isolates (96.8%) recovered over time from different areas and hosts was clustered into one group exhibiting a unique and indistinguishable profile which significantly differed from those of geographically unrelated strains including the type strain PG45 and 3 Alpine isolates which suddenly appeared and disappeared in 2009. Stability of the unique profile strongly indicated that a single M. bovis strain initiated the outbreak in 2007, crossed the host species barrier by infecting pigs, re-emerged in 2009 and became widespread in the Austrian Alps in 2010 and 2011. The remarkable dissemination and persistence of a single and unique M. bovis strain may reflect peculiarities of dairy management practices in the Alps based on Alpine transhumance and cooperative use of mountain pastures. As the source of the outbreak strain remains unknown, the findings of this study underscore the importance of continuous surveillance by monitoring further spread and persistence of M

  6. Motility of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Radestock, U; Bredt, W

    1977-01-01

    Cell of Mycoplasma pneumoniae FH gliding on a glass surface in liquid medium were examined by microscopic observation and quantitatively by microcinematography (30 frames per min). Comparisons were made only within the individual experiments. The cells moved in an irregular pattern with numerous narrow bends and circles. They never changed their leading end. The average speed (without pauses) was relatively constant between o.2 and 0.5 mum/s. The maximum speed was about 1.5 to 2.0 mum/s. The movements were interrupted by resting periods of different lengths and frequency. Temperature, viscosity, pH, and the presence of yeast extract in the medium influenced the motility significantly; changes in glucose, calcium ions, and serum content were less effective. The movements were affected by iodoacetate, p-mercuribenzoate, and mitomycin C at inhibitory or subinhibitory concentrations. Sodium fluoride, sodium cyanide, dinitrophenol, chloramphenicol, puromycin, cholchicin, and cytochalasin B at minimal inhibitory concentrations did not affect motility. The movements were effectively inhibited by anti-M. pneumoniae antiserum. Studies with absorbed antiserum suggested that the surface components involved in motility are heat labile. The gliding of M. pneumoniae cells required an intact energy metabolism and the proteins involved seemed to have a low turnover. Images PMID:14925

  7. New models of chronic synovitis in rabbits induced by mycoplasmas: microbiological, histopathological, and immunological observations on rabbits injected with Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, B C; Griffiths, M M; Eichwald, E J; Ward, J R

    1977-01-01

    A dose-dependent chronic synovitis was induced in rabbit knees after the intra-articular injection of both Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis. The inflammation progressed from an initial acute phase at 1 week characterized by edema, infiltration of the synovium with monocytes and heterophils, and desquamation of lining cells, to a more chronic phase at 1 and 3 months, in which villus hyperplasia, lymph "nodules," mononuclear cell infiltration, fibroplasia, and collagen deposition were prominent. With one exception, mycoplasmas could no longer be cultivated from the joints 1 month postinoculation. Both mycoplasma species evoked a humoral antibody response that was more marked in synovial fluids than in peripheral blood. A cell-mediated immune reaction, as evidence by enhanced uptake by [3H]thymidine by sensitized blood, spleen, or node lymphocytes in the presence of homologous antigen, was detected only in rabbits injected with M. pulmonis. Lymphocytes taken from arthritic rabbits were no more cytotoxic toward synovial cells derived from normal or arthritic rabbits than were normal lymphocytes. The models of synovitis described in this study offer a convenient probe for determining the mechanisms of mycoplasma-induced inflammation, since they require only a single injection of the initiating agent and, in addition, utilize an animal host large enough for detailed investigation into the nature of mycoplasma/synovium interactions. Images PMID:873616

  8. Characteristics of a new sterol-nonrequiring Mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Tully, J G; Razin, S

    1969-06-01

    Two Mycoplasma strains recovered from tissue culture environments were found to grow in complex media devoid of serum or serum fractions containing cholesterol and in a cholesterol-free synthetic medium. Neither strain was capable of synthesizing pigmented carotenoids, although these compounds are present in, and characteristic of, other sterol-nonrequiring mycoplasmas. Serological tests and an analysis of their cell protein patterns obtained by gel electrophoresis indicated that the isolates were similar to each other but distinct from other sterol-nonrequiring serotypes, Mycoplasma laidlawii and M. granularum, as well as from sterol-requiring species. The existence of Mycoplasma other than M. laidlawii and M. granularum without sterol requirements suggested the need for some taxonomic changes in this group of organisms.

  9. A serological and molecular study on the occurrence of mycoplasmas in European bison (Bison bonasus) from two areas of Eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Dudek, K; Bednarek, D; Szacawa, E; Ayling, R D; Krzysiak, M K; Marczuk, J

    2015-01-01

    European bison (Bison bonasus) from two different areas of Eastern Poland showing gross pathology possibly associated with mycoplasma infections were tested for ruminant Mycoplasma species using serological and molecular methods. Fifty-five samples, blood or tissue were collected from 28 animals during 2013-2014. Six sera were positive for Mycoplasma bovis. The ELISA and complement fixation test for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides gave a few weak reactions, but were negative by immunoblotting and molecular methods.

  10. What are mycoplasmas: the relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.; Stackebrandt, E.; Ludwig, W.

    1984-01-01

    In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

  11. What are mycoplasmas - The relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.; Stackebrand, E.; Ludwig, W.

    1985-01-01

    In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

  12. Mycoplasma bovis research update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis in bison is a newly emerging and potentially devastating threat to the bison industry. This bacterium is increasingly being identified, both in the United States and Canada, as the cause of severe respiratory disease outbreaks with devastating consequences for the health of the ani...

  13. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    PubMed

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections.

  14. Intestinal mycoplasma in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Roediger, W E W

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal diversion with reconnection in active Crohn's disease (CD) indicates that luminal contents or bacteria contribute to the formation of CD lesions. Fluorescent staining for mycoplasma in freshly resected Crohn's tissue and electron microscopy reveal intracellular organisms akin to mycoplasma. Historically, tissue culture of CD has shown mycoplasma described as contaminants. Mycoplasma are surface epithelial parasites requiring exogenous cholesterol for membrane stability and cell entry. PCR of intestinal tissue has shown Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be detectable more significantly in CD. Oral M. iowae in experimental poultry localizes to the distal small bowel and colon. Hypothetically, lipopeptides of mycoplasmal membranes are proposed to cause chronicity and stronger immune responses than by other bacteria. 'Intestinal' mycoplasmas, from a number of observations, deserve consideration as organisms mediating inflammation of acute and chronic CD.

  15. Antibody responses of swine following infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare.

    PubMed

    Gomes Neto, João Carlos; Strait, Erin L; Raymond, Matthew; Ramirez, Alejandro; Minion, F Chris

    2014-11-07

    Several mycoplasma species possessing a range of virulence have been described in swine. The most commonly described are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma flocculare. They are ubiquitious in many pig producing areas of the world, and except for M. hyopneumoniae, commercial antibody-based assays are lacking for most of these. Antibody cross-reactivity among these four mycoplasma species is not well characterized. Recently, the use of pen-based oral fluids for herd surveillance is of increasing interest. Thus, this study sought to measure pig antibody responses and the level of cross-reactivity in serum and pen-based oral fluids after challenge with four species of swine mycoplasmas. Four groups of four mycoplasma-free growing pigs were separately inoculated with the different mycoplasma species. Pen-based oral fluids and serum samples were collected weekly until necropsy. Species-specific Tween 20 ELISAs were used to measure antibody responses along with four other commercial M. hyopneumoniae ELISAs. Animals from all groups seroconverted to the challenge species of mycoplasma and no evidence of cross-contamination was observed. A delayed antibody response was seen with all but M. hyorhinis-infected pigs. Cross-reactive IgG responses were detected in M. hyopneumoniae- and M. flocculare-infected animals by the M. hyorhinis Tween 20 ELISA, while sera from M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare-infected pigs were positive in one commercial assay. In pen-based oral fluids, specific anti-M. hyopneumoniae IgA responses were detected earlier after infection than serum IgG responses. In summary, while some antibody-based assays may have the potential for false positives, evidence of this was observed in the current study.

  16. Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Blanchard, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identification of large numbers of potentially variable regions, as well as a comparison of the relative recombination potentials of different genomic regions. Different trends are perceptible among mycoplasmas, probably due to different functional and structural constraints. The largest potential for illegitimate recombination in M.pulmonis is found at the vsa locus and its comparison in two different strains reveals numerous changes since divergence. On the other hand, the main M.pneumoniae and M.genitalium adhesins rely on large distant repeats and, hence, homologous recombination for variation. However, the relation between the existence of repeats and antigenic variation is not necessarily straightforward, since repeats of P1 adhesin were found to be anti-correlated with epitopes recognized by patient antibodies. These different strategies have important consequences for the structures of genomes, since large distant repeats correlate well with the major chromosomal rearrangements. Probably to avoid such events, mycoplasmas strongly avoid inverse repeats, in comparison to co-oriented repeats. PMID:11972343

  17. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of horses.

    PubMed Central

    Allam, N. M.; Lemcke, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ten mycoplasmas were isolated from 130 nasopharyngeal swabs from thoroughbred horses with acute respiratory disease and three from 198 apparently normal horses. Two mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 tracheal swabs taken at necropsy. These mycoplasmas, together with six isolated from the equine respiratory tract by other workers, were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Other properties examined in certain representative strains were appearance under the electron microscope, ability to adsorb or agglutinate the erythrocytes of various animal species and the electrophoretic pattern of the cell proteins. On the basis of these test, mycoplasmas from the equine respiratory tract were divided into seven species. Three species belonged to the genus Acholeplasma, members of which do not require sterol for growth, and were identified as A. laidlawii, A. oculi (formerly A. oculusi) originally isolated from the eyes of goats, and a recently named species A. equifoetale, previously isolated from aborted equine fetuses. Of the four sterol-dependent Mycoplasma species, one was indentified as M. pulmonis, a common rodent pathogen. Another cross-reacted serologically with M. felis and should probably be classified as that species. The other two species probably represent new species peculiar to the horse. One of these, represented by the strains N3 and N11, ferments glucose and is serologically distinct from 19 recognized species of glucose-utilizing mycoplasmas and from two species which do not metabolize either glucose or arginine. The other species, represented by four strains, hydrolyses arginine and, because it is serologically distinct from all the named arginine-hydrolysing Mycoplasma species, the name M. equirhinis sp.nov. is proposed for it. Of the seven species, only M. pulmonis and the glucose-utilizing species represented by N3 and N11 were found exclusively in horses with acute respiratory disease. A. oculi was isolated from an apparently normal horse. The

  18. Experimental infection of BHK21 and Vero cell lines with different Mycoplasma spp

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Cristiane; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Sepulveda, Lya Madureira; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp, belongs to the class Mollicutes and is capable to produce alterations in cellular cultures causing damages to the biotechnological industry. Bioproducts generally require two essential inputs, bovine serum and cells. The study herein aims to evaluate the mycoplasma concentrations that affect the growing of BHK21 and Vero cells. The species used were: Mycoplasma orale, M. salivarium, M. arginini and M. hyorhinis, cultivated in a SP4 media. Two contamination tests were performed with BHK21 and Vero cells and one of them applied different concentrations of mycoplasma. In the first one, mycoplasma was applied at the day zero and, in the second one, the contamination was performed after the monolayer establishment. The both cellular cultures presented cytopathic effects with mycoplasma contamination, but the Vero cells suffered more damages than the BHK21 ones. It was also observed that the severity of the cytopathic effect depended on the mycoplasma specie, on the concentration and on the time of contact with the cellular culture, which evidences the importance of controlling the presence of mycoplasma in biotechnological industries. PMID:25763061

  19. Experimental infection of BHK21 and Vero cell lines with different Mycoplasma spp.

    PubMed

    Netto, Cristiane; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Sepulveda, Lya Madureira; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp, belongs to the class Mollicutes and is capable to produce alterations in cellular cultures causing damages to the biotechnological industry. Bioproducts generally require two essential inputs, bovine serum and cells. The study herein aims to evaluate the mycoplasma concentrations that affect the growing of BHK21 and Vero cells. The species used were: Mycoplasma orale, M. salivarium, M. arginini and M. hyorhinis, cultivated in a SP4 media. Two contamination tests were performed with BHK21 and Vero cells and one of them applied different concentrations of mycoplasma. In the first one, mycoplasma was applied at the day zero and, in the second one, the contamination was performed after the monolayer establishment. The both cellular cultures presented cytopathic effects with mycoplasma contamination, but the Vero cells suffered more damages than the BHK21 ones. It was also observed that the severity of the cytopathic effect depended on the mycoplasma specie, on the concentration and on the time of contact with the cellular culture, which evidences the importance of controlling the presence of mycoplasma in biotechnological industries.

  20. The characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae EF-Tu protein and proteins involved in hemadherence and their N-terminal amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Bencina, D; Narat, M; Dovc, P; Drobnic-Valic, M; Habe, F; Kleven, S H

    1999-04-01

    An abundant cytoplasmic 43-kDa protein from Mycoplasma synoviae, a major pathogen from poultry, was identified as elongation factor Tu. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (AKLDFDRSKEHVNVGTIGHV) has 90% identity with the sequence of the Mycoplasma hominis elongation factor Tu protein. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with the M. synoviae elongation factor Tu protein also reacted with 43-kDa proteins from the avian Mycoplasma species Mycoplasma gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallinaceum, Mycoplasma pullorum, Mycoplasma cloacale, Mycoplasma iners and Mycoplasma meleagridis, but not with the proteins from Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma imitans or Mycoplasma iowae. In addition, two groups of phase variable integral membrane proteins, pMSA and pMSB, associated with hemadherence and pathogenicity of M. synoviae strains AAY-4 and ULB925 were identified. The cleavage of a larger hemagglutinating protein encoded by a gene homologous to the vlhA gene of M. synoviae generates pMSB1 and pMSA1 proteins defined by mAb 125 and by hemagglutination inhibiting mAb 3E10, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of pMSA proteins (SENKLI ... and SENETQ ...) probably indicate the cleavage site of the M. synoviae strain ULB 925 hemagglutinin.

  1. The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, W; Nicholas, R A J; Janakat, S; Abu-Basha, E; Ayling, R D

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species-M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions of Jordan. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed some Mycoplasma species-specific differences, with M. capricolum subsp. capricolum being more susceptible to tylosin and erythromycin. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were the least effective for all three Mycoplasma species. No trends or significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities were observed between sheep and goat isolates, between milk or nasal swab isolates, or between isolates from different regions of Jordan. Some isolates of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens showed higher MIC levels with oxytetracycline, as did two isolates of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC with tylosin, possibly indicating signs of development of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Pulse-field electrophoresis indicates full-length Mycoplasma chromosomes range widely in size.

    PubMed Central

    Neimark, H C; Lange, C S

    1990-01-01

    Full-size linear chromosomes were prepared from mycoplasmas by using gamma-irradiation to introduce one (on average) double-strand break in their circular chromosomes. Chromosome sizes were estimated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) from the mobilities of these full-length molecules relative to DNA size references. Sizes estimated for Ureaplasma urealyticum T960 and 16 Mycoplasma species ranged from 684 kbp (M. hominis) to 1315 kbp (M. iowae). Using this sample, we found no correlation between the mobility of the full-size linear chromosomes and their G + C content. Sizes for A. laidlawii and A. hippikon were within the range expected from renaturation kinetics. PFGE size estimates are in good agreement with sizes determined by other methods, including electron microscopy, an ordered clone library, and summation of restriction fragments. Our estimates also agree with those from renaturation kinetics for both the largest and some of the smallest chromosomes, but in the intermediate size range, renaturation kinetics consistently provides lower values than PFGE or electron microscopy. Our PFGE estimates show that mycoplasma chromosomes span a continual range of sizes, with several intermediate values falling between the previously recognized large and small chromosome size clusters. Images PMID:2216718

  3. Proposal for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi' in mice, and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti' in rats.

    PubMed

    Harasawa, Ryô; Fujita, Hiromi; Kadosaka, Teruki; Ando, Shuji; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2015-02-01

    Mycoplasma haemomuris is causative of infectious anaemia or splenomegaly in rodents. We examined the nucleotide sequences of the non-ribosomal genes, rnpB and dnaK, in strains of the species M. haemomuris detected in small field mice and black rats. rnpB nucleotide sequences in strains of the species M. haemomuris isolated from small field mice and black rats had only 89 % sequence similarity, suggesting their separation into two distinct subgroups. dnaK had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 84 % between the subgroups. These results support the classification of M. haemomuris into two genetically distinct subgroups. Here we propose the establishment of these subgroups as 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi', detected in small field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti', detected in black rats (Rattus rattus).

  4. Lesions associated with a novel Mycoplasma sp. in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Haulena, Martin; Gulland, Frances M D; Lawrence, Judith A; Fauquier, Deborah A; Jang, Spencer; Aldridge, Brian; Spraker, Terry; Thomas, Linda C; Brown, Daniel R; Wendland, Lori; Davidson, Maureen K

    2006-01-01

    From July 1999 to November 2001, Mycoplasma sp. was cultured from lesions in 16 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. The Mycoplasma sp. was the likely cause of death of four animals in which it was associated with either pneumonia or polyarthritis. The most common lesion associated with this bacterium was subdermal abscessation, found in 12 animals. Other lesions included intramuscular abscesses, septic arthritis, and lymphadenopathy. Infection was associated with a leukocytosis and left shift in 12 animals. Animals with abscesses improved clinically after surgical lancing, irrigation, and systemic antibiotic therapy. The mycoplasma isolates had a consistent 16S rRNA sequence dissimilar from other Mycoplasma spp. and represent a novel species, Mycoplasma zalophi proposed sp. nov.

  5. Identification and characterization of novel Mycoplasma spp. belonging to the hominis group from griffon vultures.

    PubMed

    Lecis, R; Chessa, B; Cacciotto, C; Addis, M F; Coradduzza, E; Berlinguer, F; Muzzeddu, M; Lierz, M; Carcangiu, L; Pittau, M; Alberti, A

    2010-08-01

    Mycoplasmas are commensals and pathogens of various avian species, and are also regularly found in birds of prey, although their significance to birds' health remains unclear. Here we describe two novel Mycoplasma isolated from the upper respiratory tract of four Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) housed in a wildlife recovery centre in Sardinia (Italy). By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and the entire 16S/23S intergenic spacer region, the new strains were classified within the Mycoplasma taxonomy at the group and cluster levels, showing that the two isolates fall into the Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hominis clusters of the hominis group, respectively. We combined molecular tools and immunoblotting methods in order to further characterize these isolates, and antigenic analyses overall confirmed the molecular findings. Different levels of pathogenicity and prevalence of these strains might have different implications for the conservation and reintroduction of vultures.

  6. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in free-ranging birds of prey in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Hernadez-Divers, S J; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasmas are well-known avian pathogens of poultry and some passerines. Although reported in birds of prey, their role as pathogens is still unclear. Healthy, free-ranging raptor nestlings sampled during a routine ringing (banding) program, and birds of prey from rehabilitation centers, tested positive for Mycoplasma spp. by culture and a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Given the lack of clinical signs and disease, we suggest that mycoplasmas in raptors may be commensal rather than pathogenic. Using immunobinding assay and species-specific PCR tests, Mycoplasma buteonis, M. falconis, and M. gypis were identified; M. falconis was only detected in falcons. Additionally, some isolates could not be identified. This is the first report of Mycoplasma spp. isolations from Western Marsh Harriers (Circus aeroginosus), a Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo), and a Barn Owl (Tyto alba).

  7. Mycoplasma membrane lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokines by a mechanism distinct from that of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Rawadi, G; Roman-Roman, S

    1996-01-01

    To gain a clear understanding of the mechanisms by which mycoplasmas induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytic cells, we have studied the induction of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6 by mycoplasmas in three distinct human myelomonocytic cell lines in comparison with induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HL-60 cell line did not release cytokines when induced with either LPS or mycoplasmas. In contrast to LPS, mycoplasmas failed to increase the weak levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha secreted by phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated U937 cells. In addition, Northern (RNA) blot analysis of cytokine expression in these cells showed that the induction of IL-1 beta by mycoplasmas involves, unlike that by LPS, posttranscriptional events. Interestingly, in THP-1 cells, cytokine induction pathways triggered by mycoplasmas remained operational under conditions where LPS pathways were abolished, suggesting functional independence. The study of cytokine-inducing activity displayed by distinct fractions derived from a series of different mycoplasma species demonstrated that lipid membrane constituents were largely responsible for these effects. Finally, we have demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation is a crucial event in the mycoplasma-mediated induction of proinflammatory cytokines in either THP-1 cells or human monocytes. PMID:8550219

  8. The role of mycoplasmas in a conservation project of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni).

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Obon, E; Schink, B; Carbonell, F; Hafez, H M

    2008-12-01

    The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) is one of the most endangered bird species in Europe, and a captive breeding and reintroduction project was established. A breeding project is vulnerable to pathogens, e.g., mycoplasmas, reducing the reproductive success and carrying the risk to release pathogens with the birds to the wild. Therefore, 18 infertile eggs and 43 dead in shell embryos of the breeding project, as well as 27 nestlings and 34 adult birds of the captive and three different free-ranging populations were investigated for the occurrence of mycoplasmas by culture and a Mycoplasma genus-specific polymerase chain reaction. All eggs, embryos, and hand-reared nestlings from the captive group were negative. In contrast, all parent-reared nestlings and 88% of the adults were positive. Mycoplasma falconis and unidentifiable mycoplasmas were detected in all groups. Mycoplasma buteonis was found in the captive and only in two of the three free-ranging populations. Sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of six randomly selected unidentified isolates showed that five isolates were similar and most likely had been found previously in a falcon from Germany. The remaining isolate demonstrated a very high homology to unidentified Mycoplasma isolates obtained previously from semen samples of raptors. The results suggest that these isolates might represent two new species. Mycoplasmas seem not to play a major role as pathogens in the breeding project, and there is no evidence that releasing birds poses a risk to the free-ranging population with regard to mycoplasmas. The study seems to be the first to describe the occurrence and role of mycoplasmas in the lesser kestrel.

  9. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F) of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain), Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Results Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Conclusions Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans. PMID:23298636

  10. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline. PMID:8452363

  11. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  12. Collaborative study report: evaluation of the ATCC experimental mycoplasma reference strains panel prepared for comparison of NAT-based and conventional mycoplasma detection methods.

    PubMed

    Dabrazhynetskaya, Alena; Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Lin, Tsai-Lien; Beck, Brian; Gupta, Rajesh K; Chizhikov, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of this collaborative study was to evaluate the experimental panel of cryopreserved mycoplasma reference strains recently prepared by the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC(®)) in order to assess the viability and dispersion of cells in the mycoplasma stocks by measuring the ratio between the number of genomic copies (GC) and the number of colony forming units (CFU) in the reference preparations. The employment of microbial reference cultures with low GC/CFU ratios is critical for unbiased and reliable comparison of mycoplasma testing methods based on different methodological approaches, i.e., Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) and compendial culture-based techniques. The experimental panel included ten different mycoplasma species known to represent potential human and animal pathogens as well as common contaminants of mammalian and avian cell substrates used in research, development, and manufacture of biological products. Fifteen laboratories with expertise in field of mycoplasma titration and quantification of mycoplasmal genomic DNA participated in the study conducted from February to October of 2012. The results of this study demonstrated the feasibility of preparing highly viable and dispersed (possessing low GC/CFU ratios) frozen stocks of mycoplasma reference materials, required for reliable comparison of NAT-based and conventional mycoplasma detection methods.

  13. Occurrence and Relevance of Mycoplasma sturni in Free-Ranging Corvids in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Luisa; Möller Palau-Ribes, Franca Möller; Schmidt, Liane; Lierz, Michael

    2017-01-18

    Several Mycoplasma spp. are well-known pathogens in poultry. In birds of prey, White Storks ( Ciconia ciconia ), and some waterfowl (Anatidae, Pelecanidae) species, mycoplasmas occur commonly and seem to be apathogenic or commensal and most likely belong to the physiologic microbial flora of the respiratory tract. In other bird species, such as Common Nightingales ( Luscinia megarhynchos ) and tits (Paridae), Mycoplasma spp. are absent in healthy birds. In corvids, the prevalence and role of Mycoplasma spp. in disease remains unclear. In previous studies, Mycoplasma sturni was detected in diseased corvids; however, those studies included only a limited sample size or preselected individuals. We collected tracheal swabs of 97 free-ranging Corvidae, including 68 randomly selected individuals from hunting bags and 29 birds that had been admitted to a veterinary clinic. Tracheal swabs were examined for Mycoplasma spp. using culture and genus-specific PCR. If Mycoplasma spp. were detected, the species were identified by sequencing the 16S ribosomal (r)RNA gene and 16-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Five of 68 (7%) of the hunted birds and nine of 29 (31%) of the birds admitted to the veterinary clinic were PCR positive. In 13 of 14 PCR-positive samples, mycoplasmas were cultured and M. sturni was the only mycoplasmal species identified. None of the positive corvids from the hunting bags had clinical signs, whereas five of nine birds admitted to the veterinary clinic showed apathy, lameness, injuries, or fractures, which may not be associated with mycoplasmal infections. These data support the notion that M. sturni is the Mycoplasma sp. most frequently found in corvids, though its prevalence and ability to cause disease may involve interaction with other aspects of bird health.

  14. Molecular evidence for hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in a Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma) and a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus).

    PubMed

    Harasawa, Ryô; Orusa, Riccardo; Giangaspero, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We report detection of hemoplasma in wild Japanese badgers (Meles meles anakuma) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus). Sequence analysis of the entire 16S rRNA genes identified Mycoplasma haemocanis in the raccoon dog sample, and a potential novel Mycoplasma species in the Japanese badger.

  15. Drying and irradiation of calf and horse serum. I. Influence on the growth of cell cultures and mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Veber, P; Jurmanová, K; Lesko, J; Hána, L

    1975-05-01

    Gamma-irradiation of liquid and dried calf sera with 2.5 Mrads did not affect their capacity to promote the growth of chick embryo, L cell and human embryonic lung cell cultures. Drying and gamma-irradiation of horsesera did not affect their capacity to support the growth of 3 mycoplasma of the species Acholeplasma laidawii and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium.

  16. Emergence of Atypical Mycoplasma agalactiae Strains Harboring a New Prophage and Associated with an Alpine Wild Ungulate Mortality Episode

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Florence; Baranowski, Eric; Nouvel, Laurent-Xavier; Mick, Virginie; Manso-Silvàn, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Thébault, Patricia; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Garnier, Alexandre; Gibert, Philippe; Game, Yvette; Poumarat, François

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is responsible for contagious agalactia (CA) in small domestic ruminants, a syndrome listed by the World Organization for Animal Health and responsible for severe damage to the dairy industry. Recently, we frequently isolated this pathogen from lung lesions of ibexes during a mortality episode in the French Alps. This situation was unusual in terms of host specificity and tissue tropism, raising the question of M. agalactiae emergence in wildlife. To address this issue, the ibex isolates were characterized using a combination of approaches that included antigenic profiles, molecular typing, optical mapping, and whole-genome sequencing. Genome analyses showed the presence of a new, large prophage containing 35 coding sequences (CDS) that was detected in most but not all ibex strains and has a homolog in Mycoplasma conjunctivae, a species causing keratoconjunctivitis in wild ungulates. This and the presence in all strains of large integrated conjugative elements suggested highly dynamic genomes. Nevertheless, M. agalactiae strains circulating in the ibex population were shown to be highly related, most likely originating from a single parental clone that has also spread to another wild ungulate species of the same geographical area, the chamois. These strains clearly differ from strains described in Europe so far, including those found nearby, before CA eradication a few years ago. While M. agalactiae pathogenicity in ibexes remains unclear, our data showed the emergence of atypical strains in Alpine wild ungulates, raising the question of a role for the wild fauna as a potential reservoir of pathogenic mycoplasmas. PMID:22522685

  17. Mycoplasma polysaccharide protects against complement

    PubMed Central

    Bolland, Jeffrey R.; Simmons, Warren L.; Daubenspeck, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Although they lack a cell wall, mycoplasmas do possess a glycocalyx. The interactions between the glycocalyx, mycoplasmal surface proteins and host complement were explored using the murine pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis as a model. It was previously shown that the length of the tandem repeat region of the surface lipoprotein Vsa is associated with susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Cells producing a long Vsa containing about 40 repeats are resistant to complement, whereas strains that produce a short Vsa of five or fewer repeats are susceptible. We show here that the length of the Vsa protein modulates the affinity of the M. pulmonis EPS-I polysaccharide for the mycoplasma cell surface, with more EPS-I being associated with mycoplasmas producing a short Vsa protein. An examination of mutants that lack EPS-I revealed that planktonic mycoplasmas were highly susceptible to complement killing even when the Vsa protein was long, demonstrating that both EPS-I and Vsa length contribute to resistance. In contrast, the mycoplasmas were resistant to complement even in the absence of EPS-I when the cells were encased in a biofilm. PMID:22504437

  18. Discrimination between Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum using PCR-RFLP and PCR.

    PubMed

    Cillara, Grazia; Manca, Maria Giovanna; Longheu, Carla; Tola, Sebastiana

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (lpdA) gene was used to distinguish Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) from Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc), two of four Mycoplasma species that cause contagious agalactia in sheep and goats. After alignment of nucleotide sequences of both species, specific primer sets were designed from unchanging and variable gene segments. The first primer set LPD-C1-F/LPD-C1-R was used to amplify a 911 bp fragment that was subsequently co-digested with FastDigest PstI, SspI, EcoRI and ClaI enzymes. The PCR-RFLP profiles differentiated the two mycoplasma species. The second primer set was used to distinguish Mmc from Mcc by single tube PCR. Both methods were further applied to identify 54 isolates collected from dairy herds from different provinces in Sardinia. The results of this study showed that PCR-RFLP and PCR could be used in routine diagnosis for rapid and specific simultaneous discrimination of Mmc and Mcc.

  19. Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Chikara; Manaka, Sachie; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Miyata, Makoto; Maruyama, Yuusuke

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

  20. Comparison of the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA Amplification Assay and Culture for Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Amy E.; Duffy, Lynn B.

    2014-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system, the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA amplification assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Cincinnati, OH) was evaluated to determine its analytical sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application in comparison to historic culture in a collection of archived respiratory specimens. The illumigene limit of detection was ≤88 CFU/reaction for 10 Mycoplasma pneumoniae reference strains. This assay correctly identified 36 M. pneumoniae reference strains and clinical isolates from various geographic origins, including both of the main subtypes. No cross-reactions were detected with other mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, other bacterial species, viruses, yeasts, or human DNA. Among 214 respiratory specimens previously cultured for M. pneumoniae, when real-time PCR with bidirectional sequencing of the PCR products was used to resolve discrepancies, the sensitivity was 22 of 22 (100%) and the specificity was 190 of 192 (99%). This commercial LAMP assay is a useful rapid method for detecting M. pneumoniae in clinical specimens. Additional prospective clinical trials with direct comparison to culture and PCR are warranted. PMID:24430454

  1. MIB–MIP is a mycoplasma system that captures and cleaves immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Arfi, Yonathan; Minder, Laetitia; Di Primo, Carmelo; Le Roy, Aline; Ebel, Christine; Coquet, Laurent; Claverol, Stephane; Vashee, Sanjay; Jores, Joerg; Blanchard, Alain; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are “minimal” bacteria able to infect humans, wildlife, and a large number of economically important livestock species. Mycoplasma infections include a spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from simple fever to fulminant inflammatory diseases with high mortality rates. These infections are mostly chronic, suggesting that mycoplasmas have developed means to evade the host immune response. Here we present and functionally characterize a two-protein system from Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri that is involved in the capture and cleavage of IgG. The first component, Mycoplasma Ig binding protein (MIB), is an 83-kDa protein that is able to tightly bind to the Fv region of a wide range of IgG. The second component, Mycoplasma Ig protease (MIP), is a 97-kDa serine protease that is able to cleave off the VH domain of IgG. We demonstrate that MIB is necessary for the proteolytic activity of MIP. Cleavage of IgG requires a sequential interaction of the different partners of the system: first MIB captures the IgG, and then MIP is recruited to the MIB–IgG complex, enabling protease activity. MIB and MIP are encoded by two genes organized in tandem, with homologs found in the majority of pathogenic mycoplasmas and often in multiple copies. Phylogenetic studies suggest that genes encoding the MIB–MIP system are specific to mycoplasmas and have been disseminated by horizontal gene transfer. These results highlight an original and complex system targeting the host immunoglobulins, playing a potentially key role in the immunity evasion by mycoplasmas. PMID:27114507

  2. Occurrence of Urease in T Strains of Mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Maurice C.; Lunceford, Carl D.

    1967-01-01

    A previously unknown metabolite necessary for growth of T strains of Mycoplasma in artificial culture media has been identified as urea. The source of this metabolite was the mammalian plasma or serum enrichment of the culture medium. Normal horse serum was the most satisfactory native protein enrichment for cultivation of T strains of mycoplasma, and it is believed that its superior performance in agar and fluid culture media is associated with its relatively high urea content (approximately 40 mg/100 ml). T-strain urease activity was maximal at pH 6.0 ± 0.5. This is also the optimal pH for growth of T strains. Substrate concentrations greater than 1.0% urea were inhibitory to growth and urease activity of T-strain organisms, and optimal urea concentrations in fluid media appeared to lie within the range of 0.008 to 0.01 m. This range of urea concentration permitted maximal growth of T-strain organisms without rapid loss of viability due to excessive ammonia accumulation and rise in pH to lethal levels. T strains of Mycoplasma were cultivated in a serum-free fluid medium containing urea as the only added metabolite and nitrogen source. T strains are the only known human mycoplasmas which exhibit urease activity, and this biochemical marker can be employed as an aid in the detection and identification of T strains of Mycoplasma (urease color test) and in distinguishing T strains from other members of the human Mycoplasma group. PMID:6025439

  3. Mycoplasmas in diseases of humans.

    PubMed Central

    Embree, J E; Embil, J A

    1980-01-01

    The roles of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in diseases of humans are currently under investigation. M. pneumoniae, which causes primary atypical pneumonia, is a well established pathogen of the respiratory tract. Complications of infection by this organism are also being recognized; they include disorders of the hematopoietic, cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal, cutaneous and gastrointestinal systems. The roles of the genital mycoplasmas M. hominis and U. urealyticum are controversial but may include infections of the genitourinary tract and in pregnancy as well as diseases of the newborn, such as neonatal pneumonia and meningitis. In this review atypical pneumonia due to M. pneumoniae is described and the role of mycoplasmas in other diseases is discussed. Images FIG. 1A FIG. 1B FIG. 2 PMID:6790148

  4. Mycoplasma infections in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, D C

    2001-07-01

    Mycoplasmas have complex mechanisms of antigenic variation that allow them to evade the immune system. These organisms cause a variety of clinical syndromes that can have a significant economic effect on small ruminant production. The syndromes range from acute septicemia and death to chronic infection resulting in decreased production. Recent research findings have shed light on the means by which these organisms evade the host immune response and cause or contribute to the development of disease in the host. This article provides a review of the pathogenesis, clinical signs, and treatment options for common disease syndromes involving Mycoplasma spp. in small ruminants.

  5. Pathobiology of Mycoplasma suis.

    PubMed

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Zeder, Michael; Felder, Kathrin M; Hoelzle, Katharina

    2014-10-01

    Mycoplasma suis is an uncultivable bacterium lacking a cell wall that attaches to and may invade the red blood cells of pigs. M. suis infections occur worldwide and cause the pig industry serious economic losses due to the disease known as infectious anaemia of pigs or, historically, porcine eperythrozoonosis. Infectious anaemia of pigs is characterised predominantly by acute haemolytic or chronic anaemia, along with non-specific manifestations, such as growth retardation in feeder pigs and poor reproductive performance in sows. The fastidious nature of M. suis, as well as the lack of an in vitro cultivation system, has hampered the understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of this organism. Pathogenetic mechanisms of M. suis include direct destruction of red blood cells by adhesion, invasion, nutrient scavenging, immune-mediated lysis and eryptosis, as well as endothelial targeting. Recently published genome sequences, in combination with proteome analyses, have generated new insights into the pathogenicity of M. suis. The present review combines these data with the knowledge provided by experimental M. suis infections.

  6. Upper airway resistance: species-related differences.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, N; Reinhold, P

    2010-07-01

    In veterinary medicine, upper airway resistance deserves a particular attention in equines athletes and brachycephalic dogs. Due to the anatomical peculiarities of the upper airway and/or pathological conditions, significant alterations of performance and/or well being might occur in horses and dogs. Physiological specificities and pathological changes of the lower respiratory tract deserve a major attention in other species.

  7. Cellular Microbiology of Mycoplasma canis

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Dina L.; Leibowitz, Jeffrey A.; Azaiza, Mohammed T.; Shil, Pollob K.; Shama, Suzanne M.; Kutish, Gerald F.; Distelhorst, Steven L.; Balish, Mitchell F.; May, Meghan A.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma canis can infect many mammalian hosts but is best known as a commensal or opportunistic pathogen of dogs. The unexpected presence of M. canis in brains of dogs with idiopathic meningoencephalitis prompted new in vitro studies to help fill the void of basic knowledge about the organism's candidate virulence factors, the host responses that it elicits, and its potential roles in pathogenesis. Secretion of reactive oxygen species and sialidase varied quantitatively (P < 0.01) among strains of M. canis isolated from canine brain tissue or mucosal surfaces. All strains colonized the surface of canine MDCK epithelial and DH82 histiocyte cells and murine C8-D1A astrocytes. Transit through MDCK and DH82 cells was demonstrated by gentamicin protection assays and three-dimensional immunofluorescence imaging. Strains further varied (P < 0.01) in the extents to which they influenced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the neuroendocrine regulatory peptide endothelin-1 by DH82 cells. Inoculation with M. canis also decreased major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen expression by DH82 cells (P < 0.01), while secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and complement factor H was unaffected. The basis for differences in the responses elicited by these strains was not obvious in their genome sequences. No acute cytopathic effects on any homogeneous cell line, or consistent patterns of M. canis polyvalent antigen distribution in canine meningoencephalitis case brain tissues, were apparent. Thus, while it is not likely a primary neuropathogen, M. canis has the capacity to influence meningoencephalitis through complex interactions within the multicellular and neurochemical in vivo milieu. PMID:27045036

  8. MRI appearances of the CNS manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Francis, D A; Brown, A; Miller, D H; Wiles, C M; Bennett, E D; Leigh, N

    1988-09-01

    Two patients are reported with Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related cervical myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging in each case demonstrated clinically silent lesions suggesting more extensive neurological involvement. This supports the concept of widespread immunologically mediated disease occurring as a remote effect of initial M. pneumoniae respiratory infection. Differences from the MRI appearances of a patient with mycoplasma-related Guillian-Barré syndrome imply that more than one antigenic determinant is involved.

  9. Genital mycoplasmas in semen samples of males attending a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria: any role in sperm count reduction?

    PubMed

    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Ikechebelu, J I

    2007-06-01

    Semen samples from 54 married men attending the outpatient clinics for problems of infertility and routine semen analysis were examined for the presence of genital mycoplasmas. The mean age of the men was 36.1 years with a range of 25 55 years. Majority of the men 57.4% (31 of 54) were in their fourth decade of life (30 39 years). This age group also had the highest percentage 57.2% (8 of 14) of positive isolates of genital mycoplasmas on semen culture. A total of 21 organisms obtained from 14 (26.0%) positive samples were isolated. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. separately isolated from the samples yielded frequencies of 1 (1.9%) and 6 (11.1%) respectively and the remaining 7 (13.0%) samples were infected with both organisms. A breakdown of the mycoplasma species include 5 (23.8%) M. hominis, 2 (9.5%) M. fermentans and 1 (4.8%) M. penetrans. Apart from one isolate of M. hominis other Mycoplasma species were found in association with Ureaplasma species. Fifteen (71.4%) of the 21 isolates [8 (53.3%) ureaplasmas and 7 (46.7%) mycoplasmas] were isolated from samples with sperm counts less than 20 million/ml while the remaining 6 (21.6%) isolates [5 (83.3%) ureaplasmas and 1 (16.7) mycoplasma] were from samples with counts greater than 20 million/ml. This finding could indicate a possible influence of genital mycoplasmas especially mycoplasmas species on sperm count.

  10. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5’ upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile. PMID:28005945

  11. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    PubMed

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  12. In vitro susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Sonmez, N; Morozumi, T; Mitani, K; Ito, N; Shiono, H; Yamamoto, K

    1996-11-01

    Fifty-four Japanese strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated from porkers during 1980 to 1995, and 107 Japanese strains of M. hyorhinis isolated from piglets with respiratory disease during 1991 to 1994 were investigated for the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobial agents [josamycin, tylosin, spiramycin, kitasamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin (LCM), kanamycin (KM), chloramphenicol (CP), thiamphenicol (TP), tiamulin (TML), oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and enrofloxacin (ERFX)] by the agar dilution method. Of the drugs tested TML showed the highest activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.013 to 0.1 microgram/ m/ (MIC90; 0.05 microgram/ml) against strains of M. hyosynoviae, and 0.2 to 0.78 microgram/ml (MIC90; 0.39 microgram/ml) against strains of M. hyorhinis. ERFX, LCM, most of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotics and tetracyclines also showed low MICs against both mycoplasma species. The susceptibility of KM, CP and TP to the mycoplasmas was considered to be of a secondary grade. Two of 54 strains of M. hyosynoviae, and 11 of 107 strains of M. hyorhinis showed resistance to all 14- and 16-membered macrolide antibiotics tested. Tetracyclines (OTC and CTC) showed a relatively broad MIC distribution from 0.1 to 6.25 micrograms/ml against the M. hyosynoviae strains tested. All of the strains isolated during 1980 to 1984 were susceptible at the concentration of 0.78 microgram/ml or less (MIC90; 0.78 microgram/ml) to OTC and 1.56 micrograms/ml or less (MIC90; 1.56 micrograms/ml) to CTC, while the susceptibility of strains isolated recently, during 1994 to 1995, was more than 0.78 microgram/ml (MIC90; 3.13 micrograms/ml) to OTC, and more than 1.56 micrograms/ml (MIC90; 6.25 micrograms/ml) to CTC.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos," a Hemotropic Mycoplasma Identified in Cattle in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio D; Amaro-Estrada, Itzel; Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela

    2016-07-07

    We present here the draft genome sequence of the first "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" strain found in cattle in Mexico. This hemotropic mycoplasma causes acute and chronic disease in animals. This genome is a starting point for studying the role of this mycoplasma in coinfections and synergistic mechanisms associated with the disease.

  14. Activity of moxifloxacin against the urogenital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Bébéar, C M; de Barbeyrac, B; Pereyre, S; Renaudin, H; Clerc, M; Bébéar, C

    2008-08-01

    The activity of moxifloxacin was compared with that of other antimicrobial agents against 54 strains of Ureaplasma spp., 54 strains of Mycoplasma hominis, 14 strains of Mycoplasma genitalium, and 44 strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. Moxifloxacin inhibited 90% of all isolates at a concentration mycoplasmas. Moxifloxacin killed the 30 mycoplasma isolates tested at a concentration

  15. The detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" in cattle and buffalo in China.

    PubMed

    Su, Q L; Song, H Q; Lin, R Q; Yuan, Z G; Yang, J F; Zhao, G H; Huang, W Y; Zhu, Xing Quan

    2010-12-01

    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" is a hemoplasma species found in cattle and has been recently reported in Switzerland and Japan. In this study, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" was shown to occur in cattle and buffalo in tropical China by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from blood samples. Based on the 16S rDNA sequence, a specific PCR assay was developed. Occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" in cattle and buffalo in Guangxi, China, was determined by examining 25 buffalo blood samples, 12 yellow cattle blood samples and 42 dairy cow blood samples. The results showed that 32% (8/25) of buffalo, 41.7% (5/12) of yellow cattle, and 14.3% (6/42) of dairy cows were positive for "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos", respectively. Direct sequencing of representative PCR products confirmed that the amplified partial 16S rDNA sequence represented "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos". This is the first report of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" in buffalo, yellow cattle, and dairy cows in China.

  16. Identification of Lipoprotein MslA as a Neoteric Virulence Factor of Mycoplasma gallisepticum▿

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanek, S. M.; Frasca, S.; Schumacher, V. L.; Liao, X.; Padula, M.; Djordjevic, S. P.; Geary, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Many lipoproteins are expressed on the surfaces of mycoplasmas, and some have been implicated as playing roles in pathogenesis. Family 2 lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have a conserved “mycoplasma lipoprotein X” central domain and a “mycoplasma lipoprotein 10” C-terminal domain and are differentially expressed in response to environmental conditions. Homologues of family 2 lipoproteins are Mycoplasma specific and include the lipoprotein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, encoded by the MGA0674 gene. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the M. gallisepticum live attenuated vaccine strain F and the virulent strain Rlow, reported in this study, indicated that MGA0674 is one of several differentially expressed genes. The MGA0674-encoded lipoprotein is a proteolytically processed, immunogenic, TX-114 detergent-phase protein which appears to have antigenic divergence between field strains Rlow and S6. We examined the virulence of an Rlow ΔMGA0674 mutant (P1H9) in vivo and observed reduced recovery and attenuated virulence in the tracheas of experimentally infected chickens. The virulence of two additional Rlow ΔMGA0674 mutants, 2162 and 2204, was assessed in a second in vivo virulence experiment. These mutants exhibited partial to complete attenuation in vivo, but recovery was observed more frequently. Since only Mycoplasma species harbor homologues of MGA0674, the gene product has been renamed “Mycoplasma-specific lipoprotein A” (MslA). Collectively, these data indicate that MslA is an immunogenic lipoprotein exhibiting reduced expression in an attenuated strain and plays a role in M. gallisepticum virulence. PMID:20515935

  17. Effects on goat milk quality of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in herds without symptoms of contagious agalactia.

    PubMed

    de la Fe, Christian; Sánchez, Antonio; Gutierrez, Aldo; Contreras, Antonio; Carlos Corrales, Juan; Assunçao, Patricia; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the possible effects of mycoplasmas on the quality of milk produced by goat herds in a contagious agalactia (CA) endemic area with absence of classical symptoms. Several factors related to milk quality (percentages of fat, total protein, lactose and total solids, standard plate counts (SPC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus) were compared in mycoplasma-infected and non-infected herds. To define the CA status of 26 herds on the island of Lanzarote (Spain), where CA is endemic, 570 individual milk samples and 266 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were microbiologically analysed for the presence of Mycoplasma spp. A herd was considered infected by mycoplasmas when at least a sample (individual or BTM) was positive. BTM samples were also used to determine milk quality parameters. Mycoplasma infection was confirmed in 13 herds. A total of 31, 10 and 11 strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (MmmLC), Mp. agalactiae and Mp. capricolum subsp. capricolum were isolated. No significant differences were observed between the least square means of the variables fat, total protein, lactose and total solids or SPC recorded for the infected v. non-infected herds. The Staph. aureus status of a herd was also found to be independent of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. Our findings indicate that neither the presence of mycoplasmas in a goat herd with absence of classical symptoms seem to compromise the quality of the BTM.

  18. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma acquisition in male HIV-1 infected patients: a multistage cross-sectional survey in Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, L-S; Wu, J-R; Wang, B; Yang, T; Yuan, R; Zhao, Y-Y; Xu, J-S; Guo, H-X; Huan, X-P

    2015-11-01

    Mycoplasma infections are most frequently associated with disease in the urogenital or respiratory tracts and, in most cases, mycoplasmas infect the host persistently. In HIV-infected individuals the prevalence and role of genital mycoplasmas has not been well studied. To investigate the six species of Mycoplasma and the risk factors for infection in Jiangsu province, first-void urine and venous blood samples were collected and epidemiological questionnaires were administered after informed consent. A total of 1541 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in this study. The overall infection rates of six Mycoplasma species were: Ureaplasma urealyticum (26·7%), Mycoplasma hominis (25·3%), M. fermentans (5·1%), M. genitalium (20·1%), M. penetrans (1·6%) and M. pirum (15·4%). The Mycoplasma infection rate in the unmarried group was lower than that of the married, divorced and widowed groups [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·432, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·077-1·904, P < 0·05]. The patients who refused highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) had a much higher risk of Mucoplasma infection (aOR 1·357, 95% CI 1·097-1·679, P < 0·05). Otherwise, a high CD4+ T cell count was a protective factor against Mycoplasma infection (aOR 0·576, 95% CI 0·460-0·719, P < 0·05). Further research will be required to confirm a causal relationship and to identify risk factors for Mycoplasma infection in HIV/AIDS populations.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility in relation to genotype of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae responsible for community-acquired pneumonia in children.

    PubMed

    Morozumi, Miyuki; Chiba, Naoko; Okada, Takafumi; Sakata, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Keita; Iwata, Satoshi; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are the main pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We identified S. pneumoniae (n = 241), H. influenzae (n = 123), and M. pneumoniae (n = 54) as causative pathogens from clinical findings and blood tests from pediatric CAP patients (n = 903) between April 2008 and April 2009. Identification of genes mediating antimicrobial resistance by real-time PCR was performed for all isolates of these three pathogens, as was antibiotic susceptibility testing using an agar dilution method or broth microdilution method. The genotypic (g) resistance rate was 47.7 % for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (gPRSP) possessing abnormal pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes, 62.6 % for β-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant (gBLNAR) H. influenzae possessing the amino acid substitutions Ser385Thr and Asn526Lys, and 44.4 % for macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (gMRMP) possessing a mutation of A2063G, A2064G, or C2617A. Serotype 6B (20.3 %) predominated in S. pneumoniae, followed by 19F (15.4 %), 14 (14.5 %), 23F (12.0 %), 19A (6.2 %), and 6C (5.4 %). Coverage for the isolates by heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and PCV13, respectively, was calculated as 68.5 and 80.9 %. A small number of H. influenzae were identified as type b (6.5 %), type e (0.8 %), or type f (0.8 %); all others were nontypeable. Proper use of antibiotics based on information about resistance in CAP pathogens is required to control rapid increases in resistance. Epidemiological surveillance of pediatric patients also is needed to assess the effectiveness of PCV7 and Hib vaccines after their introduction in Japan.

  20. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Bernet, C; Garret, M; de Barbeyrac, B; Bebear, C; Bonnet, J

    1989-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A specific DNA sequence for M. pneumoniae was selected from a genomic library, and two oligonucleotides were chosen in this sequence to give an amplified fragment of 144 base pairs. We show that DNA from different M. pneumoniae strains can be detected by PCR, with DNA from other Mycoplasma species giving negative results. Analysis of biological samples (throat swabs) obtained from hamsters that were experimentally infected with M. pneumoniae showed that PCR was more sensitive and reliable than conventional culture techniques for the detection of M. pneumoniae. Initial experiments on artificially seeded human bronchoalveolar lavages showed that PCR can be used to detect 10(2) to 10(3) organisms. Images PMID:2509513

  1. Comparison of Mycoplasma arthritidis strains by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and DNA restriction analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, L R; Voelker, L L; Ehle, L J; Hirsch, S; Dutenhofer, C; Olson, K; Beck, B

    1995-01-01

    Twenty Mycoplasma arthritidis strains or isolates were compared by a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by an antiserum adsorption technique, Western immunoblotting, and restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA. Antigenic markers that defined strains related to strains 158p10p9, PG6, and H606 were identified. In addition, restriction analysis allowed all 20 strains to be divided into six groups. Results of restriction analysis corresponded generally with antigenic similarities, although the former did not allow grouping with as fine a precision as the latter. However, intrastrain antigenic variability, which is common among many Mycoplasma species, including M. arthritidis, introduced a complicating factor into our attempts at antigenic analysis. While serologic and antigenic analyses remain useful, we recommend that they be used with caution and in combination with other techniques for identifying and characterizing new isolates and newly acquired strains. Combinations of these techniques have proven to be useful in our laboratory for quality control and for uncovering interesting relationships among strains subjected to animal passage and their less virulent antecedents and among strains originally classified as the same but obtained from different sources and maintained, sometimes for decades, in different laboratories. PMID:7494014

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from veal calves and dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, Annet; Reugebrink, Constance; Mars, Jet

    2016-06-30

    Control of Mycoplasma bovis infections depends on good husbandry practices and antibiotic treatment. To allow more prudent use of antimicrobial drugs, there is a need for information on the susceptibility profile of this pathogen. The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical M. bovis isolates in the Netherlands. The collection comprised 95 bovine isolates, originating from lungs (n=56), mastitis milk (n=27), and synovial fluid (n=12), collected between 2008 and 2014. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by broth microdilution, both by using in-house prepared MIC plates and by using commercially available MIC plates. For each antimicrobial agent, the range of MIC results, the MIC50, and MIC90 values were calculated. M. bovis strains recently isolated in the Netherlands appeared to be characterized by relatively high MIC values for antimicrobial agents that, until now, have been recommended by the Dutch Association of Veterinarians for treating pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma species. Fluoroquinolones appeared to be the most efficacious in inhibiting M. bovis growth, followed by tulathromycin and oxytetracycline. The highest MIC values were obtained for erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin. Future studies should be done on determining M. bovis specific clinical breakpoints, standardization of methods to determine MIC values as well as molecular studies on detection of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of M. bovis isolates to develop PCR assays for determining resistance.

  3. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Serrano, Myrna G; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J Paul; Glascock, Abigail L; Sheth, Nihar U; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

  4. An Emerging Mycoplasma Associated with Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J. Paul; Glascock, Abigail L.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as “Mnola.” In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name “Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii” for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710

  5. Selecting focal species as surrogates for imperiled species using relative sensitivities derived from occupancy analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvano, Amy; Guyer, Craig; Steury, Todd; Grand, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Most imperiled species are rare or elusive and difficult to detect, which makes gathering data to estimate their response to habitat restoration a challenge. We used a repeatable, systematic method for selecting focal species using relative sensitivities derived from occupancy analysis. Our objective was to select suites of focal species that would be useful as surrogates when predicting effects of restoration of habitat characteristics preferred by imperiled species. We developed 27 habitat profiles that represent general habitat relationships for 118 imperiled species. We identified 23 regularly encountered species that were sensitive to important aspects of those profiles. We validated our approach by examining the correlation between estimated probabilities of occupancy for species of concern and focal species selected using our method. Occupancy rates of focal species were more related to occupancy rates of imperiled species when they were sensitive to more of the parameters appearing in profiles of imperiled species. We suggest that this approach can be an effective means of predicting responses by imperiled species to proposed management actions. However, adequate monitoring will be required to determine the effectiveness of using focal species to guide management actions.

  6. Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Razin, Shmuel; Yogev, David; Naot, Yehudith

    1998-01-01

    The recent sequencing of the entire genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae has attracted considerable attention to the molecular biology of mycoplasmas, the smallest self-replicating organisms. It appears that we are now much closer to the goal of defining, in molecular terms, the entire machinery of a self-replicating cell. Comparative genomics based on comparison of the genomic makeup of mycoplasmal genomes with those of other bacteria, has opened new ways of looking at the evolutionary history of the mycoplasmas. There is now solid genetic support for the hypothesis that mycoplasmas have evolved as a branch of gram-positive bacteria by a process of reductive evolution. During this process, the mycoplasmas lost considerable portions of their ancestors’ chromosomes but retained the genes essential for life. Thus, the mycoplasmal genomes carry a high percentage of conserved genes, greatly facilitating gene annotation. The significant genome compaction that occurred in mycoplasmas was made possible by adopting a parasitic mode of life. The supply of nutrients from their hosts apparently enabled mycoplasmas to lose, during evolution, the genes for many assimilative processes. During their evolution and adaptation to a parasitic mode of life, the mycoplasmas have developed various genetic systems providing a highly plastic set of variable surface proteins to evade the host immune system. The uniqueness of the mycoplasmal systems is manifested by the presence of highly mutable modules combined with an ability to expand the antigenic repertoire by generating structural alternatives, all compressed into limited genomic sequences. In the absence of a cell wall and a periplasmic space, the majority of surface variable antigens in mycoplasmas are lipoproteins. Apart from providing specific antimycoplasmal defense, the host immune system is also involved in the development of pathogenic lesions and exacerbation of mycoplasma induced diseases. Mycoplasmas are

  7. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide accumulation and toxicity by a catalase from Mycoplasma iowae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Rachel E; Prassinos, Alexandre J; Osborne, John D; Raviv, Ziv; Balish, Mitchell F

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. One potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of H2O2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. Previous sequencing of M. iowae serovar I strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for H2O2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degrades H2O2. To test the activity of M. iowae catalase in degrading H2O2, we studied catalase activity and H2O2 accumulation by both M. iowae serovar K strain DK-CPA, whose genome we sequenced, and strains of the H2O2-producing species Mycoplasma gallisepticum engineered to produce M. iowae catalase by transformation with the M. iowae putative catalase gene, katE. H2O2-mediated virulence by M. iowae serovar K and catalase-producing M. gallisepticum transformants were also analyzed using a Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity assay, which has never previously been used in conjunction with mycoplasmas. We found that M. iowae katE encodes an active catalase that, when expressed in M. gallisepticum, reduces both the amount of H2O2 produced and the amount of damage to C. elegans in the presence of glycerol. Therefore, the correlation between the presence of glycerol catabolism genes and the use of H2O2 as a virulence factor by mycoplasmas might not be absolute.

  8. A novel mycoplasma detected in association with upper respiratory disease syndrome in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Sanford H; Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Marchang, Rachel E; Johnson, April J; Brown, William; Mitchell, Joseph C; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2006-04-01

    Clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease-like syndrome (URTD-LS) were observed in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from Virginia, USA (May 2001-August 2003), some of which also had aural abscesses. After a Mycoplasma sp. was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a study was undertaken to better define the range of clinical signs of disease and to distinguish mycoplasma-associated URTD-LS from other suspected causes of URTD-LS and aural abscessation in box turtles. Nasal and/or ocular swabs (from turtles possessing URTD-LS) or nasal washes (from asymptomatic turtles) were collected from turtles May 2001-August 2003; samples were assayed for Mycoplasma spp., chelonian herpesvirus, and iridoviruses by PCR testing. A partial DNA sequence (933 bases) of the small ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) of the box turtle Mycoplasma sp. was analyzed to determine its phylogenetic relatedness to other Mycoplasma spp. of veterinary interest. Mycoplasma sp. was detected in seven (six with clinical signs of URTD-LS; one asymptomatic) of 23 fortuitously collected animals from six of 11 Virginia counties. Clinical signs in Mycoplasma sp.-infected animals included unilateral to bilateral serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, epiphora, ocular edema, and conjunctival injection. Five Mycoplasma sp.-positive animals possessed aural abscesses; two did not. Analysis of the mycoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequence from one asymptomatic and three symptomatic animals representing four counties revealed a consensus Mycoplasma sp. sequence closely related to, but distinct from, M. agassizii. None of the samples collected contained viral DNA of chelonian herpesviruses or invertebrate and vertebrate (including FV3) iridoviruses. In conclusion, a new Mycoplasma sp. was associated with URTD-LS in native box turtles from Virginia that was not codetected with other suspected causes of chelonian upper respiratory disease; there was no proof of a direct relationship

  9. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Test for Mycoplasma. 610.30 Section 610.30 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Mycoplasma § 610.30 Test for Mycoplasma. Except as provided... tested for the presence of Mycoplasma, as follows: Samples of the virus for this test shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Test for Mycoplasma. 610.30 Section 610.30 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Mycoplasma § 610.30 Test for Mycoplasma. Except as provided... tested for the presence of Mycoplasma, as follows: Samples of the virus for this test shall be...

  11. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test for Mycoplasma. 610.30 Section 610.30 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Mycoplasma § 610.30 Test for Mycoplasma. Except as provided... tested for the presence of Mycoplasma, as follows: Samples of the virus for this test shall be...

  12. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test for Mycoplasma. 610.30 Section 610.30 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Mycoplasma § 610.30 Test for Mycoplasma. Except as provided... tested for the presence of Mycoplasma, as follows: Samples of the virus for this test shall be...

  13. Standardized methods and quality control limits for agar and broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    PubMed

    Waites, Ken B; Duffy, Lynn B; Bébéar, Cécile M; Matlow, Anne; Talkington, Deborah F; Kenny, George E; Totten, Patricia A; Bade, Donald J; Zheng, Xiaotian; Davidson, Maureen K; Shortridge, Virginia D; Watts, Jeffrey L; Brown, Steven D

    2012-11-01

    An international multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted to develop standard media and consensus methods for the performance and quality control of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum using broth microdilution and agar dilution techniques. A reference strain from the American Type Culture Collection was designated for each species, which was to be used for quality control purposes. Repeat testing of replicate samples of each reference strain by participating laboratories utilizing both methods and different lots of media enabled a 3- to 4-dilution MIC range to be established for drugs in several different classes, including tetracyclines, macrolides, ketolides, lincosamides, and fluoroquinolones. This represents the first multilaboratory collaboration to standardize susceptibility testing methods and to designate quality control parameters to ensure accurate and reliable assay results for mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas that infect humans.

  14. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  15. Mycoplasma genitalium in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Racey, C. Sarai; Seah, Christine; Zittermann, Sandra; Mitterni, Leo; Juzkiw, Jerry; Jamieson, Heather; Greer, Jane; Singh, Sudesh; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Allen, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in Toronto, Ont; detect mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance; and describe treatment outcomes. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Setting A sexual health clinic in Toronto. Participants A consecutive sample of men and women attending the sexual health clinic between September 1, 2013, and December 20, 2013. Interventions Participants underwent testing for M genitalium, along with standard sexually transmitted infection screening. All samples that had positive results for M genitalium were tested for mutations associated with resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Mycoplasma genitalium treatment was based on resistance profile and verified with a test of cure. Main outcome measures Positive results for M genitalium and antibiotic resistance. Results A total of 1193 men and women participated in the study. Overall, 4.5% of the 884 men and 3.2% of the 309 women had positive test results for M genitalium. Asymptomatic infection was common (52.0%). Macrolide resistance–mediating mutations were found in 58.0% of the M genitalium infections. No treatment failure was observed for azithromycin-treated cases. Treatment failure was suspected for 16.7% of cases treated with moxifloxacin. Conclusion Mycoplasma genitalium is present in Canada, with a prevalence comparable to chlamydia and gonorrhea, and has high macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:27331225

  16. Exotic taxa less related to native species are more invasive

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Sharon Y.; Webb, Campbell O.; Salamin, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Some species introduced into new geographical areas from their native ranges wreak ecological and economic havoc in their new environment. Although many studies have searched for either species or habitat characteristics that predict invasiveness of exotic species, the match between characteristics of the invader and those of members of the existing native community may be essential to understanding invasiveness. Here, we find that one metric, the phylogenetic relatedness of an invader to the native community, provides a predictive tool for invasiveness. Using a phylogenetic supertree of all grass species in California, we show that highly invasive grass species are, on average, significantly less related to native grasses than are introduced but noninvasive grasses. The match between the invader and the existing native community may explain why exotic pest species are not uniformly noxious in all novel habitats. Relatedness of invaders to the native biota may be one useful criterion for prioritizing management efforts of exotic species. PMID:16581902

  17. Bilateral optic papillitis following mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Milla, E; Zografos, L; Piguet, B

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that can cause a great variety of respiratory infections and be responsible for ocular involvement such as conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis and very rarely optic neuropathy. We report herein an additional case of bilateral optic disc swelling with profound visual loss following Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and review the world literature on the ocular manifestations associated with this pathogen.

  18. Tissue sequestration of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Riond, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Grest, Paula; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-12-27

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' ('Candidatus M. turicensis') is a hemoplasma species that infects felids. It differs from other feline hemoplasma species due to its particular infection kinetics and phylogenetic similarity to rodent hemoplasma species. The lower and shorter bacteremia produced by 'Candidatus M. turicensis' suggests a possible tissue sequestration of the organism. The aim of this study was to explore this possibility. Five specified-pathogen free cats were subcutaneously inoculated with 'Candidatus M. turicensis' and sacrificed 86 days after inoculation. Thirty-one selected organs were collected upon necropsy, and samples were analyzed by real-time Taqman(®) PCR. The humoral immune response was monitored by DnaK ELISA. All five cats had detectable 'Candidatus M. turicensis' loads in the majority (52-100%) of the tested tissues. High 'Candidatus M. turicensis' tissue loads (average 3.46×10(4) copies/10 mg) were detected in the samples. The presence of the organisms in the tissues could not be explained by the blood burdens because the blood of four out of five cats tested PCR-negative at the time of necropsy. This is the first study to describe the distribution of 'Candidatus M. turicensis' in various organs; it also demonstrates that, in contrast to other feline hemoplasma species, significant sequestration of 'Candidatus M. turicensis' occurs in many tissues. These results represent an important step toward the understanding of the pathogenesis of 'Candidatus M. turicensis'.

  19. Mycoplasma lagogenitalium sp. nov., from the preputial smegma of Afghan pikas (Ochotona rufescens rufescens).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Runge, M; Schmidt, R; Kubo, M; Yamamoto, K; Kirchhoff, H

    1997-10-01

    Organisms with characteristics typical of mycoplasmas were isolated from the preputial smegma of Afghan picas (Ochotona rufescens rufescens). The results of growth inhibition tests, metabolic inhibition tests, and immunobinding assays showed that the isolated strains were identical and that they were distinct from previously described Mycoplasma, Entomoplasma, Mesoplasma, and Acholeplasma species. These organisms represent a new species, for which the name Mycoplasma lagogenitalium is proposed. M. lagogenitalium ferments glucose, does not hydrolyze arginine or urea, reduces tetrazolium chloride, possesses phosphatase activity, does not digest gelatin or casein, and does not produce films or spots. It lyses sheep erythrocytes and does not adsorb sheep, rabbit, or horse erythrocytes. Cholesterol or serum is required for growth. The growth temperature is 37 degrees C. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA is 23.0 +/- 1.0 mol%. The type strain is M. lagogenitalium 12MS (= ATCC 700289T).

  20. Sialo-oligosaccharide receptors for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and related oligosaccharides of poly-N-acetyllactosamine series are polarized at the cilia and apical-microvillar domains of the ciliated cells in human bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Loveless, R W; Feizi, T

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence and distribution of the sialo-oligosaccharide receptors (sialosyl-I and sialosyl-i) for Mycoplasma pneumoniae as well as other related oligosaccharide structures of poly-N-acetyllactosamine type, and their short-chain analogs based on galactose linked beta 1-4 or beta 1-3 to N-acetylglucosamine (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc or Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc, respectively) were investigated in the human bronchial epithelium by histochemistry by using sequence-specific monoclonal antibodies and lectins. Among the mature epithelial cells, only ciliated cells were found to express the long-chain antigens, whereas mucus-secreting cells contained the short-chain antigens associated with mucus globules. The long-chain oligosaccharides were found to be highly polarized at the luminal aspects of the ciliated cells where the branched structures (I and sialosyl-I antigens) were detected both at the apical-microvillar border and on the cilia, but the linear structures (i, sialosyl-i, and VIM-2 antigens) were detected exclusively at the apical-microvillar border. These observations provide the first in situ visualization of the receptor structures for M. pneumoniae at the primary site of infection. The lack of sialo-oligosaccharide receptors in secretory cells and the mucus they produce provides a biochemical basis for evasion by this microorganism of the secreted mucus barrier.

  1. Eradication of Mycoplasma contaminations from cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G

    2014-04-14

    Mycoplasma contaminations have a multitude of effects on cultured cell lines that may influence the results of experiments or pollute bioactive substances isolated from the eukaryotic cells. The elimination of mycoplasma contaminations from cell cultures with antibiotics has been proven to be a practical alternative to discarding and re-establishing important or irreplaceable cell lines. Different fluoroquinolones, tetracyclins, pleuromutilins, and macrolides shown to have strong anti-mycoplasma properties are employed for the decontamination. These antibiotics are applied as single treatments, as combination treatment of two antibiotics in parallel or successively, or in combination with a surface-active peptide to enhance the action of the antibiotic. The protocols in this unit allow eradication of mycoplasmas, prevention of the development of resistant mycoplasma strains, and potential cure of heavily contaminated and damaged cells. Consistent and permanent alterations to eukaryotic cells attributable to the treatment have not been demonstrated.

  2. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: from disease to vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Simone; Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Maes, Dominiek; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    2013-08-30

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Despite efforts to control M. hyopneumoniae infection, significant economic losses in pig production continue to occur. The results of genome-based research have the potential to help understand the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae, and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines and diagnostic tests. In this review, the characteristics of M. hyopneumoniae related to pathogenesis and control measures will be discussed. Special emphasis will be placed on vaccination strategies that have been proposed with the use of reverse vaccinology approaches.

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during Heat Shock Using Microarrays†

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Melissa L.; Nettleton, Dan; Thacker, Eileen L.; Edwards, Robert; Minion, F. Chris

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens undergo stress during host colonization and disease processes. These stresses result in changes in gene expression to compensate for potentially lethal environments developed in the host during disease. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonizes the swine epithelium and causes a pneumonia that predisposes the host to enhanced disease from other pathogens. How M. hyopneumoniae responds to changing environments in the respiratory tract during disease progression is not known. In fact, little is known concerning the capabilities of mycoplasmas to respond to changing growth environments. With limited genes, mycoplasmas are thought to possess only a few mechanisms for gene regulation. A microarray consisting of 632 of the 698 open reading frames of M. hyopneumoniae was constructed and used to study gene expression differences during a temperature shift from 37°C to 42°C, a temperature swing that might be encountered during disease. To enhance sensitivity, a unique hexamer primer set was employed for generating cDNA from only mRNA species. Our analysis identified 91 genes that had significant transcriptional differences in response to heat shock conditions (P < 0.01) with an estimated false-discovery rate of 4 percent. Thirty-three genes had a change threshold of 1.5-fold or greater. Many of the heat shock proteins previously characterized in other bacteria were identified as significant in this study as well. A proportion of the identified genes (54 of 91) currently have no assigned function. PMID:16368969

  4. Rhamnose Links Moonlighting Proteins to Membrane Phospholipid in Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Daubenspeck, James M.; Liu, Runhua; Dybvig, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Many proteins that have a primary function as a cytoplasmic protein are known to have the ability to moonlight on the surface of nearly all organisms. An example is the glycolytic enzyme enolase, which can be found on the surface of many types of cells from bacteria to human. Surface enolase is not enzymatic because it is monomeric and oligomerization is required for glycolytic activity. It can bind various molecules and activate plasminogen. Enolase lacks a signal peptide and the mechanism by which it attaches to the surface is unknown. We found that treatment of whole cells of the murine pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis with phospholipase D released enolase and other common moonlighting proteins. Glycostaining suggested that the released proteins were glycosylated. Cytoplasmic and membrane-bound enolase was isolated by immunoprecipitation. No post-translational modification was detected on cytoplasmic enolase, but membrane enolase was associated with lipid, phosphate and rhamnose. Treatment with phospholipase released the lipid and phosphate from enolase but not the rhamnose. The site of rhamnosylation was identified as a glutamine residue near the C-terminus of the protein. Rhamnose has been found in all species of mycoplasma examined but its function was previously unknown. Mycoplasmas are small bacteria with have no peptidoglycan, and rhamnose in these organisms is also not associated with polysaccharide. We suggest that rhamnose has a central role in anchoring proteins to the membrane by linkage to phospholipid, which may be a general mechanism for the membrane association of moonlighting proteins in mycoplasmas and perhaps other bacteria. PMID:27603308

  5. Co-infection with Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' in three cats from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Helio A; Guimarães, Ana Marcia S; Vidotto, Odilon; Baumann, Aline; Biondo, Alexander W; Messick, Joanne B

    2007-12-01

    The two most common haemotropic Mycoplasma of cats, Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' have been identified using molecular techniques in all continents, except Antarctica. We report the first molecular characterization in South America of a dual infection with M haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' in three domestic cats. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified in three anaemic cats in which haemoplasma organisms were seen attached to the erythrocytes in the peripheral blood smear. Bands of the expected size for M haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' were observed in all three cats. The 393 bp segment of one of the amplicons had a similarity value of 100% to M haemofelis, whereas the other amplicon, a 192 bp segment, was 100% similar to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum'. After diagnosis, two cats received blood transfusion and they were all treated with doxycycline. All three cats recovered uneventfully.

  6. A 48-kilodalton Mycoplasma fermentans membrane protein induces cytokine secretion by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kostyal, D A; Butler, G H; Beezhold, D H

    1994-01-01

    Mycoplasma fermentans is one of several Mycoplasma species that have been reported to stimulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion from monocytes. This activity has been associated primarily with the mycoplasma membrane fraction. In this article, we have characterized a membrane protein that stimulates TNF and interleukin 1 beta secretion. The TNF-releasing activity partitioned into the Triton X-114 detergent phase, suggesting that the molecules is hydrophobic. The secretion of TNF is elevated in the presence of serum, which suggests that a serum component may play a role in the interaction between this mycoplasma protein and monocytes. Treatment of monocytes with monoclonal anti-CD14 antibody had no effect on the levels of TNF-releasing activity. By using the monocyte Western blot (immunoblot) technique, we have determined the molecular mass of the active molecule to be 48 kDa. This molecule appears to be distinct from the recently described family of variable lipoproteins of M. fermentans. Mycoplasma particulate material treated with proteinase K lost all inducing activity, whereas lipoprotein lipase-treated samples retained some level of activity. Images PMID:7520421

  7. Humoral immune response to a recombinant hemoplasma antigen in experimental 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' infection.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind; Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2012-06-15

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' is a feline hemoplasma species that was isolated in a cat with hemolytic anemia. PCR has been widely used to investigate and diagnose 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' infection, but so far, little is known about the humoral immune response in infected cats. Recently, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to monitor anti-feline hemoplasma antibodies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the humoral immune response in cats experimentally infected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' and to monitor the influence of the pre-administration of methylprednisolone and subsequent antibiotic treatment. Serum and plasma samples from 15 specified pathogen-free cats infected with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' were analyzed by ELISA. Seroconversion was demonstrated in all cats, and the antibodies remained detectable until the end of the study (up to 100 weeks post-exposure). In some cats, the ELISA seemed more sensitive and better able to demonstrate exposure to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' than PCR. The peak antibody level occurred after the peak of the bacterial blood loads. The methylprednisolone administrations were associated with increased antibody levels, while antibiotic treatment, particularly with doxycycline, resulted in a decrease in antibody levels. Additionally, preliminary data indicated that three of four seropositive cats were protected from bacteremia after a subsequent challenge. In conclusion, the ELISA was found to be a useful tool to investigate the humoral immune response in hemoplasma-infected cats and a desirable addition to PCR to study the pathogenesis of hemoplasma infections.

  8. Climate-induced range overlap among closely related species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krosby, Meade; Wilsey, Chad B.; McGuire, Jenny L.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Nogeire, Theresa M.; Heinrichs, Julie A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary climate change is causing large shifts in biotic distributions, which has the potential to bring previously isolated, closely related species into contact. This has led to concern that hybridization and competition could threaten species persistence. Here, we use bioclimatic models to show that future range overlap by the end of the century is predicted for only 6.4% of isolated, congeneric species pairs of New World birds, mammals and amphibians. Projected rates of climate-induced overlap are higher for birds (11.6%) than for mammals (4.4%) or amphibians (3.6%). As many species will have difficulty tracking shifting climates, actual rates of future overlap are likely to be far lower, suggesting that hybridization and competition impacts may be relatively modest.

  9. Description and prevalence of Mycoplasma ciconiae sp. nov. isolated from white stork nestlings (Ciconia ciconia).

    PubMed

    Möller Palau-Ribes, Franca; Enderlein, Dirk; Hagen, Nils; Herbst, Werner; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Lierz, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The mycoplasma strain ST 57T was isolated from the trachea of a clinically healthy, free-ranging white stork nestling in Nielitz, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. Strain ST 57T grew in fried-egg-shaped colonies on mycoplasma (SP4) agar plates and was dependent on sterol for growth. The organism fermented glucose and did not hydrolyse arginine or urea. The optimal growth temperature was 37 °C, with a temperature range from 23 to 44 °C. Strain ST 57Tcould not be identified as a representative of any of the currently described mycoplasma species by alignment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence or 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region, or by immunobinding assays. Thus, this organism appears to be a representative of a novel species, for which the name Mycoplasma ciconiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST 57T (=ATCC BAA-2401T=DSM 25251T). Four further strains of this species are included in this description (ST 24=DSM 29908, ST 56 Clone 1=DSM 29054, ST 99=DSM 29909, ST 102=DSM 29010). The prevalence of this mycoplasma species in clinically healthy, white stork nestlings in northern Germany was determined. Our species-specific PCR detected 57.8 % (48/83) of the samples positive for M. ciconiae sp. nov. As this species appears to be widespread in the healthy free-ranging white stork population, we conclude that this species is either apathogenic or an opportunistic pathogen in white storks.

  10. Relative species abundance of replicator dynamics with sparse interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Tokita, Kei

    2016-11-01

    A theory of relative species abundance on sparsely-connected networks is presented by investigating the replicator dynamics with symmetric interactions. Sparseness of a network involves difficulty in analyzing the fixed points of the equation, and we avoid this problem by treating large self interaction u, which allows us to construct a perturbative expansion. Based on this perturbation, we find that the nature of the interactions is directly connected to the abundance distribution, and some characteristic behaviors, such as multiple peaks in the abundance distribution and all species coexistence at moderate values of u, are discovered in a wide class of the distribution of the interactions. The all species coexistence collapses at a critical value of u, u c , and this collapsing is regarded as a phase transition. To get more quantitative information, we also construct a non-perturbative theory on random graphs based on techniques of statistical mechanics. The result shows those characteristic behaviors are sustained well even for not large u. For even smaller values of u, extinct species start to appear and the abundance distribution becomes rounded and closer to a standard functional form. Another interesting finding is the non-monotonic behavior of diversity, which quantifies the number of coexisting species, when changing the ratio of mutualistic relations Δ . These results are examined by numerical simulations, which show that our theory is exact for the case without extinct species, but becomes less and less precise as the proportion of extinct species grows.

  11. Species-area relation for birds of the Solomon Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Diamond, J M; Mayr, E

    1976-01-01

    Accurate values of number of breeding bird species have been obtained for 50 islands of the Solomon Archipelago. From information about species altitudinal distributions on each island, the values are apportioned into number of montane species (S(mt)) and of species present at sea-level (S(low)). S(low) increases linearly with the logarithm of island area A over a million-fold range of areas (correlation coefficient 0.99) and with a comparatively low slope, while the log S-log A relation is markedly curved. With increasing isolation of an archipelago, the species-area relation decreases in slope and may shift in form from a power function to an exponential. Comparison of Pacific archipelagoes at different distances from the colonization source of New Guinea shows that the decrease in slope is due to increasing intra-archipelago immigration rates, arising from overrepresentation of the most vagile inter-archipelago immigrants in more distant archipelagoes. When colonists are sorted into sets correlated with their dispersal abilities, the slope of the species-area relation for the most vagile set is close to zero, but for the least vagile set is close to the value predicted by Preston for "isolated universes."

  12. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on blood characteristics in commercial layer chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects ...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium Strain HAZ 596 from a Bovine Vagina in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Kazuya; Murakami, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, a mycoplasmal species involved in various bovine diseases, including genital disease and mastitis, is also a commensal microorganism that inhabits the bovine genital organs. We present here the complete 853,553-bp genome sequence of M. bovigenitalium strain HAZ 596, which was isolated from a bovine vagina in Japan. PMID:28183755

  14. Characterization of Free Exopolysaccharides Secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Clothilde; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Courtois, Josiane; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Thiaucourt, François; Tardy, Florence; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Gaurivaud, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS), also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical β(1−>6)-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan) and associated with an

  15. In situ immunohistochemical detection of intracellular Mycoplasma salivarium in the epithelial cells of oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Mizuki, Harumi; Kawamura, Takafumi; Nagasawa, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living organisms; Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale are the most common species isolated from the oropharynx. Oral leukoplakia is the most prevalent potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa; its etiology has not been defined. Our previous study with DNA-binding fluorescent dye suggested the presence of mycoplasmas in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia tissue. Objective Our aim was to detect M. salivarium in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia by immunohistochemistry. Design We produced a polyclonal antibody (PAb) reactive to Mycoplasma by injecting a rabbit with M. salivarium cells (ATCC 23064) mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant and a monoclonal antibody specific to M. salivarium by injecting M. salivarium cells (ATCC 23557) mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant into the footpads of a rat. Then, we attempted to detect M. salivarium in the epithelium of leukoplakia tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results We obtained an antimycoplasma rabbit PAb reactive to all seven Mycoplasma species used in this study. Three hybridoma clones producing monoclonal antibodies specific to M. salivarium were obtained, and an M. salivarium-specific monoclonal antibody, designated 7-6H, was established. Immunohistochemistry with these antibodies revealed M. salivarium in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia with hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis on histology. PCR and sequencing verified the presence of M. salivariumDNA in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia. Conclusion Intracellular M. salivarium was identified in the epithelial cells of leukoplakia. PMID:25065471

  16. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of

  17. A College Epidemic of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, David; Cochran, Burt

    1979-01-01

    The article reports on an outbreak of mycoplasma pneumoniae at the California Polytechnic State University including a historical background of the disease, clinical features, laboratory findings for treated patients, treatment, and clinical clues for diagnosis. (JMF)

  18. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics.

  19. Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas as Neonatal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Waites, Ken B.; Katz, Brenda; Schelonka, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    The genital mycoplasmas represent a complex and unique group of microorganisms that have been associated with a wide array of infectious diseases in adults and infants. The lack of conclusive knowledge regarding the pathogenic potential of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. in many conditions is due to a general unfamiliarity of physicians and microbiology laboratories with their fastidious growth requirements, leading to difficulty in their detection; their high prevalence in healthy persons; the poor design of research studies attempting to base association with disease on the mere presence of the organisms in the lower urogenital tract; the failure to consider multifactorial aspects of diseases; and considering these genital mycoplasmas only as a last resort. The situation is now changing because of a greater appreciation of the genital mycoplasmas as perinatal pathogens and improvements in laboratory detection, particularly with regard to the development of powerful molecular nucleic acid amplification tests. This review summarizes the epidemiology of genital mycoplasmas as causes of neonatal infections and premature birth; evidence linking ureaplasmas with bronchopulmonary dysplasia; recent changes in the taxonomy of the genus Ureaplasma; the neonatal host response to mycoplasma and ureaplasma infections; advances in laboratory detection, including molecular methods; and therapeutic considerations for treatment of systemic diseases. PMID:16223956

  20. Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis Isolated from Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are major contaminants of mammalian cell cultures. Here, the complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis recovered from Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells is reported. PMID:27738034

  1. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Mycoplasma spp. antisera conjugated with a.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these microorganisms....

  2. Mycoplasma genitalium, an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen.

    PubMed

    Cazanave, C; Manhart, L E; Bébéar, C

    2012-09-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted organism associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women such as cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. There was evidence for an association of M. genitalium with endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), but additional studies are necessary to confirm this. The evidence as to whether M. genitalium can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor is conflicting. But the authors of some studies on M. genitalium as a cause of infertility have reported this association. This species is very difficult to culture; thus, nucleic acid amplification testing is the only method available for M. genitalium detection. The lack of a cell wall makes M. genitalium intrinsically resistant to antibiotics acting at this level, such as beta-lactams. The treatment of M. genitalium infections is not standardized. Macrolides are recommended, especially single-dose azithromycin; tetracyclines are responsible for a great number of therapeutic failures even no resistance mechanism has yet been demonstrated. Acquired resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones leading to therapeutic failure has also been reported. All this raises the issue of the most appropriate therapeutic management and requires drafting diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of M. genitalium infections.

  3. Identification of mycoplasma membrane proteins by systematic Tn phoA mutagenesis of a recombinant library.

    PubMed

    Cleavinger, C M; Kim, M F; Im, J H; Wise, K S

    1995-10-01

    Wall-less prokaryotes in the genus Mycoplasma include over 90 species of infectious agents whose pathogenicity for humans and other animals is currently being assessed. Molecular characterization of surface proteins is critical in this regard but is hampered by the lack of genetic systems in these organisms. We used TnphoA transposition to systematically mutagenize, in Escherichia coli, a genomic plasmid library constructed from Mycoplasma fermentans, a potential human pathogen. The strategy circumvented problems of expressing mycoplasma genes containing UGA (Trp) codons and relied on the construction of the vector pG7ZCW, designed to reduce TnphoA transposition into vector sequences. Functional phoA gene fusions directly identified genes encoding 19 putative membrane-associated proteins of M. fermentans. Sequences of fusion constructs defined three types of export sequence: (1) non-cleavable, membrane-spanning sequences, (2) signal peptides with signal peptidase (SPase) I-like cleavage sites, and (3) signal peptides with SPase II-like lipoprotein-cleavage sites which, like most other mycoplasmal lipoprotein signals analysed to date, differed from those in several Gram-negative and Gram-positive eubacteria in their lack of a Leu residue at the -3 position. Antibodies to synthetic peptides that were deduced from two fusions to predicted lipoproteins, identified corresponding amphiphilic membrane proteins of 57 kDa and 78 kDa expressed in the mycoplasma. The P57 sequence contained a proline-rich N-terminal region analogous to an adhesin of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The P78 protein was identical to a serologically defined phase-variant surface lipoprotein. TnphoA mutagenesis provides an efficient means of systematically characterizing functionally diverse lipoproteins and other exported proteins in mycoplasmas.

  4. Effect of species on relative toxicity of pyrolysis products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Leon, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    One of the principal factors in animal toxicity studies is the choice of animal species. A limited study of the relative toxicity of the pyrolysis products from cotton and wool indicated that values of concentrations and doses required to produce death in 50% of the test animals obtained with Swiss albino mice were approximately one-half the values obtained with Sprague-Dawley rats. The toxicity of cotton relative to that of wool was the same using Swiss albino mice or Sprague-Dawley rats. Rankings of relative toxicity appear to be more sensitive to differences in apparatus and procedure than to interspecies differences.

  5. Eukaryote-Made Thermostable DNA Polymerase Enables Rapid PCR-Based Detection of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Other Bacteria in the Amniotic Fluid of Preterm Labor Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Noriko; Yoneda, Satoshi; Mori, Masashi; Tabata, Homare; Minami, Hiroshi; Saito, Shigeru; Kitajima, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic infection has long been recognized as the leading cause of preterm delivery. Microbial culture is the gold standard for the detection of intra-amniotic infection, but several days are required, and many bacterial species in the amniotic fluid are difficult to cultivate. Methods We developed a novel nested-PCR-based assay for detecting Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, other bacteria and fungi in amniotic fluid samples within three hours of sample collection. To detect prokaryotes, eukaryote-made thermostable DNA polymerase, which is free from bacterial DNA contamination, is used in combination with bacterial universal primers. In contrast, to detect eukaryotes, conventional bacterially-made thermostable DNA polymerase is used in combination with fungal universal primers. To assess the validity of the PCR assay, we compared the PCR and conventional culture results using 300 amniotic fluid samples. Results Based on the detection level (positive and negative), 93.3% (280/300) of Mycoplasma, 94.3% (283/300) of Ureaplasma, 89.3% (268/300) of other bacteria and 99.7% (299/300) of fungi matched the culture results. Meanwhile, concerning the detection of bacteria other than Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma, 228 samples were negative according to the PCR method, 98.2% (224/228) of which were also negative based on the culture method. Employing the devised primer sets, mixed amniotic fluid infections of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and/or other bacteria could be clearly distinguished. In addition, we also attempted to compare the relative abundance in 28 amniotic fluid samples with mixed infection, and judged dominance by comparing the Ct values of quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions We developed a novel PCR assay for the rapid detection of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, other bacteria and fungi in amniotic fluid samples. This assay can also be applied to accurately diagnose the absence of bacteria in samples. We believe that this assay will positively contribute to the

  6. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Leal, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos; Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2016-07-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are two genetically close species found in the swine respiratory tract. Despite their similarities, while M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Genomic and transcriptional comparative analyses so far failed to explain the difference in pathogenicity between these two species. We then hypothesized that such difference might be, at least in part, explained by amino acid sequence and immunological or functional differences between ortholog surface proteins. In line with that, it was verified that approximately 85% of the ortholog surface proteins from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and M. flocculare present one or more differential domains. To experimentally assess possible immunological implications of this kind of difference, the extracellular differential domains from one pair of orthologous surface proteins (MHP7448_0612, from M. hyopneumoniae, and MF_00357, from M. flocculare) were expressed in E. coli and used to immunize mice. The recombinant polypeptides (rMHP61267-169 and rMF35767-196, respectively) induced distinct cellular immune responses. While, rMHP61267-169 induced both Th1 and Th2 responses, rMF35767-196 induced just an early pro-inflammatory response. These results indicate that immunological properties determined by differential domains in orthologous surface protein might play a role in pathogenicity, contributing to elicit specific and differential immune responses against each species.

  7. Nurse plants transfer more nitrogen to distantly related species.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia; Verdú, Miguel; Querejeta, José Ignacio; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2017-02-11

    Plant facilitative interactions enhance co-occurrence between distant relatives, partly due to limited overlap in resource requirements. We propose a different mechanism for the coexistence of distant relatives based on positive interactions of nutrient sharing. Nutrients move between plants following source-sink gradients driven by plant traits that allow these gradients to establish. Specifically, nitrogen (N) concentration gradients can arise from variation in leaf N content across plants species. As many ecologically relevant traits, we hypothesize that leaf N content is phylogenetically conserved and can result in N gradients promoting N transfer among distant relatives. In a Mexican desert community governed by facilitation, we labelled nurse plants (Mimosa luisiana) with (15) N and measured its transfer to 14 other species in the community, spanning the range of phylogenetic distances to the nurse plant. Nurses established steeper N source-sink gradients with distant relatives, increasing (15) N transfer towards these species. Nutrient sharing may provide long-term benefits to facilitated plants and may be an overlooked mechanism maintaining coexistence and increasing the phylogenetic diversity of plant communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding relations between breeding bird species and extreme weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, A.; Bateman, B.; Pidgeon, A. M.; Radeloff, V.; Vavrus, S. J.; Keuler, N.; Clayton, M.; Albright, T.; Thogmartin, W.; Heglund, P.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme weather events are increasing in frequency due to climate change. Extreme weather events like periods of drought or cold snaps may impose hardship on many animal and plant populations. However, little is known about biotic response to extreme events. For example, some species experience population size changes in association with extreme weather, and some do not. However the mechanisms responsible for observed declines in avian abundance following heat waves and drought are not clear. Our goal was to characterize the population changes of North American bird species in relation to temperature and precipitation extremes using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. We derived standardized measures of extreme precipitation and air temperature based on phase 2 NASA Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), an hourly 1/8 degree resolution land surface forcing dataset, and modeled population responses, during the breeding season, of 363 bird species. Of those species in which a change was observed, many demonstrated decreases in total population size, suggesting either mortality or reproductive failure (or both) are the causative mechanisms of this decline. A greater proportion of population changes were associated with extreme conditions in the same year than in the previous year. Some species exhibited population decreases in areas of extreme weather and increases in areas with environmental conditions more favorable to breeding while overall abundance remained relatively constant, which might indicate movement. The patterns of bird population changes in relation to extreme weather events provide insight for planners as they consider modifications to our national protected area network that will limit threats posed by climate change to bird populations.

  9. Mycoplasmas and Their Antibiotic Resistance: The Problems and Prospects in Controlling Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, O.A.; Medvedeva, E.S.; Mouzykantov, A.A.; Baranova, N.B.; Chernov, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present review discusses the problem of controlling mycoplasmas (class Mollicutes), the smallest of self-replicating prokaryotes, parasites of higher eukaryotes, and main contaminants of cell cultures and vaccines. Possible mechanisms for the rapid development of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in mycoplasmas have been analyzed. Omics technologies provide new opportunities for investigating the molecular basis of bacterial adaptation to stress factors and identifying resistomes, the total of all genes and their products contributing to antibiotic resistance in microbes. The data obtained using an integrated approach with post-genomics methods show that antibiotic resistance may be caused by more complex processes than has been believed heretofore. The development of antibiotic resistance in mycoplasmas is associated with essential changes in the genome, proteome, and secretome profiles, which involve many genes and proteins related to fundamental cellular processes and virulence. PMID:27437137

  10. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH buffer... with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (chicken origin); Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be examined for cross-agglutination with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and...

  11. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH buffer... with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (chicken origin); Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be examined for cross-agglutination with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and...

  12. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH buffer... with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (chicken origin); Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be examined for cross-agglutination with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and...

  13. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH buffer... with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (chicken origin); Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be examined for cross-agglutination with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and...

  14. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ion concentration shall be determined with a pH meter which has been standardized with a pH buffer... with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (chicken origin); Mycoplasma Meleagridis Antigen shall be examined for cross-agglutination with five Mycoplasma gallisepticum antiserums (turkey origin) and...

  15. Microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. in a contagious agalactia endemic area.

    PubMed

    De la Fe, C; Assunção, P; Antunes, T; Rosales, R S; Poveda, J B

    2005-09-01

    In this work, we report a microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. undertaken between 2001 and 2002 in 28 goat herds in Gran Canaria, Spain, an area where contagious agalactia is endemic. All herds were randomly selected and represented approximately 15.5% of the total goat population of the island. A variable number of milk, articular and auricular swab samples were collected from each flock and cultured in specific mycoplasma culture media. There was a total of 38.5% positive flocks from which 37 mycoplasma isolates were obtained. In contrast with previous data obtained in Spain, our results showed that the large colony variant of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm LC) was the most commonly isolated agent associated with contagious agalactia. This species was isolated from 90% of the positive herds and accounted for 54.1% of all isolations. M. agalactiae was isolated from 40% of the positive herds (27% of all isolations) and in six herds M. arginini was isolated (18.7% of all isolations). No M. capricolum or M. putrefaciens strains were isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 milk samples, 15 ear canals swabs and one articular sample. The association of several species was reported in several herds. These results are at variance with previous serological studies, which indicated a higher disease prevalence, and suggest that it could be necessary to use detection techniques such PCR to confirm the existence of contagious agalactia in goats.

  16. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Bente G.; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC)-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:26462937

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos,” a Hemotropic Mycoplasma Identified in Cattle in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio D.; Amaro-Estrada, Itzel

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequence of the first “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos” strain found in cattle in Mexico. This hemotropic mycoplasma causes acute and chronic disease in animals. This genome is a starting point for studying the role of this mycoplasma in coinfections and synergistic mechanisms associated with the disease. PMID:27389272

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases. PMID:27242710

  19. Mycoplasma neophronis sp. nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pérez, A; Ramírez, A S; Rosales, R S; Calabuig, P; Poveda, C; Rosselló-Móra, R; Nicholas, R A J; Poveda, J B

    2012-06-01

    Six strains with the typical characteristics of mycoplasmas were isolated from the tracheae of six Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis). The results of biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies showed that the isolates were nearly identical and that they could be considered as representing a novel species of the genus Mycoplasma. Colonies possessed the typical fried-egg appearance and electron micrographs revealed a pleomorphic cellular morphology with the lack of a cell wall. The isolates hydrolysed arginine and required sterol for growth but did not ferment glucose or hydrolyse urea. We propose that the isolates be assigned to a novel species,Mycoplasma neophronis sp. nov. The type strain is G.A.(T) ( = DSM 24097(T) = ATCC BAA-2157(T)). The antiserum of strain G.A.(T) has been deposited in the Mollicutes collection at Purdue University (Indiana, USA).

  20. A surface epitope undergoing high-frequency phase variation is shared by Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Yogev, D; Menaker, D; Strutzberg, K; Levisohn, S; Kirchhoff, H; Hinz, K H; Rosengarten, R

    1994-01-01

    We have recently reported that three distinct size- and phase-variable surface lipoproteins (Vsps) of the bovine pathogen Mycoplasma bovis possess a common epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 1E5. In the present study, we show that this epitope is also present on a size-variant protein (PvpA) of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Application of monoclonal antibody 1E5 in Western immunoblot analysis of Triton X-114 phase-fractionated proteins and in colony immunoblots, as well as in trypsin and carboxypeptidase digestion experiments, has demonstrated that (i) PvpA is an integral membrane protein with a free C terminus, (ii) the shared epitope is surface exposed, and (iii) PvpA is subjected to high-frequency phase variation in expression. By using serum antibodies from M. gallisepticum-infected chickens, we were able to demonstrate the immunogenic nature of PvpA and identify three additional highly immunogenic Triton X-114 phase proteins (p67, p72, and p75) also undergoing high-frequency phase variation spontaneously and independently. Metabolic labeling experiments with [14C]palmitate and [14C]oleate revealed that PvpA, in contrast to p67, p72, and p75, is not lipid modified. Southern blot hybridization with restriction fragments carrying the pvpA gene of M. gallisepticum or the vspA gene of M. bovis against digested genomic DNA of the two Mycoplasma species indicated the absence of genetic relatedness between the pvpA and vspA genes. The apparent complexity of the antigenic variation phenomenon in M. gallisepticum is discussed. Images PMID:7523302

  1. Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., a species related to Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuejian; Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Strain TCF032-E4 was isolated from a traditional Chinese fermented radish. It shares >99% 16S rRNA sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus and L. paraplantarum. This strain can ferment ribose, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, trehalose and gentiobiose. It cannot ferment sucrose, which can be used by L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis, as well as most of the L. plantarum strains (88.7%). TCF032-E4 cannot grow at temperature above 32 °C. This strain shares 78.2-83.6% pheS (phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase alpha subunit) and 89.5-94.9% rpoA (RNA polymerase alpha subunit) sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis. These results indicate that TCF032-E4 represents a distinct species. This hypothesis was further confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and comparison with available genomes of related species. The draft genome size of TCF032-E4 is approximately 2.9 Mb, with a DNA G+C content of 43.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between TCF032-E4 and related species ranges from 79.0 to 81.1%, the highest ANI value being observed with L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ATCC 14917T. A novel species, Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., is proposed with TCF032-E4T ( = CCTCC AB2015090T = DSM 100358T) as the type strain.

  2. Selective medium for culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Cook, Beth S; Beddow, Jessica G; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Maglennon, Gareth A; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2016-11-15

    The fastidious porcine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has proven difficult to culture since it was first isolated in 1965. A reliable solid medium has been particularly challenging. Moreover, clinical and pathological samples often contain the fast-growing M. hyorhinis which contaminates and overgrows M. hyopneumoniae in primary culture. The aim of this study was to optimise the culture medium for recovery of M. hyopneumoniae and to devise a medium for selection of M. hyopneumoniae from clinical samples also containing M. hyorhinis. The solid medium devised by Niels Friis was improved by use of Purified agar and incorporation of DEAE-dextran. Addition of glucose or neutralization of acidity in liquid medium with NaOH did not improve the final yield of viable organisms or alter the timing of peak viability. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis strains to four antimicrobials showed that M. hyopneumoniae is less susceptible than M. hyorhinis to kanamycin. This was consistent in all UK and Danish strains tested. A concentration of 2μg/ml of kanamycin selectively inhibited the growth of all M. hyorhinis tested, while M. hyopneumoniae was able to grow. This forms the basis of an effective selective culture medium for M. hyopneumoniae.

  3. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild North American waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.; Krapu, G.L.; Robb, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central United States (1988 to 1990); and wintering American black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern United States (1990 to 1993). Mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. Nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma anatis; M. anatis was recovered from four mallards, a black duck, and a gadwall (Anas strepera) duckling. Nineteen (37%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as Mycoplasma cloacale; these isolates were obtained from mallard, canvasback, and black duck adults, and from a mallard duckling. Additional unspeciated mycoplasmas were isolated from mallards, black ducks, and one canvasback.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum.

    PubMed

    Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; de la Fe, Christian; Paterna, Ana; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Tola, Sebastiana; Gómez-Martin, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is one of the causative agents of contagious agalactia (CA). Nevertheless, there is still a lack of information about its antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial and genetic variability of different Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum field isolates. For this purpose, the growth inhibition effect of 18 antimicrobials and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on five housekeeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA and rpoB) were performed on 32 selected field isolates from Italy and Spain.The results showed a wide range of growth inhibitory effects for almost all the antimicrobials studied. Macrolides presented lower efficacy inhibiting Mcc growth than in previous works performed on other CA-causative mycoplasmas. Erythromycin was not able to inhibit the growth of any of the studied strains, contrary to doxycycline, which inhibited the growth of all of them from low concentrations. On the other hand, the study of the concatenated genes revealed a high genetic variability among the different Mcc isolates. Hence, these genetic variations were greater than the ones reported in prior works on other mycoplasma species.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility and multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    PubMed Central

    Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Paterna, Ana; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Tola, Sebastiana; Gómez-Martin, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is one of the causative agents of contagious agalactia (CA). Nevertheless, there is still a lack of information about its antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial and genetic variability of different Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum field isolates. For this purpose, the growth inhibition effect of 18 antimicrobials and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on five housekeeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA and rpoB) were performed on 32 selected field isolates from Italy and Spain.The results showed a wide range of growth inhibitory effects for almost all the antimicrobials studied. Macrolides presented lower efficacy inhibiting Mcc growth than in previous works performed on other CA-causative mycoplasmas. Erythromycin was not able to inhibit the growth of any of the studied strains, contrary to doxycycline, which inhibited the growth of all of them from low concentrations. On the other hand, the study of the concatenated genes revealed a high genetic variability among the different Mcc isolates. Hence, these genetic variations were greater than the ones reported in prior works on other mycoplasma species. PMID:28346546

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE (EATON'S AGENT)

    PubMed Central

    Dajani, Adnan S.; Clyde, Wallace A.; Denny, Floyd W.

    1965-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was studied in the Syrian hamster with qualitative and quantitative culture methods and special histopathologic techniques. The animals were readily infected with the mycoplasma, which multiplied throughout the respiratory tract. Sensitivity of this experimental host to infection was indicated by the 50 per cent infective dose, which was 10 colony-forming units of the organism. Inoculation consistently resulted in the production of peribronchial pneumonitis which was induced by the mycoplasma. The organisms were visualized in a superficial location in the mucosa of involved bronchi, by means of indirect fluorescent antibody staining and by a modification of the Brown and Brenn technique. The data indicate applicability of the hamster to the study of problems concerned with M. pneumoniae disease which are impractical or impossible to resolve in the human host. PMID:14319403

  7. Sialidase Activity in Mycoplasma synoviae

    PubMed Central

    May, Meghan; Kleven, Stanley H.; Brown, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Eleven strains of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae were evaluated for the presence of sialidase activity by using the fluorogenic substrate 2′-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid and the sialidase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The kinetics of in vitro growth in modified Frey’s medium were also assessed for each strain. Five strains had been isolated from clinically symptomatic chickens, and strains WVU1853T and K3344 have been demonstrated to be capable of reproducing disease in specific pathogen-free chickens. All strains exhibited sialidase activity, although the amount varied 65 fold (P < 0.0001) from 1.3 x 10−7 to 2.0 x 10−9 activity units/colony-forming unit among strains. Strains originally isolated from clinically symptomatic birds had more (P < 0.05) sialidase activity than strains from asymptomatic birds. Strain WVU1853T exhibited the most sialidase activity (P < 0.0001) and grew to the highest culture density (P < 0.0001) among strains, but across strains the rank correlation of growth rate with sialidase activity was not significant. Negligible activity was detected in conditioned culture supernatant fluid. This is the first report of sialidase activity in pathogenic strains of M. synoviae, which suggests a potential enzymatic basis for virulence of the organism. PMID:18251389

  8. Mycoplasma agassizii in Morafka's desert tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Berry, Kristin H; Brown, Mary B; Vaughn, Mercy; Gowan, Timothy A; Hasskamp, Mary Ann; Torres, Ma Cristina Meléndez

    2015-01-01

    We conducted health evaluations of 69 wild and 22 captive Morafka's desert tortoises (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico between 2005 and 2008. The wild tortoises were from 11 sites in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa, and the captive tortoises were from the state-managed Centro Ecológico de Sonora Zoo in Hermosillo and a private residence in the town of Alamos. We tested 88 tortoises for mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific antibody and by culture and PCR for detection of Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum. Fifteen of 22 captive tortoises had one or more positive diagnostic test results for M. agassizii whereas no wild tortoises had positive tests. Tortoises with positive tests also had significantly more moderate and severe clinical signs of mycoplasmosis on beaks and nares compared to tortoises with negative tests. Captive tortoises also exhibited significantly more clinical signs of illness than did wild tortoises, including lethargy and moderate to severe ocular signs. The severity of trauma and diseases of the shell and integument did not differ significantly among tortoises by site; however, clinical signs of moderate to severe trauma and disease were more prevalent in older tortoises. Similar to research findings for other species in the genus Gopherus in the US, we found that URTD is an important disease in captive tortoises. If they escape or are released by intention or accident to the wild, captive tortoises are likely to pose risks to healthy, naïve wild populations.

  9. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba. diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Evelyn; Poveda, Carlos; Gupta, Rakesh; Suarez, Alejandro; Hernández, Yenney; Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, José B.

    2011-01-01

    M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis ) in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba. PMID:24031686

  10. Conditions for growing Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma verecundum in a serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; Sotomayor, P

    1990-07-01

    Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma verecundum were cultured in a serum-free medium containing bovine serum albumin, cholesterol, oleic acid, and palmitic acid in order to avoid the addition of horse serum. Growth was detected by measurement of A640 and by colony formation. The level of growth attained in this medium was less than that obtained in the horse serum-supplemented media, but colonies retained their distinctive morphology.

  11. Conditions for growing Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma verecundum in a serum-free medium.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, G; Sotomayor, P

    1990-01-01

    Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma verecundum were cultured in a serum-free medium containing bovine serum albumin, cholesterol, oleic acid, and palmitic acid in order to avoid the addition of horse serum. Growth was detected by measurement of A640 and by colony formation. The level of growth attained in this medium was less than that obtained in the horse serum-supplemented media, but colonies retained their distinctive morphology. Images PMID:2202260

  12. The Effect of an Alternate Start Codon on Heterologous Expression of a PhoA Fusion Protein in Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Indu S; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

    2015-01-01

    While the genomes of many Mycoplasma species have been sequenced, there are no collated data on translational start codon usage, and the effects of alternate start codons on gene expression have not been studied. Analysis of the annotated genomes found that ATG was the most prevalent translational start codon among Mycoplasma spp. However in Mycoplasma gallisepticum a GTG start codon is commonly used in the vlhA multigene family, which encodes a highly abundant, phase variable lipoprotein adhesin. Therefore, the effect of this alternate start codon on expression of a reporter PhoA lipoprotein was examined in M. gallisepticum. Mutation of the start codon from ATG to GTG resulted in a 2.5 fold reduction in the level of transcription of the phoA reporter, but the level of PhoA activity in the transformants containing phoA with a GTG start codon was only 63% of that of the transformants with a phoA with an ATG start codon, suggesting that GTG was a more efficient translational initiation codon. The effect of swapping the translational start codon in phoA reporter gene expression was less in M. gallisepticum than has been seen previously in Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, suggesting the process of translational initiation in mycoplasmas may have some significant differences from those used in other bacteria. This is the first study of translational start codon usage in mycoplasmas and the impact of the use of an alternate start codon on expression in these bacteria.

  13. Effects of prelay ts11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation and time specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation overlays on internal egg and eggshell characteristics of commercial laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma infections are pandemic in multiage layer chicken flocks with M. gallisepticum being the species of greatest concern to commercial egg producers. Live M. gallisepticum vaccines are presently being used to help control M. gallisepticum outbreaks. However, vaccination of layers with F-str...

  14. Survey of Surface Proteins from the Pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strain 7448 Using a Biotin Cell Surface Labeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Reolon, Luciano Antonio; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia. PMID:25386928

  15. Determination of bacterial aetiologic factor on tracheobronchial lavage in relation to clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    França Dias de Oliveira, Bernardo Augusto; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Mendonça Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo; Reyes Alemán, Mário Augusto; Miranda Marques, Lucas; Timenetsky, Jorge; Melville, Priscila Anne; Avansi Marques, Júlia; Marvulle, Valdecir; Gregory, Lilian

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Mannheimiahaemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma spp., in relation to clinical signs of respiratory disease. Tracheobronchial lavage samples were collected from 96 (healthy and unhealthy) cattle in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Mycoplasma spp. (12.5 %) and Pasteurellamultocida (15.50 %) were the most prevalent species. Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also isolated. Mollicutes (70.83 %), Mycoplasmabovis (2.94 %) and Mycoplasma dispar (38.23 %) were identified using conventional PCR. Submassive sound on acoustic percussion of the thorax was associated with the absence of Mollicutes (P=0.025). Whistling (P=0.076) and coarse crackle (P=0.046) were associated with the absence of Mycoplasma dispar. Clear sound on acoustic percussion of the thorax was associated with the absence of Mycoplasmabovis (P=0.007). Coughing was associated with the presence of Pasteurellamultocida [P=0.035; confidence interval (CI), 1.12-26.89], but its absence was associated with mucopurulent (P=0.0215; CI, 1.55-34.5) and mucoid nasal discharge (P=0.068; CI, 19-28.5), submassive sound (P=0.031; CI, 1.23-75.5), fine crackle (P=0.058; CI, 1.23-20.1) and coarse crackle (P=0.046; CI, 2.38-70.8). The high prevalence of Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma spp. in unhealthy calves increases the importance of these micro-organisms in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. This study increases the information about the role of Mycoplasma dispar in respiratory diseases. Differences in some species in relation to clinical signs can be applied as a presumptive diagnosis.

  16. A Novel Mycoplasma sp. Associated with Phallus Disease in Goose Breeders: Pathological and Bacteriological Findings.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, S; Ferguson-Noel, N M; Chin, R P; Santoro, T; Black, P; Bland, M; Bickford, A A; Sentíes-Cué, C G

    2016-06-01

    In April 2014, poor fertility in a major commercial goose breeder operation in California triggered the submission of six live affected Toulouse ganders ( Anser anser ) to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock branch (University of California-Davis). Toulouse were principally affected among all breeds, and their egg fertility dropped from 65.7% to less than 33.9% in the first 40 days of the 2014 breeding season. The flock consisted of 410 adult birds, 90 males and 320 females, between 2 and 5 yr of age. Inspection of the flock revealed that 44.4% of the Toulouse ganders had severe phallic deformities that prevented them from mating. At postmortem examination, severe yellowish fibrocaseous exudate disrupted the architecture of the phallus and occasionally produced fistulating tracts through the wall of the organ. Microscopically, multifocal lymphoid nodules were noted in the mucosa and submucosa of the phallus and were associated with extensive granulomatous reaction, intralesional bacteria, and spermatozoa. Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the phallus of affected and nonaffected birds, and PCR protocols targeting the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer regions and the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene were performed to identify the isolates. Three distinct species were identified on sequencing and analysis using the National Center for Biotechnology Information basic local alignment search tool: Mycoplasma cloacale , Mycoplasma anseris , and an unknown novel Mycoplasma sp. Additionally, Pasteurella multocida , in combination with other bacteria, was also isolated from the phallic lesions and identified as serotype 3 with a DNA profile of 1511 (National Veterinary Service Laboratory). This is the first report of these Mycoplasma spp. and other bacteria associated with reproductive disease in ganders in the United States.

  17. An immunochemical approach to species relationship in Triticum and some related species.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, A; Cantagalli, P; Piazzi, S E; Sordi, S

    1970-01-01

    An immunological reaction, precipitation in gel, was produced using a rabbit antiserum directed to a specific protein constantly present in bread wheats (T. aestivum, genome AABBDD), but absent in durum wheat (T. durum Desf., genome AABB). This protein was isolated in the soluble-protein fraction of bread wheat caryopses by combined biochemical and immunological techniques.The availability of such a specific anti-bread wheat serum made possible the analysis of a series of varieties and species of wheat and of some closely related (Secale, Aegilops) and less closely related (Hordeum, Haynaldia) taxa to determine whether the protein was present or absent. Hordeum vulgare, Haynaldia villosa, Triticum monoccocum and Triticum turgidum gave a negative result, while positive results were obtained in T. aestivum, T. timopheevi, T. zhukovskyi, Secale cereale, Aegilops speltoides, Ae. mutica, Ae. comosa, Ae. caudata, Ae. umbellulata, Ae. squarrosa, and also in the artificial amphiploids (Ae. speltoides x T. monococcum) and (Ae. caudata x T. monococcum).It is concluded that these results agree closely with the classification of Triticum proposed by MacKey in 1966. The investigated protein not only permits the differentiation of T. aestivum from T. turgidum, but also T. turgidum from T. timopheevi at tetraploid level and T. monococcum from all the diploid species of Aegilops.

  18. Effects of live and killed vaccines against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the performance characteristics of commercial layer chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. Different strains of MG have been used as vaccines in multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect the birds against more virulent field strains. The lower level of protection afforded b...

  19. Isolation and characterization of unusual Mycoplasma spp. from captive Eurasian Griffon (Gyps fulvus) in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Loria, G R; Ferrantelli, E; Giardina, G; Li Vecchi, L; Sparacino, L; Oliveri, F; McAuliffe, L; Nicholas, R A J

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasmas have been isolated from birds of prey during clinical examinations, but their significance to the health of raptors is unclear. We report the isolation and characterization of four mycoplasmas found in the upper respiratory tract of four sick Eurasian Griffon (Gyps fulvus) that were housed in a Sicilian rehabilitation center at Ficuzza, near Palermo in Sicily, before reintroduction into the wild. These included Mycoplasma gallinarum, an unidentified mycoplasma highly similar to Mycoplasma glycophilum, and two unidentified mycoplasmas with similarities to Mycoplasma falconis and Mycoplasma gateae.

  20. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: Control by live attenuated vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  1. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infections of Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, James D.; Welliver, Robert C.

    1976-01-01

    Although the hallmark of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is pneumonia, the organism is also responsible for a protean array of other symptoms. With an increased awareness of the board clinical spectrum of M. pneumoniae disease and the ready availability of the cold agglutinin and M. pneumoniae complement-fixation tests, interested clinicians will note additional clinical-mycoplasmal associations in their patients. PMID:782043

  2. Mycoplasma genitalium: An emergent sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Manhart, Lisa E

    2013-12-01

    This article summarizes the epidemiologic evidence linking Mycoplasma genitalium to sexually transmitted disease syndromes, including male urethritis, and female cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and adverse birth outcomes. It discusses the relationship of this bacterium to human immunodeficiency virus infection and reviews the available literature on the efficacy of standard antimicrobial therapies against M genitalium.

  3. Competitive strategies differentiate closely related species of marine actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Patin, Nastassia V; Duncan, Katherine R; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jensen, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Although competition, niche partitioning, and spatial isolation have been used to describe the ecology and evolution of macro-organisms, it is less clear to what extent these principles account for the extraordinary levels of bacterial diversity observed in nature. Ecological interactions among bacteria are particularly challenging to address due to methodological limitations and uncertainties over how to recognize fundamental units of diversity and link them to the functional traits and evolutionary processes that led to their divergence. Here we show that two closely related marine actinomycete species can be differentiated based on competitive strategies. Using a direct challenge assay to investigate inhibitory interactions with members of the bacterial community, we observed a temporal difference in the onset of inhibition. The majority of inhibitory activity exhibited by Salinispora arenicola occurred early in its growth cycle and was linked to antibiotic production. In contrast, most inhibition by Salinispora tropica occurred later in the growth cycle and was more commonly linked to nutrient depletion or other sources. Comparative genomics support these differences, with S. arenicola containing nearly twice the number of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters as S. tropica, indicating a greater potential for secondary metabolite production. In contrast, S. tropica is enriched in gene clusters associated with the acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients such as iron. Coupled with differences in growth rates, the results reveal that S. arenicola uses interference competition at the expense of growth, whereas S. tropica preferentially employs a strategy of exploitation competition. The results support the ecological divergence of two co-occurring and closely related species of marine bacteria by providing evidence they have evolved fundamentally different strategies to compete in marine sediments.

  4. Competitive strategies differentiate closely related species of marine actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Patin, Nastassia V; Duncan, Katherine R; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jensen, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Although competition, niche partitioning, and spatial isolation have been used to describe the ecology and evolution of macro-organisms, it is less clear to what extent these principles account for the extraordinary levels of bacterial diversity observed in nature. Ecological interactions among bacteria are particularly challenging to address due to methodological limitations and uncertainties over how to recognize fundamental units of diversity and link them to the functional traits and evolutionary processes that led to their divergence. Here we show that two closely related marine actinomycete species can be differentiated based on competitive strategies. Using a direct challenge assay to investigate inhibitory interactions with members of the bacterial community, we observed a temporal difference in the onset of inhibition. The majority of inhibitory activity exhibited by Salinispora arenicola occurred early in its growth cycle and was linked to antibiotic production. In contrast, most inhibition by Salinispora tropica occurred later in the growth cycle and was more commonly linked to nutrient depletion or other sources. Comparative genomics support these differences, with S. arenicola containing nearly twice the number of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters as S. tropica, indicating a greater potential for secondary metabolite production. In contrast, S. tropica is enriched in gene clusters associated with the acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients such as iron. Coupled with differences in growth rates, the results reveal that S. arenicola uses interference competition at the expense of growth, whereas S. tropica preferentially employs a strategy of exploitation competition. The results support the ecological divergence of two co-occurring and closely related species of marine bacteria by providing evidence they have evolved fundamentally different strategies to compete in marine sediments. PMID:26241505

  5. Chronic "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infection.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Boretti, Felicitas S; Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Riond, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Willi, Barbara; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-04-20

    "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" infects felids. The pathogenesis of "Candidatus M. turicensis" chronic infection is poorly understood. The goals of the present study were to (1) induce reactivation of the infection in chronic carrier cats by attempted immunosuppression, (2) identify potential tissue sequestration using real-time TaqMan® PCR and (3) monitor the humoral immune response by DnaK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ten specified pathogen-free cats that had ostensibly recovered from experimental "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection were used: five cats (group 1) received high dose methylprednisolone (attempted immunosuppression), while five cats served as untreated controls (group 2). Besides weekly blood samples, tissue samples were collected from bone marrow, kidney, liver and salivary glands at selected time points. The cats in group 1 had significantly lower lymphocyte counts and higher blood glucose levels after methylprednisolone administration than the controls. After methylprednisolone administration one blood and three tissue samples from cats in group 1 tested PCR-positive; before the administration, only one sample was positive. All other samples tested PCR-negative. All cats stayed seropositive; the antibody levels of the cats in group 1 showed a significant transient decrease after methylprednisolone administration. This is the first study to report the presence of "Candidatus M. turicensis" in tissues of chronically infected cats and the persistence of anti-feline hemoplasma antibodies in the absence of detectable bacteremia. Methylprednisolone administration did not lead to a significant reactivation of the infection. Our results enhance the knowledge of "Candidatus M. turicensis" infection pathogenesis and are clinically relevant to the prognosis of hemoplasma-infected cats.

  6. Endogenous pararetroviral sequences in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and related species

    PubMed Central

    Staginnus, Christina; Gregor, Wolfgang; Mette, M Florian; Teo, Chee How; Borroto-Fernández, Eduviges Glenda; Machado, Margit Laimer da Câmara; Matzke, Marjori; Schwarzacher, Trude

    2007-01-01

    Background Endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRVs) are a recently discovered class of repetitive sequences that is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. The potential contribution of EPRVs to plant pathogenicity or, conversely, to virus resistance is just beginning to be explored. Some members of the family Solanaceae are particularly rich in EPRVs. In previous work, EPRVs have been characterized molecularly in various species of Nicotiana including N.tabacum (tobacco) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). Here we describe a family of EPRVs in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and a wild relative (S.habrochaites). Results Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis revealed that tomato EPRVs (named LycEPRVs) are most closely related to those in tobacco. The sequence similarity of LycEPRVs in S.lycopersicum and S.habrochaites indicates they are potentially derived from the same pararetrovirus. DNA blot analysis revealed a similar genomic organization in the two species, but also some independent excision or insertion events after species separation, or flanking sequence divergence. LycEPRVs share with the tobacco elements a disrupted genomic structure and frequent association with retrotransposons. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that copies of LycEPRV are dispersed on all chromosomes in predominantly heterochromatic regions. Methylation of LycEPRVs was detected in CHG and asymmetric CHH nucleotide groups. Although normally quiescent EPRVs can be reactivated and produce symptoms of infection in some Nicotiana interspecific hybrids, a similar pathogenicity of LycEPRVs could not be demonstrated in Solanum L. section Lycopersicon [Mill.] hybrids. Even in healthy plants, however, transcripts derived from multiple LycEPRV loci and short RNAs complementary to LycEPRVs were detected and were elevated upon infection with heterologous viruses encoding suppressors of PTGS. Conclusion The analysis of LycEPRVs provides further evidence for the extensive

  7. Relative hippocampal volume in relation to food-storing behavior in four species of woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Grubb, T C; Schuett, K C

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that those food-storing birds of the order Passeriformes that remember the locations of their caches have relatively larger hippocampal complexes than do non-storing passerines. Woodpeckers constitute a different avian order (Piciformes), which also includes some food-storing species. We compared hippocampal volume, relative to the volume of the rest of the telencephalon, across four species of woodpeckers with disparate caching behavior. Red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) are "scatter hoarders'. During the fall and winter they cache acorns or beechnuts in dispersed sites throughout a large territory. Red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) also store nuts but in central "larders' on their small territories which they fiercely defend. Caching is absent or much reduced in hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) and downy woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens), both of which forage on a variety of foods within large winter home ranges. The relative volume of the hippocampal complex in the scatter hoarder was larger than in the larder hoarder, suggesting that red-bellied woodpeckers, like passerine scatter hoarders, rely on memory to recover their caches. Surprisingly, the relative hippocampal volumes in the two non-storing Picoides woodpeckers were most similar to the scatter hoarder of the other genus. In passerine birds, hippocampal volume and telencephalon volume are highly correlated in storing species but not in non-storers. We found that the volumes of these two brain areas were highly correlated in both Melanerpes species, uncorrelated in the hairy woodpeckers, and more weakly correlated in the downy woodpeckers. The unexpectedly large hippocampal complexes in the Picoides species suggests they may engage in some behavior, other than food-storing, that selects for this trait. Conversely, our results concerning the relationship between hippocampal and telencephalon volumes may indicate that a weak correlation is

  8. Trans-species polymorphism at antimicrobial innate immunity cathelicidin genes of Atlantic cod and related species.

    PubMed

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Árnason, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection, the most important force in evolution, comes in three forms. Negative purifying selection removes deleterious variation and maintains adaptations. Positive directional selection fixes beneficial variants, producing new adaptations. Balancing selection maintains variation in a population. Important mechanisms of balancing selection include heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent advantage of rarity, and local and fluctuating episodic selection. A rare pathogen gains an advantage because host defenses are predominantly effective against prevalent types. Similarly, a rare immune variant gives its host an advantage because the prevalent pathogens cannot escape the host's apostatic defense. Due to the stochastic nature of evolution, neutral variation may accumulate on genealogical branches, but trans-species polymorphisms are rare under neutrality and are strong evidence for balancing selection. Balanced polymorphism maintains diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates. The Atlantic cod is missing genes for both MHC-II and CD4, vital parts of the adaptive immune system. Nevertheless, cod are healthy in their ecological niche, maintaining large populations that support major commercial fisheries. Innate immunity is of interest from an evolutionary perspective, particularly in taxa lacking adaptive immunity. Here, we analyze extensive amino acid and nucleotide polymorphisms of the cathelicidin gene family in Atlantic cod and closely related taxa. There are three major clusters, Cath1, Cath2, and Cath3, that we consider to be paralogous genes. There is extensive nucleotide and amino acid allelic variation between and within clusters. The major feature of the results is that the variation clusters by alleles and not by species in phylogenetic trees and discriminant analysis of principal components. Variation within the three groups shows trans-species polymorphism that is older than speciation and that is suggestive of

  9. Exploring the Taxonomy of Oaks and Related Tree Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    A lab in Eastern North America conducted a study to determine the taxonomic relationship between deciduous trees and several species of oaks by calculating the similarity index of all species to be studied. The study enabled students to classify the different species of oaks according to their distinct characteristics.

  10. Differences in Brain Transcriptomes of Closely Related Baikal Coregonid Species

    PubMed Central

    Bychenko, Oksana S.; Sukhanova, Lyubov V.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.; Skvortsov, Timofey A.; Belomestnykh, Tuyana V.; Sverdlov, Eugene D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to get deeper insight into genetic factors involved in the adaptive divergence of closely related species, specifically two representatives of Baikal coregonids—Baikal whitefish (Coregonus baicalensis Dybowski) and Baikal omul (Coregonus migratorius Georgi)—that diverged from a common ancestor as recently as 10–20 thousand years ago. Using the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression method, we obtained libraries of short representative cDNA sequences (tags) from the brains of Baikal whitefish and omul. A comparative analysis of the libraries revealed quantitative differences among ~4% tags of the fishes under study. Based on the similarity of these tags with cDNA of known organisms, we identified candidate genes taking part in adaptive divergence. The most important candidate genes related to the adaptation of Baikal whitefish and Baikal omul, identified in this work, belong to the genes of cell metabolism, nervous and immune systems, protein synthesis, and regulatory genes as well as to DTSsa4 Tc1-like transposons which are widespread among fishes. PMID:24719892

  11. Development and use of real-time PCR to detect and quantify Mycoplasma haemocanis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barker, E N; Tasker, S; Day, M J; Warman, S M; Woolley, K; Birtles, R; Georges, K C; Ezeokoli, C D; Newaj-Fyzul, A; Campbell, M D; Sparagano, O A E; Cleaveland, S; Helps, C R

    2010-01-06

    Two canine haemoplasma species have been recognised to date; Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc), which has been associated with anaemia in splenectomised or immunocompromised dogs, and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" (CMhp), recently described in an anaemic splenectomised dog undergoing chemotherapy. The study aim was to develop quantitative real-time PCR assays (qPCRs) incorporating an endogenous internal control to detect Mhc and CMhp and to apply these assays to DNA samples extracted from canine blood collected in Northern Tanzania (n=100) and from dogs presented to a Trinidadian veterinary hospital (n=185). QPCRs specific for Mhc and CMhp were designed using 16S rRNA gene sequence data, and each was duplexed with an assay specific for canine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The assays detected < or =10 copies of a sequence-specific haemoplasma plasmid per reaction and neither assay showed cross-reactivity with 10(6) copies of the sequence-specific plasmid from the non-target canine haemoplasma species. Nineteen of the 100 Tanzanian samples (19%) were positive for Mhc alone and one (1%) was dually infected. One Trinidadian sample was negative for canine GAPDH DNA and was excluded from the study. Of the 184 remaining Trinidadian samples, nine (4.9%) were positive for Mhc alone, five (2.7%) for CMhp alone, and two (1.1%) dually infected. This is the first report of canine haemoplasma qPCR assays that use an internal control to confirm the presence of amplifiable sample DNA, and their application to prevalence studies. Mhc was the most commonly detected canine haemoplasma species.

  12. Glenea coomani Pic, 1926 and its related species of South China with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meiying; Yang, Xingke

    2011-01-01

    Glenea coomani Pic, 1926 distributed in Vietnam, Laos and China is redescribed, and its sibling species, Glenea neohumerosasp. n. is described from China (Guangxi, Hainan and Fujian) and North Vietnam. They are separated from each otherby differences in genitalia, and apical teeth and maculae of elytra. Another four related species and one subspecies are illustrated with short notes and new localities, and the lectotype and paralectotype of Glenea tonkinea Aurivillius, 1925 are designated. A key to the related species is presented.

  13. Clinical Features of Severe or Fatal Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Izumikawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults. The incidence of fulminant M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is relatively rare despite the high prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection. This literature review highlights the clinical features of fulminant MPP by examining the most recent data in epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and treatment. Fulminant MPP accounts for 0.5–2% of all MPP cases and primarily affects young adults with no underlying disease. Key clinical findings include a cough, fever, and dyspnea along with diffuse abnormal findings in radiological examinations. Levels of inflammatory markers such as white blood cells and C-reactive protein are elevated, as well as levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-18, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The exact pathogenesis of fulminant MPP remains unclear, but theories include a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to M. pneumoniae and the contribution of delayed antibiotic administration to disease progression. Treatment options involve pairing the appropriate anti-mycoplasma agent with a corticosteroid that will downregulate the hypersensitivity response, and mortality rates are quite low in this treatment group. Further research is necessary to determine the exact pathogenesis of severe and fulminant types of MPP. PMID:27313568

  14. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  15. Comparative susceptibilities of various animal-pathogenic mycoplasmas to fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, P C; Windsor, G D; de Jong, A; Schmeer, N; Stegemann, M

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activities of six antimicrobial agents were tested against 162 mycoplasma strains of eight species isolated from poultry and livestock at different geographic sites. Tiamulin was most active (MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited [MIC90s], 0.025 to 0.25 microg/ml); enrofloxacin and danofloxacin had near equivalent activities (MIC90s, 0.05 to 1.0 microg/ml), but were much more active than flumequine (MIC90s, 1 to 50 microg/ml). The MIC90s of tylosin and oxytetracycline were 0.25 to > 100 microg/ml and 0.25 to 100 microg/ml, respectively. PMID:9303412

  16. Prevalence and molecular analyses of hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas) detected in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Michihito; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-03-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are cell-wall deficient, epierythrocytic bacteria that cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species. The prevalence of hemoplasma species was examined by screening and species-specific PCR using blood samples collected from 51 sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan. Molecular analyses were performed for the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and RNase P RNA (rnpB) gene sequences. A total of 23/51 (45%) deer DNA samples were positive for hemoplasmas in the screening PCR. Using species-specific PCR, 12 and 17 samples were positive for 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemocervae' and 'Candidatus M. erythrocervae', respectively. Sequencing and phylogenetic trees of those three genes indicate that the 'Candidatus M. haemocervae' and 'Candidatus M. erythrocervae' detected in Japanese deer are potentially different species from the cervine hemoplasma found in deer from America and Brazil.

  17. Identification and Subtyping of Clinically Relevant Human and Ruminant Mycoplasmas by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Renaudin, H.; Cauvin, E.; Del Prá Netto Machado, L.; Tricot, A.; Benoit, F.; Treilles, M.; Bébéar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) recently emerged as a technology for the identification of bacteria. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its applicability to human and ruminant mycoplasmal identification, which can be demanding and time-consuming when using phenotypic or molecular methods. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was tested as a subtyping tool for certain species. A total of 29 main spectra (MSP) from 10 human and 13 ruminant mycoplasma (sub)species were included in a mycoplasma MSP database to complete the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database. After broth culture and protein extraction, MALDI-TOF MS was applied for the identification of 119 human and 143 ruminant clinical isolates that were previously identified by antigenic or molecular methods and for subcultures of 73 ruminant clinical specimens that potentially contained several mycoplasma species. MALDI-TOF MS resulted in accurate (sub)species-level identification with a score of ≥1.700 for 96% (251/262) of the isolates. The phylogenetically closest (sub)species were unequivocally distinguished. Although mixtures of the strains were reliably detected up to a certain cellular ratio, only the predominant species was identified from the cultures of polymicrobial clinical specimens. For typing purposes, MALDI-TOF MS proved to cluster Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by their year of isolation and genome profiles, respectively, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates by their adhesin P1 type. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for the routine identification of high-density growing mycoplasmal species and shows promising prospects for its capacity for strain typing. PMID:23903545

  18. Immigration and extinction probabilities for individual species: relation to incidence functions and species colonization curves.

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, M E; Diamond, J M

    1981-01-01

    We develop a dynamic model of island biogeography based on immigration and extinction probabilities of individual species rather than on the usual biogeographic parameters of the number of species immigrating or going extinct per unit time. In the real world, these probabilities vary enormously among species, and three field studies suggest lognormal distributions. Based on such distributions of individual probabilities, our model proceeds by calculating the conditional probability of species occurrence--the likelihood that a given species will occur on a given island--as a function of total species number on the island. The model succeeds in predicting two observed features of species communities; (i) staggered, sigmoidally-shaped incidence functions ("differing area requirements of different species") and (ii) concave immigration and extinction curves. PMID:6941254

  19. Tachykinin-related peptide precursors in two cockroach species.

    PubMed

    Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Roth, Steffen; Derst, Christian; Nässel, Dick R

    2005-07-01

    Tachykinins and tachykinin-related peptides (TKRPs) play major roles in signaling in the nervous system and intestine of both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we have identified cDNAs encoding precursors of multiple TKRPs from the cockroaches Leucophaea maderae and Periplaneta americana. All nine LemTKRPs that had been chemically isolated in earlier experiments could be identified on the precursor of L. maderae. Four previously unidentified LemTKRPs were found in addition on the precursor. The P. americana cDNA displayed an open reading frame very similar to that of L. maderae with 13 different TKRPs. MALDI-TOF mass spectra from tissues of both species confirms the presence of all the TKRPs encoded on the precursor plus two additional peptides that are cleavage products of the N-terminally extended TKRPs. A tissue-specific distribution of TKRPs was observed in earlier experiments at isolation from brain and midgut of L. maderae. Our data do not suggest a differential gene expression but a different efficacy in processing of LemTKRP-2 and Lem/PeaTKRP-3 in the brain and intestine, respectively. This results in a gut-specific accumulation of these extended peptides, whereas in the brain their cleavage products, LemTKRP-1 and LemTKRP-3(11-19), are most abundant. Mass spectrometric analysis demonstrated the occurrence of the different TKRPs in single glomeruli of the tritocerebrum and in cells of the optical lobe.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Divergence among Lycopersicon and Related Solanum Species

    PubMed Central

    McClean, Phillip E.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1986-01-01

    Sequence divergence among the mitochondrial (mt) DNA of nine Lycopersicon and two closely related Solanum species was estimated using the shared fragment method. A portion of each mt genome was highlighted by probing total DNA with a series of plasmid clones containing mt-specific DNA fragments from Lycopersicon pennellii. A total of 660 fragments were compared. As calculated by the shared fragment method, sequence divergence among the mtDNAs ranged from 0.4% for the L. esculentum-L. esculentum var. cerasiforme pair to 2.7% for the Solanum rickii-L. pimpinellifolium and L. cheesmanii-L. chilense pairs. The mtDNA divergence is higher than that reported for Lycopersicon chloroplast (cp) DNA, which indicates that the DNAs of the two plant organelles are evolving at different rates. The percentages of shared fragments were used to construct a phenogram that illustrates the present-day relationships of the mtDNAs. The mtDNA-derived phenogram places L. hirsutum closer to L. esculentum than taxonomic and cpDNA comparisons. Further, the recent assignment of L. pennellii to the genus Lycopersicon is supported by the mtDNA analysis. PMID:17246320

  1. Characterization of In Vivo acquired resistance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to macrolides and lincosamides.

    PubMed

    Stakenborg, Tim; Vicca, Jo; Butaye, Patrick; Maes, Dominiek; Minion, F Chris; Peeters, Johan; De Kruif, Aart; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2005-01-01

    Macrolides and related antibiotics are used to control mycoplasma infections in the pig industry worldwide. Some porcine mycoplasmas, however, survive these treatments by acquiring resistance. The mechanism of acquired resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was studied in more detail for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by comparing both the phenotype and genotype of a resistant field isolate to five susceptible isolates. The MICs were significantly higher for the resistant strain for all antibiotics tested. The MICs for the 16-membered macrolide tylosin ranged from 8 to 16 microg for the resistant strain and from 0.03 to 0.125 microg/ml for the five susceptible strains. The MICs for the 15-membered macrolides and lincosamides were higher than 64 microg/ml for the resistant strain while only 0.06 to 0.5 microg/ml for the susceptible strains. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains are intrinsically resistant to the 14-membered macrolides due to a G 2057 A transition (E. coli numbering) in their 23S rDNA. Therefore, high MICs were observed for all strains, although the MICs for the resistant strain were clearly increased. An additional, acquired A 2058 G point mutation was found in the 23S rRNA gene of the resistant strain. No differences linked to resistance were found in the ribosomal proteins L4 and L22. The present study showed that 23S rRNA mutations resulting in resistance to macrolides and lincosamides as described in other Mycoplasma spp. also occur under field conditions in M. hyopneumoniae.

  2. Identification, characterization, and application of a recombinant antigen for the serological investigation of feline hemotropic Mycoplasma infections.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Jäckel, Godelind A; Jäckel, Christian; Museux, Kristina; Hoelzle, Katharina; Tasker, Séverine; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2010-12-01

    In felids, three hemotropic mycoplasma species (hemoplasmas) have been described: Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis." In particular, M. haemofelis may cause severe, potentially life-threatening hemolytic anemia. No routine serological assays for feline hemoplasma infections are available. Thus, the goal of our project was to identify and characterize an M. haemofelis antigen (DnaK) that subsequently could be applied as a recombinant antigen in a serological assay. The gene sequence of this protein was determined using consensus primers and blood samples from two naturally M. haemofelis-infected Swiss pet cats, an experimentally M. haemofelis-infected specific-pathogen-free cat, and a naturally M. haemofelis-infected Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). The M. haemofelis DnaK gene sequence showed the highest identity to an analogous protein of a porcine hemoplasma (72%). M. haemofelis DnaK was expressed recombinantly in an Escherichia coli DnaK knockout strain and purified using Ni affinity, size-exclusion, and anion-exchange chromatography. It then was biochemically and functionally characterized and showed characteristics typical for DnaKs (secondary structure profile, thermal denaturation, ATPase activity, and DnaK complementation). Moreover, its immunogenicity was assessed using serum samples from experimentally hemoplasma-infected cats. In Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, it was recognized by sera from cats infected with M. haemofelis, "Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis," respectively, but not from uninfected cats. This is the first description of a full-length purified recombinant feline hemoplasma antigen that can readily be applied in future pathogenesis studies and may have potential for application in a diagnostic serological test.

  3. Trans-species polymorphism at antimicrobial innate immunity cathelicidin genes of Atlantic cod and related species

    PubMed Central

    Árnason, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection, the most important force in evolution, comes in three forms. Negative purifying selection removes deleterious variation and maintains adaptations. Positive directional selection fixes beneficial variants, producing new adaptations. Balancing selection maintains variation in a population. Important mechanisms of balancing selection include heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent advantage of rarity, and local and fluctuating episodic selection. A rare pathogen gains an advantage because host defenses are predominantly effective against prevalent types. Similarly, a rare immune variant gives its host an advantage because the prevalent pathogens cannot escape the host’s apostatic defense. Due to the stochastic nature of evolution, neutral variation may accumulate on genealogical branches, but trans-species polymorphisms are rare under neutrality and are strong evidence for balancing selection. Balanced polymorphism maintains diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates. The Atlantic cod is missing genes for both MHC-II and CD4, vital parts of the adaptive immune system. Nevertheless, cod are healthy in their ecological niche, maintaining large populations that support major commercial fisheries. Innate immunity is of interest from an evolutionary perspective, particularly in taxa lacking adaptive immunity. Here, we analyze extensive amino acid and nucleotide polymorphisms of the cathelicidin gene family in Atlantic cod and closely related taxa. There are three major clusters, Cath1, Cath2, and Cath3, that we consider to be paralogous genes. There is extensive nucleotide and amino acid allelic variation between and within clusters. The major feature of the results is that the variation clusters by alleles and not by species in phylogenetic trees and discriminant analysis of principal components. Variation within the three groups shows trans-species polymorphism that is older than speciation and that is suggestive of

  4. Synergism between upregulation of Rab7 and inhibition of autophagic degradation caused by mycoplasma facilitates intracellular mycoplasma infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaopeng; Yu, Jie; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Zhaoming; Xia, Yun; Luo, Zhiyong; Wu, Yaqun

    2014-03-01

    Following fusion of a mycoplasma with a host cell membrane, the inserted components of mycoplasma may then be transported through the endocytic pathway. However, the effects of mycoplasmas on the host cell endomembrane system are largely unknown. In this study, mycoplasma‑induced changes in the dynamics of endocytic and autophagic systems were investigated. Endocytosis and autophagy are two major processes involved in the survival of intracellular prokaryotic pathogens. It was found that, immediately following infection, mycoplasmas induce endocytosis in the host cell; however, in the long term the mycoplasmas suppress turnover of the components of the endocytic pathway. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Rab7 and LC3‑II are recruited to the intracellular mycoplasma‑containing compartments. Western blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that mycoplasmas increase expression of Rab7 by upregulating transcription, but increase levels of LC3‑II and p62 by post‑translational regulation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that mycoplasma infection causes inhibition of autophagic degradation of LC3‑II and p62. In addition, it was found that upregulation of Rab7 and inhibition of autophagic degradation synergistically contributes to intracellular mycoplasma accumulation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that mycoplasmas may manipulate host cell endosomal and autophagic systems in order to facilitate intracellular infection.

  5. Isolation and characterization of Mycoplasma arginini from camels (Camelus dromedarius) with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Elfaki, M G; Abbas, B; Mahmoud, O M; Kleven, S H

    2002-01-01

    Post-mortem examinations of 100 camels with pneumonic lesions were made at a local abattoir for Mycoplasma species. Sixteen isolates with indistinguishable biochemical and immunological characters were identified. The biochemical profile of these isolates showed that they were sensitive to digitonin, negative for urease production, glucose fermentation, and phosphatase activity but were positive for arginine hydrolysis. The identity of these isolates was further confirmed by disk growth inhibition test using a panel of specific antisera against selected reference Mycoplasma spp. Based on the biochemical profile and growth inhibition results, the camel isolates were identified as M. arginini. The pathological findings associated with M. arginini isolation consisted mostly of chronic interstitial pneumonia. The isolation rate of M. arginini from these specimens was 8.8%. These results suggest that the role of M. arginini in pneumonia in camels should be explored in greater detail.

  6. A PCR detection method for testing Mycoplasma contamination of veterinary vaccines and biological products.

    PubMed

    Ingebritson, A L; Gibbs, C P; Tong, C; Srinivas, G B

    2015-02-01

    A rapid test method was developed for detecting mycoplasma contamination in veterinary biological products. The method reduces testing time by 2 weeks and shows comparable sensitivity to the current agar-based detection model. The primary goals for the development of the test were to reduce the testing time, incorporate a method that was easily adaptable across the veterinary biologics industry and reduce the subjective interpretation of results. We found that biological enrichment is necessary to maintain sensitivity of the detection method when compared to the standard culture-based test and that periodic sampling of enrichment cultures is essential to detect a wide variety of mycoplasma species that may be present as contaminants. The PCR detection method is comparable to the agar-based model and can reduce the overall testing time by up to 14 days.

  7. Synthesis of Recombinant P48 of Mycoplasma agalactiae by Site Directed Mutagenesis and its Immunological Characterization.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Pawanjit Singh; Singh, Satparkash; Kathiresan, S; Kumar, Ramesh; Bhanot, Vandna; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2017-01-02

    Contagious agalactia caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae is an economically important disease of sheep and goats and has been prevalent worldwide including India. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the membrane protein P48 of M. agalactiae for specific diagnosis of disease. For this, p48 gene of the organism was amplified by PCR and subjected to site directed mutagenesis to convert three TGA codons to TGG's and, subsequently, cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pPRO EX HTb. Purified recombinant P48 protein reacted to anti-P48 serum in western blotting, which confirmed its immunogenic nature. Furthermore, the immune-blotting of the cell lysates from various Indian isolates of M. agalactiae against anti-P48 serum resulted in a single band at ∼ 48 kDa among all isolates, indicating the conserved nature of P48 antigen in M. agalactiae. Also, the cross reactivity of P48 antigen among various Mycoplasma spp. was checked by western blotting which revealed reactivity only with M. agalactiae and M. bovis. Hence, this antigen could be exploited to differentiate M. agalactiae from other pathogenic Mycoplasma species except M. bovis. However, the inability of P48 to distinguish M. agalactiae from M. bovis does not downgrade the significance of P48 as the two species are usually host specific.

  8. Conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and sinusitis in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) found in association with Mycoplasma sturni infection and cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Ley, David H; Moresco, Anneke; Frasca, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Fledgling cliff swallows were cared for at a rehabilitation facility when clinical signs of ocular disease, characterized by conjunctivitis, epiphora, and hyperaemia of palpebrae and nictitans, were recognized. Treatment consisted of topical and oral antibiotic therapy and one topical steroid administration. However, one cliff swallow died and three were killed due to poor therapeutic response. Conjunctival swabs were obtained ante-mortem from the three cliff swallows and were submitted for mycoplasma culture and molecular diagnostics. Heads of the three birds were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and submitted for histopathologic examination of oculonasal tissues. Mycoplasma cultures and molecular evaluation of isolates identified Mycoplasma sturni, but not Mycoplasma gallisepticum, from each specimen. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphoplasmacytic conjunctivitis, rhinitis and infraorbital sinusitis with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia, epithelial hyperplasia, and protozoal stages compatible with Cryptosporidium spp. arranged in and along the apical surfaces of epithelial cells. Identification of concurrent M. sturni and Cryptosporidium spp. infections in these cliff swallows demonstrates an alternative infectious condition that can produce gross and microscopic lesions comparable with those commonly observed in M. gallisepticum infections of house finches and other passerine species. Conjunctivitis associated with M. sturni and Cryptosporidium spp. in cliff swallows may represent an emerging disease risk to a naïve, high-density and colonial species such as colony-nesting cliff swallows.

  9. House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) Conjunctivitis, and Mycoplasma spp. Isolated from North American Wild Birds, 1994-2015.

    PubMed

    Ley, David H; Hawley, Dana M; Geary, Steven J; Dhondt, André A

    2016-07-01

    Sampling wild birds for mycoplasma culture has been key to the study of House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, yielding isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum spanning the temporal and geographic ranges of disease from emergence to endemicity. Faced with the challenges and costs of sample collection over time and from remote locations for submission to our laboratory for mycoplasma culture, protocols evolved to achieve a practical optimum. Herein we report making M. gallisepticum isolates from House Finches almost every year since the disease emerged in 1994, and we now have 227 isolates from 17 states. Our wild bird host range for M. gallisepticum isolates includes Blue Jay ( Cyanocitta cristata ), American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis), Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria), Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus), Evening Grosbeak ( Coccothraustes vespertinus ), and herein first reports for Western Scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica ), and American Crow ( Corvus brachyrhynchos ). By collecting and identifying isolates from birds with clinical signs similar to those of House Finch conjunctivitis, we also expanded the known host range of Mycoplasma sturni and obtained isolates from additional wild bird species. Accumulating evidence shows that a diverse range of wild bird species may carry or have been exposed to M. gallisepticum in the US, as in Europe and Asia. Therefore, the emergence of a pathogenic M. gallisepticum strain in House Finches may actually be the exception that has allowed us to identify the broader epidemiologic picture.

  10. Occurrence of canine hemotropic mycoplasmas in domestic dogs from urban and rural areas of the Valdivia Province, southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Soto, Francisco; Walker, Romina; Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Bittencourt, Pedro; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Müller, Ananda

    2017-02-01

    This is the first study to investigate the occurrence, risk factors and hematological findings of hemoplasmas in dogs from Chile. Complete blood count and 16S rRNA conventional PCR for Mycoplasma spp. were performed in 278 blood samples from rural (n=139) and urban (n=139) dogs in Valdivia. Real time 16S rRNA PCR (qPCR) allowed species identification. Mycoplasma spp. occurrence was 24.8%. 'Candidatus M. haematoparvum' (CMhp) was identified in 12.2% and Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc) in 11.9% dogs. It was not possible to identify species in two Mycoplasma spp. samples by qPCR. Sequencing allowed identifying one of them as 'Candidatus M. turicensis' (CMt). Frequency in rural localities was higher (41.7%) than in urban (7.9%). Rural locality, maleness and older age were risk factors for hemoplasmosis. Hemoplasma-positive dogs had a higher total protein. This is the first report of Mhc, CMhp and CMt in dogs from Chile, with a high occurrence in rural localities.

  11. Mycoplasma Infection as a cause of Persistent Fever after Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment of Patients with Kawasaki Disease: Frequency and Clinical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyung Lim; Cha, Sung-Ho; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Jung, Hae Woon

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma is a common cause of respiratory infections and may require differential diagnosis from Kawasaki disease (KD). In this study, we investigated the frequency and clinical manifestations of mycoplasma infection in patients with KD. Materials and Methods Medical records of 375 in-patients admitted for treatment during the acute stage of KD, were collected, and reviewed retrospectively. Of these patients, 152 (40.5%) were also tested for recent mycoplasma infection. Patients with positive results (anti-mycoplasma IgM Ab >1:640 or cold agglutinin >1:64) were designated as the case group (n = 37, 24.3%) whereas those with negative results were designated as the control group (n = 115, 75.7%). Clinical findings of the two groups were compared. Results Patients in the case group were older than those in the control group (mean age, 48.2 ± 32.1 months, vs. 31.7 ± 21.7 months; P = 0.001). There were significant differences between the case and control groups in the changes in the extremities (78.3% vs. 57.4%, respectively; P = 0.031), and in fever duration (6.5 ± 2.5 days vs. 5.4 ± 1.5 days; P = 0.047). Of the 37 patients with positive mycoplasma testing, 7 (18.9%) had persistent fever even after the symptoms and signs of systemic inflammation (acute phase of KD) had been resolved. These patients were positive for mycoplasma infection during further evaluation of persistent fever, and all of them responded to macrolide antibiotics. Conclusions We found that mycoplasma infection is somewhat related to KD. When fever persists after resolution of the acute stage of KD, mycoplasma infection may be considered as a possible cause of fever in preschool-aged children. PMID:28271651

  12. Short Communication Microsatellite loci in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae, and cross-species amplification in four related species.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, O; Marín, A; Kowalewska, K; Fujimoto, T; Arai, K

    2016-09-23

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were identified in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae (Teleostei: Cobitidae). Among these, 14 were polymorphic (5-31 alleles) and showed moderate to high cross-species amplification transferability in four related species, Cobitis matsubarai, Cobitis taenia, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, and Misgurnus fossilis. The loci, described herein, will be useful for population genetics, phylogeny, parentage analysis, and detection of hybridization among Cobitis species.

  13. An epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mason, S J; Maiers, J D

    1984-01-01

    A major epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum occurred in the Monroe, North Carolina, area between January and June of 1983. The outbreak involved 304,000 turkeys of various ages, which were slaughtered in the eradication program at a cost of more than $550,000 to growers and poultry companies. An infected peafowl was the likely source of infection on the first farm. Traffic between farms by growers and company personnel was theorized to be the means of further spread.

  14. Development of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Recombinant Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Simionatto, Simone; Dellagostin, Odir

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Research using genome-based approach has the potential to elucidate the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines. Here, we describe the protocol for developing M. hyopneumoniae recombinant vaccines using reverse vaccinology approaches.

  15. Complex genetic patterns in closely related colonizing invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic activities frequently result in both rapidly changing environments and translocation of species from their native ranges (i.e., biological invasions). Empirical studies suggest that many factors associated with these changes can lead to complex genetic patterns, par...

  16. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, haemotropic mycoplasmas and other arthropod-borne pathogens in cats from Albania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Albania is a country on the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The Mediterranean climate is favourable for the stable development of many arthropod species, which are incriminated as vectors for various agents. Recently, several papers have reported on epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases including vector-borne disease agents of dogs with zoonotic characteristics in Albania. However, data on the epidemiology of feline parasitic and bacterial agents in Albania is scarce. Methods Serum and EDTA-blood samples collected from 146 domestic cats from Tirana during 2008 through 2010 were examined for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania infantum, and Anaplasma spp. with IFAT, for infection with L. infantum, A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and haemotropic mycoplasmas with conventional PCR and real-time PCR and for Dirofilaria immitis with antigen ELISA. Additionally blood smear microscopy was carried out for detection of blood-borne pathogens. Results Antibodies to T. gondii (titre ≥1:100) were demonstrated in 91 cats (62.3%). Antibodies to N. caninum (titre ≥1:100), L. infantum (titre ≥1:64) and Anaplasma spp. (titre ≥1:100) were found in the serum of 15 (10.3%), 1 (0.7%) or 3 (2.1%) cats, respectively. DNA of haemotropic mycoplasmas was detected in the blood of 45 cats (30.8%), namely Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (21.9%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (10.3%), and Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (5.5%), with ten cats harbouring co-infections of two mycoplasmas each; blood from one cat was PCR positive for Bartonella henselae. No DNA of Leishmania spp. and A. phagocytophilum or circulating D. immitis antigen was detected in any cat sample. The overall prevalence of haemotropic mycoplasmas was significantly higher in male compared to female cats (40.6% vs. 24.1%, p = 0.0444); and age was associated positively with the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii (p = 0.0008) and the percentage of haemotropic

  17. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    DOEpatents

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  18. A new species of the genus Castoponera (Araneae, Corinnidae) from Sarawak, Borneo, with comparison to a related species

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Endo, Tomoji; Hyodo, Fujio; Itioka, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Castoponera Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001, Castoponera christae sp. n., is described here. The species is closely related to Castoponera lecythus Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001, but can be distinguished by the structures of the male palp and the female genitalia. PMID:27408573

  19. Mycoplasma gallisepticum invades chicken erythrocytes during infection.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Gunther; Plaickner, Astrid; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, László; Rosengarten, Renate; Szostak, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated using in vitro assays that the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is able to invade nonphagocytic cells. It was also shown that this mycoplasma can survive and multiply intracellularly for at least 48 h and that this cell invasion capacity contributes to the systemic spread of M. gallisepticum from the respiratory tract to the inner organs. Using the gentamicin invasion assay and a differential immunofluorescence technique combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, we were able to demonstrate in in vitro experiments that M. gallisepticum is also capable of invading sheep and chicken erythrocytes. The frequencies of invasion of three well-defined M. gallisepticum strains were examined over a period of 24 h, and a significant increase in invasiveness occurred after 8 h of infection. In addition, blood samples derived from chickens experimentally infected via the aerosol route with the virulent strain M. gallisepticum R(low) were analyzed. Surprisingly, M. gallisepticum R(low) was detected in the bloodstream of infected chickens by nested PCR, as well as by differential immunofluorescence and interference contrast microscopy that showed that mycoplasmas were not only on the surface but also inside chicken erythrocytes. This finding provides novel insight into the pathomechanism of M. gallisepticum and may have implications for the development of preventive strategies.

  20. Mycoplasma agassizii in Morafka's desert tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Brown, Mary B.; Vaughn, Mercy; Gowan, Timothy A.; Hasskamp, Mary Ann; Torres, Ma. Cristina Melendez

    2015-01-01

    We conducted health evaluations of 69 wild and 22 captive Morafka's desert tortoises (Gopherus morafkai) in Mexico between 2005 and 2008. The wild tortoises were from 11 sites in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa, and the captive tortoises were from the state-managed Centro Ecológico de Sonora Zoo in Hermosillo and a private residence in the town of Alamos. We tested 88 tortoises for mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific antibody and by culture and PCR for detection of Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum. Fifteen of 22 captive tortoises had one or more positive diagnostic test results for M. agassizii whereas no wild tortoises had positive tests. Tortoises with positive tests also had significantly more moderate and severe clinical signs of mycoplasmosis on beaks and nares compared to tortoises with negative tests. Captive tortoises also exhibited significantly more clinical signs of illness than did wild tortoises, including lethargy and moderate to severe ocular signs. The severity of trauma and diseases of the shell and integument did not differ significantly among tortoises by site; however, clinical signs of moderate to severe trauma and disease were more prevalent in older tortoises. Similar to research findings for other species in the genus Gopherusin the US, we found that URTD is an important disease in captive tortoises. If they escape or are released by intention or accident to the wild, captive tortoises are likely to pose risks to healthy, naïve wild populations.

  1. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque" and Bartonella quintana bacteremia in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M; Kelly, Catherine M; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism.

  2. Mycoplasma hominis, a Rare but True Cause of Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Grattard, Florence; Morel, Jerome; Suy, Florence; Fuzellier, Jean-François; Verhoeven, Paul; Cazorla, Celine; Guglielminotti, Claire; Fresard, Anne; Lucht, Frederic; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    Mycoplasma spp. are rarely recognized agents of infective endocarditis. We report a case of Mycoplasma hominis prosthetic valve endocarditis diagnosed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and culture of valves in a 74-year-old man. We reviewed the literature and found only 8 other cases reported.

  3. 21 CFR 610.30 - Test for Mycoplasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produced from in vitro living cell cultures, and prior to inactivation in the case of inactivated virus vaccines produced from such living cell cultures, each virus harvest pool and control fluid pool shall be... Mycoplasma and each test shall include control cultures of at least two known strains of Mycoplasma, one...

  4. Mosquitoes of Zika Forest, Uganda: species composition and relative abundance.

    PubMed

    Kaddumukasa, M A; Mutebi, J-P; Lutwama, J J; Masembe, C; Akol, A M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO2-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and this may suggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests ahigh potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest.

  5. Molecular methods for the detection of Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infections in humans: a paper from the 2011 William Beaumont Hospital Symposium on molecular pathology.

    PubMed

    Waites, Ken B; Xiao, Li; Paralanov, Vanya; Viscardi, Rose M; Glass, John I

    2012-09-01

    Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species are well-known human pathogens responsible for a broad array of inflammatory conditions involving the respiratory and urogenital tracts of neonates, children, and adults. Greater attention is being given to these organisms in diagnostic microbiology, largely as a result of improved methods for their laboratory detection, made possible by powerful molecular-based techniques that can be used for primary detection in clinical specimens. For slow-growing species, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, molecular-based detection is the only practical means for rapid microbiological diagnosis. Most molecular-based methods used for detection and characterization of conventional bacteria have been applied to these organisms. A complete genome sequence is available for one or more strains of all of the important human pathogens in the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma genera. Information gained from genome analyses and improvements in efficiency of DNA sequencing are expected to significantly advance the field of molecular detection and genotyping during the next few years. This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques.

  6. Alice in Wonderland syndrome associated with mycoplasma infection.

    PubMed

    Omata, Taku; Fujii, Katsunori; Kuroki, Haruo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare condition in which patients report distorted size perception of objects and their own bodies. Although specific causes and pathology have not been elucidated, an association between AIWS and infection has been suggested. To our knowledge, mycoplasma-induced AIWS has not been examined. A girl aged 7 years 11 months presented with fever (temperature, 40°C) and cough. Although the fever disappeared after approximately 10 days, she complained that her mother's face suddenly appeared smaller to her. Subsequently, she complained that objects intermittently appeared smaller than normal. Particle agglutination test indicated elevated serum antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The patient was therefore diagnosed the patient with AIWS secondary to mycoplasma infection. Although mycoplasma infection is known to cause various central nervous system symptoms, this is the first report involving AIWS, suggesting that mycoplasma could affect visual function in children.

  7. Significance of Genital Mycoplasmas in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Innocent Bystander!

    PubMed Central

    Harmanli, Ozgur H.; Nyirjesy, Paul; Reece, E. Albert

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine the role of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Methods: The clinical and microbiologic variables in 114 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PID were compared prospectively according to the isolation of M. hominis and U. urealyticum from their endometrial cavities. Results: The groups were epidemiologically well matched. Clinical parameters such as temperature, leukocyte count, erythrocyte count, and C-reactive protein on admission and length of hospital stay were similar in the patients, regardless of their mycoplasma status. A significant percentage of the patients either continued or started to harbor genital mycoplasmas after the resolution of PID without any significant clinical sequelae. Conclusions: The presence of genital mycoplasmas does not change the clinical presentation and course of PID. Both M. hominis and U. urealyticum can persist or colonize the endometrium after complete recovery from PID. Therefore, the genital mycoplasmas do not seem to have a dominant pathogenic role in PID. PMID:18476105

  8. Penicillium menonorum, a new species related to P. pimiteouiense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium menonorum is described as a new monoverticillate, non-vesiculate species that resembles P. restrictum and P. pimiteouiense. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from four loci, P. menorum occurs in a clade with P. pimiteouiense, P. vinaceum, P. guttulosum, E. rubidurum,...

  9. Complex genetic patterns in closely related colonizing invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Aibin; Darling, John A; Bock, Dan G; Lacoursière-Roussel, Anaïs; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities frequently result in both rapidly changing environments and translocation of species from their native ranges (i.e., biological invasions). Empirical studies suggest that many factors associated with these changes can lead to complex genetic patterns, particularly among invasive populations. However, genetic complexities and factors responsible for them remain uncharacterized in many cases. Here, we explore these issues in the vase tunicate Ciona intestinalis (Ascidiacea: Enterogona: Cionidae), a model species complex, of which spA and spB are rapidly spreading worldwide. We intensively sampled 26 sites (N = 873) from both coasts of North America, and performed phylogenetic and population genetics analyses based on one mitochondrial fragment (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3–NADH dehydrogenase subunit I, COX3-ND1) and eight nuclear microsatellites. Our analyses revealed extremely complex genetic patterns in both species on both coasts. We detected a contrasting pattern based on the mitochondrial marker: two major genetic groups in C. intestinalis spA on the west coast versus no significant geographic structure in C. intestinalis spB on the east coast. For both species, geo-graphically distant populations often showed high microsatellite-based genetic affinities whereas neighboring ones often did not. In addition, mitochondrial and nuclear markers provided largely inconsistent genetic patterns. Multiple factors, including random genetic drift associated with demographic changes, rapid selection due to strong local adaptation, and varying propensity for human-mediated propagule dispersal could be responsible for the observed genetic complexities. PMID:22957143

  10. Towards Testing General Relativity with a dual species interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Hartwig, Jonas; Tiarks, Daniel; Velte, Ulrich; Ganske, Sven; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2012-06-01

    We report on our work directed towards a dual species matter-wave interferometer for performing a differential measurement of the acceleration of free falling ^87Rb and ^39K atoms to test Einstein's equivalence principle (universality of free fall). Based on minimal Standard Model Extension calculations this combination of test masses is more sensitive to composition based equivalence principle violating effects than, e.g. ^85Rb-^87Rb. During free fall, a Mach-Zehnder type interferometry sequence employing stimulated Raman transitions is applied synchronously for both species, achieving high common noise rejection. With an expected single shot resolution of 5x10-8g the apparatus will allow for studying systematics at the 10-9g level after 100 s integration time. Post-correction methods for high vibrational noise environments are investigated. To assure well defined starting conditions the two species will be trapped in an optical dipole trap. The properties of this trap at 2 μm allow for fast and efficient laser cooling, use of evaporative and sympathetic cooling techniques is possible. We will show the enviromental noise limited performance of the single species Rb gravimeter and the progress of the implementation of the K gravimeter.

  11. Reconstitution of an active arginine deiminase pathway in Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129.

    PubMed

    Rechnitzer, Hagai; Rottem, Shlomo; Herrmann, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Some species of the genus Mycoplasma code for the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI), which enables these bacteria to produce ATP from arginine by the successive reaction of three enzymes: arginine deiminase (ArcA), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB), and carbamate kinase (ArcC). It so far appears that independently isolated strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encode an almost identical truncated version of the ADI pathway in which the proteins ArcA and ArcB have lost their original enzymatic activities due to the deletion of significant regions of these proteins. To study the consequences of a functional ADI pathway, M. pneumoniae M129 was successfully transformed with the cloned functional arcA, arcB, and arcC genes from Mycoplasma fermentans. Enzymatic tests showed that while the M. pneumoniae ArcAB and ArcABC transformants possess functional arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and carbamate kinase, they were unable to grow on arginine as the sole energy source. Nevertheless, infection of a lung epithelial cell line, A549, with the M. pneumoniae transformants showed that almost 100% of the infected host cells were nonviable, while most of the lung cells infected with nontransformed M. pneumoniae were viable under the same experimental conditions.

  12. Nationwide Surveillance of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Mika; Akaike, Hiroto; Kato, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Yoko; Saito, Aki; Kondo, Eisuke; Teranishi, Hideto; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Ogita, Satoko; Tanaka, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2013-01-01

    We conducted nationwide surveillance to investigate regional differences in macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains in Japan. The prevalence of MR M. pneumoniae in pediatric patients gradually increased between 2008 and 2012. Although regional differences were observed, high levels of MR genes were detected in all seven surveillance areas throughout Japan and ranged in prevalence from 50% to 93%. These regional differences were closely related to the previous administration of macrolides. PMID:23716043

  13. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species. PMID:23031072

  14. Effect of seeding on the capture of six stored product beetle species: The relative species matters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    n trapping programs prior capture of individuals of the same or different species may influence subsequent attractiveness of the trap. To evaluate this process with stored-product insects, the effect of the presence of dead or alive adults on the behavioral responses of six stored product insect spe...

  15. Species associations and redundancy in relation to biological hotspots within the northern California Current ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Douglas C.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic nature of biological hotspots, while well recognized, is not well understood. We hypothesize that the persistence of hotspots in the northern California Current System (CCS), despite seasonal and annual changes in the nekton community species composition, is related to associations among species and their functional redundancy. To address this hypothesis, sampling was conducted during June and August of 2000 and 2002 within two hotspots occurring between Newport, Oregon and Crescent City, California in the coastal CCS. Associations were examined to identify potentially complementary and redundant species. The strongest negative associations were between jellyfish and fish species, with strong positive associations evident among several fish species. Dominant species varied seasonally and annually, although evidence indicated replacement of dominant species by other similar species with respect to functional group and preferred habitat. This finding suggests that the persistence of these biological hotspots is related to species redundancy and is an important attribute contributing to stability within this highly variable system.

  16. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  17. Evolutionary relationships of completely sequenced Clostridia species and close relatives.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    The class Clostridia in the phylum Firmicutes includes a very heterogeneous assemblage of bacteria. Their evolutionary relationships are not well established; revisions of their phylogenetic placements based on comparative studies of 16S rRNA gene sequences are in progress as genome sequence information accumulates. In this work, phylogenetic trees were reconstructed based on 21 concatenated ribosomal protein sequences using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods. Both trees consistently indicate that the Halanaerobiales is a deeply branching order among the class Clostridia. The rest of the Clostridia species are grouped into 10 monophyletic clusters, most of which are comprised of two or three orders and families according to the current Clostridial taxonomy. The maximum-likelihood tree placed Coprothermobacter proteolyticus and Thermodesulfobium narugense in the class Clostridia in accordance with the current taxonomy, in which these two bacteria are assigned to the family Thermodesulfobiaceae. However, the Bayesian tree placed these two bacteria at the boundary between the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. A gene arrangement that is present uniquely in the Firmicutes species was identified. Both Coprothermobacter proteolyticus and Thermodesulfobium narugense do not have this arrangement characteristic of the Firmicutes. On the basis of the Bayesian tree and gene arrangement comparison, it is suggested that Coprothermobacter proteolyticus and Thermodesulfobium narugense should be placed outside the phylum Firmicutes.

  18. Laser radiation effects on Mycoplasma agalactiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Cerasela Z.; Grigoriu, Constantin; Dinescu, Maria; Pascale, Florentina; Popovici, Adrian; Gheorghescu, Lavinia; Cismileanu, Ana; Avram, Eugenia

    2002-08-01

    The biological effects of the laser radiation emitted by the Nd:YAG laser (second harmonic, wavelength 532 nm /fluence 32 mJ/cm2/pulse duration 6 ns) on the Mycoplasma agalactiae bacterium were studied. The radiation was found to intensify the multiplication of the bacteria irradiated in TRIS buffer (0.125 M), without however affecting the proteinic composition of the cell membrane. When the bacteria were irradiated in their growth medium (PPLO broth) being later cultivated on a solid medium (PPLO agar), the exclusive presence of the atypical colonies (granular and T-like ones) was noticed.

  19. The minimal gene complement of mycoplasma genitalium

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, C.M.; Gocayne, J.D.; White, O.

    1995-10-20

    The complete nucleotide sequence (580,070 base pairs) of the Mycoplasma genitalium genome, the smallest known genome of any free-living organism, has been determined by whole-genome random sequencing and assembly. A total of only 470 predicted coding regions were identified that include genes required for DNA replication, transcription and translation, DNA repair, cellular transport, and energy metabolism. Comparison of this genome to that of Haemophilus influenzae suggests that differences in genome content are reflected as profound differences in physiology and metabolic capacity between these two organisms. 43 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Ocular manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Salzman, M B; Sood, S K; Slavin, M L; Rubin, L G

    1992-05-01

    Ocular manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, other than conjunctivitis, are uncommon. Optic disk swelling, optic nerve atrophy, retinal exudates and hemorrhages, and cranial nerve palsies have been infrequently reported. We describe a 15-year-old patient who developed bilateral optic disk edema and iritis during an acute infection with M. pneumoniae and review the world literature on findings associated with ocular manifestations of infection with this pathogen. Although our patient experienced complete resolution of iritis and optic disk edema after 6 weeks, several patients described in the literature have experienced permanent sequelae as a result of optic neuropathy.

  1. Neurological complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Hely, M A; Williamson, P M; Terenty, T R

    1984-01-01

    This study documents five patients with neurological disease associated with evidence of recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Four patients had encephalitis associated with coma. Two of these had hemiparesis (one with dysphasia), one had seizures, and one had cerebellar and brainstem involvement. Two also had evidence of a radiculopathy and peripheral neuropathy. One patient had aseptic meningitis with later transverse myelitis. Three patients had multiple sites of neurological involvement. Respiratory infections preceded the neurological syndromes in four cases. Antibiotic therapy did not appear to alter the course of the disease. All patients had a favourable outcome.

  2. Cloning of the complete Mycoplasma pneumoniae genome.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, R; Herrmann, R

    1989-01-01

    The complete genome of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was cloned in an ordered library consisting of 34 overlapping or adjacent cosmids, one plasmid and two lambda phages. The genome size was determined by adding up the sizes of either the individual unique EcoRI restriction fragments of the gene bank or of the XhoI fragments of genomic M. pneumoniae DNA. The values from these calculations, 835 and 849 kbp, are in good agreement. An XhoI restriction map was constructed by identifying adjacent DNA fragments by probing with selected cosmid clones. Images PMID:2506532

  3. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-like Mycoplasma on the infection of HEp-2 cells by the TW-183 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E A; Wadowsky, R M

    2000-02-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  4. Sequence homologies between Mycoplasma and Chlamydia spp. lead to false-positive results in chlamydial cell cultures tested for mycoplasma contamination with a commercial PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Maass, Viola; Kern, Jan Marco; Poeckl, Matthias; Maass, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a frequent problem in chlamydial cell culture. After obtaining contradictory contamination results, we compared three commercial PCR kits for mycoplasma detection. One kit signaled contamination in mycoplasma-free Chlamydia pneumoniae cultures. Sequencing of cloned PCR products revealed primer homology with the chlamydial genome as the basis of this false-positive result.

  5. Mycoplasma suis infection results endothelial cell damage and activation: new insight into the cell tropism and pathogenicity of hemotrophic mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Sokoli, Albina; Groebel, Katrin; Hoelzle, Katharina; Amselgruber, Werner M; Mateos, José M; Schneider, Mårten K J; Ziegler, Urs; Felder, Kathrin M; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2013-02-11

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are highly specialized red blood cell parasites that cause infectious anemia in a variety of mammals, including humans. To date, no in vitro cultivation systems for HM have been available, resulting in relatively little information about the pathogenesis of HM infection. In pigs, Mycoplasma suis-induced infectious anemia is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis, and coagulation dysfunction. However, intravasal coagulation and subsequent consumption coagulopathy can only partly explain the sequence of events leading to hemorrhagic diathesis manifesting as cyanosis, petechial bleeding, and ecchymosis, and to disseminated coagulation. The involvement of endothelial activation and damage in M. suis-associated pathogenesis was investigated using light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell sorting. M. suis interacted directly with endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial activation, widespread endothelial damage, and adherence of red blood cells to the endothelium were evident in M. suis-infected pigs. These alterations of the endothelium were accompanied by hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation, vascular occlusion, and massive morphological changes within the parenchyma. M. suis biofilm-like microcolonies formed on the surface of endothelial cells, and may represent a putative persistence mechanism of M. suis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that M. suis interacted with the endothelial cytoskeletal protein actin, and induced actin condensation and activation of endothelial cells, as determined by the up-regulation of ICAM, PECAM, E-selectin, and P-selectin. These findings demonstrate an additional cell tropism of HM for endothelial cells and suggest that M. suis interferes with the protective function of the endothelium, resulting in hemorrhagic diathesis.

  6. Catalase Enhances Growth and Biofilm Production of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Warren L.; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes chronic respiratory disease in humans. Factors thought to be important for colonization include the ability of the mycoplasma to form a biofilm on epithelial surfaces and the production of hydrogen peroxide to damage host tissue. Almost all of the mycoplasmas, including M. pneumoniae, lack superoxide dismutase and catalase and a balance should exist between peroxide production and growth. We show here that the addition of catalase to cultures enhanced the formation of biofilms and altered the structure. The incorporation of catalase in agar increased the number of colony-forming units detected and hence could improve the clinical diagnosis of mycoplasmal diseases. PMID:25894997

  7. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

    1981-11-01

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

  8. Mycoplasma hominis necrotizing pleuropneumonia in a previously healthy adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hominis is a fastidious micro-organism causing systemic infections in the neonate and genital infections in the adult. It can also be the cause of serious extra-genital infections, mainly in immunosuppressed or predisposed subjects. Case Presentation We describe a case of severe pneumonia and pericarditis due to Mycoplasma hominis in a previously healthy adolescent who did not respond to initial therapy. Conclusions Mycoplasma hominis could be an underestimated cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompetent patients and should be particularly suspected in those not responding to standard therapy. PMID:21106079

  9. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  10. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE - 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  11. An update review on Commiphora molmol and related species.

    PubMed

    Tonkal, Abdulkader M D; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia, and cinnamon.., the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus wrote, in the second half of the first century BC, that "all of Arabia exudes a most delicate fragrance; even the seamen passing by Arabia can smell the strong fragrance that gives health and vigor." He also mentioned gold mines so pure that no smelting was necessary. The Magi, carrying myrrh, frankincense, and gold, came from the East: Arabia. The frankincense trade route, with transport by donkeys and later by camel caravans, reached Jerusalem and Egypt from the Dhofar region of what is today Oman, through Yemen, turning north to follow the Red Sea coast. It is likely that the same or similar species of the resin-bearing plants grew across the Red Sea in the area that is now Somalia and Ethiopia, while the collection of the gum resins was initiated in Arabia. Myrrh contributed much in the human welfare. Schistosomiasis was known in ancient Egypt since remote times. Haematuria with urinary bladder disturbances was mentioned in four Papyrus papers dated back to 1950-1900 BC, and Schistosoma ova was detected in a cirrhotic liver of a mummy from 1200 BC (Ruffer, 1910). Also, Fasciola eggs were detected in a mummy (Looss, 1896). Fascioliasis infected over 17 million people worldwide causing marked morbidity and mortality (Haseeb et al., 2002). Schistosomiasis affected over 200 million people in 74 countries and territories worldwide (WHO, 1999) causing several chronic complications. Both were incriminated to predispose or accompanied human hepatitis and predisposed to HCV (Wahib et al., 2006). Most zoonotic helminthes induced immune response (Nutman, 2001) characterized by producing of type 2 cytokines, Ig G1, IgG2, IgE antibodies and eosinophil and

  12. Effects of different vaccine combinations against Mycoplasma gallisepticum on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial egg-laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects ...

  13. Hybridization in closely related Rhododendron species: half of all species-differentiating markers experience serious transmission ratio distortion

    PubMed Central

    Marczewski, Tobias; Chamberlain, David F; Milne, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies of hybridization in recent years have revealed that complete reproductive isolation between species is frequently not finalized in more or less closely related organisms. Most of these species do, however, seem to retain their phenotypical characteristics despite the implication of gene flow, highlighting the remaining gap in our knowledge of how much of an organism’s genome is permeable to gene flow, and which factors promote or prevent hybridization. We used AFLP markers to investigate the genetic composition of three populations involving two interfertile Rhododendron species: two sympatric populations, of which only one contained hybrids, and a further hybrid-dominated population. No fixed differences between the species were found, and only 5.8% of the markers showed some degree of species differentiation. Additionally, 45.5% of highly species-differentiating markers experienced significant transmission distortion in the hybrids, which was most pronounced in F1 hybrids, suggesting that factors conveying incompatibilities are still segregating within the species. Furthermore, the two hybrid populations showed stark contrasting composition of hybrids; one was an asymmetrically backcrossing hybrid swarm, while in the other, backcrosses were absent, thus preventing gene flow. PMID:26357534

  14. Lipophilicity of zwitterions and related species: a new insight.

    PubMed

    Mazák, Károly; Kökösi, József; Noszál, Béla

    2011-09-18

    The experimental determination of microscopic partition coefficients for protonation isomers is elaborated for the first time, and applied for niflumic acid, an ampholytic, mainly zwitterionic drug for pains in joints and muscles. The acid-base microequilibria of niflumic acid are also characterized by NMR-pH and deductive methods using auxiliary compounds of reduced complexity. The results show that 16 times as many zwitterionic than non-charged microspecies exist in aqueous solution. Partition of the individual microspecies was mimicked by model compounds of the closest possible similarity, then correction factors were also determined and introduced. Thus the long-awaited intrinsic partition coefficients of the non-charged vs. zwitterionic species could be calculated. The non-charged microspecies is 390 times as lipophilic as its zwitterionic protonation isomer. The microscopic partition coefficients are also in line with the experimentally determined distribution coefficients. These results make evident that contribution of the zwitterionic microspecies to the overall lipophilicity is not negligible, especially at the isoelectric pH region of the compound.

  15. Detecting hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives.

    PubMed

    Randi, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of free-ranging domestic or feral carnivores (dogs, cats) or ungulates (pigs, goats), and massive releases of captive-reproduced game stocks (galliforms, waterfowl) is raising fear that introgressive hybridization with wild populations might disrupt local adaptations, leading to population decline and loss of biodiversity. Detecting introgression through hybridization is problematic if the parental populations cannot be sampled (unlike in classical stable hybrid zones), or if hybridization is sporadic. However, the use of hypervariable DNA markers (microsatellites) and new statistical methods (Bayesian models), have dramatically improved the assessment of cryptic population structure, admixture analyses and individual assignment testing. In this paper, I summarize results of projects aimed to identify occurrence and extent of introgressive hybridization in European populations of wolves (Canis lupus), wildcats (Felis silvestris), rock partridges and red-legged partridges (Alectoris graeca and Alectoris rufa), using genetic methods. Results indicate that introgressive hybridization can be locally pervasive, and that conservation plans should be implemented to preserve the integrity of the gene pools of wild populations. Population genetic methods can be fruitfully used to identify introgressed individuals and hybridizing populations, providing data which allow evaluating risks of outbreeding depression. The diffusion in the wild of invasive feral animals, and massive restocking with captive-reproduced game species, should be carefully controlled to avoid loss of genetic diversity and disruption of local adaptations.

  16. DNA homology studies on Clostridium botulinum and related clostridial species

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The genetic relationships among toxigenic Clostridium botulinum and nontoxigenic C. subterminale and C. hastiforme were examined. DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method at 50/sup 0/C and 65/sup 0/C) was used to determine genetic relatedness among these organisms. DNA was labeled in vitro with /sup 32/P by the nick translation method. C. botulinum type G had less than 20% DNA relatedness with strains of C. botulinum types A, B and F. All nine strains of C. botulinum type G, two of 10 strains of C. subterminale, and one of three strains of C. hastiforme formed one DNA hybridization group, with DNA relatedness ranging from 76 to 100%. The remaining strains formed six smaller hybridization groups: two groups contained single strains of C. hastiforme, and the other four contained strains of C. subterminale. Thus, DNA hybridization data indicate that all strains of the toxigenic C. botulinum type G and the few strains of nontoxigenic C. subterminale and C. hastiforme form a single new species with toxigenicity as a variable characteristic.

  17. Mapping of a Mycoplasma-Neutralizing Epitope on the Mycoplasmal p37 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Won-Tae; Lee, Hyun Min; Choi, Hong Seo; Jo, Yu Ra; Lee, Yangsoon; Jeong, Jaemin; Choi, Dongho; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Shick; Jang, Young-Joo; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the mycoplasmal membrane protein p37 enhances cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Previously, we generated 6 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the mycoplasmal protein p37 and showed the presence of mycoplasma-infected circulating tumor cells in the blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by using CA27, one of the six MAbs. When mycoplasmas were incubated with cancer cells in the presence of CA27, mycoplasma infection was completely inhibited, suggesting that CA27 is a neutralizing antibody inhibiting mycoplasma infection. To examine the neutralizing epitope of CA27, we generated a series of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused p37 deletion mutant proteins in which p37 was partly deleted. To express p37-coding sequences in E.coli, mycoplasmal TGA codons were substituted with TGG in the p37 deletion mutant genes. GST-fused p37 deletion mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitope targeted by CA27. Western blots showed that CA27 bound to the residues 216–246 on the middle part of the p37 protein while it did not bind to the residues 183–219 and 216–240. Fine mapping showed that CA27 was able to bind to the residues 226–246, but its binding activity was relatively weakened as compared to that to the residues 216–246, suggesting that the residues 226–246 is essential for optimal binding activity of CA27. Interestingly, the treatment of the purified GST-tagged epitopes with urea showed that CA27 binding to the epitope was sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant but urea-sensitive. The same 226–246 residues were also recognized by two other anti-p37 MAbs, suggesting that the epitope is immunodominant. The identification of the novel neutralizing epitope may provide new insight into the interaction between the p37 protein and host receptors. PMID:28036384

  18. Protective effects of oral microencapsulated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine prepared by co-spray drying method.

    PubMed

    Lin, J H; Weng, C N; Liao, C W; Yeh, K S; Pan, M J

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae oral vaccine was investigated in microsphere dosage form. A co-spray drying process was used to apply an encapsulating material, Eudragit L30 D-55, to microspheres containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens. The microspheres were generally effective (>93%) with protein release at pH 7.4, but almost none were released at pH 1.2, for 3 hr in an in vitro dissolution test. An SPF-swine model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the microspheres as an oral vaccine, and the related immune responses. The serum's systemic IgG against M. hyopneumoniae was evoked by ELISA analysis, after a 2nd immunization of all pigs. The vaccinated groups' mean lesion score was significantly lower after the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae challenge than that of the nonvaccinated/challenged groups (P<0.05). This study strongly suggests that the oral microspheres vaccine prepared by a co-spray drying method can provide effective protection against M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

  19. Depletion of CG-Specific Methylation in Mycoplasma hyorhinis Genomic DNA after Host Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Chernov, Andrei V; Reyes, Leticia; Peterson, Scott; Strongin, Alex Y

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to the environment requires pathogenic bacteria to alter their gene expression in order to increase long-term survival in the host. Here, we present the first experimental evidence that bacterial DNA methylation affects the intracellular survival of pathogenic Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Using bisulfite sequencing, we identified that the M. hyorhinis DNA methylation landscape was distinct in free-living M. hyorhinis relative to the internalized bacteria surviving in the infected human cells. We determined that genomic GATC sites were consistently highly methylated in the bacterial chromosome suggesting that the bacterial GATC-specific 5-methylcytosine DNA methyltransferase was fully functional both pre- and post-infection. In contrast, only the low CG methylation pattern was observed in the mycoplasma genome in the infective bacteria that invaded and then survived in the host cells. In turn, two distinct populations, with either high or low CG methylation, were detected in the M. hyorhinis cultures continually grown in the rich medium independently of host cells. We also identified that M. hyorhinis efficiently evaded endosomal degradation and uses exocytosis to exit infected human cells enabling re-infection of additional cells. The well-orchestrated changes in the chromosome methylation landscape play a major regulatory role in the mycoplasma life cycle.

  20. Sheep primary cells as in vitro models to investigate Mycoplasma agalactiae host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Gabriel, Cordula; Kragl, Martin; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2015-10-01

    Appropriate infection models are imperative for the understanding of pathogens like mycoplasmas that are known for their strict host and tissue specificity, and lack of suitable cell and small animal models has hindered pathogenicity studies. This is particularly true for the economically important group of ruminant mycoplasmas whose virulence factors need to be elucidated for designing effective intervention strategies. Mycoplasma agalactiae serves as a useful role model especially because it is phylogenetically very close to M. bovis and causes similar symptoms by as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we successfully prepared and characterized four different primary sheep cell lines, namely the epithelial and stromal cells from the mammary gland and uterus, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry, we identified vimentin and cytokeratin as specific markers to confirm the typical cell phenotypes of these primary cells. Furthermore, M. agalactiae's consistent adhesion and invasion into these primary cells proves the reliability of these cell models. Mimicking natural infections, mammary epithelial and stromal cells showed higher invasion and adhesion rates compared to the uterine cells as also seen via double immunofluorescence staining. Altogether, we have generated promising in vitro cell models to study host-pathogen interactions of M. agalactiae and related ruminant pathogens in a more authentic manner.

  1. Transfer of maternal immunoglobulins and antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae to the allantoic and amniotic fluid of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Bencina, Dusan; Narat, Mojca; Bidovec, Andrej; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2005-12-01

    Maternal antibodies can protect avian embryos against vertically transmitted pathogens during embryogenesis and also young birds after hatching. In contrast to the well-known transfer of maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) G (also termed IgY) from the yolk to embryonic blood, information about the transfer of IgA, IgG and IgM from the egg albumen to the extra-embryonic fluids is very limited. In our study, IgA, IgG and IgM to Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were detected in oviduct washings of naturally infected hens and in the corresponding egg albumen samples. In their progeny embryos, IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies to these Mycoplasma species were detected in the allantoic fluid (ALF) and amniotic fluid (AMF) on day 14 of embryonic development (ED). Examination of embryos from chickens immunized with antigens of M. synoviae revealed that the appearance of IgA and IgG and of antibodies to M. synoviae in ALF could vary even among embryos of the same dam. However, IgA, IgG and IgM were detected as early as day 7 of ED in ALF and AMF in certain embryos from hens infected with M. synoviae. In five groups of embryos examined on day 7, IgG to M.synoviae was found in 51% of ALF and 33% of AMF samples. M. synoviae was isolated from 2.3% of ALF samples. IgA to M. synoviae appeared in ALF and AMF on day 12 of ED, and could be found in the majority of AMF samples examined from day 14 onwards. IgM to M. synoviae appeared in AMF on day 13 and in ALF on day 14, but was detected in those fluids less frequently than IgA or IgG.

  2. A Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in clinical samples from Brazilian commercial poultry flocks

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Aline Padilha; de Vargas, Tatiana; Ikuta, Nilo; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Celmer, Álvaro José; Marques, Edmundo Kanan; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MS) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) are important avian pathogens and cause economic losses to the poultry industry. Molecular biology techniques are currently used for a rapid detection of these pathogens and the adoption of control measures of the diseases. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a technique for simultaneous detection of MG and MS by multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete assay (Multiplex MGMS) was designed with primers and probes specific for each pathogen and developed to be carried out in a single tube reaction. Vaccines, MG and MS isolates and DNA from other Mycoplasma species were used for the development and validation of the method. Further, 78 pooled clinical samples from different poultry flocks in Brazil were obtained and used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in comparison to 2 real time PCR assays specific for MG (MG PCR) and MS (MS PCR). The results demonstrated an agreement of 100% (23 positive and 44 negative samples) between Multiplex MGMS and MG PCR in the analysis of 67 samples from MG positive and negative poultry flocks, and an agreement of 96.9% between Multiplex MGMS and MS PCR in the analysis of 64 samples from MS positive and negative poultry flocks. Considering the single amplification tests as the gold standard, the Multiplex MGMS showed 100% of specificity and sensitivity in the MG analysis and 94.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the MS analysis. This new assay could be used for rapid analysis of MG and MS in the poultry industry laboratories. PMID:24294247

  3. Potentially pathogenic mycoplasmas in the external ear canal of clinically normal cattle in Southeast Brazil: first report

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Batista; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; de Almeida Pereira, Virginia Léo

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasmas were searched in the ear canal flushing of 60 bovine in Brazil. The prevalence obtained was 80%. The percentages of typified species were 12.5%, for M. alkalenses; 2.1%, M. arginini; 8.35%, M. bovirhinis; 2.1%, M. bovis; 25.0%, M. conjunctivae; 14.6%, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and 10.4% M. capricolum. PMID:24031387

  4. Mycoplasma genitalium: An emerging sexually transmitted pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Samanta, Palash; Sharma, Meera

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexually transmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexually transmitted infections due to M. genitalium. PMID:23391789

  5. Comparative Population Dynamics of Two Closely Related Species Differing in Ploidy Level

    PubMed Central

    Černá, Lucie; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies compare the population dynamics of single species within multiple habitat types, while much less is known about the differences in population dynamics in closely related species in the same habitat. Additionally, comparisons of the effect of habitat types and species are largely missing. Methodology and Principal Findings We estimated the importance of the habitat type and species for population dynamics of plants. Specifically, we compared the dynamics of two closely related species, the allotetraploid species Anthericum liliago and the diploid species Anthericum ramosum, occurring in the same habitat type. We also compared the dynamics of A. ramosum in two contrasting habitats. We examined three populations per species and habitat type. The results showed that single life history traits as well as the mean population dynamics of A. liliago and A. ramosum from the same habitat type were more similar than the population dynamics of A. ramosum from the two contrasting habitats. Conclusions Our findings suggest that when transferring knowledge regarding population dynamics between populations, we need to take habitat conditions into account, as these conditions appear to be more important than the species involved (ploidy level). However, the two species differ significantly in their overall population growth rates, indicating that the ploidy level has an effect on species performance. In contrast to what has been suggested by previous studies, we observed a higher population growth rate in the diploid species. This is in agreement with the wider range of habitats occupied by the diploid species. PMID:24116057

  6. Novel hemotrophic mycoplasma identified in naturally infected California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Norris, Tenaya; Rios, Carlos; Davidson, Maureen K; Messick, Joanne B; Gulland, Frances M; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2011-04-21

    The hemoplasmas are the trivial name for a group of erythrocyte-parasitizing, non-cultivable in vitro bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma that have been described in several mammalian hosts worldwide. This study is the first report of hemoplasmas in marine mammals. EDTA anticoagulated whole blood samples from 137 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and 20 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) admitted to the Marine Mammal Center (Sausalito, CA; www.marinemammalcenter.org) or live captured in Oregon were collected during 2008. Hemoplasma-specific genomic DNA was detected in blood samples from 12.4% California sea lions tested using PCR. Hemoplasma PCR positive blood specimens also were tested in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the hemoplasma-specific primers for the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. The RT-PCR showed the presence the hemoplasmal rRNA, strongly suggesting the presence of potentially viable hemoplasmas in the bloodstream of the animals. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of the hemoplasma from California sea lions revealed that the organism is a novel hemoplasma species with only 92.1% of its nucleotide similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of the previously described hemoplasma species of alpacas, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae. Thus, due to low level of genetic similarity of the hemoplasma to other described hemoplasmas and the mammalian host in which the hemoplasma was detected we propose that this novel hemoplasma species has been given the provisional name Candidatus Mycoplasma haemozalophi sp. nov.

  7. Host-specificity of environmentally transmitted Mycoplasma-like isopod symbionts.

    PubMed

    Fraune, Sebastian; Zimmer, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasms are known as pathogens of economic and medical interest in plants, animals and man. Here, we show a positive correlation between the presence of Mycoplasma-like symbionts in their isopod hosts and survivorship on low-quality food. Most isopods that survived feeding on a cellulose-based low-quality diet for 90 days harboured 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in their midgut glands, while those that died within 90 days mostly either harboured no or other bacterial symbionts. We detected 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in all but one of the examined species of terrestrial isopods from different habitats and locations, suggesting an evolutionarily ancient association between terrestrial isopods and their Mycoplasma-like symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses clustered symbionts from different populations of the same isopod species together, and clearly distinguished between symbionts of different isopod species, indicating host-specificity of 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma', although a previous study provided evidence for environmental symbiont transmission. Nonetheless, horizontal exchange of symbionts between species may have been possible in evolutionary earlier stages, as suggested by only limited congruency of phylogenetic trees of hosts and symbionts. Another symbiont, 'Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum', was only detected in midgut glands of the most terrestrial tribe of isopods (Crinocheta), suggesting an evolutionarily younger host-symbiont association. This symbiont proved to be negatively correlated with host longevity, even on high-quality food.

  8. The outcomes of most aggressive interactions among closely related bird species are asymmetric.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Freshwater, Cameron; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions among closely related species are common, and can play an important role as a selective pressure shaping species traits and assemblages. The nature of this selective pressure depends on whether the outcomes of aggressive contests are asymmetric between species (i.e., one species is consistently dominant), yet few studies have estimated the prevalence of asymmetric versus symmetric outcomes to aggressive contests. Here we use previously published data involving 26,212 interactions between 270 species pairs of birds from 26 taxonomic families to address the question: How often are aggressive interactions among closely related bird species asymmetric? We define asymmetry using (i) the proportion of contests won by one species, and (ii) statistical tests for asymmetric outcomes of aggressive contests. We calculate these asymmetries using data summed across different sites for each species pair, and compare results to asymmetries calculated using data separated by location. We find that 80% of species pairs had aggressive outcomes where one species won 80% or more of aggressive contests. We also find that the majority of aggressive interactions among closely related species show statistically significant asymmetries, and above a sample size of 52 interactions, all outcomes are asymmetric following binomial tests. Species pairs with dominance data from multiple sites showed the same dominance relationship across locations in 93% of the species pairs. Overall, our results suggest that the outcome of aggressive interactions among closely related species are usually consistent and asymmetric, and should thus favor ecological and evolutionary strategies specific to the position of a species within a dominance hierarchy.

  9. The outcomes of most aggressive interactions among closely related bird species are asymmetric

    PubMed Central

    Freshwater, Cameron; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions among closely related species are common, and can play an important role as a selective pressure shaping species traits and assemblages. The nature of this selective pressure depends on whether the outcomes of aggressive contests are asymmetric between species (i.e., one species is consistently dominant), yet few studies have estimated the prevalence of asymmetric versus symmetric outcomes to aggressive contests. Here we use previously published data involving 26,212 interactions between 270 species pairs of birds from 26 taxonomic families to address the question: How often are aggressive interactions among closely related bird species asymmetric? We define asymmetry using (i) the proportion of contests won by one species, and (ii) statistical tests for asymmetric outcomes of aggressive contests. We calculate these asymmetries using data summed across different sites for each species pair, and compare results to asymmetries calculated using data separated by location. We find that 80% of species pairs had aggressive outcomes where one species won 80% or more of aggressive contests. We also find that the majority of aggressive interactions among closely related species show statistically significant asymmetries, and above a sample size of 52 interactions, all outcomes are asymmetric following binomial tests. Species pairs with dominance data from multiple sites showed the same dominance relationship across locations in 93% of the species pairs. Overall, our results suggest that the outcome of aggressive interactions among closely related species are usually consistent and asymmetric, and should thus favor ecological and evolutionary strategies specific to the position of a species within a dominance hierarchy. PMID:28070465

  10. First Case Report of Bloodstream Infection Due to a Candida Species Closely Related to the Novel Species Candida pseudorugosa

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Susana; Isla, Guillermina; Fernández, Norma; García, Susana; Mazza, Mariana; Murisengo, Omar Alejandro; Vivot, Walter; Szusz, Wanda; Davel, Graciela; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Candida pseudorugosa is a novel species closely related to Candida rugosa for which only one case has been reported. We report the first case of a bloodstream infection in humans caused by a Candida sp. closely related to C. pseudorugosa. We contribute evidence to show this organism as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified by conventional methods, also pointing out its lower sensitivity to azoles and other antifungal agents. PMID:22461681

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces cytotoxic activity in guinea pig bronchoalveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kist, M.; Koester, H.; Bredt, W.

    1985-06-01

    Precultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM) and freshly harvested alveolar cells (FHAC) activated by interaction with Mycoplasma pneumoniae were cytotoxic for xenogeneic /sup 75/selenomethionine-labeled tumor target cells. Phagocytosis of whole opsonized or nonopsonized M. pneumoniae cells was more effective in eliciting cytotoxicity than uptake of sonicated microorganisms. The addition of living mycoplasma cells to the assay system enhanced the cytotoxic effect considerably. Target cells were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of phagocytes if they were coated with mycoplasma antigen or cocultured together with M. pneumoniae. The activation of the phagocytes could be inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by antimicrobial substances suppressing mycoplasma protein synthesis. It was accompanied by /sup 51/Cr release without detectable signs of cell damage. The supernatants of activated cells were cytotoxic for approximately 24 h. Inhibition, release, and cytotoxic activity indicate the necessity of an intact metabolism of the effector cells and suggest a secretion of cytotoxic substances.

  12. Mycoplasma hominis Induces Mediastinitis after a Tonsillar Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Grancini, Anna; Colosimo, Manuela; Restelli, Antonella; Colombo, Rosaria; Maraschini, Anna; Pozzi, Cristina; Breda, Giuseppe; Protti, Alessandro; Arghittu, Milena; Maiavacca, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is commonly involved in genitourinary tract infections. We report a 59-year-old man who developed a M. hominis-associated mediastinitis following acute tonsillar infection. PMID:27957362

  13. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius in a mountain tourist destination

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hanyu, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Alien species expand their distribution by transportation network development. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius was examined in a mountain tourist destination in central Japan. The three taxa were morphologically identified in the field. Stem height and leaf area were greater in R. longifolius than R. obtusifolius; hybrids were intermediate between the two Rumex species. R. longifolius and the hybrids grew mainly in wet land and the river tributary; R. obtusifolius grew mainly at the roadside and in meadows. Hybrid germination rates of pollen and seeds were much lower than for the two Rumex species. Clustering analysis showed the three taxa each formed a cluster. Most hybrids were F1 generation; the possibility was low of introgression into the two Rumex species by backcross. This study clarified that (1) hybridization occurred between R. obtusifolius and R. longifolius because they occurred together in a small area, but grew in different water habitat conditions, and (2) hybridization was mostly F1 generation because hybrid pollen and seed fertility was low. However, we need caution about introgression into R. longifolius by R. obtusifolius in this area because of the slight possibility of F2 generation and backcrosses. PMID:26354180

  14. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius in a mountain tourist destination.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hanyu, Masaaki

    2015-09-10

    Alien species expand their distribution by transportation network development. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius was examined in a mountain tourist destination in central Japan. The three taxa were morphologically identified in the field. Stem height and leaf area were greater in R. longifolius than R. obtusifolius; hybrids were intermediate between the two Rumex species. R. longifolius and the hybrids grew mainly in wet land and the river tributary; R. obtusifolius grew mainly at the roadside and in meadows. Hybrid germination rates of pollen and seeds were much lower than for the two Rumex species. Clustering analysis showed the three taxa each formed a cluster. Most hybrids were F1 generation; the possibility was low of introgression into the two Rumex species by backcross. This study clarified that (1) hybridization occurred between R. obtusifolius and R. longifolius because they occurred together in a small area, but grew in different water habitat conditions, and (2) hybridization was mostly F1 generation because hybrid pollen and seed fertility was low. However, we need caution about introgression into R. longifolius by R. obtusifolius in this area because of the slight possibility of F2 generation and backcrosses.

  15. Selective inhibition of DNA amplification in nonadhering Mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Zigangirova, N.A.; Solov`eva, S.V.; Rakovskaya, I.V.

    1995-08-01

    Inhibition of amplification of various genome regions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was observed in the polymerase chain reaction, and was dependent on cultivation conditions. A protein stably associated with DNA is responsible for the inhibitory effect. It is assumed that when the protein selectively associates with separate DNA regions, it can inhibit genes encoding pathogenicity factors, thus promoting mycoplasma transformation into persistent variants. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures by a mycoplasma group-specific PCR.

    PubMed Central

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Johansson, K E; Galama, J M; Kissing, J; Bölske, G; van der Logt, J T; Melchers, W J

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of a 16S rRNA-based mycoplasma group-specific PCR for the detection of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures was investigated. A total of 104 cell cultures were tested by using microbiological culture, DNA fluorochrome staining, DNA-rRNA hybridization, and PCR techniques. A comparison of the results obtained with these techniques revealed agreement for 95 cell cultures. Discrepant results, which were interpreted as false negative or false positive on the basis of a comparison with the results obtained with other methods, were observed with nine cell cultures. The microbiological culture technique produced false-negative results for four cell cultures. The hybridization technique produced false-negative results for two cell cultures, and for one of these cell cultures the DNA staining technique also produced a false-negative result. The PCR may have produced false-positive results for one cell culture. Ambiguous results were obtained with the remaining two cell cultures. Furthermore, the presence of contaminating bacteria interfered with the interpretation of the DNA staining results for 16 cell cultures. For the same reason the hybridization signals of nine cell cultures could not be interpreted. Our results demonstrate the drawbacks of each of the detection methods and the suitability of the PCR for the detection of mycoplasmas in cell cultures. PMID:7509584

  17. Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., a twisted mycoplasma from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    May, Meghan; Ortiz, G Javier; Wendland, Lori D; Rotstein, David S; Relich, Ryan F; Balish, Mitchell F; Brown, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., first cultured from the choanae and tracheae of healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from El Salvador, was readily distinguished from all previously described mollicutes and assigned to the Mycoplasma fastidiosum phylogenetic cluster by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Growth inhibition assays distinguished the isolates serologically from the other two members of that cluster. Many M. insons cells exhibit a remarkable twisted rod morphology despite lacking a cell wall. The organism is nonmotile, produces acid from glucose, but does not hydrolyze arginine, esculin, or urea. Mycoplasma insons 16S rRNA gene was also detected by PCR in packed blood cells from culture-negative iguanas. The type strain I17P1(T) has been deposited with the Mollicutes Collection at Purdue University and with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC BAA-1435) in the USA. A limited number of cultures generated by the authors have also been deposited with the Culture Collection, University of Göteborg, in Sweden (CCUG 53461).

  18. Mycoplasma Removal from Cell Culture Using Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hasebe, Akira; Ishikawa, Isao; Shamsul, Haque M.; Ohtani, Makoto; Segawa, Taku; Saeki, Ayumi; Tanizume, Naoho; Oouchi, Manabu; Okagami, Yoshihide; Okano, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the removal of mycoplasmas from contaminated cells. Background data: Mycoplasmas often contaminate cell cultures. The cell-contaminating mycoplasmas are removed by antibiotics, but the use of antibiotics usually induces antibiotic-resistant bacteria. aPDT is expected to be a possible alternative to antibiotic treatments for suppressing infections. Materials and Methods: Mycoplasma salivarium (Ms)-infected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were irradiated using a red light-emitting diode (LED) in the presence of methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer. The Ms viable count was determined using culture on agar plates or using a mycoplasma detection kit. Results: aPDT performed using red LED irradiation was effective in decreasing live Ms in the presence of MB without damaging the HEK293 cells. aPDT removed live Ms from the infected cells after washing the cells with sterilized phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to decrease the initial number of live Ms before aPDT. Conclusions: This study suggests that aPDT could remove mycoplasmas from contaminated cells. PMID:23402393

  19. Role of Vpma phase variation in Mycoplasma agalactiae pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Baumgartner, Martina; Gamper, Erika; Innerebner, Carmen; Zimmermann, Martina; Schilcher, Franz; Tichy, Alexander; Winter, Petra; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other bacterial pathogens, the molecular mechanisms of mycoplasma pathogenicity are largely unknown. Several studies in the past have shown that pathogenic mycoplasmas are equipped with sophisticated genetic systems that allow them to undergo high-frequency surface antigenic variations. Although never clearly proven, these variable mycoplasma surface components are often implicated in host immune evasion and adaptation. Vpma surface lipoproteins of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae are encoded on a genomic pathogenicity island–like locus and are considered as one of the well-characterized model systems of mycoplasma surface antigenic variation. The present study assesses the role of these phase-variable Vpmas in the molecular pathogenesis of M. agalactiae by testing the wild-type strain PG2 in comparison with the xer1-disrupted Vpma ‘phase-locked’ mutants in sheep infection models. The data clearly illustrate that although Xer1 recombinase is not a virulence factor of M. agalactiae and Vpma phase variation is not necessary for establishing an infection, it might critically influence the survival and persistence of the pathogen under natural field conditions, mainly due to a better capacity for dissemination and evoking systemic responses. This is the first study where mycoplasma ‘phase-locked’ mutants are tested in vivo to elucidate the role of phase variation during infection. PMID:22809092

  20. Repeated patterns of trait divergence between closely related dominant and subordinate bird species.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, Cameron; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Martin, Paul R

    2014-08-01

    Ecologically similar species often compete aggressively for shared resources. These interactions are frequently asymmetric, with one species behaviorally dominant to another and excluding it from preferred resources. Despite the potential importance of this type of interference competition as a source of selection, we know little about patterns of trait divergence between dominant and subordinate species. We compiled published data on phylogenetically independent, closely related species of North American birds where one species was consistently dominant in aggressive interactions with a congeneric species. We then compared the body size, breeding phenology, life history, ecological breadth, and biogeography of these species. After accounting for body size and phylogeny, we found repeated patterns of trait divergence between subordinate and dominant species within genera. Subordinate species that migrated seasonally arrived 4-7 days later than dominants on their sympatric breeding grounds, and both resident and migratory subordinates initiated breeding 7-8 days later than their dominant, sympatric congeners. Subordinate species had a 5.2% higher annual adult mortality rate and laid eggs that were 0.02 g heavier for their body mass. Dominant and subordinate species used a similar number of different foods, foraging behaviors, nest sites, and habitats, but subordinates were more specialized in their foraging behaviors compared with closely related dominant species. The breeding and wintering ranges of subordinate species were 571 km farther apart than the ranges of dominant species, suggesting that subordinate species migrate greater distances. Range sizes and latitudinal distributions did not consistently differ, although subordinate species tended to breed farther north or winter farther south. These results are consistent with dominant species directly influencing the ecological strategies of subordinate species (via plastic or genetically based changes), either

  1. Establishment and characterization of a low-dose Mycoplasma haemofelis infection model.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Julia; Novacco, Marilisa; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-12-27

    Hemotropic mycoplasma are small, cell-wall-free bacteria that can infect various mammalian species, including humans. They cannot be cultured in vitro; therefore, animal models play an important role, e.g. for pathogenesis studies. Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) is the most pathogenic of the three feline hemotropic mycoplasma species; it is known to induce severe hemolytic anemia in infected cats. The aims of this study were to establish and characterize a low-dose Mhf transmission model. Five specified pathogen-free cats were subcutaneously exposed to 1000 copies of Mhf per cat corresponding to 0.05 μL of infectious blood with 2×10(7) copies/mL as determined by real-time PCR. All cats became PCR-positive within 34 days post-exposure and reached a maximum blood Mhf load of 10(9) copies/mL, similar to previously reported high-dose infections. In a selected sample of modified Wright-stained blood smears, small epicellular coccoid structures on the surface of the red blood cells were identified by light microscopy. Additionally, using an Mhf rDnaK ELISA, seroconversion was demonstrated in all cats within 4-5 weeks after Mhf exposure. Four out of five cats developed anemia. While three cats showed only mild clinical signs of hemoplasmosis, one cat developed severe anemia and required antibiotic treatment. Our study demonstrated that minimal contact with Mhf infectious blood was sufficient for transmission of the infection and the induction of hemoplasmosis. This low-dose Mhf infection might more accurately mirror the natural route of infection, i.e., by arthropod vectors or aggressive interaction among cats. We therefore recommend this protocol for use in future animal model studies.

  2. Mycoplasma salivarium as a Dominant Coloniser of Fanconi Anaemia Associated Oral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Birgit; Rumming, Madis; Sczyrba, Alexander; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Gerlach, Wolfgang; Gombert, Michael; Rahn, Sebastian; Stoye, Jens; Borkhardt, Arndt; Fischer, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma salivarium belongs to the class of the smallest self-replicating Tenericutes and is predominantly found in the oral cavity of humans. In general it is considered as a non-pathogenic commensal. However, some reports point to an association with human diseases. M. salivarium was found e.g. as causative agent of a submasseteric abscess, in necrotic dental pulp, in brain abscess and clogged biliary stent. Here we describe the detection of M. salivarium on the surface of a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue of a patient with Fanconi anaemia (FA). FA is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome based on defective DNA-repair that increases the risk of carcinomas especially oral squamous cell carcinoma. Employing high coverage, massive parallel Roche/454-next-generation-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons we analysed the oral microbiome of this FA patient in comparison to that of an FA patient with a benign leukoplakia and five healthy individuals. The microbiota of the FA patient with leukoplakia correlated well with that of the healthy controls. A dominance of Streptococcus, Veillonella and Neisseria species was typically observed. In contrast, the microbiome of the cancer bearing FA patient was dominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the healthy sites, which changed to a predominance of 98% M. salivarium on the tumour surface. Quantification of the mycoplasma load in five healthy, two tumour- and two leukoplakia-FA patients by TaqMan-PCR confirmed the prevalence of M. salivarium at the tumour sites. These new findings suggest that this mycoplasma species with its reduced coding capacity found ideal breeding grounds at the tumour sites. Interestingly, the oral cavity of all FA patients and especially samples at the tumour sites were in addition positive for Candida albicans. It remains to be elucidated in further studies whether M. salivarium can be used as a predictive biomarker for tumour development in these patients. PMID:24642836

  3. Pelvic abscess due to Mycoplasma hominis following caesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Takigawa, Aya; Kagawa, Narito; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shinji; Shibayama, Keigo; Aoki, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mycoplasma hominis is associated with genito-urinary tract infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, whether the species is a true pathogen or part of the genito-urinary tracts natural flora remains unclear. Case presentation: A 41-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital at 38 weeks and 5 days of gestation owing to premature rupture of the membranes. The patient delivered by caesarean section. Subsequently, the patient complained of lower abdominal pain and had persistent fever. Enhanced computed tomography revealed pelvic abscesses. Gram staining of pus from the abscess and vaginal secretions indicated presence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes but no pathogens. Cultures on blood agar showed growth of pinpoint-sized colonies in an anaerobic environment within 48 h. Although administration of carbapenem and metronidazole was ineffective and we could not fully drain the abscess, administration of clindamycin led to clinical improvement. The isolates 16S rRNA gene and yidC gene sequences exhibited identity with those of M. hominis. Conclusion: Physicians should consider M. hominis in cases of pelvic abscesses where Gram staining yields negative results, small colonies are isolated from the abscess and treatment with β-lactam antibiotics is ineffective. PMID:28348780

  4. Species-Specific Relationships between Water Transparency and Male Coloration within and between Two Closely Related Lake Victoria Cichlid Species.

    PubMed

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species (Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei) covaries with water transparency. Focusing on coloration patches implicated in sexual selection, we predicted that in clear waters, with broad-spectrum light, (1) colours should become more saturated and (2) shift in hue away from the dominant ambient wavelengths, compared to more turbid waters. We found support for these predictions for the red and yellow coloration of P. nyererei but not the blue coloration of P. pundamilia. This may be explained by the species difference in depth distribution, which generates a steeper gradient in visual conditions for P. nyererei compared to P. pundamilia. Alternatively, the importance of male coloration in intraspecific sexual selection may differ between the species. We also found that anal fin spots, that is, the orange spots on male haplochromine anal fins that presumably mimic eggs, covaried with water transparency in a similar way for both species. This is in contrast to the other body regions studied and suggests that, while indeed functioning as signals, these spots may not play a role in species differentiation.

  5. Role of binding in Mycoplasma mobile and Mycoplasma pneumoniae gliding analyzed through inhibition by synthesized sialylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Taishi; Nakane, Daisuke; Ishida, Hideharu; Ando, Hiromune; Kiso, Makoto; Miyata, Makoto

    2013-02-01

    Mycoplasmas, which have been shown to be the causative pathogens in recent human pneumonia epidemics, bind to solid surfaces and glide in the direction of the membrane protrusion at a pole. During gliding, the legs of the mycoplasma catch, pull, and release sialylated oligosaccharides fixed on a solid surface. Sialylated oligosaccharides are major structures on animal cell surfaces and are sometimes targeted by pathogens, such as influenza virus. In the present study, we analyzed the inhibitory effects of 16 chemically synthesized sialylated compounds on the gliding and binding of Mycoplasma mobile and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and concluded the following. (i) The recognition of sialylated oligosaccharide by mycoplasma legs proceeds in a "lock-and-key" fashion, with the binding affinity dependent on structural differences among the sialylated compounds examined. (ii) The binding of the leg and the sialylated oligosaccharide is cooperative, with Hill constants ranging from 2 to 3. (iii) Mycoplasma legs may generate a drag force after a stroke, because the gliding speed decreased and pivoting motion occurred more frequently when the number of working legs was reduced by the addition of free sialylated compounds.

  6. Acute phase response to Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection in FIV-infected and non-FIV-infected cats.

    PubMed

    Korman, R M; Cerón, J J; Knowles, T G; Barker, E N; Eckersall, P D; Tasker, S

    2012-08-01

    The pathogenicity of Haemoplasma spp. in cats varies with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) causing subclinical infection while Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) often induces haemolytic anaemia. The aims of this study were to characterise the acute phase response (APR) of the cat to experimental infection with Mhf or CMhm, and to determine whether chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection influences this response. The acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were measured pre-infection and every 7-14 days up to day 100 post-infection (pi) in cats infected with either Mhf or CMhm. Half of each group of cats (6/12) were chronically and subclinically infected with FIV. Marbofloxacin treatment was given on days 16-44 pi to half of the Mhf-infected cats, and on days 49-77 pi to half of the CMhm-infected cats. FIV-infected animals had significantly lower AGP concentrations, and significantly greater Hp concentrations than non-FIV-infected cats when infected with CMhm and Mhf, respectively. Both CMhm and Mhf infection were associated with significant increases in SAA concentrations, while AGP concentrations were only significantly increased by Mhf infection. Mhf-infected cats had significantly greater SAA concentrations than CMhm-infected animals. Both Mhf and CMhm infections were associated with an APR, with Mhf infection inducing a greater response. Chronic FIV infection appeared to modify the APR, which varied with the infecting Haemoplasma species.

  7. Immunological characterization of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Simone; Marchioro, Silvana B; Galli, Vanessa; Brum, Clarice B; Klein, Catia S; Rebelatto, Raquel; Silva, Everton F; Borsuk, Sibele; Conceição, Fabricio R; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2012-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, is highly prevalent worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. Commercial vaccines are widely used in the control of this disease, however, they provide only partial protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate 34 recombinant proteins of M. hyopneumoniae expressed in Escherichia coli. Antigenic and immunogenic properties of these proteins were analyzed. For this, the proteins were tested against hyperimmune and convalescent pig sera through ELISA and Western blot. Immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated in BALB/c mice following intramuscular inoculation. Most antigens were able to induce a strong immune response and sera from inoculated mice were able to recognize native proteins by cell ELISA and Western blot. Several recombinant proteins were specifically recognized by convalescent pig sera, indicating they are expressed during infection. These data may help to develop more efficacious vaccines against M. hyopneumoniae.

  8. Cytoskeletal elements in the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegermann, Jan; Herrmann, Richard; Mayer, Frank

    2002-09-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogenic eubacterium lacking a cell wall. Three decades ago, a "rod", an intracellular cytoskeletal structure, was discovered that was assumed to define and stabilize the elongated cell shape. Later, by treatment with detergent, a "Triton shell" (i.e. a fraction of detergent-insoluble cell material) could be obtained, believed to contain additional cytoskeletal elements. Now, by application of a modified Triton X-100 treatment, we are able to demonstrate that M. pneumoniae possesses a cytoskeleton consisting of a blade-like rod and a peripheral lining located close to the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane, exhibiting features of a highly regular network. Attached "stalks" may support the cytoplasmic membrane. The rod was connected to the cell periphery by "spokes" and showed a defined ultrastructure. Its proximal end was found to be attached to a wheel-like complex. Fibrils extended from the proximal end of the rod into the cytoplasm.

  9. Repetitive DNA sequences in Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, R; Herrmann, R

    1988-01-01

    Two types of different repetitive DNA sequences called RepMP1 and RepMP2 were identified in the genome of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The number of these repeated elements, their nucleotide sequence and their localization on a physical map of the M. pneumoniae genome were determined. The results show that RepMP1 appears at least 10 times and RepMP2 at least 8 times in the genome. The repeated elements are dispersed on the chromosome and, in three cases, linked to each other by a homologous DNA sequence of 400 bp. The elements themselves are 300 bp (for RepMP1) and 150 bp (for RepMP2) long showing a high degree of homology. One copy of RepMP2 is a translated part of the gene for the major cytadhesin protein P1 which is responsible for the adsorption of M. pneumoniae to its host cell. Images PMID:3138660

  10. More closely related species are more ecologically similar in an experimental test

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jean H.; Strauss, Sharon Y.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between phylogenetic distance and ecological similarity is key to understanding mechanisms of community assembly, a central goal of ecology. The field of community phylogenetics uses phylogenetic information to infer mechanisms of community assembly; we explore, the underlying relationship between phylogenetic similarity and the niche. We combined a field experiment using 32 native plant species with a molecular phylogeny and found that closely related plant species shared similar germination and early survival niches. Species also competed more with close relatives than with distant relatives in field soils; however, in potting soil this pattern reversed, and close relatives might even have more mutalistic relationships than distant relatives in these soils. Our results suggest that niche conservatism (habitat filtering) and species interactions (competition or facilitation) structure community composition, that phylogenetic relationships influence the strength of species’ interactions, and that conserved aspects of plant niches include soil attributes. PMID:21402914

  11. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meinen, Catharina; Rauber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR)-attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae), and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae). Fresh (moist) and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section, and root tip) of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100% separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) and high residual predictive deviation values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species. PMID:26483799

  12. Mycoplasmal cerebral vasculopathy in a lymphoma patient: presumptive evidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae microvascular endothelial cell invasion in a brain biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Roy H; Monastersky, Bruce T; Tyagi, Rachana; Coyne, Thomas

    2011-10-15

    A 73-year-old man had episodic encephalopathy, ataxia and neuropathy. Symptoms largely resolved but adenopathy later lead to the diagnosis of a low-grade follicular lymphoma. The neurological symptoms soon recurred with new pontine calcifications identified by computed tomography. Brain biopsy revealed microvascular endothelial cell nuclear changes. Electron microscopy identified small polymorphic bacteria without a cell wall and with terminal and attachment organelles within endothelial cells and clustered in some microvascular lumina. Immunostaining was positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and convalescent serum enzyme immunoassay was positive for M. pneumoniae IgG. The patient again recovered and he was neurologically stable 33 months after the initial episode. The ultrastructural findings of the bacterial cells are distinctive of some mycoplasmal species when compared to other small bacteria. Mycoplasma-like organisms are reported in four autopsied patients who had chronic encephalopathy, movement disorders, and some of the same light- and electron-microscopic findings in the brain as our patient. Direct neuroinvasion by Mycoplasma species has been suggested, while anatomic observations in our patient and in the four autopsy cases show microvascular invasion but not parenchymal invasion. Most mycoplasmal encephalitis may be immune-mediated. The frequency of neurovascular invasion is not known. It may be rare and it may persist.

  13. Species and sexual differences in behavioural responses of a specialist and generalist parasitoid species to host-related volatiles.

    PubMed

    Ngumbi, E; Fadamiro, H

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between the degree of specialization of parasitoids and their responses to host-related volatiles is an important and current evolutionary question. Specialist parasitoids which have evolved to attack fewer host species are predicted to be more responsive to host-related volatiles than generalists. We tested the above prediction by comparing behavioural responses of both sexes of two parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with different degrees of host specificity, Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (specialist) and Cotesia marginiventris (generalist), to different suites of synthetic host-related volatile compounds. The compounds tested at two doses (1 and 100 μg) include two green leaf volatiles (GLVs: hexanal and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol) and four herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs: (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate and (E,E)-α-farnesene). Two hypotheses were tested: (i) M. croceipes (specialist) would show relatively greater behavioural responses to the HIPVs, whereas C. marginiventris (generalist) would show greater behavioural responses to the GLVs, and (ii) females of both species would show greater responses than conspecific males to the host-related volatiles. At the low dose (1 μg), females of the specialist showed significantly greater responses than females of the generalist to three of the tested HIPVs, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool and (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate. In contrast, females of the generalist showed relatively greater responses to the GLVs. The same trends were recorded at the high dose but fewer significant differences were detected. In general, similar results were recorded for males, with the exception of linalool (an HIPV) which elicited significantly greater response in the generalist than the specialist. Comparing the sexes, females of both species showed greater responses than conspecific males to most of the tested volatiles. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed.

  14. Water relations of seedlings of three Quercus species: variations across and within species grown in contrasting light and water regimes.

    PubMed

    Castro-Díez, Pilar; Navarro, Javier

    2007-07-01

    We compared seedling water relations of three Mediterranean Quercus species (the evergreen shrub Q. coccifera L., the evergreen tree Q. ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. and the deciduous or marcescent tree Q. faginea L.). We also explored seedling potential for acclimation to contrasting growing conditions. In March, 1-year-old seedlings of the three species were planted in pots and grown outdoors in a factorial combination of two irrigation regimes (daily (HW) and alternate day watering (LW)) and two irradiances (43 and 100% of full sunlight). At the end of July, predawn and midday water potentials (Psi(pd), Psi(md)) were measured, and pressure-volume (P-V) curves were obtained for mature current-year shoots. Species exhibited similar Psi(pd) and Psi(md) values, but differed in leaf morphology and water relations. The evergreens possessed larger leaf mass per area (LMA) and were able to maintain positive turgor pressure at lower water potentials than the deciduous species because of their lower osmotic potential at full turgor. However, the three species had similar relative water contents at the turgor loss point because Q. faginea compensated for its higher osmotic potential with greater cell wall elasticity. Values of Psi(pd) had a mean of -1.12 MPa in LW and -0.63 MPa in HW, and Psi(md) had a mean of -1.13 MPa in full sunlight and -1.64 MPa in shade, where seedlings exhibited lower LMA. However, the P-V curve traits were unaffected by the treatments. Our results suggest that Q. faginea seedlings combine the water-use characteristics of mesic deciduous oak and the drought-tolerance of xeric evergreen oak. The ability of Q. coccifera to colonize drier sites than Q. ilex was not a result of higher drought tolerance, but rather may be associated with other dehydration postponement mechanisms including drought-induced leaf shedding. The lack of treatment effects may reflect a relatively low contrast between treatment regimes, or a low inherent responsiveness of

  15. Hemotropic mycoplasma in a free-ranging black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonilda C; Cubilla, Michelle P; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Oliveira, Marcos J; Estrada, Marko; Leutenegger, Christian M; Sykes, Jane E; Lindsay, Leann L; Marcondes, Mary; Barros Filho, Ivan R; Biondo, Alexander W

    2013-07-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that infect erythrocytes and cause subclinical infections to life-threatening disease. We describe hemotropic mycoplasma infection in a free-ranging black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya). This is the first molecular detection of a hemotropic mycoplasma in a nonhuman primate from Brazil.

  16. Seed oil and Fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species were evaluated for seed oil content using TD-NMR. Species evaluated included; A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschat...

  17. 75 FR 8053 - A Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of public... Endangered Species to Climate Change'' (EPA/600/R-09/011). This extension is being granted in response to... framework that may be used to categorize the relative vulnerability of species to climate change....

  18. Peptidomics of neurohemal organs from species of the cockroach family Blattidae: how do neuropeptides of closely related species differ?

    PubMed

    Predel, Reinhard; Gäde, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    The primary structures and molecular mass data of neuropeptides that are released from major neuroendocrine sites of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, are well known. In the current study we extensively surveyed neuropeptides of the corpora cardiaca, the corpora allata and the abdominal perisympathetic organs, from 14 related cockroach species belonging to the family Blattidae. Mainly, this survey was executed by using mass spectrometric methods (MALDI-TOF MS). Peptides which appeared to be modified, as judged from their mass data and comparison with known data from P. americana, were fragmented by means of the post-source decay technique to determine their amino acid sequence. Single organ preparations sufficed to reveal the peptide pattern in neurohemal organs and to identify species-specific modifications, making it possible to glean information also from tissues of less abundant species that were caught during field trips. The peptide inventory described in this study is very typical of cockroaches of the family Blattidae and clearly separates this taxon from other taxa of cockroaches. The majority of neuropeptides was identical in all investigated species. Some peptides, however, displayed remarkable variations in their sequence which hint to a differential rate of modification among peptides of the same neuropeptide family. These modifications serve to distinguish further relatedness of taxa within the Blattidae.

  19. Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity and Community Composition in Two Closely Related Platanthera (Orchidaceae) Species.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Fabiana; Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Tyteca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While it is generally acknowledged that orchid species rely on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, little is yet known about how mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition vary within and between closely related orchid taxa. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate variation in mycorrhizal communities between pure (allopatric) and mixed (sympatric) populations of two closely related Platanthera species (Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha) and putative hybrids. Consistent with previous research, the two species primarily associated primarily with members of the Ceratobasidiaceae and, to a lesser extent, with members of the Sebacinales and Tulasnellaceae. In addition, a large number of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to various families were observed. Although a considerable number of mycorrhizal fungi were common to both species, the fungal communities were significantly different between the two species. Individuals with intermediate morphology showed communities similar to P. bifolia, confirming previous results based on the genetic architecture and fragrance composition that putative hybrids essentially belonged to one of the parental species (P. bifolia). Differences in mycorrhizal communities between species were smaller in mixed populations than between pure populations, suggesting that variation in mycorrhizal communities was largely controlled by local environmental conditions. The small differences in mycorrhizal communities in mixed populations suggests that mycorrhizal fungi are most likely not directly involved in maintaining species boundaries between the two Platanthera species. However, seed germination experiments are needed to unambiguously assess the contribution of mycorrhizal divergence to reproductive isolation.

  20. Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity and Community Composition in Two Closely Related Platanthera (Orchidaceae) Species

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Fabiana; Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Tyteca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While it is generally acknowledged that orchid species rely on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, little is yet known about how mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition vary within and between closely related orchid taxa. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate variation in mycorrhizal communities between pure (allopatric) and mixed (sympatric) populations of two closely related Platanthera species (Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha) and putative hybrids. Consistent with previous research, the two species primarily associated primarily with members of the Ceratobasidiaceae and, to a lesser extent, with members of the Sebacinales and Tulasnellaceae. In addition, a large number of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to various families were observed. Although a considerable number of mycorrhizal fungi were common to both species, the fungal communities were significantly different between the two species. Individuals with intermediate morphology showed communities similar to P. bifolia, confirming previous results based on the genetic architecture and fragrance composition that putative hybrids essentially belonged to one of the parental species (P. bifolia). Differences in mycorrhizal communities between species were smaller in mixed populations than between pure populations, suggesting that variation in mycorrhizal communities was largely controlled by local environmental conditions. The small differences in mycorrhizal communities in mixed populations suggests that mycorrhizal fungi are most likely not directly involved in maintaining species boundaries between the two Platanthera species. However, seed germination experiments are needed to unambiguously assess the contribution of mycorrhizal divergence to reproductive isolation. PMID:27695108

  1. Variation in habitat suitability does not always relate to variation in species' plant functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Albert, Cécile H.; Dubuis, Anne; Randin, Christophe; Guisan, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Habitat suitability models, which relate species occurrences to environmental variables, are assumed to predict suitable conditions for a given species. If these models are reliable, they should relate to change in plant growth and function. In this paper, we ask the question whether habitat suitability models are able to predict variation in plant functional traits, often assumed to be a good surrogate for a species' overall health and vigour. Using a thorough sampling design, we show a tight link between variation in plant functional traits and habitat suitability for some species, but not for others. Our contrasting results pave the way towards a better understanding of how species cope with varying habitat conditions and demonstrate that habitat suitability models can provide meaningful descriptions of the functional niche in some cases, but not in others. PMID:19793738

  2. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xia; Sun, Jian; Yang, Tao; Fang, Xi; Cheng, Jie; Xiong, Yan Q.; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin using a well-established experimental intratracheal infection model of M. gallisepticum. The efficacy of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum was studied in 8-day-old chickens after intramuscular (i.m.) administration at 10 doses between 0–80 mg/kg. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to evaluate the PK parameters of tiamulin following i.m. administration at doses of 5, 40, and 80 mg/kg in Mycoplasma gallisepticum-infected neutropenic chickens. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used for quantitative detection of M. gallisepticum. The MIC of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum strain S6 was 0.03 μg/mL. The PK/PD index, AUC24h/MIC, correlated well with the in vivo antibacterial efficacy. The in vivo data suggest that animal dosage regimens should supply AUC24h/MIC of tiamulin of 382.68 h for 2 log10 ccu equivalents M. gallisepticum reduction. To attain that goal, the administered dose is expected to be 45 mg/kg b.w. for treatment of M. gallisepticum infection with an MIC90 of 0.03 μg/mL. PMID:27656647

  3. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics in the Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) Population

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Kjell; Tengs, Torstein; Kokotovic, Branko; Vikøren, Turid; Ayling, Roger D.; Bergsjø, Bjarne; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Bretten, Tord

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing) of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida were also isolated by culture. Using real time PCR on lung swabs, M. ovipneumoniae was detected in all of the 19 pneumonic lungs examined. Gross pathological examination revealed heavy consolidations primarily in the cranial parts of the lungs and it also identified one case of otitis media. Histologically, lung lesions were characterized as acute to subacute mixed exudative and moderately proliferative bronchoalveolar pneumonia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed high load of M. ovipneumoniae antigens within lung lesions, with particularly intensive staining in the neutrophils. Similar IHC finding were observed in archived lung tissue blocks from animals examined during the 2006 epidemic. An M. ovipneumoniae specific ELISA was applied on bio-banked muskox sera from stray muskoxen killed in the period 2004–2013 and sick muskoxen culled, as well as sera from wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) on Dovre and muskoxen from Greenland. Serology and mycoplasma culturing was also carried out on sheep that had been on pasture in the muskox area during the outbreak in 2012. Our findings indicated separate introductions of M. ovipneumoniae infection in 2006 and 2012 from infected co-grazing sheep. Salt licks shared by the two species were a

  4. Capillary liquid chromatographic fingerprint used for discrimination of Zingiber montanum from related species.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohamad; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Darusman, Latifah Kosim

    2013-08-01

    Fingerprint analysis using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) has been developed for discrimination of Zingiber montanum (ZM) from related species, for example Z. americans (ZA) and Z. zerumbet (ZZ). By comparing the fingerprint chromatograms of ZM, ZA, and ZZ we could identify ZM samples and discriminate them from ZA and ZZ by using their marker peaks. We also combined CLC fingerprint with multivariate analysis, including principal-component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA); all three species were discriminated successfully. This result indicates that CLC fingerprint analysis in combination with PCA and CVA can be used for discrimination of ZM samples from samples of related species.

  5. Relative growth rate variation of evergreen and deciduous savanna tree species is driven by different traits

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Kyle W.; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Borghetti, Fabian; Jacobs, Loes; van Langevelde, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant relative growth rate (RGR) depends on biomass allocation to leaves (leaf mass fraction, LMF), efficient construction of leaf surface area (specific leaf area, SLA) and biomass growth per unit leaf area (net assimilation rate, NAR). Functional groups of species may differ in any of these traits, potentially resulting in (1) differences in mean RGR of groups, and (2) differences in the traits driving RGR variation within each group. We tested these predictions by comparing deciduous and evergreen savanna trees. Methods RGR, changes to biomass allocation and leaf morphology, and root non-structural carbohydrate reserves were evaluated for juveniles of 51 savanna species (34 deciduous, 17 evergreen) grown in a common garden experiment. It was anticipated that drivers of RGR would differ between leaf habit groups because deciduous species have to allocate carbohydrates to storage in roots to be able to flush leaves again, which directly compromises their LMF, whereas evergreen species are not subject to this constraint. Key Results Evergreen species had greater LMF and RGR than deciduous species. Among deciduous species LMF explained 27 % of RGR variation (SLA 34 % and NAR 29 %), whereas among evergreen species LMF explained between 2 and 17 % of RGR variation (SLA 32–35 % and NAR 38–62 %). RGR and LMF were (negatively) related to carbohydrate storage only among deciduous species. Conclusions Trade-offs between investment in carbohydrate reserves and growth occurred only among deciduous species, leading to differences in relative contribution made by the underlying components of RGR between the leaf habit groups. The results suggest that differences in drivers of RGR occur among savanna species because these have different selected strategies for coping with fire disturbance in savannas. It is expected that variation in the drivers of RGR will be found in other functional types that respond differently to particular disturbances. PMID

  6. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Abrantes, Kátya G; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark

  7. Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Current climate change may be a major threat to global biodiversity, but the extent of species loss will depend on the details of how species respond to changing climates. For example, if most species can undergo rapid change in their climatic niches, then extinctions may be limited. Numerous studies have now documented shifts in the geographic ranges of species that were inferred to be related to climate change, especially shifts towards higher mean elevations and latitudes. Many of these studies contain valuable data on extinctions of local populations that have not yet been thoroughly explored. Specifically, overall range shifts can include range contractions at the “warm edges” of species’ ranges (i.e., lower latitudes and elevations), contractions which occur through local extinctions. Here, data on climate-related range shifts were used to test the frequency of local extinctions related to recent climate change. The results show that climate-related local extinctions have already occurred in hundreds of species, including 47% of the 976 species surveyed. This frequency of local extinctions was broadly similar across climatic zones, clades, and habitats but was significantly higher in tropical species than in temperate species (55% versus 39%), in animals than in plants (50% versus 39%), and in freshwater habitats relative to terrestrial and marine habitats (74% versus 46% versus 51%). Overall, these results suggest that local extinctions related to climate change are already widespread, even though levels of climate change so far are modest relative to those predicted in the next 100 years. These extinctions will presumably become much more prevalent as global warming increases further by roughly 2-fold to 5-fold over the coming decades. PMID:27930674

  8. Differences in relative hippocampus volume and number of hippocampus neurons among five corvid species.

    PubMed

    Gould, Kristy L; Gilbertson, Karl E; Hrvol, Andrew J; Nelson, Joseph C; Seyfer, Abigail L; Brantner, Rose M; Kamil, Alan C

    2013-01-01

    The relative size of the avian hippocampus (Hp) has been shown to be related to spatial memory and food storing in two avian families, the parids and corvids. Basil et al. [Brain Behav Evol 1996;47:156-164] examined North American food-storing birds in the corvid family and found that Clark's nutcrackers had a larger relative Hp than pinyon jays and Western scrub jays. These results correlated with the nutcracker's better performance on most spatial memory tasks and their strong reliance on stored food in the wild. However, Pravosudov and de Kort [Brain Behav Evol 2006;67:1-9] raised questions about the methodology used in the 1996 study, specifically the use of paraffin as an embedding material and recalculation for shrinkage. Therefore, we measured relative Hp volume using gelatin as the embedding material in four North American species of food-storing corvids (Clark's nutcrackers, pinyon jays, Western scrub jays and blue jays) and one Eurasian corvid that stores little to no food (azure-winged magpies). Although there was a significant overall effect of species on relative Hp volume among the five species, subsequent tests found only one pairwise difference, blue jays having a larger Hp than the azure-winged magpies. We also examined the relative size of the septum in the five species. Although Shiflett et al. [J Neurobiol 2002;51:215-222] found a difference in relative septum volume amongst three species of parids that correlated with storing food, we did not find significant differences amongst the five species in relative septum. Finally, we calculated the number of neurons in the Hp relative to body mass in the five species and found statistically significant differences, some of which are in accord with the adaptive specialization hypothesis and some are not.

  9. Detection of antibodies to a pathogenic mycoplasma in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), broad-nosed Caimans (Caiman latirostris), and Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Schumacher, I M; Nogueira, M F; Richey, L J; Zacher, L A; Schoeb, T R; Vliet, K A; Bennett, R A; Jacobson, E R; Brown, M B

    2001-01-01

    An epidemic of pneumonia with fibrinous polyserositis and multifocal arthritis emerged in captive American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida, United States, in 1995. Mycoplasma alligatoris sp. nov. was cultured from multiple organs, peripheral blood, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid of affected alligators. In a subsequent experimental inoculation study, the Henle-Koch-Evans postulates were fulfilled for M. alligatoris as the etiological agent of fatal mycoplasmosis of alligators. That finding was remarkable because mycoplasmal disease is rarely fatal in animals. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies produced by alligators in response to M. alligatoris exposure was developed by using plasma obtained from naturally infected alligators during the original epidemic. The assay was validated by using plasma obtained during an experimental dose-response study and applied to analyze plasma obtained from captive and wild crocodilian species. The ELISA reliably detected alligator seroconversion (P < 0.05) beginning 6 weeks after inoculation. The ELISA also detected seroconversion (P < 0.05) in the relatively closely related broad-nosed caiman Caiman latirostris and the relatively distantly related Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis following experimental inoculation with M. alligatoris. The ELISA may be used to monitor exposure to the lethal pathogen M. alligatoris among captive, repatriated, and wild crocodilian species.

  10. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of haemoplasmas from cats infected with multiple species

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Larissa Campos; Hicks, Chelsea A.E.; Scalon, Marcela C.; Lima, Maíra G. da M.; Lemos, Marcelle dos S.; Paludo, Giane Regina; Helps, Chris R.; Tasker, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ (CMt) are agents of feline haemoplasmosis and can induce anaemia in cats. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogeny of haemoplasma species in cats from Brazil's capital and surrounding areas, and whether correlation with haematological abnormalities existed. Feline haemoplasmas were found in 13.8% of 432 cats. CMhm was the most prevalent species (in 13.8% of cats), followed by Mhf (11.1%) and CMt (4.4%). Over 80% of haemoplasma-infected cats harboured two or more feline haemoplasma species: 7.1% of cats were co-infected with Mhf/CMhm, 0.4% with CMhm/CMt and 3.9% with Mhf/CMhm/CMt. Male gender was significantly associated with haemoplasma infections. No association was found between qPCR haemoplasma status and haematological variables, however CMhm relative copy numbers were correlated with red blood cell (RBC) numbers and packed cell volume (PCV). Haemoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences (> 1 Kb) were derived from co-infected cats using novel haemoplasma species-specific primers. This allowed 16S rRNA gene sequences to be obtained despite the high level of co-infection, which precluded the use of universal 16S rRNA gene primers. Within each species, the Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.8%, > 98.5% and > 98.8% identity, respectively. The Mhf, CMhm and CMt sequences showed > 99.2%, > 98.4% and > 97.8% identity, respectively, with GenBank sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed all Mhf sequences to reside in a single clade, whereas the CMhm and CMt sequences each grouped into three distinct subclades. These phylogeny findings suggest the existence of different CMhm and CMt strains. PMID:25447887

  11. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jaime E; Coffey, Michael D; Martin, Frank N

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  12. Species Tree Estimation for the Late Blight Pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and Close Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jaime E.; Coffey, Michael D.; Martin, Frank N.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based “supergene” approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred. PMID:22615869

  13. Symbiont shift towards Rhizobium nodulation in a group of phylogenetically related Phaseolus species.

    PubMed

    Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Zayas-Del Moral, Alejandra; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco A; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Sánchez, Federico; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    Bean plants from the Phaseolus genus are widely consumed and represent a nitrogen source for human nutrition. They provide biological fertilization by establishing root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To establish a successful interaction, bean plants and their symbiotic bacteria need to synchronize a proper molecular crosstalk. Within the Phaseolus genus, P. vulgaris has been the prominent species to study nodulation with Rhizobium symbionts. However the Phaseolus genus comprises diverse species whose symbionts have not been analyzed. Here we identified and studied nodule bacteria from representative Phaseolus species not previously analyzed and from all the described wild species related to P. vulgaris. We found Bradyrhizobium in nodules from most species representing all Phaseolus clades except in five phylogenetically related species from the P. vulgaris clade. Therefore we propose that Bradyrhizobium nodulation is common in Phaseolus and that there was a symbiont preference shift to Rhizobium nodulation in few related species. This work sets the basis to further study the genetic basis of this symbiont substitution.

  14. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Divergence of premating behaviors in the closely related species Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Erin M; Dyer, Kelly A

    2013-02-01

    Most animal species use distinctive courship patterns to choose among potential mates. Over time, the sensory signaling and preferences used during courtship can diverge among groups that are reproductively isolated. This divergence of signal traits and preferences is thought to be an important cause of behavioral isolation during the speciation process. Here, we examine the sensory modalities used in courtship by two closely related species, Drosophila subquinaria and Drosophila recens, which overlap in geographic range and are incompletely reproductively isolated. We use observational studies of courtship patterns and manipulation of male and female sensory modalities to determine the relative roles of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and auditory signals during conspecific mate choice. We find that sex-specific, species-specific, and population-specific cues are used during mate acquisition within populations of D. subquinaria and D. recens. We identify shifts in both male and female sensory modalities between species, and also between populations of D. subquinaria. Our results indicate that divergence in mating signals and preferences have occurred on a relatively short timescale within and between these species. Finally, we suggest that because olfactory cues are essential for D. subquinaria females to mate within species, they may also underlie variation in behavioral discrimination across populations and species.

  16. Helminth parasitism in two closely related South African rodents: abundance, prevalence, species richness and impinging factors.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Andrea; Junker, Kerstin; Krasnov, Boris R; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Matthee, Sonja

    2017-04-01

    We investigated patterns of helminth infection in two closely related rodents (social Rhabdomys pumilio occurring mainly in xeric habitats and solitary R. dilectus occurring mainly in mesic habitats) at 20 localities in different biomes of South Africa and asked if between-species differences were mainly caused by difference in sociality or difference in environmental conditions of their respective habitats. Helminths recovered from the gastrointestinal tract totalled 11 nematode and 5 cestode species from R. pumilio and 19 nematode and 7 cestode species from R. dilectus. In both hosts, mean abundance and prevalence of nematodes were higher compared to cestodes. Cestode infection as well as nematode abundance, species richness or prevalence did not differ between the two rodents. However, incidence of nematode infection was significantly higher in R. dilectus than in R. pumilio. Moreover, nematode numbers and species richness in infracommunities of R. pumilio inhabiting the relatively more xeric Karoo biome were significantly lower than in those inhabiting the relatively less xeric Fynbos biome. Although we could not unequivocally distinguish between effects of host sociality and environmental factors on the number of individuals and species of helminths in the two hosts, differences in the incidence of nematode infection between R. pumilio and R. dilectus as well as differences in the number of nematode individuals and species between R. pumilio from the Fynbos and the Karoo suggested the effect of environmental conditions on helminth infection to be more important than that of sociality.

  17. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Its Role as a Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Waites, Ken B.; Talkington, Deborah F.

    2004-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a unique bacterium that does not always receive the attention it merits considering the number of illnesses it causes and the degree of morbidity associated with it in both children and adults. Serious infections requiring hospitalization, while rare, occur in both adults and children and may involve multiple organ systems. The severity of disease appears to be related to the degree to which the host immune response reacts to the infection. Extrapulmonary complications involving all of the major organ systems can occur in association with M. pneumoniae infection as a result of direct invasion and/or autoimmune response. The extrapulmonary manifestations are sometimes of greater severity and clinical importance than the primary respiratory infection. Evidence for this organism's contributory role in chronic lung conditions such as asthma is accumulating. Effective management of M. pneumoniae infections can usually be achieved with macrolides, tetracyclines, or fluoroquinolones. As more is learned about the pathogenesis and immune response elicited by M. pneumoniae, improvement in methods for diagnosis and prevention of disease due to this organism may occur. PMID:15489344

  18. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-02

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ≤ 0.031/≥ 64, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ≤ 0.031/≤ 0.031, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/2, 1/4, ≤ 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 μg/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas.

  19. Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Meng, Dong-Ya; Sun, Chang-Jian; Yu, Jing-Bo; Ma, Jun; Xue, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH) clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.

  20. Species Assemblages in Saltmarsh Ponds in Western Iceland in Relation to Environmental Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingólfsson, Agnar

    1994-03-01

    The fauna and flora of 63 saltmarsh ponds in western Iceland were investigated. Forty-five taxa were identified. A DECORANA analysis of presence/absence of species showed salinities to be the chief determinants of species composition. Salinities were highly variable, but minimum salinities appeared to be most critical, although maximum salinities as well as elevation of ponds had additional significant effects. The majority of the species are marine species, most of which are commonly found under fully marine conditions. Minimum salinities experienced can therefore be expected to be particularly critical for such species. Some species were shown to have a distinct modal abundance pattern with the mode at intermediate salinities. Species richness was positively related to salinities. A shift in composition of dominant angiosperms indicating a reduction in salinities had taken place between 1977-78 and 1991. The species composition of the ponds shows similarities to that of estuaries although significant differences can be seen. The species composition also shows similarities to that recorded from saltmarsh ponds in Britain, Netherlands and Germany

  1. Population fluctuations and synchrony of grassland butterflies in relation to species traits.

    PubMed

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G; Johansson, Victor; Ranius, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Population fluctuations and synchrony influence population persistence; species with larger fluctuations and more synchronised population fluctuations face higher extinction risks. Here, we analyse the effect of diet specialisation, mobility, length of the flight period, and distance to the northern edge of the species' distribution in relation to between-year population fluctuations and synchrony of butterfly species. All butterfly species associated with grasslands were surveyed over five successive years at 19 grassland sites in a forest-dominated landscape (50 km(2)) in southern Sweden. At both the local and regional level, we found larger population fluctuations in species with longer flight periods. Population fluctuations were more synchronous among localities in diet specialists. Species with a long flight period might move more to track nectar resources compared to species with shorter flight period, and if nectar sources vary widely between years and localities it may explain that population fluctuations increase with increasing flight length. Diet generalists can use different resources (in this case host plants) at different localities and this can explain the lower synchrony in population fluctuations among generalist species. Higher degree of synchrony is one possible explanation for the higher extinction risks that have been observed for more specialised species. Therefore, diet specialists are more often threatened and require more conservation efforts than generalists.

  2. Locomotor performance of closely related Tropidurus species: relationships with physiological parameters and ecological divergence.

    PubMed

    Kohlsdorf, Tiana; James, Rob S; Carvalho, José E; Wilson, Robbie S; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli; Navas, Carlos A

    2004-03-01

    Tropidurid lizards have colonized a variety of Brazilian open environments without remarkable morphological variation, despite ecological and structural differences among habitats used. This study focuses on two Tropidurus sister-species that, despite systematic proximity and similar morphology, exhibit great ecological divergence and a third ecologically generalist congeneric species providing an outgroup comparison. We quantified jumping capacity and sprint speed of each species on sand and rock to test whether ecological divergence was also accompanied by differences in locomotor performance. Relevant physiological traits possibly associated with locomotor performance - metabolic scopes and fiber type composition, power output and activity of the enzymes citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase of the iliofibularis muscle - were also compared among the three Tropidurus species. We found that the two sister-species exhibited remarkable differences in jumping performance, while Tropidurus oreadicus, the more distantly related species, exhibited intermediate values. Tropidurus psamonastes, a species endemic to sand dunes, exhibited high absolute sprint speeds on sand, jumped rarely and possessed a high proportion of glycolytic fibers and low activity of citrate synthase. The sister-species Tropidurus itambere, endemic to rocky outcrops, performed a large number of jumps and achieved lower absolute sprint speed than T. psamonastes. This study provides evidence of rapid divergence of locomotor parameters between sister-species that use different substrates, which is only partially explained by variation in physiological parameters of the iliofibularis muscle.

  3. Military Munitions-Related Compounds Fate and Effects: A Literature Review Relative to Threatened and Endangered Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ER D C /C ER L TR -0 5- 10 Military Munitions-Related Compounds Fate and Effects ... Effects A Literature Review Relative to Threatened and Endangered Species Katherine von Stackleberg and Craig Amos Menzie-Cura and Associates...the fate and effects of military munitions com- pounds (MMCs) in the environment. More than 340 reports and other scientific papers were identified

  4. Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination interferes with the metabolism of PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Yongtao; Zhang, Huizhen; Johnson, Caroline H; Jiang, Yiming; Li, Xiangjun; Wu, Zeming; Liu, Tian; Krausz, Kristopher W; Yu, Aiming; Gonzalez, Frank J; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a common problem in cell culture and can alter cellular functions. Since cell metabolism is either directly or indirectly involved in every aspect of cell function, it is important to detect changes to the cellular metabolome after mycoplasma infection. In this study, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics was used to investigate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on the cellular metabolism of human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that mycoplasma contamination induced significant metabolic changes in PANC-1 cells. Twenty-three metabolites were identified and found to be involved in arginine and purine metabolism and energy supply. This study demonstrates that mycoplasma contamination significantly alters cellular metabolite levels, confirming the compelling need for routine checking of cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination, particularly when used for metabolomics studies. Graphical abstract Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination changes the metabolome of PANC-1 cells.

  5. A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from South Africa related to the cultivated eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, M.S.; Knapp, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new andromonoecious species related to the eggplant and belonging to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Africa is described. Solanum umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is found in the eastern part of South Africa, and is sympatric with its close relative Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.M-L.Jaeger. It is morphologically very similar to Solanum cerasiferum Dunal of northern tropical Africa. A comparison table with similar and closely related species is provided, as are a distribution map and illustration of Solanum umtuma. PMID:22287927

  6. The relative toxicities of several pesticides to naiads of three species of stoneflies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, Herman O.; Cope, Oliver B.

    1968-01-01

    Static bioassays were conducted to determine the relative acute toxicities of some insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, a defoliant, and a molluscicide to the naiads of three species of stonef!y, Pteronarcys califomica, Pteronarcella badia, and Claassenia sabulosa. Toxic effects were measured by determination of median lethal concn (Lcoo) for 24-, 48-, and 96-hr exposures, at 15.5C. Endrin and dieldrin were the most and DDT the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides tested. Parathion was the most toxic organophosphate insecticide to P. califomica naiads, but dursban was the most toxic to P. badia and C. sabulosa naiads. Trichlorofon ( Dipterex) was the least toxic to all three species. P. badia, the species of smallest size, was the species most susceptible to most pesticides, followed in descending order of sensitivity by C. sabulosa and P. califomica. Smaller specimens of P. californica naiads were consistently more susceptible to some insecticides than larger specimens of the same species.

  7. EPS-I Polysaccharide Protects Mycoplasma pulmonis from Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Brandon M.; Daubenspeck, James M.; Simmons, Warren L.; Dybvig, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Few mycoplasmal polysaccharides have been described and little is known about their role in pathogenesis. The infection of mice with Mycoplasma pulmonis has been utilized in many in vivo and in vitro studies to gain a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions during chronic respiratory infection. Although alveolar macrophages have a primary role in host defense, M. pulmonis is killed inefficiently in vitro. One antiphagocytic factor produced by the mycoplasma is the family of phase- and size-variable Vsa lipoproteins. However, bacteria generally employ multiple strategies for combating host defenses, with capsular polysaccharide often having a key role. We show here that mutants lacking the EPS-I polysaccharide of M. pulmonis exhibit increased susceptibility to binding and subsequent killing by alveolar macrophages. These results give further insight into how mycoplasmas are able to avoid the host immune system and sustain a chronic infection. PMID:23190331

  8. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species.

  9. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-12-31

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  10. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Gibson, David J.; Young, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  11. Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert

    PubMed Central

    Luebert, Federico; Jacobs, Pit; Hilger, Hartmut H; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-01-01

    The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In nonallopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this article, we analyzed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to characterize the genetic structure of these species and evaluate their genetic differentiation as well as the number of loci subject to positive selection using divergence outlier analysis (DOA). The five species form distinguishable groups in the genetic space, with zones of overlap, indicating that they are possibly not completely isolated. Among-species differentiation accounts for 35% of the total genetic differentiation (FST = 0.35), and FST between species pairs is positively correlated with phylogenetic distance. DOA suggests that few loci are subject to positive selection, which is in line with a scenario of nonallopatric speciation. These results support the idea that sympatric species of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea are under an ongoing speciation process, characterized by a fluctuation of population ranges in response to pulses of arid and humid periods during Quaternary times. PMID:24558582

  12. Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Luebert, Federico; Jacobs, Pit; Hilger, Hartmut H; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In nonallopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this article, we analyzed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to characterize the genetic structure of these species and evaluate their genetic differentiation as well as the number of loci subject to positive selection using divergence outlier analysis (DOA). The five species form distinguishable groups in the genetic space, with zones of overlap, indicating that they are possibly not completely isolated. Among-species differentiation accounts for 35% of the total genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.35), and F ST between species pairs is positively correlated with phylogenetic distance. DOA suggests that few loci are subject to positive selection, which is in line with a scenario of nonallopatric speciation. These results support the idea that sympatric species of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea are under an ongoing speciation process, characterized by a fluctuation of population ranges in response to pulses of arid and humid periods during Quaternary times.

  13. Mechanisms of volume regulation in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a cell wall-less bacterium, must confront the problem of colloid osmotic swelling. Cell volume was determined by optical density and intracellular water measurements. Transmembrane pH and electrical gradients were determined by the distribution of the weak acid benzoate and lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium respectively. Cells incubated in sodium chloride without glucose exhibited a progressive fall in ATP over several hours. When ATP fell below 40 uM the cells swelled, leaked protein and became permeable to inulin. Subsequent addition of glucose induced shrinkage and restored the original permeability properties. Energized cells exhibited an electrochemical gradient of protons of up to 130 mV, inside negative and alkaline. The proton-ATPase inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), which collapsed the chemical and electrical components of the proton gradient, induced rapid swelling despite high ATP levels thus implicating the proton gradient in volume regulation. Either the pH gradient or the membrane potential could maintain volume. Energy-dependent sodium efflux in exchange for protons was demonstrated in sodium-loaded cells using radioactive sodium and 9-aminoacridine fluorescence to follow sodium and proton translocation respectively.

  14. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Jessian L; Goje, Oluwatosin Jaiyeoba

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most effective antimicrobial therapy. Doxycycline, the first-line antibiotic for urethritis, is largely ineffective in the treatment of M. genitalium and furthermore, resistance to macrolide has also emerged. The most effective drug is Moxifloxacin although there are emerging reports of resistance to it in various parts of the world. This paper not only highlights the current research and knowledge, but also reviews the diversity of health implications on the health of men and women infected with M. genitalium. Alternate antibiotics and the impact of M. genitalium on infertility are areas that require more studies as we continue to research into this microorganism.

  15. Negative plant-soil feedback predicts tree-species relative abundance in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Scott A; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Herre, Edward A; Mack, Keenan M L; Valencia, Mariana C; Sanchez, Evelyn I; Bever, James D

    2010-08-05

    The accumulation of species-specific enemies around adults is hypothesized to maintain plant diversity by limiting the recruitment of conspecific seedlings relative to heterospecific seedlings. Although previous studies in forested ecosystems have documented patterns consistent with the process of negative feedback, these studies are unable to address which classes of enemies (for example, pathogens, invertebrates, mammals) exhibit species-specific effects strong enough to generate negative feedback, and whether negative feedback at the level of the individual tree is sufficient to influence community-wide forest composition. Here we use fully reciprocal shade-house and field experiments to test whether the performance of conspecific tree seedlings (relative to heterospecific seedlings) is reduced when grown in the presence of enemies associated with adult trees. Both experiments provide strong evidence for negative plant-soil feedback mediated by soil biota. In contrast, above-ground enemies (mammals, foliar herbivores and foliar pathogens) contributed little to negative feedback observed in the field. In both experiments, we found that tree species that showed stronger negative feedback were less common as adults in the forest community, indicating that susceptibility to soil biota may determine species relative abundance in these tropical forests. Finally, our simulation models confirm that the strength of local negative feedback that we measured is sufficient to produce the observed community-wide patterns in tree-species relative abundance. Our findings indicate that plant-soil feedback is an important mechanism that can maintain species diversity and explain patterns of tree-species relative abundance in tropical forests.

  16. Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in Peruvian and Chilean llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Tornquist, Susan J; Boeder, Lisa; Rios-Phillips, Carolina; Alarcon, Virgilio

    2010-09-01

    Mycoplasma haemolamae is a hemotropic mycoplasma that affects red blood cells of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). It is variably associated with anemia, and most infections are subclinical. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay has facilitated detection of this infection in llamas and alpacas in the United States and other countries. Whether the infection occurs in camelids in South America has previously been unknown. The current study documents a 15.8% infection rate among 76 Peruvian llamas, a 19.3% infection rate among Peruvian alpacas at one site, and a 9.26% infection rate in 108 Chilean alpacas from selected herds. All of the camelids tested appeared to be clinically healthy. No gender or species predilection was found. Only 1 positive camelid younger than 18 months was found. Infection is not associated with anemia, and the mean packed cell volume (PCV) in positive Peruvian camelids was slightly higher than the mean PCV in negative Peruvian camelids. In the Chilean alpacas, the positive alpacas had a slightly lower PCV than the negative alpacas, although the mean PCV was not in the anemic range in any of the groups.

  17. Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic profiles among caprine and ovine Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae strains.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Z; De la Fe, C; Amores, J; Gómez-Martín, Á; Rifatbegović, M

    2017-02-18

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (Movp) is considered to be one of the most important mycoplasmas causing respiratory disease in small ruminants. Most epidemiologic and characterisation studies have been conducted on strains collected from sheep. Information on the presence and characteristics of Movp in healthy and pneumonic goats is limited. Phenotypic or genotypic differences between sheep and goat isolates have never been studied. The objective of our study was to characterise and compare the similarities and differences between caprine and ovine Movp strains isolated from affected and asymptomatic animals in order to elucidate phenotypic and genotypic variability. Four different techniques were used on a set of 23 Movp isolates. These included SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, random amplified polymorphic DNA and the heat shock protein 70 gene sequence-based method. A high degree of phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Movp strains was demonstrated in this study. Our results demonstrated differences between goat and sheep strains, revealing not only a link between strains and host ruminant species, but by geographical origin as well. However, the finding of immunodominant antigens of molecular masses 36, 38, 40 and 70 kDa (±3 kDa) in Movp isolates from sheep and goats foretells their potential use in the development of serological diagnostic tests and vaccines.

  18. Novel intron markers to study the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multilocus phylogenies can be used to infer the species tree of a group of closely related species. In species trees, the nodes represent the actual separation between species, thus providing essential information about their evolutionary history. In addition, multilocus phylogenies can help in analyses of species delimitation, gene flow and genetic differentiation within species. However, few adequate markers are available for such studies. Results In order to develop nuclear markers that can be useful in multilocus studies of mammals, we analyzed the mammalian genomes of human, chimpanzee, macaque, dog and cow. Rodents were excluded due to their unusual genomic features. Introns were extracted from the mammalian genomes because of their greater genetic variability and ease of amplification from the flanking exons. To an initial set of more than 10,000 one-to-one orthologous introns we applied several filters to select introns that belong to single-copy genes, show neutral evolutionary rates and have an adequate length for their amplification. This analysis led to a final list of 224 intron markers randomly distributed along the genome. To experimentally test their validity, we amplified twelve of these introns in a panel of six mammalian species. The result was that seven of these introns gave rise to a PCR band of the expected size in all species. In addition, we sequenced these bands and analyzed the accumulation of substitutions in these introns in five pairs of closely related species. The results showed that the estimated genetic distances in the five species pairs was quite variable among introns and that this divergence cannot be directly predicted from the overall intron divergence in mammals. Conclusions We have designed a new set of 224 nuclear introns with optimal features for the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species. A large proportion of the introns tested experimentally showed a perfect amplification and enough variability in

  19. Patterns of Tree Species Diversity in Relation to Climatic Factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9–14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  20. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Liljander, Anne; Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F; Weibel, Douglas B; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-09-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(4) cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting.

  1. Nanotransformation of the haemotrophic Mycoplasma suis during in vitro cultivation attempts using modified cell free Mycoplasma media.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Sabrina A; Hoelzle, Katharina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hamburger, Anja; Wittenbrink, Max M; Kramer, Manuela M; Sokoli, Albina; Felder, Kathrin M; Groebel, Katrin; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2012-11-09

    Mycoplasma suis belongs to haemotrophic mycoplasmas (HMs) which cause infectious anaemia in a large variety of mammals. To date, no in vitro cultivation system for M. suis or other HMs has been established. We hypothesised that M. suis could grow in classical Mycoplasma media supplemented with nutrients (e.g. glucose, iron-binding proteins) which are naturally available from its host environment, the porcine blood. Blood from experimentally M. suis-infected pigs was used to inoculate either standard SP-4 Mycoplasma medium supplemented with iron-binding proteins (transferrin, haemin, and haemoglobin) or glucose-enriched Hayflick Mycoplasma medium. A quantitative M. suis-specific real-time PCR assay was applied to determine and quantify M. suis loads weekly during 12 week-incubation. The first 2 weeks after inoculation M. suis loads decreased remarkably and then persisted at a stationary level over the observation time of 12 weeks in iron-binding protein- or glucose supplemented media variants. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of liquid M. suis sub-cultures on Hayflick agar showed small, densely-packed microcolonies of irregular M. suis cells of reduced size (0.2-0.6μm) indicating nanotransformation. The partial 16S rDNA sequence of these cultured M. suis nanocells was 99.9% identical to M. suis. M. suis cells derived from liquid cultures interact in vitro with porcine erythrocytes by fibril-like structures. We conclude, that the modified Mycoplasma media used for M. suis cultivation are obviously unfavourable for growth but lead to culture persistence. M. suis adapt to inappropriate culture conditions by alteration into nanoforms.

  2. Anatomic location of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma agalactiae in naturally infected goat male auricular carriers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, Angel; De la Fe, Christian; Amores, Joaquín; Sánchez, Antonio; Contreras, Antonio; Paterna, Ana; Buendía, Antonio J; Corrales, Juan C

    2012-06-15

    This study sought to determine whether male goat auricular carriers of mycoplasmas known to cause contagious agalactia could harbour these microorganisms at anatomical sites other than the ears. A microbiological study was conducted in 6 naturally infected bucks that had been diagnosed as chronic auricular asymptomatic carriers of Mycoplasma (M.) mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) more than one year previously. To detect mycoplasmas, cultures and PCR were performed on 46 samples taken from each goat from the cardio-respiratory, digestive, nervous, lymph and genitourinary systems and several joints. Of a total of 274 samples analyzed, 28 were positive for mycoplasmas (10.1%): Mmc was detected in 17 (6.1%), Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae in 12 (4.3%) and both microorganisms were identified in one of the samples. In all 6 goats, mixed infection was observed despite none being auricular carriers of M. agalactiae. Mycoplasma spp. were identified at 15 different sites; the most frequent sites being the joints (31.2%, 5 positive samples), lymph nodes (25%, 4 positive samples) and respiratory tract (25%, 4 positive samples). Positive results were also obtained in three brain tissue (18.7%), two cardiac tissue (12.5%) and one ileum, urethra, testicle and bulbourethral gland (6.25%) samples. The histopathological findings may suggest the presence of mild chronic conditions in some of the organs where the bacteria were found. Our findings reveal for the first time the capacity of Mmc and M. agalactiae to colonize several other organ systems in chronically naturally infected auricular carriers, possibly representing an added risk factor for the spread of these microorganisms. In the case of M. agalactiae, colonization seemed to be independent of the animal's auricular carrier state.

  3. Identification of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lysnyansky, I; Brenner, J; Alpert, N; Benjamin, A; Bernstein, M; Elad, D; Blum, S; Friedgut, O; Rotenberg, D

    2009-09-12

    A syndrome in which white foci and granulopustular lesions appeared on the vaginal mucous membranes of Holstein cows in several dairy herds in Israel is described. During clinical and diagnostic investigations, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 11 of 20 clinical cases. Vaginal swabs taken from the same cows yielded three isolates of Mycoplasma canadense, which were all associated with the M bovigenitalium infection. Two isolates of small, round, non-enveloped viral particles were approximately 25 nm in diameter and characteristic of enteroviruses on negative-staining electron microscopy.

  4. Oviposition preferences for ethanol depend on spatial arrangement and differ dramatically among closely related Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Sumethasorn, Matt; Turner, Thomas L

    2016-11-15

    Recent work on the model fly Drosophila melanogaster has reported inconsistencies in their preference for laying eggs on intermediate concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we resolve this discrepancy by showing that this species strongly prefers ovipositing on ethanol when it is close to a non-ethanol substrate, but strongly avoids ethanol when options are farther apart. We also show fluidity of these behaviors among other Drosophila species: D. melanogaster is more responsive to ethanol than close relatives in that it prefers ethanol more than other species in the close-proximity case, but avoids ethanol more than other species in the distant case. In the close-proximity scenario, the more ethanol-tolerant species generally prefer ethanol more, with the exception of the island endemic D. santomea This species has the lowest tolerance in the clade, but behaves like D. melanogaster We speculate that this could be an adaptation to protect eggs from parasites or predators such as parasitoid wasps, as larvae migrate to non-toxic substrates after hatching. These natural differences among species are an excellent opportunity to study how genes and brains evolve to alter ethanol preferences, and provide an interesting model for genetic variation in preferences in other organisms, including humans.

  5. Oviposition preferences for ethanol depend on spatial arrangement and differ dramatically among closely related Drosophila species

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent work on the model fly Drosophila melanogaster has reported inconsistencies in their preference for laying eggs on intermediate concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we resolve this discrepancy by showing that this species strongly prefers ovipositing on ethanol when it is close to a non-ethanol substrate, but strongly avoids ethanol when options are farther apart. We also show fluidity of these behaviors among other Drosophila species: D. melanogaster is more responsive to ethanol than close relatives in that it prefers ethanol more than other species in the close-proximity case, but avoids ethanol more than other species in the distant case. In the close-proximity scenario, the more ethanol-tolerant species generally prefer ethanol more, with the exception of the island endemic D. santomea. This species has the lowest tolerance in the clade, but behaves like D. melanogaster. We speculate that this could be an adaptation to protect eggs from parasites or predators such as parasitoid wasps, as larvae migrate to non-toxic substrates after hatching. These natural differences among species are an excellent opportunity to study how genes and brains evolve to alter ethanol preferences, and provide an interesting model for genetic variation in preferences in other organisms, including humans. PMID:27694106

  6. Comparative analysis of diosgenin in Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants by UPLC-DAD-MS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dioscorea is a genus of flowering plants, and some Dioscorea species are known and used as a source for the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin. To screen potential resource from Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants for diosgenin extraction, a rapid method to compare the contents of diosgenin in various plants is crucial. Results An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method was developed for identification and determination of diosgenin in various plants. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted. Twenty-four batches of plant samples from four Dioscorea species, one Smilax species and two Heterosmilax species were analyzed by using the developed method. The present method presented good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Diosgenin was found in three Dioscorea species and one Heterosmilax species, namely D. zingiberensis, D. septemloba, D. collettii and H. yunnanensis. Conclusion The method is suitable for the screening of diosgenin resources from plants. D. zingiberensis is an important resource for diosgenin harvesting. PMID:25107333

  7. Genomic relations among 31 species of Mammillaria haworth (Cactaceae) using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Mattagajasingh, Ilwola; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Das, Premananda

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-one species of Mammillaria were selected to study the molecular phylogeny using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. High amount of mucilage (gelling polysaccharides) present in Mammillaria was a major obstacle in isolating good quality genomic DNA. The CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method was modified to obtain good quality genomic DNA. Twenty-two random decamer primers resulted in 621 bands, all of which were polymorphic. The similarity matrix value varied from 0.109 to 0.622 indicating wide variability among the studied species. The dendrogram obtained from the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis revealed that some of the species did not follow the conventional classification. The present work shows the usefulness of RAPD markers for genetic characterization to establish phylogenetic relations among Mammillaria species.

  8. Healthy Skin of Many Animal Species Harbors Papillomaviruses Which Are Closely Related to Their Human Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Antonsson, Annika; Hansson, Bengt Göran

    2002-01-01

    Papillomaviruses associated with clinical symptoms have been found in many vertebrate species. In this study, we have used an L1 gene consensus PCR test designed to detect a broad spectrum of human skin papillomaviruses to analyze swab samples from healthy skin of 111 animals belonging to 19 vertebrate species. In eight of the species, papillomavirus DNA was found with the following prevalences: chimpanzees, 9 of 11 samples positive; gorillas, 3 of 4; long-tailed macaques, 14 of 16; spider monkeys, 2 of 2; ruffed lemurs, 1 of 2; cows, 6 of 10; European elks, 4 of 4; aurochs, 1 of 1. In total, 53 new putative animal papillomavirus types were found. The results show that skin papillomaviruses can be detected in healthy skin from many different animal species and are sufficiently related genetically to their human counterparts to be identified by a human skin papillomavirus primer set (FAP59 and FAP64). PMID:12438579

  9. Ward identities and consistency relations for the large scale structure with multiple species

    SciTech Connect

    Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo E-mail: pietroni@pd.infn.it

    2014-04-01

    We present fully nonlinear consistency relations for the squeezed bispectrum of Large Scale Structure. These relations hold when the matter component of the Universe is composed of one or more species, and generalize those obtained in [1,2] in the single species case. The multi-species relations apply to the standard dark matter + baryons scenario, as well as to the case in which some of the fields are auxiliary quantities describing a particular population, such as dark matter halos or a specific galaxy class. If a large scale velocity bias exists between the different populations new terms appear in the consistency relations with respect to the single species case. As an illustration, we discuss two physical cases in which such a velocity bias can exist: (1) a new long range scalar force in the dark matter sector (resulting in a violation of the equivalence principle in the dark matter-baryon system), and (2) the distribution of dark matter halos relative to that of the underlying dark matter field.

  10. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Dai, Yan; Hao, Guang-You; Li, Jia-Wei; Fu, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats. PMID:25954289

  11. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Dai, Yan; Hao, Guang-You; Li, Jia-Wei; Fu, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  12. Genetic differentiation and hybrid identification using microsatellite markers in closely related wild species.

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Caroline; Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Beduschi, Júlia; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2015-07-17

    Identifying the genetic basis of speciation is critical for understanding the evolutionary history of closely related wild species. Recently diverged species facilitate the study of speciation because many genetic and morphological characteristics are still shared by the organisms under study. The Petunia genus grows in South American grasslands and comprises both recently diverged wild species and commercial species. In this work, we analysed two closely related species: Petunia exserta, which has a narrow endemic range and grows exclusively in rocky shelters, and Petunia axillaris, which is widely distributed and comprises three allopatric subspecies. Petunia axillaris ssp. axillaris and P. exserta occur in sympatry, and putative hybrids between them have been identified. Here, we analysed 14 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) in 126 wild individuals and 13 putative morphological hybrids with the goals of identifying differentially encoded alleles to characterize their natural genetic diversity, establishing a genetic profile for each taxon and to verify the presence of hybridization signal. Overall, 143 alleles were identified and all taxa contained private alleles. Four major groups were identified in clustering analyses, which indicated that there are genetic distinctions among the groups. The markers evaluated here will be useful in evolutionary studies involving these species and may help categorize individuals by species, thus enabling the identification of hybrids between both their putative taxa. The individuals with intermediate morphology presented private alleles of their both putative parental species, although they showed a level of genetic mixing that was comparable with some of the individuals with typical P. exserta morphology. The EST-SSR markers scattered throughout the Petunia genome are very efficient tools for characterizing the genetic diversity in wild taxa of this genus and aid in identifying interspecific hybrids

  13. Genetic differentiation and hybrid identification using microsatellite markers in closely related wild species

    PubMed Central

    Turchetto, Caroline; Segatto, Ana Lúcia A.; Beduschi, Júlia; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of speciation is critical for understanding the evolutionary history of closely related wild species. Recently diverged species facilitate the study of speciation because many genetic and morphological characteristics are still shared by the organisms under study. The Petunia genus grows in South American grasslands and comprises both recently diverged wild species and commercial species. In this work, we analysed two closely related species: Petunia exserta, which has a narrow endemic range and grows exclusively in rocky shelters, and Petunia axillaris, which is widely distributed and comprises three allopatric subspecies. Petunia axillaris ssp. axillaris and P. exserta occur in sympatry, and putative hybrids between them have been identified. Here, we analysed 14 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) in 126 wild individuals and 13 putative morphological hybrids with the goals of identifying differentially encoded alleles to characterize their natural genetic diversity, establishing a genetic profile for each taxon and to verify the presence of hybridization signal. Overall, 143 alleles were identified and all taxa contained private alleles. Four major groups were identified in clustering analyses, which indicated that there are genetic distinctions among the groups. The markers evaluated here will be useful in evolutionary studies involving these species and may help categorize individuals by species, thus enabling the identification of hybrids between both their putative taxa. The individuals with intermediate morphology presented private alleles of their both putative parental species, although they showed a level of genetic mixing that was comparable with some of the individuals with typical P. exserta morphology. The EST-SSR markers scattered throughout the Petunia genome are very efficient tools for characterizing the genetic diversity in wild taxa of this genus and aid in identifying interspecific hybrids

  14. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Orell, Markku; Vatka, Emma; Rytkönen, Seppo; Broggi, Juli

    2016-01-01

    Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species’ responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence), in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major) and the willow tit (Poecile montanus) by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider subsequent

  15. DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Robin; Weitschek, Emanuel; Felici, Giovanni; Bakker, Freek T

    2012-01-01

    Recently diverged species are challenging for identification, yet they are frequently of special interest scientifically as well as from a regulatory perspective. DNA barcoding has proven instrumental in species identification, especially in insects and vertebrates, but for the identification of recently diverged species it has been reported to be problematic in some cases. Problems are mostly due to incomplete lineage sorting or simply lack of a 'barcode gap' and probably related to large effective population size and/or low mutation rate. Our objective was to compare six methods in their ability to correctly identify recently diverged species with DNA barcodes: neighbor joining and parsimony (both tree-based), nearest neighbor and BLAST (similarity-based), and the diagnostic methods DNA-BAR, and BLOG. We analyzed simulated data assuming three different effective population sizes as well as three selected empirical data sets from published studies. Results show, as expected, that success rates are significantly lower for recently diverged species (∼75%) than for older species (∼97%) (P<0.00001). Similarity-based and diagnostic methods significantly outperform tree-based methods, when applied to simulated DNA barcode data (P<0.00001). The diagnostic method BLOG had highest correct query identification rate based on simulated (86.2%) as well as empirical data (93.1%), indicating that it is a consistently better method overall. Another advantage of BLOG is that it offers species-level information that can be used outside the realm of DNA barcoding, for instance in species description or molecular detection assays. Even though we can confirm that identification success based on DNA barcoding is generally high in our data, recently diverged species remain difficult to identify. Nevertheless, our results contribute to improved solutions for their accurate identification.

  16. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  17. Volatiles as Chemosystematic Markers for Distinguishing Closely Related Species within the Pinus mugo Complex.

    PubMed

    Celiński, Konrad; Bonikowski, Radosław; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Chudzińska, Ewa; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS analysis was used to identify the constituents of pine-needle volatiles differentiating three closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex, i.e., P. uncinata Ramond ex DC., P. uliginosa G.E.Neumann ex Wimm., and P. mugo Turra. Moreover, chemosystematic markers were proposed for the three analyzed pine species. The major constituents of the pine-needle volatiles were α-pinene (28.4%) and bornyl acetate (10.8%) for P. uncinata, δ-car-3-ene (21.5%) and α-pinene (16.1%) for P. uliginosa, and α-pinene (20%) and δ-car-3-ene (18.1%) for P. mugo. This study is the first report on the application of the composition of pine-needle volatiles for the reliable identification of closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex.

  18. The phylogeny of closely related species as revealed by the genealogy of a speciation gene, Odysseus.

    PubMed

    Ting, C T; Tsaur, S C; Wu, C I

    2000-05-09

    Molecular differentiation between races or closely related species is often incongruent with the reproductive divergence of the taxa of interest. Shared ancient polymorphism and/or introgression during secondary contact may be responsible for the incongruence. At loci contributing to speciation, these two complications should be minimized (1, 2); hence, their variation may more faithfully reflect the history of the species' reproductive differentiation. In this study, we analyzed DNA polymorphism at the Odysseus (OdsH) locus of hybrid sterility between Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila simulans and were able to verify such a prediction. Interestingly, DNA variation only a short distance away (1.8 kb) appears not to be influenced by the forces that shape the recent evolution of the OdsH coding region. This locus thus may represent a test case of inferring phylogeny of very closely related species.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  3. Rhabdomyolysis associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Tomohiro; Narita, Mitsuo; Ohya, Hitomi; Yamanaka, Takayuki; Aizawa, Yuta; Matsuo, Mai; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Tsukano, Shinya; Taguchi, Testuo

    2012-05-01

    We describe a case of rhabdomyolysis in a patient infected with antimicrobial drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae The patient's acute-phase serum levels of interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor-α were high, which suggests a pathogenic role for M. pneumoniae. In an era of increasing antimicrobial drug resistance, a system for rapidly identifying resistant M. pneumoniae would be beneficial.

  4. Macrolide susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyorhinis isolated from piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, H; Morozumi, T; Munthali, G; Mitani, K; Ito, N; Yamamoto, K

    1996-01-01

    Twenty strains of Mycoplasma hyorhinis were investigated for their in vitro susceptibilities to 15 antimicrobial agents by broth and agar dilution methods. Two of the 20 field strains showed low susceptibility to 14- and 16-membered macrolide antimicrobial agents tested. The two field strains were considered inducibly resistant to macrolides. PMID:8849222

  5. Stability of rehydrated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine homogeneity over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper vaccine application is required to maximize the results of the vaccination, with maintenance of a homogenous solution is critical to obtain uniform results. This study was designed to analyze the need for continued mixing of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine solution in order to maintain a ...

  6. Proteomic analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain F

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and displacement abilities of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain F (F-strain) are well documented. Understanding the mechanism(s) of colonization and persistence of F-strain will aid in the current intervention strategies to diagnose and control MG infections in poultry. In ...

  7. Mycoplasma bovis: an emerging pathogen of ranched bison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an emerging, primary pathogen of ranched bison (Bison bison) in North America. It causes severe disease among animals in feedlots as well as breeding-age cows and bulls on pasture. Mortality in adult bison is as high as 25 percent, resulting in significant economic l...

  8. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma faucium DNA in the Human Oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Sophie; Courtois, Gaëlle Denis; Gautret, Philippe; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Minodier, Philippe; Noël, Guilhem; Roch, Antoine; Brouqui, Philippe; Stein, Andreas; Drancourt, Michel; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma faucium has recently been associated with brain abscesses and seems to originate from the mouth. We evaluated its prevalence by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in the oropharynxes of 644 subjects and found that 25% harbored M. faucium, probably constituting the gateway for entrance of the bacteria into cerebral abscesses.

  9. Methyl-prednisolone in neurologic complications of Mycoplasma pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gücüyener, K; Simşek, F; Yilmaz, O; Serdaroğlu, A

    2000-06-01

    In patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia extrapulmonary manifestations such as encephalitis, meningitis, cerebellar and brain stem involvement, cranial nerve lesions, peripheral neuropathy, polymyositis have been observed. We report a 16-year-old girl with M. pneumonia infection, acute behavioral changes and coma. Treatment with high dose methyl-prednisolone and clarithromycin led to rapid clinical improvement.

  10. Cranial neuropathy, myeloradiculopathy, and myositis: complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, T L; Kenny, G E

    1979-08-01

    Polymyositis, transverse myelitis, ascending polyneuritis, bilateral optic neuritis, and hearing loss developed in a patient with high complement-fixing antibody titers to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Each of her three children had primary atypical pneumonia with isolation of the organism. The neurologic disturbance is thought to represent a postinfectious complication of M pneumoniae infection.

  11. Interaction of Mycoplasma dispar with bovine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, R A; Wannemuehler, M J; Rosenbusch, R F

    1992-01-01

    The capacity to avoid phagocytosis and the activation of bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) by encapsulated Mycoplasma dispar or purified M. dispar capsule was investigated. Encapsulated and unencapsulated M. dispar were cocultured with BAM in the presence or absence of antisera prepared against unencapsulated M. dispar or purified capsule antiserum. Unopsonized mycoplasmas resisted phagocytosis, while only anti-capsule antibodies enhanced the phagocytosis of encapsulated mycoplasmas. BAM were cultured in the presence of purified M. dispar capsule or either live or heat-killed encapsulated or unencapsulated M. dispar. These BAM were then activated with Escherichia coli endotoxin or left without further activation. The supernatants of these cultures were assayed for tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and glucose consumption as indicators of macrophage activation. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 were produced by BAM stimulated with unencapsulated M. dispar but not when encapsulated M. dispar or its purified capsule was used. Similarly, glucose consumption was increased in the presence of unencapsulated M. dispar, but not when BAM were cocultured with encapsulated M. dispar or purified capsule. When BAM were treated with purified capsule or encapsulated mycoplasmas, they could not be subsequently activated by endotoxin. These results indicate that encapsulated M. dispar or purified capsule exerts an inhibitory effect on the activity of BAM and prevents the activation of these cells. PMID:1612758

  12. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma faucium DNA in the Human Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Edouard, Sophie; Courtois, Gaëlle Denis; Gautret, Philippe; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Minodier, Philippe; Noël, Guilhem; Roch, Antoine; Brouqui, Philippe; Stein, Andreas; Drancourt, Michel; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma faucium has recently been associated with brain abscesses and seems to originate from the mouth. We evaluated its prevalence by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in the oropharynxes of 644 subjects and found that 25% harbored M. faucium, probably constituting the gateway for entrance of the bacteria into cerebral abscesses. PMID:26511735

  13. Atypical pneumonia associated with a Mycoplasma isolate in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Bongrand, Yannick; Blais, Marie-Claude; Alexander, Kate

    2012-10-01

    An atypical case of Mycoplasma pneumonia with an unusual radiographic and computed tomographic pattern was diagnosed in a Siamese kitten. The cat showed no response to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy including enrofloxacin. The administration of doxycycline led to a dramatic clinical and radiographic improvement.

  14. Structural Study of MPN387, an Essential Protein for Gliding Motility of a Human-Pathogenic Bacterium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kawakita, Yoshito; Kinoshita, Miki; Furukawa, Yukio; Tulum, Isil; Tahara, Yuhei O.; Katayama, Eisaku

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen that glides on host cell surfaces with repeated catch and release of sialylated oligosaccharides. At a pole, this organism forms a protrusion called the attachment organelle, which is composed of surface structures, including P1 adhesin and the internal core structure. The core structure can be divided into three parts, the terminal button, paired plates, and bowl complex, aligned in that order from the front end of the protrusion. To elucidate the gliding mechanism, we focused on MPN387, a component protein of the bowl complex which is essential for gliding but dispensable for cytadherence. The predicted amino acid sequence showed that the protein features a coiled-coil region spanning residue 72 to residue 290 of the total of 358 amino acids in the protein. Recombinant MPN387 proteins were isolated with and without an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) fusion tag and analyzed by gel filtration chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation, partial proteolysis, and rotary-shadowing electron microscopy. The results showed that MPN387 is a dumbbell-shaped homodimer that is about 42.7 nm in length and 9.1 nm in diameter and includes a 24.5-nm-long central parallel coiled-coil part. The molecular image was superimposed onto the electron micrograph based on the localizing position mapped by fluorescent protein tagging. A proposed role of this protein in the gliding mechanism is discussed. IMPORTANCE Human mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by a pathogenic bacterium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This tiny, 2-μm-long bacterium is suggested to infect humans by gliding on the surface of the trachea through binding to sialylated oligosaccharides. The mechanism underlying mycoplasma “gliding motility” is not related to any other well-studied motility systems, such as bacterial flagella and eukaryotic motor proteins. Here, we isolated and analyzed the structure of a key protein which is

  15. [Prevalence of haemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats in Berlin/Brandenburg (Northeast Germany)].

    PubMed

    Morgenthal, Dinah; Hamel, Dietmar; Arndt, Gisela; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Kohn, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Mycoplasma (M.) haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) turicensis, C M. haemominutum, Bartonella spp. (B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana) and Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum in cats in Northeast Germany in relation to their living conditions (indoor/outdoor/ stray cat), and tick/flea exposure. 265 cats were included in the study (150 indoor, 99 outdoor access, 16 stray cats). A questionnaire provided the following data: derivation, housing environment, and previous flea/tick exposure. Serum antibody titers against A. phagocytophilum, B. henselae, and B. quintana were determined by an immunofluorescence test (IFT). PCR tests (EDTA blood) were used to test for A. phagocytophilum, M. haemofelis, C. M. turicensis, C. M. haemominutum, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. In 19 of 265 cats (7.2%) DNA of one or more Mycoplasma spp. was detected: C M. haemominutum (5.3%), M. haemofelis (1.5%) and C M. turicensis (1.1%); three of the cats were tested positive for the feline immunodeficiency virus. All cats were B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae PCR-negative in peripheral blood. However, 91 of 245 cats (37.1%) had antibody titers > 1:200 for B. henselae (Houston I, Marseille type) and 46 (18.8%) for B. quintana. Antibody titers > 1:64 against A. phagocytophilum were detected in 24 cats (9.1%); one cat (0.4%) was PCR-positive. Since infections with haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and also with arthropodborne organisms (Bartonella spp., A. phagocytophilum) occur in cats from the area Berlin/Brandenburg (Germany) an appropriate arthropod-control is recommended. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relevance of these infectious agents for the individual cat.

  16. Trichothecene chemotype composition of Fusarium graminearum and related species in Finland and Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum and type B trichothecene producers can be divided into three chemotypes. Analysis of 290 single-spore isolates of F. graminearum and related Fusarium species revealed that all F. graminearum isolates from Finland (15) and western Russian (26) possessed the 3ADON chemotype, whil...

  17. Genetic Diversity of Grasspea and Its Relative Species Revealed by SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Tao; Burlyaeva, Marina; Li, Ling; Jiang, Junye; Fang, Li; Redden, Robert; Zong, Xuxiao

    2015-01-01

    The study of genetic diversity between Lathyrus sativus L. and its relative species may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and provide options to meet the challenge of climate changes. 30 SSR loci were employed to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 283 individuals from wild and domesticated populations from Africa, Europe, Asia and ICARDA. The allele number per loci ranged from 3 to 14. The average gene diversity index and average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.5340 and 0.4817, respectively. A model based population structure analysis divided the germplasm resources into three subgroups: the relative species, the grasspea from Asia, and the grasspea from Europe and Africa. The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA cluster also demonstrated that Asian group was convincingly separated from the other group. The AMOVA result showed that the cultivated species was quite distinct from its relative species, however a low level of differentiation was revealed among their geographic origins. In all, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of L. sativus and its relatives. PMID:25793712

  18. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison with Other Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Shahzad, Raheem; Seo, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Oryza minuta (Poaceae family) is a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice with a BBCC genome. O. minuta has the potential to resist against various pathogenic diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), white backed planthopper (WBPH) and brown plant hopper (BPH). Here, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. minuta. The mtDNA genome is 515,022 bp, containing 60 protein coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome organization and the gene content at the nucleotide level are highly similar (89%) to that of O. rufipogon. Comparison with other related species revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved among the Poaceae members. Similarly, O. minuta mt genome shared 24 protein-coding genes, 15 tRNA genes and 1 ribosomal RNA gene with other rice species (indica and japonica). The evolutionary relationship and phylogenetic analysis revealed that O. minuta is more closely related to O. rufipogon than to any other related species. Such studies are essential to understand the evolutionary divergence among species and analyze common gene pools to combat risks in the current scenario of a changing environment. PMID:27045847

  19. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

  20. Natural history of crop-related wild species: Uses in pest habitat management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salick, Jan

    1983-01-01

    The natural histories of crop-related wild species in their native habitats can be used to develop novel pest management strategies. Traditionally, such information has provided insights for biological control, plant breeding, crop management, and applied ecology Further insights can be garnered.

  1. Septic arthritis due to a Sneathia species most closely related to Sneathia sanguinegens.

    PubMed

    Bachy, B; Bémer, P; Tortellier, L; Giraudeau, C; Reynaud, A; Corvec, S

    2011-11-01

    Sneathia sanguinegens is an infrequent bacterium in clinical specimens. We describe a case of right elbow septic arthritis due to a Sneathia species most closely related to S. sanguinegens in a young immunocompetent woman. S. sanguinegens has never been implicated in osteoarticular infections.

  2. Mycobacterium species related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis from cows with bovine nodular thelitis.

    PubMed

    Pin, Didier; Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Garreau, Virginie; Breysse, Franck; Dumitrescu, Oana; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Lina, Gerard

    2014-12-01

    Bovine nodular thelitis is a granulomatous dermatitis associated with infection with acid-fast bacteria. To identify the mycobacterium responsible for this infection, we conducted phylogenetic investigations based on partial sequencing of 6 genes. These bacteria were identified as an undescribed Mycobacterium species that was phylogenetically related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis.

  3. Genetic diversity of grasspea and its relative species revealed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Tao; Burlyaeva, Marina; Li, Ling; Jiang, Junye; Fang, Li; Redden, Robert; Zong, Xuxiao

    2015-01-01

    The study of genetic diversity between Lathyrus sativus L. and its relative species may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and provide options to meet the challenge of climate changes. 30 SSR loci were employed to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 283 individuals from wild and domesticated populations from Africa, Europe, Asia and ICARDA. The allele number per loci ranged from 3 to 14. The average gene diversity index and average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.5340 and 0.4817, respectively. A model based population structure analysis divided the germplasm resources into three subgroups: the relative species, the grasspea from Asia, and the grasspea from Europe and Africa. The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA cluster also demonstrated that Asian group was convincingly separated from the other group. The AMOVA result showed that the cultivated species was quite distinct from its relative species, however a low level of differentiation was revealed among their geographic origins. In all, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of L. sativus and its relatives.

  4. Being Nature: Interspecies Articulation as a Species-Specific Practice of Relating to Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautio, Pauliina

    2013-01-01

    Rather than categorically teaching us ways to be less anthropocentric, environmental education could be about educating us of the ways in which we already are nature as human animals. In this paper, one species-specific practice of human relating to environment--interspecies articulation--is argued as one way of being nature. Interspecies…

  5. Control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D; Segales, J; Meyns, T; Sibila, M; Pieters, M; Haesebrouck, F

    2008-01-25

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. The organism adheres to and damages the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Affected pigs show chronic coughing, are more susceptible to other respiratory infections and have a reduced performance. Control of the disease can be accomplished in a number of ways. First, management practices and housing conditions in the herd should be optimized. These include all-in/all-out production, limiting factors that may destabilize herd immunity, maintaining optimal stocking densities, prevention of other respiratory diseases, and optimal housing and climatic conditions. Strategic medication with antimicrobials active against M. hyopneumoniae and, preferably, also against major secondary bacteria may be useful during periods when the pigs are at risk for respiratory disease. Finally, commercial bacterins are widely used to control M. hyopneumoniae infections. The main effects of vaccination include less clinical symptoms, lung lesions and medication use, and improved performance. However, bacterins provide only partial protection and do not prevent colonization of the organism. Different vaccination strategies (timing of vaccination, vaccination of sows, vaccination combined with antimicrobial medication) can be used, depending on the type of herd, the production system and management practices, the infection pattern and the preferences of the pig producer. Research on new vaccines is actively occurring, including aerosol and feed-based vaccines as well as subunit and DNA vaccines. Eradication of the infection at herd level based on age-segregation and medication is possible, but there is a permanent risk for re-infections.

  6. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Profiling to Evaluate the Sheep Mammary Gland Transcriptome in Response to Experimental Mycoplasma agalactiae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini; Korb, Melanie; Brunthaler, René; Ertl, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M. agalactiae type strain PG2 in comparison with uninfected control animals using Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed in the infected udders and RT-qPCR analyses of selected DEGs showed their expression profiles to be in agreement with results from RNA-Seq. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed majority of the DEGs to be associated with mycoplasma defense responses that are directly or indirectly involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses. Similar RNA-Seq analyses were also performed with spleen cells of the same sheep to know the specific systemic transcriptome responses. Spleen cells exhibited a comparatively lower number of DEGs suggesting a less prominent host response in this organ. To our knowledge this is the first study that describes host transcriptomics of M. agalactiae infection and the related immune-inflammatory responses. The data provides useful information to further dissect the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying mycoplasma mastitis, which is a prerequisite for designing effective intervention strategies. PMID:28081235

  7. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  8. Life Table Parameters of Three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) Species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under Contrasted Relative Humidity Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests. PMID:25541705

  9. Complete Chloroplast Genome of Nicotiana otophora and its Comparison with Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul L.; Khan, Abdur R.; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad A.; Lee, Seok-Min; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Nicotiana otophora is a wild parental species of Nicotiana tabacum, an interspecific hybrid of Nicotiana tomentosiformis and Nicotiana sylvestris. However, N. otophora is least understood as an alternative paternal donor. Here, we compared the fully assembled chloroplast (cp) genome of N. otophora and with those of closely related species. The analysis showed a cp genome size of 156,073 bp and exhibited a typical quadripartite structure, which contains a pair of inverted repeats separated by small and large single copies, containing 163 representative genes, with 165 microsatellites distributed unevenly throughout the genome. Comparative analysis of a gene with known function across Nicotiana species revealed 76 protein-coding sequences, 20 tRNA sequences, and 3 rRNA sequence shared between the cp genomes. The analysis revealed that N. otophora is a sister species to N. tomentosiformis within the Nicotiana genus, and Atropha belladonna and Datura stramonium are their closest relatives. These findings provide a valuable analysis of the complete N. otophora cp genome, which can identify species, elucidate taxonomy, and reconstruct the phylogeny of genus Nicotiana. PMID:27379132

  10. Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16s rDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wei Wang, Mi Sun

    2009-01-01

    Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus) of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups. PMID:24031394

  11. Assessment of relative potential for Legionella species or surrogates inhalation exposure from common water uses.

    PubMed

    Hines, Stephanie A; Chappie, Daniel J; Lordo, Robert A; Miller, Brian D; Janke, Robert J; Lindquist, H Alan; Fox, Kim R; Ernst, Hiba S; Taft, Sarah C

    2014-06-01

    The Legionella species have been identified as important waterborne pathogens in terms of disease morbidity and mortality. Microbial exposure assessment is a tool that can be utilized to assess the potential of Legionella species inhalation exposure from common water uses. The screening-level exposure assessment presented in this paper developed emission factors to model aerosolization, quantitatively assessed inhalation exposures of aerosolized Legionella species or Legionella species surrogates while evaluating two generalized levels of assumed water concentrations, and developed a relative ranking of six common in-home uses of water for potential Legionella species inhalation exposure. Considerable variability in the calculated exposure dose was identified between the six identified exposure pathways, with the doses differing by over five orders of magnitude in each of the evaluated exposure scenarios. The assessment of exposure pathways that have been epidemiologically associated with legionellosis transmission (ultrasonic and cool mist humidifiers) produced higher estimated inhalation exposure doses than pathways where epidemiological evidence of transmission has been less strong (faucet and shower) or absent (toilets and therapy pool). With consideration of the large uncertainties inherent in the exposure assessment process used, a relative ranking of exposure pathways from highest to lowest exposure doses was produced using culture-based measurement data and the assumption of constant water concentration across exposure pathways. In this ranking, the ultrasonic and cool mist humidifier exposure pathways were estimated to produce the highest exposure doses, followed by the shower and faucet exposure pathways, and then the toilet and therapy pool exposure pathways.

  12. Pollinators visit related plant species across 29 plant–pollinator networks

    PubMed Central

    Vamosi, Jana C; Moray, Clea M; Garcha, Navdeep K; Chamberlain, Scott A; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of specialization in host plant use by pollinators is often complicated by variability in the ecological context of specialization. Flowering communities offer their pollinators varying numbers and proportions of floral resources, and the uniformity observed in these floral resources is, to some degree, due to shared ancestry. Here, we find that pollinators visit related plant species more so than expected by chance throughout 29 plant–pollinator networks of varying sizes, with “clade specialization” increasing with community size. As predicted, less versatile pollinators showed more clade specialization overall. We then asked whether this clade specialization varied with the ratio of pollinator species to plant species such that pollinators were changing their behavior when there was increased competition (and presumably a forced narrowing of the realized niche) by examining pollinators that were present in at least three of the networks. Surprisingly, we found little evidence that variation in clade specialization is caused by pollinator species changing their behavior in different community contexts, suggesting that clade specialization is observed when pollinators are either restricted in their floral choices due to morphological constraints or innate preferences. The resulting pollinator sharing between closely related plant species could result in selection for greater pollinator specialization. PMID:25360269

  13. Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics of three Chilean Nothofagus (Fagaceae) species in relation to leaf lifespan.

    PubMed

    Hevia, F; Minoletti O, M L; Decker, K L; Boerner, R E

    1999-03-01

    This study examined foliar nutrient dynamics and nutrient resorption (retranslocation) in three species of Chilean Nothofagus (Fagaceae) that differed in leaf lifespan and elevational distribution. In our central Chile study area the elevations at which these three species are most abundant increase from N. obliqua (deciduous) at low elevations to N. dombeyi at intermediate elevation and N. pumilio (deciduous) at higher elevations up to treeline. We sampled a single stand at 1680 m in which all three species co-occurred. Nothofagus dombeyi leaves were structurally heavier, with specific leaf mass approximately twice that of the two deciduous species. On a concentration basis, foliar N increased in the order N. dombeyi < N. pumilio < N. obliqua and foliar P increased in the order N. dombeyi < N. obliqua < N. pumilio. However, when the differences in specific leaf mass among species were taken into account by calculating N and P content on a leaf area basis, N. dombeyi had the greatest N and P content. N and P remained relatively constant throughout most of the 4-yr N. dombeyi leaf lifespan, then decreased prior to abscission. Nothofagus dombeyi resorbed significantly less N (44-50%) than did the two deciduous species (63-78%), both on proportional and absolute bases. In contrast, N. pumilio and N. dombeyi resorbed similar amounts of P prior to abscission (40-50%), whereas no significant resorption of P from leaves of N. obliqua was noted. We use these results to clarify the relative importance of environmental gradients associated with elevation vs. genetically fixed leaf lifespans in controlling the nutrient dynamics of these congeneric tree species.

  14. Developmental toxicity of TCDD and related compounds: Species sensitivities and differences

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The issue of the developmental toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds has been the subject of two recent reviews (Morrissey and Schwetz, 1989; Couture et al., 1990a). There is little doubt that TCDD is one of the most potent developmental toxins known, yet its production of frank structural malformations in species other than in the mouse are poorly described. The objective of the review is to critically address the role which TCDD and its approximate isostereomers have in causing a wide array of developmental effects in various species, including some very recent results. The bias of the author is that the teratogenic response of the mouse is a reflection of extreme sensitivity of the species to the induction of frank teratogenic responses in two epithelial tissues. That is, that the mouse is an outlier in the field of developmental toxicity, possibly in parallel to the exquisite sensitivity of the guinea pig vs the resistance of the hamster to the lethal effects of TCDD, or in the resistance of haired rodents to the induction of chloracne. The crucial point is that most species respond similarly to TCDD; for any given endpoint outliers will exist. However, no species is an outlier for all responses. In terms of developmental toxicity, essentially all species critically examined to date demonstrate potent developmentally toxic effects following exposure to TCDD and related chemicals. Relatively low doses to the dam (varying within an order of magnitude) result in embryo/fetal toxicity. The actual induction of terata is an extremely rare response. (Copyright (c) 1991 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.)

  15. Causes and consequences of contrasting genetic structure in sympatrically growing and closely related species

    PubMed Central

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Satovic, Zlatko; Liber, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow, natural selection and genetic drift are processes that play a major role in shaping the genetic structure of natural populations. In addition, genetic structures of individual populations are strongly correlated with their geographical position within the species distribution area. The highest levels of genetic variation are usually found in the centre of a species' distribution and tend to decrease beyond that point. Additionally, narrowly endemic taxa are expected to be characterized by lower levels of genetic variation than their widespread congeners. To understand the historical circumstances that shape populations of sympatric and closely related taxa, microsatellite markers were used, while populations of the three closely related and sympatric Mediterranean Salvia species (S. officinalis L., S. fruticosa Mill. and S. brachyodon Vandas) served as a study model. In the populations of widespread S. officinalis, located in the central parts of this species' distribution area, no population genetic disturbances were detected. The narrow endemic S. brachyodon showed heterozygote excess, clonal reproduction and a genetic bottleneck. Because the genetic bottleneck was likely caused by the disappearance of suitable open-type habitats, the recent wildfire that cleared the terrain probably saved the S. brachyodon population from gradual deterioration and extinction. At the same time, clonal reproduction could serve as a valuable mechanism in the preservation of genetic variability. The results of the disjunct S. fruticosa population indicated heterozygote deficiency, inbreeding, hybridization with S. officinalis and population expansion. The hybridization with S. officinalis along with the abandonment of the agro-pastoral system are likely the main drivers of the strong expansion of S. fruticosa in the studied location. As many relevant findings and conclusions regarding historical and contemporary demography of individual populations or species can be

  16. Causes and consequences of contrasting genetic structure in sympatrically growing and closely related species.

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Satovic, Zlatko; Liber, Zlatko

    2015-09-02

    Gene flow, natural selection and genetic drift are processes that play a major role in shaping the genetic structure of natural populations. In addition, genetic structures of individual populations are strongly correlated with their geographical position within the species distribution area. The highest levels of genetic variation are usually found in the centre of a species' distribution and tend to decrease beyond that point. Additionally, narrowly endemic taxa are expected to be characterized by lower levels of genetic variation than their widespread congeners. To understand the historical circumstances that shape populations of sympatric and closely related taxa, microsatellite markers were used, while populations of the three closely related and sympatric Mediterranean Salvia species (S. officinalis L., S. fruticosa Mill. and S. brachyodon Vandas) served as a study model. In the populations of widespread S. officinalis, located in the central parts of this species' distribution area, no population genetic disturbances were detected. The narrow endemic S. brachyodon showed heterozygote excess, clonal reproduction and a genetic bottleneck. Because the genetic bottleneck was likely caused by the disappearance of suitable open-type habitats, the recent wildfire that cleared the terrain probably saved the S. brachyodon population from gradual deterioration and extinction. At the same time, clonal reproduction could serve as a valuable mechanism in the preservation of genetic variability. The results of the disjunct S. fruticosa population indicated heterozygote deficiency, inbreeding, hybridization with S. officinalis and population expansion. The hybridization with S. officinalis along with the abandonment of the agro-pastoral system are likely the main drivers of the strong expansion of S. fruticosa in the studied location. As many relevant findings and conclusions regarding historical and contemporary demography of individual populations or species can be

  17. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison to Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Asaf, Sajjad; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Khan, Muhammad A.; Kang, Sang-Mo; Imran, Qari M.; Shahzad, Raheem; Bilal, Saqib; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Oryza minuta, a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice (family Poaceae), possesses a BBCC genome and contains genes that confer resistance to bacterial blight (BB) and white-backed (WBPH) and brown (BPH) plant hoppers. Based on the importance of this wild species, this study aimed to understand the phylogenetic relationships of O. minuta with other Oryza species through an in-depth analysis of the composition and diversity of the chloroplast (cp) genome. The analysis revealed a cp genome size of 135,094 bp with a typical quadripartite structure and consisting of a pair of inverted repeats separated by small and large single copies, 139 representative genes, and 419 randomly distributed microsatellites. The genomic organization, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to those of typical angiosperm cp genomes. Approximately 30 forward, 28 tandem and 20 palindromic repeats were detected in the O. minuta cp genome. Comparison of the complete O. minuta cp genome with another eleven Oryza species showed a high degree of sequence similarity and relatively high divergence of intergenic spacers. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on the complete genome sequence, 65 shared genes and matK gene showed same topologies and O. minuta forms a single clade with parental O. punctata. Thus, the complete O. minuta cp genome provides interesting insights and valuable information that can be used to identify related species and reconstruct its phylogeny. PMID:28326093

  18. Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

  19. Colistin sulfate as a suitable substitute of thallium acetate in culture media intended for mycoplasma detection and culture.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Alejandro F; Jacobs, Marcel V; van Damme, Ellen H A; Akkermans, Arnoud M; de Kruijff-Kroesen, Ingrid; Brugman, Jan

    2003-09-01

    Thallium acetate in concentrations of 500 to 1000 mg/l is tolerated in the culture by the most mollicutes of the orders Mycoplasmatales and Acholeplasmatales and by this reason it is added in the culture media as a selective element for the detection and propagation of mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas. Because of the high toxicity of thallium acetate and its accumulation in the environment, thallium acetate is not biodegradable, an alternative was searched. The results and analysis of tests with nine mollicute species are presented here. It is recommended to replace thallium acetate in the formulations where it is used and colistin sulfate is proposed as its substitute.

  20. Neurological diseases associated with viral and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections

    PubMed Central

    Assaad, F.; Gispen, R.; Kleemola, M.; Syrůček, L.; Esteves, K.

    1980-01-01

    In 1963 the World Health Organization established a system for the collection and dissemination of information on viral infections and by 1976, laboratories in 49 countries were participating in this scheme. The present study is in two parts: part 1 is an analysis of almost 60 000 reports on neurological disease associated with viral and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections reported during the 10-year period 1967-76. This analysis showed a steady increase in the yearly number of reports of viral neurological diseases, which closely followed the general increase in the overall reporting of virus diseases. Likewise, the seasonal pattern was similar to that seen in general for any given virus. Over 75% of the cases were in children. Over half of all viral neurological diseases were associated with enteroviruses, while the myxoviruses accounted for almost 30%. Among the myxoviruses, mumps virus was by far the most frequently reported. The polioviruses were the agents most commonly detected in cases of paralytic disease. The other enteroviruses, mumps virus, and the herpesviruses were the most frequently reported viruses in cases of aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. On the other hand, one-third to over one-half of the reports on the myxoviruses (excluding mumps and measles) related to ill-defined clinical conditions. Part 2 of the study deals in particular with viruses whose role in neurological disease is less well documented. One laboratory reported an outbreak of adenoviral aseptic meningitis in Czechoslovakia, while another described neurological disease associated with M. pneumoniae infection in Finland. Part 2 also includes a detailed appraisal of viral infections diagnosed in the Netherlands during the period 1973-76. The results are very similar to those routinely reported. PMID:6249511

  1. GapA and CrmA Coexpression Is Essential for Mycoplasma gallisepticum Cytadherence and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Papazisi, L.; Frasca Jr., S.; Gladd, M.; Liao, X.; Yogev, D.; Geary, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that avirulent Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rhigh (passage 164) is lacking three proteins that are expressed in its virulent progenitor, strain Rlow (passage 15). These proteins were identified as the cytadhesin molecule GapA, the putative cytadhesin-related molecule CrmA, and a component of a high-affinity transporter system, HatA. Complementation of Rhigh with wild-type gapA restored expression in the transformant (GT5) but did not restore the cytadherence phenotype and maintained avirulence in chickens. These results suggested that CrmA might play an essential role in the M. gallisepticum cytadherence process. CrmA is encoded by the second gene in the gapA operon and shares significant sequence homology to the ORF6 gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which has been shown to play an accessory role in the cytadherence process. Complementation of Rhigh with wild-type crmA resulted in the transformant (SDCA) that lacked the cytadherence and virulence phenotype comparable to that found in Rhigh and GT5. In contrast, complementation of Rhigh with the entire wild-type gapA operon resulted in the transformant (GCA1) that restored cytadherence to the level found in wild-type Rlow. In vivo pathogenesis trials revealed that GCA1 had regained virulence, causing airsacculitis in chickens. These results demonstrate that both GapA and CrmA are required for M. gallisepticum cytadherence and pathogenesis. PMID:12438360

  2. An overview of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in Israel (2004-2014).

    PubMed

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Freed, Mor; Rosales, Ruben S; Mikula, Inna; Khateb, Nihaya; Gerchman, Irena; van Straten, Michael; Levisohn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in milk samples submitted to the Israeli National Service for Udder Health and Milk Quality was determined during the period 2004-2014 and the genetic pattern of the obtained isolates was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Mycoplasma spp. were identified in 66 herds including M. bovis (n = 60), M. cottewii (n = 3), M. bovigenitalium (n = 2), M. alkalescens (n = 2) and M. yeatsii (n = 1). The proportion of M. bovis infected herds was relatively low (0-0.68%) in 2004-2007, increased to 3.77% during the 2008 outbreak, and ranged from 0.77 to 2.77% during the 2009-2014 period. Since 2008, about eight M. bovis positive dairy herds have been identified in Israel annually, with six of which on average being newly infected. MLST of 57 M. bovis isolates revealed that sequence type 10 was the dominant genotype identified in 60% of the herds. In conclusion, these data show that M. bovis is the main mycoplasmal mastitic pathogen in Israel.

  3. Distribution patterns of macrobenthic species in relation to organic enrichment within aquaculture earthen ponds.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Susana; Barata, Marisa; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between organic enrichment and macrobenthic colonization patterns was investigated during an 8-month period in Diplodus sargus (white seabream) production ponds. A stratified sampling design was applied and each pond was divided into three zones: water entrance (WE); central (C); and automatic feeder zones (AF). Generally, the number of species and Shannon-Wiener diversity increased from the WE to the AF zone. Abundance did not present a clear trend. The recently developed marine biotic index (AMBI) was applied and showed to be sufficiently robust to discriminate, within a relatively small area, differences in macrobenthic communities due to organic enrichment. Nevertheless, caution is advised when applying this index or others based on ecological group's assignment, as the classification of a certain area may differ when allocating a certain species to an unsuitable group. This is particularly evident when common species are involved.

  4. Geotrichum bryndzae sp. nov., a novel asexual arthroconidial yeast species related to the genus Galactomyces.

    PubMed

    Sulo, Pavol; Laurencík, Michal; Poláková, Silvia; Minárik, Gabriel; Sláviková, Elena

    2009-09-01

    Ten strains of an asexual arthroconidial yeast species were isolated from Bryndza, a traditional Slovak artisanal sheep cheese, which was manufactured from raw milk during a 4-month summer production period at two Slovakian sites (the northern RuZomberok and the central-southern Tisovec areas). Sequence comparison of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene revealed that this yeast represents a novel species of the genus Geotrichum, which contains anamorphs of the ascogenous genus Galactomyces, for which the name Geotrichum bryndzae sp. nov. is proposed (type culture CCY 16-2-1T=NRRL Y-48450T=CBS 11176T). The novel species is most closely related to Geotrichum silvicola NRRL Y-27641T, although yeasts with identical or very similar sequences have been found throughout the world.

  5. Relations of Environmental Factors with Mussel-Species Richness in the Neversink River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    the Neversink Reservoir that mimic the river?s original flow patterns have recently been proposed by TNC and could benefit the established mussel populations and aquatic communities. The ability to protect mussel populations and the potential to increase mussel richness in the Neversink River is unknown, however, because the environmental factors that affect the seven mussel species are poorly defined, and the distribution of mussel beds is patchy and thus difficult to quantify. In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with TNC, began a 6-year study along the Neversink River and its tributaries to (1) document the current distribution of each mussel species, (2) assess environmental factors in relation to mussel-species richness and distribution, and (3) identify the factors that most strongly affect mussel populations and develop an equation that relates environmental factors to mussel-species richness. This report (a) summarizes the methods used to quantify or qualify environmental factors and mussel-species distribution and abundance, (b) presents a list of environmental factors that were correlated with mussel-species richness, and (c) offers an empirical model to predict richness of mussel species in benthic communities throughout the basin.

  6. Relatively Recent Evolution of Pelage Coloration in Colobinae: Phylogeny and Phylogeography of Three Closely Related Langur Species

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Tilo; Liu, Guangjian; Sun, Tao; Huang, Chengming; Zhou, Qihai; Zhou, Jiang; Que, Tengcheng; Wang, Ziming; Roos, Christian; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    To understand the evolutionary processes leading to the diversity of Asian colobines, we report here on a phylogenetic, phylogeographical and population genetic analysis of three closely related langurs, Trachypithecus francoisi, T. poliocephalus and T. leucocephalus, which are all characterized by different pelage coloration predominantly on the head and shoulders. Therefore, we sequenced a 395 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial control region from 178 T. francoisi, 54 T. leucocephalus and 19 T. poliocephalus individuals, representing all extant populations of these three species. We found 29 haplotypes in T. francoisi, 12 haplotypes in T. leucocephalus and three haplotypes in T. poliocephalus. T. leucocephalus and T. poliocephalus form monophyletic clades, which are both nested within T. francoisi, and diverged from T. francoisi recently, 0.46-0.27 (T. leucocephalus) and 0.50-0.25 million years ago (T. poliocephalus). Thus, T. francoisi appears as a polyphyletic group, while T. leucocephalus and T. poliocephalus are most likely independent descendents of T. francoisi that are both physically separated from T. francoisi populations by rivers, open sea or larger habitat gaps. Since T. francoisi populations show no variability in pelage coloration, pelage coloration in T. leucocephalus and T. poliocephalus is most likely the result of new genetic mutations after the split from T. francoisi and not of the fixation of different characters derived from an ancestral polymorphism. This case study highlights that morphological changes for example in pelage coloration can occur in isolated populations in relatively short time periods and it provides a solid basis for studies in related species. Nevertheless, to fully understand the evolutionary history of these three langur species, nuclear loci should be investigated as well. PMID:23613895

  7. A revision of Cyanonectria and Geejayessia gen. nov., and related species with Fusarium-like anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Schroers, H.-J.; Gräfenhan, T.; Nirenberg, H.I.; Seifert, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    A revision of Fusarium-like species associated with the plant genus Buxus led to a reconsideration of generic concepts in the Fusarium clade of the Nectriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) and the larger subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1) gene exons confirm the existence of a clade, here called the terminal Fusarium clade, that includes genera such as Fusarium sensu stricto (including its Gibberella teleomorphs), Albonectria, Cyanonectria, “Haematonectria”, the newly described genus Geejayessia, and “Nectria” albida. Geejayessia accommodates five species. Four were previously classified in Nectria sensu lato, namely the black perithecial, KOH–species G. atrofusca and the orange or reddish, KOH+ G. cicatricum, G. desmazieri and G. zealandica. Geejayessia celtidicola is newly described. Following our phylogenetic analyses showing its close relationship with Cyanonectria cyanostoma, the former Gibbera buxi is recombined as the second species of Cyanonectria. A three gene phylogenetic analysis of multiple strains of each morphological species using translation elongation factor 1 α (tef-1), rpb2 and acl1 gene exons and introns confirms their status as distinct phylogenetic species. Internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and nuclear large ribosomal subunit sequences were generated as additional DNA barcodes for selected strains. The connection of Fusarium buxicola, often erroneously reported as the anamorph of G. desmazieri, with the bluish black and KOH+ perithecial species C. buxi is reinstated. Most Cyanonectria and Geejayessia species exhibit restricted host ranges on branches or twigs of Buxus species, Celtis occidentalis, or Staphylea trifolia. Their perithecia form caespitose clusters on well-developed, mostly erumpent stromata on the bark or outer cortex of the host and are relatively thin-walled, mostly smooth, and therefore reminiscent of the more or less

  8. Comparison of rumen microbial inhibition resulting from various essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species.

    PubMed

    Oh, H K; Jones, M B; Longhurst, W M

    1968-01-01

    Essential oils were isolated from eight plant species which were relatively unpalatable to sheep and deer. The inhibitory potency of these essential oils upon sheep and deer rumen microorganisms was compared, in terms of total gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, by use of an anaerobic manometric technique. Inhibitory effects of oils from the eight plant species may be placed in four groups: (i) essential oils from vinegar weed (Trichostema lanceoletum) and California bay (Umbellularia californica) inhibited rumen microbial activity most; (ii) lesser inhibition was exhibited by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana) oils, followed by (iii) blue-gum eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) oils; and (iv) oils from Douglas fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii) and Jerusalem oak (chenopodium botrys) resulted in the least inhibition, when 0.3 ml of each oil was used. A highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.98(**)) between total gas and VFA production indicated the validity of either method to measure the activity of rumen microorganisms. Our results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the selectivity and voluntary consumption of ruminants are related to the characteristic odor and antibacterial action of essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species.

  9. Phylogeny and Evolution of Medical Species of Candida and Related Taxa: a Multigenic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diezmann, Stephanie; Cox, Cymon J.; Schönian, Gabriele; Vilgalys, Rytas J.; Mitchell, Thomas G.

    2004-01-01

    Hemiascomycetes are species of yeasts within the order Saccharomycetales. The order encompasses disparate genera with a variety of life styles, including opportunistic human pathogens (e.g., Candida albicans), plant pathogens (e.g., Eremothecium gossypii), and cosmopolitan yeasts associated with water and decaying vegetation. To analyze the phylogeny of medically important species of yeasts, we selected 38 human pathogenic and related strains in the order Saccharomycetales. The DNA sequences of six nuclear genes were analyzed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The maximum likelihood analysis of the combined data for all six genes resolved three major lineages with significant support according to Bayesian posterior probability. One clade was mostly comprised of pathogenic species of Candida. Another major group contained members of the family Metschnikowiaceae as a monophyletic group, three species of Debaryomyces, and strains of Candida guilliermondii. The third clade consisted exclusively of species of the family Saccharomycetaceae. Analysis of the evolution of key characters indicated that both codon reassignment and coenzyme Q9 likely had single origins with multiple losses. Tests of correlated character evolution revealed that these two traits evolved independently. PMID:15583292

  10. Differences in metabolic costs of terrestrial mobility in two closely related species of albatross.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Alexander P; Phillips, Richard A; Croxall, John P; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-08-01

    Black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophrys typically colonise steeper habitats than grey-headed albatrosses T. chrysostoma. The present study investigated the effect of colony philopatry on terrestrial locomotory ability in these two species, to determine: (1) if there is a difference in terrestrial locomotory ability between these two closely related species, and (2) what physiological or behavioural adaptations may account for any differences identified. We examined the metabolic cost, mechanical efficiency on an incline, and gait characteristics of terrestrial locomotion of these two species on both level and inclined planes. T. chrysostoma were able to perform at a significantly greater speed than T. melanophrys without reaching a significantly different maximal rate of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))). Conversely, T. melanophrys were able to move up a significantly steeper incline than T. chrysostoma while maintaining a similar maximal V(O(2)). Each species demonstrates stride length, force production (behavioural) and leg length (morphological) adaptations that minimise the cost of traversing their chosen colonies, indicating a clear relationship between terrestrial performance and local topography. However, it is not possible to determine if the difference in locomotory ability results from differences in colony topography, or if choice of colony site is dictated by the ability of the species to traverse different terrain.

  11. Changes in the Relative Abundance of Two Saccharomyces Species from Oak Forests to Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Dashko, Sofia; Liu, Ping; Volk, Helena; Butinar, Lorena; Piškur, Jure; Fay, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its sibling species Saccharomyces paradoxus are known to inhabit temperate arboreal habitats across the globe. Despite their sympatric distribution in the wild, S. cerevisiae is predominantly associated with human fermentations. The apparent ecological differentiation of these species is particularly striking in Europe where S. paradoxus is abundant in forests and S. cerevisiae is abundant in vineyards. However, ecological differences may be confounded with geographic differences in species abundance. To compare the distribution and abundance of these two species we isolated Saccharomyces strains from over 1200 samples taken from vineyard and forest habitats in Slovenia. We isolated numerous strains of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus, as well as a small number of Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, from both vineyard and forest environments. We find S. cerevisiae less abundant than S. paradoxus on oak trees both within and outside the vineyard, but more abundant on grapevines and associated substrates. Analysis of the uncultured microbiome shows, that both S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus are rare species in soil and bark samples, but can be much more common in grape must. In contrast to S. paradoxus, European strains of S. cerevisiae have acquired multiple traits thought to be important for life in the vineyard and dominance of wine fermentations. We conclude, that S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus currently share both vineyard and non-vineyard habitats in Slovenia and we discuss factors relevant to their global distribution and relative abundance. PMID:26941733

  12. Defining pheromone-receptor signaling in Candida albicans and related asexual Candida species.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Choi, Anthony; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in which sexual reproduction is under the control of the novel white-opaque switch. Opaque cells are the mating-competent form, whereas white cells do not mate but can still respond to pheromones, resulting in biofilm formation. In this study, we first define the domains of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2 that are necessary for signaling in both white and opaque forms. Both cell states require the IC loop 3 (IC3) and the C-terminal tail of Ste2 for the cellular response, whereas the first IC loop (IC1) of Ste2 is dispensable for signaling. To also address pheromone-receptor interactions in related species, including apparently asexual Candida species, Ste2 orthologues were heterologously expressed in Candida albicans. Ste2 receptors from multiple Candida clade species were functional when expressed in C. albicans, whereas the Ste2 receptor of Candida lusitaniae was nonfunctional. Significantly, however, expression of a chimeric C. lusitaniae Ste2 receptor containing the C-terminal tail of Ste2 from C. albicans generated a productive response to C. lusitaniae pheromone. This system has allowed us to characterize pheromones from multiple Candida species and indicates that functional pheromone-receptor couples exist in fungal species that have yet to be shown to undergo sexual mating.

  13. Characterization of Virulence-Related Phenotypes in Candida Species of the CUG Clade

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Candida species cause a variety of mucosal and invasive infections and are, collectively, the most important human fungal pathogens in the developed world. The majority of these infections result from a few related species within the “CUG clade,” so named because they use a nonstandard translation for that codon. Some members of the CUG clade, such as Candida albicans, present significant clinical problems, whereas others, such as Candida (Meyerozyma) guilliermondii, are uncommon in patients. The differences in incidence rates are imperfectly correlated with virulence in animal models of infection, but comparative analyses that might provide an explanation for why some species are effective pathogens and others are not have been rare or incomplete. To better understand the phenotypic basis for these differences, we characterized eight CUG clade species—C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae, M. guilliermondii, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Lodderomyces elongisporus—for host-relevant phenotypes, including nutrient utilization, stress tolerance, morphogenesis, interactions with phagocytes, and biofilm formation. Two species deviated from expectations based on animal studies and human incidence. C. dubliniensis was quite robust, grouping in nearly all assays with the most virulent species, C. albicans and C. tropicalis, whereas C. parapsilosis was substantially less fit than might be expected from its clinical importance. These findings confirm the utility of in vitro measures of virulence and provide insight into the evolution of virulence in the CUG clade. PMID:26150417

  14. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria related to human pathogenic Vibrio species

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Nur A.; Grim, Christopher J.; Lipp, Erin K.; Rivera, Irma N. G.; Chun, Jongsik; Haley, Bradd J.; Taviani, Elisa; Choi, Seon Young; Hoq, Mozammel; Munk, A. Christine; Brettin, Thomas S.; Bruce, David; Challacombe, Jean F.; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio species are both ubiquitous and abundant in marine coastal waters, estuaries, ocean sediment, and aquaculture settings worldwide. We report here the isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of a novel Vibrio species, Vibrio antiquarius, isolated from a mesophilic bacterial community associated with hydrothermal vents located along the East Pacific Rise, near the southwest coast of Mexico. Genomic and phenotypic analysis revealed V. antiquarius is closely related to pathogenic Vibrio species, namely Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio vulnificus, but sufficiently divergent to warrant a separate species status. The V. antiquarius genome encodes genes and operons with ecological functions relevant to the environment conditions of the deep sea and also harbors factors known to be involved in human disease caused by freshwater, coastal, and brackish water vibrios. The presence of virulence factors in this deep-sea Vibrio species suggests a far more fundamental role of these factors for their bacterial host. Comparative genomics revealed a variety of genomic events that may have provided an important driving force in V. antiquarius evolution, facilitating response to environmental conditions of the deep sea. PMID:25964331

  15. Species distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-related mycobacterial infections: implications for selection of initial treatment.

    PubMed

    Montessori, V; Phillips, P; Montaner, J; Haley, L; Craib, K; Bessuille, E; Black, W

    1996-06-01

    Management of mycobacterial infection is species specific; however, treatment is prompted by positive smears or cultures, often several weeks before species identification. The objective of this study was to determine the species distribution of mycobacterial isolates from various body sites in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All mycobacterial isolates recovered at St. Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) from April 1989 to March 1993 were reviewed. Among 357 HIV-positive patients with mycobacterial infections, 64% (96) of the sputum isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), 18% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 17% were Mycobacterium kansasii. Lymph node involvement (25 patients) was due to either MAC (72%) or M. tuberculosis (24%). Two hundred ninety-eight episodes of mycobacteremia were due to MAC (98%), M. tuberculosis (1%), and M. kansasii (1%). Similarly, cultures of 84 bone marrow biopsy specimens (99%), 19 intestinal biopsy specimens (100%), and 30 stool specimens (97%) yielded predominantly MAC. These results have implications for initial therapy, particularly in areas where rapid methods for species identification are not readily available. Because of considerable geographic variation, development of guidelines for selection of initial therapy depends on regional determination of species distribution in HIV-related mycobacterial infections.

  16. Genetic relationships of the Japanese persimmon Diospyros kaki (Ebenaceae) and related species revealed by SSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, D L; Luo, Z R

    2011-06-07

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers based on 18 primers were employed to study the genetic relationship of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki) specimens. Two hundred and sixty-two bands were detected in 30 Japanese persimmon samples, including 14 Japanese and 10 Chinese genotypes of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and six related species, D. lotus, D. glaucifolia, D. oleifera, D. rhombifolia, D. virginiana, and Jinzaoshi (unclassified - previously indicated to be D. kaki). All SSR primers developed from D. kaki were successfully employed to reveal the polymorphism in other species of Diospyros. Most of the primers were highly polymorphic, with a degree of polymorphism equal to or higher than 0.66. The results from the neighbor-joining dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis diagram were the same; i.e., the Chinese and Japanese genotypes and related species were separated and the relationships revealed were consistent with the known pedigrees. We also concluded that 'Xiangxitianshi' from Xiangxi municipality, Hunan Province, China, is actually a sport or somaclonal variant of 'Maekawa-Jirou', and that 'Jinzaoshi' should be classified as a distinct species of Diospyros. We found that SSR markers are a valuable tool for the estimation of genetic diversity and divergence in Diospyros.

  17. MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION OF HEMOTROPIC MYCOPLASMAS IN HUMAN BEINGS, DOGS AND HORSES IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vidotto, Odilon; Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Guimaraes, Ana Márcia Sá; Santos, Andrea Pires dos; Nascimento, Naíla Cannes; Santos, Nelson Jesse Rodrigues dos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Messick, Joanne Belle

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hemoplasmas in a rural Brazilian settlement's population of human beings, their dogs and horses, highly exposed to tick bites; to identify the tick species parasitizing dogs and horses, and analyze factors associated with their infection. Blood samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were screened using a pan-hemoplasma SYBR green real-time PCR assay followed by a species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR. A total of 59/132 (44.7%) dog samples were positive for hemoplasmas (21 Mycoplasma haemocanis alone, 12 ' Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' alone and 21 both). Only 1/100 (1.0%) human sample was positive by qPCR SYBR green, with no successful amplification of 16S rRNA or 23 rRNA genes despite multiple attempts. All horse samples were negative. Dogs >1 year of age were more likely to be positive for hemoplasmas ( p= 0.0014). In conclusion, although canine hemoplasma infection was highly prevalent, cross-species hemoplasma transmission was not observed, and therefore may not frequently occur despite overexposure of agents and vectors.

  18. Characterization of 13 microsatellite markers for Diuris basaltica (Orchidaceae) and related species1

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Collin W.; James, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Diuris basaltica (Orchidaceae) is an endangered forb on the Victorian grasslands and has many close relatives. Microsatellite markers have been developed to facilitate assessment of population structure within D. basaltica and among related taxa within the species complex. • Methods and Results: Twenty-five microsatellite markers (13 polymorphic and 12 monomorphic) were developed from D. basaltica using 454 pyrosequencing, and all primer pairs were amplified in D. gregaria and D. chryseopsis. For the set of polymorphic markers, the number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 10, two to nine, and two to 18 for D. basaltica, D. gregaria, and D. chryseopsis, respectively. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.18 to 0.95 and 0.14 to 0.86, respectively. • Conclusions: The microsatellite markers developed in this study can be used to analyze the population genetic structure of D. basaltica and other Diuris species. PMID:25202591

  19. Usefulness of cpDNA markers for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of closely related cactus species.

    PubMed

    Bonatelli, I A S; Zappi, D C; Taylor, N P; Moraes, E M

    2013-02-28

    Although plastid DNA has been widely explored as a marker of choice for phylogeny and phylogeography studies, little is known about its utility for examining relationships between closely related species. The slow evolutionary rates inherent to chloroplast (cp) DNA make it difficult to perform lower level taxonomic analyses, particularly at the population level. We characterized the nucleotide variation and investigated the utility of eight noncoding cpDNA regions in four closely related species of the Pilosocereus aurisetus group (Cactaceae), an endemic taxon of eastern South America. The plastid intergenic spacers 5'-trnS-trnG, 3'-trnS-trnG and trnT-trnL were the most variable regions and were the most useful for lower level taxonomic comparisons, especially when used together. We conclude that an adequate combination of regions alongside indels as an additional character improves the usefulness of cpDNA for phylogenetic studies.

  20. Microsatellite primers for Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia (Onagraceae) and cross-amplification in related species1

    PubMed Central

    López-Villalobos, Adriana; Samis, Karen E.; Eckert, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed 24 nuclear microsatellite primers from an enriched genomic library for the Pacific coastal dune endemic Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia to study the consequences of mating system differentiation, the genetics of species’ range limits, and hybridization with its closest sister taxon, C. bistorta. • Methods and Results: Twenty-four primer pairs were developed and characterized in four populations of C. cheiranthifolia and one population of C. bistorta. We also tested eight additional taxa for cross-amplification. The average number of alleles per locus per species was 4.3 and 6.0, respectively. The number of loci that amplified and were variable within the eight related taxa ranged from six to 17. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful in studying mating system evolution, the genetic structure of species’ ranges, hybridization, and the provenance of material used for habitat restoration in C. cheiranthifolia, C. bistorta, and related species. PMID:25309839

  1. Detection and antibiotic treatment of Mycoplasma arginini contamination in a mouse epithelial cell line restore normal cell physiology.

    PubMed

    Boslett, Brianna; Nag, Subhra; Resnick, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination of cultured cell lines is difficult to detect by routine observation. Infected cells can display normal morphology and the slow growth rate of mycoplasma can delay detection for extended periods of time, compromising experimental results. Positive identification of mycoplasma typically requires cells to be either fixed and stained for DNA or processed with PCR. We present a method to detect mycoplasma using live-cell optical microscopy typically used for routine observation of cell cultures. Images of untreated mycoplasma-infected epithelial cells alongside images of infected cells treated with Plasmocin, a commercially available antibiotic targeted to mycoplasma, are shown. We found that optical imaging is an effective screening tool for detection of mycoplasma contamination. Importantly, we found that cells regained normal function after the contamination was cleared. In conclusion, we present a technique to diagnose probable mycoplasma infections in live cultures without fixation, resulting in faster response times and decreased loss of cell material.

  2. Generation of a monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma spp. following accidental contamination during production of a monoclonal antibody against Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2012-03-01

    This report describes Mycoplasma contamination of Lawsonia intracellularis cultures that led to the unintended acquisition of a monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma spp. during the attempted generation of a monoclonal antibody against L. intracellularis.

  3. Relative geographic range of sibling species of host damselflies does not reliably predict differential parasitism by water mites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main challenges in evolutionary parasitology is to determine the factors that explain variation among host species in parasitism. In this study, we addressed whether host phylogeny or ecology was important in determining host species use by water mites. Parasitism (prevalence and intensity) by Arrenurus water mites was examined in relation to geographic distribution of host damselflies from sibling species pairs. In addition, the likelihood of putative mite species parasitizing both species of a host species pair was explored. Results A total of 1162 damselflies were examined for water mites across four sites in Southeastern Ontario. These damselflies represent ten species (five closely related host species pairs) in the Coenagrionidae. Only two of the five species pairs showed near significant or significant differences in prevalence of infection by mites. In one of those species comparisons, it was the less widespread host that had higher water mite prevalence and in the other species comparison, the less widespread host species had lower water mite prevalence. Only one of the five pairs showed a significant difference in intensity of infection; intensity was higher in the species with a smaller geographic distribution. Based on the COI barcode, there were nine water mite clades (OTU) infecting these ten host species. Three Arrenurus OTUs may be host monospecific, four OTUs were specific to a given host species pair, and two OTUs infected at least three host species. Host species in each species pairs tend to share at least one of the Arrenurus OTU. No striking differences in mite species diversity were found among species in any species pair. Finally, the Arrenurus examined in this study appear to be ecological specialists, restricted to a particular type of habitat, parasitizing few to many of the host species present in that site or habitat. Conclusions Although differences in levels of parasitism by water mites exist for some closely

  4. Developmental neurological effects of dioxin-like compounds -- Relative species sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Henshel, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds are known to be teratogenic. Studies have shown that in ovo exposure to these compounds causes teratogenic changes in the brain which are manifested as a gross bilateral asymmetry in the forebrain and tectum. Through field and laboratory studies the authors are trying to determine whether this endpoint will be generally useful as a biomarker for dioxin-related developmental effects. The ultimate aim is to use this information to establish toxic equivalents for the developmental neurotoxic effects of TCDD and related compounds. In order to properly establish relative toxic equivalents (the focus of this session), one needs to know both the relative effects of different compounds on a single species, at a single life stage, and the relative effects of similar (preferably the same compounds) on different species. Hatchlings or nestlings of several species (great blue heron, doublecrested cormorants, bald eagle) were used in these studies. The brains were measured, and evaluated for bilateral asymmetry. The difference between the two sides of the brain was correlated to the levels of contaminants in either sibling eggs or in plasma from the same bird. These correlations were determined using a variety of published toxic equivalence schemes based on several different endpoints. In a parallel laboratory study, fertile chicken eggs were injected with known concentrations of TCDD from the start of incubation. The clear dose-response relationship between TCDD concentrations and the degree of asymmetry indicates that at least some of the observed gross brain asymmetry is mediated by TCDD-like activity, thus validating the use of TCDD-based toxic equivalents for this particular endpoint.

  5. Molecular Identification of Closely Related Candida Species Using Two Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Fingerprinting Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cornet, Muriel; Sendid, Boualem; Fradin, Chantal; Gaillardin, Claude; Poulain, Daniel; Nguyen, Huu-Vang

    2011-01-01

    Recent changes in the epidemiology of candidiasis highlighted an increase in non- Candida albicans species emphasizing the need for reliable identification methods. Molecular diagnostics in fungal infections may improve species characterization, particularly in cases of the closely related species in the Candida complexes. We developed two PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism assays, targeting either a part of the intergenic spacer 2 or the entire intergenic spacer (IGS) of ribosomal DNA using a panel of 270 isolates. A part of the intergenic spacer was used for discrimination between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and between species of the C. glabrata complex (C. glabrata/C. bracarensis/C. nivariensis). The whole IGS was applied to C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis, and to separate C. famata (Debaryomyces hansenii) from C. guilliermondii (Pichia guilliermondii) and from the other species within this complex (ie, C. carpophila, C. fermentati and C. xestobii). Sharing similar biochemical patterns, Pichia norvegensis and C. inconspicua exhibited specific IGS profiles. Our study confirmed that isolates of C. guilliermondii were frequently mis-identified as C. famata. As much as 67% of the clinical isolates phenotypically determined as C. famata were recognized mostly as true P. guilliermondii. Conversely, 44% of the isolates initially identified as C. guilliermondii were corrected by the IGS fingerprints as C. parapsilosis, C. fermentati, or C. zeylanoides. These two PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism methods may be used as reference tools [either alternatively or adjunctively to the existing ribosomal DNA (26S or ITS) sequence comparisons] for unambiguous determination of the Candida species for which phenotypic characterization remains problematic. PMID:21227390

  6. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, Julia J; Iserbyt, Arne; Nagel, Laura; Forbes, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs"), or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity). Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  7. Destruction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk by a commercial on-farm high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer.

    PubMed

    Stabel, J R; Hurd, S; Calvente, L; Rosenbusch, R F

    2004-07-01

    The 2002 NAHM's Dairy Survey indicated that 87.2% of dairy farms in the United States feed waste milk to their neonatal calves. Although cost-effective, this practice can lead to increased calf morbidity and mortality due to ingestion of pathogenic agents. In an effort to reduce the risk of infection, dairy producers are implementing on-farm pasteurization of the waste milk as a control procedure before feeding the milk to calves. In the present study, the efficacy of a commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) on-farm pasteurizer unit to destroy Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella enterica spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk was evaluated. Replicate experiments were run for 3 isolates of M. paratuberculosis, 3 serovars of Salmonella (derby, dublin, typhimurium); and 4 species of Mycoplasma (bovis, californicum, canadense, serogroup 7) at 2 different levels of experimental inoculation. In addition, HTST pasteurization experiments were performed on colostrum experimentally inoculated with M. paratuberculosis. After culture of the pasteurized milk samples, no viable M. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, or Mycoplasma were recovered, regardless of species, strain, or isolate. Pasteurization of colostrum was also effective in the destruction of M. paratuberculosis but resulted in an average 25% reduction in colostral immunoglobulin. These results suggest that HTST pasteurization is effective in generating a safer product to feed to young calves.

  8. Development rates of two Xenopsylla flea species in relation to air temperature and humidity.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, B R; Khokhlova, I S; Fielden, L J; Burdelova, N V

    2001-09-01

    The rate of development of immature fleas, Xenopsylla conformis Wagner and Xenopsylla ramesis Rothschild (Siphonaptera: Xenopsyllidae) was studied in the laboratory at 25 degrees C and 28 degrees C with 40, 55, 75 and 92% relative humidity (RH). These fleas are separately associated with the host jird Meriones crassus Sundevall in different microhabitats of the Ramon erosion cirque, Negev Highlands, Israel. This study of basic climatic factors in relation to flea bionomics provides the basis for ecological investigations to interpret reasons for paratopic local distributions of these two species of congeneric fleas on the same host. Both air temperature and RH were positively correlated with duration of egg and larval stages in both species. Change of humidity between egg and larval environments did not affect duration of larval development at any temperature. At each temperature and RH, the eggs and larvae of X. ramesis did not differ between males and females in the duration of their development, whereas female eggs and larvae of X. conformis usually developed significantly faster than those of males. For both species, male pupae developed slower than female pupae at the same air temperature and RH. Air temperature, but not RH, affected the duration of pupal development. At each humidity, duration of the pupal stage was significantly longer at 25 degrees C than at 28 degrees C: 15.3+/-1.7 vs. 11.7+/-1.2 days in X. conformis; 14.1+/-2.0 vs. 11.5+/-1.7 days in X. ramesis, with a significantly shorter pupal period of the latter species at 25 degrees C. These limited interspecific bionomic contrasts in relation to basic climatic factors appear insufficient to explain the differential habitat distributions of X. conformis and X. ramesis.

  9. Cytogenetic investigation of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. and related species using the C-banding technique.

    PubMed

    Badaeva, E D; Filatenko, A A; Badaev, N S

    1994-11-01

    Triticum timopheevii and related species T. militinae (2n=28, A(t)G) and T. zhukovskyi (2n=42, A(m)A(t)G), hybrids T. kiharae, T. miguschovae, the amphidiploid T. timopheevii x T. tauschii (all 2n=42, A(t)GD), T. fungicidum (ABA(t)G) and T. timonovum (2n=56, A(t)A(t)GG) were analyzed using the C-banding technique. Chromosomes of the A(m) and A(t) genomes in the karyotype of T. zhukovskyi differed in their C-banding pattern. Partial substitutions of A(t)-genome chromosomes and a complete substitution of the G-genome chromosomes by homoeologous chromosomes of an unidentified tetraploid wheat species with an AB genome composition were found in the T. timonovum karyotype. A(t)- and G-genome chromosomes in the karyotypes of all studied species had similar C-banding patterns and were characterized by a low level of polymorphism. The comparative stability of the A(t) and G genomes is determined by the origin and specifity of cultivation of studied species.

  10. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  11. Comparison of song frequency and receptor tuning in two closely related bushcricket species.

    PubMed

    Kalmring, K; Rössler, W; Jatho, M; Hoffmann, E

    1995-01-01

    The songs and the structure and physiology of the auditory organs in the closely related bushcricket species Tettigonia viridissima and Tettigonia cantans were investigated comparatively using bioacoustical, histological and neurophysiological methods. The morphology of the crista acustica, the main auditory receptor organ, is very similar in the two species in respect to both the distribution of scolopidia along the length axis of the crista and the dimensions of corresponding scolopidia and attachment structures. The only obvious difference is that T. viridissima has one more scolopidium in the crista acustica and that the overall length of the crista is by about 50 microns larger than in T. cantans. In contrast, differences were found in the physiology of individual auditory receptor cells. Comparison of the threshold characteristics of all the receptor cells of the crista acustica in both species reveals a differential sensitivity of groups of auditory receptor cells at dominant frequencies of the song. In each species, the sensitivity of auditory receptor cells is method to the energy spectrum of the song. These differences in the physiology can partly be explained by differences in transmission characteristics of the acoustic trachea.

  12. Dynamics of tandem repetitive Afa-family sequences in Triticeae, wheat-related species.

    PubMed

    Nagaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Sasakuma, T

    1998-08-01

    The Afa-family sequences in wheat-related species, Triticeae, are tandem repetitive sequences of 340 bp. All the analyzed Triticeae species carried the sequences in their genomes, though the copy numbers varied about 100-fold among the species. The nucleotide fragments amplified by PCR were cloned and sequenced, and their behavior in the evolution of Triticeae was analyzed by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. The sequences in genomes with many copies of this family clustered at independent branches of the phylogenic tree, whereas the sequences in genomes with a few copies did not. This may suggest that Afa-family sequences had amplified several times in the evolution of Triticeae, each using a limited number of different master copies. In addition, the sequences of the A and B genomes of hexaploid common wheat indicated that the Afa-family sequences had not evolved in a concerted manner between the genomes. Furthermore, the sequences of each chromosome of the D genome of this species indicated that the sequences had amplified on all over the D-genome chromosomes in a short period.

  13. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Agrostis species obtained using sequence related amplified polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Dinler, Gizem; Budak, Hikmet

    2008-10-01

    Bentgrass (Agrostis spp.), a genus of the Poaceae family, consists of more than 200 species and is mainly used in athletic fields and golf courses. Creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera L.) is the most commonly used species in maintaining golf courses, followed by colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris L.) and velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.). The presence and nature of sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) at the cDNA level were investigated. We isolated 80 unique cDNA fragment bands from these species using 56 SRAP primer combinations. Sequence analysis of cDNA clones and analysis of putative translation products revealed that some encoded amino acid sequences were similar to proteins involved in DNA synthesis, transcription, and signal transduction. The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene (GenBank accession no. EB812822) was also identified from velvet bentgrass, and the corresponding protein sequence is further analyzed due to its critical role in many cellular processes. The partial peptide sequence obtained was 112 amino acids long, presenting a high degree of homology to parts of the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of cytosolic phosphorylating GAPDH (GapC). The existence of common expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed by a minimum evolutionary dendrogram among the Agrostis ESTs indicated the usefulness of SRAP for comparative genome analysis of transcribed genes in the grass species.

  14. An evaluation of the relative sensitivity of two marine bivalve mollusc species using the Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Victoria V; Depledge, Michael H; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) evaluate the potential for the 'Comet assay' to be used as a method for detecting genetic damage in the common cockle Cerastoderma edule; and (b) to compare the relative sensitivity with Mytilus edulis as the bivalve widely used as a sentinel species in biomonitoring studies. In vitro validation studies were carried out on haemocytes from each species using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a known oxidant and the induced DNA damage was measured using the Comet assay. On exposure to 0, 100, 500 and 1000 microM H2O2, a significant concentration-dependent increase was observed in both species. Use of an additional concentration of 5000 microM H2O2 showed that while DNA damage could be assessed in M. edulis at this concentration, only a few cells from C. edule were amenable to measurements owing to extensive DNA damage ("hedgehog cells"). The evidence also suggested that the cells from C. edule are more sensitive to oxidative damage induced by H2O2 when compared with M. edulis. Bearing in mind that sediments are the ultimate sink for many contaminants, this study demonstrates the potential application of sediment-dwelling C. edule as a useful biomonitoring species.

  15. Relative toxicities of pure propylene and ethylene glycol and formulated deicers on plant species

    SciTech Connect

    DuFresne, D.L.; Pillard, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Propylene and ethylene glycol deicers are commonly used at airports in the US and other countries to remove and retard the accumulation of snow and ice on aircraft. Deicers may not only enter water bodies without treatment, due to excessive storm-related flow, but also may expose terrestrial organisms to high concentrations through surface runoff. Most available toxicity data are for aquatic vertebrates and invertebrate species; this study examined effects on terrestrial and aquatic plants. Terrestrial plant species included both a monocot (rye grass, Lolium perenne) and a dicot (lettuce, Lactuca saliva). Aquatic species included a single cell alga (Selenastrum capricomutum), and an aquatic macrophyte (duckweed, Lemna minor). Glycol deicers were obtained in the formulated mixtures used on aircraft. Pure ethylene and propylene glycol were obtained from Sigma{reg_sign}. Parameters measured included germination, root and shoot length, survival, and growth. Formulated deicers, like those used at airports, were generally more toxic than pure chemicals, based on glycol concentration. This greater toxicity of formulated deicers is consistent with results of tests using animal species.

  16. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  17. Drought responses of three closely related Caragana species: implication for their vicarious distribution.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Na, Xiaofan; Xu, Tingting

    2016-05-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and distribution of plants in the desert region of the Inner Mongolia plateau. Caragana microphylla, C. liouana, and C. korshinskii are phylogenetically close but distribute vicariously in Mongolia plateau. To gain a better understanding of the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined the leaf gas exchange, growth, water use efficiency, biomass accumulation and allocation by subjecting their seedlings to low and high drought treatments in a glasshouse. Increasing drought stress had a significant effect on many aspects of seedling performance in all species, but the physiology and growth varied with species in response to drought. C. korshinskii exhibited lower sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and growth, lower specific leaf area, higher biomass allocation to roots, higher levels of water use efficiency to drought compared with the other two species. Only minor interspecific differences in growth performances were observed between C. liouana and C. microphylla. These results indicated that faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use of C. korshinskii should confer increased drought tolerance and facilitate its establishment in more severe drought regions relative to C. liouana and C. microphylla.

  18. Microbial Environment Affects Innate Immunity in Two Closely Related Earthworm Species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Šilerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:24223917

  19. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Silerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Skanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  20. Relative Abundance of Oligosaccharides in Candida Species as Determined by Fluorophore-Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Goins, Tresa L.; Cutler, Jim E.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is a straightforward, sensitive method for determining the presence and relative abundance of individual oligomannosyl residues in Candida mannoprotein, the major antigenic determinant located on the outer surface of the yeast cell wall. The single terminal aldehydes of oligomannosyl residues released by hydrolysis were tagged with the charged fluorophore 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS) and separated with high resolution on the basis of size by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ANTS fluorescence labeling was not biased by oligomannoside length; therefore, band fluorescence intensity was directly related to the relative abundance of individual oligomannoside moieties in heterogeneous samples. FACE analysis revealed the major oligomannosides released by acid hydrolysis and β-elimination of Fehling-precipitated mannan from Candida albicans, which were the same as those previously reported in studies based on mass and nuclear magnetic spectroscopic analysis. FACE was also amenable to the analysis of samples obtained by direct hydrolysis of whole yeast cells. Whole-cell acid hydrolysis and whole-cell β-elimination of two isolates each of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, C. rugosa, C. stellatoidea, and C. tropicalis resulted in oligomannoside gel banding patterns that were species and strain specific for the 16 isolates surveyed. Whereas some bands were specific for an individual isolate or species, other bands were shared by two or three species in various groupings. Differences in the mannoprotein composition of C. albicans A9 and four spontaneous cell surface mutants were also detected. Mannan “fingerprints,” or banding pattern profiles, derived from the electrophoretic mobilities of individual bands relative to the migration of acid-hydrolyzed dextran (relative migration index) yielded profiles characteristic of individual isolates not revealed by