Science.gov

Sample records for related transport cross

  1. Elastic and transport properties in polycrystals of crackedgrains: Cross-property relations and microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    2007-10-02

    Some arguments of Bristow (1960) concerning the effects of cracks on elastic and transport (i.e., electrical or thermal conduction) properties of cold-worked metals are reexamined. The discussion is posed in terms of a modern understanding of bounds and estimates for physical properties of polycrystals--in contrast to Bristow's approach using simple mixture theory. One type of specialized result emphasized here is the cross-property estimates and bounds that can be obtained using the methods presented. Our results ultimately agree with those of Bristow, i.e., confirming that microcracking is not likely to be the main cause of the observed elastic behavior of cold-worked metals. However, it also becomes clear that the mixture theory approach to the analysis is too simple and that crack-crack interactions are necessary for proper quantitative study of Bristow's problem.

  2. Cross-property relations for momentum and diffusional transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, S.; Kim, In Chan

    1992-10-01

    Cross-property relations linking the fluid permeability k associated with viscous flow through a porous medium to effective diffusion properties of the medium have recently been derived. Torquato [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2644 (1990)] found that k≤Dφ1τ, where τ is the ``mean survival time'' associated with steady-state diffusion of ``reactants'' in the fluid region of diffusion coefficient D and porosity φ1 of a porous medium containing absorbing walls (i.e., trap boundaries). Subsequently, Avellaneda and Torquato [Phys. Fluids A 3, 2529 (1991)] related k to the electrical formation factor F (inverse of the dimensionless effective electrical conductivity) and the principal (largest) diffusion relaxation time T1 associated with the time-dependent trapping problem, namely, k≤DT1/F. In this study, we compute the aforementioned bounds, using an efficient first-passage-time algorithm, for grain-consolidation models of porous media and compare them to exact results for these models. We also conjecture a new relation connecting k to τ and F for a wide class of porous media, namely, k≤Dτ/F, and show that it gives the sharpest permeability estimate among the existing bounds. The importance of this relation lies not only in its usefulness as an estimator of the permeability but that it involves the diffusional parameters τ and F which can be measured in situ.

  3. Elastic, charge transfer, and related transport cross sections for proton impact of atomic hydrogen for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. R.; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu; Stancil, P. C.; Zaman, T.

    2016-04-01

    Updating and extending previous work (Krstić and Schultz 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3458 and other references) comprehensive calculations were performed for elastic scattering and charge transfer in proton—atomic hydrogen collisions. The results, obtained for 1301 collision energies in the center-of-mass energy range of 10-4-104 eV, are provided for integral and differential cross sections relevant to transport modeling in astrophysical and other plasma environments, and are made available through a website. Use of the data is demonstrated through a Monte Carlo transport simulation of solar wind proton propagation through atomic hydrogen gas representing a simple model of the solar wind interaction with heliospheric neutrals.

  4. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Worldwide Marine Transportation Network: Efficiency and Container Throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Bing; Guo, Long; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2009-11-01

    Through empirical analysis of the global structure of the Worldwide Marine Transportation Network (WMTN), we find that the WMTN, a small-world network, exhibits an exponential-like degree distribution. We hereby investigate the efficiency of the WMTN by employing a simple definition. Compared with many other transportation networks, the WMTN possesses relatively low efficiency. Furthermore, by exploring the relationship between the topological structure and the container throughput, we find that strong correlations exist among the container throughout the degree and the clustering coefficient. Also, considering the navigational process that a ship travels in a real shipping line, we obtain that the weight of a seaport is proportional to the total probability contributed by all the passing shipping lines.

  5. Elastic and Related Transport Cross Sections, Charge Transfer: Data from the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Krstic, P. S; Schultz, D. R.

    Data files available in this section of the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC) are found under the following headings: • Isotopomers of hydrogen ions, atoms and molecules and helium • Vibrationally excited states of hydrogen molecule with proton, and hydrogen molecular ion with hydrogen • Isotopomers of hydrogen ions with carbon • Isotopomers of hydrogen ions with argon • Hydrogen ions with neon • Hydrogen ions with krypton • Hydrogen ions with xenon • Elastic and other cross sections from ApJ xxx, yyyy (2008) Each heading is a link to more information, the data, and customized interfaces. (Specialized Interface)

  6. The importance of transport parameter cross correlations in natural systems radioactive transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, Paul W

    2011-01-03

    Transport parameter cross correlations are rarely considered in models used to predict radionuclide transport in natural systems. In this paper, it is shown that parameter cross correlations could have a significant impact on radionuclide transport predictions in saturated media. In fractured rock, the positive correlation between fracture apertures and groundwater residence times is shown to result in significantly less retardation due to matrix diffusion than is predicted without the correlation. The suppression of matrix diffusion is further amplified by a tendency toward larger apertures, smaller matrix diffusion coefficients, and less sorption capacity in rocks of lower matrix porosity. In a hypothetical example, strong cross correlations between these parameters result in a decrease in predicted radionuclide travel times of an order of magnitude or more relative to travel times calculated with uncorrelated parameters. In porous media, expected correlations between permeability, porosity, and sorption capacity also result in shorter predicted travel times than when the parameters are assumed to be uncorrelated. Individual parameter standard deviations can also have a significant influence on predicted radionuclide travel times, particularly when cross correlations are considered.

  7. Cross-shelf transport and dispersion due to baroclinic instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyng, Kristen; Hetland, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The dominant forcing mechanisms for the circulation in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico are largely determined by location relative to the shelf break. On the inner shelf, the flow is mostly controlled by the wind and on the outer shelf is affected by the mesoscale loop-current eddies. However, in the summer, baroclinic instabilities can develop along the boundary of the mid-shelf river plume front, leading to large eddies (~50 km length scale) that can reach across the entire shelf and strongly affect the local flow field. These instabilities advect fresher water toward the shelf edge and pull denser water back toward the coast. The details of how the flow crosses between these two regimes is of interest because it controls the flux of river-borne biogeochemical properties to the deep ocean, as well as for the potential onshore transport of oil from offshore spills. We approach this problem using a high resolution numerical model of the Texas-Louisiana shelf run using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and a Lagrangian particle tracking model (TRACMASS). By initializing drifters at the sources of fresh water (the Atchafalaya and Mississippi rivers) in the numerical model, we are able to explicitly track its trajectory through the numerical domain in time. These trajectories can then be used to characterize the cross-shelf transport and lateral dispersion due to the instabilities caused by the presence of the fresher water. We expect the transport and dispersion to be enhanced when compared with these quantities at other times of the year when the instabilities are not present, as well as with other regions of the shelf break that are farther from the plume edge area. Additionally, an idealized numerical model of a shelf break with both horizontal and vertical density gradients has been run through relevant parameter spaces to examine the range of baroclinic instabilities. Drifters are run in these simulations for comparison of transport and dispersion with

  8. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Synthesis and high temperature thermoelectric transport properties of Si-based type-I clathrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shu-Kang; Tang, Xin-Feng; Tang, Run-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    N-type Si-based type-I clathrates with different Ga content were synthesized by combining the solid-state reaction method, melting method and spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The effects of Ga composition on high temperature thermoelectric transport properties were investigated. The results show that at room temperature, the carrier concentration decreases, while the carrier mobility increases slightly with increasing Ga content. The Seebeck coefficient increases with increasing Ga content. Among all the samples, Ba7.93Ga17.13Si28.72 exhibits higher Seebeck coefficient than the others and reaches -135 μV.K-1 at 1000 K. The sample prepared by this method exhibits very high electrical conductivity, and reaches 1.95×105 S.m-1 for Ba8.01Ga16.61Si28.93 at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of all samples is almost temperature independent in the temperature range of 300-1000 K, indicating the behaviour of a typical metal. The maximum ZT value of 0.75 is obtained at 1000 K for the compound Ba7.93Ga17.13Si28.72.

  9. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  10. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  11. Precise Relative Earthquake Magnitudes from Cross Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, K. Michael; Ammon, Charles J.

    2015-04-21

    We present a method to estimate precise relative magnitudes using cross correlation of seismic waveforms. Our method incorporates the intercorrelation of all events in a group of earthquakes, as opposed to individual event pairings relative to a reference event. This method works well when a reliable reference event does not exist. We illustrate the method using vertical strike-slip earthquakes located in the northeast Pacific and Panama fracture zone regions. Our results are generally consistent with the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog, which we use to establish a baseline for the relative event sizes.

  12. Contrasting local retention and cross-shore transports of the East Australian Current and the Leeuwin Current and their relative influences on the life histories of small pelagic fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, S. A.; Mansbridge, J. V.; Cahill, M. L.

    2011-03-01

    Transport between shelf and offshore environments supports a significant proportion of ocean primary productivity and is critical to the life cycle of many marine species. While fundamental differences in the underlying dynamics of eastern and western boundary currents have been recognized and studied for more than half a century, the implications for physical dispersal rates have received much less attention. In this study we explore how Australia's two major boundary current systems, the East Australian Current and the Leeuwin Current, differ in their local retention and cross-shore transports in the upper water column and how these differences favor contrasting life histories of small pelagic fishes. The results suggest that the East Australian Current forms a partial barrier to onshore transport, but is effective in entraining shelf waters and transporting them offshore, particularly in the region where the current separates from the coast. Blue mackerel ( Scomber australasicus) spawn on the outer-shelf in this separation region and may thereby maximize the dispersion of eggs and larvae in the mainly oligotrophic waters of the southern Coral Sea. In contrast, the Leeuwin Current system promotes onshore transport through the combined effects of mean onshore flow and eddy-induced mixing. In the Great Australian Bight, sardine ( Sardinops sagax) and anchovy ( Engraulis australis) may exploit the high coastal retention of the Leeuwin Current system by spawning on the inner-shelf during summer when the current is weakest and winds assist retention and enhance production through local upwelling.

  13. The relative cost of biomass energy transport.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    2007-04-01

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  14. Investigation of anisotropic thermal transport in cross-linked polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simavilla, David Nieto

    Thermal transport in lightly cross-linked polyisoprene and polybutadine subjected to uniaxial elongation is investigated experimentally. We employ two experimental techniques to assess the effect that deformation has on this class of materials. The first technique, which is based on Forced Rayleigh Scattering (FRS), allows us to measure the two independent components of the thermal diffusivity tensor as a function of deformation. These measurements along with independent measurements of the tensile stress and birefringence are used to evaluate the stress-thermal and stress-optic rules. The stress-thermal rule is found to be valid for the entire range of elongations applied. In contrast, the stress-optic rule fails for moderate to large stretch ratios. This suggests that the degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity depends on both orientation and tension in polymer chain segments. The second technique, which is based on infrared thermography (IRT), allows us to measure anisotropy in thermal conductivity and strain induced changes in heat capacity. We validate this method measurements of anisotropic thermal conductivity by comparing them with those obtained using FRS. We find excellent agreement between the two techniques. Uncertainty in the infrared thermography method measurements is estimated to be about 2-5 %. The accuracy of the method and its potential application to non-transparent materials makes it a good alternative to extend current research on anisotropic thermal transport in polymeric materials. A second IRT application allows us to investigate the dependence of heat capacity on deformation. We find that heat capacity increases with stretch ratio in polyisoprene specimens under uniaxial extension. The deviation from the equilibrium value of heat capacity is consistent with an independent set of experiments comparing anisotropy in thermal diffusivity and conductivity employing FRS and IRT techniques. We identify finite extensibility and strain

  15. Electron Transport Simulations of 4-Terminal Crossed Graphene Nanoribbons Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Pedro; Papior, Nick R.; Engelund, Mads; Garcia-Lekue, Aran; Frederiksen, Thomas; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel

    Recently, it has been reported theoretically a current switching mechanism by voltage control in a system made by two perpendicular 14-armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). In order to investigate the possibilities of using crossed GNRs as ON/OFF devices, we have studied their electronic and transport properties as function structural parameters determining the crossing. Our calculations were performed with TranSIESTA code, which has been recently generalized to consider N >= 1 arbitrarily distributed electrodes at finite bias. We find that the transmission along each individual GNR and among them strongly depends on the stacking. For a 60° rotation angle, the lattice matching in the crossing region provokes a strong scattering effect that translates into an increased interlayer transmission. FP7 FET-ICT PAMS-project (European Commission, contract 610446), MINECO (Grant MAT2013-46593-C6-2-P) and Basque Dep. de Educación, UPV/EHU (Grant IT-756-13).

  16. Cross-scale energy transport in space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. W.; Nykyri, K.; Dimmock, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind is a supersonic magnetized plasma streaming far into the heliosphere. Although cooling as it flows, it is rapidly heated upon encountering planetary obstacles. At Earth, this interaction forms the magnetosphere and its sub-regions. The present paper focuses on particle heating across the boundary separating the shocked solar wind and magnetospheric plasma, which is driven by mechanisms operating on fluid, ion and electron scales. The cross-scale energy transport between these scales is a compelling and fundamental problem of plasma physics. Here, we present evidence of the energy transport between fluid and ion scales: free energy is provided in terms of a velocity shear generating fluid-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We show the unambiguous observation of an ion-scale magnetosonic wave packet, inside a Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex, with sufficient energy to account for observed ion heating. The present finding has universal consequences in understanding cross-scale energy transport, applicable to environments experiencing velocity shears during comparable plasma regimes.

  17. Electron transport in argon in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    PubMed

    Ness; Makabe

    2000-09-01

    An investigation of electron transport in argon in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is carried out over a wide range of values of electric and magnetic field strengths. Values of mean energy, ionization rate, drift velocity, and diffusion tensor are reported here. Two unexpected phenomena arise; for certain values of electric and magnetic field we find regions where the swarm mean energy decreases with increasing electric fields for a fixed magnetic field and regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field.

  18. Cross-channel patterns of bed material transport in a poorly sorted sand-bed channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2016-11-01

    Understanding of sediment transport comes largely from studies conducted on well-sorted sand-bed and poorly sorted gravel-bed channels. The aim of this study is to evaluate cross-channel patterns of transport rate and grain size in a poorly sorted sand-bed channel. Transport observations were collected from the San Antonio River using a Helley-Smith sampler during flows from 0.02 to 1.1 times bankfull capacity. Resulting transport rates and grain size distributions were pooled to describe eight sections across a channel transect that includes the lower bank and compared to local boundary material. Maximum transport rates are concentrated in the central zone of the streambed regardless of flow level, but gravels and coarse sands are conveyed preferentially on one side of the bed. Grain size distributions change relatively little with flow and approximate the local bed material supply. The size distributions associated with smaller transport rates near the channel margin become finer and more closely approximate the size characteristics of bank material at higher flows. Results extend patterns of differential routing of grain sizes to channel banks and establish the relative fluxes between the bed and bank environments. The small gravel content in poorly sorted sand beds requires further attention because it can contribute to cross-channel variation in sediment fluxes, limit the development of sandy bedforms, and influence the quality of streambed habitat.

  19. Cross-field transport of electrons at the magnetic throat in an annular plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Cross-field transport of electrons has been studied at the magnetic throat of the annular Chi-Kung reactor. This annular configuration allows the creation of a low pressure argon plasma with two distinct electron heating locations by independently operating a radio-frequency antenna surrounding the outer source tube, or an antenna housed inside the inner source tube. The two antenna cases show opposite variation trends in radial profiles of electron energy probability function, electron density, plasma potential and electron temperature. The momentum and energy transport coefficients are obtained from the electron energy probability functions, and the related electron fluxes follow the path of electron cooling across the magnetic throat.

  20. Barrier Crossing and Transport Activated by Kangaroo Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostur, M.; Luczka, J.

    1999-01-01

    We study barrier crossing of Brownian particles in a bistable symmetric potential and transport of Brownian particles in spatially periodic structures, driven by both kangaroo fluctuations and thermal equilibrium noise of zero mean values. We consider exponentially and algebraically correlated kangaroo fluctuations. Starting with the full Newton--Langevin equation for the Brownian particle and by introducing scaling as well as dimensionless variables, we show that the equation is very well approximated by overdamped dynamics in which inertial effects can be neglected. We analyze properties of selected macroscopic characteristics of the system such as the mean first passage time (MFPT) of particles from one minimum of the bistable potential to the other and mean stationary velocity of particles moving in a spatially periodic potential. In dependence upon statistics of kangaroo fluctuations and temperature of the system, macroscopic characteristics exhibit distinctive non-monotonic behavior. Accordingly, there exist optimal statistics of fluctuations optimizing macroscopic characteristics.

  1. Universal relations of transport coefficients from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Cherman, Aleksey; Nellore, Abhinav

    2009-09-15

    We show that there are universal high-temperature relations for transport coefficients of plasmas described by a wide class of field theories with gravity duals. These theories can be viewed as strongly coupled large-N{sub c} conformal field theories deformed by one or more relevant operators. The transport coefficients we study are the speed of sound and bulk viscosity, as well as the conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and charge susceptibility of probe U(1) charges. We show that the sound bound v{sub s}{sup 2}{<=}1/3 is satisfied at high temperatures in these theories and also discuss bounds on the diffusion coefficient, the conductivity, and the bulk viscosity.

  2. Cross-Domain Analogies as Relating Derived Relations among Two Separate Relational Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among…

  3. The transport of relative canonical helicity

    SciTech Connect

    You, S.

    2012-09-15

    The evolution of relative canonical helicity is examined in the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic formalism. Canonical helicity is defined here as the helicity of the plasma species' canonical momentum. The species' canonical helicity are coupled together and can be converted from one into the other while the total gauge-invariant relative canonical helicity remains globally invariant. The conversion is driven by enthalpy differences at a surface common to ion and electron canonical flux tubes. The model provides an explanation for why the threshold for bifurcation in counter-helicity merging depends on the size parameter. The size parameter determines whether magnetic helicity annihilation channels enthalpy into the magnetic flux tube or into the vorticity flow tube components of the canonical flux tube. The transport of relative canonical helicity constrains the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields, and provides a more general framework for driving flows and currents from enthalpy or inductive boundary conditions.

  4. Solar coronal loop heating by cross-field wave transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amendt, Peter; Benford, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Solar coronal arches heated by turbulent ion-cyclotron waves may suffer significant cross-field transport by these waves. Nonlinear processes fix the wave-propagation speed at about a tenth of the ion thermal velocity, which seems sufficient to spread heat from a central core into a large cool surrounding cocoon. Waves heat cocoon ions both through classical ion-electron collisions and by turbulent stochastic ion motions. Plausible cocoon sizes set by wave damping are in roughly kilometers, although the wave-emitting core may be only 100 m wide. Detailed study of nonlinear stabilization and energy-deposition rates predicts that nearby regions can heat to values intermediate between the roughly electron volt foot-point temperatures and the about 100 eV core, which is heated by anomalous Ohmic losses. A volume of 100 times the core volume may be affected. This qualitative result may solve a persistent problem with current-driven coronal heating; that it affects only small volumes and provides no way to produce the extended warm structures perceptible to existing instruments.

  5. 48 CFR 728.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 728.313 Section 728.313 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.313 Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services....

  6. 48 CFR 728.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 728.313 Section 728.313 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.313 Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services....

  7. 48 CFR 28.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 28.313 Section 28.313 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.313 Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services....

  8. 48 CFR 28.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 28.313 Section 28.313 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.313 Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services....

  9. 48 CFR 728.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 728.313 Section 728.313 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.313 Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services....

  10. 48 CFR 728.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 728.313 Section 728.313 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.313 Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services....

  11. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Slager, R; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-05-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually

  12. Traffic control devices, visibility, and railroad grade crossings. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers contained in this volume are primarily from the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board and the Symposium for Improving Visibility for the Night Traveler, which was held in May 1994 in Washington, D.C. They concern traffic signs and signals, highway visibility, and rail-highway grade crossing safety and research, addressing some of the problems and issues facing urban engineers as they grapple with the ever more complex traffic system. Readers with a specific interest in traffic control devices will find papers related to effective uses of variable message signs, comprehension of various types of traffic control devices and their effects on driver behavior, pedestrian crosswalk time requirements, and empirical analysis of two-way stop-controlled intersections. Readers with an interest in delineation and illumination will find papers on minimum retroreflectivity requirements, pavement marking visibility and detectability, curve delineation, traffic sign reading distances at night, and apparent nighttime color of pavement marking products. Closing out this Record are papers addressing the application of GIS to rail-highway crossing safety and the accuracy of U.S. Department of Transportation rail-highway grade crossing accident prediction models.

  13. Transportation as a "Related Service": Issues that Involve Transition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper discusses transportation as a related service for students with disabilities expecially as related to school-to-work transition activities. First, the legislative and legal basis for providing transportation services is discussed in the form of answers to frequently asked questions: why provide transportation? what is the basis for…

  14. Cross-shore sand transport by infragravity waves as a function of beach steepness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, A. T. M.; Brinkkemper, J. A.; Steen, F.; Tissier, M. F. S.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2016-10-01

    Two field data sets of near-bed velocity, pressure, and sediment concentration are analyzed to study the influence of infragravity waves on sand suspension and cross-shore transport. On the moderately sloping Sand Motor beach (≈1:35), the local ratio of infragravity wave height to sea-swell wave height is relatively small (HIG/HSW<0.4), and sand fluxes are related to the correlation of the infragravity-wave orbital motion with the sea-swell wave envelope, r0. When the largest sea-swell waves are present during negative infragravity velocities (bound wave, negative correlation r0), most sand is suspended here, and the infragravity sand flux qIG is offshore. When r0 is positive, the largest sea-swell waves are present during positive infragravity velocities (free wave), and qIG is onshore directed. For both cases, the infragravity contribution to the total sand flux is, however, relatively small (<20%). In the inner surf zone of the gently (≈1:80) sloping Ameland beach, the infragravity waves are relatively large (HIG/HSW>0.4), most sand is suspended during negative infragravity velocities, and qIG is offshore directed. The infragravity contribution to the total sand flux is considerably larger and reaches up to ≈60% during energetic conditions. On the whole, HIG/HSW is a good indicator for the infragravity-related sand suspension mechanism and the resulting infragravity sand transport direction and relative importance.

  15. Performance of a Cross-Flow Humidifier with a High Flux Water Vapor Transport Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.; Berg, F.; Kadylak, D.

    2015-09-30

    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flow humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.

  16. Performance of a cross-flow humidifier with a high flux water vapor transport membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.; Berg, F.; Kadylak, D.

    2015-09-01

    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flow humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.

  17. Neighbourhood environment, sitting time and motorised transport in older adults: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Ching, Claudia S-K; Johnston, Janice M; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sitting time is a public health concern. This study examined associations of objectively measured neighbourhood environmental attributes with non-transport sitting time and motorised transport in 484 Hong Kong older adults. Neighbourhood attributes encouraging walking may help older adults replace some sitting time at home and on motorised transport with light-to-moderate-intensity activities such as strolling around the neighbourhood or walking to/from neighbourhood destinations. Thus, we hypothesised environmental attributes found to be related to walking would show associations with non-transport sitting time and motorised transport opposite to those seen for walking. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Hong Kong, an ultradense urban environment. Participants 484 ethnic Chinese Hong Kong residents aged 65+ recruited from membership lists of four Hong Kong Elderly Health Centres representing catchment areas of low and high transport-related walkability stratified by socioeconomic status (response rate: 78%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Attributes of participants’ neighbourhood environments were assessed by environmental audits, while non-transport sitting time and motorised transport were ascertained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—Long Form (Chinese version). Results Daily non-transport sitting minutes were 283 (SD=128) and motorised transport 23 (SD=28). Prevalence of signs of crime/disorder, streetlights, public facilities (toilets and benches) and pedestrian safety were independently negatively related, and sloping streets positively related, to sitting outcomes. Places of worship in the neighbourhood were predictive of more, and prevalence of public transit points of less, non-transport sitting. Associations of either or both sitting outcomes with prevalence of food/grocery stores and presence of parks were moderated by path obstructions and signs of crime/disorder. Conclusions The findings suggest that access to

  18. Illegal pedestrian crossing at signalised intersections: incidence and relative risk.

    PubMed

    King, Mark J; Soole, David; Ghafourian, Ameneh

    2009-05-01

    Illegal pedestrian behaviour is common and is reported as a factor in many pedestrian crashes. Since walking is being promoted for its health and environmental benefits, minimisation of its associated risks is of interest. The risk associated with illegal road crossing is unclear, and better information would assist in setting a rationale for enforcement and priorities for public education. An observation survey of pedestrian behaviour was conducted at signalised intersections in the Brisbane CBD (Queensland, Australia) on typical workdays, using behavioural categories that were identifiable in police crash reports. The survey confirmed high levels of crossing against the lights, or close enough to the lights that they should legally have been used. Measures of exposure for crossing legally, against the lights, and close to the lights were generated by weighting the observation data. Relative risk ratios were calculated for these categories using crash data from the observation sites and adjacent midblocks. Crossing against the lights and crossing close to the lights both exhibited a crash risk per crossing event approximately eight times that of legal crossing at signalised intersections. The implications of these results for enforcement and education are discussed, along with the limitations of the study.

  19. Plant water relations I: uptake and transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants, like all living things, are mostly water. Water is the matrix of life, and its availability determines the distribution and productivity of plants on earth. Vascular plants evolved structures that enable them to transport water long distances with little input of energy, but the hollow trach...

  20. Kinetic Phenomena in Transport of Electrons and Positrons in Gases caused by the Properties of Scattering Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marjanović, Srdan; Dujko, Saša; Banković, Ana; Šašić, Olivera; Bošnjaković, Danko; Stojanović, Vladimir; Malović, Gordana; Buckman, Stephen; Garcia, Gustavo; White, Ron; Sullivan, James; Brunger, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Collisions of electrons, atoms, molecules, photons and ions are the basic processes in plasmas and ionized gases in general. This is especially valid for low temperature collisional plasmas. Kinetic phenomena in transport are very sensitivitive to the shape of the cross sections and may at the same time affect the macroscopic applications. We will show how transport theory or simulation codes, phenomenology, kinetic phenomena and transport data may be used to improve our knowledge of the cross sections, our understanding of the plasma models, application of the swarm physics in ionized gases and similar applications to model and improve gas filled traps of positrons. Swarm techniques could also be a starting point in applying atomic and molecular data in models of electron or positron therapy/diagnostics in radiation related medicine.

  1. Cross-Domain Analogies as Relating Derived Relations among Two Separate Relational Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among separate relational networks and by correlating participants' performance with a standard measure of analogical reasoning. In two experiments, adult participants first completed general intelligence and analogical reasoning tests. Subsequently, they were exposed to a computerized conditional discrimination training procedure designed to create two relational networks, each consisting of two 3-member equivalence classes. The critical test was a two-part analogical test in which participants had to relate combinatorial relations of coordination and distinction between the two relational networks. In Experiment 1, combinatorial relations for each network were individually tested prior to analogical testing, but in Experiment 2 they were not. Across both experiments, 65% of participants passed the analogical test on the first attempt. Moreover, results from the training procedure were strongly correlated with the standard measure of analogical reasoning. PMID:21547072

  2. Cross-domain analogies as relating derived relations among two separate relational networks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-05-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among separate relational networks and by correlating participants' performance with a standard measure of analogical reasoning. In two experiments, adult participants first completed general intelligence and analogical reasoning tests. Subsequently, they were exposed to a computerized conditional discrimination training procedure designed to create two relational networks, each consisting of two 3-member equivalence classes. The critical test was a two-part analogical test in which participants had to relate combinatorial relations of coordination and distinction between the two relational networks. In Experiment 1, combinatorial relations for each network were individually tested prior to analogical testing, but in Experiment 2 they were not. Across both experiments, 65% of participants passed the analogical test on the first attempt. Moreover, results from the training procedure were strongly correlated with the standard measure of analogical reasoning.

  3. Supercritical droplet combustion and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Vigor; Hsieh, K. C.; Shuen, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in theoretical analyses of supercritical droplet vaporization and combustion is conducted. Both hydrocarbon and cryogenic liquid droplets over a wide range of thermodynamic states are considered. Various important high-pressure effects on droplet behavior, such as thermodynamic non-ideality, transport anomaly, and property variation, are reviewed. Results indicate that the ambient gas pressure exerts significant control of droplet gasification and burning processes through its influence on fluid transport, gas-liquid interfacial thermodynamics, and chemical reactions. The droplet gasification rate increases progressively with pressure. However, the data for the overall burnout time exhibit a considerable change in the combustion mechanism at the criticl pressure, mainly as a result of reduced mass diffusivity and latent heat of vaporization with increased pressure. The influence of droplet size on the burning characteristics is also noted.

  4. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  5. Relating Reactive Transport to Hierarchical Sedimentary Architecture. Part 1. Horizontal Spatial Correlation of Hydraulic and Reactive Transport Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzi, R. W., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies of the spatial correlation of log permeability (Y) in different sedimentary aquifers are reviewed showing that the spatial correlation structure can be defined by how the proportion of lag transitions crossing different facies (i.e. the cross-transition probability structure) increases with increasing lag distance. The common underlying cross-transition structure can contain substructures with different correlation ranges corresponding to different scales of sedimentary facies within the hierarchy of the sedimentary architecture. For each substructure, the standard deviation in facies length relative to the mean can mostly define the shape, and the proportions and mean length of facies define the range. An illustrative example from the Borden research site shows the horizontal spatial bivariate correlation of Y and of reactive attributes (R) affecting subsurface transport are both defined by the same underlying cross-transition probability structures. Thus, the horizontal Y and R autosemivariograms and the R-Y cross-semivariogram have the same underlying composite correlation structure and substructures (shape and range in the rise to a sill). Such cross-transition probability based correlation structures are used in the companion Part 2 presentation (Soltanian et al.) to develop models which relate the time-dependent effective retardation and the particle displacement variance to hierarchical sedimentary architecture.

  6. Assessing apical transportation in curved canals: comparison between cross-sections and micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Freire, Laila Gonzales; Gavini, Giulio; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Santos, Marcelo dos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of assessing apical transportation in curved canals after rotary instrumentation, namely, cross-sections and micro-computed tomography (µCT). Thirty mandibular molars were divided into two groups and prepared according to the requirements of each method. In G1 (cross-sections), teeth were embedded in resin blocks and sectioned at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex. Pre- and postoperative sections were photographed and analyzed. In G2 (µCT), teeth were embedded in a rubber-base impression material and scanned before and after instrumentation. Mesiobuccal canals were instrumented with the Twisted File (TF) system (SybronEndo, Orange, USA), and mesiolingual canals, with the EndoSequence (ES) system (Brasseler, Savannah, USA). Images were reconstructed, and sections corresponding to distances 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 mm from the anatomic apex were selected for comparison. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test at a 5% significance level. The TF and ES instruments produced little deviation from the root canal center, with no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05). The canal transportation results were significantly lower (0.056 mm) in G2 than in G1 (0.089 mm) (p = 0.0012). The µCT method was superior to the cross-section method, especially in view of its ability to preserve specimens and provide results that are more closely related to clinical situations.

  7. Investigation of cross-linking characteristics of novel hole-transporting materials for solution-processed phosphorescent OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemin; Ameen, Shahid; Lee, Changjin

    2016-04-01

    After the success of commercialization of the vacuum-evaporated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solutionprocessing or printing of OLEDs are currently attracting much research interests. However, contrary to various kinds of readily available vacuum-evaporable OLED materials, the solution-processable OLED materials are still relatively rare. Hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials for solution-processed OLEDs are especially limited, because they need additional characteristics such as cross-linking to realize multilayer structures in solution-processed OLEDs, as well as their own electrically hole-transporting characteristics. The presence of such cross-linking characteristics of solutionprocessable HTL materials therefore makes them more challenging in the development stage, and also makes them essence of solution-processable OLED materials. In this work, the structure-property relationships of thermally crosslinkable HTL materials were systematically investigated by changing styrene-based cross-linking functionalities and modifying the carbazole-based hole-transporting core structures. The temperature dependency of the cross-linking characteristics of the HTL materials was systematically investigated by the UV-vis. absorption spectroscopy. The new HTL materials were also applied to green phosphorescent OLEDs, and their device characteristics were also investigated based on the chemical structures of the HTL materials. The device configuration was [ITO / PEDOT:PSS / HTL / EML / ETL / CsF / Al]. We found out that the chemical structures of the cross-linking functionalities greatly affect not only the cross-linking characteristics of the resultant HTL materials, but also the resultant OLED device characteristics. The increase of the maximum luminance and efficiency of OLEDs was evident as the cross-linking temperature decreases from higher than 200°C to at around 150°C.

  8. Exploring safety impacts of pedestrian-crossing configurations at signalized junctions on urban roads with public transport routes.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, Victoria; Carmel, Roby; Doveh, Etti; Hakkert, Shalom

    2017-04-07

    This study explored the impacts of pedestrian-crossing configurations and other design features, on accident occurrences at signalized junctions situated on central public transport routes (PTRs) of urban arterials. Statistical tests and negative-binomial regression models were applied to identify factors affecting accidents and to examine accident numbers of the PTR junctions as opposed to comparison-sites. At the PTR junctions, a consistent impact of pedestrian-crossing configurations on accidents was found, where a gradated-crossing with mixed-shifting is the least safe. Four-legged junctions tend to higher accident numbers relative to the three-legged junctions. PTR junctions are characterized by higher accident numbers, related to comparison-sites, when controlling for other design characteristics. The study findings may assist in selecting preferable design solutions while planning PTR.

  9. Noninvasive cross section reconstruction with transport theory constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Fredette, N.; Ragusa, J.; Bangerth, W.

    2012-07-01

    We consider the inverse problem of identifying the spatially variable absorption and scattering properties of a medium by measuring the exiting radiation when the body is actively interrogated. We formulate this inverse problem as a PDE-constrained optimization problem and solve it iteratively with Newton's method. The constraint is given by the radiative transport equation for neutral particles. Two examples are considered. The first is a dual inclusion domain with no scattering. This problem explores the convergence patterns of the method. The second problem is a central inclusion problem with scattering. This problem explores the optical thickness limit of the method. This optical thickness was determined to be 2-3 mean free paths. (authors)

  10. Neutron cross-section probability tables in TRIPOLI-3 Monte Carlo transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, S.H.; Vergnaud, T.; Nimal, J.C.

    1998-03-01

    Neutron transport calculations need an accurate treatment of cross sections. Two methods (multi-group and pointwise) are usually used. A third one, the probability table (PT) method, has been developed to produce a set of cross-section libraries, well adapted to describe the neutron interaction in the unresolved resonance energy range. Its advantage is to present properly the neutron cross-section fluctuation within a given energy group, allowing correct calculation of the self-shielding effect. Also, this PT cross-section representation is suitable for simulation of neutron propagation by the Monte Carlo method. The implementation of PTs in the TRIPOLI-3 three-dimensional general Monte Carlo transport code, developed at Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, and several validation calculations are presented. The PT method is proved to be valid not only in the unresolved resonance range but also in all the other energy ranges.

  11. Ab initio electron scattering cross-sections and transport in liquid xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, G. J.; McEachran, R. P.; Cocks, D. G.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Dujko, S.; White, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    Ab initio fully differential cross-sections for electron scattering in liquid xenon are developed from a solution of the Dirac-Fock scattering equations, using a recently developed framework (Boyle et al 2015 J. Chem. Phys. 142 154507) which considers multipole polarizabilities, a non-local treatment of exchange, and screening and coherent scattering effects. A multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation accounting for the full anisotropic nature of the differential cross-section is used to calculate transport properties of excess electrons in liquid xenon. The results were found to agree to within 25% of the measured mobilities and characteristic energies over the reduced field range of 10-4-1 Td. The accuracies are comparable to those achieved in the gas phase. A simple model, informed by highly accurate gas-phase cross-sections, is presented to improve the liquid cross-sections, which was found to enhance the accuracy of the transport coefficient calculations.

  12. A Comparison of Hyporheic Transport at a Cross-Vane Structure and Natural Riffle.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Samuel J; Cullin, Joseph A; Ward, Adam S; Robinson, Jesse; Zimmer, Margaret A; Lautz, Laura K; Endreny, Theodore A

    2015-01-01

    While restoring hyporheic flowpaths has been cited as a benefit to stream restoration structures, little documentation exists confirming that constructed restoration structures induce comparable hyporheic exchange to natural stream features. This study compares a stream restoration structure (cross-vane) to a natural feature (riffle) concurrently in the same stream reach using time-lapsed electrical resistivity (ER) tomography. Using this hydrogeophysical approach, we were able to quantify hyporheic extent and transport beneath the cross-vane structure and the riffle. We interpret from the geophysical data that the cross-vane and the natural riffle induced spatially and temporally unique hyporheic extent and transport, and the cross-vane created both spatially larger and temporally longer hyporheic flowpaths than the natural riffle. Tracer from the 4.67-h injection was detected along flowpaths for 4.6 h at the cross-vane and 4.2 h at the riffle. The spatial extent of the hyporheic zone at the cross-vane was 12% larger than that at the riffle. We compare ER results of this study to vertical fluxes calculated from temperature profiles and conclude significant differences in the interpretation of hyporheic transport from these different field techniques. Results of this study demonstrate a high degree of heterogeneity in transport metrics at both the cross-vane and the riffle and differences between the hyporheic flowpath networks at the two different features. Our results suggest that restoration structures may be capable of creating sufficient exchange flux and timescales of transport to achieve the same ecological functions as natural features, but engineering of the physical and biogeochemical environment may be necessary to realize these benefits.

  13. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  14. Seasonal and interannual variability of cross-shelf transports of chlorophyll in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, Benjamín; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of offshore cross-shelf transports of chlorophyll-rich waters in the Gulf of Mexico is studied using Level-3, monthly SeaWiFS data and monthly NCEP/NCAR-Reanalysis winds for the period September 1997-August 2007. Offshore cross-shelf transports of chlorophyll-rich waters have a seasonal cycle mainly modulated by the component of the wind field along the coast. These transports are basically located at three regions: southwest of the Texas-Louisiana (LATEX) Shelf, the southern Bay of Campeche, and southeast of the Mississippi River mouth. Southwest of the LATEX Shelf and in the southern Bay of Campeche, the confluence of seasonal along-coast currents, produced by the convergence of the seasonal along-coast wind stress component, induces offshore cross-shelf transport of chlorophyll-rich waters, with maximum values of chlorophyll- a concentration occurring at these locations during May and October-November, respectively. On the slope, southeast of the Mississippi River mouth, the seasonal maximum of chlorophyll- a concentration is observed in July due to the prevailing southwesterly winds during this month. A large fraction of the interannual variability of the offshore cross-shelf transports of chlorophyll-rich waters in the southern Bay of Campeche is explained by anomalies of the convergence of the along-coast wind stress component. On the southwestern LATEX Shelf, in addition to this process, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies reaching this region may contribute to the interannual variability by shifting the location of the offshore cross-shelf transports.

  15. Making sense of (exceptional) causal relations. A cross-cultural and cross-linguistic study

    PubMed Central

    Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of “chance,” “coincidence,” or “randomness” that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links, the cultural background and the language used. In all three groups, Action-to-Outcome is the decisive link for recognizing causality. Despite the fact that the two Mayan groups share similar cultural backgrounds, they display different ideologies regarding concepts of non-law-like relations. The data suggests that the concept of “chance” is not universal, but seems to be an explanation that only some cultural groups draw on to make sense of specific situations. Of particular importance is the existence of linguistic concepts in each language that trigger ideas of causality in the responses from each cultural group. PMID:26579028

  16. Transport of Magnesium by a Bacterial Nramp-Related Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Senger, Ryan S.; Winkler, Wade C.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (∼0.5–2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

  17. Transport of magnesium by a bacterial Nramp-related gene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Ho; Wakeman, Catherine A; Goodson, Jonathan R; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Freedman, Benjamin G; Senger, Ryan S; Winkler, Wade C

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (∼0.5-2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes.

  18. Intracellular Transport Routes for MHC I and Their Relevance for Antigen Cross-Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Adiko, Aimé Cézaire; Babdor, Joel; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric; Guermonprez, Pierre; Saveanu, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Cross-presentation, in which exogenous antigens are presented via MHC I complexes, is involved both in the generation of anti-infectious and anti-tumoral cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and in the maintenance of immune tolerance. While cross-presentation was described almost four decades ago and while it is now established that some dendritic cell (DC) subsets are better than others in processing and cross-presenting internalized antigens, the involved molecular mechanisms remain only partially understood. Some of the least explored molecular mechanisms in cross-presentation concern the origin of cross-presenting MHC I molecules and the cellular compartments where antigenic peptide loading occurs. This review focuses on MHC I molecules and their intracellular trafficking. We discuss the source of cross-presenting MHC I in DCs as well as the role of the endocytic pathway in their recycling from the cell surface. Next, we describe the importance of the TAP peptide transporter for delivering peptides to MHC I during cross-presentation. Finally, we highlight the impact of innate immunity mechanisms on specific antigen cross-presentation mechanisms in which TLR activation modulates MHC I trafficking and TAP localization. PMID:26191062

  19. Transport Mechanisms of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers and their Related Cytotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Chai, Gui-Hong; Xu, Yingke; Chen, Shao-Qing; Cheng, Bolin; Hu, Fu-Qiang; You, Jian; Du, Yong-Zhong; Yuan, Hong

    2016-03-09

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been extensively investigated and demonstrated to be a potential nanocarriers for improving oral bioavailability of many drugs. However, the molecular mechanisms related to this discovery are not yet understood. Here, the molecular transport mechanisms of the SLNs crossing simulative intestinal epithelial cell monolayers (Caco-2 cell monolayers) were studied. The cytotoxicology results of the SLNs in Caco-2 cells demonstrated that the nanoparticles had low cytotoxicity, had no effect on the integrity of the cell membrane, did not induce oxidative stress, and could significantly reduce cell membrane fluidity. The endocytosis of the SLNs was time-dependent, and their delivery was energy-dependent. For the first time, the transport of the SLNs was directly verified to be a vesicle-mediated process. The internalization of the SLNs was mediated by macropinocytosis pathway and clathrin- and caveolae (or lipid raft)-related routes. Transferrin-related endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and Golgi apparatus were confirmed to be the main destinations of the SLNs in Caco-2 cells. As for the transport of the SLNs in Caco-2 cell monolayers, the results demonstrated that the SLNs transported to the basolateral side were intact, and the transport of the nanoparticles did not destroy the structure of tight junctions. The transcytosis of the SLNs across the Caco-2 cell monolayer was demonstrated to be mediated by the same routes as that in the endocytosis study. The ER, Golgi apparatus, and microtubules were confirmed to be important for the transport of the SLNs to both the basolateral and apical membrane sides. This study provides a more thoroughly understand of SLNs transportation crossing intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and could be beneficial for the fabrication of SLNs.

  20. Modelling hillslope evolution: linear and nonlinear transport relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Yvonne

    2000-08-01

    Many recent models of landscape evolution have used a diffusion relation to simulate hillslope transport. In this study, a linear diffusion equation for slow, quasi-continuous mass movement (e.g., creep), which is based on a large data compilation, is adopted in the hillslope model. Transport relations for rapid, episodic mass movements are based on an extensive data set covering a 40-yr period from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. A hyperbolic tangent relation, in which transport increases nonlinearly with gradient above some threshold gradient, provided the best fit to the data. Model runs were undertaken for typical hillslope profiles found in small drainage basins in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Results, based on linear diffusivity values defined in the present study, are compared to results based on diffusivities used in earlier studies. Linear diffusivities, adopted in several earlier studies, generally did not provide adequate approximations of hillslope evolution. The nonlinear transport relation was tested and found to provide acceptable simulations of hillslope evolution. Weathering is introduced into the final set of model runs. The incorporation of weathering into the model decreases the rate of hillslope change when theoretical rates of sediment transport exceed sediment supply. The incorporation of weathering into the model is essential to ensuring that transport rates at high gradients obtained in the model reasonably replicate conditions observed in real landscapes. An outline of landscape progression is proposed based on model results. Hillslope change initially occurs at a rapid rate following events that result in oversteepened gradients (e.g., tectonic forcing, glaciation, fluvial undercutting). Steep gradients are eventually eliminated and hillslope transport is reduced significantly.

  1. CLC CI-/H+ Transporters Constrained by Covalent Cross-Linking

    SciTech Connect

    Nguitragool,W.; Miller, C.

    2007-01-01

    CLC Cl-/H+ exchangers are homodimers with Cl--binding and H+-coupling residues contained within each subunit. It is not known whether the transport mechanism requires conformational rearrangement between subunits or whether each subunit operates as a separate exchanger. We designed various cysteine substitution mutants on a cysteine-less background of CLC-ec1, a bacterial CLC exchanger of known structure, with the aim of covalently linking the subunits. The constructs were cross-linked in air or with exogenous oxidant, and the cross-linked proteins were reconstituted to assess their function. In addition to conventional disulfides, a cysteine-lysine cross-bridge was formed with I2 as an oxidant. The constructs, all of which contained one, two, or four cross-bridges, were functionally active and kinetically competent with respect to Cl- turnover rate, Cl-/H+ exchange stoichiometry, and H+ pumping driven by a Cl- gradient. These results imply that large quaternary rearrangements, such as those known to occur for 'common gating' in CLC channels, are not necessary for the ion transport cycle and that it is therefore likely that the transport mechanism is carried out by the subunits working individually, as with 'fast gating' of the CLC channels.

  2. Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Browder, Joan A.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism.

  3. Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause transport in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Considine, D. B.; Horowitz, L. W.; Crawford, J. H.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Strahan, S. E.; Damon, M. R.; Steenrod, S. D.; Xu, X.; Kouatchou, J.; Carouge, C.; Yantosca, R. M.

    2015-09-01

    We use the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) modeling framework to assess the utility of cosmogenic beryllium-7 (7Be), a natural aerosol tracer, for evaluating cross-tropopause transport in global models. The GMI chemical transport model (CTM) was used to simulate atmospheric 7Be distributions using four different meteorological data sets (GEOS1-STRAT DAS, GISS II' GCM, fvGCM, and GEOS4-DAS), featuring significantly different stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) characteristics. The simulations were compared with the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) 7Be climatology constructed from ~ 25 years of aircraft and balloon data, as well as climatological records of surface concentrations and deposition fluxes. Comparison of the fraction of surface air of stratospheric origin estimated from the 7Be simulations with observationally-derived estimates indicates excessive cross-tropopause transport at middle latitudes in simulations using GEOS1-STRAT and at high latitudes using GISS II' meteorological data. These simulations also overestimate 7Be deposition fluxes at middle latitudes (GEOS1-STRAT) and at high latitudes (GISS II'), respectively. We show that excessive cross-tropopause transport of 7Be corresponds to overestimated stratospheric contribution to tropospheric ozone. Our perspectives on STE in these meteorological fields based on 7Be simulations are consistent with previous modeling studies of tropospheric ozone using the same meteorological fields. We further apply observational constraints to other global models including GFDL AM2 and GEOS-Chem (driven by GEOS3-DAS and GEOS5-DAS). We conclude that the observational constraints for 7Be and observed 7Be total deposition fluxes can be used routinely as a first-order assessment of cross-tropopause transport in global models.

  4. Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause transport in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Considine, David B.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Crawford, James H.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Strahan, Susan E.; Damon, Megan R.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Xu, Xiaojing; Kouatchou, Jules; Carouge, Claire; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) modeling framework to assess the utility of cosmogenic beryllium-7 (7Be), a natural aerosol tracer, for evaluating cross-tropopause transport in global models. The GMI chemical transport model (CTM) was used to simulate atmospheric 7Be distributions using four different meteorological data sets (GEOS1-STRAT DAS, GISS II' GCM, fvGCM, and GEOS4-DAS), featuring significantly different stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) characteristics. The simulations were compared with the upper troposphere and/or lower stratosphere (UT/LS) 7Be climatology constructed from ˜ 25 years of aircraft and balloon data, as well as climatological records of surface concentrations and deposition fluxes. Comparison of the fraction of surface air of stratospheric origin estimated from the 7Be simulations with observationally derived estimates indicates excessive cross-tropopause transport at mid-latitudes in simulations using GEOS1-STRAT and at high latitudes using GISS II' meteorological data. These simulations also overestimate 7Be deposition fluxes at mid-latitudes (GEOS1-STRAT) and at high latitudes (GISS II'), respectively. We show that excessive cross-tropopause transport of 7Be corresponds to overestimated stratospheric contribution to tropospheric ozone. Our perspectives on STE in these meteorological fields based on 7Be simulations are consistent with previous modeling studies of tropospheric ozone using the same meteorological fields. We conclude that the observational constraints for 7Be and observed 7Be total deposition fluxes can be used routinely as a first-order assessment of cross-tropopause transport in global models.

  5. Effect of the cross frequency on the transport in the fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chan-Yong; Min, Byunghoon; Kim, Chang-Bae

    2016-10-01

    The cross phase δ, i.e. the difference of the phase between the electric potential ϕ and the pressure pe, is studied in the electromagnetic resistive drift turbulence. An evolution equation for δ is obtained in the Fourier space that includes the energy-non-transporting fluxes due to E × B and magnetic nonlinearities. BOUT++ platform is used for the simulation until the steady state of the model is reached. The thermal transport Γ is found to be proportional to | pe|2 . δ and δ˙ is much smaller than the frequencies of ϕ and pe. The effect of zonal flows on δ will be presented at the conference.

  6. Electron Cross-field Transport in a Low Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2004-06-24

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. Electron cross-field transport in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of electron dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic electron collisions with atoms, electron-wall collisions, including secondary electron emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the electron anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant.

  7. Methodological problems in cross-cultural studies of linguistic relativity.

    PubMed

    Takano, Y

    1989-03-01

    Bloom (1981) tested a weak version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis (i.e., "Language affects thinking though it does not determine thinking") in a series of cross-cultural experiments. According to Bloom, Chinese lacks two linguistic devices that are present in English and supposed to be critical in performing theoretical thinking. It was found that the Chinese subjects were outperformed by American counterparts in all the tests designed to assess the ability of theoretical thinking. The results were taken as evidence for the weak version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. A methodological consideration has revealed, however, that all of his experiments except one are uninterpretable because of the lack of necessary control conditions. In addition, three experiments in the present study have demonstrated that the findings in Bloom's sole interpretable experiment were artifacts due to a methodological flaw. Further theoretical considerations reveal the inadequacy of Bloom's basic methodology and the limitation in the effects of linguistic relativity that may be possible at least theoretically.

  8. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  9. Elastic and transport cross sections for inert gases in a hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstic, Predrag

    2005-05-01

    Accurate elastic differential and integral scattering and transport cross sections have been computed using a fully quantum-mechanical approach for hydrogen ions (H^+, D^+ and T^+) colliding with Neon, Krypton and Xenon, in the center of mass energy range 0.1 to 200 eV. The momentum transfer and viscosity cross sections have been extended to higher keV collision energies using a classical, three-body scattering method. The results were compared with previously calculated values for Argon and Helium, as well as with simple analytical models. The cross sections, tabulated and available through the world wide web (www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov) are of significance in fusion plasma modeling, gaseous electronics and other plasma applications.

  10. Generation of discrete scattering cross sections and demonstration of Monte Carlo charged particle transport in the Milagro IMC code package

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J. A.; Palmer, T. S.; Urbatsch, T. J.

    2013-07-01

    A new method for generating discrete scattering cross sections to be used in charged particle transport calculations is investigated. The method of data generation is presented and compared to current methods for obtaining discrete cross sections. The new, more generalized approach allows greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data generated with the new method is verified through a comparison with discrete data obtained with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code package, Milagro. The implementation of this capability is verified using test problems with analytic solutions as well as a comparison of electron dose-depth profiles calculated with Milagro and an already-established electron transport code. An initial investigation of a preliminary integration of the discrete cross section generation method with the new charged particle transport capability in Milagro is also presented. (authors)

  11. A close look at axonal transport: Cargos slow down when crossing stationary organelles.

    PubMed

    Che, Daphne L; Chowdary, Praveen D; Cui, Bianxiao

    2016-01-01

    The bidirectional transport of cargos along the thin axon is fundamental for the structure, function and survival of neurons. Defective axonal transport has been linked to the mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we study the effect of the local axonal environment to cargo transport behavior in neurons. Using dual-color fluorescence imaging in microfluidic neuronal devices, we quantify the transport dynamics of cargos when crossing stationary organelles such as non-moving endosomes and stationary mitochondria in the axon. We show that the axonal cargos tend to slow down, or pause transiently within the vicinity of stationary organelles. The slow-down effect is observed in both retrograde and anterograde transport directions of three different cargos (TrkA, lysosomes and TrkB). Our results agree with the hypothesis that bulky axonal structures can pose as steric hindrance for axonal transport. However, the results do not rule out the possibility that cellular mechanisms causing stationary organelles are also responsible for the delay in moving cargos at the same locations.

  12. 49 CFR 176.704 - Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. 176.704 Section 176.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. (a) The sum of the transport...

  13. 49 CFR 176.704 - Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. 176.704 Section 176.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. (a) The sum of the transport...

  14. Vitamin C crosses the blood-brain barrier in the oxidized form through the glucose transporters.

    PubMed Central

    Agus, D B; Gambhir, S S; Pardridge, W M; Spielholz, C; Baselga, J; Vera, J C; Golde, D W

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin C concentrations in the brain exceed those in blood by 10-fold. In both tissues, the vitamin is present primarily in the reduced form, ascorbic acid. We identified the chemical form of vitamin C that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the mechanism of this process. Ascorbic acid was not able to cross the blood-brain barrier in our studies. In contrast, the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized ascorbic acid), readily entered the brain and was retained in the brain tissue in the form of ascorbic acid. Transport of dehydroascorbic acid into the brain was inhibited by d-glucose, but not by l-glucose. The facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT1, is expressed on endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier, and is responsible for glucose entry into the brain. This study provides evidence showing that GLUT1 also transports dehydroascorbic acid into the brain. The findings define the transport of dehydroascorbic acid by GLUT1 as a mechanism by which the brain acquires vitamin C, and point to the oxidation of ascorbic acid as a potentially important regulatory step in accumulation of the vitamin by the brain. These results have implications for increasing antioxidant potential in the central nervous system. PMID:9389750

  15. Cross-Saharan transport of water vapor via recycled cold pool outflows from moist convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Very sparse data have previously limited observational studies of meteorological processes in the Sahara. We present an observed case of convectively driven water vapor transport crossing the Sahara over 2.5 days in June 2012, from the Sahel in the south to the Atlas in the north. A daily cycle is observed, with deep convection in the evening generating moist cold pools that fed the next day's convection; the convection then generated new cold pools, providing a vertical recycling of moisture. Trajectories driven by analyses were able to capture the direction of the transport but not its full extent, particularly at night when cold pools are most active, and analyses missed much of the water content of cold pools. The results highlight the importance of cold pools for moisture transport, dust and clouds, and demonstrate the need to include these processes in models in order to improve the representation of Saharan atmosphere.

  16. Correcting evaluation bias of relational classifiers with network cross validation

    DOE PAGES

    Neville, Jennifer; Gallagher, Brian; Eliassi-Rad, Tina; ...

    2011-01-04

    Recently, a number of modeling techniques have been developed for data mining and machine learning in relational and network domains where the instances are not independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). These methods specifically exploit the statistical dependencies among instances in order to improve classification accuracy. However, there has been little focus on how these same dependencies affect our ability to draw accurate conclusions about the performance of the models. More specifically, the complex link structure and attribute dependencies in relational data violate the assumptions of many conventional statistical tests and make it difficult to use these tests to assess themore » models in an unbiased manner. In this work, we examine the task of within-network classification and the question of whether two algorithms will learn models that will result in significantly different levels of performance. We show that the commonly used form of evaluation (paired t-test on overlapping network samples) can result in an unacceptable level of Type I error. Furthermore, we show that Type I error increases as (1) the correlation among instances increases and (2) the size of the evaluation set increases (i.e., the proportion of labeled nodes in the network decreases). Lastly, we propose a method for network cross-validation that combined with paired t-tests produces more acceptable levels of Type I error while still providing reasonable levels of statistical power (i.e., 1–Type II error).« less

  17. Correcting evaluation bias of relational classifiers with network cross validation

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, Jennifer; Gallagher, Brian; Eliassi-Rad, Tina; Wang, Tao

    2011-01-04

    Recently, a number of modeling techniques have been developed for data mining and machine learning in relational and network domains where the instances are not independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). These methods specifically exploit the statistical dependencies among instances in order to improve classification accuracy. However, there has been little focus on how these same dependencies affect our ability to draw accurate conclusions about the performance of the models. More specifically, the complex link structure and attribute dependencies in relational data violate the assumptions of many conventional statistical tests and make it difficult to use these tests to assess the models in an unbiased manner. In this work, we examine the task of within-network classification and the question of whether two algorithms will learn models that will result in significantly different levels of performance. We show that the commonly used form of evaluation (paired t-test on overlapping network samples) can result in an unacceptable level of Type I error. Furthermore, we show that Type I error increases as (1) the correlation among instances increases and (2) the size of the evaluation set increases (i.e., the proportion of labeled nodes in the network decreases). Lastly, we propose a method for network cross-validation that combined with paired t-tests produces more acceptable levels of Type I error while still providing reasonable levels of statistical power (i.e., 1–Type II error).

  18. Border Crossings: Engaging Students in Diversity Work and Intergroup Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan D.; Bylander, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    As an innovative model for diversity education, Dickinson College designed the "Crossing Borders" program to encourage culturally diverse students to live, work, and study together in multiple contexts both within the United States and abroad. Envisioning a series of crossings, the program brings together up to 20 students from Dickinson…

  19. Magneto transport in crossed electric and magnetic fields in compensated bulk GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syngayivska, G. I.; Korotyeyev, V. V.; Kochelap, V. A.; Varani, L.

    2016-09-01

    Low-temperature high-field electron transport is studied for compensated bulk GaN subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electron kinetics, distribution function, and field dependencies of the magneto transport characteristics are analyzed by using the Monte-Carlo method. At zero magnetic field, for an ionized impurity concentration of 1016 cm-3 and an electron concentration of 1015 cm-3, it is shown that dissipative streaming transport with a strong anisotropic electron distribution in the momentum space is realized at electric fields in the range 3 -10 kV/cm and for a lattice temperature of 30 K. The magnetic field destroys the dissipative streaming transport. Indeed, for a magnetic field greater than 4 T, the electrons are predominantly confined in a region of the momentum space where their energy is smaller than the optical phonon energy and the strong inelastic scattering by optical phonons is practically eliminated. A quasi-ballistic electron transport occurs in the form of a vortex-like motion in the momentum space. The axis of rotation of this vortex coincides with the average electron momentum. A general analysis of the distribution function suitable for any configuration of the Hall circuit is presented. The main magneto transport characteristics (dissipative current, Hall current, and Hall electric field) are studied for the short and open Hall circuits. We show that the magneto transport measurements can provide valuable information on the main features of the electron distribution function and electron dynamics in GaN. Finally, we suggest that the strong dependency of the dissipative current on the parameters of the Hall circuit can be used for current modulation and current switching.

  20. Thermally cross-linkable hole transport polymers for solution-based organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seung Ji; Cho, Se-Na; Lee, Woo-Hyung; Chung, Ha-Seul; Kang, In-Nam; Suh, Min Chul

    2014-04-01

    Two thermally cross-linkable hole transport polymers that contain phenoxazine and triphenylamine moieties, X-P1 and X-P2, are developed for use in solution-processed multi-stack organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Both X-P1 and X-P2 exhibit satisfactory cross-linking and optoelectronic properties. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of X-P1 and X-P2 are -5.24 and -5.16 eV, respectively. Solution-processed super yellow polymer devices (ITO/X-P1 or X-P2/PDY-132/LiF/Al) with X-P1 or X-P2 hole transport layers of various thicknesses are fabricated with the aim of optimizing the device characteristics. The fabricated multi-stack yellow devices containing the newly synthesized hole transport polymers exhibit satisfactory currents and power efficiencies. The optimized X-P2 device exhibits a device efficiency that is dramatically improved by more than 66% over that of a reference device without an HTL.

  1. A CUMULATIVE MIGRATION METHOD FOR COMPUTING RIGOROUS TRANSPORT CROSS SECTIONS AND DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS FOR LWR LATTICES WITH MONTE CARLO

    SciTech Connect

    Zhaoyuan Liu; Kord Smith; Benoit Forget; Javier Ortensi

    2016-05-01

    A new method for computing homogenized assembly neutron transport cross sections and dif- fusion coefficients that is both rigorous and computationally efficient is proposed in this paper. In the limit of a homogeneous hydrogen slab, the new method is equivalent to the long-used, and only-recently-published CASMO transport method. The rigorous method is used to demonstrate the sources of inaccuracy in the commonly applied “out-scatter” transport correction. It is also demonstrated that the newly developed method is directly applicable to lattice calculations per- formed by Monte Carlo and is capable of computing rigorous homogenized transport cross sections for arbitrarily heterogeneous lattices. Comparisons of several common transport cross section ap- proximations are presented for a simple problem of infinite medium hydrogen. The new method has also been applied in computing 2-group diffusion data for an actual PWR lattice from BEAVRS benchmark.

  2. Cross-plane electrical and thermal transport in oxide metal/semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pankaj

    Perovskite oxides display a rich variety of electronic properties as metals, ferroelectrics, ferromagnetics, multiferroics, and thermoelectrics. Cross-plane electron filtering transport in metal/semiconductor superlattices provides a potential approach to increase the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) and LaMnO3 (LMO) thin-film depositions were optimized using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to achieve low resistivity constituent materials for LSMO/LMO superlattice heterostructures on (100)-strontium titanate (STO) substrates. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution reciprocal space mapping (RSM) indicate that the superlattices are epitaxial and pseudomorphic. Cross-plane devices were fabricated by etching cylindrical pillar structures in superlattices using inductively-coupled-plasma reactive-ion etching. The cross-plane electrical conductivity data for LSMO/LMO superlattices reveal an effective barrier height of 220 meV. The cross-plane LSMO/LMO superlattices showed a giant Seebeck coefficient of 2560 microV/K at 300K that increases to 16640 microV/K at 360K. The large Seebeck coefficient may arise due to hot electron and spin filtering as LSMO/LMO superlattice constituent materials exhibit spintronic properties where charges and spin current are intertwined and can generate a spin-Seebeck effect. The room temperature thermal conductivity achieved in low resistivity superlattices was 0.92 W/mK, which indicates that cross-plane phonon scattering at interfaces reduces the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity. The giant contribution of spin-Seebeck, the large temperature dependence of the cross-plane power factor, and the low thermal conductivity in low resistance LSMO/LMO superlattices may offer opportunities to realize spin-magnetic thermoelectric devices, and suggests a direction for further investigations of the potential of LSMO/LMO oxide superlattices for thermoelectric devices.

  3. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  4. Observational Constraints on Atmospheric and Oceanic Cross-Equatorial Heat Transports: Revisiting the Precipitation Asymmetry Problem in Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Wang, H.; Cheng, A.; Kato, S.; Fasullo, J.; Xu, K. M.; Allan, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown strong linkages between hemispheric asymmetries in atmospheric and oceanic energy budgets, tropical precipitation and the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The energetics framework has been used to explain why the mean position of the ITCZ is in the Northern Hemisphere and to study large-scale circulation and precipitation responses to changes in the hemispheric distribution of heating. Here, we expand upon these earlier studies by also considering estimates of hemispheric asymmetry in surface and atmospheric radiation budget derived from satellite observations, which enables a decomposition of cross-equatorial heat transport in terms of radiative and non-radiative (i.e., combined latent and sensible heat) components. Satellite observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiation Budget (CERES) are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Observed radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to atmospheric and oceanic cross-equatorial heat transports are compared with simulations from 30 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results show that most CMIP5 models that overestimate tropical precipitation in the SH have too much net downward surface radiation and combined latent and sensible heat flux in the SH relative to the NH. In addition, many of the models also underestimate atmospheric radiative cooling in the SH compared to the NH. Consequently, the models have excessive heating of the SH atmosphere and anomalous SH to NH cross-equatorial heat transport. The anomalous northward heat transport occurs via the upper branch of the northern Hadley Cell, while anomalous NH to SH moisture transport occurs in the lower branch of the northern

  5. Anomalous cross-B field transport and spokes in HiPIMS plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecimovic, A.

    2016-05-01

    Localized light emission patterns observed during on time of a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge on a planar magnetron, known as spokes or ionization zones, have been identified as a potential source of anomalous cross-B field diffusion. In this paper experimental evidence is presented that anomalous diffusion is triggered by the appearance of spokes. The Hall parameter {ω\\text{ce}}{τ\\text{c}} , product of the electron cyclotron frequency and the classical collision time, reduces from Bohm diffusion values (∼ 16 and higher) down to the value of 3 as spokes appear, indicating anomalous cross-B field transport. A combination of intensified charge coupled device imaging and electric probe measurements reveals that the ions from the spokes are instantaneously diffusing away from the target. The ion diffusion coefficients calculated from a sideways image of the spoke are six times higher than Bohm diffusion coefficients, which is consistent with the reduction of the Hall parameter.

  6. Cross-layer restoration with software defined networking based on IP over optical transport networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Cheng, Lei; Deng, Junni; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Lee, Young

    2015-10-01

    The IP over optical transport network is a very promising networking architecture applied to the interconnection of geographically distributed data centers due to the performance guarantee of low delay, huge bandwidth and high reliability at a low cost. It can enable efficient resource utilization and support heterogeneous bandwidth demands in highly-available, cost-effective and energy-effective manner. In case of cross-layer link failure, to ensure a high-level quality of service (QoS) for user request after the failure becomes a research focus. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer restoration scheme for data center services with software defined networking based on IP over optical network. The cross-layer restoration scheme can enable joint optimization of IP network and optical network resources, and enhance the data center service restoration responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end service demands. We quantitatively evaluate the feasibility and performances through the simulation under heavy traffic load scenario in terms of path blocking probability and path restoration latency. Numeric results show that the cross-layer restoration scheme improves the recovery success rate and minimizes the overall recovery time.

  7. N(+)-N and O(+)-O interaction energies, dipole transition moments, and transport cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Complete sets of ion-atom interaction energies have been computed for nitrogen and oxygen with accurate large scale structure calculations. The computed energies agree well with the accurate potential curves available from spectroscopic measurement. The state functions from the nitrogen calculations have been applied to determine the transition moment for all allowed dipole transitions. These results can be combined to compute a detailed radiation spectrum such as that required to define the highly nonequilibrium environment of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV). The long-range interaction energies have been used to determine the ion-atom resonance charge exchange cross sections that are important for transport processes such as diffusion. A calculation to determine reliable transport properties for energies that include the AOTV temperature range from these computed properties is described.

  8. Electron Cross-field Transport in a Miniaturized Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov Artem, Raitses Yevgeny, Fisch Nathaniel J

    2005-10-14

    Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. The present paper gives a review of the experimental and numerical investigations of electron crossfield transport in the 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level). We show that, in order to explain the discharge current observed for the typical operating conditions, the electron anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub b} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of electron-wall collisions to cross-field transport is found to be insignificant. The optimal regimes of thruster operation at low background pressure (below 10{sup -5} Torr) in the vacuum tank appear to be different from those at higher pressure ({approx} 10{sup -4} Torr).

  9. Influence of oblique magnetic field on electron cross-field transport in a Hall effect thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Miedzik, Jan; Daniłko, Dariusz; Barral, Serge

    2015-04-15

    The effects of the inclination of the magnetic field with respect to the channel walls in a Hall effect thruster are numerically studied with the use of a one-dimensional quasi-neutral Particle-In-Cell model with guiding center approximation of electron motion along magnetic lines. Parametric studies suggest that the incidence angle strongly influences electron transport across the magnetic field. In ion-focusing magnetic topologies, electrons collide predominantly on the side of the magnetic flux tube closer to the anode, thus increasing the electron cross-field drift. The opposite effect is observed in ion-defocussing topology.

  10. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Interactions of Hydrogen and Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The interaction energies for N2-He and N2-H2 are calculated by accurate ab initio methods. The virial coefficient and differential scattering cross section for N2-H2 are calculated; the theoretical results are compared with experimental data. The transport collision integrals for N2-H2 and N2-N2 interactions are calculated and tabulated; the results yield transport coefficients that compare well with measured data. Transport coefficients are found to be determined accurately from the interaction energies for a specific configuration of the molecule formed from the interaction partners. Comparisons with results of measurement and accurate calculations demonstrate that the transport properties of complex molecular interactions can be determined rapidly and fairly accurately from the interaction energies of simpler system using combination rules for the short-range parameters of effective interaction energies and the coefficients for the long-range forces. The coefficients for a two-parameter temperature expansion of diffusion and viscosity are tabulated for a realistic universal potential energy that is based primarily on the results of very accurate calculations of the He-He interaction energy.

  11. High-frequency limit of the transport cross section in scattering by an obstacle with impedance boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksenko, A. I.; Cruz, J. P.; Lakshtanov, E. L.

    2008-06-01

    The scalar scattering of a plane wave by a strictly convex obstacle with impedance boundary conditions is considered. A uniform bound of the total cross section for all values of the frequency is presented. The high-frequency limit of the transport cross section is calculated and presented as a classical functional of the variational calculus.

  12. Sediment transport under wave groups: Relative importance between nonlinear waveshape and nonlinear boundary layer streaming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yu, X.; Hsu, T.-J.; Hanes, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport under nonlinear waves in a predominately sheet flow condition is investigated using a two-phase model. Specifically, we study the relative importance between the nonlinear waveshape and nonlinear boundary layer streaming on cross-shore sand transport. Terms in the governing equations because of the nonlinear boundary layer process are included in this one-dimensional vertical (1DV) model by simplifying the two-dimensional vertical (2DV) ensemble-averaged two-phase equations with the assumption that waves propagate without changing their form. The model is first driven by measured time series of near-bed flow velocity because of a wave group during the SISTEX99 large wave flume experiment and validated with the measured sand concentration in the sheet flow layer. Additional studies are then carried out by including and excluding the nonlinear boundary layer terms. It is found that for the grain diameter (0.24 mm) and high-velocity skewness wave condition considered here, nonlinear waveshape (e.g., skewness) is the dominant mechanism causing net onshore transport and nonlinear boundary layer streaming effect only causes an additional 36% onshore transport. However, for conditions of relatively low-wave skewness and a stronger offshore directed current, nonlinear boundary layer streaming plays a more critical role in determining the net transport. Numerical experiments further suggest that the nonlinear boundary layer streaming effect becomes increasingly important for finer grain. When the numerical model is driven by measured near-bed flow velocity in a more realistic surf zone setting, model results suggest nonlinear boundary layer processes may nearly double the onshore transport purely because of nonlinear waveshape. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore, to estimate the transportation-related fuel used off-highway, transportation equipment is defined to

  14. Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ted to the Army’s burn center between March 2003 and February 2007. Data in- cluded total body surface area (TBSA) burn, ventilatory status... total body surface area (range, ə%–95%) with a mean Injury Severity Score of 12.2 13.7. One hundred eight-one (33.5%) casualties required venti...Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  15. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  16. Identification of Measures Related to Cross-Cultural Competence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    5. Task role behaviors - contribute to group problem-solving activities Results of the administration of the BASIC measure to 263 college...mental health systems and agencies wish to hire culturally competent providers and to train their providers to be culturally competent (Sue, 2003...hypothesized predictors, or antecedents, of behavior , such as personality traits. These Cognitive Performance Group Review of Cross Cultural Competence

  17. Cross-field electron transport induced by a rotating spoke in a cylindrical Hall thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, C. L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rotating spoke phenomena have been observed in a variety of Hall thruster and other E × B devices. It has been suggested that the spoke may be associated with the enhancement of the electron cross-field transport. In this paper, the current conducted across the magnetic field via a rotating spoke has been directly measured for the first time in the E × B discharge of a cylindrical Hall thruster. The spoke current was measured using a segmented anode. Synchronized measurements with a high speed camera and a four-segment anode allow observation of the current as a function of time and azimuthal position. Upwards of 50% of the total current is conducted through the spoke, which occupies a quarter of the Hall thruster channel area. To determine the transport mechanism, emissive and Langmuir probes were installed to measure fluctuating plasma potential, electron density, and temperature. A perturbed, azimuthal electric field and density are observed to oscillate in-phase with the rotating spoke. The resulting drift current is found to enhance electron transport with a magnitude equal to the spoke current to within margins of error.

  18. An advection-diffusion model for cross-field runaway electron transport in perturbed magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Särkimäki, Konsta; Hirvijoki, Eero; Decker, Joan; Varje, Jari; Kurki-Suonio, Taina

    2016-12-01

    Disruption-generated runaway electrons (RE) present an outstanding issue for ITER. The predictive computational studies of RE generation rely on orbit-averaged computations and, as such, they lack the effects from the magnetic field stochasticity. Since stochasticity is naturally present in post-disruption plasma, and externally induced stochastization offers a prominent mechanism to mitigate RE avalanche, we present an advection-diffusion model that can be used to couple an orbit-following code to an orbit-averaged tool in order to capture the cross-field transport and to overcome the latter’s limitation. The transport coefficients are evaluated via a Monte Carlo method. We show that the diffusion coefficient differs significantly from the well-known Rechester-Rosenbluth result. We also demonstrate the importance of including the advection: it has a two-fold role both in modelling transport barriers created by magnetic islands and in amplifying losses in regions where the islands are not present.

  19. Sudden clearing of estuarine waters upon crossing the threshold from transport to supply regulation of sediment transport as an erodible sediment pool is depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991–1998 to 1999–2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing.

  20. Direct relations between morphology and transport in Boolean models.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Christian; Wirner, Frank; Klatt, Michael A; Hirneise, Daniel; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E; Mecke, Klaus; Bechinger, Clemens

    2015-10-01

    We study the relation of permeability and morphology for porous structures composed of randomly placed overlapping circular or elliptical grains, so-called Boolean models. Microfluidic experiments and lattice Boltzmann simulations allow us to evaluate a power-law relation between the Euler characteristic of the conducting phase and its permeability. Moreover, this relation is so far only directly applicable to structures composed of overlapping grains where the grain density is known a priori. We develop a generalization to arbitrary structures modeled by Boolean models and characterized by Minkowski functionals. This generalization works well for the permeability of the void phase in systems with overlapping grains, but systematic deviations are found if the grain phase is transporting the fluid. In the latter case our analysis reveals a significant dependence on the spatial discretization of the porous structure, in particular the occurrence of single isolated pixels. To link the results to percolation theory we performed Monte Carlo simulations of the Euler characteristic of the open cluster, which reveals different regimes of applicability for our permeability-morphology relations close to and far away from the percolation threshold.

  1. Direct relations between morphology and transport in Boolean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Christian; Wirner, Frank; Klatt, Michael A.; Hirneise, Daniel; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus; Bechinger, Clemens

    2015-10-01

    We study the relation of permeability and morphology for porous structures composed of randomly placed overlapping circular or elliptical grains, so-called Boolean models. Microfluidic experiments and lattice Boltzmann simulations allow us to evaluate a power-law relation between the Euler characteristic of the conducting phase and its permeability. Moreover, this relation is so far only directly applicable to structures composed of overlapping grains where the grain density is known a priori. We develop a generalization to arbitrary structures modeled by Boolean models and characterized by Minkowski functionals. This generalization works well for the permeability of the void phase in systems with overlapping grains, but systematic deviations are found if the grain phase is transporting the fluid. In the latter case our analysis reveals a significant dependence on the spatial discretization of the porous structure, in particular the occurrence of single isolated pixels. To link the results to percolation theory we performed Monte Carlo simulations of the Euler characteristic of the open cluster, which reveals different regimes of applicability for our permeability-morphology relations close to and far away from the percolation threshold.

  2. Cumulative relative reactivity: A concept for modeling aquifer-scale reactive transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loschko, Matthias; Wöhling, Thomas; Rudolph, David L.; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-10-01

    We simulate aquifer-scale reactive transport using an approach based on travel times and relative reactivity. The latter quantifies the intensity of the chemical reaction relative to a reference reaction rate with identical concentrations and can be interpreted as the strength of electron-donor (or electron-acceptor) release by the matrix, scaled by a reference release. In general, the relative reactivity is a spatially variable property reflecting the geology of the formation. In the proposed approach, we track the path of individual water parcels through the aquifer and evaluate the age of the water parcels and the relative reactivity integrated along their trajectories. By switching from spatial discretization to cumulative relative reactivity, advective-reactive transport can be simulated by solving a single system of ordinary differential equations for each combination of concentrations in the inflow. We test the validity of the approach in a two-dimensional test case of steady state groundwater flow and reactive transport involving aerobic respiration and denitrification. Here we compare steady state concentration distributions of the spatially explicit virtual truth, accounting for dispersive mixing, with the approximation based on cumulative relative reactivity and show that the errors introduced by neglecting dispersive mixing are minor if the target quantities are the mass fluxes crossing a control plane or being collected by a well. We further demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in a synthetic three-dimensional case study. The proposed approach is computationally so efficient that ensemble runs to assess statistical distributions of concentration time series of reactive solutes become feasible, which is not practical with a spatially explicit model.

  3. Cross-Lagged Relations between Task Motivation and Performance in Arithmetic and Literacy in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljaranta, Jaana; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    To examine the cross-lagged relationships between children's task motivation in mathematics and literacy, and their related performance, 139 children aged 5-6 years were examined twice during their kindergarten year. The results showed that only math-related task motivation and arithmetic performance showed cross-lagged relationship: the higher…

  4. The transport of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in lightly cross-linked silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C J; Jerina, K L; Brandon, H J; Young, V L

    2001-01-01

    The transport of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), one of the major constituents of silicone fluids and rubbers, and low viscosity polydimethylsiloxane oil into a silica filled cross-linked silicone elastomeric rubber was measured as a function of temperature, cross-link density of the rubber, and concentration of the D4 in methanol solution. A small amount of material, approximately 3 wt%, is extracted from the rubber with hexane. The extraction process has a large effect upon D4 solubility in the rubber, increasing from approximately 160 to 180 wt% after extraction. The heats of solution for both penetrants into the rubber are essentially zero and the activation energies for diffusion are small, approximately 8 and 15 kJ molt(-1) for D4 and PDMS, respectively. The diffusion process is Fickian and the diffusion coefficient of D4 into silicone/silica rubbers is essentially independent of concentration over the concentration investigated, i.e. from 1 to 100 vol% D4 in methanol. The permeability, i.e. the product of the diffusion coefficient and the solubility, decreases rapidly for D4 concentrations less than 50 vol% (0.1 mol fraction). This suggests that the permeation of D4 out of any encapsulation device, such as a silicone breast implant, is linearly dependent upon the concentration of D4 in the prosthesis. Swelling is isotropic and was measured by dimensional changes in rectangular samples and correlates well with the volume of D4 sorbed.

  5. Semi-empirical inelastic cross sections for electron transport in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Emfietzoglou, D

    2002-01-01

    Electron inelastic cross sections for water in the liquid phase are important for developing Monte Carlo codes that simulate the full degradation of any radiation beam in biological matter. The limited experimental information for condensed targets and the complexity of the background theory has led to largely heuristic semi-empirical models. The present work makes use of the dielectric formalism under the first Born approximation to develop inelastic cross sections for low-energy electron transport in liquid water. A Drude model was used to describe the energy-loss distribution at the dipole limit on the basis of optical data, while the impulse approximation and an empirical generalised-oscillator-strength provided the extension to finite momentum transfer. Born corrections established earlier for water vapour were applied at low impact energies. Core-electron transitions were treated by a binary model with exchange terms. Sum-rules were satisfied to within 1-2% while an 1-value of about 80 eV was obtained. A comparison with other studies is provided.

  6. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  7. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  8. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  9. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  10. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  11. Crossed Andreev Reflection and Spin-Resolved Non-local Electron Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenkov, Mikhail S.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    The phenomenon of crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) is known to play a key role in non-local electron transport across three-terminal normal-superconducting-normal (NSN) devices. Here, we review our general theory of non-local charge transport in three-terminal disordered ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet (FSF) structures. We demonstrate that CAR is highly sensitive to electron spins and yields a rich variety of properties of non-local conductance, which we describe non-perturbatively at arbitrary voltages, temperature, degree of disorder, spin-dependent interface transmissions and their polarizations. We demonstrate that magnetic effects have different implications: While strong exchange field suppresses disorder-induced electron interference in ferromagnetic electrodes, spin-sensitive electron scattering at SF interfaces can drive the total non-local conductance negative at sufficiently low energies. At higher energies, magnetic effects become less important and the non-local resistance behaves similarly to the non-magnetic case. Our results can be applied to multi-terminal hybrid structures with normal, ferromagnetic and half-metallic electrodes and can be directly tested in future experiments.

  12. Electron Transport Coefficients and Scattering Cross Sections in CH4, HBr and in Mixtures of He and Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Sasic, Olivera M.

    2006-12-01

    We have applied a standard swarm procedure in order to obtain electron scattering cross sections and transport coefficients that provide a data base for plasma modeling. In case of CH4 the dissociative excitation cross sections from binary collision experiments were renormalized by fitting the measured excitation coefficients with our calculations. In case of HBr we have produced a complete set of cross sections based on available data from the literature, with some extrapolations. We have also tested the cross sections in He-Xe mixtures and the application of Blanc's law and common mean energy procedure in calculating drift velocities in by comparison with recent measurements. Finally, a well tested Monte Carlo code was used in wide range of both DC and RF electric and magnetic fields in order to calculate a number of transport coefficients in case of CH4 and HBr.

  13. Using Beryllium-7 to Assess Cross-Tropopause Transport in Global Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Considine, D.

    2007-12-01

    The stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) flux of ozone plays an important role in the tropospheric ozone budget. Representing this flux in global models is critical to quantitatively understanding the tropospheric ozone budget. Beryllium-7 (7Be), produced cosmogenically in the stratosphere and upper troposphere, has long been used to determine the stratospheric origin of tropospheric air. Here we use the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) modeling framework to assess the utility of 7Be for evaluating STE in global models. The GMI chemistry and transport model (CTM) was used to simulate atmospheric 7Be distributions using four different meteorological data sets, featuring significantly different STE characteristics. The data sets were generated by the Goddard Space Flight Center Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) GEOS-STRAT assimilation, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GISS II' general circulation model (GISS II' GCM), the GMAO finite-volume GCM (fvGCM), and the GMAO GEOS-4 data assimilation system (GEOS-4 DAS). The simulations were compared with observed 7Be concentrations at the surface and in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UT/LS), as well as surface deposition fluxes. The UT/LS observations are climatologies constructed from ~25 years of aircraft and balloon data from the US Environmental Measurements Laboratory RANDAB database. All simulations capture the observations at 12-16km, but underestimate concentrations at higher altitudes, especially at Northern Hemisphere middle/high latitudes with GEOS-STRAT. Comparison of the surface fraction of air of stratospheric origin estimated from the 7Be simulations with observationally-derived estimates indicates excessive cross-tropopause transport at middle latitudes in simulations using GEOS-STRAT and at high latitudes using GISS II' meteorological data. These simulations also overestimate 7Be deposition flux at middle latitudes (GEOS-STRAT) and at high latitudes (GISS II'). We conclude

  14. Observational constraints on atmospheric and oceanic cross-equatorial heat transports: revisiting the precipitation asymmetry problem in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wang, Hailan; Cheng, Anning; Kato, Seiji; Fasullo, John T.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Allan, Richard P.

    2016-05-01

    Satellite based top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget observations are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence and tendency from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Hemispheric contrasts in the energy budget terms are used to determine the radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to the cross-equatorial heat transports in the atmosphere (AHTEQ) and ocean (OHTEQ). The contrast in net atmospheric radiation implies an AHTEQ from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) (0.75 PW), while the hemispheric difference in sensible and latent heat implies an AHTEQ in the opposite direction (0.51 PW), resulting in a net NH to SH AHTEQ (0.24 PW). At the surface, the hemispheric contrast in the radiative component (0.95 PW) dominates, implying a 0.44 PW SH to NH OHTEQ. Coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models with excessive net downward surface radiation and surface-to-atmosphere sensible and latent heat transport in the SH relative to the NH exhibit anomalous northward AHTEQ and overestimate SH tropical precipitation. The hemispheric bias in net surface radiative flux is due to too much longwave surface radiative cooling in the NH tropics in both clear and all-sky conditions and excessive shortwave surface radiation in the SH subtropics and extratropics due to an underestimation in reflection by clouds.

  15. Molecular motions involved in Na-K-Cl cotransporter-mediated ion transport and transporter activation revealed by internal cross-linking between transmembrane domains 10 and 11/12.

    PubMed

    Monette, Michelle Y; Somasekharan, Suma; Forbush, Biff

    2014-03-14

    We examined the relationship between transmembrane domain (TM) 10 and TM11/12 in NKCC1, testing homology models based on the structure of AdiC in the same transporter superfamily. We hypothesized that introduced cysteine pairs would be close enough for disulfide formation and would alter transport function: indeed, evidence for cross-link formation with low micromolar concentrations of copper phenanthroline or iodine was found in 3 of 8 initially tested pairs and in 1 of 26 additionally tested pairs. Inhibition of transport was observed with copper phenanthroline and iodine treatment of P676C/A734C and I677C/A734C, consistent with the proximity of these residues and with movement of TM10 during the occlusion step of ion transport. We also found Cu(2+) inhibition of the single-cysteine mutant A675C, suggesting that this residue and Met(382) of TM3 are involved in a Cu(2+)-binding site. Surprisingly, cross-linking of P676C/I730C was found to prevent rapid deactivation of the transporter while not affecting the dephosphorylation rate, thus uncoupling the phosphorylation and activation steps. Consistent with this, (a) cross-linking of P676C/I730C was dependent on activation state, and (b) mutants lacking the phosphoregulatory domain could still be activated by cross-linking. These results suggest a model of NKCC activation that involves movement of TM12 relative to TM10, which is likely tied to movement of the large C terminus, a process somehow triggered by phosphorylation of the regulatory domain in the N terminus.

  16. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7–8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  17. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7-8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  18. French and American Cross-Cultural Military Education and Relations: One Naval Officer’s Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    determine whether cross- cultural education would have changed the outcome of history. However, a historical perspective may alert the reader to a ...from the perspective of the author of this paper. First, both schools possess the progressive potential to incorporate a formal cross- cultural ...AU/ACSC/0605C/97-03 FRENCH AND AMERICAN CROSS- CULTURAL MILITARY EDUCATION AND RELATIONS: ONE NAVAL OFFICER’S PERSPECTIVE A Research Paper

  19. Object relations and real life relationships: a cross method assessment.

    PubMed

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Fisher, Shimrit; Naot, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between the psychoanalytic concept of object relations and real life behavior of being in an intimate relationship among heterosexual women. In a multi-method approach we used two different measures; the self-report Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI; Bell, Billington & Becker, 1986) and the performance based Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Social Cognition & Object Relations Scale- Global Rating Method SCORS-G (Westen, 1995) to measure the object relations of 60 women. The Alienation subscale of the BORRTI and understanding of social causality subscale of the SCORS-G explained 34.8% of variance of the intimate relationship variable. Thus, women involved in a romantic relationship reported lower rates of alienation on the BORRTI and produced TAT narratives that were more adaptive with regard to understanding of social causality as measured by the SCORS-G than those not currently in a relationship. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between object relations and real life measures of healthy individuals and in light of the need for a multi-method approach of assessment.

  20. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    PubMed

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings.

  1. 49 CFR 176.704 - Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... criticality safety indices. 176.704 Section 176.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. (a) The sum of the transport indices... not apply to consignments of LSA-I material. (d) The sum of the criticality safety indices (CSI's)...

  2. 49 CFR 176.704 - Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... criticality safety indices. 176.704 Section 176.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Requirements relating to transport indices and criticality safety indices. (a) The sum of the transport indices... not apply to consignments of LSA-I material. (d) The sum of the criticality safety indices (CSI's)...

  3. Correcting Evaluation Bias of Relational Classifiers with Network Cross Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Computer Sciences (with a minor in Mathematical Statistics ) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2001. Broadly speaking, Tina’s research interests...These methods specifically exploit the statistical dependencies among instances in order to improve classification accuracy. However, there has been...the complex link structure and attribute dependencies in relational data violate the assumptions of many conventional statistical tests and make it

  4. Relating climate and sand transport to incipient dune development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Puijenbroek, Marinka; Limpens, Juul; Gleichman, Maurits; Berendse, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Sea levels are continuously rising, increasing the risk of flooding and coastal erosion in low-elevation countries, such as the Netherlands. Coastal dunes are seen as a flexible and natural type of coastal defence, that is able to keep pace with rising water levels. Until now most research has focussed on dynamics and maintenance of established dunes, largely ignoring two critical transitions in early dune development: the transition from bare beach to vegetated incipient dune and that from incipient dune to established foredune. This knowledge is essential to enable more accurate prediction and even stimulation of new dune formation through sand nourishment. We explored the relative contributions of climate and sand transport to incipient dune development combining a 30 year time-series of aerial photographs (1979 - 2010) of the natural Wadden Island coast with high-resolution monitoring data of sand volume changes and climatic parameters. We selected 20 strips of 2.5 km in length along the coast of the Wadden Islands, with a 2 km buffer between them to avoid autocorrelation. For each of these strips of coast we assessed the changes in presence and area of incipient dunes over periods of 5-6 years. Change in fore dune volume and beach width were derived from high resolution beach elevation data. Seawater level and climate data were derived from a nearby meteorological station Preliminary analysis of the first half of the dataset showed that incipient dune area was positively related to beach width, but negatively to storm intensity. In our poster we will present the whole dataset and discuss the implications of our results for future dune development and anthropogenic sand nourishment schemes.

  5. Cross-shelf transport into nearshore waters due to shoaling internal tides in San Pedro Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Burt Jones,; Peter Hamilton,; Xu, Jingping; George Robertson,; Leslie Rosenfeld,; John Largier,

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, a coastal ocean measurement program in the southeastern portion of San Pedro Bay, CA, was designed and carried out. One aim of the program was to determine the strength and effectiveness of local cross-shelf transport processes. A particular objective was to assess the ability of semidiurnal internal tidal currents to move suspended material a net distance across the shelf. Hence, a dense array of moorings was deployed across the shelf to monitor the transport patterns associated with fluctuations in currents, temperature and salinity. An associated hydrographic program periodically monitored synoptic changes in the spatial patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients and bacteria. This set of measurements show that a series of energetic internal tides can, but do not always, transport subthermocline water, dissolved and suspended material from the middle of the shelf into the surfzone. Effective cross-shelf transport occurs only when (1) internal tides at the shelf break are strong and (2) subtidal currents flow strongly downcoast. The subtidal downcoast flow causes isotherms to tilt upward toward the coast, which allows energetic, nonlinear internal tidal currents to carry subthermocline waters into the surfzone. During these events, which may last for several days, the transported water remains in the surfzone until the internal tidal current pulses and/or the downcoast subtidal currents disappear. This nonlinear internal tide cross-shelf transport process was capable of carrying water and the associated suspended or dissolved material from the mid-shelf into the surfzone, but there were no observation of transport from the shelf break into the surfzone. Dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates (such as phytoplankton) transported from the mid-shelf into the nearshore region by nonlinear internal tides may contribute to nearshore algal blooms, including harmful algal blooms that occur off local beaches.

  6. Factors related to venous ulceration: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Maksimovic, Milos; Radak, Djordje

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors related to venous ulceration. Patients with venous ulceration (278 patients) were compared with 1401 patients in other categories of clinical classification of venous disease (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiological [CEAP]). Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. According to multivariate analyses, risk factors for venous ulceration were age, male sex, personal history of superficial and deep venous thrombosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, skeletal or joint disease in the legs and emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher body mass index and physical inactivity, parental history of ankle ulcer as well as reflux in deep and perforator veins, deep obstruction, and combination of reflux and obstruction. It seems reasonable to pay special attention to patients in whom the postulated risk factors for venous ulceration are present.

  7. High-field electron transport in GaN under crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochelap, V. A.; Korotyeyev, V. V.; Syngayivska, G. I.; Varani, L.

    2015-10-01

    High-field electron transport studied in crossed electric and magnetic fields in bulk GaN with doping of 1016 cm-3, compensation around 90% at the low lattice temperature (30 K). It was found the range of the magnetic and electric fields where the non-equilibrium electron distribution function has a complicated topological structure in the momentum space with a tendency to the formation of the inversion population. Field dependences of dissipative and Hall components of the drift velocity were calculated for the samples with short- and open- circuited Hall contacts in wide ranges of applied electric (0 — 20 kV/cm) and magnetic (1 — 10 T) fields. For former sample, field dependences of dissipative and Hall components of the drift velocity have a non-monotonic behavior. The dissipative component has the inflection point which corresponds to the maximum point of the Hall component. For latter sample, the drift velocity demonstrate a usual sub-linear growth without any critical points. We found that GaN samples with controlled resistance of the Hall circuit can be utilized as a electronic high-power switch.

  8. Stationary Source Related Documents for State and Local Transportation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State and Local Transporation Resources is an EPA/OTAQ web page for state and local air quality regulators and transportation planners that offers guidance on how to reduce air pollution from cars, diesel trucks, city and school buses

  9. Role of mesoscale eddies in cross-frontal transport of carbon and nutrients in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Carolina O.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Palter, Jaime B.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a key role in oceanic carbon storage and global nutrient distributions. Here, carbon and nutrients are transferred into the ocean interior by the formation and subduction of mode and intermediate water masses. Much of the subducted carbon and nutrients in these water masses derive from waters upwelled at the Antarctic Divergence that must cross the numerous fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to reach the sites of water mass formation. These energetic frontal jets are natural barriers to tracer exchange but allow some crossings via specific mechanisms. While northward Ekman transport has been elucidated as the major mechanism for cross-frontal transport of tracers at intra-annual scale, little is known about the role of mesoscale eddies in mediating tracer exchange across fronts. This study aims to address the role of mesoscale eddies in cross-frontal transport of carbon and nutrients in the Southern Ocean while (i) quantifying the net transport of tracers across the various fronts of the ACC, (ii) describing the hot spots of tracer exchange, (iii) investigating the time-scales of this exchange and its response to climate change. To this purpose, we use a 1/10° configuration of the GFDL climate model (CM2.6) coupled to a simplified version of the biogeochemistry model BLING where dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), phosphate and oxygen are simulated. The model is started from observations with DIC corrected to preindustrial conditions, and run for a 120 year spin-up from which two 80 year simulations are performed: a preindustrial control with constant radiative forcing and a sensitivity with a 1%/year increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We focus our analyses on the last 20 years of both simulations sampled at monthly frequency. Online tendency terms are used to compute the total transport of DIC, phosphate and oxygen across the main fronts of the ACC, and to single out the mesoscale eddy component of the transport. The

  10. Gate-modulated transport properties and mechanism for nanowire cross junction based on SnO2 semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Tong, Yanhong; Wang, Guorui; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yichun

    2015-12-01

    The transport properties and mechanism of the three-terminal field-effect nanowire cross junction have been systematically investigated. An interesting phenomenon, such as applied voltage bias on nanowire cross junction makes the ON/OFF current ratio of the transistor improved by over 2 orders of magnitude, has been observed. Different from the two-terminal nanowire cross junctions, the cross junction induced potential barrier in three-terminal counterparts is found to be capable to prevent the current of the top semiconductor nanowire from injecting into the bottom nanowire at off state, while to make the current of the top semiconductor nanowire contribute to the current of the bottom nanowire at on state, resulting in the current switch between on state and off state by the gate voltage modulation.

  11. Sudden Clearing of Estuarine Waters upon Crossing the Threshold from Transport to Supply Regulation of Sediment Transport as an Erodible Sediment Pool is Depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991-1998 to 1999-2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing. ?? 2011 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (outside the USA).

  12. Policies related to active transport to and from school: a multisite case study.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Doescher, Mark P; Evenson, Kelly R; Fesperman, Carrie E; Litt, Jill S; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E; Terpstra, Jennifer L; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L

    2008-12-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that influence ATS initiatives. Nine elementary schools in seven states participated in this case study. Sixty-nine stakeholders were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analyzed using a master thematic codebook. This study identified two distinct aspects of policies: 'influential factors' which are factors that might impact policies related to ATS and 'policy actions' which are policies reported by people involved in ATS initiatives that directly affected their success. Influential factors included sidewalks, crosswalks/crossing guards, funding, personal safety concerns, advocacy group involvement and others. Policy actions included policies on school speed zone, drop-off, no-transport zones, school siting, school start/dismissal time and school choice. Despite the diversity of the schools studied, similarities included influence of built environment, safety concerns, funding and transdisciplinary collaboration. Stakeholders need to work together to stimulate action and ensure successful initiatives. Influential factors appear to be important to this process.

  13. \\A Gravity-Related Transport in Reactive Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, C.-H.; Lehozeky, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was designed to investigate the transport characterization of reactive off- axis sputtering deposition. Three transport regions were observed when the growth pressures vary from 5 mtorr to 150 mtorr. A new gravity-related phenomenon was revealed in film growth at relatively high growth pressures. This effect is related to the collision process or thermalization of transport species. This study also suggests a design for the substrate holder orientation in the off-axis sputtering system.

  14. Horizontal spatial correlation of hydraulic and reactive transport parameters as related to hierarchical sedimentary architecture at the Borden research site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzi, R. W.; Huang, L.; Ramanathan, R.; Allen-King, R. M.

    2013-04-01

    Highly resolved data from the Borden research site provide a unique opportunity to study the horizontal spatial bivariate correlation of hydraulic and reactive attributes affecting subsurface transport. The data also allow quantitatively relating this correlation to the hierarchical sedimentary architecture of the aquifer. The data include collocated samples of log permeability, Y, the log of the perchloroethene sorption distribution coefficient, Ξ, and lithologic unit type. The horizontal Y and Ξ autosemivariograms and the Ξ-Y cross-semivariogram have the same underlying correlation structure (shape and range in the rise to a sill). The common structure is not due to Ξ-Y point correlation or in-unit spatial correlation. The common structure is defined by how the proportion of lag transitions crossing different unit types (i.e., the cross-transition probability structure) increases with increasing lag distance. The common underlying cross-transition structure contains two substructures with different correlation ranges corresponding to two scales of unit types within the sedimentary architecture. For each substructure, a large standard deviation in the length of units relative to the mean length gives rise to an exponential-like shape and the proportions and mean length of units define the ranges. The horizontal Ξ-Y spatial cross correlation is primarily defined by the larger-scale substructure and the differences in mean Ξ and Y between larger-scale unit types.

  15. Transport-related phenomena for clusters of drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations for n-decane drops evaporating in a spherical cluster surrounded by unvitiated ambient air at atmospheric pressure were performed using two previously proposed cluster models. Both cluster models predict that turbulent transport effects are more important in the case of small clusters. This is due to the smaller volume to surface ratio and thus to the greater transport of hot unvitiated gas to the drops in order to promote evaporation. The results obtained are compared with those of two turbulent models for each one of the 'trapping factors' and similarity models.

  16. In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Scaling Factors for Intestinal P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: Part I: A Cross-Laboratory Comparison of Transporter-Protein Abundances and Relative Expression Factors in Human Intestine and Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Matthew D; Achour, Brahim; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Russell, Matthew R; Carlson, Gordon; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2016-03-01

    Over the last 5 years the quantification of transporter-protein absolute abundances has dramatically increased in parallel to the expanded use of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK)-linked models, for decision-making in pharmaceutical company drug development pipelines and regulatory submissions. Although several research groups have developed laboratory-specific proteomic workflows, it is unclear if the large range of reported variability is founded on true interindividual variability or experimental variability resulting from sample preparation or the proteomic methodology used. To assess the potential for methodological bias on end-point abundance quantification, two independent laboratories, the University of Manchester (UoM) and Bertin Pharma (BPh), employing different proteomic workflows, quantified the absolute abundances of Na/K-ATPase, P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the same set of biologic samples from human intestinal and Caco-2 cell membranes. Across all samples, P-gp abundances were significantly correlated (P = 0.04, Rs = 0.72) with a 2.4-fold higher abundance (P = 0.001) generated at UoM compared with BPh. There was a systematically higher BCRP abundance in Caco-2 cell samples quantified by BPh compared with UoM, but not in human intestinal samples. Consequently, a similar intestinal relative expression factor (REF), derived from distal jejunum and Caco-2 monolayer samples, between laboratories was found for P-gp. However, a 2-fold higher intestinal REF was generated by UoM (2.22) versus BPh (1.11). We demonstrate that differences in absolute protein abundance are evident between laboratories and they probably result from laboratory-specific methodologies relating to peptide choice.

  17. Monsoon-related transport processes: HCFC-22 as a tracer for East-Asian pollution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, Gabriele; von Clarmann, Thomas; Kellmann, Sylvia; Chirkov, Maksym; Vogel, Bärbel; Müller, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    East-Asian pollution from Southern China or India was shown to be uplifted effectively by the Asian monsoon system to levels just below the tropopause. HCFC-22 nowadays has it strongest source region within East Asia. Due to its long lifetime in the troposphere, it is a very well suited transport tracer. We compare observations from MIPAS/Envisat of HCFC-22 with results from pollution transport modelling by the Lagrangian chemistry-transport model CLaMS. We find that East Asian pollution (and HCFC-22) is uplifted into the Asian monsoon anticyclone at the Eastern flank of the monsoon system. However, we do not find any indication of a significant transport through the tropopause of the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the stratosphere. In contrast, HCFC-22 is transported southwards into the tropics during the end phase and the break-down of the Asian monsoon anticyclone and distributed zonally in the tropics. By this a maximum layer of HCFC-22 just below the tropical tropopause is formed. Further transport into the stratosphere happens mainly by uplift within the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  18. Structure-properties relation for random networks of fibers with noncircular cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deogekar, S.; Picu, R. C.

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical behavior of three-dimensional cross-linked random fiber networks composed from fibers of noncircular cross section characterized by two principal moments of inertia is studied in this work. Such fibers store energy in the axial deformation mode and two bending modes of unequal stiffness. We show that the torsional stiffness of fibers becomes important as it determines the relative contribution of the two bending modes to the overall deformation. The scaling of the small strain modulus with the network parameters is established. The large strain deformation of these structures is less sensitive to the shape of the cross section.

  19. Aging of marine organic matter during cross-shelf lateral transport in the Benguela upwelling system revealed by compound-specific radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, Gesine; Inthorn, Maik; Vogt, Thomas; Zabel, Matthias; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2007-09-01

    Organic matter accumulation and burial on the Namibian shelf and upper slope are spatially heterogeneous and strongly controlled by lateral transport in subsurface nepheloid layers. Much of the material deposited in depo-centers on the slope ultimately derives from the shelf. Supply of organic matter from the shelf involves selective transport of organic matter. We studied these selective transport processes by analyzing the radiocarbon content of co-occurring sediment fractions. Here we present radiocarbon data for total organic carbon as well as three tracers of surface ocean productivity (phytoplankton-derived alkenones, membrane lipids of pelagic crenarchaeota (crenarchaeol), and calcareous microfossils of planktic foraminifera) in core-top and near-surface sediment samples. The samples were collected on the Namibian margin along a shelf-slope transect (85 to 1040 m) at 24°S and from the upper slope depo-center at 25.5°S. In core-top sediments, alkenone ages gradually increased from modern to 3490 radiocarbon years with distance from shore and with water depth. Crenarchaeol, while younger than alkenones, also increased in age with distance offshore. It was concluded that the observed ages were a consequence of cross-shelf transport and associated aging of organic matter. Radiocarbon ages of preserved lipid biomarkers in sediments thus at least partially depend on the relative amount of laterally supplied, pre-aged material present in a sample, highlighting the importance of nepheloid transport for the sedimentation of organic matter over the Namibian margin.

  20. Reading Retardation and Cross-Laterality in Relation to Short-Term Information Processing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, T. J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Predicts that ill-established cerebral dominance, as indicated by the problems of cross-laterality, would be related both to a limitation in information processing "irrespective of the type of information" (probably manifesting itself even with relatively small amounts of information) and significantly to reading retardation. (Author/RK)

  1. Evolution and persistence of cross-directional statistical dependence during finite-Péclet transport through a real porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Most, Sebastian; Bijeljic, Branko; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Transport of passive, dissolved compounds in fully-saturated complex porous media frequently exhibits non-Fickian characteristics. One of the most interesting questions is to ascertain the time scales at which it is possible to describe transport as a statistically independent process. Therefore, we study the mechanisms for evolution and then the decrease of non-Fickianity as a function of increasing time. Adopting the Lagrangian perspective, we provide a nonlinear copula analysis of advective-diffusive processes by analyzing particle trajectories in a real porous media, as provided by direct numerical simulations on the three-dimensional image of Doddington sandstone. First, we analyze the memory effects between time-consecutive particle position increments and cross dependence between longitudinal and transversal particle position increments as a function of given time increments and time lags between consecutive time increments. Second, we investigate the influence of the Péclet regime on the temporal evolution of dependence. Our main findings are: (a) Cross dependence between longitudinal and transversal particle position increments is persistent over the investigated range of time increments, even though this aspect has been neglected up to date. (b) Lower Péclet numbers lead to a weaker dependence that is, however, more persistent over time than in higher-Péclet transport regimes. We confirm that non-Fickianity comes from spatial coherence associated with heterogeneities of the velocity field that introduce cross dependence and memory into the transport process. Overall, we show that memory and cross dependence are persistent in and among all directions, that the dependence is highly-nonlinear, occurs at different temporal scales, and is dependent on the Péclet number.

  2. Cross talk between ABC transporter mRNAs via a target mRNA-derived sponge of the GcvB small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Miyakoshi, Masatoshi; Chao, Yanjie; Vogel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is an expanding list of examples by which one mRNA can posttranscriptionally influence the expression of others. This can involve RNA sponges that sequester regulatory RNAs of mRNAs in the same regulon, but the underlying molecular mechanism of such mRNA cross talk remains little understood. Here, we report sponge-mediated mRNA cross talk in the posttranscriptional network of GcvB, a conserved Hfq-dependent small RNA with one of the largest regulons known in bacteria. We show that mRNA decay from the gltIJKL locus encoding an amino acid ABC transporter generates a stable fragment (SroC) that base-pairs with GcvB. This interaction triggers the degradation of GcvB by RNase E, alleviating the GcvB-mediated mRNA repression of other amino acid-related transport and metabolic genes. Intriguingly, since the gltIJKL mRNA itself is a target of GcvB, the SroC sponge seems to enable both an internal feed-forward loop to activate its parental mRNA in cis and activation of many trans-encoded mRNAs in the same pathway. Disabling this mRNA cross talk affects bacterial growth when peptides are the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:25630703

  3. 49 CFR 236.787 - Protection, cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection, cross. 236.787 Section 236.787 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Protection, cross. An arrangement to prevent the improper operation of a signal, switch, movable-point...

  4. 49 CFR 236.787 - Protection, cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection, cross. 236.787 Section 236.787 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Protection, cross. An arrangement to prevent the improper operation of a signal, switch, movable-point...

  5. Characterization of cross-linked cellulosic ion-exchange adsorbents: 2. Protein sorption and transport.

    PubMed

    Angelo, James M; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Gantier, Rene; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2016-03-18

    Adsorption behavior in the HyperCel family of cellulosic ion-exchange materials (Pall Corporation) was characterized using methods to assess, quantitatively and qualitatively, the dynamics of protein uptake as well as static adsorption as a function of ionic strength and protein concentration using several model proteins. The three exchangers studied all presented relatively high adsorptive capacities under low ionic strength conditions, comparable to commercially available resins containing polymer functionalization aimed at increasing that particular characteristic. The strong cation- and anion-exchange moieties showed higher sensitivity to increasing salt concentrations, but protein affinity on the salt-tolerant STAR AX HyperCel exchanger remained strong at ionic strengths normally used in downstream processing to elute material fully during ion-exchange chromatography. Very high uptake rates were observed in both batch kinetics experiments and time-series confocal laser scanning microscopy, suggesting low intraparticle transport resistances relative to external film resistance, even at higher bulk protein concentrations where the opposite is typically observed. Electron microscopy imaging of protein adsorbed phases provided additional insight into particle structure that could not be resolved in previous work on the bare resins.

  6. Estimation of short-time cross-correlation between frequency bands of event related EEG.

    PubMed

    Zygierewicz, J; Mazurkiewicz, J; Durka, P J; Franaszczuk, P J; Crone, N E

    2006-10-30

    Simultaneous variations of the event-related power changes (ERD/ERS) are often observed in a number of frequency bands. ERD/ERS measures are usually based on the relative changes of power in a given single frequency band. Within such an approach one cannot answer questions concerning the mutual relations between the band-power variations observed in different frequency bands. This paper addresses the problem of estimating and assessing the significance of the average cross-correlation between ERD/ERS phenomena occurring in two frequency bands. The cross-correlation function in a natural way also provides estimation of the delay between ERD/ERS in those bands. The proposed method is based on estimating the short-time cross-correlation function between relative changes of power in two selected frequency bands. The cross-correlation function is estimated in each trial separately and then averaged across trials. The significance of those mean cross-correlation functions is evaluated by means of a nonparametric test. The basic properties of the method are presented on simulated signals, and an example application to real EEG and ECoG signals is given.

  7. Effects of seasonal and interannual variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf transport on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestfals, Cathleen D.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Ladd, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The Bering Sea responds rapidly to atmospheric perturbations and over the past several decades has experienced extreme variability in both its physical and biological characteristics. These changes can impact organisms that inhabit the region, particularly marine fishes, as normal current patterns to which reproductive habits are tuned can be disrupted, which, in turn, may influence recruitment and population dynamics. To understand the influence of ocean circulation on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea, we examined transport along and across the Bering Slope derived from 23 years (1982-2004) of simulations from a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) ocean circulation model. We expected that changes in the strength and position of the Bering Slope Current (BSC) would affect recruitment in selected species (Pacific cod, walleye pollock, Greenland halibut, Pacific halibut, and arrowtooth flounder), and that circulation features along and across the shelf edge would be strongly influenced by atmospheric forcing. Variability in along-shelf transport at three transects along the path of the BSC, cross-shelf transport across the 100 and 200 m isobaths, and transport through Unimak Pass were examined. Strong seasonal and interannual variations in flow were observed, with transport typically highest during fall and winter months, coinciding with timing of spawning activity in the five species. Significant correlations were found between transport, BSC position, and groundfish recruitment. Pacific cod, in particular, benefitted from decreased along-shelf and on-shelf flow, while Pacific halibut recruitment increased in relation to increased on-shelf transport through southern canyons. The results of this study improve our understanding of variability in circulation and associated effects on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea.

  8. Momentum transport cross-section measurements for potassium and rubidium in rare gases and white light-induced separation of rubidium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mugglin, D.T.

    1993-12-31

    This dissertation is concerned with two light-induced kinetic effects, light-induced diffusive pulling and light-induced drift. We use a light-induced diffusive pulling experiment to measure the ground state velocity-changing collision cross section (related to the momentum transport cross section and the diffusion coefficient) and the relative difference ({Delta}{sigma}/{sigma}) of the excited and ground state cross sections with respect to that of the ground state for potassium mixed with inert buffer gases. The measured excited state cross section is a weighted average of the potassium 4{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 4{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} fine structure levels, which are mixed by collisions with inert gas atoms. For the ground state cross sections, we obtain the following experimental results for potassium mixed with He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, respectively: 52 {+-} 4, 57 {+-} 8, 61 {+-} 5, 43 {+-} 5, and 60 {+-}5 {angstrom}{sup 2}. For {Delta}{sigma}/{sigma}, we obtain the following (in the same order): 0.085 {+-} 0.010, 0.058 {+-} 0.006, 0.41 {+-} 0.03, 0.43 {+-} 0.03, and 0.61 {+-} 0.05. For potassium-Ne and potassium-Ar, we combine these measurements with light-induced drift measurements of the ratio {Delta}{sigma}(J = 3/2) : {Delta}{sigma}(J = 1/2) to obtain absolute transport cross sections for the individual 4{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}, 4{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}, and 4{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} levels. We also use the light-induced diffusive pulling experimental method to measure {Delta}{sigma}/{sigma} for Rb-inert gas mixtures. We obtain values for the ground state diffusion cross section for Rb in several of the inert gases as well. We report the first experimental observation of the separation of two isotopes using broadband light by the process of white light-induced drift. For a light source, we use a broadband laser with an acousto-optic modulator as an output coupler. We verify the separation of the {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb isotopes.

  9. Indian MST radar: A remote sensing tool for studying long- and short- term cross tropopause transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddarth Shankar; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Suneeth, K. V.

    The stratospheric air is dry and ozone rich in nature, whereas the tropospheric air is enriched in humidity with high aerosol concentration. The tropopause is the stable layer which acts as a semi-permeable membrane between these two spheres (i.e. troposphere and stratosphere) and thus hinders the exchange of the minors constituents (e.g. water vapour and ozone) between these two spheres. This complex equilibrium region is known as the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The major mixing process befalls over the tropical region, where the maximum convective systems occur through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamical and chemical processes that occurring at UTLS region and quantative analysis of the mass exchange is essential. Ten years of data obtained from Indian MST radar located at a Tropical station Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) is used to study the long- and short (event) term cross tropopause transport. The prime mechanisms responsible for the radar backscattering echoes are isotropic/anisotropic turbulence fluctuations in the refractive index and Fresnel reflection/scattering due to sharp gradients in the radio refractive index. The inhomogeneties in the radio refractive index are contributed by both humidity and temperature below 8 km height, whereas above it, it is only contributed by the temperature gradients. When the dry stratospheric air penetrates into the troposphere, it will take some time to mix with the humid air of troposphere. Due to two different constituents of the air, there will be strong refractive index gradient, which will be reflected as enhanced radar backscattering echoes. The dry stratospheric air will slowly mix with the humid tropospheric air by means of small scale turbulence. Using this scattering mechanism behavior, the long-term and its seasonal characteristics, and the short-term event wise (convective disturbances) stratospheric air intrusion into the troposphere

  10. Polar auxin transport in relation to long-distance transport of nutrients in the Charales.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of the recent demonstration of polar auxin transport (PAT) in the green macroalga Chara (Charophyceae: Charales) and, especially, options for explaining some features of PAT in the Charales. The occurrence of PAT in the Charales shows that PAT originated in the algal ancestors of the embryophytes (liverworts, mosses, hornworts, and vascular plants), although it is not yet known if PAT occurs elsewhere in the Charophyceae or in other algae. While in the embryophytes PAT occurs in parenchymatously constructed structures which commonly also have xylem and phloem (or their bryophyte analogues) as long-distance transport processes in parallel to PAT, in Chara corallina PAT shares the pathway for long-distance transport of nutrients though the parenchymatously constructed nodal complexes and the single giant cells of the internode. The speed of auxin movement of PAT is much more rapid than that attributable to diffusion and of the same order as the rate of cytoplasmic streaming in the giant internodal cells, yet complete inhibition of streaming by the inhibitor cytochalasin H does not slow down auxin transport. Explanations for this phenomenon are sought in the operation of other mechanochemical motors, dynein-tubulin and kinesin-tubulin, as alternatives to the myosin-actin system which powers cytoplasmic streaming. Experiments in which microtubules are disrupted, for example by colchicine, could show if one of the tubulin-based motors is involved. If these motors are involved, some mechanism is needed to amplify the speeds known for the motors to explain the order of magnitude higher speeds seen for auxin transport.

  11. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-12-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly.

  12. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly. PMID:26954219

  13. Effect of end-group cross-linking on transport properties of sulfonated poly(phenylene sulfide nitrile)s for proton exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Na Rae; Lee, So Young; Shin, Dong Won; Hwang, Doo Sung; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Cho, Doo Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Young Moo

    2016-03-01

    A series of end-group cross-linked membranes (Az-XESPSN) were prepared by click reaction to investigate the effects of cross-linking on the morphology and proton transport properties of proton exchange membranes. The morphological transformations resulting from thermal annealing and cross-linking were observed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared to the non-cross-linked ESPSN membranes, the Az-XESPSN membranes exhibited lower water uptake and improved mechanical and chemical stabilities. In addition, the Az-XESPSN membranes exhibited higher proton conductivities (0.018-0.028 S cm-1) compared to those of the ESPSN membranes (0.0044-0.0053 S cm-1) and Nafion 212 (0.0061 S cm-1), particularly in conditions of elevated temperature (120 °C) and low relative humidity (35%). Such enhancements can be attributed to a synergistic effect of well-defined hydrophilic ionic clusters and triazole groups that function as proton carriers under anhydrous conditions. Furthermore, the Az-XESPSN membranes exhibited significantly enhanced single cell performance and long-term stability compared to those of ESPSN membranes.

  14. Steady State Chaotic Magnetic Fields and Particle Dynamics Cross-field Transport of Particles in Chaotic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, B.; Ram, A.

    2009-12-01

    The observed propagation of cosmic rays in the interplanetary space cannot be explained unless there is diffusion of the energetic particles across the interplanetary magnetic field. The cross-field diffusion of cosmic rays is assumed to be due to the chaotic nature of the interplanetary/intergalactic magnetic fields. Among the classic works on this subject have been those of Parker [1] and Jokipii [2]. Parker considered the passage of cosmic ray particles and energetic solar particles in a large scale magnetic field containing small scale irregularities. In the context of cosmic ray propagation, Jokipii considered a small fluctuating component, added on to a uniform magnetic field, to study the spatial transport of particles. We consider asymmetric, steady-state magnetic fields, in three spatial dimensions, generated by currents flowing in circular loops and straight lines [3]. We find that under very special circumstances can one generate large scale coherent magnetic fields. In general, even simple asymmetric current configurations generate spatially chaotic magnetic fields in three-dimensions. The motion of charged particles in these chaotic magnetic fields is quite coherent. This is a surprising result as one generally assumes that spatially chaotic magnetic fields will give rise to chaotic particle motion. So chaotic magnetic fields by themselves do not lead to cross-field transport. However, if we consider a current system, e.g., a current loop, embedded in a uniform magnetic field then a particle can undergo cross-field transport. For cross-field diffusion of charged particles it is necessary that the magnetic field lines be three dimensional. [1] E.N. Parker, Planet. Space Sci. 13, 9, (1965) [2] J.R. Jokipii, Astrophys. J. 146, 480, (1966). [3] A.K. Ram and B. Dasgupta, in 35th EPS Conference on Plasma Phys. Hersonissos, ECA Vol.32D, O-4.059 (2008); and Eos Trans. AGU 88 (52), Fall Meet. Suppl. Abstract NG21B-0522 (2007).

  15. Anomalous solute transport in saturated porous media: Relating transport model parameters to electrical and nuclear magnetic resonance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Ryan D.; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; France, Samantha; Osterman, Gordon; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Singha, Kamini

    2015-02-01

    The advection-dispersion equation (ADE) fails to describe commonly observed non-Fickian solute transport in saturated porous media, necessitating the use of other models such as the dual-domain mass-transfer (DDMT) model. DDMT model parameters are commonly calibrated via curve fitting, providing little insight into the relation between effective parameters and physical properties of the medium. There is a clear need for material characterization techniques that can provide insight into the geometry and connectedness of pore spaces related to transport model parameters. Here, we consider proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), direct-current (DC) resistivity, and complex conductivity (CC) measurements for this purpose, and assess these methods using glass beads as a control and two different samples of the zeolite clinoptilolite, a material that demonstrates non-Fickian transport due to intragranular porosity. We estimate DDMT parameters via calibration of a transport model to column-scale solute tracer tests, and compare NMR, DC resistivity, CC results, which reveal that grain size alone does not control transport properties and measured geophysical parameters; rather, volume and arrangement of the pore space play important roles. NMR cannot provide estimates of more-mobile and less-mobile pore volumes in the absence of tracer tests because these estimates depend critically on the selection of a material-dependent and flow-dependent cutoff time. Increased electrical connectedness from DC resistivity measurements are associated with greater mobile pore space determined from transport model calibration. CC was hypothesized to be related to length scales of mass transfer, but the CC response is unrelated to DDMT.

  16. A Comparison of Faculty Dominance in U.S. and South African University Classrooms as It Relates to Cross-Cultural Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, James A.

    The South African educational system and race relations were studied in the context of effects on cross-cultural relations in the classroom. An examination of South African faculty perspectives was compared and contrasted witht U.S. faculty perspectives and was interpreted in relation to the cross-cultural relations that exist in the two…

  17. Quantification of tracer plume transport parameters in 2D saturated porous media by cross-borehole ERT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekmine, G.; Auradou, H.; Pessel, M.; Rayner, J. L.

    2017-04-01

    Cross-borehole ERT imaging was tested to quantify the average velocity and transport parameters of tracer plumes in saturated porous media. Seven tracer tests were performed at different flow rates and monitored by either a vertical or horizontal dipole-dipole ERT sequence. These sequences were tested to reconstruct the shape and temporally follow the spread of the tracer plumes through a background regularization procedure. Data sets were inverted with the same inversion parameters and 2D model sections of resistivity ratios were converted to tracer concentrations. Both array types provided an accurate estimation of the average pore velocity vz. The total mass Mtot recovered was always overestimated by the horizontal dipole-dipole and underestimated by the vertical dipole-dipole. The vertical dipole-dipole was however reliable to quantify the longitudinal dispersivity λz, while the horizontal dipole-dipole returned better estimation for the transverse component λx. λ and Mtot were mainly influenced by the 2D distribution of the cumulated electrical sensitivity and the Shadow Effects induced by the third dimension. The size reduction of the edge of the plume was also related to the inability of the inversion process to reconstruct sharp resistivity contrasts at the interface. Smoothing was counterbalanced by a non-realistic rise of the ERT concentrations around the centre of mass returning overpredicted total masses. A sensitivity analysis on the cementation factor m and the porosity ϕ demonstrated that a change in one of these parameters by 8% involved non negligible variations by 30 and 40% of the dispersion coefficients and mass recovery.

  18. Transport pathways of carbon monoxide in the Asian summer monsoon diagnosed from Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mijeong; Randel, William J.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite observations of tropospheric chemical constituents (such as carbon monoxide, CO) reveal a persistent maximum in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS) associated with the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. Diagnostic studies suggest that the strong anticyclonic circulation acts to confine air masses, but the sources of pollution and transport pathways to altitudes near the tropopause are the subject of debate. Here we use the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers 4 (MOZART-4) global chemistry transport model, driven by analyzed meteorological fields, to study the source and transport of CO in the Asian monsoon circulation. A MOZART-4 simulation for one summer is performed, and results are compared with satellite observations of CO from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Overall, good agreement is found between the modeled and observed CO in the UTLS, promoting confidence in the model simulation. The model results are then analyzed to understand the sources and transport pathways of CO in the Asian monsoon region, and within the anticyclone in particular. The results show that CO is transported upward by monsoon deep convection, with the main surface sources from India and Southeast Asia. The uppermost altitude of the convective transport is ˜12 km, near the level of main deep convective outflow, and much of the CO is then advected in the upper troposphere northeastward across the Pacific Ocean and southwestward with the cross-equatorial Hadley flow. However, some of the CO is also advected vertically to altitudes near the tropopause (˜16 km) by the large-scale upward circulation on the eastern side of the anticyclone, and this air then becomes trapped within the anticyclone (to the west of the convection, extending to the Middle East). Within the anticyclone, the modeled CO shows a relative maximum near 15 km, in good agreement with observations.

  19. The Safety Related Software for Railway Control with Respect to Automatic Level Crossing Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Trzaska-Rycaj, Katarzyna

    The paper deals with design problems of correct and high reliable software for railway traffic control systems. The correct software (corresponding to formal or semi-formal criteria) has an important part in safety related (SIL4) railway control systems. The paper treats about actual state of art in design of safety related software for railway application. The proposed methods, recommended by CENELEC and UIC are introduced to example of automatic level crossing signaling system.

  20. Cross-tolerance and cross-talk in the cold: relating low temperatures to desiccation and immune stress in insects.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J; Ferguson, Laura V; Salehipour-shirazi, Golnaz; MacMillan, Heath A

    2013-10-01

    Multiple stressors, both abiotic and biotic, often are experienced simultaneously by organisms in nature. Responses to these stressors may share signaling pathways ("cross-talk") or protective mechanisms ("cross-tolerance"). Temperate and polar insects that must survive the winter experience low temperatures accompanied by additional abiotic stressors, such as low availability of water. Cold and desiccation have many similar effects at a cellular level, and we present evidence that the cellular mechanisms that protect against cold stress also protect against desiccation, and that the responses to cold and dehydration likely evolved as cross-tolerance. By contrast, there are several lines of evidence suggesting that low temperature stress elicits an upregulation of immune responses in insects (and vice versa). Because there is little mechanistic overlap between cold stress and immune stress at the cellular level, we suggest that this is cross-talk. Both cross-talk and cross-tolerance may be adaptive and likely evolved in response to synchronous stressors; however, we suggest that cross-talk and cross-tolerance may lead to different responses to changes in the timing and severity of multiple stress interactions in a changing world. We present a framework describing the potentially different responses of cross-tolerance and cross-talk to a changing environment and describe the nature of these impacts using interaction of cold-desiccation and cold-immunity in overwintering insects as an example.

  1. 31 CFR 585.207 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving the FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving the FRY (S&M). 585.207 Section 585.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions involving the FRY (S&M). Except as otherwise authorized, the following are prohibited: (a) Any... transportation to or from the FRY (S&M); (b) The provision of transportation to or from the United States by:...

  2. Evaluation of Hylife-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566- group neutron transport and activation cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D; Latkowski, J; Sanz, J

    1999-06-18

    Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from the FENDL/A-2.0 pointwise data. Neutron spectra have been calculated for the first walls of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy power plant designs and have been used in subsequent neutron activation calculations. The results obtained using the two different group structures are compared to each other as well as to those obtained using a 175-group version of the EAF3.1 activation cross section library.

  3. Transport analysis of measured neutron leakage spectra from spheres as tests of evaluated high energy cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, D. D.; Shook, D. F.; Fieno, D.

    1973-01-01

    Integral tests of evaluated ENDF/B high-energy cross sections have been made by comparing measured and calculated neutron leakage flux spectra from spheres of various materials. An Am-Be (alpha,n) source was used to provide fast neutrons at the center of the test spheres of Be, CH2, Pb, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W. The absolute leakage flux spectra were measured in the energy range 0.5 to 12 MeV using a calibrated NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometer. Absolute calculations of the spectra were made using version 3 ENDF/B cross sections and an S sub n discrete ordinates multigroup transport code. Generally excellent agreement was obtained for Be, CH2, Pb, and Mo, and good agreement was observed for Nb although discrepancies were observed for some energy ranges. Poor comparative results, obtained for Ta and W, are attributed to unsatisfactory nonelastic cross sections. The experimental sphere leakage flux spectra are tabulated and serve as possible benchmarks for these elements against which reevaluated cross sections may be tested.

  4. Serological cross-reactivity between Merkel cell polyomavirus and two closely related chimpanzee polyomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Jérôme T J; Liais, Etienne; Potier, Romain; Mazzoni, Elisa; Tognon, Mauro; Coursaget, Pierre; Touzé, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on the major capsid protein sequence indicate that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and chimpanzee polyomaviruses (PtvPyV1, PtvPyV2), and similarly Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) and the orangutan polyomavirus (OraPyV1) are closely related. The existence of cross-reactivity between these polyomaviruses was therefore investigated. The findings indicated serological identity between the two chimpanzee polyomaviruses investigated and a high level of cross-reactivity with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In contrast, cross-reactivity was not observed between TSPyV and OraPyV1. Furthermore, specific antibodies to chimpanzee polyomaviruses were detected in chimpanzee sera by pre-incubation of sera with the different antigens, but not in human sera.

  5. Charged-particle transport in gases in electric and magnetic fields crossed at arbitrary angles: Multiterm solution of Boltzmann's equation.

    PubMed

    White, R D; Ness, K F; Robson, R E; Li, B

    1999-08-01

    A multiterm solution of the Boltzmann equation has been developed and used to calculate transport coefficients of charged-particle swarms in gases under the influence of electric and magnetic fields crossed at arbitrary angles psi. The hierarchy resulting from a spherical harmonic decomposition of the Boltzmann equation in the hydrodynamic regime [Ness, Phys. Rev. A 47, 327 (1993)] is solved numerically by representing the speed dependence of the phase-space distribution function in terms of an expansion in Sonine polynomials about a weighted sum of Maxwellian distributions at different temperatures. Results are given for charged-particle swarms in certain model gases over a range of psi and field strengths. The variation of the transport coefficients with psi is addressed using physical arguments. The errors associated with the two-term approximation and inadequacies of Legendre polynomial expansions are highlighted.

  6. Cross-Fostering Differentially Affects ADHD-Related Behaviors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Angela C.; DeAngeli, Nicole E.; Bucci, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Although both genetic and non-genetic factors are known to contribute to the occurrence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity/Disorder (ADHD), little is known about how they impact specific symptoms. We used a cross-fostering approach with an established animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat strain (SHR), to test the influence of genotype and maternal behavior on ADHD-related behaviors. SHRs and their normo-active genetic relative, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), were cross-fostered to an unfamiliar dam of either the same or different strain. Behavioral testing took place when the rats reached adulthood. Locomotor hyperactivity was completely dependent on the strain of the offspring. In contrast, social behavior was primarily determined by the strain of the mother, while attentional orienting behavior was influenced by both the strain of the offspring and the strain of the dam. Anxiety-related behavior was influenced by an interaction between offspring and dam strain. PMID:25647439

  7. Older adults’ transportation walking: a cross-sectional study on the cumulative influence of physical environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The physical environment may play a crucial role in promoting older adults’ walking for transportation. However, previous studies on relationships between the physical environment and older adults’ physical activity behaviors have reported inconsistent findings. A possible explanation for these inconsistencies is the focus upon studying environmental factors separately rather than simultaneously. The current study aimed to investigate the cumulative influence of perceived favorable environmental factors on older adults’ walking for transportation. Additionally, the moderating effect of perceived distance to destinations on this relationship was studied. Methods The sample was comprised of 50,685 non-institutionalized older adults residing in Flanders (Belgium). Cross-sectional data on demographics, environmental perceptions and frequency of walking for transportation were collected by self-administered questionnaires in the period 2004-2010. Perceived distance to destinations was categorized into short, medium, and large distance to destinations. An environmental index (=a sum of favorable environmental factors, ranging from 0 to 7) was constructed to investigate the cumulative influence of favorable environmental factors. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to predict probabilities of daily walking for transportation. Results For short distance to destinations, probability of daily walking for transportation was significantly higher when seven compared to three, four or five favorable environmental factors were present. For medium distance to destinations, probabilities significantly increased for an increase from zero to four favorable environmental factors. For large distance to destinations, no relationship between the environmental index and walking for transportation was observed. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the presence of multiple favorable environmental factors can motivate older adults to walk medium distances

  8. The taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect: An event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, X; Dupuis-Roy, N; Yang, X L; Qiu, J F; Zhang, Q L

    2014-03-28

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore, for the first time, the electrophysiological correlates of the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Eighteen healthy participants were presented with a taste stimulus and a food image, and asked to categorize the image as "sweet" or "sour" by pressing the relevant button as quickly as possible. Accurate categorization of the image was faster when it was presented with a congruent taste stimulus (e.g., sour taste/image of lemon) than with an incongruent one (e.g., sour taste/image of ice cream). ERP analyses revealed a negative difference component (ND430-620) between 430 and 620ms in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop interference. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (incongruent minus congruent) indicated that two generators localized in the prefrontal cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus contributed to this taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. This result suggests that the prefrontal cortex is associated with the process of conflict control in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Also, we speculate that the parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the process of discordant information in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect.

  9. COHeRE: Cross-Ontology Hierarchical Relation Examination for Ontology Quality Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Licong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies play a vital role in healthcare information management, data integration, and decision support. Ontology quality assurance (OQA) is an indispensable part of the ontology engineering cycle. Most existing OQA methods are based on the knowledge provided within the targeted ontology. This paper proposes a novel cross-ontology analysis method, Cross-Ontology Hierarchical Relation Examination (COHeRE), to detect inconsistencies and possible errors in hierarchical relations across multiple ontologies. COHeRE leverages the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) knowledge source and the MapReduce cloud computing technique for systematic, large-scale ontology quality assurance work. COHeRE consists of three main steps with the UMLS concepts and relations as the input. First, the relations claimed in source vocabularies are filtered and aggregated for each pair of concepts. Second, inconsistent relations are detected if a concept pair is related by different types of relations in different source vocabularies. Finally, the uncovered inconsistent relations are voted according to their number of occurrences across different source vocabularies. The voting result together with the inconsistent relations serve as the output of COHeRE for possible ontological change. The highest votes provide initial suggestion on how such inconsistencies might be fixed. In UMLS, 138,987 concept pairs were found to have inconsistent relationships across multiple source vocabularies. 40 inconsistent concept pairs involving hierarchical relationships were randomly selected and manually reviewed by a human expert. 95.8% of the inconsistent relations involved in these concept pairs indeed exist in their source vocabularies rather than being introduced by mistake in the UMLS integration process. 73.7% of the concept pairs with suggested relationship were agreed by the human expert. The effectiveness of COHeRE indicates that UMLS provides a promising environment to enhance

  10. COHeRE: Cross-Ontology Hierarchical Relation Examination for Ontology Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Cui, Licong

    Biomedical ontologies play a vital role in healthcare information management, data integration, and decision support. Ontology quality assurance (OQA) is an indispensable part of the ontology engineering cycle. Most existing OQA methods are based on the knowledge provided within the targeted ontology. This paper proposes a novel cross-ontology analysis method, Cross-Ontology Hierarchical Relation Examination (COHeRE), to detect inconsistencies and possible errors in hierarchical relations across multiple ontologies. COHeRE leverages the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) knowledge source and the MapReduce cloud computing technique for systematic, large-scale ontology quality assurance work. COHeRE consists of three main steps with the UMLS concepts and relations as the input. First, the relations claimed in source vocabularies are filtered and aggregated for each pair of concepts. Second, inconsistent relations are detected if a concept pair is related by different types of relations in different source vocabularies. Finally, the uncovered inconsistent relations are voted according to their number of occurrences across different source vocabularies. The voting result together with the inconsistent relations serve as the output of COHeRE for possible ontological change. The highest votes provide initial suggestion on how such inconsistencies might be fixed. In UMLS, 138,987 concept pairs were found to have inconsistent relationships across multiple source vocabularies. 40 inconsistent concept pairs involving hierarchical relationships were randomly selected and manually reviewed by a human expert. 95.8% of the inconsistent relations involved in these concept pairs indeed exist in their source vocabularies rather than being introduced by mistake in the UMLS integration process. 73.7% of the concept pairs with suggested relationship were agreed by the human expert. The effectiveness of COHeRE indicates that UMLS provides a promising environment to enhance

  11. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  12. Regulation of Copper Transport Crossing Brain Barrier Systems by Cu-ATPases: Effect of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Jiang, Wendy; Monnot, Andrew Donald; Bates, Christopher Alexander; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cellular copper (Cu) homeostasis involves Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), i.e., ATP7A and ATP7B. The question as to how these Cu-ATPases in brain barrier systems transport Cu, i.e., toward brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or blood, remained unanswered. This study was designed to characterize roles of Cu-ATPases in regulating Cu transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and to investigate how exposure to toxic manganese (Mn) altered the function of Cu-ATPases, thereby contributing to the etiology of Mn-induced parkinsonian disorder. Studies by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and immunocytochemistry revealed that both Cu-ATPases expressed abundantly in BBB and BCB. Transport kinetic studies by in situ brain infusion and ventriculo-cisternal (VC) perfusion in Sprague Dawley rat suggested that the BBB was a major site for Cu entry into brain, whereas the BCB was a predominant route for Cu efflux from the CSF to blood. Confocal evidence showed that the presence of excess Cu or Mn in the choroid plexus cells led to ATP7A relocating toward the apical microvilli facing the CSF, but ATP7B toward the basolateral membrane facing blood. Mn exposure inhibited the production of both Cu-ATPases. Collectively, these data suggest that Cu is transported by the BBB from the blood to brain, which is mediated by ATP7A in brain capillary. By diffusion, Cu ions move from the interstitial fluid into the CSF, where they are taken up by the BCB. Within the choroidal epithelial cells, Cu ions are transported by ATP7B back to the blood. Mn exposure alters these processes, leading to Cu dyshomeostasis-associated neuronal injury. PMID:24614235

  13. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  14. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Atom-Molecule Interactions of Nitrogen and Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The potential energy surfaces for H2-N and N2-N interactions are calculated by accurate ab initio methods and applied to determine transport data. The results confirm that an effective potential energy for accurately determining transport properties can be calculated using a single orientation. A simple method is developed to determine the dispersion coefficients of effective potential energies Effective potential energies required for O2-O collisions are determ=ined. The H2-N, N2-N, O2-H, and O2-O collision integrals are calculated and tabulated for a large range of temperatures. The theoretical values of the N2-N and O2-O diffusion coefficients compare well with measured data available at room temperature.

  15. The role of cross-shock potential on pickup ion shock acceleration in the framework of focused transport theory

    DOE PAGES

    Zuo, Pingbing; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2013-10-03

    The focused transport theory is appropriate to describe the injection and acceleration of low-energy particles at shocks as an extension of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). In this investigation, we aim to characterize the role of cross-shock potential (CSP) originated in the charge separation across the shock ramp on pickup ion (PUI) acceleration at various types of shocks with a focused transport model. The simulation results of energy spectrum and spatial density distribution for the cases with and without CSP added in the model are compared. With sufficient acceleration time, the focused transport acceleration finally falls into the DSA regime withmore » the power-law spectral index equal to the solution of the DSA theory. The CSP can affect the shape of the spectrum segment at lower energies, but it does not change the spectral index of the final power-law spectrum at high energies. It is found that the CSP controls the injection efficiency which is the fraction of PUIs reaching the DSA regime. A stronger CSP jump results in a dramatically improved injection efficiency. Our simulation results also show that the injection efficiency of PUIs is mass-dependent, which is lower for species with a higher mass. Additionally, the CSP is able to enhance the particle reflection upstream to produce a stronger intensity spike at the shock front. Lastly, we conclude that the CSP is a non-negligible factor that affects the dynamics of PUIs at shocks.« less

  16. Review of Transporter-Related Postmarketing Requirement or Postmarketing Commitment Studies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Sun, Bo; Agarwal, Sheetal; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this report are to summarize the content and status of transporter-related postmarketing requirement (PMR)/postmarketing commitment (PMC) studies in new drug applications (NDAs) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and to discuss the reasons for requesting such studies and the impact of PMR/PMC study results on labeling to guide the optimal use of the drugs. Multiple data sources were searched to collect information on transporter-related PMR/PMC studies between January 1999 and May 2015. A total of 40 transporter-related PMR/PMC study requests were issued for 35 NDAs. Among these PMR/PMC studies, 27 requested studies related to P-glycoprotein. As of May 31, 2015, 34 transporter-related PMR/PMC studies (85%) are considered "fulfilled" (per the FDA's PMR/PMC website), and 22 (65%) resulted in labeling updates. The majority of the PMR/PMC studies are for drugs in the therapeutic areas of anti-infectives, oncology, and neurology. The results from PMR/PMC studies are important for dosing optimization and are often included in the updated labeling. Because a significant lag time is anticipated between drug approval and PMR/PMC fulfillment, NDA applicants are encouraged to include transporter-related assessments in clinical drug development programs for drug products.

  17. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  18. Gravity-Related Transport Process in Off-Axis Sputtering Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehozeku, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    In the synthesis of epitaxial oxide films, reactive off-axis sputtering deposition techniques have demonstrated the advantages of fabricating high quality epitaxial films. Due to the collisions between the sputtered species and the residue gases, the kinetic energy of species was reduced and the transport of depositing species changed from a ballistic movement to a diffusive drift in which the transport species were almost thermalized. A gravity effect could appear in the transport process. Three transport regimes were observed when the growth pressures vary from 5 mTorr to 150 mTorr. Film growth rate, depositing orientations, crystal structure, surface morphology, and compositions were characterized. A gravity related phenomenon was revealed in film growth at the relative low growth pressures.

  19. Evidences for a role of protein cross-links in transglutaminase-related disease.

    PubMed

    Tabolacci, Claudio; Lentini, Alessandro; Provenzano, Bruno; Beninati, Simone

    2012-02-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) are a large family of related and ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking of a glutaminyl residue of a protein/peptide substrate to a lysyl residue of a protein/peptide co-substrate. Considerable and intense progress has been made in the understanding of the chemistry, molecular biology and cell biology of TGs. The knowledge that very different physiological and pathological processes are dependent on the presence of adequate levels of these cross-linking enzymes and on the amount of both free and protein-conjugated polyamines by TG, has generated an incredible amount of original research and review articles. It is clear that TG-mediated reactions are essential for some biological processes, such as blood coagulation, skin barrier formation and extracellular matrix assembly, but may also be involved in pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for several human diseases, such as cancer, AIDS, neurodegenerative disorders, celiac disease, and eye lens opacification. We present here a comprehensive review of recent insights into the pathophysiology of TGs related to their protein cross-linking activity.

  20. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear...

  1. Comparative stress responses to short transport and related events in Hereford and Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L

    2013-02-01

    Three summer experiments compared responses to transportation-related events in 2- to 4-yr-old Brahman (Bos indicus) and Hereford (B. taurus) steers. In Exp. 1, steers were hauled round-trip (4 h) or fasted in holding pens. Transport transiently increased (P < 0.01) plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, decreased (P < 0.05) plasma triglyceride concentrations, and increased total leukocyte counts. Blood constituents were not altered for steers fasting in holding pens. Treatment-day BW shrink was greater (P < 0.01) in transported steers than penned steers. Blood constituent responses were unaffected (P < 0.05) by subspecies. Hereford experienced greater (P < 0.05) transport-day BW shrink than Brahman across treatments. Steers in Exp. 2 were hauled to a new farm for a 1-wk relocation period or hauled round-trip an equal time (0.67 h) and returned to the home station. Both treatments similarly experienced transport-day BW shrink and increased (P < 0.01) plasma cortisol and glucose. Subspecies did not affect (P < 0.05) blood constituent responses to transport. Hereford experienced greater (P < 0.05) transport-day shrink than Brahman. Relocation did not elicit (P < 0.05) changes in blood profiles beyond the day of transport. In Exp. 3, steers were loaded and unloaded without transport, transported round-trip (1 h), or fasted in a holding pen for 3 h. Cortisol increased (P < 0.01) after transport and after loading/unloading. Leukocytes and glucose increased (P < 0.01) after the 1 h transport. Steers transported experienced greater treatment-day BW shrink than those fasted or loaded and unloaded (P < 0.01; -3.13 vs. -1.36 and -0.35 ± 0.76%, respectively). The subspecies did not vary (P < 0.05) for blood constituent responses or shrink in Exp. 3. Animal responses were not evident 24 h after treatments in each experiment. In summary, transport caused stress, but Brahman steers were not more sensitive than Herefords. Hereford steers were susceptible to greater

  2. Possible relations between general population suicide rates and societal crime: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2008-10-01

    Crime may be associated with a less structured society, less social integration, and feelings of less security and greater distress among citizens, which characteristics may lead to mental illness and subsequent suicide. Therefore, a cross-national analysis examining the association of general population suicide rates with percent of males and females in the population victimised by different categories of crime was undertaken using cross-national data from the World Health Organization and United Nations for 42 countries. Spearman correlations were generally weak and not statistically significant. Those values were at variance with the study's hypothesis and may be explained by several factors, including methodological issues. Individual-level case-control or cohort studies of suicides and attempted suicides in the general population may permit exploration of the relation of general population suicides with experience and percent by nations of being victimised by crime.

  3. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES: Comments... U.S.C., Subtitle VII, to investigate and enforce consumer protection and civil rights laws...

  4. Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Service Quality and Risk in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Lawrence F.; Young, Clifford E.; Lee, Moonkyu

    2002-01-01

    This study compares US and Korean customers in terms of their perceptions of airline service quality based on SERVPERF and industry-based measures, as well as their perceptions of risks involved in the airline choice. SERVPERF is a set of multi-dimensional measures of customer evaluations of service quality. The results indicate that: (1) US passengers are generally more satisfied with their airline service than Korean customers on most of the SERVPERF dimensions; (2) Koreans are generally more satisfied with the bumping procedures whereas US participants feel more satisfied with the airline's baggage handling, operations/safety, and connections; and (3) US participants perceive higher levels of performance and financial risks whereas Koreans feel greater social risk in choosing an airline. This study also examines the SERVPERF, industry-based measure, and perceived risk in predicting customer satisfaction with, and intention to repatronize the airline. The results suggest that US customers consider service reliability, in-flight comfort, and connections as the key factors determining satisfaction with airline service whereas Korean passengers generally regard reliability, assurance, and risk factors as predictors of satisfaction. The determining factors of customer intention to repatronize the airline are reliability and empathy for US, and reliability and overall risk for Korean customers. The study demonstrates the applicability of SERVPERF as a cross-cultural tool and indicates the importance of perceived risk in cross-cultural studies.

  5. Electrowetting actuated microfluidic transport in surface grooves with triangular cross section.

    PubMed

    Barman, Jitesh; Swain, Digendranath; Law, Bruce M; Seemann, Ralf; Herminghaus, Stephan; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2015-01-27

    Liquids show different static wetting morphologies in open triangular grooves depending upon the wedge angle (ψ) of the groove and the liquid contact angle (θ) with the substrate. Switching between different morphologies can be achieved either by varying the contact angle of the liquid or by changing the wedge angle of the groove. In the present work we manipulate the apparent contact angle of a liquid by electrowetting to switch between liquid morphologies, from droplet to filament, to achieve microfluidic transport of the liquid into open triangular grooves. The static length of liquid filaments in grooves is analyzed as a function of applied voltage for different applied ac frequencies. The dynamic advancement of the filament lengths in grooves is analyzed as a function of time for different applied voltages for two different liquids: first with contact angle greater than the wedge angle and second with contact angle smaller than the wedge angle. Later an exact electrical model is derived to explain the liquid transport in triangular grooves actuated by electrowetting which includes the precise geometry of the liquid morphology.

  6. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    SciTech Connect

    Soria-Lara, Julio A. Bertolini, Luca Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes.

  7. Effect of pylon cross-sectional geometries on propulsion integration for a low-wing transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingraldi, Anthony M.; Naik, Dinesh A.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the performance effects of various types of pylons on a 1/17th-scale, low-wing transport model. The model wing was designed for cruise at a Mach number of 0.77 and a lift coefficient of 0.55. The pylons were tested at two wing semispan locations over a range of toe-in angles. The effects of toe-in angle were found to be minimal, but the variation in geometry had a more pronounced effect on the lift characteristics of the model. A pylon whose maximum thickness occurred at the wing trailing edge, known as a compression pylon, proved to be the best choice in terms of retaining the flow characteristics of the wing without pylons. Practical considerations such as structural viability may necessitate modification of the compression pylon concept in order to take advantage of its apparent benefits.

  8. Robust transport by multiple motors with nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Ambarish; Mogilner, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing on multiple motor transport. We find that when two or three motors transport the cargo, then the nonlinear and stochastic effects compensate so that the mechanical properties of the transport are robust. Similarly, the transport is insensitive to compliance of the cargo-motor links. Furthermore, the rate of movement against moderate loads is not improved by increasing the small number of motors. When the motor number is greater than 4, correlations between the motors become negligible, and the earlier analytical mean-field theory of the multiple motor transport holds. We predict that the effective diffusion of the cargo driven by the multiple motors under load increases by an order of magnitude compared to that for the single motor. Finally, our simulations predict that the stochastic effects are responsible for a significant dispersion of velocities generated by the 'tug-of-war' of the multiple opposing motors.

  9. Robust transport by multiple motors with nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Ambarish; Mogilner, Alexander

    2010-02-10

    Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing on multiple motor transport. We find that when two or three motors transport the cargo, then the nonlinear and stochastic effects compensate so that the mechanical properties of the transport are robust. Similarly, the transport is insensitive to compliance of the cargo-motor links. Furthermore, the rate of movement against moderate loads is not improved by increasing the small number of motors. When the motor number is greater than 4, correlations between the motors become negligible, and the earlier analytical mean-field theory of the multiple motor transport holds. We predict that the effective diffusion of the cargo driven by the multiple motors under load increases by an order of magnitude compared to that for the single motor. Finally, our simulations predict that the stochastic effects are responsible for a significant dispersion of velocities generated by the 'tug-of-war' of the multiple opposing motors.

  10. Quantifying the relative contributions of different solute carriers to aggregate substrate transport

    PubMed Central

    Taslimifar, Mehdi; Oparija, Lalita; Verrey, Francois; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Olgac, Ufuk; Makrides, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our methodology was verified by calculating Leu and L-phenylalanine (Phe) data in the presence of competitive substrates and/or inhibitors. Among 9 potentially expressed endogenous X. laevis oocyte Leu transporter species, activities of only the uniporters SLC43A2/LAT4 (and/or SLC43A1/LAT3) and the sodium symporter SLC6A19/B0AT1 were required to account for total uptake. Furthermore, Leu and Phe uptake by heterologously expressed human SLC6A14/ATB0,+ and SLC43A2/LAT4 was accurately calculated. This versatile systems biology approach is useful for analyses where the kinetics of each active protein species can be represented by the Hill equation. Furthermore, its applicable even in the absence of protein expression data. It could potentially be applied, for example, to quantify drug transporter activities in target cells to improve specificity. PMID:28091567

  11. Robust transport by multiple motors with nonlinear force–velocity relations and stochastic load sharing

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ambarish; Mogilner, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force–velocity relations and stochastic load sharing on multiple motor transport. We find that when two or three motors transport the cargo, then the nonlinear and stochastic effects compensate so that the mechanical properties of the transport are robust. Similarly, the transport is insensitive to compliance of the cargo-motor links. Furthermore, the rate of movement against moderate loads is not improved by increasing the small number of motors. When the motor number is greater than 4, correlations between the motors become negligible, and the earlier analytical mean-field theory of the multiple motor transport holds. We predict that the effective diffusion of the cargo driven by the multiple motors under load increases by an order of magnitude compared to that for the single motor. Finally, our simulations predict that the stochastic effects are responsible for a significant dispersion of velocities generated by the ‘tug-of-war’ of the multiple opposing motors. PMID:20147778

  12. Predicting organic hydrogen atom transfer rate constants using the Marcus cross relation

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jeffrey J.; Mayer, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical reactions that involve net hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) are ubiquitous in chemistry and biology, from the action of antioxidants to industrial and metalloenzyme catalysis. This report develops and validates a procedure to predict rate constants for HAT reactions of oxyl radicals (RO•) in various media. Our procedure uses the Marcus cross relation (CR) and includes adjustments for solvent hydrogen-bonding effects on both the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reactions. Kinetic solvent effects (KSEs) are included by using Ingold’s model, and thermodynamic solvent effects are accounted for by using an empirical model developed by Abraham. These adjustments are shown to be critical to the success of our combined model, referred to as the CR/KSE model. As an initial test of the CR/KSE model we measured self-exchange and cross rate constants in different solvents for reactions of the 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl radical and the hydroxylamine 2,2′-6,6′-tetramethyl-piperidin-1-ol. Excellent agreement is observed between the calculated and directly determined cross rate constants. We then extend the model to over 30 known HAT reactions of oxyl radicals with OH or CH bonds, including biologically relevant reactions of ascorbate, peroxyl radicals, and α-tocopherol. The CR/KSE model shows remarkable predictive power, predicting rate constants to within a factor of 5 for almost all of the surveyed HAT reactions. PMID:20215463

  13. Development of aerobic power in relation to age and training in cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Rusko, H K

    1992-09-01

    In most of the training studies on different populations the effects of training have been investigated up to a frequency of five to six times per week and a duration of 45 min per session. These correspond to the training regimens of 15-yr-old cross-country skiers and, consequently, the results cannot be applied to older athletes. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of cross-country skiers increases with age and training from about 55-60 to 75-80 ml.kg-1.min-1 between 15 and 25 yr of age. After 20 yr of age VO2max starts to level off, but elite skiers are able to increase VO2max further concomitantly with an increase in the volume of training and the volume of intensive training. The activity of oxidative enzymes in muscles of skiers is increased with training, but distance runners have had a higher oxidative capacity in their leg muscles. Although widely used by cross-country skiers, the training effects of roller skiing, skiwalking-skistriding, and long-distance training on skis are to a large extent unknown. However, intensive training at the intensity of "anaerobic threshold" or higher seems to be most effective in inducing improvements in maximal oxygen uptake; distance training at relatively low intensity seems to be most effective in producing improvements in the determinants of submaximal endurance.

  14. Why are there different age relations in cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of cognitive functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for researchers interested in investigating relations between aging and cognitive functioning is distinguishing influences of aging from other determinants of cognitive performance. For example, cross-sectional comparisons may be distorted because people of different ages were born and grew up in different time periods, and longitudinal comparisons may be distorted because performance on a second occasion is influenced by the experience of performing the tests on the first occasion. One way in which these different types of influences might be investigated is with research designs involving comparisons of people of different ages from the same birth cohorts who are all tested for the first time in different years. Results from several recent studies using these types of designs suggest that the age trends in some cognitive abilities more closely resemble those from cross-sectional comparisons than those from longitudinal comparisons. These findings imply that a major reason for different age trends in longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons of cognitive functioning is that the prior experience with the tests inflates scores on the second occasion in longitudinal studies. PMID:25382943

  15. Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for {pi}{pi} D- and F-wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, R.

    2011-04-01

    A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition for the {pi}{pi} D- and F-wave amplitudes is derived and analyzed. An example of numerical calculations in the effective two-pion mass range from the threshold to 1.1 GeV is presented. It is shown that these new dispersion relations impose quite strong constraints on the analyzed {pi}{pi} interactions and are very useful tools to test the {pi}{pi} amplitudes. One of the goals of this work is to provide a complete set of equations required for easy use. Full analytical expressions are presented. Along with the well-known dispersion relations successful in testing the {pi}{pi} S- and P-wave amplitudes, those presented here for the D and F waves give a complete set of tools for analyses of the {pi}{pi} interactions.

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  17. Semi-analytical solution to the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation for cross-plane heat conduction in thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Chengyun; Minnich, Austin J.

    2015-05-07

    Cross-plane heat transport in thin films with thicknesses comparable to the phonon mean free paths is of both fundamental and practical interest for applications such as light-emitting diodes and quantum well lasers. However, physical insight is difficult to obtain for the cross-plane geometry due to the challenge of solving the Boltzmann equation in a finite domain. Here, we present a semi-analytical series expansion method to solve the transient, frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation that is valid from the diffusive to ballistic transport regimes and rigorously includes the frequency-dependence of phonon properties. Further, our method is more than three orders of magnitude faster than prior numerical methods and provides a simple analytical expression for the thermal conductivity as a function of film thickness. Our result enables a straightforward physical understanding of cross-plane heat conduction in thin films.

  18. 49 CFR 222.49 - Who may file Grade Crossing Inventory Forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may file Grade Crossing Inventory Forms? 222.49 Section 222.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... § 222.49 Who may file Grade Crossing Inventory Forms? (a) Grade Crossing Inventory Forms required to...

  19. Foreign currency-related translation complexities in cross-border healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Rodrigues, Jean M

    2009-01-01

    International cross-border private hospital chains need to apply the standards for foreign currency translation in order to consolidate the balance sheet and income statements. This not only exposes such chains to exchange rate fluctuations in different ways, but also creates added requirements for enterprise-level IT systems especially when they produce parameters which are used to measure the financial and operational performance of the foreign subsidiary or the parent hospital. Such systems would need to come to terms with the complexities involved in such currency-related translations in order to provide the correct data for performance benchmarking.

  20. Data linkage infrastructure for cross-jurisdictional health-related research in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Centre for Data Linkage (CDL) has been established to enable national and cross-jurisdictional health-related research in Australia. It has been funded through the Population Health Research Network (PHRN), a national initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). This paper describes the development of the processes and methodology required to create cross-jurisdictional research infrastructure and enable aggregation of State and Territory linkages into a single linkage “map”. Methods The CDL has implemented a linkage model which incorporates best practice in data linkage and adheres to data integration principles set down by the Australian Government. Working closely with data custodians and State-based data linkage facilities, the CDL has designed and implemented a linkage system to enable research at national or cross-jurisdictional level. A secure operational environment has also been established with strong governance arrangements to maximise privacy and the confidentiality of data. Results The development and implementation of a cross-jurisdictional linkage model overcomes a number of challenges associated with the federated nature of health data collections in Australia. The infrastructure expands Australia’s data linkage capability and provides opportunities for population-level research. The CDL linkage model, infrastructure architecture and governance arrangements are presented. The quality and capability of the new infrastructure is demonstrated through the conduct of data linkage for the first PHRN Proof of Concept Collaboration project, where more than 25 million records were successfully linked to a very high quality. Conclusions This infrastructure provides researchers and policy-makers with the ability to undertake linkage-based research that extends across jurisdictional boundaries. It represents an advance in Australia’s national data linkage capabilities and sets the scene

  1. Reward dependence is related to norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Joo; Choi, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Rhee-Hun; Lee, Min-Soo

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that approximately 50% of the variance in personality traits is genetic. The goal of this study was to investigate a relationship between personality traits and the T-182C polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene. The participants included 115 healthy adults with no history of psychiatric disorders and other physical illness during the past 6 months. All participants were tested with the Temperament and Character Inventory and genotyped norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphism. Differences on the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions among three groups were examined with one-way analysis of variance. Our study suggests that the norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism is associated with reward dependence in Koreans, but the small number of study participants and their sex and age heterogeneity limits generalization of our results. Further studies are necessary with a larger number of homogeneous participants to confirm whether the norepinephrine transporter gene is related to personality traits.

  2. Examination of the fundamental relation between ionic transport and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Fei; Agapov, Alexander L; Saito, Tomonori; Yang, Jun; Yu, Xiang; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2014-01-01

    Replacing traditional liquid electrolytes by polymers will significantly improve electrical energy storage technologies. Despite significant advantages for applications in electrochemical devices, the use of solid polymer electrolytes is strongly limited by their poor ionic conductivity. The classical theory predicts that the ionic transport is dictated by the segmental motion of the polymer matrix. As a result, the low mobility of polymer segments is often regarded as the limiting factor for development of polymers with sufficiently high ionic conductivity. Here, we show that the ionic conductivity in many polymers can be strongly decoupled from their segmental dynamics, in terms of both temperature dependence and relative transport rate. Based on this principle, we developed several polymers with superionic conductivity. The observed fast ion transport suggests a fundamental difference between the ionic transport mechanisms in polymers and small molecules and provides a new paradigm for design of highly conductive polymer electrolytes.

  3. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Brebrick, R. F.; Burger, A.; Dudley, M.; Ramachandran, N.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the crystals grown by vapor transport as results of buoyance-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows. ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, were grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals were characterized extensively to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  4. Diagnosing cross-shelf transport along an ocean front: An observational case study in the Gulf of Lion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nencioli, F.; Petrenko, A. A.; Doglioli, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    Exchanges between coastal regions and the open ocean are often associated with intermittent and localized processes such as eddies, fronts, and filaments. Since these features are difficult to observe, their impact has been predominantly investigated using numerical models and remote sensing. In this study, satellite sea surface temperature maps, Lagrangian surface drifter trajectories, and ship-based surveys of currents and hydrography from the Latex10 campaign are used to quantify cross-shelf exchanges associated with a temperature front in the western Gulf of Lion. Satellite imagery and thermosalinograph sections provide the characterization of the various water masses associated with the front. Lagrangian drifter trajectories are used to identify the main transport structures and to quantify the velocity components associated with near-inertial oscillations. These are removed from the instantaneous ADCP observations with which the cross-shelf exchanges are then computed. The results indicate an average outflow of 0.074 ± 0.013 Sv and an inflow of 0.021 ± 0.006 Sv. Integrated over the 2 week lifetime of the front, such outflow induced a total export of ˜90 ± 14 km3 of water, indicating that three to four of such events are sufficient to completely renew the surface waters of the Gulf of Lion. The total import was ˜25 ± 7 km3, suggesting larger inflows at depth or in the eastern part of the gulf to maintain its volume balance. These in situ estimates represent a key term of comparison for the further development of numerical model-based and satellite-based studies of cross-shelf exchanges associated with this type of processes.

  5. Correlation Electron Temperature Fluctuation Measurements on Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade: Cross Machine Comparisons and Transport Model Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. E.; Creely, A. J.; Freethy, S.; Cao, N.; Conway, G. D.; Goerler, T.; Happel, T.; Howard, N. T.; Inman, C.; Rice, J. E.; Rodriguez Fernandez, P.; Sung, C.; C-Mod, Alcator; Upgrade, Asdex

    2016-10-01

    Correlation Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostics have been developed for Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade. Measurements of long wavelength (ktheta rhos <0.5) electron temperature fluctuations have been measured in the core plasma (0.5 cross-machine comparisons, as well as multi-machine transport model validation, using nonlinear simulations with the GENE and GYRO codes and reduced models such as TGLF. Electron temperature fluctuations, and the correlation with density fluctuations, which can be measured with coupled radiometer / reflectometer diagnostics, provide valuable constraints on gyrokinetic models. Recent results in transport model validation at both C-Mod and AUG are presented. This work is supported by the US DOE under Grants DE-SC0006419 and DEFC02-99ER54512-CMOD.

  6. Quantitative estimates of past changes in ITCZ position and cross-equatorial atmospheric heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, D.; Donohoe, A.; Marshall, J.; Ferreira, D.

    2012-12-01

    The mean position and seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) govern the intensity, spatial distribution and seasonality of precipitation throughout the tropics as well as the magnitude and direction of interhemispheric atmospheric heat transport (AHT). As a result of these links to global tropical precipitation and hemispheric heat budgets, paleoclimate studies have commonly sought to use reconstructions of local precipitation and surface winds to identify past shifts in the ITCZ's mean position or seasonal extent. Records indicate close ties between ITCZ position and interhemispheric surface temperature gradients in past climates, with the ITCZ shifting toward the warmer hemisphere. This shift would increase AHT into the cooler hemisphere to at least partially compensate for cooling there. Despite widespread qualitative evidence consistent with ITCZ shifts, few proxy records offer quantitative estimates of the distance of these shifts or of the associated changes in AHT. Here we present a strategy for placing quantitative limits on past changes in mean annual ITCZ position and interhemispheric AHT based on explorations of the modern seasonal cycle and models of present and past climates. We use reconstructions of tropical sea surface temperature gradients to place bounds on globally averaged ITCZ position and interhemispheric AHT during the Last Glacial Maximum, Heinrich Stadial 1, and the Mid-Holocene (6 ka). Though limited by the small number of SST records available, our results suggest that past shifts in the global mean ITCZ were small, typically less than 1 degree of latitude. Past changes in interhemispheric AHT may have been substantial, with anomalies approximately equal to the magnitude of modern interhemispheric AHT. Using constraints on the invariance of the total (ocean+atmosphere) heat transport we suggest possible bounds on fluctuations of the OHT and AMOC during Heinrich Stadial 1. We also explore ITCZ shifts in models and

  7. Nano-cross-junction effect on phonon transport in silicon nanowire cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dengke; Ding, Hongru; Meng, Han; Feng, Lei; Wu, Yue; Shiomi, Junichiro; Yang, Nuo

    2016-10-01

    Wave effects of phonons can give rise to controllability of heat conduction in nanostructures beyond that by particle scattering at surfaces and interfaces. In this paper, we propose a new class of three-dimensional nanostructures: a silicon-nanowire-cage (SiNWC) structure consisting of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) connected by nano-cross-junctions. We perform equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and find an ultralow value of thermal conductivity of SiNWC, 0.173 W m-1K-1 , which is one order lower than that of SiNWs. By further modal analysis and atomistic Green's function calculations, we identify that the large reduction is due to significant phonon localization induced by the phonon local resonance and hybridization at the junction part in a wide range of phonon modes. This localization effect does not require the cage to be periodic, unlike the phononic crystals, and can be realized in structures that are easier to synthesize, for instance in a form of randomly oriented SiNW network.

  8. On the dynamics of SEIRS epidemic model with transport-related infection.

    PubMed

    Denphedtnong, Adisak; Chinviriyasit, Settapat; Chinviriyasit, Wirawan

    2013-10-01

    Transportation amongst cities is found as one of the main factors which affect the outbreak of diseases. To understand the effect of transport-related infection on disease spread, an SEIRS (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered) epidemic model for two cities is formulated and analyzed. The epidemiological threshold, known as the basic reproduction number, of the model is derived. If the basic reproduction number is below unity, the disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable. Thus, the disease can be eradicated from the community. There exists an endemic equilibrium which is locally asymptotically stable if the reproduction number is larger than unity. This means that the disease will persist within the community. The results show that transportation among regions will change the disease dynamics and break infection out even if infectious diseases will go to extinction in each isolated region without transport-related infection. In addition, the result shows that transport-related infection intensifies the disease spread if infectious diseases break out to cause an endemic situation in each region, in the sense of that both the absolute and relative size of patients increase. Further, the formulated model is applied to the real data of SARS outbreak in 2003 to study the transmission of disease during the movement between two regions. The results show that the transport-related infection is effected to the number of infected individuals and the duration of outbreak in such the way that the disease becomes more endemic due to the movement between two cities. This study can be helpful in providing the information to public health authorities and policy maker to reduce spreading disease when its occurs.

  9. Transient electrokinetic transport in micro/nanofluidic systems with sudden expansion and contraction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chein, Reiyu; Liao, Yuchung

    2013-03-01

    This study numerically investigates electrokinetic transport in a micro/nanofluidic system by solving the transient Poisson, Nernst-Planck, and Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously. The considered system is a nanochannel connected to two micro channels at its ends. Under various applied electric potential biases, the concentration polarization effect on the fluid flow, induced pressure, and electric current is examined. By comparing with the Donnan equilibrium condition and electroosmotic flow in the microscale dimension, electric body force due to non-zero charge density is the mechanism for producing vortex flow and inducing a positive pressure gradient on the anodic side of the system. The diffusive boundary layer thickness is reduced due to stirring by the generated vortex flow, resulting in over-limiting current when the applied electric potential bias is high. The steady-state current voltage curve indicates that in the Ohmic regime, higher current can be obtained when the surface charge density is large due to higher fluid velocity. In the limiting and over-limiting current regimes, higher electric current can be obtained when the nanochannel is larger with smaller surface density because more ions are available for carrying the current. The nanochannel size effect on the limiting and over-limiting current magnitudes is insignificant when the surface charge density is large.

  10. Turbulent heating and cross-field transport near the magnetopause from THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, C.; Bonnell, J.; McFadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.; Cully, C.; Le Contel, O.; Roux, A.; Auster, H. U.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Angelopoulos, V.; Russell, C. T.

    2008-05-01

    We demonstrate that the low frequency broadband magnetic fluctuations observed during THEMIS spacecraft traversals near the Earth's magnetopause may be described as a turbulent spectrum of Doppler shifted kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs). These waves are most intense along reconnected flux-tubes in the magnetosheath just outside the magnetopause. We identify distinct power-law scalings of wave spectral energy density in wavenumber and show that Landau (LD) and transit time damping (TD) on ions and electrons is largest at the wavenumber where the power-law index changes. The threshold amplitude for stochastic ion scattering/acceleration is also exceeded by these waves. These acceleration processes are manifest in observations of field-aligned and transverse heating of electrons and ions respectively. From integration over the range of observed wavenumbers we show that, if the wave-normal angles are sufficiently large, these waves can provide diffusive transport of magnetosheath plasmas across the magnetopause at up to the Bohm rate.

  11. Neuron-glia cross talk revealed in reverberating networks by simultaneous extracellular recording of spikes and astrocytes' glutamate transporter and K+ currents

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, Enzo; Gullo, Francesca; Dossi, Elena; Valenza, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes uptake synaptically released glutamate with electrogenic transporters (GluT) and buffer the spike-dependent extracellular K+ excess with background K+ channels. We studied neuronal spikes and the slower astrocytic signals on reverberating neocortical cultures and organotypic slices from mouse brains. Spike trains and glial responses were simultaneously captured from individual sites of multielectrode arrays (MEA) by splitting the recorded traces into appropriate filters and reconstructing the original signal by deconvolution. GluT currents were identified by using dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA). K+ currents were blocked by 30 μM Ba2+, suggesting a major contribution of inwardly rectifying K+ currents. Both types of current were tightly correlated with the spike rate, and their astrocytic origin was tested in primary cultures by blocking glial proliferation with cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside (AraC). The spike-related, time-locked inward and outward K+ currents in different regions of the astrocyte syncytium were consistent with the assumptions of the spatial K+ buffering model. In organotypic slices from ventral tegmental area and prefrontal cortex, the GluT current amplitudes exceeded those observed in primary cultures by several orders of magnitude, which allowed to directly measure transporter currents with a single electrode. Simultaneously measuring cell signals displaying widely different amplitudes and kinetics will help clarify the neuron-glia interplay and make it possible to follow the cross talk between different cell types in excitable as well as nonexcitable tissue. PMID:27683885

  12. Towards an explanation of age-related difficulties in crossing a two-way street.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Lay, Tristan Le; Vienne, Fabrice; Dang, Nguyen-Thong; Beaudoin, Alexandra Perrot; Do, Manh Cuong

    2015-12-01

    Crossing a two-way street is a complex task that involves visual, cognitive and motor abilities, all of which are known to decline with ageing. In particular, older pedestrians may experience difficulties when crossing two-way streets because of incorrect gap acceptance choices and impossible or unperceived evasive actions. To understand the overrepresentation of older pedestrians in crash statistics, several experimental studies have sought to identify traffic-related factors as well as those related to the abilities of the individuals themselves. However, none of these studies has required participants to actually walk across an experimental two-way street with curbs, which is a particularly challenging situation for older pedestrians. To fill this research gap, a quasi-experiment was conducted in a simulator including a total of 58 healthy aged participants (25 younger-old [age 60-72] and 33 older-old [age 72-92]) and 25 young adults (aged 18-25 years). Participants carried out a street-crossing task in a simulated two-way traffic environment; curbs were present on both sides of the experimental street. Participants also undertook a battery of tests to assess their visual and cognitive abilities. In addition, during the experiment, the participants' gait parameters were recorded. In line with earlier findings, the older-old group of participants made a higher number of decisions that led to collisions with approaching cars compared with the other groups. The two groups of older participants experienced specific difficulties when vehicles were in the far lane or when they approached rapidly. A regression analysis identified visual acuity, speed of processing (assessed using the UFOV(®) test), and step length as significant predictors of collisions. Our results have implications for understanding the difficulties experienced by older pedestrians and allow to draw up several recommendations for improving their safety.

  13. Relative deprivation, poverty, and subjective health: JAGES cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Abe, Aya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities) and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ≥65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n = 24,742). Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty). A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR = 1.3-1.5) and depressive symptoms (PR = 1.5-1.8) in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty). The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions.

  14. Burden of Keloid Disease: A Cross-sectional Health-related Quality of Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bijlard, Eveline; Kouwenberg, Casimir A E; Timman, Reinier; Hovius, Steven E R; Busschbach, Jan J V; Mureau, Marc A M

    2017-02-08

    Keloid scars may be painful, itch severely and be cosmetically disturbing. The burden of keloid disease, however, has not yet been determined. This study evaluated the association of keloid disease with health-related quality of life (HRQL) and identified indicators of burden using a cross-sectional survey study, with one disease-specific HRQL measure (Skindex-29) and 2 generic HRQL measures (SF-36 and EQ-5D-5L). A total of 106 keloid patients with no other skin diseases participated in the study. Having keloid disease was associated with a considerable impairment of emotional wellbeing, with most impairment on the emotional and mental HRQL. Pain and itch were the strongest indicators of HRQL impairment in keloid patients. Having painful or itchy keloids was related to low mental and emotional HRQL, implying that patients with keloids require access to effective treatment aimed at alleviating physical symptoms.

  15. Microsatellite primers for Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia (Onagraceae) and cross-amplification in related species1

    PubMed Central

    López-Villalobos, Adriana; Samis, Karen E.; Eckert, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed 24 nuclear microsatellite primers from an enriched genomic library for the Pacific coastal dune endemic Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia to study the consequences of mating system differentiation, the genetics of species’ range limits, and hybridization with its closest sister taxon, C. bistorta. • Methods and Results: Twenty-four primer pairs were developed and characterized in four populations of C. cheiranthifolia and one population of C. bistorta. We also tested eight additional taxa for cross-amplification. The average number of alleles per locus per species was 4.3 and 6.0, respectively. The number of loci that amplified and were variable within the eight related taxa ranged from six to 17. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful in studying mating system evolution, the genetic structure of species’ ranges, hybridization, and the provenance of material used for habitat restoration in C. cheiranthifolia, C. bistorta, and related species. PMID:25309839

  16. Adolescents’ Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations With Mental Health and Harsh Parenting

    PubMed Central

    East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents’ pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult women, adolescents’ lower prenatal pregnancy intendedness and wantedness predicted initial difficulties in parenting; (b) frequent depression symptoms predicted subsequent lower pregnancy intendedness and wantedness; (c) adolescents’ poor mental health and harsh parenting of their child predicted subsequent higher childbearing regret, and (d) high childbearing regret and parenting stress were reciprocally related across time. In addition, adolescents’ wantedness of their pregnancy declined prenatally to postbirth, and strong pregnancy intendedness and wantedness were not concurrently related to adolescents’ poor prenatal mental health. The findings reveal how adolescents’ thoughts and feelings about their pregnancies are influenced by and predictive of their mental health and parenting experiences. PMID:22544975

  17. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents: the Danish youth and sports study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Anderssen, S A

    2009-06-01

    In many Western countries, there are concerns about declining levels of physical activity in school-aged children. Active transport is one way to increase physical activity in children, but few studies have evaluated whether active transport in school-aged children and adolescents has beneficial effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness was assessed through a number of field tests, including a maximal cycle test, dynamic and static strength in different muscle groups, muscle endurance, flexibility and agility. Transport to school was reported as the mode of transport. Almost two-thirds of the population cycled to school. Cyclists had higher aerobic power than both walkers and passive travelers (4.6-5.9%). Isometric muscle endurance (10-16%), dynamic muscle endurance in the abdominal muscles (10%) and flexibility (6%) were also higher in cyclists compared with walkers and passive travelers. Mode of travel was not related to leisure-time sports participation. Our findings suggest that commuter bicycling may be a way to improve health in adolescents.

  18. IFT57 stabilizes the assembled intraflagellar transport complex and mediates transport of motility-related flagellar cargo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Hernandez, Daniel; Hernandez, Catherine; Ding, Zhaolan; Nan, Beiyan; Aufderheide, Karl; Qin, Hongmin

    2017-03-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for the assembly and maintenance of flagella and cilia. Recent biochemical studies have shown that IFT complex B (IFT-B) is comprised of two subcomplexes, IFT-B1 and IFT-B2. The IFT-B2 subunit IFT57 lies at the interface between IFT-B1 and IFT-B2. Here, using a Chlamydomonasreinhardtii mutant for IFT57, we tested whether IFT57 is required for IFT-B complex assembly by bridging IFT-B1 and IFT-B2 together. In the ift57-1 mutant, levels of IFT57 and other IFT-B proteins were greatly reduced at the whole-cell level. However, strikingly, in the protease-free flagellar compartment, while the level of IFT57 was reduced, the levels of other IFT particle proteins were not concomitantly reduced but were present at the wild-type level. The IFT movement of the IFT57-deficient IFT particles was also unchanged. Moreover, IFT57 depletion disrupted the flagellar waveform, leading to cell swimming defects. Analysis of the mutant flagellar protein composition showed that certain axonemal proteins were altered. Taken together, these findings suggest that IFT57 does not play an essential structural role in the IFT particle complex but rather functions to prevent it from degradation. Additionally, IFT57 is involved in transporting specific motility-related proteins.

  19. Assessing resilience of western rangelands to transportation-related land-use change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount and extent of transportation related activity in western rangelands has rapidly increased in recent decades. This increase is due to a variety of factors including oil and gas development, recreational activities, and ex-urban development. In addition to areas directly impacted by infrast...

  20. 34 CFR 200.48 - Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services. 200.48 Section 200.48 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE...

  1. 34 CFR 200.48 - Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services. 200.48 Section 200.48 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE...

  2. 34 CFR 200.48 - Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services. 200.48 Section 200.48 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE...

  3. 34 CFR 200.48 - Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services. 200.48 Section 200.48 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE...

  4. 34 CFR 200.48 - Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding for choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services. 200.48 Section 200.48 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE...

  5. 40 CFR 93.122 - Procedures for determining regional transportation-related emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... growth in population and historical growth trends for VMT per person. These methods must also consider... population over 200,000. (1) By January 1, 1997, estimates of regional transportation-related emissions used... trends and other factors, and the results must be documented; (ii) Land use, population, employment,...

  6. 40 CFR 93.122 - Procedures for determining regional transportation-related emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... growth in population and historical growth trends for VMT per person. These methods must also consider... population over 200,000. (1) By January 1, 1997, estimates of regional transportation-related emissions used... trends and other factors, and the results must be documented; (ii) Land use, population, employment,...

  7. 40 CFR 93.122 - Procedures for determining regional transportation-related emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... growth in population and historical growth trends for VMT per person. These methods must also consider... population over 200,000. (1) By January 1, 1997, estimates of regional transportation-related emissions used... trends and other factors, and the results must be documented; (ii) Land use, population, employment,...

  8. Transport-Related Social Exclusion amongst Older People in Rural Southwest England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shergold, Ian; Parkhurst, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Rural dwelling and older age are both associated with a higher risk of social exclusion, with accessibility identified as having an important facilitating role. The interactions between transport-related exclusion and older age, particularly in a rural context, are considered though analysis of quantitative and qualitative data collected from over…

  9. Relations among transepithelial sodium transport, potassium exchange, and cell volume in rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Nellans, H N; Schultz, S G

    1976-10-01

    The relation between active transepithelial Na transport across rabbit ileum and 42K exchange from the serosal solution across the basolateral membranes has been explored. Although 42K influx across the basolateral membranes is inhibited by ouabain and by complete depletion of cell Na, it is not affected when transepithelial Na transport is abolished (i.e. in the presence of an Na-free mucosal solution) or stimulated (i.e. when glucose or alanine is added to the mucosal solution). We are unable to detect any relation between the ouabain-sensitive Na-K exchange mechanism responsible for the maintenance of intracellular Na and K concentrations and active transcellular Na transport. In addition, the maintenance of cell volume (water content) does not appear to be dependent upon transepithelial Na transport or the ouabain-sensitive Na-K exchange pump. Although the results of these studies cannot be considered conclusive, they raise serious questions regarding the role of the Na-K exchange pump, located at the basolateral membranes, in active transepithelial Na transport and the maintenance of cell volume.

  10. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  11. Cross-structural priming: prepositional phrase attachment primes relative clause attachment.

    PubMed

    Loncke, Maaike; Van Laere, Sébastien M J; Desmet, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that attachment height (high vs. low attachment) of a modifier to a complex noun phrase (CNP; e.g., "the servant of the actress"), can be primed between dissimilar syntactic structures. In a sentence completion experiment, we found that the attachment height of a prepositional phrase (PP) in the prime sentence primed the attachment height of a relative clause (RC) in the target sentence. This cross-structural priming effect cannot be explained in terms of the priming of specific phrase-structure rules or even sequences of specific phrase-structure rules (Scheepers, 2003), because the attachment of a PP to a CNP is generated by a different phrase-structure rule than the attachment of an RC. However, the present data suggest that the location at which the RC is attached to the CNP is mentally represented, independent of the specific phrase-structure rule that is attached, or by extension, that the abstract hierarchical configuration of the full CNP and the attached RC is represented (Desmet & Declercq, 2006). This is the first demonstration of a cross-structural priming effect that cannot be captured by phrase-structure rules.

  12. Review of cross-cultural issues related to quality of life after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, Denise; Forchheimer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population.

  13. Review of Cross-Cultural Issues Related to Quality of Life After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a dynamic concept that means different things to different people, both in the general public and within the research community. Because of this, a common definition of QOL has been hard to achieve. This article reviews cross-cultural issues related to QOL research in spinal cord injury (SCI). Many factors influence QOL for persons with SCI, including observable and objective indicators and subjective self-report ones. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Function, Disability and Health is used in this article as a framework to better understand how these factors may influence QOL. A number of important steps are summarized with respect to measurement issues in QOL. A comparison between data from 2 countries (United States and Brazil) using the International SCI QOL Basic Data Set shows similarities in scores and good reliability in the Brazilian sample. Substantial, significant correlations were observed among the SCI QOL Basic Data Set items and the WHOQOL-BREF within the US sample. The article ends with a set of recommendations for the development of cross-cultural measures of QOL for use in the SCI population. PMID:25484564

  14. A cross-sectional study of chronic wound-related pain and itching.

    PubMed

    Paul, Julia

    2013-07-01

    Persons with chronic wounds may experience wound-related itch (pruritus) and pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the occurrence of itch and pain in chronic wounds and the relationship of the intensity between these factors. Patients in an outpatient wound care center, 18 years and older with an open wound, were recruited consecutively over a 5-month period. The 199 participants (112 [56%] men) had a mean age of 67 years (range 21-98 years); one wound per person was addressed and included venous (31), arterial (23), neuropathic (31), pressure-related (33), traumatic (37), and "other" (41) wounds. Wound-related pain and itch data were obtained using a modified Paul-Pieper Itching Questionnaire and Characteristics of Itch Questionnaire. Responses were hand-recorded and coded without personal identifiers and analyzed using descriptive statistics, and associations among data were assessed using Pearson chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel chi-square, and Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Wound-related itch was significantly associated with participant age (P = 0.011) and employment status (P = 0.003). Wound-related pain was significantly associated only with education level (P = 0.048). Persons with venous wounds had both the largest proportion with wound-related itch (45.2%) and the largest proportion with wound-related pain (61.2%) out of all of the wound types. Persons with diabetic neuropathy had both the smallest proportion with wound-related itch (16.1%) and the smallest proportion with wound-related pain (35.4%) among all of the wound types. Associations between wound type and wound-related itch or pain were not significant. When venous wounds were compared to all other wound types combined, wound-related itch was significantly associated (P = 0.021) with wound type - ie, venous wound type and itch was statistically significant when venous wounds were compared to a combination of all other wound types. Wound-related pain and itch occurred together in 35

  15. Determining the Scope of Collection Development and Research Assistance for Cross-Disciplinary Areas: A Case Study of Two Contrasting Areas, Nanotechnology and Transportation Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jeanine M.; Han, Lee D.; Colon-Aguirre, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent of cross-disciplinarity in nanotechnology and transportation engineering research. Researchers in these two fields were determined from the web sites of the U.S. News and World Report top 100 schools in civil engineering and materials science. Web of Science searches for 2006 and 2007 articles were obtained and the…

  16. Stomatal control of gas-exchange is related to assimilate transport from leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikinmaa, E.; Holtta, T.; Sevanto, S.; Makela, A.; Hari, P.; Vesala, T.

    2009-04-01

    In land plants, the carbon fluxes are closely associated with those of water. The loss of water from leaves pulls water from soil in plants. High transpiration relative to compensating water flux from soil increases the tension of water column that may lead to its rupture and catastrophic dysfunction of the xylem if the transpiration rate is not regulated. Modification of the size of stomatal openings in leaves regulates the interconnected fluxes of water and carbon. Stomatal regulation of transpiration has direct influence also on the carbon transport from source leaves to sinks. Under given conditions, the water tension of xylem in leaves is linearly related to stomatal conductance while the assimilation rate, which is linked to the loading capacity, has saturating relationship with stomatal conductance. High sugar loading at source could compensate for the high water tension in xylem resulting from eg. high transpiration. However, excessive loading rate of the most commonly transported sugar, sucrose, causes rapid viscosity build up that effectively blocks the phloem transport. Assimilate transport from the shoot is a clear requirement for continuous photosynthetic production in leaves. Without transport the storage capacity of the leaves would be rapidly exhausted and accumulation of excess sugars in leaves lead to downregulation of photosynthesis. In this presentation we study the stomatal response to environment and its linkage to xylem and phloem tranport with dynamic model. We hypothesize that stomatal reaction to environment would maintain maximal assimilate transport in phloem under those conditions. We added to the xylem phloem transport model stomatal control of leaf gas-exchange, light and CO2 concentration dependent photosynthesis rate and carbon storage in leaf. For each time step we varied the stomatal conductance and selected the sollution that maximised the transport of assimilates in phloem. Our hypothesis reproduced realistically stomatal

  17. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Brebrick, Robert F.; Volz, Martin P.; Burger, Arnold; Dudley, Michael; Matyi, Richard J.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Sha, Yi-Gao; Volz, Martin P.; Shih, Hung-Dah

    2001-01-01

    Crystal growth by vapor transport has several distinct advantages over melt growth techniques. Among various potential benefits from material processing in reduced gravity the followings two are considered to be related to crystal growth by vapor transport: (1) elimination of the crystal weight and its influence on the defect formation and (2) reduction of natural buoyancy-driven convective flows arising from thermally and/ or solutally induced density gradient in fluids. The previous results on vapor crystal growth of semiconductors showed the improvements in surface morphology, crystalline quality, electrical properties and dopant distribution of the crystals grown in reduced gravity as compared to the crystals grown on Earth. But the mechanisms, which are responsible for the improvements and cause the gravitational effects on the complicated and coupled processes of vapor mass transport and growth kinetics, are not well understood.

  18. Oral Hygiene Practices and Dentition Status of Public Transport Workers of India- A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sohi, Ramandeep Kaur; Singh, Gurminder; Brar, Rajdeep; Singh, Harpreet; Kakar, Heena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the oral hygiene practices and dentition statuses of transport workers who were working in a public bus transport system (C.T.U.) of Chandigarh (U.T.), India. Materials and Methods: The data were recorded on a modified W.H.O. format (1997). A total of 1008 subjects constituted the final sample size. Information was obtained regarding the oral hygiene practices and clinical examinations were conducted. Statistical analysis was done by using ANOVA and Z-test. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 45.3 ± 7.8 years. Mean DMFT of the subjects who were not using tobacco in any form was 5.02. 80.2% (808). 88.7% of the subjects brushed their teeth as least once a day. Mean number of decayed and missing teeth were 1.67 ± 2.16 and 1.46 ± 2.8, respectively and their relation with age was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Dental caries was found to be major indication in all the age groups. More elderly subjects than young needed extractions. This study emphasized the need of an improved dental awareness and availability of dental facilities to transport workers. PMID:25386518

  19. Street-Crossing Decision-Making: A Comparison between Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Normal Vision

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Shirin E.; Snyder, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We determined whether the street-crossing decisions of subjects with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were as accurate and precise as those made by young and older subjects with normal vision. Methods. Street-crossing decisions in 13 AMD subjects, and 20 young and 20 older control subjects with normal vision were measured along an un-signalized street for nine different gap times. After calculating the discriminability (d') of the street-crossing decision variable for all gap pairs and entering these d' values into a one-dimensional scaling model, the means of each distribution of the decision variable relative to a “center of gravity” were estimated and plotted against gap time. The resultant plot was a nonlinear function. Street-crossing decision accuracy was computed for each subject as the difference between the x-intercept of the nonlinear function (tCOG) and subjects' measured street-crossing time. Street-crossing decision-making precision was computed as the value of the slope of the nonlinear function at tCOG. Results. We found that all subjects were precise in their street-crossing decisions (P = 0.55). Significant differences in street-crossing accuracy were found as a function of age (P = 0.003). Compared to either the older normally-sighted (P = 0.018) or AMD (P = 0.019) subjects, the young normally-sighted subjects made the least accurate street-crossing decisions. No significant difference in accuracy was found between the AMD and age-matched normally-sighted subjects (P = 0.90). Conclusions. Our data suggested that age and mild central vision loss did not affect significantly a subject's precision in their street-crossing decisions. Age, but not mild central vision loss, significantly affected a subject's accuracy in their street-crossing decisions. PMID:22899756

  20. Ion collision cross sections and transport coefficients extended to intermediate energies and reduced electric fields for He2+ ions colliding with He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicheportiche, A.; Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.; Lepetit, B.; Kalus, R.; Gadea, F. X.

    2013-10-01

    This work is devoted to the calculation of transport coefficients for He2+ ions in gaseous He at intermediate reduced electric fields. These swarm data are of great interest for a better understanding of the mechanisms of formation and propagation of the fast plasma bullets or ionization waves observed in dielectric barrier plasma jet devices. For transport data, the collision cross sections required are determined from several theoretical methods based on quantum, semiclassical, and hybrid approaches and a diatomics-in-molecules model for the potential energy surfaces of He3+. The corresponding collision cross sections are then used in an optimized Monte Carlo code to calculate the ion transport coefficients over a wide range of reduced electric fields extending over the experimental range. Calculated transport coefficients are compared with available experimental data at low electric fields. Moreover, an extrapolation method is used in order to determine the reduced mobility for stronger fields. A critical discussion has been performed on the pertinence and the reliability of these different methods of determination of collision cross sections needed for the calculation of ion transport data. Such ion data will be used in electrohydrodynamic and chemical kinetic models of the low-temperature plasma jet to quantify and to tune the active species production for a better use in biomedical applications.

  1. Cross-bedding Related Anisotropy and its Role in the Orientation of Joints in an Aeolian Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, S.; Cilona, A.; Mapeli, C.; Panfilau, A.; Aydin, A.; Prasad, M.

    2014-12-01

    Previous research revealed that the cross-bedding related anisotropy in aeolian sandstones affects the orientation of compaction bands, also known as anticracks. We hypothesize that cross-bedding should a have similar influence on the orientation of the joints within the same rock at the same location. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the cross-beds and the cross-bed package confined joints in the Jurassic aeolian Aztec Sandstone cropping out in the Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada. The field data demonstrates that the cross-bed package confined joints occur at high-angle to bedding and trend roughly parallel to the dip direction of the cross-beds. This shows that the cross-bed orientation and the associated anisotropy also exert a strong control on the formation and orientation of the joints. In order to characterize the anisotropy due to cross-bedding in the Aztec Sandstone, we measured the P-wave velocities parallel and perpendicular to bedding from 11 samples in the laboratory using a bench-top ultrasonic assembly. The measured P-wave anisotropy is about 13% on average. Based on these results, a numerical model based on the generalized Hooke's law for anisotropic materials is analyzed assuming the cross-bedded sandstone to be transversely isotropic. Using this model, we tested various cross-bed orientations as well as different strain boundary conditions (uniaxial, axisymmetric and triaxial). It is possible to define a boundary condition under which the modeled results roughly match with the observed relationship between cross-bed package confined joints and cross-beds. These results have important implications for fluid flow through aeolian sandstones in reservoirs and aquifers.

  2. Improving health-related fitness in adolescents: the CrossFit Teens™ randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip James; Lubans, David Revalds

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of the CrossFit Teens™ resistance training programme for improving health-related fitness and resistance training skill competency in adolescents. This assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in the Hunter Region, Australia, from July to September 2013. Ninety-six (96) students (age = 15.4 (.5) years, 51.5% female) were randomised into intervention (n = 51) or control (n = 45) conditions for 8-weeks (60 min twice per week). Waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), BMI-Z score (primary outcomes), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), muscular fitness (standing jump, push-up, handgrip, curl-up test), flexibility (sit and reach) and resistance training skill competency were measured at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Feasibility measures of recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction were assessed. Significant group-by-time intervention effects were found for waist circumference [-3.1 cm, P < 0.001], BMI [-1.38 kg · m(‒)(2), P < 0.001], BMI-Z [-0.5 z-scores, P < 0.001], sit and reach [+3.0 cm, P < 0.001], standing jump [+0.1 m, P = 0.021] and shuttle run [+10.3 laps, P = 0.019]. Retention rate was 82.3%. All programme sessions were delivered and participants' mean satisfaction scores ranged from 4.2 to 4.6 out of 5. The findings demonstrate that CrossFit Teens™ is a feasible and efficacious programme for improving health-related fitness in adolescents.

  3. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. Results: We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Conclusions: Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. Citation: Kim LJ, Coelho FM, Hirotsu C, Araujo P, Bittencourt L, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Frequencies and associations of narcolepsy-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1377–1384. PMID:26235160

  4. Age-related differences in emotion recognition ability: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mill, Aire; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Valk, Raivo

    2009-10-01

    Experimental studies indicate that recognition of emotions, particularly negative emotions, decreases with age. However, there is no consensus at which age the decrease in emotion recognition begins, how selective this is to negative emotions, and whether this applies to both facial and vocal expression. In the current cross-sectional study, 607 participants ranging in age from 18 to 84 years (mean age = 32.6 +/- 14.9 years) were asked to recognize emotions expressed either facially or vocally. In general, older participants were found to be less accurate at recognizing emotions, with the most distinctive age difference pertaining to a certain group of negative emotions. Both modalities revealed an age-related decline in the recognition of sadness and -- to a lesser degree -- anger, starting at about 30 years of age. Although age-related differences in the recognition of expression of emotion were not mediated by personality traits, 2 of the Big 5 traits, openness and conscientiousness, made an independent contribution to emotion-recognition performance. Implications of age-related differences in facial and vocal emotion expression and early onset of the selective decrease in emotion recognition are discussed in terms of previous findings and relevant theoretical models.

  5. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Kareshki, Hossein; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses’ competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five Factor Inventory, were administered simultaneously to a randomized stratified sample of 220 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Majority of nurses rated themselves as "good" and "very good", with the highest scores in "managing situations" and "work role" dimensions of nurse competence. A relatively similar pattern of scores was seen in competence dimensions, personality and emotional intelligence, among male and female nurses. Emotional intelligence and personality scores showed a significant relationship with nurses’ competence, explaining almost 20% of variations in nurse competence scores. Conclusion: Iranian nurses evaluated their overall professional competence at similar level of the nurses in other countries. Knowledge about the nurses’ competence level and its related factors, including personality and emotional intelligence, may help nurse managers in enhancing nurses' professional competence through appropriate task assignments and conducting in-service educational programs, thus improving the health status of patients. PMID:27354976

  6. Topologically Conserved Residues Direct Heme Transport in HRG-1-related Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Protchenko, Olga; Philpott, Caroline C.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans and human HRG-1-related proteins are conserved, membrane-bound permeases that bind and translocate heme in metazoan cells via a currently uncharacterized mechanism. Here, we show that cellular import of heme by HRG-1-related proteins from worms and humans requires strategically located amino acids that are topologically conserved across species. We exploit a heme synthesis-defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant to model the heme auxotrophy of C. elegans and demonstrate that, under heme-deplete conditions, the endosomal CeHRG-1 requires both a specific histidine in the predicted second transmembrane domain (TMD2) and the FARKY motif in the C terminus tail for heme transport. By contrast, the plasma membrane CeHRG-4 transports heme by utilizing a histidine in the exoplasmic (E2) loop and the FARKY motif. Optimal activity under heme-limiting conditions, however, requires histidine in the E2 loop of CeHRG-1 and tyrosine in TMD2 of CeHRG-4. An analogous system exists in humans, because mutation of the synonymous histidine in TMD2 of hHRG-1 eliminates heme transport activity, implying an evolutionary conserved heme transport mechanism that predates vertebrate origins. Our results support a model in which heme is translocated across membranes facilitated by conserved amino acids positioned on the exoplasmic, cytoplasmic, and transmembrane regions of HRG-1-related proteins. These findings may provide a framework for understanding the structural basis of heme transport in eukaryotes and human parasites, which rely on host heme for survival. PMID:22174408

  7. A 3D, cross-scale, baroclinic model with implicit vertical transport for the Upper Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fei; Zhang, Yinglong J.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Wang, Harry V.; Irby, Isaac D.; Shen, Jian; Wang, Zhengui

    2016-11-01

    We develop a new vertically implicit transport solver, based on two total variation diminishing (TVD) limiters in space and time, inside a 3D unstructured-grid model (SCHISM), and apply it to the Upper Chesapeake Bay (UCB), which has complex geometry and sharp pycnocline. We show that the model is able to accurately and efficiently capture the elevation, velocity, salinity and temperature in both the deep and shallow regions of UCB. Compared with all available CTD casts, the overall model skills have the mean absolute error of 1.08 PSU and 0.85 °C, and correlation coefficient of 0.97 and 0.99 for salinity and temperature respectively. More importantly, the new implicit solver better captures the density stratification, which has great implications on biogeochemistry in this estuarine system. The cross-scale capability of the model is demonstrated by extending the high-resolution grids into a tributary (Chester River) and its sub-tributary (Corsica River), with minimal impact on the model efficiency. The model is also able to capture complex 3D structures at the transition zone between the main bay and the tributary, including the three-layered circulation in Baltimore Harbor. As more and more attention is being paid to the productive shallows in the Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries, the model can serve as a very powerful management tool to understand the impact of both local and remote forcing functions.

  8. All-optical production and transport of a large 6Li quantum gas in a crossed optical dipole trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Ch.; Gan, H. C. J.; Dieckmann, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report on an efficient production scheme for a large quantum degenerate sample of fermionic lithium. The approach is based on our previous work on narrow-line 2 S1 /2→3 P3 /2 laser cooling resulting in a high phase-space density of up to 3 ×10-4 . This allows utilizing a large-volume crossed optical dipole trap with a total power of 45 W , leading to high loading efficiency and 8 ×106 trapped atoms. The same optical trapping configuration is used for rapid adiabatic transport over a distance of 25 cm in 0.9 s , and subsequent evaporative cooling. With optimized evaporation we achieve a degenerate Fermi gas with 1.7 ×106 atoms at a temperature of 60 nK , corresponding to T /TF=0.16 (2 ) . Furthermore, the performance is demonstrated by evaporation near a broad Feshbach resonance creating a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate of 3 ×105 lithium dimers.

  9. The role of the density gradient on intermittent cross-field transport events in a simple magnetized toroidal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, C.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Ricci, P.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.

    2008-04-15

    Intermittent cross-field particle transport events (ITEs) are studied in the basic toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)], with focus on the role of the density gradient. ITEs are due to the intermittent radial elongation of an interchange mode. The elongating positive wave crests can break apart and form blobs. This is not necessary, however, for plasma particles to be convected a considerable distance across the magnetic field lines. Conditionally sampled data reveal two different scenarios leading to ITEs. In the first case, the interchange mode grows radially from a slab-like density profile and leads to the ITE. A novel analysis technique reveals a monotonic dependence between the vertically averaged inverse radial density scale length and the probability for a subsequent ITE. In the second case, the mode is already observed before the start of the ITE. It does not elongate radially in a first stage, but at a later time. It is shown that this elongation is preceded by a steepening of the density profile as well.

  10. Phosphate transporters in marine phytoplankton and their viruses: cross-domain commonalities in viral-host gene exchanges.

    PubMed

    Monier, Adam; Welsh, Rory M; Gentemann, Chelle; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Armbrust, E Virginia; Eisen, Jonathan A; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate (PO(4)) is an important limiting nutrient in marine environments. Marine cyanobacteria scavenge PO(4) using the high-affinity periplasmic phosphate binding protein PstS. The pstS gene has recently been identified in genomes of cyanobacterial viruses as well. Here, we analyse genes encoding transporters in genomes from viruses that infect eukaryotic phytoplankton. We identified inorganic PO(4) transporter-encoding genes from the PHO4 superfamily in several virus genomes, along with other transporter-encoding genes. Homologues of the viral pho4 genes were also identified in genome sequences from the genera that these viruses infect. Genome sequences were available from host genera of all the phytoplankton viruses analysed except the host genus Bathycoccus. Pho4 was recovered from Bathycoccus by sequencing a targeted metagenome from an uncultured Atlantic Ocean population. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that pho4 genes from pelagophytes, haptophytes and infecting viruses were more closely related to homologues in prasinophytes than to those in what, at the species level, are considered to be closer relatives (e.g. diatoms). We also identified PHO4 superfamily members in ocean metagenomes, including new metagenomes from the Pacific Ocean. The environmental sequences grouped with pelagophytes, haptophytes, prasinophytes and viruses as well as bacteria. The analyses suggest that multiple independent pho4 gene transfer events have occurred between marine viruses and both eukaryotic and bacterial hosts. Additionally, pho4 genes were identified in available genomes from viruses that infect marine eukaryotes but not those that infect terrestrial hosts. Commonalities in marine host-virus gene exchanges indicate that manipulation of host-PO(4) uptake is an important adaptation for viral proliferation in marine systems. Our findings suggest that PO(4) -availability may not serve as a simple bottom-up control of marine phytoplankton.

  11. Simultaneous evaluation of interrelated cross sections by generalized least-squares and related data file requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Poenitz, W.P.

    1984-10-25

    Though several cross sections have been designated as standards, they are not basic units and are interrelated by ratio measurements. Moreover, as such interactions as /sup 6/Li + n and /sup 10/B + n involve only two and three cross sections respectively, total cross section data become useful for the evaluation process. The problem can be resolved by a simultaneous evaluation of the available absolute and shape data for cross sections, ratios, sums, and average cross sections by generalized least-squares. A data file is required for such evaluation which contains the originally measured quantities and their uncertainty components. Establishing such a file is a substantial task because data were frequently reported as absolute cross sections where ratios were measured without sufficient information on which reference cross section and which normalization were utilized. Reporting of uncertainties is often missing or incomplete. The requirements for data reporting will be discussed.

  12. Advanced subsonic transport approach noise: The relative contribution of airframe noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Garber, Donald P.

    1992-01-01

    With current engine technology, airframe noise is a contributing source for large commercial aircraft on approach, but not the major contributor. With the promise of much quieter jet engines with the planned new generation of high-by-pass turbofan engines, airframe noise has become a topic of interest in the advanced subsonic transport research program. The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of airframe noise relative to the other aircraft noise sources on approach. The assessment will be made for a current technology large commercial transport aircraft and for an envisioned advanced technology aircraft. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) will be used to make total aircraft noise predictions for these two aircraft types. Predicted noise levels and areas of noise contours will be used to determine the relative importance of the contributing approach noise sources. The actual set-up decks used to make the ANOPP runs for the two aircraft types are included in appendixes.

  13. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the crystals grown by vapor transport as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows. ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, were grown by vapor transport technique with real time in situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals were characterized extensively to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions. Significant effects of gravity vector orientation on the growth crystal morphology and point defect distribution were observed.

  14. OSBP-Related Protein Family: Mediators of Lipid Transport and Signaling at Membrane Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    Kentala, Henriikka; Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Olkkonen, Vesa M

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related protein homologs, ORPs, constitute a conserved family of lipid-binding/transfer proteins (LTPs) expressed ubiquitously in eukaryotes. The ligand-binding domain of ORPs accommodates cholesterol and oxysterols, but also glycerophospholipids, particularly phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). ORPs have been implicated as intracellular lipid sensors or transporters. Most ORPs carry targeting determinants for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and non-ER organelle membrane. ORPs are located and function at membrane contact sites (MCSs), at which ER is closely apposed with other organelle limiting membranes. Such sites have roles in lipid transport and metabolism, control of Ca(2+) fluxes, and signaling events. ORPs are postulated either to transport lipids over MCSs to maintain the distinct lipid compositions of organelle membranes, or to control the activity of enzymes/protein complexes with functions in signaling and lipid metabolism. ORPs may transfer PI4P and another lipid class bidirectionally. Transport of PI4P followed by its hydrolysis would in this model provide the energy for transfer of the other lipid against its concentration gradient. Control of organelle lipid compositions by OSBP/ORPs is important for the life cycles of several pathogenic viruses. Targeting ORPs with small-molecular antagonists is proposed as a new strategy to combat viral infections. Several ORPs are reported to modulate vesicle transport along the secretory or endocytic pathways. Moreover, antagonists of certain ORPs inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Thus, ORPs are LTPs, which mediate interorganelle lipid transport and coordinate lipid signals with a variety of cellular regimes.

  15. Hygrothermal Properties of Cross Laminated Timber and Moisture Response of Wood at High Relative Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSayegh, George

    Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a new wood-based material composed of cross laminated wood boards that form a structural panel. This study focuses on identifying the appropriate methods to determine the hygrothermal properties of CLTs fabricated with Canadian and European Lumber. The laboratory tests carried out in this study will help establish heat, air and moisture response properties to be used for hygrothermal simulation to assess the durability of CLTs in building envelope construction. Measurement of water vapour permeability, liquid water absorption, sorption isotherms, thermal conductivity, and air permeability were performed on three Canadian CLT specimens composed of Hem-Fir, Eastern Spruce-Pine-Fir, and Western Spruce-Pine-Fir and one European specimen composed of Spruce. The hygrothermal properties of CLT, considered in this study, appear to be similar to commonly used wood specimens reported in the literature. However, liquid water absorption coefficients of CLT were found to be generally lower than common wood species, possibly due to the presence of glue between the wood layers which limits the moisture movement across the specimen. On the other hand, the air permeability across the CLT specimens varied due to the glue discontinuity within the specimen which led some CLTs to be permeable, however all the European specimens were found to be impermeable. This study also critically analyzed the significance of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at high relative humidity, measured by means of a pressure plate apparatus and humidity chambers, on the moisture management performance of a wood-frame stucco wall, using the hygrothermal simulation tool hygIRC-2D. The simulation results indicate that the prediction of the moisture response of a wood-frame stucco wall assembly depends significantly on the method adopted to derive the EMC of wood at high RH.

  16. One-dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ru; Wang, Zhuo; Leigh, Joe; Sobh, Nahil; Millet, Larry; Gillette, Martha U.; Levine, Alex J.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We studied the active transport of intracellular components along neuron processes with a new method developed in our laboratory, dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy. This method is able to quantitatively map spatially the heterogeneous dynamics of the concentration field of the cargos at submicron resolution without the need for tracking individual components. The results in terms of density correlation function reveal that the decay rate is linear in wavenumber, which is consistent with a narrow Lorentzian distribution of cargo velocity. PMID:21862838

  17. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Rumiko; Tsuda, Akiko; Tabuchi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6%) than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%). Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage]) were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys) and attitudes on RH (girls) as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls. PMID:27866406

  18. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples.

  19. Factors related to taste sensitivity in elderly: cross-sectional findings from SONIC study.

    PubMed

    Uota, M; Ogawa, T; Ikebe, K; Arai, Y; Kamide, K; Gondo, Y; Masui, Y; Ishizaki, T; Inomata, C; Takeshita, H; Mihara, Y; Maeda, Y

    2016-12-01

    The sense of taste is important, as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, as well as safety and quality of foods, with several factors suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity. However, comprehensive variables regarding taste and related factors have not been utilised in previous studies for assessments of sensitivity. In the present study, we performed cross-sectional analyses of taste sensitivity and related factors in geriatric individuals who participated in the SONIC Study. We analysed 2 groups divided by age, 69-71 years (young-old, n = 687) and 79-81 years (old-old, n = 621), and performed a general health assessment, an oral examination and determination of taste sensitivity. Contributing variables were selected by univariate analysis and then subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. In both groups, females showed significantly better sensitivity for bitter and sour tastes. Additionally, higher cognitive scores for subjects with a fine taste for salty were commonly seen in both groups, while smoking, drinking, hypertension, number of teeth, stimulated salivary flow salt intake and years of education were also shown to be associated with taste sensitivity. We found gender and cognitive status to be major factors affecting taste sensitivity in geriatric individuals.

  20. Can innovative ambulance transport avert pregnancy–related deaths? One–year operational assessment in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Godefay, Hagos; Kinsman, John; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Byass, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background To maximise the potential benefits of maternity care services, pregnant women need to be able to physically get to health facilities in a timely manner. In most of sub–Saharan Africa, transport represents a major practical barrier. Here we evaluate the extent to which an innovative national ambulance service in Ethiopia, together with mobile phones, may have been successful in averting pregnancy–related deaths. Methods An operational assessment of pregnancy–related deaths in relation to utilisation of the new national ambulance service was undertaken in six randomly selected Districts in northern Ethiopia. All 183 286 households in the six randomly selected Districts were visited to identify live–births and deaths among women of reproductive age that occurred over a one–year period. The uptake of the new ambulance transport service for women’s deliveries in the same six randomly selected Districts over the same period was determined retrospectively from ambulance log books. Pregnancy–related deaths as determined by the World Health Organization (WHO 2012) verbal autopsy tool [13] and the InterVA–4 model [14] were analysed against ambulance utilisation by District, month, local area, distance from health facility and mobile network coverage. Findings A total of 51 pregnancy–related deaths and 19 179 live–births were documented. Pregnancy–related mortality for Districts with above average ambulance utilisation was 149 per 100 000 live–births (95% confidence interval CI 77–260), compared with 350 per 100 000 (95% CI 249–479) for below average utilisation (P = 0.01). Distance to a health facility, mobile network availability and ambulance utilisation were all significantly associated with pregnancy–related mortality on a bivariable basis. On a multivariable basis, ambulance non–utilisation uniquely persisted as a significant determinant of mortality (mortality rate ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.05–3.69; P = 0

  1. Regulation of iron transport related genes by boron in the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ariel; Trimble, Lyndsay; Hobusch, Ashtian R; Schroeder, Kristine J; Amin, Shady A; Hartnett, Andrej D; Barker, Ryan A; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Carrano, Carl J

    2013-08-01

    While there has been extensive interest in the use of boron isotope ratios as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the high (0.4 mM) concentration and the depth-independent (conservative or non-nutrient-like) concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the modern ocean. Here we report that boron affects the expression of a number of protein and genes in the "algal-associated" Gram-negative marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Most intriguingly, a number of these proteins and genes are related to iron uptake. In a recent separate publication we have shown that boron regulates one such iron transport related protein, i.e. the periplasmic iron binding protein FbpA via a direct interaction of the metalloid with this protein. Here we show that a number of other iron uptake related genes are also affected by boron but in the opposite way i.e. they are up-regulated. We propose that the differential effect of boron on FbpA expression relative to other iron transport related genes is a result of an interaction between boron and the global iron regulatory protein Fur.

  2. A possible closure relation for heat transport in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Lemons, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to search for an empirical closure relation for solar wind heat transport that applies to a microscopic scale. This task is approached by using the quasi-linear wave-particle formalism proposed by Perkins (1973) as a guide to derive an equation relating the relative drift speed between core-electron and proton populations to local bulk flow conditions. The resulting relationship, containing one free parameter, is found to provide a good characterization of Los Alamos Imp electron data measuring during the period from March 1971 through August 1974. An empirical closure relation is implied by this result because of the observed proportionality between heat flux and relative drift speed.

  3. Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective-dispersive transport.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bruce S; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Passeport, Elodie; Sleep, Brent E

    2016-04-15

    Aqueous phase diffusion-related isotope fractionation (DRIF) for carbon isotopes was investigated for common groundwater contaminants in systems in which transport could be considered to be one-dimensional. This paper focuses not only on theoretically observable DRIF effects in these systems but introduces the important concept of constraining "observable" DRIF based on constraints imposed by the scale of measurements in the field, and on standard limits of detection and analytical uncertainty. Specifically, constraints for the detection of DRIF were determined in terms of the diffusive fractionation factor, the initial concentration of contaminants (C0), the method detection limit (MDL) for isotopic analysis, the transport time, and the ratio of the longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient to effective molecular diffusion coefficient (Dmech/Deff). The results allow a determination of field conditions under which DRIF may be an important factor in the use of stable carbon isotope measurements for evaluation of contaminant transport and transformation for one-dimensional advective-dispersive transport. This study demonstrates that for diffusion-dominated transport of BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated ethenes, DRIF effects are only detectable for the smaller molar mass compounds such as vinyl chloride for C0/MDL ratios of 50 or higher. Much larger C0/MDL ratios, corresponding to higher source concentrations or lower detection limits, are necessary for DRIF to be detectable for the higher molar mass compounds. The distance over which DRIF is observable for VC is small (less than 1m) for a relatively young diffusive plume (<100years), and DRIF will not easily be detected by using the conventional sampling approach with "typical" well spacing (at least several meters). With contaminant transport by advection, mechanical dispersion, and molecular diffusion this study suggests that in field sites where Dmech/Deff is larger than 10, DRIF effects will likely not be

  4. Blood pressure of urban school children in relation to road-traffic noise, traffic density and presence of public transport.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina; Belojevic, Goran; Jakovljevic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between noise levels, traffic density and the presence of public transport and children's blood pressure. Another aim was to assess the applicability of public transport as a proxy indicator of noise exposure. A cross-sectional study involved 1113 children aged 7-11 years from a central municipality in Belgrade. Equivalent noise levels were measured in front of all schools and in the middle of all streets. Traffic density was defined as number of light and heavy vehicles per hour. The number of public transport vehicles was calculated from official timetables. Children's addresses were matched with noise levels and transport maps. A physician measured blood pressure with the sphygmomanometer. Children attending schools with public transport running nearby had by 1.3 mmHg higher systolic pressure than did children from schools without public transport. This relationship was independent from children's age, gender, and body mass index, family history of hypertension, some dwelling characteristics, and lifestyle habits. The association between diastolic pressure and public transport was statistically insignificant. The study indicated a possible positive association between the presence of public transport in the vicinity of schools with systolic blood pressure in 7-11 year-old schoolchildren. The presence of public transport may serve as an auxiliary indicator of noise exposure in undeveloped countries with limited capacities for noise measurement or modeling.

  5. Stress during simulated emergency transportation in a rescue helicopter: cross-correlation between stress hormones, vital functions and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Witzel, K; Elzer, M; Koch, Horst J

    2009-06-01

    Vital functions and stress hormone levels during simulated emergency helicopter transport in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three volunteers were subjected to a simulated 15 minute rescue helicopter transport. We determined vital functions, ACTH, cortisol and prolactin during the flight and filled in a standardized questionnaire before and after the flight. Data were analysed descriptively, by means of cross tabulation, Spearman rank correlation and cross-correlation technique. During take-off we recorded a significant increase of vital parameters such as heart rate. Prolactin concentration rose slightly after the start. Maximum cortisol and ACTH levels were found before take-off and then they decreased gradually. As expected, ACTH and cortisol cross-correlated significantly without any relevant time lag. Test items showed a feeling of fear and concern before take off. After the flight the volunteers reported having less stress than expected. Particularly, diastolic blood pressure and prolactin levels were markedly associated with questionnaire items such as behaviour of the staff or nausea. Heart rate significantly correlated with anxiety scores. Helicopter transportation induced a marked stress reaction in healthy volunteers, which speaks in favour of smooth transports in modern helicopters and adequate behaviour towards the patient of the staff.

  6. Toxicological relevance of the multidrug resistance protein 1, MRP1 (ABCC1) and related transporters.

    PubMed

    Leslie, E M; Deeley, R G; Cole, S P

    2001-10-05

    The 190 kDa multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is a founding member of a subfamily of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport proteins and was originally identified on the basis of its elevated expression in multidrug resistant lung cancer cells. In addition to its ability to confer resistance in tumour cells, MRP1 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues and is a primary active transporter of GSH, glucuronate and sulfate conjugated and unconjugated organic anions of toxicological relevance. Substrates include lipid peroxidation products, herbicides, tobacco specific nitrosamines, mycotoxins, heavy metals, and natural product and antifolate anti-cancer agents. MRP1 also transports unmodified xenobiotics but often requires GSH to do so. Active efflux is generally an important aspect of cellular detoxification since it prevents the accumulation of conjugated and unconjugated compounds that have the potential to be directly toxic. The related transporters MRP2 and MRP3 have overlapping substrate specificities with MRP1 but different tissue distributions, and evidence that they also have chemoprotective functions are discussed. Finally, MRP homologues have been described in other species including yeast and nematodes. Those isolated from the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtMRPs) decrease the cytoplasmic concentration of conjugated toxins through sequestration in vacuoles and are implicated in providing herbicide resistance to plants.

  7. Measurements of condensation nuclei above the jet stream - Evidence for cross jet transport by waves and new particle formation at high altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Lai, W. T.; Smith, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Condensation nuclei were used as a tracer in midlatitude NASA Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) experiments in April and May 1984 in order to study transport in the stratosphere. The very large scale, mean CN distribution was distorted by waves which had the effect of transporting air with anticyclonic properties several degrees to the cyclonic side of the jet and created a strongly layered structure in the CN distribution. Unfiltered CN data revealed short-wavelength oscillations in the CN distribution at the interface between the transported anticyclonic air parcel and the adjacent cyclonic air mass. These oscillations were also seen in the ozone data and increase the potential for mixing along that interface. If the mixing does occur, a wave mechanism for cross-jet transport has been observed.

  8. Conformational Motions and Functionally Key Residues for Vitamin B12 Transporter BtuCD-BtuF Revealed by Elastic Network Model with a Function-Related Internal Coordinate.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Li, Xing-Yuan; Hou, Yan-Xue; Wu, Yi-Dong; Zhu, Jian-Zhuo; An, Hai-Long

    2015-08-04

    BtuCD-BtuF from Escherichia coli is a binding protein-dependent adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transmit vitamin B12 across cellular membranes. Experimental studies have showed that during the transport cycle, the transporter undergoes conformational transitions between the "inward-facing" and "outward-facing" states, which results in the open-closed motions of the cytoplasmic gate of the transport channel. The opening-closing of the channel gate play critical roles for the function of the transporter, which enables the substrate vitamin B12 to be translocated into the cell. In the present work, the extent of opening of the cytoplasmic gate was chosen as a function-related internal coordinate. Then the mean-square fluctuation of the internal coordinate, as well as the cross-correlation between the displacement of the internal coordinate and the movement of each residue in the protein, were calculated based on the normal mode analysis of the elastic network model to analyze the function-related motions encoded in the structure of the system. In addition, the key residues important for the functional motions of the transporter were predicted by using a perturbation method. In order to facilitate the calculations, the internal coordinate was introduced as one of the axes of the coordinate space and the conventional Cartesian coordinate space was transformed into the internal/Cartesian space with linear approximation. All the calculations were carried out in this internal/Cartesian space. Our method can successfully identify the functional motions and key residues for the transporter BtuCD-BtuF, which are well consistent with the experimental observations.

  9. A cross-cultural study of colour grouping: evidence for weak linguistic relativity.

    PubMed

    Davies, I R; Corbett, G G

    1997-08-01

    We report a cross-cultural study of colour grouping carried out as a test of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (linguistic relativity theory). Speakers of English, Russian and Setswana-languages that differ in their number of basic colour terms, and in how the blue-green region is categorized--were compared on a colour sorting task. Informants sorted a representative set of 65 colours into groups so that members of the groups looked similar to each other, with no restriction on the number of groups formed. If linguistic relativity theory is true, then there should be reliable differences between the three samples in the composition of the groups they formed associated with the differing positions of colour category boundaries in the languages. The most striking feature of the results, inconsistent with linguistic relativity theory, was the similarity amongst the patterns of choice of the three samples. However, there were also significant differences amongst the samples. Setswana speakers (who have a single basic term for BLUE or GREEN) were more likely to group BLUE colours with GREEN colours than either English or Russian speakers. But Russian speakers (who have two basic colour terms for BLUE) were no more likely than English speakers to group light and dark BLUE separately. In addition there were general structural differences in grouping among the samples: they differed in the level of consensus in grouping, the number of groups formed and in the distribution of the number of colours placed in a group. These structural differences may reflect differences in the availability and salience of the colour categories across the languages. Our data support perceptual universalism modulated by weaker linguistic effects.

  10. Relation between primary care physician supply and diabetes care and outcomes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Tara; Glazier, Richard H.; Campitelli, Michael A.; Calzavara, Andrew; Stukel, Therese A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher primary care physician supply is associated with lower mortality due to heart disease, cancer and stroke, but its relation to diabetes care and outcomes is unknown. We examined the association between primary care physician supply and evidence-based testing and hospital visits for people with diabetes in naturally occurring multispecialty physician networks in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis between Apr. 1, 2009, and Mar. 31, 2011, using linked administrative data. We included all Ontario residents over 40 years of age with a diagnosis of diabetes before Apr. 1, 2007, who were alive on Apr. 1, 2009 (N = 712 681). We tested the association between physician supply and outcomes at the network level using separate Poisson regression models for urban and nonurban physician networks. We accounted for clustering at the physician and network level and adjusted for patient characteristics. Results: Patients in physician networks with a high supply of primary care physicians were more likely to receive the optimal number of evidence-based tests for diabetes than patients in networks with low primary care physician supply (urban relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.07; nonurban RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) but were no different regarding emergency department visits (urban RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.17; nonurban RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-1.08) or hospital admissions for diabetes complications (urban RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.89-1.14; nonurban RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.77-1.07). Interpretation: Having more primary care physicians per capita is associated with better diabetes care but not with reduced hospital visits in this setting. Further research to understand this relation and how it varies by setting is important for resource planning. PMID:27280118

  11. Differential, total, and transport cross sections for elastic scattering of low energy positrons by neutral atoms (Z = 1--92, E = 500--4000 eV)

    SciTech Connect

    Dapor, M. |; Miotello, A. |

    1998-05-01

    The authors present tables of the differential, total, and transport cross sections for the elastic scattering of 500--4000 eV positrons by neutral atoms in the atomic number range Z = 1--92. The cross sections were computed by numerically solving the Dirac equation for a central electrostatic field up to a large radius where the atomic potential becomes negligible. The atomic potential used was Hartree-Fock for Z = 1--18 and Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater for Z = 19--92.

  12. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Monzón, Andrés; Guerrero, María-José

    2004-12-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use.

  13. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We have identified

  14. 47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct... GENERAL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics... Communications Commission (Commission) are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of...

  15. 47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct... GENERAL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics... Communications Commission (Commission) are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of...

  16. 47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct... GENERAL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics... Communications Commission (Commission) are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of...

  17. 47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct... GENERAL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics... Communications Commission (Commission) are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of...

  18. 47 CFR 19.735-102 - Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct related regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross-reference to ethics and other conduct... GENERAL EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 19.735-102 Cross-reference to ethics... Communications Commission (Commission) are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of...

  19. Temporomandibular Disorders and Related Factors in a Group of Iranian Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Masoumeh; Dashti, Hossein; Mehrabkhani, Maryam; Arghavani, Mohammad; Daneshvar-Mozafari, Avideh

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are the most common condition affecting the tem-poromandibular joint and associated structures. The aim of this study was the epidemiologic evaluation of TMDs and re-lated factors in a group of Iranian adolescents. Materials and methods This descriptive cross-sectional survey included a sample of800 high school students (400 girls and 400 boys) aged 14 to18 years, in Mashhad, Iran, selected using cluster sampling. Examiners completed question-naires and performed the clinical examinations. Data were analyzed with the Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results The prevalence of TMDs in the studied sample was 34.7%. The most common signs of TMDs were clicking, muscle tenderness and TMJ tenderness. The most prevalent predisposing factors of TMDs were clenching, premature con-tact in protrusive movement and bruxism. A clear predominance was seen in girls (40.5%) compared with boys (29%) (P = 0.001). Conclusion Signs and symptoms of TMDs were prevalent in Iranian adolescents with a clear female predominance. PMID:22991620

  20. Candida tropicalis Antifungal Cross-Resistance Is Related to Different Azole Target (Erg11p) Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Forastiero, A.; Mesa-Arango, A. C.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Alcazar-Fuoli, L.; Bernal-Martinez, L.; Pelaez, T.; Lopez, J. F.; Grimalt, J. O.; Gomez-Lopez, A.; Cuesta, I.; Zaragoza, O.

    2013-01-01

    Candida tropicalis ranks between third and fourth among Candida species most commonly isolated from clinical specimens. Invasive candidiasis and candidemia are treated with amphotericin B or echinocandins as first-line therapy, with extended-spectrum triazoles as acceptable alternatives. Candida tropicalis is usually susceptible to all antifungal agents, although several azole drug-resistant clinical isolates are being reported. However, C. tropicalis resistant to amphotericin B is uncommon, and only a few strains have reliably demonstrated a high level of resistance to this agent. The resistance mechanisms operating in C. tropicalis strains isolated from clinical samples showing resistance to azole drugs alone or with amphotericin B cross-resistance were elucidated. Antifungal drug resistance was related to mutations of the azole target (Erg11p) with or without alterations of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. The antifungal drug resistance shown in vitro correlated very well with the results obtained in vivo using the model host Galleria mellonella. Using this panel of strains, the G. mellonella model system was validated as a simple, nonmammalian minihost model that can be used to study in vitro-in vivo correlation of antifungals in C. tropicalis. The development in C. tropicalis of antifungal drug resistance with different mechanisms during antifungal treatment has potential clinical impact and deserves specific prospective studies. PMID:23877676

  1. Cross-species assessments of motor and exploratory behavior related to bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W; Paulus, Martin P; Geyer, Mark A; Perry, William

    2010-07-01

    Alterations in exploratory behavior are a fundamental feature of bipolar mania, typically characterized as motor hyperactivity and increased goal-directed behavior in response to environmental cues. In contrast, abnormal exploration associated with schizophrenia and depression can manifest as prominent withdrawal, limited motor activity, and inattention to the environment. While motor abnormalities are cited frequently as clinical manifestations of these disorders, relatively few empirical studies have quantified human exploratory behavior. This article reviews the literature characterizing motor and exploratory behavior associated with bipolar disorder and genetic and pharmacological animal models of the illness. Despite sophisticated assessment of exploratory behavior in rodents, objective quantification of human motor activity has been limited primarily to actigraphy studies with poor cross-species translational value. Furthermore, symptoms that reflect the cardinal features of bipolar disorder have proven difficult to establish in putative animal models of this illness. Recently, however, novel tools such as the human behavioral pattern monitor provide multivariate translational measures of motor and exploratory activity, enabling improved understanding of the neurobiology underlying psychiatric disorders.

  2. Charge sensing and spin-related transport property of p-channel silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Yu; Iwasaki, Kazuma; Oda, Shunri; Kodera, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the detection of single hole tunneling through physically defined silicon quantum dots (QDs) by charge sensing. We estimate capacitive couplings between the QDs and tuning gates by simulation based on the Monte Carlo method. In addition, an investigation of spin-related transport is presented. Pauli spin blockade is observed in double QDs, where hole transport is blocked by forbidden transitions between triplet and singlet states. The magnetic field dependence of the leakage current in Pauli spin blockade shows a dip characteristic at zero field, which is explained by spin relaxation due to spin–orbit coupling with phonons. We extract the dip width B C ∼ 65 mT and a spin relaxation rate Γrel ∼ 55 MHz. The small dip width and high spin relaxation rate reflect a strong spin–orbit coupling.

  3. Wigner time delay and related concepts: Application to transport in coherent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Texier, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The concepts of Wigner time delay and Wigner-Smith matrix allow us to characterise temporal aspects of a quantum scattering process. The paper reviews the statistical properties of the Wigner time delay for disordered systems; the case of disorder in 1D with a chiral symmetry is discussed and the relation with exponential functionals of the Brownian motion is underlined. Another approach for the analysis of time delay statistics is the random matrix approach, from which we review few results. As a practical illustration, we briefly outline a theory of non-linear transport and AC transport developed by Büttiker and coworkers, where the concept of Wigner-Smith time delay matrix is a central piece allowing us to describe screening properties in out-of-equilibrium coherent conductors.

  4. Decadal variation of the North Atlantic meridional heat transport and its relation to atmospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T.; Ruprecht, E.

    2007-02-01

    The effects of the meridional heat transport in the North Atlantic Ocean (HTR) on the north hemispheric climate are studied using the results of the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Significant correlations exist between HTR and atmospheric processes over the Nordic Seas and the Eurasian continent only for low (periods longer than 40 years) and intermediate frequency variations (periods between 25 and 40 years). A positive HTR anomaly at 30°N is highly correlated with turbulent heat fluxes around 50°N. The transport through 70°N is directly related to the fluxes over the Nordic seas. From the correlation pattern with the atmospheric surface temperature and pressure one can conclude that the heat anomalies propagate along the cyclone tracks towards northeast over the Eurasian continent. The HRT anomalies are negatively correlated with the pressure over the Nordic seas and with the winter time anticyclone intensity over Siberia.

  5. The relation between momentum transfer and capture and total scattering cross sections for ion-dipole collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. V., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Numerical values of momentum transfer cross sections sigma sub m for ion-dipole collisions are compared with the corresponding capture cross sections sigma sub c as a function of ion velocity and rotational temperature. For values of dipole moment mu from 1 to 4 Debyes the sigma sub m/sigma sub c ratio is in the range 1.2 to 2.0 (roughly). This is in contrast to the simple relation for Langevin collisions where sigma sub m/sigma sub c is equal to or approximately 1.10 independent of polarizability of the target atom. At low temperatures, the momentum transfer cross sections can be as large as 2000 A squared but they are only about 15 to 30 percent of the total scattering cross sections sigma sub S.

  6. Patients' Perception of Chronic-Pain-Related Patient-Provider Communication in Relation to Sociodemographic and Pain-Related Variables: A Cross-Sectional Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur; Oskarsson, Gudmundur K; Jonsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Pain is a personal experience and patient-provider communication therefore an essential part of diagnosis and treatment where the patient's perspective needs to be central. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate chronic-pain-related patient-provider communication in the context of sociodemographic variables, pain variables, perceived outcome of care, and satisfaction with health care providers. A postal questionnaire measuring socio-demographic variables, pain characteristics, pain-related health care utilization and patient-provider communication was sent to a sample of 4,500 individuals randomly drawn from the national population of Iceland. A subsample reporting chronic pain and having visited a health care provider for pain the previous six months (n = 401) was analyzed. Relationships between patient-provider communication and other measured variables were tested using bivariate and multivariate statistics. The more chronic pain impaired health-related quality of life, the more provider control the patients perceived in the patient-provider communication. There was also a strong negative relationship between patients' perception of providers' support and openness to discussing symptoms, and satisfaction with health care provider. Patients' perception of their own control in patient-provider communication and involvement in decisions regarding care was related to sociodemographic variables (specifically, education and residence) but not to pain related variables. This study highlights the importance of assessing chronic pain in a broad spectrum, listening, and giving patients time and support to communicate chronic pain and how it affects their life situation. The more interfering the pain is, the more important this is.

  7. Review: Selenium contamination, fate, and reactive transport in groundwater in relation to human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Ryan T.

    2016-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-nutrient for humans, but can be toxic at high levels of intake. Se deficiency and Se toxicity are linked with serious diseases, with some regions worldwide experiencing Se deficiency due to Se-poor rocks and soils and other areas dealing with Se toxicity due to the presence of Se-enriched geologic materials. In addition, Se is consumed primarily through plants that take up Se from soil and through animal products that consume these plants. Hence, the soil and groundwater system play important roles in determining the effect of Se on human health. This paper reviews current understanding of Se fate and transport in soil and groundwater systems and its relation to human health, with a focus on alluvial systems, soil systems, and the interface between alluvial systems and Cretaceous shale that release Se via oxidation processes. The review focuses first on the relation between Se and human health, followed by a summary of Se distribution in soil-aquifer systems, with an emphasis on the quantitative relationship between Se content in soil and Se concentration in underlying groundwater. The physical, chemical, and microbial processes that govern Se fate and transport in subsurface systems then are presented, followed by numerical modeling techniques used to simulate these processes in study regions and available remediation strategies for either Se-deficient or Se-toxic regions. This paper can serve as a guide to any field, laboratory or modeling study aimed at assessing Se fate and transport in groundwater systems and its relation to human health.

  8. Periplasmic protein related to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Silhavy, T J; Hartig-Beecken, I; Boos, W

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of shock fluids of Escherichia coli K-12 revealed the presence of a periplasmic protein related to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport (GLPT) that is under the regulation of glpR, the regulatory gene of the glp regulon. Mutants selected for their resistance to phosphonomycin and found to be defective in sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport either did not produce GLPT or produced it in reduced amounts. Other mutations exhibited no apparent effect of GLPT. Transductions of glpT+ nalA phage P1 into these mutants and selection for growth on sn-glycerol-3-phosphate revealed a 50% cotransduction frequency to nalA. Reversion of mutants taht did not produce GLPT to growth on sn-glycerol-3-phosphate resulted in strains that produce GLPT. This suggests a close relationship of GLPT to the glpT gene and to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport. Attempts to demonstrate binding activity of GLPT in crude shock fluid towards sn-glycerol-3-phosphate have failed so far. However, all shock fluids, independent of their GLPT content, exhibited an enzymatic activity that hydrolyzes under the conditions of the binding assay, 30 to 60% of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate to glycerol and inorganic orthophosphate. Images PMID:770459

  9. OSBP-Related Protein Family in Lipid Transport Over Membrane Contact Sites

    PubMed Central

    Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) localize at membrane contact sites, which are high-capacity platforms for inter-organelle exchange of small molecules and information. ORPs can simultaneously associate with the two apposed membranes and transfer lipids across the interbilayer gap. Oxysterol-binding protein moves cholesterol from the endoplasmic reticulum to trans-Golgi, driven by the retrograde transport of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Analogously, yeast Osh6p mediates the transport of phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in exchange for PI4P, and ORP5 and -8 are suggested to execute similar functions in mammalian cells. ORPs may share the capacity to bind PI4P within their ligand-binding domain, prompting the hypothesis that bidirectional transport of a phosphoinositide and another lipid may be a common theme among the protein family. This model, however, needs more experimental support and does not exclude a function of ORPs in lipid signaling. PMID:26715851

  10. Relation between inhomogeneous structure and transport properties for superconductor-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komaki, S.; Sawada, Y.; Saya, B.; Ichikawa, F.; Itoh, K.; Makise, K.

    2009-03-01

    In the study of superconductor-insulator transitions of high-Tc cuprates complicated behaviors in transport properties were observed for example quasi-reentrant behaviors. In this study we report that the relation between microscopic structure and transport properties for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+y crystal with substitution of Ca by Y. From the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy it was estimated that samples contain almost 45% Y when the starting composition was only 10% Y. Also the values of c-axis length were almost constant and shorter than those of Y free samples. However there were various ρ(T) behaviors dependent on sample: localized, quasi-reentrant, broad superconducting transition etc. All sheet resistances defined per CuO2 bilayer in the normal state were much larger than the quantum resistance h/4e2 or 6450 Ω. We were able to observe the inhomogeneous distribution of Y using a combination of electron energy loss spectroscopy and a high-angle annular dark-field technique in a scanning transmission electron microscope. The Y rich region formed the belt with about 20 nm width. This inhomogeneous structure seems to be the origin of various transport properties.

  11. Dual Mechanisms of Ion Absorption in Relation to Long Distance Transport in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Luttge, Ulrich; Laties, George G.

    1966-01-01

    The characteristics of ion transport to the shoots of young corn seedlings were studied with respect to the nature of the isotherm through a wide concentration range, the competitive influence of closely related ions upon the transport of a given ion, and the influence of the counter-ion. Both with respect to 36Cl and 86Rb transport, the characteristics of the process in every way resemble uptake by non-vacuolate root tips wherein the plasma membrane is the only membrane involved in absorption, and where system 1 — of the 2 systems which can be shown to participate in absorption by vacuolate tissue — is the only system operative. Net ion uptake by the roots per se was shown to display both the high affinity (system 1) and low affinity (system 2) mechanisms. It is concluded that the symplastic theory of ion movement to the xylem is valid, and that the contention that system 1 operates at the plasma membrane while system 2 functions at the tonoplast is strengthened. PMID:16656435

  12. Modeling strongly coupled quark gluon plasmas: hydro vs transport vs general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulassy, Miklos

    2008-04-01

    The discovery of near perfect fluid flow and very high jet opacity in nuclear collisions at 200 AGeV at RHIC/BNL have challenged traditional weak coupling perturbative QCD modeling of quark gluon plasmas. A critical assessment of current theoretical uncertainties facing competing approaches based on relativistic hydrodynamics, quasi-parton transport dynamics, and novel string theory inspired general relativity modeling will be presented. Special focus will be on identified (charm and bottom) heavy quark jets that will serve as powerful probes in upcoming RHIC and LHC experiments to better constrain the initial conditions as well as energy loss mechanisms leading to rapid equilibration in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions.

  13. Synopsis of some preliminary computational studies related to unsaturated zone transport at Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.

    1998-03-01

    Computational transport models are described with applications in three problem areas related to unsaturated zone moisture movement beneath Area G. These studies may be used to support the ongoing maintenance of the site Performance Assessment. The three areas include: a 1-D transient analysis with average tuff hydraulic properties in the near surface region with computed results compared to field data; the influence on near surface transient moisture percolation due to realistic distributions in hydraulic properties derived statistically from the observed variance in the field data; and the west to east moisture flow in a 2-D steady geometry approximation of the Pajarito Plateau. Results indicate that a simple transient model for transport of moisture volume fraction fits field data well compared to a moisture pulse observed in the active disposal unit, pit 37. Using realistic infiltration boundary conditions for summer showers and for spring snow melt conditions, the computed moisture pulses show significant propagation to less than 10-ft depth. Next, the hydraulic properties were varied on a 2-D grid using statistical distributions based on the field data means and variances for the hydraulic parameters. Near surface transient percolation in these conditions shows a qualitatively realistic percolation with a spatially variable wave front moving into the tuff; however, the flow does not channel into preferred paths and suggests there is no formation of fast paths which could enhance transportation of contaminants. Finally, moisture transport is modeled through an unsaturated 2-D slice representing the upper stratigraphic layers beneath Area G and a west-to-east cut of several miles to examine possible lateral movement from the west where percolation is assumed to be greater than at Area G. Results show some west-to-east moisture flux consistent with the assumed profile for the percolation boundary conditions.

  14. Cross-linking proteins by laccase-catalyzed oxidation: importance relative to other modifications.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Charlotte L; Andersen, Mogens L; Degn, Peter E; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2008-12-24

    Laccase-catalyzed oxidation was able to induce intermolecular cross-links in beta-lactoglobulin, and ferulic acid-mediated laccase-catalyzed oxidation was able to induce intermolecular cross-links in alpha-casein, whereas transglutaminase cross-linked only alpha-casein. In addition, different patterns of laccase-induced oxidative modifications were detected, including dityrosine formation, formation of fluorescent tryptophan oxidation products, and carbonyls derived from histidine, tryptophan, and methionine. Laccase-catalyzed oxidation as well as transglutaminase induced only minor changes in surface tension of the proteins, and the changes could not be correlated to protein cross-linking. The presence of ferulic acid was found to influence the effect of laccase, allowing laccase to form irreducible intermolecular cross-links in beta-lactoglobulin and resulting in proteins exercising higher surface tensions due to cross-linking as well as other oxidative modifications. The outcome of using ferulic acid-mediated laccase-catalyzed oxidation to modify the functional properties of proteinaceous food components or other biosystems is expected to be highly dependent on the protein composition, resulting in different changes of the functional properties.

  15. The physical parameters of different rank coals related to their degree of cross-linking and the caking ability

    SciTech Connect

    Marta Krzesiska; Barbara Pilawa; Sawomira Pusz

    2006-05-15

    Physical parameters such as true density, porosity, ultrasonic velocity, dynamic elastic modulus, spin concentration, widths of the Lorentzian EPR lines, and maximum optical reflectance were determined for 15 coals of a wide rank and of a wide caking ability. Coals were characterized by carbon content ranging from 83.1 to 94.9 wt% C and by the Roga Index (RI) in the range of 0-76. Single monolithic blocks of these coals were applied for production of the single-coal cokes in the Jenkner's retort furnace. The same physical properties as for coals were also studied for cokes. The physical parameters studied were discussed in relation to the degree of cross-linking and the caking ability of coals. Cokes were found to be characterized by the higher degree of cross-linking than those of initial coals, except for the cokes from the lowest rank coals. The Roga Index was found inversely proportional to the degree of cross-linking of coals. The lowest cross-linked coals exhibited the highest RI values. Optical reflectance was found independent of the degree of cross-linking, unlike the EPR parameters. Both spin concentration and the width of the EPR lines determined in coals decreased with increasing molecular weight per cross-linked unit (M{sub c}). It was found that cokes produced from coals with RI values between 40 and 55 were characterized by elastically isotropic structure. 42 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effects of trailer design on animal welfare parameters and carcass and meat quality of three Pietrain crosses being transported over a long distance.

    PubMed

    Weschenfelder, A V; Torrey, S; Devillers, N; Crowe, T; Bassols, A; Saco, Y; Piñeiro, M; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of trailer design on stress responses and meat quality traits of 3 different pig crosses: 50% Pietrain breeding with halothane (HAL)(Nn) (50Nn); 50% Pietrain breeding with HAL(NN) (50NN); and 25% Pietrain breeding with HAL(NN) genotype (25NN). Over a 6-wk period, pigs (120 pigs/crossbreed) were transported for 7 h in either a pot-belly (PB) or flat-deck (FD) trailer (10 pigs/crossbreed(-1)·trailer(-1)·wk(-1)). Temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in each trailer. Behaviors during loading and unloading, time to load and unload, and latency to rest in lairage were recorded, whereas a sub-population of pigs (4 pigs/crossbreed(-1)·trailer(-1)·wk(-1)) was equipped with gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) temperature monitors. Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for measurement of cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), lactate, haptoglobin, and Pig-MAP concentrations. Meat quality data were collected at 24 h postmortem from the LM and semimembranosus (SM) and adductor (AD) muscles of all 360 pigs. Greater T were recorded in the PB trailer during transportation (P = 0.006) and unloading (P < 0.001). Delta GIT temperature was greater (P = 0.01) in pigs unloaded from the PB. At loading, pigs tended to move backwards more (P = 0.06) when loaded on the FD than the PB trailer. At unloading, an interaction was found between trailer type and crossbreed type, with a greater (P < 0.01) frequency of overlaps in 50NN and 25NN pigs and slips/falls in 50Nn and 50NN pigs from the FD than the PB trailer. Cortisol concentrations at slaughter were greater (P = 0.02) in pigs transported in the PB than FD trailer. Greater lactate concentrations were found in 50Nn and 50NN pigs (P = 0.003) and greater CK concentrations (P < 0.001) in 50Nn pigs. As expected, 50Nn pigs produced leaner (P < 0.001) carcasses, with greater (P = 0.01) dressing percentages, as well as lower (P < 0.001) ultimate pH values and greater (P < 0.001) drip

  17. Impact of sea-level rise on cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef island beaches under modal and cyclonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Baldock, T E; Golshani, A; Atkinson, A; Shimamoto, T; Wu, S; Callaghan, D P; Mumby, P J

    2015-08-15

    A one-dimensional wave model is combined with an analytical sediment transport model to investigate the likely influence of sea-level rise on net cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef and lagoon island beaches. The modelling considers if changes in the nearshore wave height and wave period in the lagoon induced by different water levels over the reef flat are likely to lead to net offshore or onshore movement of sediment. The results indicate that the effects of SLR on net sediment movement are highly variable and controlled by the bathymetry of the reef and lagoon. A significant range of reef-lagoon bathymetry, and notably shallow and narrow reefs, appears to lead hydrodynamic conditions and beaches that are likely to be stable or even accrete under SLR. Loss of reef structural complexity, particularly on the reef flat, increases the chance of sediment transport away from beaches and offshore.

  18. 49 CFR 222.25 - How does this rule affect private highway-rail grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... grade crossings? 222.25 Section 222.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.25 How does this rule affect private highway... private highway-rail grade crossings, the locomotive horn shall be sounded in accordance with § 222.21...

  19. 49 CFR 222.25 - How does this rule affect private highway-rail grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... grade crossings? 222.25 Section 222.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.25 How does this rule affect private highway... private highway-rail grade crossings, the locomotive horn shall be sounded in accordance with § 222.21...

  20. Cross-talk of membrane lipids and Alzheimer-related proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is neuropathologically characterized by the combined occurrence of extracellular β-amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. While plaques contain aggregated forms of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), tangles are formed by fibrillar forms of the microtubule associated protein tau. All mutations identified so far to cause familial forms of early onset AD (FAD) are localized close to or within the Aβ domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) or in the presenilin proteins that are essential components of a protease complex involved in the generation of Aβ. Mutations in the tau gene are not associated with FAD, but can cause other forms of dementia. The genetics of FAD together with biochemical and cell biological data, led to the formulation of the amyloid hypothesis, stating that accumulation and aggregation of Aβ is the primary event in the pathogenesis of AD, while tau might mediate its toxicity and neurodegeneration. The generation of Aβ involves sequential proteolytic cleavages of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by enzymes called β-and γ-secretases. Notably, APP itself as well as the secretases are integral membrane proteins. Thus, it is very likely that membrane lipids are involved in the regulation of subcellular transport, activity, and metabolism of AD related proteins. Indeed, several studies indicate that membrane lipids, including cholesterol and sphingolipids (SLs) affect Aβ generation and aggregation. Interestingly, APP and other AD associated proteins, including β-and γ-secretases can, in turn, influence lipid metabolic pathways. Here, we review the close connection of cellular lipid metabolism and AD associated proteins and discuss potential mechanisms that could contribute to initiation and progression of AD. PMID:24148205

  1. Health-related quality of life after pulmonary embolism: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tavoly, Mazdak; Utne, Kristin Kornelia; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter; Wik, Hilde Skuterud; Klok, Frederikus A; Sandset, Per Morten; Ghanima, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The psychological effects of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) have scarcely been studied. The aims of this study were to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with a history of PE compared with that of the general population and buddy controls, and to explore factors that may predict impaired HRQoL. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Haematology and thrombosis unit in Fredrikstad, Norway. Participants 213 consecutive patients treated for PE were identified from hospital registries. Eligible patients were scheduled for a single study visit, including a functional capacity test (6 min walking test). HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol 5D dimensions 3-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire, of which the results were compared with Danish population norms and age-matched and sex-matched buddy controls. The buddy controls were recruited by asking every patient to hand over the EQ-5D questionnaire to 2 age-matched and sex-matched friends or relatives. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine possible determinants of reduced HRQoL. Results Mean age was 61 years (SD 15), 117 (55%) were males, and median time since diagnosis was 3.8 years (range 0.3–9.5). Mean EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) was 67 in PE as compared with 81 in the general population (p<0.005) and corresponding EQ-5D index values were 0.80 and 0.86 (p<0.005). Patients reported more problems in all 5 EQ-5D compared with both the buddy controls and the general population, p<0.05. Shorter 6 min walking distance (β=0.09, p<0.005) and patient-reported dyspnoea (β=11.27, p<0.005) were independent predictors of lower EQ VAS scores. Conclusions Our findings show that patients with a history of PE have impaired HRQoL when compared with the general population and buddy controls. Reduced functional capacity and persistent dyspnoea were the main predictors of this impairment. PMID:27810979

  2. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating...

  3. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating...

  4. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating...

  5. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating...

  6. Who Transfers More...and What? Cross-linguistic Influence in Relation to School Grade and Language Dominance in EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naves, Teresa; Miralpeix, Immaculada; Celaya, M. Luz

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) is receiving increasing attention in multilingual learners (Cenoz "et al.", 2001). Research with bilingual learners has analysed CLI in relation to language dominance (see, for instance, Hulk & Muller, 2000; Yip & Stephen, 2000) and to language dominance and grade in school settings (Cenoz, 2003; Lasagabaster,…

  7. Cross-Lagged Relations between Motivation and Proficiency in English as a Foreign Language among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between motivation and EFL proficiency is an issue of great concern in previous research on foreign language learning. However, work in this area offers inconclusive evidence with regard to the directionality of their relations. Using cross-lagged structural equation modeling, this study investigated the directionality of the…

  8. Reciprocal Relations among Job Demands, Job Control, and Social Support Are Moderated by Neuroticism: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuroticism moderates the relations among social support (from coworkers and supervisors) and work strain characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control). A full cross-lagged panel analysis was used to test whether social support predicts job demands and control or whether job demands and job control predict…

  9. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  10. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  11. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  12. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  13. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  14. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  15. 49 CFR 384.223 - Railroad-highway grade crossing violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. 384.223 Section 384.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... § 384.223 Railroad-highway grade crossing violation. The State must have and enforce laws...

  16. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  17. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  18. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  19. Meta-analysis of expression of hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters in cellular systems relative to human liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Badée, Justine; Achour, Brahim; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporters play an important role in hepatic drug disposition. Recently, an increasing number of studies have reported proteomic expression data for OATP transporters. However, systematic analysis and understanding of the actual differences in OATP expression between liver tissue and commonly used cellular systems is lacking. In the current study, meta-analysis was performed to assess the protein expression of OATP transporters reported in hepatocytes relative to liver tissue and to identify any potential correlations in transporter expression levels in the same individual. OATP1B1 was identified as the most abundant uptake transporter at 5.9 ± 8.3, 5.8 ± 3.3, and 4.2 ± 1.7 fmol/μg protein in liver tissue, sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH), and cryopreserved suspended hepatocytes, respectively. The rank order in average expression in liver tissue and cellular systems was OATP1B1 > OATP1B3 ≈ OATP2B1. Abundance levels of the OATP transporters investigated were not significantly different between liver and cellular systems, with the exception of OATP2B1 expression in SCHH relative to liver tissue. Analysis of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 liver expression data in the same individuals (n = 86) identified weak (OATP1B1-OATP2B1) to moderately (OATP1B3-OATP2B1) significant correlations. A significant weak correlation was noted between OATP1B1 abundance and age of human donors, whereas expression of the OATPs investigated was independent of sex. Implications of the current analysis on the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of transporter-mediated drug disposition using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are discussed.

  20. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy. PMID:26445454

  1. New Approaches to Overcome Transport Related Drug Resistance in Trypanosomatid Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Salcedo, Jose A.; Unciti-Broceta, Juan D.; Valverde-Pozo, Javier; Soriano, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the Trypanosomatidae family that cause severe human infections such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite efforts to eradicate them, migrations are expanding these infections to developing countries. There are no vaccines available and current treatments depend only on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of these diseases given that existing drugs are old and limited, with some having severe side effects. Most resistance mechanisms developed by these parasites are related with a decreased uptake or increased efflux of the drug due to mutations or altered expression of membrane transporters. Different new approaches have been elaborated that can overcome these mechanisms of resistance including the use of inhibitors of efflux pumps and drug carriers for both active and passive targeting. Here we review new formulations that have been successfully applied to circumvent resistance related to drug transporters, opening alternative ways to solve drug resistance in protozoan parasitic diseases. PMID:27733833

  2. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy.

  3. Relative partial cross sections for single, double, and triple photoionization of C60 and C70.

    PubMed

    Mitsuke, Koichiro; Katayanagi, Hideki; Kafle, Bhim P; Huang, Chaoqun; Yagi, Hajime; Prodhan, Md Serajul I; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2007-08-30

    Partial cross sections for the photoion formation from C(60) and C(70) were determined from the yields of singly, doubly, and triply charged ions which were measured by mass spectrometry combined with tunable synchrotron radiation at hnu = 25-120 eV. The dependence of the detection efficiencies on the mass-to-charge ratio was evaluated by using the formula proposed by Twerenbold et al. Corrections of the detection efficiency were found to be critical for obtaining accurate partial cross sections for photoionization of fullerenes. Revisions were made of the partial cross-section curves for single and double photoionization of C(60) and C(70). The curve for triple photoionization of C(70) was newly proposed. The ratios between the cross sections for double and single photoionization increase with hnu and reach saturated values of 0.78 at 85 eV for C(60) and approximately 1.3 at 100 eV for C(70). In contrast, the ratios at 120 eV between the cross sections for triple and single photoionization of C(60) and C(70) amount to 0.14 and approximately 0.38, respectively. The formation mechanism of multiply charged fullerene ions was discussed in terms of valence-electron excitation to antibonding unoccupied orbitals and/or spherical standing waves inside the cavity of a fullerene. This excitation could be followed by Spectator Auger processes and transmission of the excess electronic energy among numerous vibrational degrees of freedom.

  4. Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment for Cities

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    -Hunter T, Dadvand P, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Foraster M, Gascon M, Martinez D, Tonne C, Triguero-Mas M, Valentín A, Nieuwenhuijsen M. 2017. Urban and transport planning related exposures and mortality: a health impact assessment for cities. Environ Health Perspect 125:89–96; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP220 PMID:27346385

  5. The Relative Influence of Aquatic and Terrestrial Processes on Methylmercury Transport in River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Bradley, P. M.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Aiken, G.; Brigham, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Conceptual understanding of the mercury (Hg) cycle in river basins is important for the development of improved Hg models that can inform Hg emissions policies, and, therefore, decrease the health risk that stems from widespread high Hg levels found in fresh water fish throughout the US and globally. Distinguishing the relative roles of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in Hg transport and transformation is fundamental to improved Hg risk management. The principal zones where Hg is transformed to its methyl form (MeHg), the transport of that MeHg to aquatic ecosystems, and subsequent bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs have been the focus of our investigations for more than 10 years in several small river basins across the US. Our data indicate that most MeHg in these rivers originates at the interface of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem in wetlands and riparian areas where anaerobic conditions and abundant organic matter favor methylation. Key factors in addition to methylation potential are those that influence the hydrologic transport of MeHg to adjacent streams and rivers such as hydraulic conductivity in the shallow subsurface and the depth of the water table in riparian areas. The presence and quality of organic matter in wetland soils and in water that moves through wetland areas also plays a pivotal role in MeHg source and transport. We discuss how these factors affect aquatic MeHg concentrations in light of a recently completed investigation of the Hg cycle in river basins in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and Coastal Plain of South Carolina. At each site, MeHg originates primarily in riparian wetland areas and is transported to the streams via shallow groundwater flow. The presence of open water bodies in these basins favors losses of MeHg by any of several processes, though smaller open water bodies may act as net MeHg sources. Ongoing work is building on this conceptualization of the Hg cycle through development of a model based on the

  6. Influence of Transportation Noise and Noise Sensitivity on Annoyance: A Cross-Sectional Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jiho; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Soogab; Lee, Changmyung; Jo, Min-Woo; Sim, Chang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Environmental noise is known to cause noise annoyance. Since noise annoyance is a subjective indicator, other mediators—such as noise sensitivity—may influence its perception. However, few studies have thus far been conducted on noise annoyance in South Korea that consider noise sensitivity and noise level simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between noise sensitivity or noise level and noise annoyance on a large scale in South Korea. This study estimated the level of noise exposure based on a noise map created in 2014; identified and surveyed 1836 subjects using a questionnaire; and assessed the impact of transportation noise and noise sensitivity on noise annoyance. The result showed that noise exposure level and noise sensitivity simultaneously affect noise annoyance, and noise sensitivity has a relatively larger impact on noise annoyance. In conclusion, when study subjects were exposed to a similar level of noise, the level of noise annoyance differed depending on the noise sensitivity of the individual. PMID:28335543

  7. Safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise based on the relative entropy aggregation in group decision making model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Chengbing; Huo, Yueying

    2014-01-01

    Safety of dangerous goods transport is directly related to the operation safety of dangerous goods transport enterprise. Aiming at the problem of the high accident rate and large harm in dangerous goods logistics transportation, this paper took the group decision making problem based on integration and coordination thought into a multiagent multiobjective group decision making problem; a secondary decision model was established and applied to the safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise. First of all, we used dynamic multivalue background and entropy theory building the first level multiobjective decision model. Secondly, experts were to empower according to the principle of clustering analysis, and combining with the relative entropy theory to establish a secondary rally optimization model based on relative entropy in group decision making, and discuss the solution of the model. Then, after investigation and analysis, we establish the dangerous goods transport enterprise safety evaluation index system. Finally, case analysis to five dangerous goods transport enterprises in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region validates the feasibility and effectiveness of this model for dangerous goods transport enterprise recognition, which provides vital decision making basis for recognizing the dangerous goods transport enterprises.

  8. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  9. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state) charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”). This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators). It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively). To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR) is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower) at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do) is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves. PMID:27335734

  10. The relative contribution of calcium, zinc and oxidation-based cross-links to the stiffness of Arion subfuscus glue.

    PubMed

    Braun, M; Menges, M; Opoku, F; Smith, A M

    2013-04-15

    Metal ions are present in many different biological materials, and are capable of forming strong cross-links in aqueous environments. The relative contribution of different metal-based cross-links was measured in the defensive glue produced by the terrestrial slug Arion subfuscus. This glue contains calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. These metals are essential to the integrity of the glue and to gel stiffening. Removal of all metals caused at least a 15-fold decrease in the storage modulus of the glue. Selectively disrupting cross-links involving hard Lewis acids such as calcium reduced the stiffness of the glue, while disrupting cross-links involving borderline Lewis acids such as zinc did not. Calcium is the most common cation bound to the glue (40 mmol l(-1)), and its charge is balanced primarily by sulphate at 82-84 mmol l(-1). Thus these ions probably play a primary role in bringing polymers together directly. Imine bonds formed as a result of protein oxidation also contribute substantially to the stiffness of the glue. Disrupting these bonds with hydroxylamine caused a 33% decrease in storage modulus of the glue, while stabilizing them by reduction with sodium borohydride increased the storage modulus by 40%. Thus a combination of metal-based bonds operates in this glue. Most likely, cross-links directly involving calcium play a primary role in bringing together and stabilizing the polymer network, followed by imine bond formation and possible iron coordination.

  11. Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations with Mental Health and Harsh Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents' pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult…

  12. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  13. Gender Observations and Study Abroad: How Students Reconcile Cross-Cultural Differences Related to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, global understanding is part of the core mission of institutions of higher education. Many colleges and universities recognize the need for globally literate citizens to meet the demands of an increasingly interdependent world and see study abroad as a way to develop students' cross-cultural skills. The focus of this study is on…

  14. Quantitative Prediction of Human Renal Clearance and Drug-Drug Interactions of Organic Anion Transporter Substrates Using In Vitro Transport Data: A Relative Activity Factor Approach.

    PubMed

    Mathialagan, Sumathy; Piotrowski, Mary A; Tess, David A; Feng, Bo; Litchfield, John; Varma, Manthena V

    2017-04-01

    Organic anion transporters (OATs) are important in the renal secretion, and thus, the clearance, of many drugs; and their functional change can result in pharmacokinetic variability. In this study, we applied transport rates measured in vitro using OAT-transfected human embryonic kidney cells to predict human renal secretory and total renal clearance of 31 diverse drugs. Selective substrates to OAT1 (tenofovir), OAT2 (acyclovir and ganciclovir), and OAT3 (benzylpenicillin, oseltamivir acid) were used to obtain relative activity factors (RAFs) for these individual transporters by relating in vitro transport clearance (after physiologic scaling) to in vivo secretory clearance. Using the estimated RAFs (0.64, 7.3, and 4.1, respectively, for OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3, respectively) and the in vitro active clearances, renal secretory clearance and total renal clearance were predicted with average fold errors (AFEs) of 1.89 and 1.40, respectively. The results show that OAT3-mediated transport play a predominant role in renal secretion for 22 of the 31 drugs evaluated. This mechanistic static approach was further applied to quantitatively predict renal drug-drug interactions (AFE ∼1.6) of the substrate drugs with probenecid, a clinical probe OAT inhibitor. In conclusion, the proposed in vitro-in vivo extrapolation approach is the first comprehensive attempt toward mechanistic modeling of renal secretory clearance based on routinely employed in vitro cell models.

  15. Cross-sensory mapping of feature values in the size-brightness correspondence can be more relative than absolute.

    PubMed

    Walker, Laura; Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A role for conceptual representations in cross-sensory correspondences has been linked to the relative (context-sensitive) mapping of feature values, whereas a role for sensory-perceptual representations has been linked to their absolute (context-insensitive) mapping. Demonstrating the relative nature of the automatic mapping underlying a cross-sensory correspondence therefore offers one way of confirming its conceptual basis. After identifying several prerequisites for relative and absolute mappings, we provide the first compelling demonstration that an automatically induced congruity effect based on a cross-sensory correspondence (i.e., that between haptic size and visual brightness) can be largely contingent on the relative mapping of the 2 features, thereby implying a conceptual basis for the correspondence. Participants in a speeded classification task were faster to classify a visual stimulus as brighter or darker when this required them to press a hidden response key that, incidentally, was relatively small or big, respectively. Importantly, the same levels of brightness (Experiment 1) and key size (Experiment 2) at different times corresponded to contrasting levels of the other feature depending on the context provided by the alternative stimuli with which they appeared. For example, the same medium key was congruent with a brighter stimulus when paired with a bigger key, but was congruent with a darker stimulus when paired with a smaller key. Reflecting on the broader implications of this finding, it is noted that the involvement of cross-sensory correspondences in some forms of sound symbolism in language also requires the relative coding of stimulus features.

  16. Insights into transport velocity of colloid-associated plutonium relative to tritium in porous media.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinchuan; Lu, Jiachun; Lin, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xiaohua; Xu, Qichu; Li, Mei; Zhang, Jihong

    2014-05-22

    Although faster transport velocities of colloid-associated actinides, bacteria, and virus than nonreactive solutes have been observed in laboratory and field experiments, some questions still need to be answered. To accurately determine the relative velocity (UPu/UT) of 239Pu and tritium representative of the bulk water, a conceptual model of electrostatic interactions coupled with the parabolic water velocity profile in pore channels is developed. Based on the expression for UPu/UT derived from this model, we study the effects of water flow rates and ionic strengths on the UPu/UT. Also, the velocity relationship between Pu, tritium and Sr2+ is explored. The results show that UPu/UT increased fairly linearly with decreasing water flow rates; UPu/UT declined approximately exponentially with increasing Na+ concentrations; the charge properties of colloid-associated Pu (negative), tritium (neutral) and Sr2+ (positive) had a close association with their transport velocities as UPu:UT:USr2+=1.41:1:0.579.

  17. Crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compound semiconductors by physical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    1993-01-01

    The materials to be investigated are ZnSe and related ternary semiconducting alloys (e.g., ZnS(x)Se(1-x), ZnTe(x)Se(1-x), and Zn(1-x)Cd(x)Se). These materials are useful for opto-electronic applications such as high efficient light emitting diodes and low power threshold and high temperature lasers in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum. The recent demonstration of its optical bistable properties also makes ZnSe a possible candidate material for digital optical computers. The investigation consists of an extensive ground-based study followed by flight experimentation, and involves both experimental and theoretical work. The objectives of the ground-based work are to establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low gravity environment and to obtain the experimental data and perform the analyses required to define the optimum parameters for the flight experiments. During the six months of the Preliminary Definition Phase, the research efforts were concentrated on the binary compound ZnSe - the purification of starting materials of Se by zone refining, the synthesis of ZnSe starting materials, the heat treatments of the starting materials, the vapor transport rate measurements, the vapor partial pressure measurements of ZnSe, the crystal growth of ZnSe by physical vapor transport, and various characterization on the grown ZnSe crystals.

  18. A cytoskeleton-related gene, uso1, is required for intracellular protein transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strains blocked in the protein secretion pathway are not able to induce sexual aggregation. We have utilized the defect of aggregation to concentrate the secretion- deficient cells and identified a new gene which functions in the process of intracellular protein transport. The new mutant, uso1, is temperature sensitive for growth and protein secretion. At the restrictive temperature (37 degrees C), uso1 mutant accumulated the core-glycosylated precursor form of the exported protein invertase in the cells. Ultrastructural study of the mutant fixed by the freeze- substitution method revealed expansion of the nuclear envelope lumen and accumulation of the ER at the restrictive temperature. Abnormally oriented bundles of microtubules were often found in the nucleus. The USO1 gene was cloned by complementation of the uso1 temperature- sensitive growth defect. DNA sequence analysis revealed a hydrophilic protein of 1790 amino acids with a COOH-terminal 1,100-amino acid-long alpha-helical structure characteristic of the coiled-coil rod region of the cytoskeleton-related proteins. These observations suggest that Uso1 protein plays a role as a cytoskeletal component in the protein transport from the ER to the later secretory compartments. PMID:2010462

  19. Insights into transport velocity of colloid-associated plutonium relative to tritium in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jinchuan; Lu, Jiachun; Lin, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xiaohua; Xu, Qichu; Li, Mei; Zhang, Jihong

    2014-05-01

    Although faster transport velocities of colloid-associated actinides, bacteria, and virus than nonreactive solutes have been observed in laboratory and field experiments, some questions still need to be answered. To accurately determine the relative velocity (UPu/UT) of 239Pu and tritium representative of the bulk water, a conceptual model of electrostatic interactions coupled with the parabolic water velocity profile in pore channels is developed. Based on the expression for UPu/UT derived from this model, we study the effects of water flow rates and ionic strengths on the UPu/UT. Also, the velocity relationship between Pu, tritium and Sr2+ is explored. The results show that UPu/UT increased fairly linearly with decreasing water flow rates; UPu/UT declined approximately exponentially with increasing Na+ concentrations; the charge properties of colloid-associated Pu (negative), tritium (neutral) and Sr2+ (positive) had a close association with their transport velocities as UPu : UT : USr2+ = 1.41 : 1 : 0.579.

  20. Insights into transport velocity of colloid-associated plutonium relative to tritium in porous media

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jinchuan; Lu, Jiachun; Lin, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xiaohua; Xu, Qichu; Li, Mei; Zhang, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Although faster transport velocities of colloid-associated actinides, bacteria, and virus than nonreactive solutes have been observed in laboratory and field experiments, some questions still need to be answered. To accurately determine the relative velocity (UPu/UT) of 239Pu and tritium representative of the bulk water, a conceptual model of electrostatic interactions coupled with the parabolic water velocity profile in pore channels is developed. Based on the expression for UPu/UT derived from this model, we study the effects of water flow rates and ionic strengths on the UPu/UT. Also, the velocity relationship between Pu, tritium and Sr2+ is explored. The results show that UPu/UT increased fairly linearly with decreasing water flow rates; UPu/UT declined approximately exponentially with increasing Na+ concentrations; the charge properties of colloid-associated Pu (negative), tritium (neutral) and Sr2+ (positive) had a close association with their transport velocities as UPu : UT : USr2+ = 1.41 : 1 : 0.579. PMID:24849695

  1. Two-Phase Thermal Transport in Microgap Channels—Theory, Experimental Results, and Predictive Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Avram; Sheehan, Jessica R.; Rahim, Emil

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review and analysis of recent microchannel/microgap heat transfer data for two-phase flow of refrigerants and dielectric liquids is presented. The flow regime progression in such a microgap channel is shown to be predicted by the traditional flow regime maps. Moreover, Annular flow is shown to be the dominant regime for this thermal transport configuration and to grow in importance as the channel diameter decreases. The results of heat transfer studies of single miniature channels, as well as the analysis and inverse calculation of IR images of a heated microgap channel wall, are used to identify the existence of a characteristic M-shaped heat transfer coefficient variation with quality (or superficial velocity), with inflection points corresponding to transitions in the two-phase cooling modalities. For the high-quality, Annular flow conditions, the venerable Chen correlation is shown to yield predictive agreement for microgap channels that is comparable to that attained for macrochannels and to provide a mechanistic context for the thermal transport rates attained in microgap channels. Results obtained from infrared imaging, revealing previously undetected, large surface temperature variations in Annular flow, are also reviewed and related to the termination of the favorable thin-film evaporation mode in such channels.

  2. [Selected work-related health problems in drivers of public transport vehicles].

    PubMed

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga

    2006-01-01

    The literature data and our own studies show that in drivers of public transport vehicles, largely intensified work-related risk factors for arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, duodenal and gastric ulcer diseases and back pain syndrome are found. These involves occupational risk factors as well as classic ones, such as obesity, limited physical activity or tobacco smoking. Among occupational risk factors, stress induced by the responsibility for assuring public safety in heavy urban traffic, time pressure and contacts with passengers predominate. Other burdens observed in this occupational group include specific, partly forced, position of the body at work and the shift work system. Exposure to chemical agents present in exhaust gas may increase the incidence of cancer at some sites in this group of drivers. Multifaceted burdens occurring in this occupation may impair health, leading to temporary or permanent disability to work. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop specific preventive programs addressed to this occupational group not only because of economic reasons, but mostly to increase public transport safety.

  3. Transportation-related land use strategies to minimize motor vehicle emissions: An indirect source research study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dagang, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    This research project was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the potential quantitative benefits of land use planning and development in conjunction with multimodal transportation facilities that provide convenient alternatives to personal vehicle travel. The report suggests community-level performance goals that can reasonably be attained in urban, suburban and rural/exurban communities by implementing packages of transportation-related land use strategies in coordination with a multimodal transportation system. The performance goals are listed in terms of average annual vehicle travel per household and related vehicular emissions. The report recommends eight packages of transportation-related land use strategies appropriate for urban, suburban, and rural/exurban communities. It also provides detailed descriptions of specific strategy characteristics for each type of community, including suggested development densities and mixtures and configurations of lane uses. In addition, implementation mechanisms for local governments are listed and examples provided of existing programs.

  4. Relative toxicities of DNA cross-links and monoadducts: new insights from studies of decarbamoyl mitomycin C and mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Palom, Yolanda; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha; Tang, Li-Qian; Paz, Manuel M; Musser, Steven M; Rockwell, Sara; Tomasz, Maria

    2002-11-01

    Mitomycin C (MC), a cytotoxic anticancer drug and bifunctional DNA DNA alkylating agent, induces cross-linking of the complementary strands of DNA. The DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are thought to be the critical cytotoxic lesions produced by MC. Decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DMC) has been regarded as a monofunctional mitomycin, incapable of causing ICLs. Paradoxically, DMC is slightly more toxic than MC to hypoxic EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells as well as to CHO cells. To resolve this paradox, EMT6 cells were treated with MC or DMC under hypoxia at equimolar concentrations and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed using HPLC and UV detection. MC treatment generated both intrastrand and interstrand cross-link adducts and four monoadducts, as shown previously. DMC generated two stereoisomeric monoadducts and two stereoisomeric ICL adducts, all of which were structurally characterized; one was identical with that formed with MC, the other was new and unique to DMC. Overall, adduct frequencies were strikingly higher (20-30-fold) with DMC than with MC. Although DMC monoadducts greatly exceeded DMC cross-link adducts ( approximately 10:1 ratio), the latter were equal or higher in number than the cross-link adducts from MC. DMC displayed a much higher monoadduct:cross-link ratio than MC. The similar cytotoxicities of the two drug show a correlation with their similar DNA cross-link adduct frequencies, but not with their total adduct or monoadduct frequencies. This provides specific experimental evidence that the ICLs rather than the monoadducts are critical factors in the cell death induced by MC. In vitro, overall alkylation of calf thymus DNA by DMC was much less efficient than by MC. Nevertheless, ICLs formed with DMC were clearly detectable. The chemical pathway of the cross-linking was shown to be analogous to that occurring with MC. These results also suggest that the differential sensitivity of Fanconi's Anemia cells to MC and DMC is related to factors other

  5. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Brebrick, R. F.; Burger, A.; Dudley, M.; Matyi, R.; Ramachandran, N.; Sha, Yi-Gao; Volz, M.; Shih, Hung-Dah

    1999-01-01

    Complete and systematic ground-based experimental and theoretical analyses on the Physical Vapor Transport (PVT) of ZnSe and related ternary compound semiconductors have been performed. The analyses included thermodynamics, mass flux, heat treatment of starting material, crystal growth, partial pressure measurements, optical interferometry, chemical analyses, photoluminescence, microscopy, x-ray diffraction and topography as well as theoretical, analytical and numerical analyses. The experimental results showed the influence of gravity orientation on the characteristics of: (1) the morphology of the as-grown crystals as well as the as-grown surface morphology of ZnSe and Cr doped ZnSe crystals; (2) the distribution of impurities and defects in ZnSe grown crystals; and (3) the axial segregation in ZnSeTe grown crystals.

  6. Relation between finite element methods and nodal methods in transport theory

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between nodal methods and finite-element methods for solving the discrete-ordinates form of the transport equation in x-y geometry. Specifically, we will examine the relation of three finite-element schemes to the linear-linear (LL) and linear-nodal (LN) nodal schemes. The three finite-element schemes are the linear-continuous-diamond-difference (DD) scheme, the linear-discontinuous (LD) scheme, and the quadratic-discontinuous (QD) scheme. A brief derivation of the (LL) and (LN) nodal schemes is given in the third section of this paper. The approximations that cause the LL scheme to reduce to the DD, LD, and QD schemes are then indicated. An extremely simple method of deriving the finite-element schemes is then introduced.

  7. (Relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of trace elements during contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of major, minor, and trace elements during the contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks. The large contrasts in chemical potentials of SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and CaO across a granitic pluton-limestone contact may induce metasomatism. In addition, rare earth and transition metal elements may act as tracers, and their redistribution during metamorphism may record convective cooling processes. The results of this study may have an application toward the problem of radioactive waste disposal and the degree to which radioactive nuclides may be expected to migrate during geologically significant periods of time.

  8. Calculation of the Relative Density and the Crossing Time Through the Fitness Barrier in AN Asymmetric Sharply-Peaked Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Sung; Gill, Wonpyong

    We have calculated the relative density and crossing time through the fitness barrier by switching on an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape, from the initial state which is the quasispecies in a sharply-peaked landscape. It is found that the increment of the relative density with the reversal sequence is a linearly increasing function of time unless a new stationary state in an asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape is reached. It is also found that the relative density with the reversal sequence at the new stationary state X*L is in inverse proportion to the asymmetric parameter when the asymmetric parameter is greater than the saturation asymmetric parameter. We have derived the approximate formulae for the relaxation time, the saturation asymmetric parameter, and the relative density with the reversal sequence X*L, which nicely fit computer simulation results. It is found that the crossing time diverges at the critical fitness parameter in the asymmetric sharply-peaked landscape, in contrast with the symmetric sharply-peaked landscape where the crossing time scales as a power law in the fitness parameter. It is also found that the critical fitness parameter decreases as the asymmetric parameter and sequence length increase.

  9. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is

  10. Effect of chronic piracetam on age-related changes of cross-maze exploration in mice.

    PubMed

    Salimov, R; Salimova, N; Shvets, L; Shvets, N

    1995-11-01

    Normal aging is known to deteriorate memory, spatial orientation, and perceptual recognition. Experiment 1 examined behavioral manifestations of aging by using a cross-maze exploration test in 2-, 6-, and 10-month-old hybrid mice (CBA x C57BL). A decrease in explorative patrolling and an increase in arm reentries, a latency to start and a total time of exploration were found in 10-month-old mice. In Experiment 2, administration of the cognition enhancer piracetam (2-oxo-1-pirrolidone acetamide) (400 mg/kg, IP, once a day for 10 days) enhanced arm patrolling and decreased reentries in 10-month-old mice to the level displayed by the 2-month-old animals. The results suggest that the cross-maze test may be useful for a preliminary screening of antisenescent drugs.

  11. Surface configuration as an explanation for lithology-related cross-polarized radar image anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    One problem that has persisted since the development of multipolarized radar is the cause or causes of differential depolarization which is expressed as tonal reversals between like- and cross-polarized images of certain outcrops. Rocks producing anomalously low returns on the cross-polarized image could be classed into three general types: (1) certain geologically recent lava flows (late Pleistocene and Holocene), (2) some tertiary volcanics and (3) certain massive sandstones. Differential depolarization has been produced by volcanic rocks of various compositions including rhyolite, rhyodacite, dacite, andesite, and basalt. This has led to the conclusion that differential depolarization is not directly caused by any compositional factor. However, the study of aerial photos and subsequent field observation have led to the conclusion that the weathering and other surface characteristics of the outcrops are responsible for their appearance on multipolarized imagery.

  12. Possible relation of suicide rates of elderly with societal crime: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-02-01

    There are few studies examining the relationship between elderly suicides and societal crime. Therefore, a cross-national study examining the relationship between suicide rates of elderly persons and the percentage of the population victimised by different categories of crime was undertaken by using cross-national data from the World Health Organisation and United Nations databases. The main finding was a negative correlation between suicide rates in elderly men age 75+ years and women in both the elderly age-bands with the percentage of the population victimised by the crime of robbery. The findings were at variance with the study's hypothesis and may be explained by several factors, including methodological issues. Individual-level case-control or cohort studies of suicides and attempted suicides by elderly persons are suggested to examine the relationship of suicides by elderly and experience of being victimised by crime.

  13. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Ben Rebah, Maher; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Hélène; Compernolle, Sofie; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe. Design A cross-sectional observational study in the framework of an European Union-funded project on obesogenic environments (SPOTLIGHT). Setting 60 urban neighbourhoods (12 per country) were randomly selected in large urban zones in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, based on high or low values for median household income (socioeconomic status, SES) and residential area density. Participants A total of 6037 adults (mean age 52 years, 56% female) participated in the online survey. Outcome measures Self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviours, dietary habits and BMI. Other measures included general health; barriers and motivations for a healthy lifestyle, perceived social and physical environmental characteristics; the availability of transport modes and their use to specific destinations; self-defined neighbourhood boundaries and items related to residential selection. Results Across five countries, residents from low-SES neighbourhoods ate less fruit and vegetables, drank more sugary drinks and had a consistently higher BMI. SES differences in sedentary behaviours were observed in France, with residents from higher SES neighbourhoods reporting to sit more. Residents from low-density neighbourhoods were less physically active than those from high-density neighbourhoods; during leisure time and (most pronounced) for transport (except for Belgium). BMI differences by residential density were inconsistent across all countries. Conclusions The SPOTLIGHT survey provides an original approach for investigating relations between environmental characteristics, obesity-related behaviours and obesity in Europe. First descriptive results indicate considerable differences in health behaviours and BMI between countries and neighbourhood types. PMID

  14. Age-related decline in motor behavior and striatal dopamine transporter in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yue, Feng; Zeng, Sien; Wu, Di; Yi, Deqiao; Alex Zhang, Y; Chan, Piu

    2012-08-01

    Advanced human aging is associated with progressive declines of motor function and a risk factor for Parkinson's disease, which mainly involves central nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The present study investigated age-related changes in motor behaviors and alterations of the number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals in non-human primates. A total of 30 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) of age 3.5-15.5 years were studied. Motor behaviors including upper limb movement time and the amount of overall home cage activity were quantitatively assessed using a modified movement assessment panel and a newly developed webcam-based monitoring system. The function of the dopaminergic system was semi-quantitatively measured by (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 uptake rates, a dopamine transporter (DAT) specific radiopharmaceutical with SPECT imaging. The results showed a significant decline in motor behaviors associated with aging which were significantly correlated with age-related decreases of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 uptake. A further partial correlation analysis independent of age indicated that age contributed to the relationship between striatal DAT levels and motor behaviors. Our results indicate that normal aging-related dopamine physiology influences certain aspects of motor behaviors and suggest that aging-associated dysfunction in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system may be an important factor contributing to the decline of motor behaviors in aging cynomolgus monkeys.

  15. Cross spectral measurement of head related speech transfer functions using speaker's own voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukina, Masumi; Kawahara, Hideki

    2002-11-01

    A cross spectrum method is applied to measure sound pressure variations around the head using the speaker's own speech sounds. The variations are represented as transfer functions from the mouth reference point to a set of measuring points. Preliminary tests indicated that there are systematic frequency response variations depending on vowel colors. This vowel color dependency was not replicated in the classical measurement of speech radiation characteristics by J. L. Flanagan. However, taking into account the large (sometimes exceeding 20 dB) amount of variations, it is not likely to be negligible. A set of calibration and normalization procedures were introduced to reduce artifacts due to background noise, room acoustics, zeros in the speech spectra. A series of M-sequence based transfer function measurements were also conducted using a head and torso simulator to evaluate intrinsic errors in the cross spectral measurements. It was found that the standard errors in the cross spectral measurements using recorded speech sounds are around 1 dB. Based on these reference data and confidence interval calculations based on coherence, it is safe to conclude that the vowel color dependency is significantly modifying the transfer functions. [Work supported by JSPS.

  16. Measuring the distance-redshift relation with the cross-correlation of gravitational wave standard sirens and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, Masamune

    2016-04-01

    Gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries are known to be an excellent absolute distance indicator, yet it is unclear whether electromagnetic counterparts of these events are securely identified for measuring their redshifts, especially in the case of black hole-black hole mergers such as the one recently observed with the Advanced LIGO. We propose to use the cross-correlation between spatial distributions of gravitational wave sources and galaxies with known redshifts as an alternative means of constraining the distance-redshift relation from gravitational waves. In our analysis, we explicitly include the modulation of the distribution of gravitational wave sources due to weak gravitational lensing. We show that the cross-correlation analysis in next-generation observations will be able to tightly constrain the relation between the absolute distance and the redshift and therefore constrain the Hubble constant as well as dark energy parameters.

  17. Sex and age distribution in transport-related injuries in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Bahman Sayyar; Sharzei, Kaveh; Zargar, Moosa

    2004-05-01

    Intercountry or regional differences in patterns of injury by the road user type have significant implication for prevention policies. In order to have an estimate from the existing conditions of transport-related injuries (TRIs) and especially to evaluate sex and age distribution of traffic accident victims, we analyzed information of 8426 hospitalized trauma patients during 13 months of data gathering process. Forty-five percent of the injuries were related to car accidents and men/women ratio in these patients was 4.2/1. The highest men/women ratio was (16/1) for motorcyclists, while the lowest ratio (1/1), was for rear seat car passengers. Mean (+/-S.D.) age of the patients was 31 (+/-18), and men were nearly 2 years younger than women (33 versus 31). Sixty-seven percent of the females' and 44% of the males' injuries were related to pedestrian crashes. Motorcycle-related injuries in men and car passenger related injuries in women were the second most common type of crash (42 and 22%, respectively). The use of protective devices in our population was worrisome. In only 6% of the male motorcyclists helmet use was reported, and 3% of the male car occupants had used seatbelts at the time of the accident. The condition in the female population was much worse and no use of the protective devices was reported in this group of the patients. Crude mortality rate in men was nearly two times that of women (6.2% versus 3.8%). After adjustment for age, injury severity score (ISS) and category of the road users, men and women had similar mortality rate.

  18. Short Communication Microsatellite loci in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae, and cross-species amplification in four related species.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, O; Marín, A; Kowalewska, K; Fujimoto, T; Arai, K

    2016-09-23

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were identified in the tetraploid spined loach, Cobitis biwae (Teleostei: Cobitidae). Among these, 14 were polymorphic (5-31 alleles) and showed moderate to high cross-species amplification transferability in four related species, Cobitis matsubarai, Cobitis taenia, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, and Misgurnus fossilis. The loci, described herein, will be useful for population genetics, phylogeny, parentage analysis, and detection of hybridization among Cobitis species.

  19. Enhanced performance of polymer solar cell with ZnO nanoparticle electron transporting layer passivated by in situ cross-linked three-dimensional polymer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongwei; Song, Tao; Xia, Zhouhui; Wei, Huaixin; Sun, Baoquan

    2013-12-01

    An in situ cross-linked three-dimensional polymer network has been developed to passivate ZnO nanoparticles as an electron transporting layer (ETL) to improve the performance of inverted organic solar cells. The passivated ZnO ETL-based devices achieve efficiencies of 3.26% for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and 7.37% for poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  20. Energy-averaged electron-ion momentum transport cross section in the Born approximation and Debye-Hückel potential: Comparison with the cut-off theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.; Bourham, Mohamed A.; Doster, J. Michael

    2000-04-01

    An exact analytical expression for the energy-averaged electron-ion momentum transport cross section in the Born approximation and Debye-Hückel exponentially screened potential has been derived and compared with the formulae given by other authors. A quantitative comparison between cut-off theory and quantum mechanical perturbation theory has been presented. Based on results from the Born approximation and Spitzer's formula, a new approximate formula for the quantum Coulomb logarithm has been derived and shown to be more accurate than previous expressions.

  1. Energy-averaged electron-ion momentum transport cross section in the Born Approximation and Debye-Hückel potential: Comparison with the cut-off theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.; Bourham, Mohamed A.; Doster, J. Michael

    2000-02-01

    An exact analytical expression for the energy-averaged electron-ion momentum transport cross section in the Born approximation and Debye-Hückel exponentially screened potential has been derived and compared with the formulae given by other authors. A quantitative comparison between cut-off theory and quantum mechanical perturbation theory has been presented. Based on results from the Born approximation and Spitzer's formula, a new approximate formula for the quantum Coulomb logarithm has been derived and shown to be more accurate than previous expressions.

  2. Cross-shelf transport of terrestrial Al enhanced by the transition of northeasterly to southwesterly monsoon wind over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jing-Ling; Xuan, Ji-Liang; Wang, Zhao-Wei; Huang, Daji; Zhang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) is one of the key parameters of GEOTRACES. In spring 2011, we examined the distribution of dissolved Al in the East China Sea (ECS) to assess the potential passage of coastal water across the shelf to the western Pacific. Measurement of dissolved Al in coastal, shelf, and shelf break waters indicated decreasing concentrations with distance from the coast. However, the northward increase of dissolved Al in the upper 100 m along the shelf break transect, corresponding to the northward flow of Kuroshio Water along the Okinawa Trough from the north of Taiwan to the Tokara strait, indicates contributions of terrestrial material. The presence of an Al plume indicated cross-shelf transport at the subsurface at a potential density of 23.3-24.0 kg/m3. This plume originates from the near-bottom layer along the coast off Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces, and first moves southeastward (to the north of Taiwan) and then northeastward (to shelf break with export at 29°N, 127°E). We calculated the cross-shelf fluxes of water and dissolved Al based on simulation results of the 3-D Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). The calculated cross-shelf fluxes of Al at the subsurface layer indicate that the ECS is highly efficient in pumping Al-rich coastal waters northward to the Japan Sea/East Sea and/or eastward into the western Pacific. We also identified an important role of the monsoon, with a change from northeasterly wind to southwesterly wind in spring, on the cross-shelf transport of Al by use of numerical tracer experiments.

  3. Characterization of Sucrose transporter alleles and their association with seed yield-related traits in Brassica napus L

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sucrose is the primary photosynthesis product and the principal translocating form within higher plants. Sucrose transporters (SUC/SUT) play a critical role in phloem loading and unloading. Photoassimilate transport is a major limiting factor for seed yield. Our previous research demonstrated that SUT co-localizes with yield-related quantitative trait loci. This paper reports the isolation of BnA7.SUT1 alleles and their promoters and their association with yield-related traits. Results Two novel BnA7.SUT1 genes were isolated from B. napus lines 'Eagle' and 'S-1300' and designated as BnA7.SUT1.a and BnA7.SUT1.b, respectively. The BnA7.SUT1 protein exhibited typical SUT features and showed high amino acid homology with related species. Promoters of BnA7.SUT1.a and BnA7.SUT1.b were also isolated and classified as pBnA7.SUT1.a and pBnA7.SUT1.b, respectively. Four dominant sequence-characterized amplified region markers were developed to distinguish BnA7.SUT1.a and BnA7.SUT1.b. The two genes were estimated as alleles with two segregating populations (F2 and BC1) obtained by crossing '3715'×'3769'. BnA7.SUT1 was mapped to the A7 linkage group of the TN doubled haploid population. In silico analysis of 55 segmental BnA7.SUT1 alleles resulted three BnA7.SUT1 clusters: pBnA7.SUT1.a- BnA7.SUT1.a (type I), pBnA7.SUT1.b- BnA7.SUT1.a (type II), and pBnA7.SUT1.b- BnA7.SUT1.b (type III). Association analysis with a diverse panel of 55 rapeseed lines identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter and coding domain sequences of BnA7.SUT1 that were significantly associated with one of three yield-related traits: number of effective first branches (EFB), siliques per plant (SP), and seed weight (n = 1000) (TSW) across all four environments examined. SNPs at other BnA7.SUT1 sites were also significantly associated with at least one of six yield-related traits: EFB, SP, number of seeds per silique, seed yield per plant, block yield, and TSW. Expression levels

  4. Simulation of reactive processes related to biodegradation in aquifers. 1. Structure of the three-dimensional reactive transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Dirk; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    1998-05-01

    The reactive transport model TBC (transport, biochemistry, and chemistry) numerically solves the equations for reactive transport in three-dimensional saturated groundwater flow. A finite element approximation and a standard Galerkin method are used. Solute transport is coupled to microbially mediated organic carbon degradation. Microbial growth is assumed to follow Monod-type kinetics. Substrate consumption and release of metabolic products is coupled to microbial growth via yield coefficients and stoichiometric relations. Additionally, the effects of microbial activity on selected inorganic chemical species in the aquifer can be considered. TBC allows the user to specify a wide range of possible biochemical and chemical reactions in the input file. This makes TBC a powerful and flexible simulation tool. It was developed to simulate reactive processes related to in situ bioremediation, but further fields of application are laboratory column studies on redox processes coupled to organic carbon degradation, field cases of intrinsic biodegradation, and early diagenetic processes in sediments.

  5. Nutrient Transporter Expression in the Jejunum in Relation to Body Mass Index in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Brian A.; Wood, G. Craig; Bennotti, Peter N.; Babu, Ellappan; Deshpande, Abhishek; Lent, Michelle R.; Petrick, Anthony; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Rolston, David D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient tranters (NT) facilitate nutrient absorption and contribute to the regulation of circulating nutrients. In this cross-sectional study, we determined the associations between the level of obesity; mRNA abundance for NTs; and serum concentrations of amino acids, short-chain fatty acids, and glucose in patients with morbid obesity undergoing a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Proximal jejunal samples were obtained at the time of surgery from 42 patients (90% female, age = 42.6 ± 11.9 years, pre-operative body mass index (BMI) = 55.5 ± 11.3 kg/m2) undergoing a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. RNA was extracted from the jejunal mucosa and quantitative real-time–PCR was performed for the NTs studied. BMI negatively correlated with jejunal mRNA abundance of the amino acid NTs TauT (r = −0.625, p < 0.0001), ASCT2 (r = −0.320, p = 0.039), LAT1 (r = −0.304, p = 0.05). BMI positively correlated with jejunal mRNA abundance of the lactate/short-chain fatty acid NT SMCT1 (r = 0.543, p = 0.0002). Serum concentrations of the short-chain fatty acids, butyric, valeric, and isocaproic acid correlated positively with BMI (n = 30) (r = 0.45, r = 0.44, r = 0.36, p ≤ 0.05; respectively). Lower jejunal mRNA abundance for the amino acid NTs TauT, ASCT2, and LAT1 could protect against further obesity-related elevations in circulating amino acids. The positive correlation between BMI and the jejunal mRNA abundance of the high-affinity short-chain fatty acid/monocarboxylate transporter SMCT1 is intriguing and requires further investigation. PMID:27801863

  6. Relation between Transport Properties and Heterogeneities from Grain and Sample Scale in Fontainebleau Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, I.; Graphchikov, A.; Renner, J.

    2004-12-01

    We carried out an experimental study of Fontainebleau sandstone for correlation between pore structure and transport properties. Eight blocks of the sandstone were available from different locations. Several cored samples, 30 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length, were prepared from each block. The available blocks yield a range in porosity from about 3 to 11% with no difference between connected and total porosity. Scanning Electronic Microscope analysis revealed a clayless-pure (>99% quartz), well sorted sandstone with different porosity and pore geometry for different blocks. The pore texture varies from ¡risolated pores¡_ to ¡risolated grains¡_ in two-dimensional images. To further constrain the effect of heterogeneities in sample scale on bulk fluid transport properties we tested samples with up to six sawcuts parallel or perpendicular to the flow direction. The planar faces of the saw cuts were machined to a smooth finish. We also stacked pieces alternating between two sandstone varieties of 6 and 9% porosity to model inhomogeneity for one-dimensional fluid transport varying in scale. On intact sample, we measured ultrasonic velocity, electrical conductivity, hydraulic permeability and specific storage. Ultrasonic velocity and electrical conductivity were measured on as-is, oven-dry, and water-saturated samples at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Permeability and specific storage were determined from steady state, linear injection and oscillatory tests at different effective pressures ranging up to 200 MPa at room temperature. The variation of the ultrasonic velocity covers the full range between the lower and the upper Hashin-Shtrickman bound. The velocity ranges relate to the pore geometry rather than porosity; e.g. high velocity in samples with ¡risolated pores¡_ and low velocity in samples with ¡risolated grains¡_. The electric impedance and hydraulic permeability of the sandstone correlates strongly with the connected porosity. The

  7. Angular cross-relations of Abell clusters in different distance classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalay, A. S.; Hollosi, J.; Toth, G.

    1989-01-01

    The angular autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions of the D = 1 ... 4, D = 5, and D = 6 distance class Abell clusters are estimated. There is a strong anticorrelation between the most distant D = 6 and the closest D = 1 ... 4 subsamples. It is suggested that an artifact of the cluster identification process presumably due to the finite angular size of the cluster. This anticorrelation seems to contradict some recent estimations of projection contaminations in the Abell catalog. The angular proximity of a foreground cluster may have caused a background cluster not to be counted as it was thought to be a subcluster or it was erroneously assigned to a nearer distance class.

  8. Relating a Jet-Surface Interaction Experiment to a Commercial Supersonic Transport Aircraft Using Numerical Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance F. III; Friedlander, David

    2017-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed for a commercial supersonic transport aircraft concept and experimental hardware models designed to represent the installed propulsion system of the conceptual aircraft in an upcoming test campaign. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the effects of jet-surface interactions from supersonic aircraft on airport community noise. RANS simulations of the commercial supersonic transport aircraft concept were performed to relate the representative experimental hardware to the actual aircraft. RANS screening simulations were performed on the proposed test hardware to verify that it would be free from potential rig noise and to predict the aerodynamic forces on the model hardware to assist with structural design. The simulations showed a large region of separated flow formed in a junction region of one of the experimental configurations. This was dissimilar with simulations of the aircraft and could invalidate the noise measurements. This configuration was modified and a subsequent RANS simulation showed that the size of the flow separation was greatly reduced. The aerodynamic forces found on the experimental models were found to be relatively small when compared to the expected loads from the model’s own weight.Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were completed for two configurations of a three-stream inverted velocity profile (IVP) nozzle and a baseline single-stream round nozzle (mixed-flow equivalent conditions). For the Sideline and Cutback flow conditions, while the IVP nozzles did not reduce the peak turbulent kinetic energy on the lower side of the jet plume, the IVP nozzles did significantly reduce the size of the region of peak turbulent kinetic energy when compared to the jet plume of the baseline nozzle cases. The IVP nozzle at Sideline conditions did suffer a region of separated flow from the inner stream nozzle splitter that did produce an intense, but small, region of

  9. Environmental and socio-demographic associates of children’s active transport to school: a cross-sectional investigation from the URBAN Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Active transport (e.g., walking, cycling) to school (ATS) can contribute to children’s physical activity and health. The built environment is acknowledged as an important factor in understanding children’s ATS, alongside parental factors and seasonality. Inconsistencies in methodological approaches exist, and a clear understanding of factors related to ATS remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of associates of children’s ATS, by considering the effects of daily weather patterns and neighbourhood walk ability and neighbourhood preferences (i.e., for living in a high or low walkable neighbourhood) on this behaviour. Methods Data were drawn from the Understanding Relationships between Activity and Neighbourhoods study, a cross-sectional study of physical activity and the built environment in adults and children in four New Zealand cities. Parents of participating children completed an interview and daily trip diary that assessed their child’s mode of travel to school, household and individual demographic information, and parental neighbourhood preference. Daily weather data were downloaded from New Zealand’s national climate database. Geographic information systems-derived variables were calculated for distance to school and neighbourhood walkability. Bivariate analyses were conducted with ATS and potential associates; factors related to ATS at p < 0.20 were considered simultaneously in generalized estimation equation models, and backwards elimination of non-significant factors was conducted; city was treated as a fixed effect in all models. Results A total of 217 children aged 6.5-15 years participated in this study. Female sex, age, city, household income, limited/no car access, residing in zone of school, shorter distance to school, neighbourhood self selection, rainfall, and sunlight hours were simultaneously considered in multivariate generalised estimation equation modelling (all p < 0.20 in

  10. Cross-shift changes in FEV1 in relation to wood dust exposure: the implications of different exposure assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Schlunssen, V; Sigsgaard, T; Schaumburg, I; Kromhout, H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Exposure-response analyses in occupational studies rely on the ability to distinguish workers with regard to exposures of interest. Aims: To evaluate different estimates of current average exposure in an exposure-response analysis on dust exposure and cross-shift decline in FEV1 among woodworkers. Methods: Personal dust samples (n = 2181) as well as data on lung function parameters were available for 1560 woodworkers from 54 furniture industries. The exposure to wood dust for each worker was calculated in eight different ways using individual measurements, group based exposure estimates, a weighted estimate of individual and group based exposure estimates, and predicted values from mixed models. Exposure-response relations on cross-shift changes in FEV1 and exposure estimates were explored. Results: A positive exposure-response relation between average dust exposure and cross-shift FEV1 was shown for non-smokers only and appeared to be most pronounced among pine workers. In general, the highest slope and standard error (SE) was revealed for grouping by a combination of task and factory size, the lowest slope and SE was revealed for estimates based on individual measurements, with the weighted estimate and the predicted values in between. Grouping by quintiles of average exposure for task and factory combinations revealed low slopes and high SE, despite a high contrast. Conclusion: For non-smokers, average dust exposure and cross-shift FEV1 were associated in an exposure dependent manner, especially among pine workers. This study confirms the consequences of using different exposure assessment strategies studying exposure-response relations. It is possible to optimise exposure assessment combining information from individual and group based exposure estimates, for instance by applying predicted values from mixed effects models. PMID:15377768

  11. Comparative study of Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS and nuclear data processing code NJOY for recoil cross section spectra under neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Because primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) create point defects and clusters in materials that are irradiated with neutrons, it is important to validate the calculations of recoil cross section spectra that are used to estimate radiation damage in materials. Here, the recoil cross section spectra of fission- and fusion-relevant materials were calculated using the Event Generator Mode (EGM) of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and also using the data processing code NJOY2012 with the nuclear data libraries TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JEFF3.2. The heating number, which is the integral of the recoil cross section spectra, was also calculated using PHITS-EGM and compared with data extracted from the ACE files of TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JENDL4.0. In general, only a small difference was found between the PKA spectra of PHITS + TENDL2015 and NJOY + TENDL2015. From analyzing the recoil cross section spectra extracted from the nuclear data libraries using NJOY2012, we found that the recoil cross section spectra were incorrect for 72Ge, 75As, 89Y, and 109Ag in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, and for 90Zr and 55Mn in the JEFF3.2 library. From analyzing the heating number, we found that the data extracted from the ACE file of TENDL2015 for all nuclides were problematic in the neutron capture region because of incorrect data regarding the emitted gamma energy. However, PHITS + TENDL2015 can calculate PKA spectra and heating numbers correctly.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  13. Development and Implementation of Photonuclear Cross-Section Data for Mutually Coupled Neutron-Photon Transport Calculations in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Radiation Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2000-07-01

    The fundamental motivation for the research presented in this dissertation was the need to development a more accurate prediction method for characterization of mixed radiation fields around medical electron accelerators (MEAs). Specifically, a model is developed for simulation of neutron and other particle production from photonuclear reactions and incorporated in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. This extension of the capability within the MCNP code provides for the more accurate assessment of the mixed radiation fields. The Nuclear Theory and Applications group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has recently provided first-of-a-kind evaluated photonuclear data for a select group of isotopes. These data provide the reaction probabilities as functions of incident photon energy with angular and energy distribution information for all reaction products. The availability of these data is the cornerstone of the new methodology for state-of-the-art mutually coupled photon-neutron transport simulations. The dissertation includes details of the model development and implementation necessary to use the new photonuclear data within MCNP simulations. A new data format has been developed to include tabular photonuclear data. Data are processed from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Format (ENDF) to the new class ''u'' A Compact ENDF (ACE) format using a standalone processing code. MCNP modifications have been completed to enable Monte Carlo sampling of photonuclear reactions. Note that both neutron and gamma production are included in the present model. The new capability has been subjected to extensive verification and validation (V&V) testing. Verification testing has established the expected basic functionality. Two validation projects were undertaken. First, comparisons were made to benchmark data from literature. These calculations demonstrate the accuracy of the new data and transport routines to better than 25 percent. Second, the ability to

  14. TTC26/DYF13 is an intraflagellar transport protein required for transport of motility-related proteins into flagella.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Ide, Takahiro; Yagi, Toshiki; Jiang, Xue; Hirono, Masafumi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Wemmer, Kimberly A; Stainier, Didier Yr; Qin, Hongmin; Kamiya, Ritsu; Marshall, Wallace F

    2014-01-01

    Cilia/flagella are assembled and maintained by the process of intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly conserved mechanism involving more than 20 IFT proteins. However, the functions of individual IFT proteins are mostly unclear. To help address this issue, we focused on a putative IFT protein TTC26/DYF13. Using live imaging and biochemical approaches we show that TTC26/DYF13 is an IFT complex B protein in mammalian cells and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Knockdown of TTC26/DYF13 in zebrafish embryos or mutation of TTC26/DYF13 in C. reinhardtii, produced short cilia with abnormal motility. Surprisingly, IFT particle assembly and speed were normal in dyf13 mutant flagella, unlike in other IFT complex B mutants. Proteomic and biochemical analyses indicated a particular set of proteins involved in motility was specifically depleted in the dyf13 mutant. These results support the concept that different IFT proteins are responsible for different cargo subsets, providing a possible explanation for the complexity of the IFT machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01566.001.

  15. Transportation considerations related to waste forms and canisters for Defense TRU wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Andrews, W.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rosenthal, L.J.; Odle, C.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report identifies and discusses the considerations imposed by transportation on waste forms and canisters for contact-handled, solid transuranic wastes from the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The report reviews (1) the existing raw waste forms and potential immobilized waste forms, (2) the existing and potential future DOE waste canisters and shipping containers, (3) regulations and regulatory trends for transporting commercial transuranic wastes on the ISA, (4) truck and rail carrier requirements and preferences for transporting the wastes, and (5) current and proposed Type B external packagings for transporting wastes.

  16. Amino Acid Transport Associated to Cluster of Differentiation 98 Heavy Chain (CD98hc) Is at the Cross-road of Oxidative Stress and Amino Acid Availability.

    PubMed

    de la Ballina, Laura R; Cano-Crespo, Sara; González-Muñoz, Elena; Bial, Susanna; Estrach, Soline; Cailleteau, Laurence; Tissot, Floriane; Daniel, Hannelore; Zorzano, Antonio; Ginsberg, Mark H; Palacín, Manuel; Féral, Chloé C

    2016-04-29

    CD98hc functions as an amino acid (AA) transporter (together with another subunit) and integrin signaling enhancer. It is overexpressed in highly proliferative cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. CD98hc deletion induces strong impairment of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro Here, we investigate CD98hc-associated AA transport in cell survival and proliferation. By using chimeric versions of CD98hc, the two functions of the protein can be uncoupled. Although recovering the CD98hc AA transport capacity restores the in vivo and in vitro proliferation of CD98hc-null cells, reconstitution of the integrin signaling function of CD98hc is unable to restore in vitro proliferation of those cells. CD98hc-associated transporters (i.e. xCT, LAT1, and y(+)LAT2 in wild-type cells) are crucial to control reactive oxygen species and intracellular AA levels, thus sustaining cell survival and proliferation. Moreover, in CD98hc-null cells the deficiency of CD98hc/xCT cannot be compensated, leading to cell death by ferroptosis. Supplementation of culture media with β-mercaptoethanol rescues CD98hc-deficient cell survival. Under such conditions null cells show oxidative stress and intracellular AA imbalance and, consequently, limited proliferation. CD98hc-null cells also present reduced intracellular levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and ARO AAs, respectively) and induced expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Interestingly, external supply of dipeptides containing BCAAs and ARO AAs rescues cell proliferation and compensates for impaired uptake of CD98hc/LAT1 and CD98hc/y(+)LAT2. Our data establish CD98hc as a master protective gene at the cross-road of redox control and AA availability, making it a relevant therapeutic target in cancer.

  17. Transport and fluctuation-dissipation relations in asymptotic and preasymptotic diffusion across channels with variable section.

    PubMed

    Forte, Giuseppe; Cecconi, Fabio; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2014-12-01

    We study the asymptotic and preasymptotic diffusive properties of Brownian particles in channels whose section varies periodically in space. The effective diffusion coefficient D(eff) is numerically determined by the asymptotic behavior of the root mean square displacement in different geometries, considering even cases of steep variations of the channel boundaries. Moreover, we compared the numerical results to the predictions from the various corrections proposed in the literature to the well known Fick-Jacobs approximation. Building an effective one-dimensional equation for the longitudinal diffusion, we obtain an approximation for the effective diffusion coefficient. Such a result goes beyond a perturbation approach, and it is in good agreement with the actual values obtained by the numerical simulations. We discuss also the preasymptotic diffusion which is observed up to a crossover time whose value, in the presence of strong spatial variation of the channel cross section, can be very large. In addition, we show how the Einstein's relation between the mean drift induced by a small external field and the mean square displacement of the unperturbed system is valid in both asymptotic and preasymptotic regimes.

  18. Transport and fluctuation-dissipation relations in asymptotic and preasymptotic diffusion across channels with variable section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Giuseppe; Cecconi, Fabio; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2014-12-01

    We study the asymptotic and preasymptotic diffusive properties of Brownian particles in channels whose section varies periodically in space. The effective diffusion coefficient Deff is numerically determined by the asymptotic behavior of the root mean square displacement in different geometries, considering even cases of steep variations of the channel boundaries. Moreover, we compared the numerical results to the predictions from the various corrections proposed in the literature to the well known Fick-Jacobs approximation. Building an effective one-dimensional equation for the longitudinal diffusion, we obtain an approximation for the effective diffusion coefficient. Such a result goes beyond a perturbation approach, and it is in good agreement with the actual values obtained by the numerical simulations. We discuss also the preasymptotic diffusion which is observed up to a crossover time whose value, in the presence of strong spatial variation of the channel cross section, can be very large. In addition, we show how the Einstein's relation between the mean drift induced by a small external field and the mean square displacement of the unperturbed system is valid in both asymptotic and preasymptotic regimes.

  19. Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families

    PubMed Central

    Geoghegan, Jemma L.

    2017-01-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. By analyzing co-phylogenetic processes in 19 virus families and their eukaryotic hosts we provide a quantitative and comparative estimate of the relative frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species transmission among virus families. Notably, our analysis reveals that cross-species transmission is a near universal feature of the viruses analyzed here, with virus-host co-divergence occurring less frequently and always on a subset of viruses. Despite the overall high topological incongruence among virus and host phylogenies, the Hepadnaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Poxviridae, Papillomaviridae and Adenoviridae, all of which possess double-stranded DNA genomes, exhibited more frequent co-divergence than the other virus families studied here. At the other extreme, the virus and host trees for all the RNA viruses studied here, particularly the Rhabdoviridae and the Picornaviridae, displayed high levels of topological incongruence, indicative of frequent host switching. Overall, we show that cross-species transmission plays a major role in virus evolution, with all the virus families studied here having the potential to jump host species, and that increased sampling will likely reveal more instances of host jumping. PMID:28178344

  20. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Brebrick, R. F.; Dudley, M.; Ramachandran, N.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the crystals grown by vapor transport as results of buoyance-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows. ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, were grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals were characterized extensively to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions. The following are the research progress in the past two years. In-situ monitoring of partial pressure by optical absorption technique and visual observation of the growing crystal were performed during vapor growth of ZnSe. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra and glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS) were measured on ZnSe starting materials provided by various vendors and on bulk crystals grown from these starting materials by physical vapor transport (PVT) to study the effects of purification and contamination during crystal growth process. Optical characterization was performed on wafers sliced from the grown crystals of ZnSe, ZnTe and ZnSe(1-x),Te(x), (0

  1. Cross-Linguistic Relations between Quantifiers and Numerals in Language Acquisition: Evidence from Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Libenson, Amanda; Cheung, Pierina; Takasaki, Mayu

    2009-01-01

    A study of 104 Japanese-speaking 2- to 5-year-olds tested the relation between numeral and quantifier acquisition. A first study assessed Japanese children's comprehension of quantifiers, numerals, and classifiers. Relative to English-speaking counterparts, Japanese children were delayed in numeral comprehension at 2 years of age but showed no…

  2. Differences in Glycoprotein Complex Receptor Binding Site Accessibility Prompt Poor Cross-Reactivity of Neutralizing Antibodies between Closely Related Arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Rachel B; Phillips, Elisabeth K; Ayithan, Natarajan; Maury, Wendy

    2017-04-01

    The glycoprotein complex (GPC) of arenaviruses, composed of stable signal peptide, GP1, and GP2, is the only antigen correlated with antibody-mediated neutralization. However, despite strong cross-reactivity of convalescent antisera between related arenavirus species, weak or no cross-neutralization occurs. Two closely related clade B viruses, Machupo virus (MACV) and Junín virus (JUNV), have nearly identical overall GPC architecture and share a host receptor, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Given structural and functional similarities of the GP1 receptor binding site (RBS) of these viruses and the recent demonstration that the RBS is an important target for neutralizing antibodies, it is not clear how these viruses avoid cross-neutralization. To address this, MACV/JUNV chimeric GPCs were assessed for interaction with a group of α-JUNV GPC monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mouse antisera against JUNV or MACV GPC. All six MAbs targeted GP1, with those that neutralized JUNV GPC-pseudovirions competing with each other for RBS binding. However, these MAbs were unable to bind to a chimeric GPC composed of JUNV GP1 containing a small disulfide bonded loop (loop 10) unique to MACV GPC, suggesting that this loop may block MAbs interaction with the GP1 RBS. Consistent with this loop causing interference, mouse anti-JUNV GPC antisera that solely neutralized pseudovirions bearing autologous GP1 provided enhanced neutralization of MACV GPC when this loop was removed. Our studies provide evidence that loop 10, which is unique to MACV GP1, is an important impediment to binding of neutralizing antibodies and contributes to the poor cross-neutralization of α-JUNV antisera against MACV.IMPORTANCE Multiple New World arenaviruses can cause severe disease in humans, and some geographic overlap exists among these viruses. A vaccine that protects against a broad range of New World arenaviruses is desirable for purposes of simplicity, cost, and broad protection against multiple National

  3. Relative transport of human adenovirus and MS2 in porous media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) is the most prevalent enteric virus found in the water environment by numerous monitoring studies and MS2 is the most common surrogate used for previous virus transport studies. However, the current knowledge on the transport behavior of HAdV in porous med...

  4. 40 CFR 93.122 - Procedures for determining regional transportation-related emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or maintenance area VMT on off-network roadways within the urban transportation planning area, and on roadways outside the urban transportation planning area. (b) Regional emissions analysis in serious, severe... paragraphs (b) (1) through (3) of this section if their metropolitan planning area contains an urbanized...

  5. Cross-plane electronic and thermal transport properties of p-type La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/LaMnO3 perovskite oxide metal/semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pankaj; Sands, Timothy D.; Cassels, Laura; Jackson, Philip; Favaloro, Tela; Kirk, Benjamin; Zide, Joshua; Xu, Xianfan; Shakouri, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Lanthanum strontium manganate (La0.67Sr0.33MnO3, i.e., LSMO)/lanthanum manganate (LaMnO3, i.e., LMO) perovskite oxide metal/semiconductor superlattices were investigated as a potential p-type thermoelectric material. Growth was performed using pulsed laser deposition to achieve epitaxial LSMO (metal)/LMO (p-type semiconductor) superlattices on (100)-strontium titanate (STO) substrates. The magnitude of the in-plane Seebeck coefficient of LSMO thin films (<20 μV/K) is consistent with metallic behavior, while LMO thin films were p-type with a room temperature Seebeck coefficient of 140 μV/K. Thermal conductivity measurements via the photo-acoustic (PA) technique showed that LSMO/LMO superlattices exhibit a room temperature cross-plane thermal conductivity (0.89 W/m.K) that is significantly lower than the thermal conductivity of individual thin films of either LSMO (1.60 W/m.K) or LMO (1.29 W/m.K). The lower thermal conductivity of LSMO/LMO superlattices may help overcome one of the major limitations of oxides as thermoelectrics. In addition to a low cross-plane thermal conductivity, a high ZT requires a high power factor (S2σ). Cross-plane electrical transport measurements were carried out on cylindrical pillars etched in LSMO/LMO superlattices via inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching. Cross-plane electrical resistivity data for LSMO/LMO superlattices showed a magnetic phase transition temperature (TP) or metal-semiconductor transition at ˜330 K, which is ˜80 K higher than the TP observed for in-plane resistivity of LSMO, LMO, or LSMO/LMO thin films. The room temperature cross-plane resistivity (ρc) was found to be greater than the in-plane resistivity by about three orders of magnitude. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the cross-plane conductivity of LSMO/LMO superlattices suggests the presence of a barrier with the effective barrier height of ˜300 meV. Although the magnitude of the cross-plane power factor is too low for thermoelectric

  6. Investigation of hole transport layer in relation to the properties of organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Dei-Wei; Huang, Chien-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Meen, Teen-Hang; Chen, Wen-Ray; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2012-04-01

    Organic solar cells based on a blend of copper phthalocyanine and bulk fullerene are fabricated with a double hole transport layer system. The double hole transport layer was composed of poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate, and copper phthalocyanine and inserted between the anode and active layer. The double hole transport layer system utilizes advantages of both layer. The poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate layer modifies the surface morphology of the ITO anode and the copper phthalocyanine layer enhances hole transport. In order to enhance the conductivity of the modification layer, the optimal amount of glycerol is doped into poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate. Furthermore, the photovoltaic characteristics are further improved. Insertion of the double hole transport layer with a 4 nm-thick copper phthalocyanine layer resulted in open circuit voltage, short current, and power conversion efficiency as high as 0.46 V, 8.8 mA/cm2 and 1.37%, respectively.

  7. Seasonal Ozone Variations in the Isentropic Layer between 330 and 380 K as Observed by SAGE 2: Implications of Extratropical Cross-Tropopause Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Cunnold, Derek M.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Olson, Jennifer R.; Kent, Geoffrey S.; Skeens, Kristi, M.

    1998-01-01

    To provide observational evidence on the extratropical cross-tropopause transport between the stratosphere and the troposphere via quasi-isentropic processes in the middleworld (the part of the atmosphere in which the isentropic surfaces intersect the tropopause), this report presents an analysis of the seasonal variations of the ozone latitudinal distribution in the isentropic layer between 330 K and 380 K based on the measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II. The results from SAGE II data analysis are consistent with (1) the buildup of ozone-rich air in the extratropical middleworld through the large-scale descending mass circulation during winter, (2) the spread of ozone-rich air in the isentropic layer from midlatitudes to subtropics via quasi-isentropic transport during spring, (3) significant photochemical ozone removal and the absence of an ozone-rich supply of air to the layer during summer, and (4) air mass exchange between the subtropics and the extratropics during the summer monsoon period. Thus the SAGE II observed ozone seasonal variations in the middleworld are consistent with the existing model calculated annual cycle of the diabatic circulation as well as the conceptual role of the eddy quasi-adiabatic transport in the stratosphere-troposphere exchange reported in the literature.

  8. Einstein-Kubo-Helfand and McQuarrie relations for transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpenbeck, Jerome J.

    1995-05-01

    The formal equivalence of the Green-Kubo and Einstein-Kubo-Helfand (EKH) expressions for transport coefficients is well known. For finite systems subject to periodic boundary conditions, the EKH relations are ambiguous as to whether the toroidal or infinite-checkerboard descriptions should be used for the coordinates. We first describe qualitatively the application of both descriptions to the calculation of the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients. We then show that the calculation of the self-diffusion coefficient using the infinite-checkerboard EKH relation is equivalent to the Green-Kubo calculation, while the toroidal calculation is not. For shear viscosity, we find that neither the toroidal nor infinite-checkerboard calculation from the EKH relation is equivalent to the Green-Kubo calculation, even though the formal theory presumably suggests that each is correct when the long-time limit is taken after the limit of large-system size. An alternative relation for the shear viscosity of finite periodic systems is derived from the Green-Kubo formula, consisting of the infinite-checkerboard expression plus correction terms having a fundamentally more complicated dependence on the coordinates and momenta. A simple qualitative analysis of the system-size dependence of the difference between the time-dependent Green-Kubo and the infinite-checkerboard EKH shear viscosities [η(tN) and η(C)E(tN), respectively] shows this difference to be of O(N1/3) (N being the number of particles) at early times. Monte Carlo molecular dynamics calculations of η(C)E(tN) for an equimolar binary mixture of hard spheres (diameter ratio of 0.4 and mass ratio of 0.03) confirm these large differences at a few mean free times, but suggest a long-time plateau value having the magnitude of the Green-Kubo result, but the values at 70 mean free times do not approach η(tN) with increasing N. Finally, we consider the one-particle, EKH-like, McQuarrie expression for shear viscosity

  9. Transportation noise and annoyance related to road traffic in the French RECORD study.

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Chaix, Basile

    2013-10-02

    Road traffic and related noise is a major source of annoyance and impairment to health in urban areas. Many areas exposed to road traffic noise are also exposed to rail and air traffic noise. The resulting annoyance may depend on individual/neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Nevertheless, few studies have taken into account the confounding or modifying factors in the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance due to road traffic. In this study, we address these issues by combining Geographic Information Systems and epidemiologic methods. Street network buffers with a radius of 500 m were defined around the place of residence of the 7290 participants of the RECORD Cohort in Ile-de-France. Estimated outdoor traffic noise levels (road, rail, and air separately) were assessed at each place of residence and in each of these buffers. Higher levels of exposure to noise were documented in low educated neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models documented positive associations between road traffic noise and annoyance due to road traffic, after adjusting for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. There was no evidence that the association was of different magnitude when noise was measured at the place of residence or in the residential neighborhood. However, the strength of the association between neighborhood noise exposure and annoyance increased when considering a higher percentile in the distribution of noise in each neighborhood. Road traffic noise estimated at the place of residence and road traffic noise in the residential neighborhood (75th percentile) were independently associated with annoyance, when adjusted for each other. Interactions of effects indicated that the relationship between road traffic noise exposure in the residential neighborhood and annoyance was stronger in affluent and high educated neighborhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that it is useful to take into account (i) the exposure to transportation noise

  10. Anisotropic fibrous thermal insulator of relatively thick cross section and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Reynolds, Carl D.; Ardary, Zane L.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an anisotropic thermal insulator formed of carbon-bonded organic or inorganic fibers and having a thickness or cross section greater than about 3 centimeters. Delaminations and deleterious internal stresses generated during binder curing and carbonizing operations employed in the fabrication of thick fibrous insulation of thicknesses greater than 3 centimeters are essentially obviated by the method of the present invention. A slurry of fibers, thermosetting resin binder and water is vacuum molded into the selected insulator configuration with the total thickness of the molded slurry being less than about 3 centimeters, the binder is thermoset to join the fibers together at their nexaes, and then the binder is carbonized to form the carbon bond. A second slurry of the fibers, binder and water is then applied over the carbonized body with the vacuum molding, binder thermosetting and carbonizing steps being repeated to form a layered insulator with the binder providing a carbon bond between the layers. The molding, thermosetting and carbonizing steps may be repeated with additional slurries until the thermal insulator is of the desired final thickness. An additional feature of the present invention is provided by incorporating opacifying materials in any of the desired layers so as to provide different insulating properties at various temperatures. Concentration and/or type of additive can be varied from layer-to-layer.

  11. Relating surface pressure to Lagrangian wake topology around a circular cylinder in cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwood, Matthew; Green, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    The tracks of Lagrangian saddles, identified as non-parallel intersections of positive and negative-time finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) ridges, have been shown to indicate the timing of von Karman vortex shedding in the wake of bluff bodies. The saddles are difficult to track in real-time, however, since future flow field data is needed for the computation of the FTLE fields. In order to detect the topological changes without direct access to the FTLE, the saddle dynamics are correlated to measurable surface quantities on a circular cylinder in cross flow. The Lagrangian saddle found upstream of a forming and subsequently shedding vortex has been shown to accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex sheds. In previous numerical results at Re = 150 , this acceleration coincides with the peak in lift force over the cylinder, and also with a minimum in the static pressure at a location slightly upstream of the mean separation location. In the current work, this result is compared with experimental data at Re = O (10 , 000) . Successful validation would provide a strategy for locating sensitive regions on the cylinder surface where vortex shedding could be detected using simple pressure transducers. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-14-1-0210.

  12. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  13. Frequency spectrum of transepithelial potential difference reveals transport-related oscillations.

    PubMed

    Montalbetti, Nicolás; Fischbarg, Jorge

    2009-09-16

    How epithelia transport fluid is a fundamental issue that is unresolved. Explanations offered include molecular engines, local transcellular osmosis, local paracellular osmosis, and paracellular fluid transport. On the basis of experimental and theoretical work done on corneal endothelium, a fluid transporting epithelium, we suggest electroosmotic coupling at the level of the intercellular junctions driven by the transendothelial electrical potential difference as an explanation of paracellular fluid transport. We collect frequency spectra of that potential difference in real-time. For what we believe is the first time for any epithelium, we report that, unexpectedly, the potential difference displays oscillations at many characteristic frequencies. We also show that on both stimulating cell activity and inhibiting ion transport mechanisms, there are corresponding changes in the oscillations amplitudes that mirror changes known previously in rates of fluid transport. We believe these findings provide a novel tool to study the kinetics of electrogenic elements such as channels and transporters, which from this evidence would give rise to current oscillations with characteristic periods going from 150 ms to 8 s.

  14. Microsatellite markers for the tetraploid halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort. (Chenopodiaceae) and cross-species amplification in related taxa.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Kathleen; Hensen, Isabell; Schie, Stephan; Debener, Thomas; Weising, Kurt

    2009-07-01

    We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the tetraploid halophyte Suaeda maritima (Chenopodiaceae). Population genetic parameters were estimated for three populations from different habitats (coastal and inland), using the program Tetrasat. Between two and 15 alleles per locus were observed. Mean expected heterozygosities (H(E) ) and Shannon-Wiener Diversity Indices (H') per locus and population ranged from zero to 0.852, and from zero to 2.990, respectively. The two inland populations were less diverse than the coastal one at most of the loci. All markers cross-amplified in the closely related Suaeda salsa, and all but one were transferable to Suaeda spicata and Suaeda salinaria.

  15. The performance of density functional approximations for the structures and relative energies of minimum energy crossing points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, Bayileyegn A.; Peralta, Juan E.

    2013-12-01

    The structural parameters and relative energies of the minimum-energy crossing points (MECPs) of eight small molecules are calculated using five different representative density functional theory approximations as well as MP2, MP4, and CCSD(T) as a reference. Compared to high-level wavefunction methods, the main structural features of the MECPs of the systems included in this Letter are reproduced reasonably well by density functional approximations, in agreement with previous works. Our results show that when high-level wavefunction methods are computationally prohibitive, density functional approximations offer a good alternative for locating and characterizing the MECP in spin-forbidden chemical reactions.

  16. PIGE related differential cross-section measurements of the 25Mg(p,p‧γ)25Mg reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Lagoyannis, A.; Axiotis, M.; Becker, H. W.; Foteinou, V.; Harissopulos, S.; Kokkoris, M.; Provatas, G.

    2016-11-01

    The differential cross sections of the 25Mg(p,p‧γ)25Mg reaction, critical for the quantitative determination of magnesium in complex matrices using the PIGE technique, were measured at two (2) angles, 55° and 90°, and at proton energies from 2420 to 4550 keV, by detecting the 390, 585 and 975 keV γ-rays emitted. The experimental setup consisted of two 100% relative efficiency HPGe detectors. The results are compared to those already present in literature and an attempt is made to explain the existing discrepancies. The obtained results from the present work are validated via thick-target measurements.

  17. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Substance Use-Related Media Exposure and Alcohol Use During Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. Methods The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Results Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p=.02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p=.07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents’ exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. PMID:23770074

  18. Nearshore transport processes affecting the dilution and fate of energy-related contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, J.O.

    1990-02-28

    The DOE regional coastal oceanographic program in the southeast will be reorganized, and the final year of research supported under this grant will be devoted to synthesizing the results of the most recent experiment on cross-shelf exchange: FLEX. The synthesis of data from this experiment is being complemented by modeling experiments partially supported under this grant and conducted by Francisco Werner (SkIO). The central focus of research supported under this grant is exchange'' processes on the continental shelf with emphasis on the inner 20 km of the shelf. The circulation associated with the coastal frontal zone plays a fundamental role in exchanging water and momentum between the inner shelf ({approximately} 0--20 km) and the middle shelf. The modelling efforts have illuminated the function of wind stress and the pile-up of sealevel along the Florida-Georgia coast in the exchange process. A simple box model has been applied to the inner shelf with encouraging results. All these efforts constitute the principal topics of research over the past year. The synthesis of field and model data has revealed that the currents generated by the very strong winds during FLEX were not as strong as during the earlier period when winds were weaker. We are proposing two possibilities to explain this finding: (1) bottom friction was enhanced by the high gravity waves thus slowing the currents; and (2) the pile-up of sealevel along the Florida coast exerted a northward pressure gradient that essentially opposed the southward wind stress to a small degree. The relative importance of each possibility is the subject of the next year's research.

  19. Factors Related to Prevalence of Hallux Valgus in Female University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroto; Juman, Sachiko; Ueda, Ai; Miki, Tomohiro; Shima, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence of hallux valgus (HV) and examined its association with various factors in a cross-sectional study of Japanese female university students. Methods A questionnaire survey of foot symptoms, lifestyle, and body mass index (BMI) was administered to 343 women who provided informed consent at a women’s university. Footprints were obtained and bone density was measured. Associations of HV with various factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Big toe pain was reported in 26.5% of the women. HV (HV angle, ≥15°) was present in the left foot in 22.4%, the right foot in 20.7%, and unilaterally or bilaterally in 29.7% of women. Mild HV (HV angle, ≥15° to <20°) was noted in the left foot and right foot in 13.4% and 13.1% of women, respectively; no severe HV (HV angle, ≥40°) was observed. HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 3.56, 95% CI: 2.01–6.32), history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.19–5.02), and history of HV in other family members (adjusted OR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.35–7.06). Moderate HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 2.17–9.66) and history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.40–8.07). The proportion of women with big toe pain increased significantly with HV severity. Conclusions HV was present in about 30% of female university students. Young women with big toe pain or a family history of HV should be evaluated for HV. PMID:24705646

  20. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  1. Crossing Social Contexts: Relational Aggression between Siblings and Friends during Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffacher, Kirstin; DeHart, Ganie B.

    2006-01-01

    Children often learn and apply behaviors in sibling interactions before they routinely use such behaviors in peer interactions. As part of a longitudinal study of relational aggression, 46 children were videotaped at home in semi-structured free play situations with siblings and with friends at age 4 and again at age 8. Observations revealed that…

  2. Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on Interregional Relation of Serotonin Transporter Availability in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    James, Gregory M.; Baldinger-Melich, Pia; Philippe, Cecile; Kranz, Georg S.; Vanicek, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Gryglewski, Gregor; Hienert, Marius; Spies, Marie; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate serotonergic neurotransmission by blocking reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. Up to now, it remains unclear how SSRIs achieve their antidepressant effect. However, task-based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have demonstrated connectivity changes between brain regions. Here, we use positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify SSRI’s main target, the serotonin transporter (SERT), and assess treatment-induced molecular changes in the interregional relation of SERT binding potential (BPND). Nineteen out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 19 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. Patients underwent three PET measurements with the radioligand [11C]DASB: (1) at baseline, (2) after a first SSRI dose; and (3) following at least 3 weeks of daily intake. Controls were measured once with PET. Correlation analyses were restricted to brain regions repeatedly implicated in MDD pathophysiology. After 3 weeks of daily SSRI administration a significant increase in SERT BPND correlations of anterior cingulate cortex and insula with the amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, pallidum and putamen (p < 0.05; false discovery rate, FDR corrected) was revealed. No significant differences were found when comparing MDD patients and HC at baseline. These findings are in line with the clinical observation that treatment response to SSRIs is often achieved only after a latency of several weeks. The elevated associations in interregional SERT associations may be more closely connected to clinical outcomes than regional SERT occupancy measures and could reflect a change in the regional interaction of serotonergic neurotransmission during antidepressant treatment. PMID:28220069

  3. Absence of age-related dopamine transporter loss in current cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.

    1997-05-01

    The brain dopamine (DA) system appears to play a crucial role in the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Using PET we had previously shown significant decreases in DA D2 receptors but no changes in DA transporters (DAT) in detoxified cocaine abusers (>1 month after last cocaine use). This study evaluates DAT availability in current cocaine abusers (15 male and 5 female; age = 36.2{+-}5.3 years old) using PET and [C-11]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, and compares it to that in 18 male and 2 female age matched normal controls. Cocaine abusers had a history of abusing 4.2{+-}2.8 gm /week of cocaine for an average of 11.0{+-}4.9 years and their last use of cocaine was 5.4{+-}8 days prior to PET study. DAT availability was obtained using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, pulamen) to that in cerebellum which is a function of Bmax./Kd.+1. DAT availability in cocaine abusers did not differ to that in normals (N) (C= 1.78{+-}0.14, N= 1.77{+-}0.13). In addition, there were no differences between the groups in the distribution volume or the Kl (plasma to brain transfer constant) measures for [C-11]cocaine. However, in the normals but not in the abusers striatal DAT availability decreased with age (C: r = -0.07, p = 0.76; N: r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Though this study fails to show group differences in DAT availability between normals and current cocaine abusers it indicates a blunting of the age-related decline in DAT availability in the cocaine abusers. Future studies in older cocaine abusers at different time after detoxification arc required in order to assess if cocaine slows the loss of DAT with age or whether these changes reflect compensation to increased DAT blockade and recover with detoxification.

  4. Multigroup discrete ordinates solution of Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equations and cross section library development of ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Prinja, A.K.

    1995-08-01

    We have developed and successfully implemented a two-dimensional bilinear discontinuous in space and time, used in conjunction with the S{sub N} angular approximation, to numerically solve the time dependent, one-dimensional, one-speed, slab geometry, (ion) transport equation. Numerical results and comparison with analytical solutions have shown that the bilinear-discontinuous (BLD) scheme is third-order accurate in the space ad time dimensions independently. Comparison of the BLD results with diamond-difference methods indicate that the BLD method is both quantitavely and qualitatively superior to the DD scheme. We note that the form of the transport operator is such that these conclusions carry over to energy dependent problems that include the constant-slowing-down-approximation term, and to multiple space dimensions or combinations thereof. An optimized marching or inversion scheme or a parallel algorithm should be investigated to determine if the increased accuracy can compensate for the extra overhead required for a BLD solution, and then could be compared to other discretization methods such as nodal or characteristic schemes.

  5. Modeling the Relationship between Transportation-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Hybrid-Online Courses at a Large Urban University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Matthew; Cordero, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between hybrid classes (where a per cent of the class meetings are online) and transportation-related CO[subscript 2] emissions at a commuter campus similar to San José State University (SJSU). Design/methodology/approach: A computer model was developed to calculate the number of trips to…

  6. Relational Security Moderates the Effect of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Stress Generation and Depression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that carriers of the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show both greater susceptibility to depression in response to stressful life events and higher rates of generation of stressful events in response to depression. The current study examines relational security (i.e., self-reported beliefs…

  7. Prescriptions for measuring and transporting local angular momenta in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, Éanna É.; Nichols, David A.; Stein, Leo C.; Vines, Justin

    2016-05-01

    For observers in curved spacetimes, elements of the dual space of the set of linearized Poincaré transformations from an observer's tangent space to itself can be naturally interpreted as local linear and angular momenta. We present an operational procedure by which observers can measure such quantities using only information about the spacetime curvature at their location. When applied by observers near spacelike or null infinity in stationary, vacuum, asymptotically flat spacetimes, there is a sense in which the procedure yields the well-defined linear and angular momenta of the spacetime. We also describe a general method by which observers can transport local linear and angular momenta from one point to another, which improves previous prescriptions. This transport is not path independent in general, but becomes path independent for the measured momenta in the same limiting regime. The transport prescription is defined in terms of differential equations, but it can also be interpreted as parallel transport in a particular direct-sum vector bundle. Using the curvature of the connection on this bundle, we compute and discuss the holonomy of the transport law. We anticipate that these measurement and transport definitions may ultimately prove useful for clarifying the physical interpretation of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs charges of asymptotically flat spacetimes.

  8. Spanish translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD)

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Tandazo, Wilson; Flores-Fortty, Adolfo; Feraud, Lourdes; Tettamanti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate the Questionnaire for Diabetes-Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD), originally created and validated in Australia, for its use in Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were based on international guidelines. The Spanish version of the survey was applied to a community-based (sample A) and a hospital clinic-based sample (samples B and C). Samples A and B were used to determine criterion and construct validity comparing the survey findings with clinical evaluation and medical records, respectively; while sample C was used to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability. Results After completing the rigorous translation process, only four items were considered problematic and required a new translation. In total, 127 patients were included in the validation study: 76 to determine criterion and construct validity and 41 to establish intra- and inter-rater reliability. For an overall diagnosis of diabetes-related foot disease, a substantial level of agreement was obtained when we compared the Q-DFD with the clinical assessment (kappa 0.77, sensitivity 80.4%, specificity 91.5%, positive likelihood ratio [LR+] 9.46, negative likelihood ratio [LR−] 0.21); while an almost perfect level of agreement was obtained when it was compared with medical records (kappa 0.88, sensitivity 87%, specificity 97%, LR+ 29.0, LR− 0.13). Survey reliability showed substantial levels of agreement, with kappa scores of 0.63 and 0.73 for intra- and inter-rater reliability, respectively. Conclusion The translated and cross-culturally adapted Q-DFD showed good psychometric properties (validity, reproducibility, and reliability) that allow its use in Spanish-speaking diabetic populations. PMID:24039434

  9. Measurement of relative cross sections for simultaneous ionization and excitation of the helium 4 2s and 4 2p states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relative cross sections for simultaneous ionization and excitation of helium by 200-eV electrons into the 4 2s and 4 2p states were measured via a fast delayed coincidence technique. Results show good agreement with the relative cross sections for single electron excitation of helium and hydrogen. An application of the results of the measurement to the development of ultraviolet intensity standard is suggested. This technique involves the use of known branching ratios, a visible light flux reference, and the measured relative cross sections.

  10. Relative Photoionization Cross Sections of Super-Atom Molecular Orbitals (SAMOs) in C60.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Elvira; Sokół, Katarzyna P; Mignolet, Benoit; Thompson, James O F; Johansson, J Olof; Remacle, Francoise; Campbell, Eleanor E B

    2015-11-25

    The electronic structure and photoinduced dynamics of fullerenes, especially C60, is of great interest because these molecules are model systems for more complex molecules and nanomaterials. In this work we have used Rydberg Fingerprint Spectroscopy to determine the relative ionization intensities from excited SAMO (Rydberg-like) states in C60 as a function of laser wavelength. The relative ionization intensities are then compared to the ratio of the photoionization widths of the Rydberg-like states, computed in time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The agreement is remarkably good when the same photon order is required to energetically access the excited states. This illustrates the predictive potential of quantum chemistry for studying photoionization of large, complex molecules as well as confirming the assumption that is often made concerning the multiphoton excitation and rapid energy redistribution in the fullerenes.

  11. Cross-subsidization in the market for employment-related health insurance.

    PubMed

    Monheit, A C; Selden, T M

    2000-12-01

    This paper uses data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey to examine the nature of equilibrium in the market for employment-related health insurance. We examine coverage generosity, premiums, and insurance benefits net of expenditures on premiums, showing that despite a degree of market segmentation, there was a substantial amount of pooling of heterogeneous risks in 1987 among households with employment-related coverage. Our results are largely invariant to (i) firm size and (ii) whether or not employers offer a choice among plans. Our results suggest the need for caution concerning incremental reforms that would weaken the link between employment and insurance without substituting alternative institutions for the pooling of risks.

  12. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  13. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes.

  14. Slope/Shelf Circulation and Cross-Slope/Shelf Transport Out of a Bay Driven by Eddies from the Open Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    habitat for marine species like Antarctic krill and top predators. Variations of the sea-ice cover are closely related to climate change . The WAP... circulation and the cross- slope/shelf exchange is discussed. Comparison between case SB and case FB The inclusion of the bottom slope doesn’t change one... climate change per- spectives. Deep-Sea Research II, 55, 2041-2058. Stammerjohn, S., and Smith, R.C., 1996, Spatial and temporal variability in west

  15. Health care decision making: cross-cultural analysis of the shift from the autonomous to the relational staff.

    PubMed

    Joseph Tham, S; Letendre, Marie Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses three factors that have contributed to shifts in decision making in health care. First, the notion of patient autonomy, which has changed due to the rise of patient-centred approaches in contemporary health care and the re-conceptualization of the physician-patient relationship. Second, the understanding of patient autonomy has broadened to better engage patient participation. Third, the need to develop cross-cultural health care ethics. Our paper shows that the shift in the West from the individual to the relational self indicates an important change in the understanding of autonomy through the lens of culture. Practices that recognize the notion of the relational self allow for a more balanced view of autonomy and a richer conception of moral agency.

  16. Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions of a Ruthenium Imidazole Complex: Hydrogen Tunneling and the Applicability of the Marcus Cross Relation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Adam; Mayer, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of RuII(acac)2(py-imH) (RuIIimH) with TEMPO• (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl radical) in MeCN quantitatively gives RuIII(acac)2(py-im) (RuIIIim) and the hydroxylamine TEMPO-H by transfer of H• (H+ + e−) (acac = 2,4-pentanedionato, py-imH = 2-(2′-pyridyl)imidazole). Kinetic measurements of this reaction by UV-vis stopped-flow techniques indicate a bimolecular rate constant k3H = 1400 ± 100 M−1 s−1 at 298 K. The reaction proceeds via a concerted hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, as shown by ruling out the stepwise pathways of initial proton or electron transfer due to their very unfavorable thermochemistry (ΔG°). Deuterium transfer from RuII(acac)2(py-imD) (RuIIimD) to TEMPO• is surprisingly much slower at k3D = 60 ± 7 M−1 s−1, with k3H/k3D = 23 ± 3 at 298 K. Temperature dependent measurements of this deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) show a large difference between the apparent activation energies, Ea3D − Ea3H = 1.9 ± 0.8 kcal mol−1. The large k3H/k3D and ΔEa values appear to be greater than the semi-classical limits and thus suggest a tunneling mechanism. The self-exchange HAT reaction between RuIIimH and RuIIIim, measured by 1H NMR line broadening, occurs with k4H = (3.2 ± 0.3) × 105 M−1 s−1 at 298 K and k4H/k4D = 1.5 ± 0.2. Despite the small KIE, tunneling is suggested by the ratio of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, log(A4H/A4D) = −0.5 ± 0.3. These data provide a test of the applicability of the Marcus cross relation for H and D transfers, over a range of temperatures, for a reaction that involves substantial tunneling. The cross relation calculates rate constants for RuIIimH(D) + TEMPO• that are greater than those observed: k3H,calc/k3H = 31 ± 4 and k3D,calc/k3D = 140 ± 20 at 298 K. In these rate constants and in the activation parameters, there is a better agreement with the Marcus cross relation for H than for D transfer, despite the greater prevalence of tunneling for H. The cross

  17. Enhancement of cross-field transport into the private region of detached-divertor in Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Ohno, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Kajita, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Morisaki, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Komori, A.; LHD Experimental Group

    2010-10-01

    The fluctuation of ion saturation currents in the attached- and detached-divertor plasmas of the Large Helical Device [Fujiwara et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1355 (2001)] has been measured using a Langmuir probe array embedded in a divertor plate. Analytical results indicate that these fluctuation properties differ considerably from each other; for instance, the mean value distribution expands to and positive spikes propagate toward a private region from the divertor leg in the detached-divertor. We investigated the magnetic field lines traced from probe electrodes by using the KMAG code [Nakamura et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. 69, 41 (1993)], and it is then confirmed that the propagation direction of positive spikes corresponds to that predicted by the theory of blobby plasma transport. This phenomenon is expected to lead to the broadening of plasma particle and heat fluxes to the divertor plate.

  18. Enhancement of cross-field transport into the private region of detached-divertor in Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Ohno, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Kajita, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Morisaki, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Komori, A.

    2010-10-15

    The fluctuation of ion saturation currents in the attached- and detached-divertor plasmas of the Large Helical Device [Fujiwara et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1355 (2001)] has been measured using a Langmuir probe array embedded in a divertor plate. Analytical results indicate that these fluctuation properties differ considerably from each other; for instance, the mean value distribution expands to and positive spikes propagate toward a private region from the divertor leg in the detached-divertor. We investigated the magnetic field lines traced from probe electrodes by using the KMAG code [Nakamura et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. 69, 41 (1993)], and it is then confirmed that the propagation direction of positive spikes corresponds to that predicted by the theory of blobby plasma transport. This phenomenon is expected to lead to the broadening of plasma particle and heat fluxes to the divertor plate.

  19. Cross equator transport of 137Cs from North Pacific Ocean to South Pacific Ocean ( BEAGLE2003 cruises)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, M.; Fukasawa, M.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, Y.; Kawano, T.; Povinec, P. P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and some transuranics are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. 137Cs, with a half-life of 30 years, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation at a time scale of several decades. At WOCE P6 line along 30°S during the BEAGLE cruise in 2003, surface seawater (around 80 L) was collected a few meters below the ocean surface by a pumping system. Water column samples (from 5 to 20 L) were collected using a Rosette multisampling system and Niskin bottles. 137Cs was separated from seawater samples using ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and analysed for 137Cs in low-level HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. Results allowed to draw a detailed picture of the distribution of 137Cs in the South Pacific Ocean along P6 line. A 137Cs depth section was depicted from about 160 samples. 137Cs concentrations in the subsurface layers ranged from 0.07 ± 0.04 Bq m -3 to 1.85 ± 0.145 Bq m -3, high in the Tasman Sea and very low in the eastern region where upwelling occurs. Water column inventories of 137Cs from surface to 1000 dbar depth ranged from 270 ± 104 to 1048 ± 127 Bq m -2. It was concluded that the source of higher 137Cs concentration and inventories in the Tasman Sea was 137Cs deposited in the mid latitude of the North Pacific Ocean and transported across the equator during four decades.

  20. Variability in supply and cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae into western Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Wang, John D.; Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, Michael B.; Jackson, Thomas L.; Hittle, Clinton D.

    2006-01-01

    The variability in the supply of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae and the transport mechanisms of planktonic stages were investigated with field data and simulations of transport. Postlarvae entering the nursery grounds of Florida Bay were collected for three consecutive years at channels that connect the Bay with the Gulf of Mexico, and in channels of the Middle Florida Keys that connect the southeastern margin of the Bay with the Atlantic Ocean. The influx of postlarvae in the Middle Florida Keys was low in magnitude and varied seasonally and among years. In contrast, the greater postlarval influx occurred at the northwestern border of the Bay, where there was a strong seasonal pattern with peaks in influx from July through September each year. Planktonic stages need to travel up to 150 km eastward between spawning grounds (northeast of Dry Tortugas) and nursery grounds (western Florida Bay) in about 30 days, the estimated time of planktonic development for this species. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed to estimate the drift of planktonic stages across the SW Florida shelf. The model simulated the maximal distance traveled by planktonic stages under various assumptions of behavior.  Simulation results indicated that larvae traveling with the instantaneous current and exhibiting a diel behavior travel up to 65 km and 75% of the larvae travel only 30 km. However, the eastward distance traveled increased substantially when a larval response to tides was added to the behavioral variable (distance increased to 200 km and 85% of larvae traveled 150 km). The question is, when during larval development, and where on the shallow SW Florida shelf, does the tidal response become incorporated into the behavior of pink shrimp.

  1. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour.

  2. Sputum glucose and glycemic control in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Van Sambeek, Lindsey; Cowley, Elise S; Newman, Dianne K; Kato, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes affects up to half of cystic fibrosis patients and is associated with increased mortality and more frequent pulmonary exacerbations. However, it is unclear to what degree good glycemic control might mitigate these risks and clinical outcomes have not previously been studied in relation to glucose from the lower airways, the site of infection and CF disease progression. We initially hypothesized that diabetic cystic fibrosis patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) > 6.5% have worse pulmonary function, longer and more frequent exacerbations and also higher sputum glucose levels than patients with HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5% or cystic fibrosis patients without diabetes. To test this, we analyzed spontaneously expectorated sputum samples from 88 cystic fibrosis patients. The median sputum glucose concentration was 0.70 mM (mean, 4.75 mM; range, 0-64.6 mM). Sputum glucose was not correlated with age, sex, body mass index, diabetes diagnosis, glycemic control, exacerbation frequency or length, or pulmonary function. Surprisingly, sputum glucose was highest in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, suggesting the dynamics of glycemic control, sputum glucose and pulmonary infections are more complex than previously thought. Two-year mean HbA(1c) was positively correlated with the length of exacerbation admission (p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with measures of pulmonary function (p < 0.01). While total number of hospitalizations for exacerbations were not significantly different, subjects with an HbA(1c) > 6.5% were hospitalized on average 6 days longer than those with HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5% (p < 0.01). Current clinical care guidelines for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes target HbA(1c) ≤ 7% to limit long-term microvascular damage, but more stringent glycemic control (HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5%) may further reduce the short-term pulmonary complications.

  3. Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynthesis-nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species.

    PubMed

    Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Wright, Ian J

    2009-05-01

    The ecophysiological linkage of leaf phosphorus (P) to photosynthetic capacity (A (max)) and to the A (max)-nitrogen relation remains poorly understood. To address this issue we compiled published and unpublished field data for mass-based A (max), nitrogen (N) and P (n = 517 observations) from 314 species at 42 sites in 14 countries. Data were from four biomes: arctic, cold temperate, subtropical (including Mediterranean), and tropical. We asked whether plants with low P levels have low A (max), a shallower slope of the A (max)-N relationship, and whether these patterns have a geographic signature. On average, leaf P was substantially lower in the two warmer than in the two colder biomes, with the reverse true for N:P ratios. The evidence indicates that the response of A (max) to leaf N is constrained by low leaf P. Using a full factorial model for all data, A (max) was related to leaf N, but not to leaf P on its own, with a significant leaf N x leaf P interaction indicating that the response of A (max) to N increased with increasing leaf P. This was also found in analyses using one value per species per site, or by comparing only angiosperms or only woody plants. Additionally, the slope of the A (max)-N relationship was higher in the colder arctic and temperate than warmer tropical and subtropical biomes. Sorting data into low, medium, and high leaf P groupings also showed that the A (max)-N slope increases with leaf P. These analyses support claims that in P-limited ecosystems the A (max)-N relationship may be constrained by low P, and are consistent with laboratory studies that show P-deficient plants have limited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, a likely mechanism for the P influence upon the A (max)-N relation.

  4. Energy metabolism of rabbit retina as related to function: high cost of Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Ames, A; Li, Y Y; Heher, E C; Kimble, C R

    1992-03-01

    . Changes in temperature caused changes in the amplitude of light-evoked electrical responses of 6.5% per degree and caused changes in both O2 consumption and glycolysis of 6.8% per degree (Q10 = 1.9). A surprisingly large fraction of oxidative energy, corresponding to about 40% of the total energy generated, could not be assigned to phototransduction, to neurotransmission, to Na+ transport for other purposes, or to vegetative metabolism. We cannot account for its usage, but it may be related to the (previously reported) rapid turnover of the gamma-phosphate of retinal GTP, the function of which also remains unknown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  5. Social distribution of diabetes, hypertension and related risk factors in Barbados: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Christina; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Hennis, Anselm; Samuels, T Alafia; George, Kenneth S; Unwin, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the distribution of diabetes, hypertension and related behavioural and biological risk factors in adults in Barbados by gender, education and occupation. Design Multistage probability sampling was used to select a representative sample of the adult population (≥25 years). Participants were interviewed using standard questionnaires, underwent anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and provided fasting blood for glucose and cholesterol measurements. Standard WHO definitions were used. Data were weighted for sampling and non-response, and were age and sex standardised to the 2010 Barbados population. Weighted prevalence estimates were calculated, and prevalence ratios were calculated for behavioural and biological risk factors by demographic and socioeconomic group. Results Study response rate was 55.0%, with 764 women, 470 men. Prevalence of obesity was 33.8% (95% CI 30.7% to 37.1%); hypertension 40.6% (95% CI 36.5% to 44.9%); and diabetes 18.7% (95% CI 16.2% to 21.4%). Compared with women, men were less likely to be obese (prevalence ratio 0.5; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.7), or physically inactive (0.5; 0.4 to 0.6), but more likely to smoke tobacco (4.1; 2.5 to 6.7) and consume large amounts of alcohol in a single episode (4.6; 2.7 to 7.6). Both diabetes (0.83; 0.65 to 1.05) and hypertension (0.89; 0.79 to 1.02) were lower in men, but not significantly so. In women, higher educational level was related to higher fruit and vegetable intake, more physical activity, less diabetes and less hypercholesterolaemia (p 0.01–0.04). In men, higher education was related only to less smoking (p 0.04). Differences by occupation were limited to smoking in men and hypercholesterolaemia in women. Conclusions In this developing country population, sex appears to be a much stronger determinant of behavioural risk factors, as well as obesity and its related risks, than education or occupation. These findings have implications for meeting the commitments made

  6. Effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N = 204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place.

  7. Child neglect and maternal cross-relational social cognitive and neurocognitive disturbances.

    PubMed

    Azar, Sandra T; McGuier, Devin J; Miller, Elizabeth A; Hernandez-Mekonnen, Robin; Johnson, David R

    2017-02-01

    A social information processing (SIP) theory of parenting risk posits that social-cognitive and neurocognitive incapacities characterize at-risk parents, and that these cognitive difficulties operate across relational domains. This study focused on highly disadvantaged mothers of preschoolers and compared mothers with histories of perpetrating child neglect (n = 69) to demographically similar mothers without such histories (n = 76). Participants completed measures of unrealistic expectations for children and other adults, social problem-solving in parenting and nonparenting situations, executive functioning (EF), and attributions for children and other adults. As predicted, associations among these measures were found within and across relational domains. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two distinct clusters that distinguished the two groups. The first included measures of expectations and attributions (for both children and other adults) and the second included problem-solving difficulties and EF. When group differences were examined on individual variables, mothers with histories of perpetrating neglect exhibited more unrealistic expectations of children and other adults, more hostile attributions toward children and other adults, and poorer performance on tests of EF than comparisons. Only interpersonal problem-solving (in both parenting and nonparenting situations) failed to differentiate the neglect group from comparisons. In regression analyses, both parenting and nonparenting social cognition and EF contributed significantly to child neglect. These findings provide some support for this cognitive model of parenting risk and suggest widespread disturbances in parenting and nonparenting social cognition and neurocognition, may play a role in child neglect. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. tRNA-Related Sequences Trigger Systemic mRNA Transport in Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenna; Kollwig, Gregor; Apelt, Federico; Walther, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In plants, protein-coding mRNAs can move via the phloem vasculature to distant tissues, where they may act as non-cell-autonomous signals. Emerging work has identified many phloem-mobile mRNAs, but little is known regarding RNA motifs triggering mobility, the extent of mRNA transport, and the potential of transported mRNAs to be translated into functional proteins after transport. To address these aspects, we produced reporter transcripts harboring tRNA-like structures (TLSs) that were found to be enriched in the phloem stream and in mRNAs moving over chimeric graft junctions. Phenotypic and enzymatic assays on grafted plants indicated that mRNAs harboring a distinctive TLS can move from transgenic roots into wild-type leaves and from transgenic leaves into wild-type flowers or roots; these mRNAs can also be translated into proteins after transport. In addition, we provide evidence that dicistronic mRNA:tRNA transcripts are frequently produced in Arabidopsis thaliana and are enriched in the population of graft-mobile mRNAs. Our results suggest that tRNA-derived sequences with predicted stem-bulge-stem-loop structures are sufficient to mediate mRNA transport and seem to be necessary for the mobility of a large number of endogenous transcripts that can move through graft junctions. PMID:27268430

  9. Packaging and transportation-related occurrence reports - January-March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.; Dickerson, L.S.; Jennings, S.D.

    1994-06-01

    The Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL) Packaging and Transportation Safety Program (PATS), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health Transportation and Packaging Safety Division, EH-332, has been charged with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to transportation or packaging incidents or accidents from the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS). These selected reports are being analyzed for trends, impact on EH-332 policies and concerns, and lessons learned concerning transportation and packaging safety. This task is designed not only to keep EH-332 aware of what is occurring on DOE sites and potential transportation and packaging problems that may need attention, but also it is intended to allow future dissemination of lessons learned to the Operations Offices and subsequently to management and operating contractors. This report, which covers the first quarter of 1994, includes the weekly tabular reports OR-91-1 through OR-94-13, which were submitted to EH-332 for its information and use. Thirteen reports containing 43 selected occurrences were transmitted during this quarter.

  10. MOZART, a global chemical transport model for ozone and related chemical tracers: 1. Model description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, G. P.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Walters, S.; Rasch, P. J.; Müller, J.-F.; Granier, C.; Tie, X. X.

    1998-11-01

    We present a new global three-dimensional chemical-transport model (called MOZART) developed in the framework of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) and aimed at studying the distribution and budget of tropospheric ozone and its precursors. The model, developed with a horizontal resolution of 2.8° in longitude and latitude, includes 25 levels in the vertical between the Earth's surface and an upper boundary located at approximately 35 km altitude. In its present configuration the model calculates the global distribution of 56 chemical constituents with a timestep of 20 min, and accounts for surface emission and deposition, large-scale advective transport, subscale convective and boundary layer exchanges, chemical and photochemical transformations, as well as wet scavenging. Transport is simulated "off line" from CCM with dynamical variables provided every 3 hours from preestablished history tapes. Advection is calculated using the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme [Rasch and Williamson, 1990] developed for the MATCH model of Rasch et al. [1997]. Convective and boundary layer transports are expressed according to Hack [1994] and Holtslag and Boville [1993], respectively. A detailed evaluation of the model results is provided in a companion paper [Hauglustaine et al., this issue]. An analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in the chemical fields predicted by the model suggests that regional events such as summertime ozone episodes in polluted areas can be simulated by MOZART.

  11. Anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits and serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in adolescents: case-control and trio studies.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Blaya, Carolina; Salum, Giovanni A; Cappi, Carolina; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G

    2014-08-01

    The role of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in anxiety disorder and anxiety-related traits is controversial. Besides this study, few studies have evaluated the triallelic genotype in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits are associated with 5-HTTLPR (biallelic and triallelic) in adolescents, integrating both case-control-based and family-based designs in a community sample. This is a cross-sectional community study of 504 individuals and their families: 225 adolescents (129 adolescents with anxiety disorder and 96 controls) and their biological families. We assessed psychiatric diagnosis using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The Temperament and Character Inventory and the Resnick Behavioral Inhibition Scale were used to evaluate harm avoidance and behavioral inhibition. DNA was extracted from saliva and genotyped, including biallelic and triallelic 5-HTTLPR classification, by PCR-RFLP followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We were not able to find any associations between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in both case-control and trio analyses. Further investigation and meta-analytic studies are needed to better clarify the inconsistent results with regard to the association between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in adolescents.

  12. Non-Markovian barotropic-type and Hall-type fluctuation relations in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Aquino, J. I.; Romero-Bastida, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we derive the non-Markovian barotropic-type and Hall-type fluctuation relations for noninteracting charged Brownian particles embedded in a memory heat bath and under the action of crossed electric and magnetic fields. We first obtain a more general non-Markovian fluctuation relation formulated within the context of a generalized Langevin equation with arbitrary friction memory kernel and under the action of a constant magnetic field and an arbitrary time-dependent electric field. It is shown that this fluctuation relation is related to the total amount of an effective work done on the charged particle as it is driven out of equilibrium by the applied time-dependent electric field. Both non-Markovian barotropic- and Hall-type fluctuation relations are then derived when the electric field is assumed to be also a constant vector pointing along just one axis. In the Markovian limit, we show explicitly that they reduce to the same results reported in the literature.

  13. Non-Markovian barotropic-type and Hall-type fluctuation relations in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aquino, J I; Romero-Bastida, M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we derive the non-Markovian barotropic-type and Hall-type fluctuation relations for noninteracting charged Brownian particles embedded in a memory heat bath and under the action of crossed electric and magnetic fields. We first obtain a more general non-Markovian fluctuation relation formulated within the context of a generalized Langevin equation with arbitrary friction memory kernel and under the action of a constant magnetic field and an arbitrary time-dependent electric field. It is shown that this fluctuation relation is related to the total amount of an effective work done on the charged particle as it is driven out of equilibrium by the applied time-dependent electric field. Both non-Markovian barotropic- and Hall-type fluctuation relations are then derived when the electric field is assumed to be also a constant vector pointing along just one axis. In the Markovian limit, we show explicitly that they reduce to the same results reported in the literature.

  14. Symptoms and Etiological Attribution: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Outpatients with Psychosis and Their Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hansen, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying the most common attributions of their mental disorder in a Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and their relatives and exploring how having experienced or not characteristic psychotic symptoms and their present clinical status might affect their etiological attributions. Past and current symptom profiles of 66 patients were as assessed with the SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) and the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), respectively. The etiological attribution of psychosis of patients (n = 62) and the relatives (n = 65) was assessed with the Angermeyer and Klusmann scale comprising 30 items into five categories: biology, personality, family, society, and esoteric. Patients and relatives attribute psychosis mainly to social factors. Relatives' attributions were not influenced by clinical profile of patients, whereas in the case of patients it was only current clinical status that showed a difference, with those in nonremission scoring higher personality and family factors. Acknowledging patients' and relatives' beliefs about mental disorders at onset and later on is particularly important in psychosis, a mental condition with severe and/or persistent symptoms, in order to promote better involvement in treatment and in consequence efficacy and recovery. PMID:27413550

  15. Individual and work related risk factors for neck pain among office workers: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cagnie, B; Danneels, L; Van Tiggelen, D; De Loose, V; Cambier, D

    2007-05-01

    Work related neck disorders are common problems in office workers, especially among those who are intensive computer users. It is generally agreed that the etiology of work related neck disorders is multidimensional which is associated with, and influenced by, a complex array of individual, physical and psychosocial factors. The aim of the current study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of neck pain among office workers and to determine which physical, psychological and individual factors are associated with these prevalences. Five hundred and twelve office workers were studied. Information was collected by an online questionnaire. Self-reported neck pain during the preceding 12 months was regarded as a dependent variable, whereas different individual, work-related physical and psychosocial factors were studied as independent variables. The 12 month prevalences of neck pain in office workers was 45.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that women had an almost two-fold risk compared with men (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.13). The odds ratio for age indicates that persons older than 30 years have 2.61 times more chance of having neck pain than younger individuals (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.32-3.47). Being physically active decreases the likelihood of having neck pain (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-2.99). Significant associations were found between neck pain and often holding the neck in a forward bent posture for a prolonged time (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.20-3.38), often sitting for a prolonged time (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.17-3.62) and often making the same movements per minute (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.02-2.60). Mental tiredness at the end of the workday (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.29-3.26) and shortage of personnel (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.06-2.76) are significantly associated with neck pain. The results of this study indicate that physical and psychosocial work factors, as well as individual variables, are associated with the frequency of neck pain. These association patterns suggest also

  16. Upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders among newspaper employees: cross-sectional survey results.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, M F; Cole, D C; Beaton, D E; Chung, J; Wells, R; Abdolell, M; Beech-Hawley, L; Ferrier, S E; Mondloch, M V; Shields, S A; Smith, J M; Shannon, H S

    1997-12-01

    At a metropolitan newspaper office in Canada with extensive video display terminal (VDT) use, researchers carried out a survey (n = 1,007, 84% response) to establish baseline prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and to identify demographic, postural, task, and psychosocial factors associated with WMSD symptoms. One-fifth of the respondents reported moderate or worse upper limb pain recurring at least monthly or lasting more than a week over the previous year. Logistic regression showed that employees who faced frequent deadlines and high psychological demands (fast work pace and conflicting demands), had low skill discretion and social support, spent more time keyboarding, or who had their screen in a non-optimal position were more likely to report moderate to severe symptoms. Women reported significantly higher levels of symptoms than men.

  17. Different Mutations in a P-type ATPase Transporter in Leishmania Parasites are Associated with Cross-resistance to Two Leading Drugs by Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Prada, Christopher; Vincent, Isabel M.; Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Roberts, Mathew; Roy, Gaétan; Rivas, Luis; Leprohon, Philippe; Smith, Terry K.; Ouellette, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is an etiological agent of the life-threatening visceral form of leishmaniasis. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) followed by a short administration of miltefosine (MF) is a drug combination effective for treating visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions of India. Resistance to MF can be due to point mutations in the miltefosine transporter (MT). Here we show that mutations in MT are also observed in Leishmania AmB-resistant mutants. The MF-induced MT mutations, but not the AmB induced mutations in MT, alter the translocation/uptake of MF. Moreover, mutations in the MT selected by AmB or MF have a major impact on lipid species that is linked to cross-resistance between both drugs. These alterations include changes of specific phospholipids, some of which are enriched with cyclopropanated fatty acids, as well as an increase in inositolphosphoceramide species. Collectively these results provide evidence of the risk of cross-resistance emergence derived from current AmB-MF sequential or co-treatments for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:27911896

  18. A cross-national comparison of a shorter version of the person's relating to others questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Birtchnell, John; Hammond, Sean; Horn, Eva; De Jong, Cornelis; Kalaitzaki, Argyroula

    2013-01-01

    The shorter version of the Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire (PROQ3) is half the length of the earlier PROQ2. Both questionnaires were designed to measure negative relating as organized around a theoretical structure called the interpersonal octagon. Each questionnaire has an upper, lower, close and distant scale and four intermediate scales (e.g., upper close). As would be expected, moderately high positive correlations were observed between primary scales (upper, lower, close and distant) and neighbouring intermediate scales. Correlations diminished with increasing separation around the octagon. The psychometric properties of the PROQ3 were examined within four national samples. Alpha coefficients were consistently acceptable across samples. Gender differences varied between samples. Comparisons were made between the PROQ3 and a measure of the big five (International Personality Item Pool) and between the PROQ3 and two measures based upon the interpersonal circle (Revised Interpersonal Check List [ICL-R] and Circumplex Version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-C]). It is important to note that, unlike with the PROQ3, significant negative correlations were observed between opposite scales of the ICL-R and opposite scales of the IIP-C. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for most PROQ3 scales, although some overlap between scales was demonstrated. Correlations between the PROQ3 scales and the big five scales were either non-significant (two scales) or negative. Each PROQ3 scale correlated positively and meaningfully with a short sequence of scales of both the ICL-R and the IIP-C. Psychotherapy patients had higher mean scores than non-patients on four scales but non-patients had higher mean scores on two. Over the course of psychotherapy, the patients' mean score dropped significantly on six scales but rose significantly on one.

  19. Perception of risk for Domoic Acid related health problems: A Cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Toben, Alexandra C; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB's can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community.

  20. Perception of risk for Domoic Acid related health problems: A Cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sparkle M.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Toben, Alexandra C.; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB’s can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community. PMID:27616974

  1. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina

    2013-04-01

    The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air toxic pollutants (ATPs), are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid, Spain. Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter (PM) translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality (CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents) impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution. First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid (used as a case study). The local air quality model (LAQM) is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) COPERT modeling system will provide GHGs and ATPs gridded and shaped emission data and mobile source parameters, available for Madrid from preliminary emission inventory records of the Municipality of Madrid and from disaggregated traffic counts of the Traffic Engineering Company and the Metropolitan Company of Metro (METRO-Madrid). The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, 24-hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid. The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors (e.g. fractional error, fractional bias and coefficient of determination). The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local

  2. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... crossings? 222.27 Section 222.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.27 How does this rule affect pedestrian grade... locomotive horn shall be sounded in accordance with § 222.21 of this part. Where State law requires...

  3. 49 CFR 222.27 - How does this rule affect pedestrian grade crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... crossings? 222.27 Section 222.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.27 How does this rule affect pedestrian grade... locomotive horn shall be sounded in accordance with § 222.21 of this part. Where State law requires...

  4. Forward Modeling of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in GEOS-5: Uncertainties Related to Surface Fluxes and Sub-Grid Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Ott, Lesley E.; Zhu, Zhengxin; Bowman, Kevin; Brix, Holger; Collatz, G. James; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Fisher, Joshua B.; Gregg, Watson W.; Hill, Chris; Menemenlis, DImiris; Potter, Christopher S.; Gunson, Michael R.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Forward GEOS-5 AGCM simulations of CO2, with transport constrained by analyzed meteorology for 2009-2010, are examined. The CO2 distributions are evaluated using AIRS upper tropospheric CO2 and ACOS-GOSAT total column CO2 observations. Different combinations of surface C02 fluxes are used to generate ensembles of runs that span some uncertainty in surface emissions and uptake. The fluxes are specified in GEOS-5 from different inventories (fossil and biofuel), different data-constrained estimates of land biological emissions, and different data-constrained ocean-biology estimates. One set of fluxes is based on the established "Transcom" database and others are constructed using contemporary satellite observations to constrain land and ocean process models. Likewise, different approximations to sub-grid transport are employed, to construct an ensemble of CO2 distributions related to transport variability. This work is part of NASA's "Carbon Monitoring System Flux Pilot Project,"

  5. Sediment transport dynamics and its relation to primary production in mountain headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, S.; Segura, C.; Warren, D.

    2015-12-01

    This study explores how the spatial and temporal variability of stream flow and sediment transport influence the growth and recovery rate of benthic primary producers in a rainfall dominated mountain stream over different seasons. Primary producers sustain higher trophic levels and thus understanding how sediment transport impacts their growth is important for efficient river management. The control of sediment transport processes on suitable habitat for these organisms depends on the frequency of high flows capable of mobilizing material and the spatial distribution of forces throughout the stream. However there other factors such as light, nutrient availability, and temperature that are also important. We hypothesize that the control physical processes exert on the growth dynamics of these organisms varies both according to the amount of localized bed disturbance caused by sediment transport and the flow field and seasonal variations in additional growth factors. This hypothesis is tested in a 160m reach of Oak Creek, OR draining 7 km2. Habitat disturbance maps were developed based on the spatial and temporal variability of velocity and shear stress and estimated sediment transport rates. These maps are used to select habitat patches with contrasting disturbance levels for benthic chlorophyll a monitoring. Velocity and shear stress were modeled using the two dimensional hydraulic model FaSTMECH, developed by the USGS. Sediment transport rates were estimated using spatially variable magnitudes of shear stress and grain size distributions and validated using both field measurements and historical data. Preliminary results during the spring indicate an inverse correlation between disturbance and algal growth, however there were no flow events above the critical threshold for motion during this time. It is likely that increased nutrient fluxes in areas of higher velocity resulted in increased algal growth rates during these period.

  6. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  7. Current Transport and Onset-Related Phenomena in an MPD Thruster Modified by Applied Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Robert Carlos

    This work investigated the effects of tailored, externally-applied magnetic fields on current transport and near-anode processes in the plasma discharge of a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT). Electrical and plasma diagnostics were used to determine whether applied magnetic fields could mitigate the effects of the "onset" phenomena, including large-amplitude terminal voltage fluctuations and high anode fall voltages associated with unstable operation and anode erosion. A new MPDT was developed and operated with quasi-steady 1 ms pulses from 36 kW to 3.3 MW with argon propellant. Three magnetic configurations studied included self-field operation (without external electromagnets) and two applied poloidal magnetic fields. One configuration used magnetic field lines tangential to the anode lip (and intersecting the anode further upstream) and the other created a magnetic cusp intersecting the anode downstream. The influence of the applied fields on the discharge current streamlines, current densities, and key plasma properties (electron temperature, number density, and plasma potential) was studied. Key findings included that the current pattern and current densities redistributed to follow the applied magnetic field lines. Also, the anode fall voltage was substantially reduced with both applied fields over a large range of currents (and eliminated at 8 kA). These results occurred because applied magnetic field lines intersecting the anode provided a high conductivity path and reduced the local electric field required to sustain the radial current densities. The applied fields reduced the amplitude and frequency of the terminal voltage fluctuations (up to 49%) over a broad range of currents and also decreased transients in the ion saturation current, which suggest reduction of current filamentation and surface-eroding anode spots. Additionally, the cusp field reduced mean terminal voltages over the entire range of discharge currents (up to 31%), and the tangential

  8. Comparative cross-sectional study for understanding the burden of low back pain among public bus transport drivers

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Abhijeet V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Even though low back pain (LBP) is common, some occupations pose a higher risk. Identifying these occupations and specific factors will help to reduce the suffering and burden. This study aims to compare the prevalence of chronic LBP among bus drivers and to find its association with some occupational factors. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study to compare prevalence of LBP and factors associated with it, in two groups of drivers (n = 178) and nondrivers (n = 184). Results: The 10 years’ percentage prevalence of LBP was found to be 70.8 and 51.6 among drivers and nondrivers respectively, whereas point prevalence in the same was 64.0 and 44.6. Drivers are at a higher risk for LBP with Odds ratio—2.270 (1.471–3.502). Risk factors such as prolonged sitting in one posture, night shifts, job dissatisfaction, tobacco use, and lack of exercise were significantly higher among drivers. Though the prevalence and intensity of LBP was higher among drivers, their number of leaves and hospital admitted days were less among drivers. Conclusion: This is a potential group for intervention as prevalence of LBP, neck pain, and most of the suspected risk factors were higher among the drivers. Drivers got less recovery time and had higher sequelae. PMID:27390476

  9. Contributions of long-range and regional atmospheric transport on pesticide concentrations along a transect crossing a mountain divide.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Karen S; Hageman, Kimberly J

    2013-02-05

    Twenty-one halogenated legacy and current-use pesticides and pesticide degradation products were measured in pine needles along a coast-to-coast transect that crossed the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Concentration profiles of nine pesticides were used to determine the influence of geographic sources on the atmospheric pesticide burden at the mountain sites. Pesticide concentration profiles were calculated for each source and mountain site by normalizing concentrations (adjusted for temperature at the site and air-needle partitioning) to the sum of all pesticide concentrations at the site. Each mountain site profile was compared to varying mixtures of the potential source profiles to determine the percent contribution of each source. The highest elevation mountain sites were primarily influenced by long-range, synoptic-scale northwesterly winds. Westerly upslope winds had little influence on any of the mountain sites. Easterly upslope winds from the Canterbury Plains, an agricultural region, strongly influenced the mountain sites within close proximity and had progressively less influence with distance.

  10. Diffusion across a layered medium and relation to transport in thermonuclear plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Peters, M.

    1995-11-01

    The generic characteristics of diffusion in a medium exhibiting strong variations of the diffusivity are considered. The varying diffusivity is parametrized by alternating layers of high and low diffusivity. The limiting case is considered that the insulating layers determine the net transport. Some salient features of tokamak transport, such as the fact that perturbative experiments yield a higher diffusivity than a steady-state power balance, are shown to be a natural result of the inhomogeneity. The importance of a possible inhomogeneous diffusivity for the comparison of measurements with theoretical expressions for the diffusivity is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  11. Relations between macropore network characteristics and the degree of preferential solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsbo, M.; Koestel, J.; Jarvis, N.

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of the soil macropore network determine the potential for fast transport of agrochemicals and contaminants through the soil. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between macropore network characteristics, hydraulic properties and state variables and measures of preferential transport. Experiments were carried out under near-saturated conditions on undisturbed columns sampled from four agricultural topsoils of contrasting texture and structure. Macropore network characteristics were computed from 3-D X-ray tomography images of the soil pore system. Non-reactive solute transport experiments were carried out at five steady-state water flow rates from 2 to 12 mm h-1. The degree of preferential transport was evaluated by the normalised 5% solute arrival time and the apparent dispersivity calculated from the resulting breakthrough curves. Near-saturated hydraulic conductivities were measured on the same samples using a tension disc infiltrometer placed on top of the columns. Results showed that many of the macropore network characteristics were inter-correlated. For example, large macroporosities were associated with larger specific macropore surface areas and better local connectivity of the macropore network. Generally, an increased flow rate resulted in earlier solute breakthrough and a shifting of the arrival of peak concentration towards smaller drained volumes. Columns with smaller macroporosities, poorer local connectivity of the macropore network and smaller near-saturated hydraulic conductivities exhibited a greater degree of preferential transport. This can be explained by the fact that, with only two exceptions, global (i.e. sample scale) continuity of the macropore network was still preserved at low macroporosities. Thus, for any given flow rate, pores of larger diameter were actively conducting solute in soils of smaller near-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This was associated with larger local transport

  12. Packaging- and transportation-related occurrence reports, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, L.S.; Welch, M.J.; Armstrong, C.J.

    1995-04-01

    Reports on transportation/packaging incidents, from the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System, are being analyzed for trends, impact on DOE EH-32 policies and concerns, and lessons learned concerning transportation and packaging safety. Besides keeping EH-32 aware of current incidents and potential problems that may need attention on DOE sites, this task allows future dissemination of lessons learned to the Operations Offices and to management and operating contractors. This report covers the weekly tabular reports OR-95-01 through OR-95-13, which contained a total of 50 occurrence reports.

  13. AUXIN UP-REGULATED F-BOX PROTEIN1 Regulates the Cross Talk between Auxin Transport and Cytokinin Signaling during Plant Root Growth1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaohua; Miller, Nathan D.; Lewis, Daniel R.; Christians, Matthew J.; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Muday, Gloria K.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Plant root development is mediated by the concerted action of the auxin and cytokinin phytohormones, with cytokinin serving as an antagonist of auxin transport. Here, we identify the AUXIN UP-REGULATED F-BOX PROTEIN1 (AUF1) and its potential paralog AUF2 as important positive modifiers of root elongation that tether auxin movements to cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The AUF1 mRNA level in roots is strongly up-regulated by auxin but not by other phytohormones. Whereas the auf1 single and auf1 auf2 double mutant roots grow normally without exogenous auxin and respond similarly to the wild type upon auxin application, their growth is hypersensitive to auxin transport inhibitors, with the mutant roots also having reduced basipetal and acropetal auxin transport. The effects of auf1 on auxin movements may be mediated in part by the misexpression of several PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins, which for PIN2 reduces its abundance on the plasma membrane of root cells. auf1 roots are also hypersensitive to cytokinin and have increased expression of several components of cytokinin signaling. Kinematic analyses of root growth and localization of the cyclin B mitotic marker showed that AUF1 does not affect root cell division but promotes cytokinin-mediated cell expansion in the elongation/differentiation zone. Epistasis analyses implicate the cytokinin regulator ARR1 or its effector(s) as the target of the SKP1-Cullin1-F Box (SCF) ubiquitin ligases assembled with AUF1/2. Given the wide distribution of AUF1/2-type proteins among land plants, we propose that SCFAUF1/2 provides additional cross talk between auxin and cytokinin, which modifies auxin distribution and ultimately root elongation. PMID:21653785

  14. Transport of reacting solutes in porous media: Relation between mathematical nature of problem formulation and chemical nature of reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Jacob

    1983-01-01

    Examples involving six broad reaction classes show that the nature of transport-affecting chemistry may have a profound effect on the mathematical character of solute transport problem formulation. Substantive mathematical diversity among such formulations is brought about principally by reaction properties that determine whether (1) the reaction can be regarded as being controlled by local chemical equilibria or whether it must be considered as being controlled by kinetics, (2) the reaction is homogeneous or heterogeneous, (3) the reaction is a surface reaction (adsorption, ion exchange) or one of the reactions of classical chemistry (e.g., precipitation, dissolution, oxidation, reduction, complex formation). These properties, as well as the choice of means to describe them, stipulate, for instance, (1) the type of chemical entities for which a formulation's basic, mass-balance equations should be written; (2) the nature of mathematical transformations needed to change the problem's basic equations into operational ones. These and other influences determine such mathematical features of problem formulations as the nature of the operational transport-equation system (e.g., whether it involves algebraic, partial-differential, or integro-partial-differential simultaneous equations), the type of nonlinearities of such a system, and the character of the boundaries (e.g., whether they are stationary or moving). Exploration of the reasons for the dependence of transport mathematics on transport chemistry suggests that many results of this dependence stem from the basic properties of the reactions' chemical-relation (i.e., equilibrium or rate) equations.

  15. Co Relation between PUFA Index and Oral Health Related Quality of Life of a Rural Population in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Prathibha, B.; Reddy, P. Parthasarthi; Monica, M.; Samba, Amit; Rajesh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A new measuring system called PUFA index had been identified to quantify the consequences of untreated dental caries. The co relation between PUFA index and oral health related quality of life has not been documented so far in India and thereby the need for this study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Sample size of 212 subjects, who are the residents of a town in Rangareddy district were included to be a part of this study. The subjects were interviewed for the OHIP score and the clinical examination done to record the PUFA scores. Results: The main objective of this study was to find out if there was any correlation between the OHIP scores and the study subjects and using the Pearson’ s co relation coefficient, there was a significant correlation between the OHIP and the PUFA scores.(Pearson’ s correlation= 0.31) Conclusion: The mean OHIP and PUFA scores of the study subjects were 2.21 and 0.40 respectively. There is a positive correlation between the OHIP score and the PUFA score among the study population i.e. with the PUFA scores increasing, it has a detrimental effect on the oral health related quality of life of the individual. PMID:25738084

  16. Animacy and competition in relative clause production: a cross-linguistic investigation.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Silvia P; Mirković, Jelena; Macdonald, Maryellen C

    2012-09-01

    This work investigates production preferences in different languages. Specifically, it examines how animacy, competition processes, and language-specific constraints shape speakers' choices of structure. English, Spanish and Serbian speakers were presented with depicted events in which either an animate or inanimate entity was acted upon by an agent. Questions about the affected participant in these events prompted the production of relative clauses identifying these entities (e.g., the bag the woman is punching). Results indicated that in English, animacy plays a strong role in determining the choice of passive structures. In contrast, it plays a less prominent role in Spanish and Serbian structure choices, where more active structures were produced to varying degrees. Critically, the semantic similarity between the agent and the patient of the event correlated with the omission of the agent in all languages, indicating that competition resulted in the agent's inhibition. Similarity also correlated with different functional choices in Spanish. The results suggest that similarity-based competition may influence various stages of production planning but its manifestations are constrained by language-specific grammatical options. Implications for models of sentence production and the relationship between production and comprehension are discussed.

  17. Transcranial sonography findings related to depression in parkinsonian disorders: cross-sectional study in 126 patients.

    PubMed

    Bouwmans, Angela E P; Weber, Wim E J; Leentjens, Albert F G; Mess, Werner H

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transcranial sonography (TCS) has emerged as a potential diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease. Recent research has suggested that abnormal echogenicity of substantia nigra, raphe nuclei and third ventricle is associated with increased risk of depression among these patients. We sought to reproduce these findings in an ongoing larger study of patients with parkinsonian syndromes. Methods. A total of 126 patients with parkinsonian symptoms underwent the Hamilton Depression Scale, and TCS of the substantia nigra (SN) (n = 126), the raphe nuclei (RN) (n = 80) and the third ventricle (n = 57). We then calculated the correlation between depression and hyper-echogenic SN, hypo-echogenic RN and a wider third ventricle. Results. In patients with PD we found no significant difference of the SN between non-depressed and depressed patients (46% vs. 22%; p = 0.18). Non-depressed patients with other parkinsonisms more often had hyperechogenicity of the SN than depressed patients (51% vs. 0%; p = 0.01). We found no relation between depression and the echogenicity of the RN or the width of the third ventricle. Conclusions. In patients with parkinsonian syndromes, we found no association between depression and hyper-echogenic SN, hypo-echogenic RN or a wider third ventricle, as determined by transcranial sonography.

  18. Transcranial sonography findings related to depression in parkinsonian disorders: cross-sectional study in 126 patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmans, Angela E.P.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Mess, Werner H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transcranial sonography (TCS) has emerged as a potential diagnostic tool for Parkinson’s disease. Recent research has suggested that abnormal echogenicity of substantia nigra, raphe nuclei and third ventricle is associated with increased risk of depression among these patients. We sought to reproduce these findings in an ongoing larger study of patients with parkinsonian syndromes. Methods. A total of 126 patients with parkinsonian symptoms underwent the Hamilton Depression Scale, and TCS of the substantia nigra (SN) (n = 126), the raphe nuclei (RN) (n = 80) and the third ventricle (n = 57). We then calculated the correlation between depression and hyper-echogenic SN, hypo-echogenic RN and a wider third ventricle. Results. In patients with PD we found no significant difference of the SN between non-depressed and depressed patients (46% vs. 22%; p = 0.18). Non-depressed patients with other parkinsonisms more often had hyperechogenicity of the SN than depressed patients (51% vs. 0%; p = 0.01). We found no relation between depression and the echogenicity of the RN or the width of the third ventricle. Conclusions. In patients with parkinsonian syndromes, we found no association between depression and hyper-echogenic SN, hypo-echogenic RN or a wider third ventricle, as determined by transcranial sonography. PMID:27231659

  19. Animacy and competition in relative clause production: A cross-linguistic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, Silvia P.; Mirkovi, Jelena; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates production preferences in different languages. Specifically, it examines how animacy, competition processes, and language-specific constraints shape speakers’ choices of structure. English, Spanish and Serbian speakers were presented with depicted events in which either an animate or inanimate entity was acted upon by an agent. Questions about the affected participant in these events prompted the production of relative clauses identifying these entities (e.g., the bag the woman is punching). Results indicated that in English, animacy plays a strong role in determining the choice of passive structures. In contrast, it plays a less prominent role in Spanish and Serbian structure choices, where more active structures were produced to varying degrees. Critically, the semantic similarity between the agent and the patient of the event correlated with the omission of the agent in all languages, indicating that competition resulted in the agent’s inhibition. Similarity also correlated with different functional choices in Spanish. The results suggest that similarity-based competition may influence various stages of production planning but its manifestations are constrained by language-specific grammatical options. Implications for models of sentence production and the relationship between production and comprehension are discussed. PMID:22537914

  20. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    PubMed

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  1. SU-E-T-112: An OpenCL-Based Cross-Platform Monte Carlo Dose Engine (oclMC) for Coupled Photon-Electron Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Z; Shi, F; Folkerts, M; Qin, N; Jiang, S; Jia, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Low computational efficiency of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation impedes its clinical applications. Although a number of MC dose packages have been developed over the past few years, enabling fast MC dose calculations, most of these packages were developed under NVidia’s CUDA environment. This limited their code portability to other platforms, hindering the introduction of GPU-based MC dose engines to clinical practice. To solve this problem, we developed a cross-platform fast MC dose engine named oclMC under OpenCL environment for external photon and electron radiotherapy. Methods: Coupled photon-electron simulation was implemented with standard analogue simulation scheme for photon transport and Class II condensed history scheme for electron transport. We tested the accuracy and efficiency of oclMC by comparing the doses calculated using oclMC and gDPM, a previously developed GPU-based MC code on NVidia GPU platform, for a 15MeV electron beam and a 6MV photon beam in a homogenous water phantom, a water-bone-lung-water slab phantom and a half-slab phantom. We also tested code portability of oclMC on different devices, including an NVidia GPU, two AMD GPUs and an Intel CPU. Results: Satisfactory agreements were observed in all photon and electron cases, with ∼0.48%–0.53% average dose differences at regions within 10% isodose line for electron beam cases and ∼0.15%–0.17% for photon beam cases. It took oclMC 3–4 sec to perform transport simulation for electron beam on NVidia Titan GPU and 35–51 sec for photon beam, both with ∼0.5% statistical uncertainty. The computation was 6%–17% slower than gDPM due to the differences in both physics model and development environment, which is considered not significant for clinical applications. In terms of code portability, gDPM only runs on NVidia GPUs, while oclMC successfully runs on all the tested devices. Conclusion: oclMC is an accurate and fast MC dose engine. Its high cross

  2. Bimanual cross-talk during reaching movements is primarily related to response selection, not the specification of motor parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Diedrichsen, Joern; Kennerley, Steven W.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous reaching movements made with the two hands can show a considerable increase in reaction time (RT) when they differ in terms of direction or extent, compared to when the movements involve the same direction and extent. This cost has been attributed to cross-talk in the specification of the motor parameters for the two hands. However, a recent study [Diedrichsen, Hazeltine, Kennerley, & Ivry, (2001). Psychological Science, 12, 493-498] indicates that when reaching movements are cued by the onset of the target endpoint, no compatibility effects are observed. To determine why directly cued movements are immune from interference, we varied the stimulus onset asynchrony for the two movements and used different combinations of directly cued and symbolically cued movements. In two experiments, compatibility effects were only observed when both movements were symbolically cued. No difference was found between compatible and incompatible movements when both movements were directly cued or when one was directly cued and the other was symbolically cued. These results indicate that interference is not related to the specification of movement parameters but instead emerges from processes associated with response selection. Moreover, the data suggest that cross-talk, when present, primarily shortens the RT of the second movement on compatible trials rather than lengthening this RT on incompatible trials.

  3. Correlation between health-related quality of life and venous leg ulcer's severity and characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    González de la Torre, Héctor; Quintana-Lorenzo, María L; Perdomo-Pérez, Estrella; Verdú, José

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients suffering with venous ulceration and to correlate wound's severity status with HRQoL loss as well as identify the aspects of HRQoL most negatively affected by the presence of venous ulcers. In this observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical multi-centre study, data was compiled over a period of 3·5 months. Thrity-four patients with venous ulceration were recruited. The RESVECH 2·0 scale was used to monitor wounds. The MAID scale was used to measure wound's severity. The Charing Cross Venous Ulcer Questionnaire (CCVUQe) (Spanish version) was used to evaluate quality of life. The mean CCVUQe score was 60·58 ± 16·04. The HRQoL dimension most affected was 'Emotional state' (mean score = 77. 67 ± 17·34). The average RESVECH 2.0 score for the wounds was 13·15 ± 5·07. A statistically significant association between total CCVUQ-e score and total RESVECH 2.0 score was detected [Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0·546 (P ≤ 0·001)]. Venous ulcers affect patients' HRQoL, particularly their emotional status. There is a relationship between the severity of the wound and loss of HRQoL. The presence of non-viable tissue, poor exudate control and infection all determine loss of HRQoL. New studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Relative Contributions of Active Mediated Transport and Passive Diffusion of Fluoroquinolones with Various Lipophilicities in a Calu-3 Lung Epithelial Cell Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Brillault, Julien; De Castro, Whocely Victor; Couet, William

    2010-01-01

    The transport characteristics of six fluoroquinolones (FQs) with various lipophilicities were compared in a Calu-3 cell model. For each FQ, an active polarized transport was observed in the direction of the apical side. However, the apparent permeability of FQs resulted from active transport and passive diffusion that were highly variable between compounds and mainly governed by lipophilicity. Therefore, active transport was predominant for compounds with relatively low lipophilicity but minor for FQs with higher lipophilicity. PMID:19822706

  5. Scottish adolescents’ sun-related behaviours, tanning attitudes and associations with skin cancer awareness: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Richard G; MacMillan, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haw, Sally; Hubbard, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe Scottish adolescents’ sun-related behaviours and tanning attitudes and assess associations with skin cancer awareness. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 20 state secondary schools in one Scottish local authority (Glasgow City). Participants 2173 adolescents (females: 50.7%, n=1102) with a mean age of 12.4 (SD=0.55). Outcome measures Sun-related behaviour (suntan, sunbathing, sunburn, sunscreen use, sunbed use), tanning attitudes, skin cancer-related symptom and risk factor awareness. Results Adolescents reported poor sun-related practice: 51% of adolescents reported sunburn the previous summer of whom 38% indicated sunburn on more than one occasion. Skin cancer awareness was low: 45% recognised ‘change in the appearance of a mole’ as a cancer symptom, and 39% agreed that ‘getting sunburnt more than once as a child’ increased cancer risk. 42% and 26% of adolescents, respectively, reported that friends and family held protanning attitudes. Compared with males, females were statistically significantly more likely to: report sunbathing (p<0.001), use of lotions or oil to aid tanning (p=0.009) and sunburn (p<0.001); know that changes in the appearance of a mole was a skin cancer symptom (p=0.036) and sunburn more than once as a child was a skin cancer risk factor (p=0.005); perceive their friends to hold protanning attitudes (p<0.001) and indicate that a tan made them feel better about themselves (p<0.001), more attractive to others (p=0.011) and healthier (p<0.001). Conclusions Scottish adolescents had poor sun protection practice and low skin cancer awareness. Girls adopted riskier sun-related behaviour despite greater awareness of skin cancer-related risk. Urgent action is required to promote positive sun-related behaviour and increase skin cancer awareness among Scottish adolescents. However, further research is needed to inform the development of effective sun-safe interventions. PMID:24793258

  6. 44 CFR 402.6 - Relation to Transportation Order T-2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation of commodities of any kind which are destined to Communist China (Order T-2 also prohibits American ships and aircraft from calling at any port or place in Communist China). Since Communist China is... Communist China or to any other point in transit to Communist China....

  7. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N [Idaho Falls, ID; Apel, William A [Jackson, WY; Thompson, Vicki S [Idaho Falls, ID; Reed, David W [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacey, Jeffrey A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  8. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-06-14

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  9. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-29

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  10. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Reed, David W; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-05

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  11. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-15

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  12. DIVALENT METAL TRANSPORTER-1 DECREASES METAL-RELATED INJURY IN THE LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to airborne particulates makes the detoxification of metals a continuous challenge for the lungs. Based on the fate of iron in airway epithelial cells, we postulated that divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) participates in detoxification of metal associated with air poll...

  13. 44 CFR 402.6 - Relation to Transportation Order T-2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transportation of commodities of any kind which are destined to Communist China (Order T-2 also prohibits American ships and aircraft from calling at any port or place in Communist China). Since Communist China is... Communist China or to any other point in transit to Communist China....

  14. 44 CFR 402.6 - Relation to Transportation Order T-2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transportation of commodities of any kind which are destined to Communist China (Order T-2 also prohibits American ships and aircraft from calling at any port or place in Communist China). Since Communist China is... Communist China or to any other point in transit to Communist China....

  15. 44 CFR 402.6 - Relation to Transportation Order T-2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transportation of commodities of any kind which are destined to Communist China (Order T-2 also prohibits American ships and aircraft from calling at any port or place in Communist China). Since Communist China is... Communist China or to any other point in transit to Communist China....

  16. 44 CFR 402.6 - Relation to Transportation Order T-2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transportation of commodities of any kind which are destined to Communist China (Order T-2 also prohibits American ships and aircraft from calling at any port or place in Communist China). Since Communist China is... Communist China or to any other point in transit to Communist China....

  17. Policies Related to Active Transport to and from School: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Doescher, Mark P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fesperman, Carrie E.; Litt, Jill S.; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E.; Terpstra, Jennifer L.; Troped, Philip J.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that…

  18. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections.A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems.Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79-1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42-1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82-1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41-1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61-1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.98-2.16). Having higher Center

  19. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Processing Double-Embedded Relative Clauses: Working-Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?

    PubMed

    Frank, Stefan L; Trompenaars, Thijs; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-04-01

    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas both German and Dutch native speakers do show the illusion when reading English sentences. These findings provide evidence against working memory constraints as an explanation for the observed effect in English. We propose an alternative account based on the statistical patterns of the languages involved. In support of this alternative, a single recurrent neural network model that is trained on both Dutch and English sentences is shown to predict the cross-linguistic difference in the grammaticality effect.

  20. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms—A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, James; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. Methods In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. “Leave-one-out” cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Results and Discussion Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate

  1. Nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations for one- and two-particle correlation functions in steady-state quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Ness, H; Dash, L K

    2014-04-14

    We study the non-equilibrium (NE) fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relations in the context of quantum thermoelectric transport through a two-terminal nanodevice in the steady-state. The FD relations for the one- and two-particle correlation functions are derived for a model of the central region consisting of a single electron level. Explicit expressions for the FD relations of the Green's functions (one-particle correlations) are provided. The FD relations for the current-current and charge-charge (two-particle) correlations are calculated numerically. We use self-consistent NE Green's functions calculations to treat the system in the absence and in the presence of interaction (electron-phonon) in the central region. We show that, for this model, there is no single universal FD theorem for the NE steady state. There are different FD relations for each different class of problems. We find that the FD relations for the one-particle correlation function are strongly dependent on both the NE conditions and the interactions, while the FD relations of the current-current correlation function are much less dependent on the interaction. The latter property suggests interesting applications for single-molecule and other nanoscale transport experiments.

  2. Unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock related to high-level waste repositories; Final report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    Research results are summarized for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract with the University of Arizona focusing on field and laboratory methods for characterizing unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport related to high-level radioactive waste repositories. Characterization activities are presented for the Apache Leap Tuff field site. The field site is located in unsaturated, fractured tuff in central Arizona. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and thermal characteristics of the tuff are summarized, along with methodologies employed to monitor and sample hydrologic and geochemical processes at the field site. Thermohydrologic experiments are reported which provide laboratory and field data related to the effects conditions and flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. 29 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Gender differences in recreational and transport cycling: a cross-sectional mixed-methods comparison of cycling patterns, motivators, and constraints

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender differences in cycling are well-documented. However, most analyses of gender differences make broad comparisons, with few studies modeling male and female cycling patterns separately for recreational and transport cycling. This modeling is important, in order to improve our efforts to promote cycling to women and men in countries like Australia with low rates of transport cycling. The main aim of this study was to examine gender differences in cycling patterns and in motivators and constraints to cycling, separately for recreational and transport cycling. Methods Adult members of a Queensland, Australia, community bicycling organization completed an online survey about their cycling patterns; cycling purposes; and personal, social and perceived environmental motivators and constraints (47% response rate). Closed and open-end questions were completed. Using the quantitative data, multivariable linear, logistic and ordinal regression models were used to examine associations between gender and cycling patterns, motivators and constraints. The qualitative data were thematically analyzed to expand upon the quantitative findings. Results In this sample of 1862 bicyclists, men were more likely than women to cycle for recreation and for transport, and they cycled for longer. Most transport cycling was for commuting, with men more likely than women to commute by bicycle. Men were more likely to cycle on-road, and women off-road. However, most men and women did not prefer to cycle on-road without designed bicycle lanes, and qualitative data indicated a strong preference by men and women for bicycle-only off-road paths. Both genders reported personal factors (health and enjoyment related) as motivators for cycling, although women were more likely to agree that other personal, social and environmental factors were also motivating. The main constraints for both genders and both cycling purposes were perceived environmental factors related to traffic conditions

  4. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with chronic physical illness in northern Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important subjectively evaluated outcome of adolescents physical, mental, and social functioning. It gives us the possibility to assess the disease impact on life of adolescents, and to sort out target groups of adolescents for future psychological interventions. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to study HRQoL in 173 adolescents with chronic physical illness (CPI - diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy), and to find HRQoL predictors in each disease group. Methods Disease-specific questionnaires were completed by each adolescent recruited from the local outpatient clinic; mothers answered the questions on socioeconomic status (SES); and the patients’ clinicians evaluated the severity of the disease. Results A high proportion of adolescents in each disease specific sample reported moderate to high levels of HRQoL. Gender was the most prominent predictor of HRQoL in all three studied groups, while disease severity predicted HRQoL in the diabetic group and to some extent in the asthma group. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that adolescents with diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy in northern Russia maintain relatively moderate to high levels of HRQoL. The domains affecting HRQoL were related to both disease-specific (severity) and non-disease factors (gender and SES). Our study suggests that future psychosocial interventions should focus on aspects of CPI impacting adolescents in gendered ways, furthermore taking into account disease specific factors. PMID:24460738

  5. Relation of intelligence quotient and body mass index in preschool children: a community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tabriz, A A; Sohrabi, M-R; Parsay, S; Abadi, A; Kiapour, N; Aliyari, M; Ahmadi, F; Roodaki, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity in children is a global problem. Besides physical effects, obesity has harmful psychological effects on children. Methods: We carried out cross-sectional community-based study to investigate the relation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive functioning in preschool children. Thirteen socioeconomical elements of 1151 children were measured and analyzed based on their intelligence quotient (IQ) test results. Thirteen out of 33 provinces were selected randomly, and schools were selected as clusters in rural and urban areas. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and regression were used when appropriate. Results: Our analysis showed that IQ was associated with household income, place of residence, delivery type, type of infant feeding and father's and mother's education level (P<0.001 for all). Using penalized linear regression for eliminating the impact of confounding factor, our study shows that, living in metropolitan (β=2.411) and urban areas (β=2.761), the level of participants' father's education (β=5.251) was positively and BMI (β=−0.594) was negatively related with IQ test results. Conclusions The findings of the present study showed that a lower IQ score is associated with higher BMI. However, this relation appears to be largely mediated when the socioeconomic status was considered. PMID:26258767

  6. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents.

  7. A cross-sectional study on vision-related quality of life in patients with ocular GvHD.

    PubMed

    Pezzotta, S; Rossi, G C; Scudeller, L; Antoniazzi, E; Bianchi, P E; Perotti, C; Del Fante, C

    2015-09-01

    Ocular GvHD affects about 40-60% of patients receiving bone marrow transplantation. Ocular complaints worsen quality of life (QoL), which, besides survival time, is a primary end point in a patient's follow-up. The aim of our study was to assess the ocular surface status and vision-related QoL (VRQoL) and explore the potential determinants in VRQoL in patients with chronic GvHD with ocular involvement. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 40 patients with ocular GvHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation assessing ocular symptoms and signs, VRQoL and ophthalmologic parameters. The median age was 52.1 years; 32.5% were females. Most of them presented a multiple organ involvement. Ophthalmological parameter examinations were on average abnormal. Corneal staining was severe/very severe in 25%; conjunctival staining in 10% of subjects. The worse QoL scores were on 'general vision', 'ocular pain', 'vision-specific mental health' and 'vision-specific role difficulties'. Both symptoms and sign scores indicate poor VRQoL. A lower VRQoL was related to schooling level, job position, underlying disease and extracorporeal photopheresis. Corneal staining, Schirmer and tear film breakup time were negatively associated to visual function-related subscales. An accurate ophthalmological and VRQoL assessment should be mandatory for a long time to promptly recognize early signs of ocular suffering, and to prevent irreversible ocular complications.

  8. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms: Relation with platelet serotonin level in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Markeljevic, J; Sarac, H; Bozina, N; Henigsberg, N; Simic, M; Cicin Sain, L

    2015-05-15

    Significantly lower platelet serotonin level (PSL) in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) than in healthy controls has been reported in our prior studies. In the present report, we demonstrated effect of functional polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) on PSL. We describe a group of 61 pSS patients and 100 healthy individuals subjects, who received PSL measurement in our prior study. All subjects were genotyped for the promoter 5-HTTLPR (L/S), rs25531 (A/G) and intronic 5-HTTVNTRin2 (l/s) polymorphisms. Overall, the presence of 5-HTTVNTRin2 ss genotype was associated with significantly lower PSL in pSS patients, not in healthy controls. Reduced PSL in pSS patients is in line with hypothesis of association between chronic immunoinflammation and 5-HT system dysregulation, identifying additional mechanisms such as altered 5-HT transport as potential genetic factor contributing to PSL depletion.

  9. Functional networks of nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes differentiate ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathies. A new therapeutic opportunity.

    PubMed

    Molina-Navarro, María Micaela; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Lago, Francisca; González-Juanatey, Jose Ramón; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure provokes alterations in the expression of nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes. To elucidate the nucleocytoplasmic transport-linked functional network underlying the two major causes of heart failure, ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), we examined global transcriptome profiles of left ventricular myocardium tissue samples from 31 patients (ICM, n = 10; DCM, n = 13) undergoing heart transplantation and control donors (CNT, n = 8) using RNA-Sequencing and GeneMANIA. Comparative profiling of ICM versus control and DCM versus control showed 1081 and 2440 differentially expressed genes, respectively (>1.29-fold; P<0.05). GeneMANIA revealed differentially regulated functional networks specific to ICM and DCM. In comparison with CNT, differential expression was seen in 9 and 12 nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes in ICM and DCM groups, respectively. DDX3X, KPNA2, and PTK2B were related to ICM, while SMURF2, NUP153, IPO5, RANBP3, NOXA1, and RHOJ were involved in DCM pathogenesis. Furthermore, the two pathologies shared 6 altered genes: XPO1, ARL4, NFKB2, FHL3, RANBP2, and RHOU showing an identical trend in expression in both ICM and DCM. Notably, the core of the derived functional networks composed of nucleocytoplasmic transport-related genes (XPO1, RANBP2, NUP153, IPO5, KPNA2, and RANBP3) branched into several pathways with downregulated genes. Moreover, we identified genes whose expression levels correlated with left ventricular mass index and left ventricular function parameters in HF patients. Collectively, our study provides a clear distinction between the two pathologies at the transcriptome level and opens up new possibilities to search for appropriate therapeutic targets for ICM and DCM.

  10. Relative Effects of Fluid Oscillations and Nutrient Transport in the In Vitro Growth of Valvular Tissues.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Manuel; Rath, Sasmita; Villegas, Ana; Unnikrishnan, Vinu; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2016-06-01

    Engineered valvular tissues are cultured dynamically, and involve specimen movement. We previously demonstrated that oscillatory shear stresses (OSS) under combined steady flow and specimen cyclic flexure (flex-flow) promote tissue formation. However, localized efficiency of specimen mass transport is also important in the context of cell viability within the growing tissues. Here, we investigated the delivery of two essential species for cell survival, glucose and oxygen, to 3-dimensional (3D) engineered valvular tissues. We applied a convective-diffusive model to characterize glucose and oxygen mass transport with and without valve-like specimen flexural movement. We found the mass transport effects for glucose and oxygen to be negligible for scaffold porosities typically present during in vitro experiments and non-essential unless the porosity was unusually low (<40%). For more typical scaffold porosities (75%) however, we found negligible variation in the specimen mass fraction of glucose and oxygen in both non-moving and moving constructs (p > 0.05). Based on this result, we conducted an experiment using bone marrow stem cell (BMSC)-seeded scaffolds under Pulsatile flow-alone states to permit OSS without any specimen movement. BMSC-seeded specimen collagen from the pulsatile flow and flex-flow environments were subsequently found to be comparable (p > 0.05) and exhibited some gene expression similarities. We conclude that a critical magnitude of fluid-induced, OSS created by either pulsatile flow or flex-flow conditions, particularly when the oscillations are physiologically-relevant, is the direct, principal stimulus that promotes engineered valvular tissues and its phenotype, whereas mass transport benefits derived from specimen movement are minimal.

  11. Seasonal transportation and deposition of the suspended sediments in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and the related mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lulu; Zhong, Yi; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Ke; Huang, Lingling; Wang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The Yellow River is well known for high concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is one of the most important SPM sources in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, China. The mechanisms of long-distance transport and deposition of the Yellow River sediment discharges are hot topics. Based on field observations in four different seasons of 2010-2011 and 15 numerical experiments, this work studied the seasonal sediment transportation and deposition in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. Results show that the horizontal distribution of suspended sediment concentration in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is neither closely related to the Yellow River discharge in flood and dry seasons nor to the temperature and salinity distributions in winter and summer because most of the Yellow River-discharged sediments deposited near the river mouth. However, the winter northerly wind events, especially the winter storm events with high waves, are the major factors inducing the long-distance transport of the sediments from the Bohai Sea to the Yellow Sea. The net SPMs are transported to the Yellow Sea from the Bohai Sea in both winter and summer. The net SPM flux at the Bohai Strait is 14.0 Mt/year by the combined effects of tides, wind, and waves. The SPM is transported to the Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea for the generation of the mud wedge off the peninsula. The northern part of the mud wedge is related to the southerly wind in summer, and the southeastern part resulted from the winter northerly wind, especially the strong wind.

  12. The Divergence, Actions, Roles, and Relatives of Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Boron, Walter F.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian Slc4 (Solute carrier 4) family of transporters is a functionally diverse group of 10 multi-spanning membrane proteins that includes three Cl-HCO3 exchangers (AE1–3), five Na+-coupled HCO3− transporters (NCBTs), and two other unusual members (AE4, BTR1). In this review, we mainly focus on the five mammalian NCBTs-NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2. Each plays a specialized role in maintaining intracellular pH and, by contributing to the movement of HCO3− across epithelia, in maintaining whole-body pH and otherwise contributing to epithelial transport. Disruptions involving NCBT genes are linked to blindness, deafness, proximal renal tubular acidosis, mental retardation, and epilepsy. We also review AE1–3, AE4, and BTR1, addressing their relevance to the study of NCBTs. This review draws together recent advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic origins and physiological relevance of NCBTs and their progenitors. Underlying these advances is progress in such diverse disciplines as physiology, molecular biology, genetics, immunocytochemistry, proteomics, and structural biology. This review highlights the key similarities and differences between individual NCBTs and the genes that encode them and also clarifies the sometimes confusing NCBT nomenclature. PMID:23589833

  13. Extracellular dopamine and alterations on dopamine transporter are related to reserpine toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reckziegel, Patrícia; Chen, Pan; Caito, Sam; Gubert, Priscila; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fachinetto, Roselei; Aschner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Reserpine is used as an animal model of parkinsonism. We hypothesized that the involuntary movements induced by reserpine in rodents are induced by dopaminergic toxicity caused by extracellular dopamine accumulation. The present study tested the effects of reserpine on the dopaminergic system in Caenorhabditis elegans. Reserpine was toxic to worms (decreased the survival, food intake, development and changed egg laying and defecation cycles). In addition, reserpine increased the worms' locomotor rate on food and decreased dopamine levels. Morphological evaluations of dopaminergic CEP neurons confirmed neurodegeneration characterized by decreased fluorescence intensity and the number of worms with intact CEP neurons, and increased number of shrunken somas per worm. These effects were unrelated to reserpine's effect on decreased expression of the dopamine transporter, dat-1. Interestingly, the locomotor rate on food and the neurodegenerative parameters fully recovered to basal conditions upon reserpine withdrawal. Furthermore, reserpine decreased survival in vesicular monoamine transporter and dat-1 loss-of-function mutant worms. In addition, worms pre-exposed to dopamine followed by exposure to reserpine had decreased survival. Reserpine activated gst-4, which controls a phase II detoxification enzymes downstream of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2. Our findings establish that the dopamine transporter, dat-1, plays an important role in reserpine toxicity, likely by increasing extracellular dopamine concentrations.

  14. Polyglutamine-Expanded Huntingtin Exacerbates Age-Related Disruption of Nuclear Integrity and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport.

    PubMed

    Gasset-Rosa, Fatima; Chillon-Marinas, Carlos; Goginashvili, Alexander; Atwal, Ranjit Singh; Artates, Jonathan W; Tabet, Ricardos; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Bang, Anne G; Cleveland, Don W; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde

    2017-04-05

    Onset of neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, is strongly influenced by aging. Hallmarks of aged cells include compromised nuclear envelope integrity, impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport, and accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks. We show that mutant huntingtin markedly accelerates all of these cellular phenotypes in a dose- and age-dependent manner in cortex and striatum of mice. Huntingtin-linked polyglutamine initially accumulates in nuclei, leading to disruption of nuclear envelope architecture, partial sequestration of factors essential for nucleocytoplasmic transport (Gle1 and RanGAP1), and intranuclear accumulation of mRNA. In aged mice, accumulation of RanGAP1 together with polyglutamine is shifted to perinuclear and cytoplasmic areas. Consistent with findings in mice, marked alterations in nuclear envelope morphology, abnormal localization of RanGAP1, and nuclear accumulation of mRNA were found in cortex of Huntington's disease patients. Overall, our findings identify polyglutamine-dependent inhibition of nucleocytoplasmic transport and alteration of nuclear integrity as a central component of Huntington's disease.

  15. Increased vesicular monoamine transporter enhances dopamine release and opposes Parkinson disease-related neurodegeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Kelly M; Bernstein, Alison I; Stout, Kristen A; Dunn, Amy R; Lazo, Carlos R; Alter, Shawn P; Wang, Minzheng; Li, Yingjie; Fan, Xueliang; Hess, Ellen J; Yi, Hong; Vecchio, Laura M; Goldstein, David S; Guillot, Thomas S; Salahpour, Ali; Miller, Gary W

    2014-07-08

    Disruption of neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics (transport, capacity, release) has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. Here, we report a novel mouse model of enhanced vesicular function via bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated overexpression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; Slc18a2). A twofold increase in vesicular transport enhances the vesicular capacity for dopamine (56%), dopamine vesicle volume (33%), and basal tissue dopamine levels (21%) in the mouse striatum. The elevated vesicular capacity leads to an increase in stimulated dopamine release (84%) and extracellular dopamine levels (44%). VMAT2-overexpressing mice show improved outcomes on anxiety and depressive-like behaviors and increased basal locomotor activity (41%). Finally, these mice exhibit significant protection from neurotoxic insult by the dopaminergic toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), as measured by reduced dopamine terminal damage and substantia nigra pars compacta cell loss. The increased release of dopamine and neuroprotection from MPTP toxicity in the VMAT2-overexpressing mice suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing vesicular capacity may be of therapeutic benefit in Parkinson disease.

  16. Increased vesicular monoamine transporter enhances dopamine release and opposes Parkinson disease-related neurodegeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Kelly M.; Bernstein, Alison I.; Stout, Kristen A.; Dunn, Amy R.; Lazo, Carlos R.; Alter, Shawn P.; Wang, Minzheng; Li, Yingjie; Fan, Xueliang; Hess, Ellen J.; Yi, Hong; Vecchio, Laura M.; Goldstein, David S.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Salahpour, Ali; Miller, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics (transport, capacity, release) has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. Here, we report a novel mouse model of enhanced vesicular function via bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated overexpression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; Slc18a2). A twofold increase in vesicular transport enhances the vesicular capacity for dopamine (56%), dopamine vesicle volume (33%), and basal tissue dopamine levels (21%) in the mouse striatum. The elevated vesicular capacity leads to an increase in stimulated dopamine release (84%) and extracellular dopamine levels (44%). VMAT2-overexpressing mice show improved outcomes on anxiety and depressive-like behaviors and increased basal locomotor activity (41%). Finally, these mice exhibit significant protection from neurotoxic insult by the dopaminergic toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), as measured by reduced dopamine terminal damage and substantia nigra pars compacta cell loss. The increased release of dopamine and neuroprotection from MPTP toxicity in the VMAT2-overexpressing mice suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing vesicular capacity may be of therapeutic benefit in Parkinson disease. PMID:24979780

  17. Different Zinc Sources Have Diverse Impacts on Gene Expression of Zinc Absorption Related Transporters in Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danping; Zhuo, Zhao; Fang, Shenglin; Yue, Min; Feng, Jie

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc sources on gene expression of zinc-related transporters in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). IPEC-1 cells were treated with zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly), zinc methionine (Zn-Met), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), respectively, for measurement of cell viability. Then, the relative expression of zinc-related transporters in IPEC-1 in response to different zinc sources (50 μmol/L zinc) was measured. Zinc transporter SLC39A4 (ZIP4) expression was selectively silenced to assess the function of ZIP4 in inorganic and organic zinc absorption. The result showed that Zn-Gly and Zn-Met had lower cell damage compared with ZnSO4 on the same zinc levels. Different zinc sources improved the expression of metallothionein1 (MT1) and zinc transporter SLC30A1 (ZnT1) messenger RNA (mRNA) compared with the control (P < 0.05), while ZIP4 decreased (P < 0.05) in response to zinc addition. MT1 and ZnT1 mRNA expressions in Zn-Gly and Zn-Met were higher than those in ZnSO4, and ZIP4 mRNA expression in Zn-Met was the lowest among three kinds of zinc sources (P < 0.05). Expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA in control was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than added different zinc sources groups. Silencing of ZIP4 significantly decreased MT1 mRNA expression in ZnSO4 and Zn-Gly treatments, reduced zinc absorption rate, and increased DMT1 mRNA expression in ZnSO4 compared with negative control. In summary, different zinc sources could improve zinc status on IPEC-1 cells and organic zinc had lower cell damage compared with ZnSO4. Moreover, Zn-Gly and Zn-Met are more efficient on zinc absorption according to the expression of various zinc-related transporters MT1, ZIP4, ZnT1, and DMT1. ZIP4 played a direct role in inorganic zinc uptake, and the absorption of zinc in Zn-Gly depends on ZIP4 partly, while absorption of Zn-Met is less dependent on ZIP4.

  18. Work-related stress is associated with impaired neuropsychological test performance: a clinical cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Vandborg, Sanne Kjær; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often complain about impaired concentration and memory. However, it is undetermined how widespread these impairments are, and which cognitive domains are most long-term stress sensitive. Previous studies show inconsistent results and are difficult to synthesize. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether patients with work-related stress complaints have cognitive impairments compared to a matched control group without stress. Our secondary aim was to examine whether the level of self-reported perceived stress is associated with neuropsychological test performance. We used a broad neuropsychological test battery to assess 59 outpatients with work-related stress complaints (without major depression) and 59 healthy controls. We matched the patients and controls pairwise by sex, age and educational level. Compared to controls, patients generally showed mildly reduced performance across all the measured domains of the neuropsychological test battery. However, only three comparisons reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were generally small to medium. The most pronounced differences between patients and controls were seen on tests of prospective memory, speed and complex working memory. There were no statistical significant associations between self-reported perceived stress level and neuropsychological test performance. In conclusion, we recommend that cognitive functions should be considered when evaluating patients with work-related stress complaints, especially when given advice regarding return to work. Since this study had a cross-sectional design, it is still uncertain whether the impairments are permanent. Further study is required to establish causal links between work-related stress and cognitive deficits.

  19. Breaking Bad News to a Prospective Cross-Sectional Sample of Patients’ Relatives in a Nigerian Neurosurgical Service

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Amos Olufemi; Fatiregun, Akinola A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Breaking of medical bad news is anecdotally deemed culturally unacceptable, even intolerable, to native Africans. We explored this hypothesis among a cohort of relatives of patients who had difficult neurosurgical diagnoses in an indigenous practice. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among a consecutive cohort of surrogates/relatives of concerned patients. Their opinion and preferences regarding the full disclosure of the grave neurosurgical diagnoses, and prognoses, of their wards were analyzed. Results: A total of 114 patients’ relatives, 83 (72.8%) females, were sampled. They were mainly young adults, mean age 40.2 (SD 14.2) years; 57% had only basic literacy education; but the majority, 97%, declared themselves to have serious religious commitments. Ninety nine percent of the study participants deemed it desirable that either they or the patients concerned be told the bad news; 80.7% felt that this is best done with both patients and relations in attendance; 3.5% felt only the patients need be told. These preferences are similar to those expressed by the patients themselves in an earlier study. But a nearly significant greater proportion of patients’ relatives (15 vs 5%, p = 0.06) would rather be the only ones to be told the patients’ bad news. Conclusion: This data-driven study showed that contrary to anecdotal belief about them, a cohort of native Nigerian-African surrogates of neurosurgical patients was well disposed to receiving, and appeared able to handle well, the full disclosure of difficult medical diagnostic/prognostic information. PMID:23935592

  20. Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Ramachandran, N.

    2013-01-01

    Crystals of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, will be grown by physical vapor transport in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the crystals grown by vapor transport as results of buoyance-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.