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Sample records for related trimethylammonium ions

  1. Relating to ion detection

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for improving detection of alpha and/or beta emitting sources on items or in locations using indirect means. The emission forms generate ions in a medium surrounding the item or location and the medium is then moved to a detecting location where the ions are discharged to give a measure of the emission levels. To increase the level of ions generated and render the system particularly applicable for narrow pipes and other forms of conduits, the medium pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure. STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

  2. Relating to monitoring ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

  3. Durability and performance of polystyrene- b -poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) diblock copolymer and equivalent blend anion exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vandiver, Melissa A.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Poskin, Zach; Li, Yifan; Seifert, Sönke; Knauss, Daniel M.; Herring, Andrew M.; Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2014-11-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEM) are solid polymer electrolytes that facilitate ion transport in fuel cells. In this study, a polystyrene-b-poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) diblock copolymer was evaluated as potential AEM and compared with the equivalent homopolymer blend. The diblock had a 92% conversion of reactive sites with an IEC of 1.72 ± 0.05 mmol g-1, while the blend had a 43% conversion for an IEC of 0.80 ± 0.03 mmol g-1. At 50°C and 95% relative humidity, the chloride conductivity of the diblock was higher, 24–33 mS cm-1, compared with the blend, 1–6 mS cm-1. The diblock displayed phase separation on the length scale of 100 nm, while the blend displayed microphase separation (~10 μm). Mechanical characterization of films from 40 to 90 microns thick found that elasticity and elongation decreased with the addition of cations to the films. At humidified conditions, water acted as a plasticizer to increase film elasticity and elongation. While the polystyrene-based diblock displayed sufficient ionic conductivity, the films' mechanical properties require improvement, i.e., greater elasticity and strength, before use in fuel cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015, 132, 41596.

  4. Sources of conductance changes during bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylammonium in phosphate buffer.

    PubMed

    Owens, J D; Miskin, D R; Wacher-Viveros, M C; Benge, L C

    1985-06-01

    The sources of conductance changes during reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine by Escherichia coli with formate as electron donor and in the presence of phosphate buffer were investigated. Theoretical considerations and experimental results suggest that the major source of conductance change is the conversion of dihydrogen phosphate to hydrogen phosphate. This transformation contributes almost twice as much to the total conductance change as does the conversion of uncharged trimethylamine oxide to charged trimethylammonium.

  5. Binding of carboxylate and trimethylammonium salts to octa-acid and TEMOA deep-cavity cavitands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Matthew R.; Sokkalingam, Punidha; Nguyen, Thong; Donahue, James P.; Gibb, Bruce C.

    2017-01-01

    In participation of the fifth statistical assessment of modeling of proteins and ligands (SAMPL5), the strength of association of six guests ( 3- 8) to two hosts ( 1 and 2) were measured by 1H NMR and ITC. Each host possessed a unique and well-defined binding pocket, whilst the wide array of amphiphilic guests possessed binding moieties that included: a terminal alkyne, nitro-arene, alkyl halide and cyano-arene groups. Solubilizing head groups for the guests included both positively charged trimethylammonium and negatively charged carboxylate functionality. Measured association constants ( K a ) covered five orders of magnitude, ranging from 56 M-1 for guest 6 binding with host 2 up to 7.43 × 106 M-1 for guest 6 binding to host 1.

  6. The distribution of toluene in intercalation complexes of a vermiculite and alkyl trimethylammonium bromides.

    PubMed

    Williams-Daryn, S; Thomas, R K; Castro, M A; Becerro, A I

    2003-11-15

    Neutron diffraction and isotopic labeling have been used to determine the distribution of toluene sorbed into the interlamellar space of complexes of vermiculite with alkyl trimethylammonium bromide complex of alkyl chain lengths C(12), C(14), and C(16) and in a mixed C(12)/C(16) complex. The toluene remains in a liquid-like form and fills and swells the interlamellar space space up to a point where there remains a small amount of overlap of the alkyl chains of the surfactant. If the complex is between vermiculite and one surfactant only this results in the toluene concentration being reduced in the center of the interlamellar space, with maxima on either side. On the other hand, in a complex of mixed-length surfactants, the toluene distribution reaches its maximum at the center of the interlamellar space.

  7. A poly(alkyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene-vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride) monolithic column for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Lirio, Stephen; Yang, Yicong; Wu, Lin-Tai; Hsiao, Shu-Ying; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2015-05-22

    In this study, an organic polymer monolithic columns, which were prepared via in situ polymerization of alkyl methacrylate-ester (AMA), divinylbenzene (DVB) and vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium chloride (VBTA, charged monomer), were developed as adsorbent for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Different parameters affecting the extraction efficiency for nine (9) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the ratio of the stearyl methacrylate (SMA) to DVB monomer, column length, sample pH, extraction flow rate and desorption solvent were investigated to obtain the optimal SPME condition. Also, the permeability for each poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolithic column was investigated by adding porogenic solvent (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG). Using the optimized condition, a series of AMA-based poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolith columns were developed to determine the effect the extraction efficiency of NSAIDs by varying the alkyl chain length of the methacrylate ester (methyl-, butyl-, octyl-, or lauryl-methacrylate; (MMA, BMA, OMA, LMA)). Results showed that decreasing the AMA chain length increases the extraction efficiency of some NSAIDs (i.e. sulindac (sul), naproxen (nap), ketoprofen (ket) and indomethacin (idm)). Among the poly(AMA-DVB-VBTA) monolithic columns, poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) showed a highly repeatable extraction efficiency for NSAIDs with recoveries ranging from 85.0 to 100.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 6.8% (n=3). The poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) can also be reused for at least 50 times without any significant effect in extraction efficiency for NSAIDs. Finally, using the established conditions, the poly(BMA-DVB-VBTA) was used to extract trace-level NSAIDs (100μgL(-1)) in river water with good recoveries ranging from 75.8 to 90.8% (RSD<14.9%).

  8. Predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions using ion characteristics: Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence assay

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, J.T.; Newman, M.C.; Clark, S.B.

    1996-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships have been used to predict the relative toxicity of organic compounds. Although not as common, ion characteristics have also proven useful for predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the relative toxicity of metal ions using the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay was predictable using ion characteristics. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) were determined for 20 metals in a NaNO{sub 3} medium, which reflected freshwater speciation conditions, using the Microtox bacterial assay. The log of EC50 values was modeled using several ion characteristics, and Akaike`s Information Criterion was calculated to determine which ion characteristics provided the best fit. Whether modeling total ion or free ion EC50 values, the one variable which best modeled EC50s was the softness index, while a combination of {chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r ({chi}{sub m} = electronegativity, r = Pauling ionic radius) and {vert_bar}log K{sub OH}{vert_bar} was the best two-variable model. Other variables, including {Delta}E{sub 0} and {chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r (one-variable models) and (AN/{Delta}IP, {Delta}E{sub 0}) and ({chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r, Z{sup 2}/r) (two-variable models), also gave adequate fits. Modeling with speciated (free ion) versus unspeciated (total ion) EC50 values did not improve fits. Modeling mono-, di-, and trivalent metal ions separately improved the models. The authors conclude that ion characteristics can be used to predict the relative toxicity of metal ions whether in freshwater (NaNO{sub 3} medium) or saltwater (NaCl medium) speciation conditions and that this approach can be applied to metal ions varying widely in both valence and binding tendencies.

  9. Denaturation and intermediates study of two sturgeon hemoglobins by n-dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide

    PubMed Central

    Ariaeenejad, Shohreh; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Kavousi, Kaveh; Jamili, Shahla; Fatemi, Mohammad Reza; Hong, Jun; Poursasan, Najmeh; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali. A.

    2013-01-01

    Varieties of hemoglobin (Hb) forms exist in fish, which are usually well adapted to the different ecological conditions or various habitats. In the current study, Hbs from two Sturgeon species of the Southern Caspian Sea Basin were purified and studied upon interaction with n-dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB; as a cationic surfactant) by various methods including UV-visible absorption, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry. The chemometric analysis of Hbs was investigated upon interaction with DTAB under titration, using UV-visible absorption spectra. The chemometric resolution techniques were used to determine the number of the components and mole fraction of the oxidized Hbs. These results provided the evidence for the existence of three different molecular components including native (N), intermediate (I) and denatured (D) in sturgeon Hbs. According to the distribution of intermediates, which were broadened in a range of DTAB concentration, the aggregation states, DLS experiments, and thermal stability (Tm obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), the Acipenser stellatus Hb was more stable compared to Acipenser persicus Hb. These results demonstrate a significant relationship between the stability of fish Hbs and the habitat depth requirements. PMID:23142155

  10. Predicting relative toxicity of metal ions to bacteria (Microtox{reg_sign}) using ion characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, J.T.; Newman, M.C.; Clark, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The use of predictive effects models with metals has received little attention in toxicology. The purpose of this study was to predict the relative toxicity of individual metal ions and metal mixtures using ion characteristics. The concentration of metal resulting in a 50% reduction in light output (EC50) in marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) was determined for several metals using the Microtox{reg_sign} Toxicity Analyzer. Trends in metal toxicity were predicted by combining metal speciation calculations with empirical models based on metal ion characteristics. These trends were consistent for nine divalent metals (Ca{prime} Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) whether the media mimicked salt water (NaC, medium) or freshwater (NaNO{sub 3} medium). When expanding the study to include an additional 14 mono-, di-, and trivalent metal ions, ion characteristics were still useful for predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions to bacteria. The prediction of nonadditive toxic effects using metal mixtures was also possible based on ion characteristics. Overall, models based on ion characteristics show much promise for predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions using the Microtox{reg_sign} assay.

  11. In vivo microdialysis and reverse phase ion pair liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the determination and identification of acetylcholine and related compounds in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Wong, P S; Cregor, M; Gitzen, J F; Coury, L A; Kissinger, P T

    2000-01-01

    A method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of basal acetylcholine (ACh) in microdialysate from the striatum of freely moving rats. A microdialysis probe was surgically implanted into the striatum of the rats and Ringer's solution was used as the perfusion medium at a flow rate of 2 microL per minute. The samples were then analyzed off-line by LC/MS/MS experiments. The separation of ACh and choline (Ch) was carried out using reverse phase ion pair liquid chromatography with heptafluorobutyric acid as a volatile ion pairing reagent. Analytes were detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode. The detection limit for ACh was 1.4 fmol on column, which is at least three times lower than previously reported. Three quaternary ammonium compounds in the rat brain microdialysate were also identified by tandem mass spectrometry experiments in which the unknown mass spectra were compared with standard reference compounds. These compounds were identified as carnitine, acetylcarnitine and (3-carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium. This is the first known report of the compound (3-carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium being found in rat brain.

  12. Relative sensitivity factors for submicron secondary ion mass spectrometry with gallium primary ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satosh, Hitomi; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    1993-08-01

    Relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) of thirteen elements in the oxide glass matrix in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) excited by a gallium focused ion beam were determined. RSFs were obtained by analyzing powder particles of standard glass samples. Whole volumes of each particles were analyzed in the 'shave-off' mode in order to avoid topographic effects. Reproducibility of RSFs was good, and sample-to-sample scattering of values was relatively small. Dependence of RSFs on the first ionization potential was shown to be reasonable. In order to with the data obtained through the bulk chemical analysis.

  13. Are Ring Current Ions Lost in Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely observed in the inner and outer magnetosphere, at geostationary orbit, at high latitudes along the plasmapause, and at the ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of the Ring Current (RC) ions and EMIC waves causes ion scattering into the loss cone and leads to decay of the RC, especially during the main phase of storms when the RC decay times of about one hour or less are observed. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Induced scattering of these waves by the plasmaspheric thermal ions leads to ion temperature enhancement, and forms a so-called hot zone near the plasmapause where the temperature of core plasma ions can reach tens of thousands of degrees. Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt also interact well with the EMIC waves, and during the main and/or recovery phases of the storms these electrons can easily be scattered into the loss cone over a time scale from several hours to a day. The plasma density distribution in the magnetosphere and the ion content play a critical role in EMIC wave generation and propagation, but the wave dispersion relation in the known RC-EMIC wave interaction models is assumed to be determined by the thermal plasma distribution only. In these models, the modification of the EMIC wave dispersion relation caused by the RC ions is not taken into account, and the RC ions are only treated as a source of free energy in order to generate EMIC waves. At the same time, the RC ions can dominate the thermal magnetospheric content in the night MLT sector at great L shells during the main and/or recovery storm phase. In this study, using our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model [Khazanov et al., 2006], we simulate the May 1998 storm in order to quantify the global EMIC wave redistribution caused by

  14. Effect of Ring Current Ions on Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely observed in the inner and outer magnetosphere, at geostationary orbit, at high latitudes along the plasmapause, and at the ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of the Ring Current (RC) ions and EMIC waves causes ion scattering into the loss cone and leads to decay of the RC, especially during the main phase of storms when the RC decay times of about one hour or less are observed. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Induced scattering of these waves by the plasmaspheric thermal ions leads to ion temperature enhancement, and forms a so-called hot zone near the plasmapause where the temperature of core plasma ions can reach tens of thousands of degrees. Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt also interact well with the EMIC waves, and during the main and/or recovery phases of the storms these electrons can easily be scattered into the loss cone over a time scale from several hours to a day. The plasma density distribution in the magnetosphere and the ion content play a critical role in EMIC wave generation and propagation, but the wave dispersion relation in the known RC-EMIC wave interaction models is assumed to be determined by the thermal plasma distribution only. In these models, the modification of the EMIC wave dispersion relation caused by the RC ions is not taken into account, and the RC ions are only treated as a source of free energy in order to generate EMIC waves. At the same time, the RC ions can dominate the thermal magnetospheric content in the night MLT sector at great L shells during the main and/or recovery storm phase. In this study, using our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model [Khazanov et al., 2006], we simulate the May 1998 storm in order to quantify the global EMIC wave redistribution caused by

  15. Impact of Ring Current Ions on Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of the ring current ions in the real part of electromagnetic ion Cyclotron wave dispersion relation is studied on global scale. Recent Cluster observations by Engebretson et al. showed that although the temperature anisotropy of is energetic (> 10 keV) ring current protons was high during the entire 22 November 2003 perigee pass, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves were observed only in conjunction with intensification of the ion fluxes below 1 keV by over an order of magnitude. To study the effect of the ring current ions on the wave dispersive properties and the corresponding global wave redistribution, we use a self-consistent model of interacting ring current and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and simulate the May 1998 storm. The main findings of our simulation can be summarized as follows: First, the plasma density enhancement in the night MLT sector during the main and recovery storm phases is mostly caused by injection of suprathermal plasma sheet H + (approximately < 1 keV), which dominate the thermal plasma density. Second, during the recovery storm phases, the ring current modification of the wave dispersion relation leads to a qualitative change of the wave patterns in the postmidnight-dawn sector for L > 4.75. This "new" wave activity is well organized by outward edges of dense suprathermal ring current spots, and the waves are not observed if the ring current ions are not included in the real part of dispersion relation. Third, the most intense wave-induced ring current precipitation is located in the night MLT sector and caused by modification of the wave dispersion relation. The strongest precipitating fluxes of about 8 X 10(exp 6)/ (cm(exp 2) - s X st) are found near L=5.75, MLT=2 during the early recovery phase on 4 May. Finally, the nightside precipitation is more intense than the dayside fluxes, even if there are less intense waves, because the convection field moves ring current ions into the loss cone on the nightside, but drives

  16. Determination of relative sensitivity factors during secondary ion sputtering of silicate glasses by Au+, Au2+ and Au3+ ions.

    PubMed

    King, Ashley; Henkel, Torsten; Rost, Detlef; Lyon, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Au-cluster ions have been successfully used for organic analysis in secondary ion mass spectrometry. Cluster ions, such as Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+), can produce secondary ion yield enhancements of up to a factor of 300 for high mass organic molecules with minimal sample damage. In this study, the potential for using Au(+), Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) primary ions for the analysis of inorganic samples is investigated by analyzing a range of silicate glass standards. Practical secondary ion yields for both Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) ions are enhanced relative to those for Au(+), consistent with their increased sputter rates. No elevation in ionization efficiency was found for the cluster primary ions. Relative sensitivity factors for major and trace elements in the standards showed no improvement in quantification with Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) ions over the use of Au(+) ions. Higher achievable primary ion currents for Au(+) ions than for Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) allow for more precise analyses of elemental abundances within inorganic samples, making them the preferred choice, in contrast to the choice of Au(2)(+) and Au(3)(+) for the analysis of organic samples. The use of delayed secondary ion extraction can also boost secondary ion signals, although there is a loss of overall sensitivity.

  17. Relative Sensitivity Factors for Submicron Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with Gallium Primary Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitomi; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    1993-08-01

    Relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) of thirteen elements in the oxide glass matrix in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) excited by a gallium focused ion beam were determined. RSFs were obtained by analyzing powder particles of standard glass samples. Whole volumes of each particles were analyzed in the “shave-off” mode in order to avoid topographic effects. Reproducibility of RSFs was good, and sample-to-sample scattering of values was relatively small. Dependence of RSFs on the first ionization potential was shown to be reasonable. In order to check the validity of the RSFs, coal fly ash particles were analyzed. The results were in reasonable agreement with the data obtained through the bulk chemical analysis.

  18. Dislocation-related photoluminescence in silicon implanted with fluorine ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, N. A.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Shek, E. I.; Karabeshkin, K. V.; Karasev, P. A.; Titov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The implantation of 85-keV fluorine ions at a dose of 8.3 × 1014 cm-2 into single crystal Si does not lead to formation of an amorphous layer. Subsequent annealing at a temperature of 1100°C in a chlorine-containing atmosphere is accompanied by the appearance of D1 and D2 lines of dislocation-related luminescence. The intensity of both lines decreases as the annealing duration is increased from 0.25 to 3 h. As the measurement temperature is increased from 80 to 200 K, the intensities of these lines decrease and the positions of their peaks shift to longer wavelengths.

  19. Production and Characterization of Desmalonichrome Relative Binding Affinity for Uranyl Ions in Relation to Other Siderophores

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Kai-For; Dai, Ziyu; Wunschel, David S.

    2016-06-24

    Siderophores are Fe binding secondary metabolites that have been investigated for their uranium binding properties. Much of the previous work has focused on characterizing hydroxamate types of siderophores, such as desferrioxamine B, for their uranyl binding affinity. Carboxylate forms of these metabolites hold potential to be more efficient chelators of uranyl, yet they have not been widely studied and are more difficult to obtain. Desmalonichrome is a carboxylate siderophore which is not commercially available and so was obtained from the ascomycete fungus Fusarium oxysporum cultivated under Fe depleted conditions. The relative affinity for uranyl binding of desmalonichrome was investigated using a competitive analysis of binding affinities between uranyl acetate and different concentrations of iron(III) chloride using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In addition to desmalonichrome, three other siderophores, including two hydroxamates (desferrioxamine B and desferrichrome) and one carboxylate (desferrichrome A) were studied to understand their relative affinities for the uranyl ion at two pH values. The binding affinities of hydroxymate siderophores to uranyl ion were found to decrease to a greater degree at lower pH as the concentration of Fe (III) ion increases. On the other hand, lowering pH has little impact on the binding affinities between carboxylate siderophores and uranyl ion. Desmalonichrome was shown to have the greatest relative affinity for uranyl at any pH and Fe(III) concentration. These results suggest that acidic functional groups in the ligands are critical for strong chelation with uranium at lower pH.

  20. Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Richardson, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The spectra of highly ionized titanium, Ti XIII through Ti XXI, and C VI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high-intensity, 4 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm, laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s Ti XIII resonance lines had an average shift of + 0.023 A relative to the C VI and Ti XX spectral lines. No shift was found between the C VI, Ti XIX, and Ti XX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 7th cm/s in the expansion velocities of Ti XIX and Ti XX ions compared to Ti XIII ions.

  1. Relation of morphology of electrodeposited zinc to ion concentration profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.; Kautz, H. E.; Sabo, B. B.

    1977-01-01

    The morphology of electrodeposited zinc was studied with special attention to the ion concentration profile. The initial concentrations were 9M hydroxide ion and 1.21M zincate. Current densities were 6.4 to 64 mA/sq cm. Experiments were run with a horizontal cathode which was observed in situ using a microscope. The morphology of the zinc deposit was found to be a function of time as well as current density; roughly, the log of the transition time from mossy to large crystalline type deposit is inversely proportional to current density. Probe electrodes indicated that the electrolyte in the cathode chamber was mixed by self inducted convection. However, relatively large concentration gradients of the involved species existed across the boundary layer of the cathode. Analysis of the data suggests that the morphology converts from mossy to large crystalline when the hydroxide activity on the cathode surface exceeds about 12 M. Other experiments show that the pulse discharge technique had no effect on the morphology in the system where the bulk concentration of the electrolyte was kept homogeneous via self induced convection.

  2. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    2010-02-01

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  3. Relative stopping powers for atomic and molecular ions in carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, Malcolm F.

    1986-03-01

    Electronic stopping powers of carbon for atomic and molecular nitrogen ions have been calculated using semi-classical free electron scattering from Herman-Skillman potentials, parametrized to include an adjustable exponential screening factor F( tv, Z), representing atomic ions. For molecular ions, aligned along the beam direction and having velocity 1.2 a.u., the stopping powers for individual atomic components were calculated as a function of internuclear separation. Screening factors for the two centers of force were assumed to decrease linearly from the value at zero internuclear separation, equivalent to that of a silicon ion, to that for nitrogen ions at large separations. Results are consistent with the diminishment of average stopping power per atomic ion which has been observed for beam-aligned nitrogen molecular ions. Similar calculations for molecular hydrogen in carbon agree with the enhancement of stopping power which has been observed. Evidence of nonlinear effects is indicated.

  4. Bound state - excitation in ion-ion collisions related to X-ray lasers modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Stancalie, V.; Sureau, A.; Klisnick, A.

    1995-12-31

    As in the earlier work of Walling and Weisheit we used the Seaton`s semi-classical, impact parameter formulation of Coulomb excitation for a variety of inelastic ion-ion collisions, involved in laser-produced soft X-ray lasers with Li-like aluminum ions, 1s{sup 2} nl configuration. Energy levels has been calculated by direct SCF method including the spin-orbit interaction. Our definition of the electric 2{sup {lambda}} - pole line strength, S{sup {lambda}}, is consistent with that of Sobelman. The ion-ion collision processes have been considered for a wide range of temperature between 500 eV to 30 eV, with a particular interest in the last part of plasma evolution time, when complications such as non-Maxwellian particle distributions, radiation fields and transient plasma conditions can be neglected, and when the plasma electrons and ions have comparable temperatures.

  5. DOSY NMR and MALDI-TOF evidence of covalent binding the DNA duplex by trimethylammonium salts of topotecan upon near UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Naumczuk, Beata; Hyz, Karolina; Kawęcki, Robert; Bocian, Wojciech; Bednarek, Elżbieta; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Wielgus, Ewelina; Kozerski, Lech

    2015-08-01

    Using DOSY NMR and MALDI-TOF MS techniques, we present evidence that quaternary trimethylammonium salts of topotecan, [TPT-NMe3 ](+) X(-) (X = CF3SO3, HCOO), bind covalently the natural DNA oligomer upon near UV irradiation in water under physiological conditions. It is shown that formate salt is very reactive at pH 7 and requires short irradiation time. This weak irradiation at 365 nm paves the way for a new application of TPT derivatives in clinical use, which can dramatically increase the therapeutic effects of a medicine.

  6. Analysis of EMIC waves in relation to magnetospheric heavy ion density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kim, E. H.; Johnson, J.; Lee, D. H.; Clauer, C. R.; Lessard, M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Xu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents observations of EMIC wave events and their relation to heavy ion density in the magnetosphere. It is well known that EMIC waves play an important role in particle acceleration and loss via wave-particle interaction. It is critical to know the ion composition in the plasma with which EMIC waves interact in order to understand wave generation and propagation because it controls ion cyclotron resonance frequencies of EMIC waves. The presence of heavy ions (He+ and O+) causes the wave modes to be more complex with two additional resonance (ion-ion hybrid and Buchsbaum resonances) and polarization changes, making it challenging to analyze wave generation and propagation. In this study, we show wave polarization and Poynting flux using data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) and Van Allen Probes (VAP) satellites and their ground conjunctions and compare them with the heavy ion density estimated by a wave model.

  7. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  8. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  9. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  10. ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE ION: ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS AND RELATED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid fertilizer sample is dissolved or leached to solutilize the perchlorate as the aqueous anion. If needed, the liquid is filtered or centrifuged. The rsulting solution is subjected to ion chromatography using an adaptation of EPA Method 314.0. Preliminary screenng is requir...

  11. Atom probe field-ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: field-ion microscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM), and liquid metal ion sources (LMIS). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles.

  12. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.; Russell, K.F.

    1990-12-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion spectroscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and theory. Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. This bibliography covers the period 1989. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications.

  13. Preparation of Fe 3O 4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Guoqiang; Yan, Wei; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Wu, Shuilin; Yi, Changfeng; Xu, Zushun

    2012-04-01

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe3O4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe3O4, styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier.

  14. Source Determination for Substorm-Related Ion Injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, Robert J.; Evans, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The grant supported an effort to restore and analyze data from the Spacecraft Charging at High Altitude (SCATHA) spacecraft. This spacecraft, which was originally an Air Force mission, was launched into a near geo-synchronous orbit in early 1979 to, investigate the inner magnetosphere at altitudes where it was known that spacecraft can undergo significant charging events. SCATHA included an ion composition experiment (designated SC8) and in many ways was a precursor to other missions, such as the AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer.

  15. Relative ion permeability of normal and cystic fibrosis nasal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, M; Gatzy, J; Boucher, R

    1983-01-01

    The raised transepithelial electric potential difference (PD) across respiratory epithelia in cystic fibrosis (CF) has suggested an abnormality in ion permeation. We characterized this abnormality further by measuring in the nasal epithelia of CF and normal subjects the concentration-PD relationship for amiloride, an inhibitor of cell Na+ permeability, and PD responses to superfusion with solutions of different composition. Amiloride was more efficacious in the CF subjects but the ED50 was not different from that of normals (approximately 2 X 10(-6) M). Na+ replacement by choline induced effects similar to those of amiloride, i.e. a greater depolarization in CF subjects. A 10-fold increase in the K+ concentration of the perfusate induced a small (less than 10 mV) depolarization in both subject populations. When Cl- in the perfusate was replaced by gluconate or SO2-(4) the nasal PD of normal subjects hyperpolarized (lumen became more negative) by approximately 35 mV. A significantly smaller response (less than 17 mV) was induced in CF homozygotes but not in heterozygotes (38 mV). The smaller response of CF subjects appears to reflect an absolute decrease in luminal surface Cl- permeability because pretreatment with amiloride did not increase the response to Cl- free solution (7 mV). Accordingly, three abnormalities (decreased Cl- permeability, raised PD, greater amiloride efficacy) have been identified in CF respiratory epithelia. Whereas "excessive" active Na+ transport can account for these abnormalities and the dessication of airway surface liquid, it is possible that a lower lumenal cell membrane Cl- permeability and inhibition of a potential path of Cl- secretion can also explain the observations. PMID:6853720

  16. Evaluated activity and osmotic coefficients for aqueous solutions: Bi-univalent compounds of zinc, cadmium, and ethylene bis(trimethylammonium) chloride and iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the mean activity and osmotic coefficients in aqueous solutions of eleven bi-univalent compounds of zinc and cadmium and ethylene bis(trimethylammonium) chloride and iodide at 298.15 K is presented. Osmotic coefficients were calculated from direct vapor pressure measurements, from isopiestic measurements and from freezing point depression measurements. Activity coefficients were calculated from electromotive force measurements on galvanic cells with and without transference. Given are empirical coefficients for three different correlating equations, obtained by a weighted least squares fit of the experimental data, and tables consisting of the activity coefficients of the compounds, the osmotic coefficients and activity of water, and the excess Gibbs energy of the solution as functions of the molality for each electrolyte system. The literature coverage is through the computerized version of Chemical Abstracts of September 1979.

  17. Relative Stability of Peptide Sequence Ions Generated by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2012-04-01

    We report the use of unimolecular dissociation by infrared radiation for gaseous multiphoton energy transfer to determine relative activation energy (Ea,laser) for dissociation of peptide sequence ions. The sequence ions of interest are mass-isolated; the entire ion cloud is then irradiated with a continuous wave CO2 laser, and the first order rate constant, kd, is determined for each of a series of laser powers. Provided these conditions are met, a plot of the natural logarithm of kd versus the natural logarithm of laser power yields a straight line, whose slope provides a measure of Ea,laser. This method reproduces the Ea values from blackbody radiative dissociation (BIRD) for the comparatively large, singly and doubly protonated bradykinin ions (nominally y 9 and y 9 2+ ). The comparatively small sequence ion systems produce Ea,laser values that are systematic underestimates of theoretical barriers calculated with density functional theory (DFT). However, the relative Ea,laser values are in qualitative agreement with the mobile proton model and available theory. Additionally, novel protonated cyclic-dipeptide (diketopiperazine) fragmentation reactions are analyzed with DFT. FT-ICR MS provides access to sequence ions generated by electron capture dissociation, infrared multiphoton dissociation, and collisional activation methods (i.e., b n , y m , c n , z m • ions).

  18. Workshop summary. Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Curtis, S. B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of papers presented at a workshop on Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Goals of the meeting were to determine the critical experiments using heavy ions as probes in radiation physics, radiation chemistry, macromolecular and cellular biology, evolution science, basic neurophysiology, and medical therapies; how beam lines and facilities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory can be improved for these experiments; and implications in priorities and funding for national policy. Workshop topics included physics and facilities, cellular and molecular biology, tissue radiobiology, and the future of heavy ion research.

  19. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1991-12-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion microscopy (FIM), field emission (FE), ion sources, and field desorption mass microscopy (FDMM). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The bibliography covers the period 1990. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references, listed alphabetically by authors, are subdivided into the categories listed in paragraph one above. An Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  20. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation.

    PubMed

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R; Clark, Simon J; Bishop, Paul N; Day, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation.

  1. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  2. Predicting relative toxicity and interactions of divalent metal ions: Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence assay

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.C.; McCloskey, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Both relative toxicity and interactions between paired metal ions were predicted with least-squares linear regression and various ion characteristics. Microtox{reg_sign} 15 min EC50s (expressed as free ion) for Ca(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) were most effectively modeled with the constant for the first hydrolysis (K{sub H} for M{sup n+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} MOH{sup a{minus}1} + H{sup +}) although other ion characteristics were also significant in regression models. The {vert_bar}log K{sub H}{vert_bar} is correlated with metal ion affinity to intermediate ligands such as many biochemical functional groups with O donor atoms. Further, ordination of metals according to ion characteristics, e.g., {vert_bar}log K{sub H}{vert_bar} facilitated prediction of paired metal interactions. Pairing metals with strong tendencies to complex with intermediate or soft ligands such as those with O or S donor atoms resulted in strong interactions.

  3. Dual Mechanisms of Ion Absorption in Relation to Long Distance Transport in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Luttge, Ulrich; Laties, George G.

    1966-01-01

    The characteristics of ion transport to the shoots of young corn seedlings were studied with respect to the nature of the isotherm through a wide concentration range, the competitive influence of closely related ions upon the transport of a given ion, and the influence of the counter-ion. Both with respect to 36Cl and 86Rb transport, the characteristics of the process in every way resemble uptake by non-vacuolate root tips wherein the plasma membrane is the only membrane involved in absorption, and where system 1 — of the 2 systems which can be shown to participate in absorption by vacuolate tissue — is the only system operative. Net ion uptake by the roots per se was shown to display both the high affinity (system 1) and low affinity (system 2) mechanisms. It is concluded that the symplastic theory of ion movement to the xylem is valid, and that the contention that system 1 operates at the plasma membrane while system 2 functions at the tonoplast is strengthened. PMID:16656435

  4. Relative clinical effectiveness of carbon ion radiotherapy: theoretical modelling for H&N tumours

    PubMed Central

    Antonovic, Laura; Dasu, Alexandru; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of the efficiency of photon and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) administered with the same number of fractions might be of limited clinical interest, since a wide range of fractionation patterns are used clinically today. Due to advanced photon treatment techniques, hypofractionation is becoming increasingly accepted for prostate and lung tumours, whereas patients with head and neck tumours still benefit from hyperfractionated treatments. In general, the number of fractions is considerably lower in carbon ion RT. A clinically relevant comparison would be between fractionation schedules that are optimal within each treatment modality category. In this in silico study, the relative clinical effectiveness (RCE) of carbon ions was investigated for human salivary gland tumours, assuming various radiation sensitivities related to their oxygenation. The results indicate that, for hypoxic tumours in the absence of reoxygenation, the RCE (defined as the ratio of D50 for photons to carbon ions) ranges from 3.5 to 5.7, corresponding to carbon ion treatments given in 36 and 3 fractions, respectively, and 30 fractions for photons. Assuming that interfraction local oxygenation changes take place, results for RCE are lower than that for an oxic tumour if only a few fractions of carbon ions are used. If the carbon ion treatment is given in more than 12 fractions, the RCE is larger for the hypoxic than for the well-oxygenated tumour. In conclusion, this study showed that in silico modelling enables the study of a wide range of factors in the clinical considerations and could be an important step towards individualisation of RT treatments. PMID:25858182

  5. Type Region of the Ione Formation (Eocene), Central California: Stratigraphy, Paleogeography, and Relation to Auriferous Gravels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creely, Scott; Force, Eric R.

    2007-01-01

    The middle Eocene Ione Formation extends over 200 miles (320 km) along the western edge of the Sierra Nevada. Our study was concentrated in the type region, 30 miles (48 km) along strike. There a bedrock ridge forms the seaward western side of the Ione depositional tract, defining a subbasin margin. The eastern limit of the type Ione is locally defined by high-angle faults. Ione sediments were spread over Upper Mesozoic metamorphic and plutonic bedrock, fed by gold-bearing streams dissecting the western slope of the ancestral Sierra Nevada. By middle Eocene time, a tropical or subtropical climate prevailed, leading to deep chemical weathering (including laterization) and a distinctively mature mineral assemblage was fed to and generated within Ione deposits. The Ione is noted for its abundant kaolinitic clay, some of it coarsely crystalline; the clay is present as both detrital grains and authigenic cement. Quartz is abundant, mostly as angular grains. Heavy mineral fractions are dominated by altered ilmenite and zircon. Distribution of feldspar is irregular, both stratigraphically and areally. Non-marine facies are most voluminous, and include conglomerates, especially at the base and along the eastern margins of the formation where they pass into Sierran auriferous gravels. Clays, grading into lignites, and gritty sands are also common facies. Both braided and meandering fluvial facies have been recognized. Shallow marine waters flooded the basin probably twice. Tongues of sediment exhibiting a variety of estuarine to marine indicators are underlain and overlain by fluvial deposits. Marine body fossils are found at only a few localities, but burrows identified as Ophiomorpha and cf. Thalassinoides are abundant in many places. Other clues to marginal marine deposition are the occurrence of glauconite in one bed, typical relations of lagoonal to beach (locally heavy-mineral-rich) lithofacies, closed-basin three-dimensional morphology of basinal facies, and high

  6. Relative abundance of water-group ions in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Mark E.; Cravens, Thomas; Tokar, Robert; Smith, Howard T.; Perryman, Rebecca; Waite, J. Hunter; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2016-10-01

    At nineteen different times over seven years, the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measured the relative fractions of water-group ions in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn near the equatorial plane between 3.8 and 6.5 Saturn radii (RS). INMS samples only a small portion of velocity space in any one measurement, but the measurements span a broad range of velocity space. The data show that H2O+ comprises the bulk of the ions near 4.0 RS, and that its fraction decreases with increasing distance from 4.0 RS, the source of neutral water at Enceladus. At 4.0 RS, the fraction of H2O+ ranges from 60% to 100%, with an average of 80%. At 6.5 RS, the three main water-group constituents, H2O+, OH+, and O+, are nearly equal. H3O+, which dominates the water-group ion fractions in the Enceladus plume, is 10% or less in Saturn's magnetosphere outside the plume. The relative ion fractions show other variations that are not clearly linked to any of the studied parameters including velocity, density, and the orbit-phase-dependent activity of Enceladus.

  7. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  8. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F.

    1994-10-01

    This bibliography, covering the period 1993, includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field emission (FE), and field ion microscopy (FIM). Technique-oriented studies and applications are included. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references are listed alphabetically by authors, an Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  9. Ion Movements in Shock in Relation to Survival and Its Modifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    vacuum at -700 C overnight and allowed to warm slowly to room temperature the following morning. Specimens were stored in a dessicator at room...of leukocytes subh as superoxide and related meta- bolites. f. X-ray Microanalysis Typical ion measurements, using x-ray microanalysis, of 4 um...from membrane damage. The toxic products of infiltrated leukocytes such as superoxide and related metabolites may play a possible role in such regional

  10. Relative ion yields in mammalian cell components using C60 SIMS.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Selda; Piwowar, Alan; Hue, Jonathan; Shen, Kan; Winograd, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to better understand the influence of molecular environment on the relative ion yields of membrane lipid molecules found in high abundance in a model mammalian cell line, RAW264.7. Control lipid mixtures were prepared to simulate lipid-lipid interactions in the inner and outer leaflet of cell membranes. Compared with its pure film, the molecular ion yields of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine are suppressed when mixed with 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. In the mixture, proton competition between 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine led to lower ionization efficiency. The possible mechanism for ion suppression was also investigated with (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The formation of a hydroxyl bond in lipid mixtures confirms the mechanism involving proton exchange with the surrounding environment. Similar effects were observed for lipid mixtures mimicking the composition of the inner leaflet of cell membranes. The secondary molecular ion yield of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine was observed to be enhanced in the presence of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine.

  11. Solar wind-induced secondary ions and their relation to lunar surface composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Funsten, H. O, III; Hervig, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Based on previous laboratory experiments simulating solar wind sputtering of lunar surface materials, it appears that solar wind ions sputter secondary ions in sufficient numbers to be measured from low-altitude lunar orbit. Solar wind protons are hundreds of times less efficient than those used in standard secondary ion mass spectrometry; nevertheless secondary ions of Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Mn, Ti and Fe were observed sputtered from sample simulants of mare and highland soils. These secondary ion fluxes depend both on concentration in the soil and on probability of ionization; yields of easily ionized elements such as K and Na are relatively much greater than those for the more electronegative elements and compounds. The principal geochemical indicator elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe are nevertheless detectable. However, it has not been shown that the observed secondary ions vary strictly one-to-one with their concentrations in the geochemically distinct soil simulants used here. While we have a first order understanding of secondary ion sputtering, it is not clear that the observed ion yields can be linked with great accuracy to the simulant's composition. The simulants were analyzed by electron microprobe to establish their detailed composition. The observed secondary ion fluxes can then be compared with the microprobe results. For example Ti(+) fluxes from the three simulants correspond to the true composition with accuracies of better than 10 percent for the high-Ti basalt, and about 20 percent for the low-Ti simulant. The highlands simulant produced a statistically insignificant Ti(+) count rate. Here we discuss the results of further SIMS experiments using the ASU/Center for Solid State Science facility. With careful isolation and preparation of samples, we avoid the problems of the previous experiments. In particular, we will make use of ground-up sample to mimic the sputtering behavior of regolith, and will avoid charging by placing the soil

  12. Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, M.; Vranjes, J.

    2015-11-01

    A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Lamor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself indicates the backward nature of dispersion. The usual disadvantage of a fluid theory, which treats only fundamental modes of eigen-waves excited in a system and is not able to describe higher harmonics that a kinetic theory does, is compensated by simple derivations and clear picture based on the renormalization of the gyro-viscosity.

  13. Wave Effects Related to Altitude Variations in the Ion Composition of the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, D. I.; Shklyar, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Properties of the waves, which can propagate in a magnetized plasma in the frequency range below the proton gyrofrequency, depend strongly on the ion composition of the plasma. Addition of a new sort of ions leads to the appearance of a new resonance frequency, at which the refractive index becomes infinite, and a new cutoff frequency, at which the refractive index becomes zero. In this case, the topology of frequency dependence of the squared refractive index changes. Specifically, a new oscillation branch appears, which is located above the cutoff frequency. A question arises whether these oscillations are excited if radiation with the corresponding frequency, which propagates in a different mode, is present in the plasma. A linear transformation of the waves is another important effect, which is related to variations in the ion plasma composition. These two issues, which are directly related to the theory of formation of proton whistlers in the ionosphere, where the ion composition varies with altitude, are considered in this work.

  14. Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, M.; Vranjes, J.

    2015-11-15

    A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Lamor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself indicates the backward nature of dispersion. The usual disadvantage of a fluid theory, which treats only fundamental modes of eigen-waves excited in a system and is not able to describe higher harmonics that a kinetic theory does, is compensated by simple derivations and clear picture based on the renormalization of the gyro-viscosity.

  15. Local structures of ions at ion-exchange resin/solution interface.

    PubMed

    Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2005-08-26

    The local structures of Cl- and Br- in anion-exchange resins have been studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and separation selectivity is discussed on the basis of results. When two different anion-exchange resins having trimethylammonium and dimethylammonium groups as anion-exchange groups are employed for ion-exchange experiments, slightly higher Br- selectivity has been obtained with the former. XAFS has indicated that the average hydration numbers for a given anion is not affected by the structure of the ion-exchange group, but that the extent of ion-association between the anion and the ion-exchange groups depends on the type of the ion-exchange group. Shorter interaction distance (and in turn stronger ion-association) has been confirmed for the dimethylammonium-type resin, and is consistent with lower Br- selectivity of this resin.

  16. A simple method to estimate relative stabilities of polyethers cationized by alkali metal ions.

    PubMed

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Shemirani, Ghazaleh; Memboeuf, Antony; Drahos, László; Vékey, Károly; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2012-02-15

    Dissociation of doubly cationized polyethers, namely [P + 2X](2+) into [P + X](+) and X(+), where P = polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG) and polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) and X = Na, K and Cs, was studied by means of energy-dependent collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. It was observed that the collision voltage necessary to obtain 50% fragmentation (CV(50)) determined for the doubly cationized polyethers of higher degree of polymerization varied linearly with the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) values. This observation allowed us to correlate these slopes with the corresponding relative gas-phase dissociation energies for binding of alkali ions to polyethers. The relative dissociation energies determined from the corresponding slopes were found to decrease in the order Na(+)  > K(+)  > Cs(+) for each polyether studied, and an order PPG ≈ PEG > PTHF can be established for each alkali metal ion.

  17. A perpendicular ion beam instability - Solutions to the linear dispersion relation. [for F region ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A 200-eV Xe(+) ion beam directed perpendicular to the terrestrial magnetic field in the F region ionosphere produced very narrow band electrostatic emissions just above multiples of the hydrogen cyclotron frequency. Although the plasma conditions associated with the ion beam were undoubtedly very complex, a simple ion beam in a background ionosphere is considered first. The dispersion relation for flute mode waves and an unmagnetized perpendicular ion beam is solved for a diffuse H(+) plasma and then for a combination of dense O(+) and diffuse H(+). These solutions account for most of the wave properties, including the observation of narrow spectral peaks separated by the hydrogen cyclotron frequency and the observation of no spectral peaks below 2000 Hz. We cannot dismiss field-aligned currents associated with the Xe(+) beam as an alternate source of free energy for the narrow band emissions. However, our intention here is to examine closely the Xe(+) beam as a source for directly exciting the plasma waves.

  18. Relation between the ion size and pore size for an electric double-layer capacitor.

    PubMed

    Largeot, Celine; Portet, Cristelle; Chmiola, John; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Gogotsi, Yury; Simon, Patrice

    2008-03-05

    The research on electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors, is quickly expanding because their power delivery performance fills the gap between dielectric capacitors and traditional batteries. However, many fundamental questions, such as the relations between the pore size of carbon electrodes, ion size of the electrolyte, and the capacitance have not yet been fully answered. We show that the pore size leading to the maximum double-layer capacitance of a TiC-derived carbon electrode in a solvent-free ethyl-methylimmidazolium-bis(trifluoro-methane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) ionic liquid is roughly equal to the ion size (approximately 0.7 nm). The capacitance values of TiC-CDC produced at 500 degrees C are more than 160 F/g and 85 F/cm(3) at 60 degrees C, while standard activated carbons with larger pores and a broader pore size distribution present capacitance values lower than 100 F/g and 50 F/cm(3) in ionic liquids. A significant drop in capacitance has been observed in pores that were larger or smaller than the ion size by just an angstrom, suggesting that the pore size must be tuned with sub-angstrom accuracy when selecting a carbon/ion couple. This work suggests a general approach to EDLC design leading to the maximum energy density, which has been now proved for both solvated organic salts and solvent-free liquid electrolytes.

  19. Determination of relative ion chamber calibration coefficients from depth-ionization measurements in clinical electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-10-01

    A method is presented to obtain ion chamber calibration coefficients relative to secondary standard reference chambers in electron beams using depth-ionization measurements. Results are obtained as a function of depth and average electron energy at depth in 4, 8, 12 and 18 MeV electron beams from the NRC Elekta Precise linac. The PTW Roos, Scanditronix NACP-02, PTW Advanced Markus and NE 2571 ion chambers are investigated. The challenges and limitations of the method are discussed. The proposed method produces useful data at shallow depths. At depths past the reference depth, small shifts in positioning or drifts in the incident beam energy affect the results, thereby providing a built-in test of incident electron energy drifts and/or chamber set-up. Polarity corrections for ion chambers as a function of average electron energy at depth agree with literature data. The proposed method produces results consistent with those obtained using the conventional calibration procedure while gaining much more information about the behavior of the ion chamber with similar data acquisition time. Measurement uncertainties in calibration coefficients obtained with this method are estimated to be less than 0.5%. These results open up the possibility of using depth-ionization measurements to yield chamber ratios which may be suitable for primary standards-level dissemination.

  20. Ion chromatography for the separation of heparin and structurally related glycoaminoglycans: A review.

    PubMed

    Fasciano, Jennifer M; Danielson, Neil D

    2016-03-01

    The global crisis resulting from adulterated heparin in late 2007 and early 2008 revived the importance of analytical techniques for the purity analysis of heparin products. The utilization of ion chromatography techniques for the separation, detection, and structural determination of heparin and structurally related glycoaminoglycans, including their corresponding oligosaccharides, has become increasingly important. This review summarizes the primary HPLC approaches, particularly strong anion exchange, weak ion exchange, and reversed-phase ion-pair, used for heparin purity analysis as well as structural characterization. Strong anion exchange HPLC has been studied most extensively and currently offers the best separation of crude heparin and heparin-like compounds. Weak anion exchange HPLC has been shown to provide shorter analysis times with lower salt concentrations in the mobile phase but is not as widely developed for the separation of all glycoaminoglycans of interest. Reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC offers fast and effective separations of oligosaccharides derived from glycoaminoglycans that can be coupled to mass spectrometry for structural analysis. However, this method generally does not provide sufficient retention of intact glycoaminoglycans.

  1. Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions for induction of morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Z B; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-09-01

    Syrian hamster embryo cells were used to study the morphological transformation induced by accelerated heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET) ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micron. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), then inoculated to culture dishes. Morphologically altered colonies were scored as transformants. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to X-rays first increased with LET, reached a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micron, then decreased with the further increase of LET. Our findings confirmed that high LET heavy ions are much more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

  2. The Relative Deep Penetrations of Energetic Electrons and Ions into the Slot Region and Inner Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere are distributed into two regions: the inner radiation belt and the outer radiation belt, with the slot region in between separating the two belts. Though many studies have focused on the outer belt dynamics, the energetic electrons in the slot region and especially inner belt did not receive much attention until recently. A number of new features regarding electrons in the low L region have been reported lately, including the abundance of 10s-100s of keV electrons in the inner belt, the frequent deep injections of 100s of keV electrons, and 90°-minimum pitch angle distributions of 100s of keV electrons in the inner belt and slot region. In this presentation, we focus on the relative deep injections into the slot region and inner belt of energetic electrons and ions using observations from HOPE and MagEIS instruments on the Van Allen Probes. It is shown that while 10s - 100s of keV electrons penetrate commonly deep into the low L region and are persistent in the inner belt, the deep injections of ions with similar energies occur rarely, possibly due to the fast loss of ions in the low L region. The energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons and ions during injections are also very different, indicating the existence of different physical mechanisms acting on them. In addition, some intriguing similarities between lower energy ions and higher energy electrons will also be discussed.

  3. Quantification of the Relative Biological Effectiveness for Ion Beam Radiotherapy: Direct Experimental Comparison of Proton and Carbon Ion Beams and a Novel Approach for Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaesser, Thilo; Weyrather, Wilma K.; Friedrich, Thomas; Durante, Marco; Iancu, Gheorghe; Kraemer, Michael; Kragl, Gabriele; Brons, Stephan; Winter, Marcus; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Scholz, Michael

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To present the first direct experimental in vitro comparison of the biological effectiveness of range-equivalent protons and carbon ion beams for Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed in a three-dimensional phantom using a pencil beam scanning technique and to compare the experimental data with a novel biophysical model. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was measured in the phantom after irradiation with two opposing fields, thus mimicking the typical patient treatment scenario. The novel biophysical model represents a substantial extension of the local effect model, previously used for treatment planning in carbon ion therapy for more than 400 patients, and potentially can be used to predict effectiveness of all ion species relevant for radiotherapy. A key feature of the new approach is the more sophisticated consideration of spatially correlated damage induced by ion irradiation. Results: The experimental data obtained for Chinese hamster ovary cells clearly demonstrate that higher cell killing is achieved in the target region with carbon ions as compared with protons when the effects in the entrance channel are comparable. The model predictions demonstrate agreement with these experimental data and with data obtained with helium ions under similar conditions. Good agreement is also achieved with relative biological effectiveness values reported in the literature for other cell lines for monoenergetic proton, helium, and carbon ions. Conclusion: Both the experimental data and the new modeling approach are supportive of the advantages of carbon ions as compared with protons for treatment-like field configurations. Because the model predicts the effectiveness for several ion species with similar accuracy, it represents a powerful tool for further optimization and utilization of the potential of ion beams in tumor therapy.

  4. Spatial distribution and energy deposition of precipitating Oxygen ions and their relation with the Martian crustal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Yiteng

    In the electromagnetic environment set by the MHD model (Ma et al.,2004), considering the dynamic feature of O+ ions, the spatial distributions and energy spectra of O+ ions impacting the atmosphere of Mars are calculated by tracing the trajectories of cold O+ ions launched from the sunlit hemisphere. The effects of the crustal fields on the spatial distribution of precipitating O+ ions are investigated by turning on or off the crustal fields. Global maps of precipitating O+ ion flux show that the crustal fields have no significant effect on the spatial distribution of lower energy precipitating ions(<100eV), while the distribution of higher energyprecipitating O+ ions (>100eV) is closely related with the distribution of the crustal fields. Most O+ ions originated in lower exosphere impact day side atmosphere before getting much energy since the electric field is weak there. O+ ions from higher source may impact the atmosphere with higher energy deposition, forming patchy precipitation regions both at dayside and nightside when the crustal fields are present. A precipitation belt formed by high energy O+ ions (around 1keV) is found near the midnight region, revealing that the crustal fields may change the electromagnetic environment near Mars significantly and result in the acceleration of precipitating O+ ions at the nightside. Together with the rotation of the planet, the consequences of the impacting of O+, including heating and sputtering of the atmosphere and ionosphere, should be much more complicated than expected.

  5. Ion irradiation-induced diffusion in bixbyite-fluorite related oxides: Dislocations and phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolly, Gaboriaud; Fabien, Paumier; Bertrand, Lacroix

    2014-05-01

    Ion-irradiation induced diffusion and the phase transformation of a bixbyite-fluorite related rare earth oxide thin films are studied. This work is focused on yttrium sesquioxide, Y2O3, thin films deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates using the ion beam sputtering technique (IBS). As-deposited samples were annealed ant then irradiated at cryogenic temperature (80 K) with 260 keV Xe2+ at different fluences. The irradiated thin oxide films are characterized by X-ray diffraction. A cubic to monoclinic phase transformation was observed. Analysis of this phenomenon is done in terms of residual stresses. Stress measurements as a function of irradiation fluences were realised using the XRD-sin2ψ method. Stress evolution and kinetic of the phase transformation are compared and leads to the role-played by the nucleation of point and extended defects.

  6. AUTOMATED DETERMINATION OF PRECURSOR ION, PRODUCT ION, AND NEUTRAL LOSS COMPOSITIONS AND DECONVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA USING ION CORRELATION BASED ON EXACT MASSES AND RELATIVE ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a dispersive event, rapid determination of elemental compositions of ions in mass spectra is essential for tentatively identifying compounds. A Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)® ion source interfaced to a JEOL AccuTOF® mass spectrometer provided exact masses accurate to ...

  7. A linear dispersion relation for the hybrid kinetic-ion/fluid-electron model of plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Told, D.; Cookmeyer, J.; Astfalk, P.; Jenko, F.

    2016-07-01

    A dispersion relation for a commonly used hybrid model of plasma physics is developed, which combines fully kinetic ions and a massless-electron fluid description. Although this model and variations of it have been used to describe plasma phenomena for about 40 years, to date there exists no general dispersion relation to describe the linear wave physics contained in the model. Previous efforts along these lines are extended here to retain arbitrary wave propagation angles, temperature anisotropy effects, as well as additional terms in the generalized Ohm’s law which determines the electric field. A numerical solver for the dispersion relation is developed, and linear wave physics is benchmarked against solutions of a full Vlasov-Maxwell dispersion relation solver. This work opens the door to a more accurate interpretation of existing and future wave and turbulence simulations using this type of hybrid model.

  8. A Simpler Energy Transfer Efficiency Model to Predict Relative Biological Effect for Protons and Heavier Ions

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bleddyn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to predict relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for protons and clinically relevant heavier ions, by using a simplified semi-empirical process based on rational expectations and published experimental results using different ion species. The model input parameters are: Z (effective nuclear charge) and radiosensitivity parameters αL and βL of the control low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Sequential saturation processes are assumed for: (a) the position of the turnover point (LETU) for the LET–RBE relationship with Z, and (b) the ultimate value of α at this point (αU) being non-linearly related to αL. Using the same procedure for β, on the logical assumption that the changes in β with LET, although smaller than α, are symmetrical with those of α, since there is symmetry of the fall off of LET–RBE curves with increasing dose, which suggests that LETU must be identical for α and β. Then, using iso-effective linear quadratic model equations, the estimated RBE is scaled between αU and αL and between βU and βL from for any input value of Z, αL, βL, and dose. The model described is fitted to the data of Barendsen (alpha particles), Weyrather et al. (carbon ions), and Todd for nine different ions (deuterons to Argon), which include variations in cell surviving fraction and dose. In principle, this new system can be used to complement the more complex methods to predict RBE with LET such as the local effect and MKM models which already have been incorporated into treatment planning systems in various countries. It would be useful to have a secondary check to such systems, especially to alert clinicians of potential risks by relatively easy estimation of relevant RBEs. In clinical practice, LET values smaller than LETU are mostly encountered, but the model extends to higher values beyond LETU for other purposes such as radiation, protection, and astrobiology. Considerable further research is required, perhaps in a

  9. Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Lead Toxicity Are Related to the Ion Profile in Chicken Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Liu, Chun Peng; Teng, Xiao Hua; Fu, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Complex antagonistic interactions between Selenium (Se) and heavy metals have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Se on lead (Pb)-induced toxicity and the ion profile in the muscles of chickens. In this present study, we fed chickens either Se or Pb or both Se and Pb supplement and later analyzed the concentrations of 26 ions in chicken muscle tissues. We determined that a Se- and Pb-containing diets significantly affected microelements in chicken muscle. Treatment with Se increased the content of Se but resulted in a reduced concentration of Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Ba. Treatment with Pb increased concentrations of Ni while reducing those of B, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Mo. Moreover, Se also reduced the concentration of Pb, Zn, Co, Fe, V, and Cr, which in contrast were induced by Pb. Additionally, we also found that synergistic and antagonistic interactions existed between Se and Pb supplementation. Our findings suggested that Se can exert a negative effect on Pb in chicken muscle tissues and may be related to changes in ion profiles.

  10. Mechanistic insights related to the design and construction of lithium single ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahlinger, Gregory

    Lithium single ion conductors are a class of electrolytes, typically designed for lithium ion batteries, with the potential to improve the performance of these batteries. The benefits of single ion conductors arise out of the fact that their immobile anions are not capable of concentrating near the anode of the battery, causing an increase in resistance as the battery is discharged. Unfortunately lithium single ion conductors suffer severe drawbacks in their conductivity which have been attributed to diverse causes. Because of the low success rate of single ion conductors in the literature and previous work in the Baker group, I have chosen to investigate mechanistic questions related to the design and construction of these materials, without engineering new materials. An attractive design strategy for the screening of immobile anion moieties for single ion conductors would be the use of the copper catalyzed alkyne azide (CUAAC) "click" reaction in order to efficiently introduce anions onto a polymer or nanoparticle support in a way that is efficient and tunable. A variable added by this strategy would be the presence of a 1,2,3-triazole moiety which is without any significant precedent in the lithium ion electrolyte literature. In order to assess the impact of the triazole in on the conductivity of an electrolyte a series of model compounds were synthesized containing a variable number of triazoles in an otherwise poly(ethylene glycol) like oligomer chain. The model compounds were subjected to differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and in one case single crystal X-ray diffraction, and solvent shells were modeled for lithium with and without triazoles using ab initio quantum chemistry calculations. It was concluded that the triazole is not significantly stronger than an ether oxygen as a ligand in the electrolytes, however the triazole has a substantial dipole which exerts some deleterious effects on the conductivity, leading to

  11. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  12. Dispersion relation of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi-component magneto-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khaira, Vibhooti Ahirwar, G.

    2015-07-31

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi component plasma composed of electrons (denoted by e{sup −}), hydrogen ions (denoted by H{sup +}), helium ions (denoted by He{sup +}) and positively charged oxygen ions (denoted by O{sup +})in magnetized cold plasma. The wave is assumed to propagate perpendicular to the static magnetic field. It is found that the addition of heavy ions in the plasma dispersion modified the lower hybrid mode and also allowed an ion-ion mode. The frequencies of the lower hybrid and ion- ion hybrid modes are derived using cold plasma theory. It is observed that the effect of multi-ionfor different plasma densities on electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is to enhance the wave frequencies. The results are interpreted for the magnetosphere has been applied parameters by auroral acceleration region.

  13. Linear and nonlinear physics of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability of fusion-born ions in relation to ion cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajal, L. Cook, J. W. S.; Dendy, R. O.; Chapman, S. C.

    2014-01-15

    The magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI) probably underlies observations of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from energetic ion populations in tokamak plasmas, including fusion-born alpha-particles in JET and TFTR [Dendy et al., Nucl. Fusion 35, 1733 (1995)]. ICE is a potential diagnostic for lost alpha-particles in ITER; furthermore, the MCI is representative of a class of collective instabilities, which may result in the partial channelling of the free energy of energetic ions into radiation, and away from collisional heating of the plasma. Deep understanding of the MCI is thus of substantial practical interest for fusion, and the hybrid approximation for the plasma, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, offers an attractive way forward. The hybrid simulations presented here access MCI physics that arises on timescales longer than can be addressed by fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and by analytical linear theory, which the present simulations largely corroborate. Our results go further than previous studies by entering into the nonlinear stage of the MCI, which shows novel features. These include stronger drive at low cyclotron harmonics, the re-energisation of the alpha-particle population, self-modulation of the phase shift between the electrostatic and electromagnetic components, and coupling between low and high frequency modes of the excited electromagnetic field.

  14. Multi-dimensional TOF-SIMS analysis for effective profiling of disease-related ions from the tissue surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Won; Jeong, Hyobin; Kang, Byeongsoo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sang Yoon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hark Kyun; Choi, Joon Sig; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2015-06-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) emerges as a promising tool to identify the ions (small molecules) indicative of disease states from the surface of patient tissues. In TOF-SIMS analysis, an enhanced ionization of surface molecules is critical to increase the number of detected ions. Several methods have been developed to enhance ionization capability. However, how these methods improve identification of disease-related ions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a multi-dimensional SIMS (MD-SIMS) that combines conventional TOF-SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS (MetA-SIMS). Using this approach, we analyzed cancer and adjacent normal tissues first by TOF-SIMS and subsequently by MetA-SIMS. In total, TOF- and MetA-SIMS detected 632 and 959 ions, respectively. Among them, 426 were commonly detected by both methods, while 206 and 533 were detected uniquely by TOF- and MetA-SIMS, respectively. Of the 426 commonly detected ions, 250 increased in their intensities by MetA-SIMS, whereas 176 decreased. The integrated analysis of the ions detected by the two methods resulted in an increased number of discriminatory ions leading to an enhanced separation between cancer and normal tissues. Therefore, the results show that MD-SIMS can be a useful approach to provide a comprehensive list of discriminatory ions indicative of disease states.

  15. Multi-dimensional TOF-SIMS analysis for effective profiling of disease-related ions from the tissue surface.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Won; Jeong, Hyobin; Kang, Byeongsoo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sang Yoon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hark Kyun; Choi, Joon Sig; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2015-06-05

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) emerges as a promising tool to identify the ions (small molecules) indicative of disease states from the surface of patient tissues. In TOF-SIMS analysis, an enhanced ionization of surface molecules is critical to increase the number of detected ions. Several methods have been developed to enhance ionization capability. However, how these methods improve identification of disease-related ions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a multi-dimensional SIMS (MD-SIMS) that combines conventional TOF-SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS (MetA-SIMS). Using this approach, we analyzed cancer and adjacent normal tissues first by TOF-SIMS and subsequently by MetA-SIMS. In total, TOF- and MetA-SIMS detected 632 and 959 ions, respectively. Among them, 426 were commonly detected by both methods, while 206 and 533 were detected uniquely by TOF- and MetA-SIMS, respectively. Of the 426 commonly detected ions, 250 increased in their intensities by MetA-SIMS, whereas 176 decreased. The integrated analysis of the ions detected by the two methods resulted in an increased number of discriminatory ions leading to an enhanced separation between cancer and normal tissues. Therefore, the results show that MD-SIMS can be a useful approach to provide a comprehensive list of discriminatory ions indicative of disease states.

  16. Parametric dependence of ion temperature and relative density in the NASA Lewis SUMMA facility. [superconducting magnetic mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, A.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Further hot-ion plasma experiments were conducted in the SUMMA superconducting magnetic mirror facility. A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field between cylindrical anodes and hollow cathodes located near the magnetic mirror maxima. Extending the use of water cooling to the hollow cathodes, in addition to the anodes, resulted in higher maximum power input to the plasma. Steady-state hydrogen plasmas with ion kinetic temperatures as high as 830 eV were produced. Functional relations were obtained empirically among the plasma current, voltage, magnetic flux density, ion temperature, and relative ion density. The functional relations were deduced by use of a multiple correlation analysis. Data were obtained for midplane magnetic fields from 0.5 to 3.37 tesla and input power up to 45 kW. Also, initial absolute electron density measurements are reported from a 90 deg Thomson scattering laser system.

  17. Characterization of the ion cathode fall region in relation to the growth rate in plasma sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmero, A.; van Hattum, E. D.; Rudolph, H.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2007-02-01

    In plasma-assisted magnetron sputtering, the ion cathode fall region is the part of the plasma where the DC electric field and ion current evolve from zero to their maximum values at the cathode. These quantities are straightforwardly related to the deposition rate of the sputtered material. In this work we derive simple relations for the measurable axially averaged values of the ion density and the ion current at the ion cathode fall region and relate them with the deposition rate. These relations have been tested experimentally in the case of an argon plasma in a magnetron sputtering system devoted to depositing amorphous silicon. Using a movable Langmuir probe, the profiles of the plasma potential and ion density were measured along an axis perpendicularly to the cathode and in front of the so-called race-track. The deposition rate of silicon, under different conditions of pressure and input power, has been found to compare well with those determined with the relations derived.

  18. Domain-based identification and analysis of glutamate receptor ion channels and their relatives in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ger, Mao-Feng; Rendon, Gloria; Tilson, Jeffrey L; Jakobsson, Eric

    2010-10-06

    Voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels are used in eukaryotic organisms for the purpose of electrochemical signaling. There are prokaryotic homologues to major eukaryotic channels of these sorts, including voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels, Ach-receptor and glutamate-receptor channels. The prokaryotic homologues have been less well characterized functionally than their eukaryotic counterparts. In this study we identify likely prokaryotic functional counterparts of eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels by comprehensive analysis of the prokaryotic sequences in the context of known functional domains present in the eukaryotic members of this family. In particular, we searched the nonredundant protein database for all proteins containing the following motif: the two sections of the extracellular glutamate binding domain flanking two transmembrane helices. We discovered 100 prokaryotic sequences containing this motif, with a wide variety of functional annotations. Two groups within this family have the same topology as eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels. Group 1 has a potassium-like selectivity filter. Group 2 is most closely related to eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels. We present analysis of the functional domain architecture for the group of 100, a putative phylogenetic tree, comparison of the protein phylogeny with the corresponding species phylogeny, consideration of the distribution of these proteins among classes of prokaryotes, and orthologous relationships between prokaryotic and human glutamate receptor channels. We introduce a construct called the Evolutionary Domain Network, which represents a putative pathway of domain rearrangements underlying the domain composition of present channels. We believe that scientists interested in ion channels in general, and ligand-gated ion channels in particular, will be interested in this work. The work should also be of interest to bioinformatics researchers who are interested in the use

  19. Relation between ligand design and transition energy for the praseodymium ion in crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianju; Tanner, Peter A

    2015-01-08

    Ten substituted benzoate complexes of Pr(3+) of the type [Pr(XC6H4COO)3(H2O)n(DMF)m]p·(DMF)q (X = OCH3, NO2, OH, F, Cl, NH2) have been synthesized, and for eight of these crystallographic data are available. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of the complexes have been recorded and interpreted at temperatures down to 10 K for transitions involving the (3)P0 and (1)D2 J-multiplet terms. Generally, the electron-withdrawing groups X in the benzoate moiety lead to higher (3)P0 energy than electron-donating groups. Empirical relations have been found between the energies of the (3)P0 and (1)D2(1) levels and the Hammett sigma constants for substituents and the unit cell volume per Pr(3+) ion. The latter relationship is indicative of a correlation between the electronic state energy and the ligand dipole polarizability. This has been confirmed by reference to literature data for the LaX3:Pr(3+) systems, so that the ligand dipole polarizability is a key factor in determining the nephelauxetic shifts of 4f(N) ions in crystals.

  20. Cartilage-Specific Knockout of the Mechanosensory Ion Channel TRPV4 Decreases Age-Related Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    O’Conor, Christopher J.; Ramalingam, Sendhilnathan; Zelenski, Nicole A.; Benefield, Halei C.; Rigo, Isaura; Little, Dianne; Wu, Chia-Lung; Chen, Di; Liedtke, Wolfgang; McNulty, Amy L.; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of articular cartilage and surrounding tissues, and is associated with both advanced age and joint injury. Biomechanical factors play a critical role in the onset and progression of OA, yet the mechanisms through which physiologic or pathologic mechanical signals are transduced into a cellular response are not well understood. Defining the role of mechanosensory pathways in cartilage during OA pathogenesis may yield novel strategies or targets for the treatment of OA. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channel transduces mechanical loading of articular cartilage via the generation of intracellular calcium ion transients. Using tissue-specific, inducible Trpv4 gene-targeted mice, we demonstrate that loss of TRPV4-mediated cartilage mechanotransduction in adulthood reduces the severity of aging-associated OA. However, loss of chondrocyte TRPV4 did not prevent OA development following destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). These results highlight potentially distinct roles of TRPV4-mediated cartilage mechanotransduction in age-related and post-traumatic OA, and point to a novel disease-modifying strategy to therapeutically target the TRPV4-mediated mechanotransduction pathway for the treatment of aging-associated OA. PMID:27388701

  1. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a bibliography for 1991 on the following topics: Atom probe field ion microscopy; field desorption mass spectrometry; field emission; field ion microscopy; and field emission theory.

  2. Extended Injection Histories of Near-Relativisitic Solar Electrons and Their Relation to SEP Ion Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, D. K.; Roelof, E. C.

    2003-12-01

    Energetic solar electrons provide important information on the acceleration and release of all classes of solar energetic particles (SEPs). The relationships of their intensities to ion abundances and isotopic composition (e.g., 3He/4He) have been studied for decades. Their near-light speed and nearly scatter-free propagation out to 1AU preserve many details of their injection into the solar wind. Recently we have been exploiting the high timing and angular resolution of the ACE/EPAM measurements of 38-315 keV electrons [Haggerty and Roelof, ApJ., 579, 841, 2002]. We now are able to reconstruct the injection histories of beam-like electrons extending well into the SEP events. This is accomplished by subtracting out the back-scattered electrons that have returned from magnetic irregularities beyond 1 AU, mirrored inside 1AU, and then returned to 1AU. The difference between the total outgoing intensity and that of this mirrored component (time delayed) gives the intensity of the electrons that are still arriving directly from the Sun. The mathematical relation is js(μ ,t-s/v)=j(μ ,t)-j(-μ ,t-2τ ), where μ is the pitch cosine (measured positive anti-sunwards), s is the trajectory distance traveled at velocity v, and τ is the time for a particle with pitch cosine μ <0 at 1AU to reach its mirroring point inside 1AU. We find that the injection of solar electrons often lasts for considerably more than an hour at significant intensities. This analysis yields new diagnostics of the acceleration/release process, which we have ascribed to CME-associated shock acceleration [Simnett, Roelof, and Haggerty, ApJ, 579, 854, 2002]. The relation of electron injection to ion injection and 3He/4He variations is the subject of an ongoing joint study [Mewaldt et al., 28thICRC, SH1.3, 17, 2003].

  3. Impurity trapped exciton states related to rare earth ions in crystals under high hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, M. Mahlik, S.

    2013-01-15

    Emission related to rare earth ions in solids takes place usually due to 4f{sup n} {yields} 4f{sup n} and 4f{sup n-1}5d{sup 1} {yields} 4f{sup n} internal transitions. In the case of band to band excitation the effective energy transfer from the host to optically active impurity is required. Among other processes one of the possibilities is capturing of the electron at excited state and hole at the ground state of impurity. Localization of electron or hole at the dopand site creates a long range Coulomb potential that attracts the second carrier which then occupies the localized Rydberg-like states. Such a system can be considered as impurity trapped exciton. Usually impurity trapped exciton is a short living phenomenon which decays non-radiatively leaving the impurity ion in the excited state. However, in several compounds doped with Eu{sup 2+} the impurity trapped exciton states become stable and contribute to the radiative processes though anomalous luminescence that appears apart of the 4f{sup 7} {yields} 4f{sup 7} and 4f{sup 7}5d{sup 1} {yields} 5f{sup 7} emission. In this contribution pressure effect on energies of the 4f{sup n-1}5d{sup 1}{yields}5f{sup n} transitions in Ln doped oxides and fluorides as well as influence of pressure on the energy of impurity trapped exciton states is discussed. The latest results on high pressure investigations of luminescence related to Pr{sup 3+}, and Eu{sup 2+} in different lattices are reviewed.

  4. Linear dispersion relation of beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in presence of anisotropic energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ruirui; Chavdarovski, Ilija; Ye, Gaoxiang; Wang, Xin

    2014-06-15

    Using the theoretical framework of the generalized fishbone-like dispersion relation, the linear properties of beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs) and energetic particle continuum modes (EPMs) excited by anisotropic slowing-down energetic ions are investigated analytically and numerically. The resonant contribution of energetic ions to the potential energy perturbation as well as fluid-like term describing the background plasma and adiabatic contribution of energetic ions are derived. For high-mode numbers, numerical results show smooth transition between the EP continuous spectrum and BAEs in the gap. EPMs and/or BAEs are destabilized by energetic ions, with real frequencies and growth rates strongly dependent on the energetic particle density and resonant frequency.

  5. Linear dispersion relation of beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in presence of anisotropic energetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruirui; Chavdarovski, Ilija; Ye, Gaoxiang; Wang, Xin

    2014-06-01

    Using the theoretical framework of the generalized fishbone-like dispersion relation, the linear properties of beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs) and energetic particle continuum modes (EPMs) excited by anisotropic slowing-down energetic ions are investigated analytically and numerically. The resonant contribution of energetic ions to the potential energy perturbation as well as fluid-like term describing the background plasma and adiabatic contribution of energetic ions are derived. For high-mode numbers, numerical results show smooth transition between the EP continuous spectrum and BAEs in the gap. EPMs and/or BAEs are destabilized by energetic ions, with real frequencies and growth rates strongly dependent on the energetic particle density and resonant frequency.

  6. H.F. emission related to the Li+ ion beam injected into ionosphere - ``PLAZMA'' rocket experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, Z.; Zbyszynski, Z.; Agafonov, U. F.; Managadze, G. G.; Mayorov, A. D.

    1993-10-01

    The H.F. emission generated by artificial ion beam injected into ionosphere was observed either with a wave detector and ion gun attached to the rocket through out the flight, or when the gun was deployed on subpayload. Generally the observations show unstructured shape of the H.F. spectrum. In the PLAZMA active rocket experiment - when ionospheric plasma was perturbed by the operation of impulse ion gun, which injected 300 A, 8.3 eV Li+ions - the waves in the 0.1 - 10 MHz frequency range were observed. The results have shown, that when the wave detector and the ion gun are attached to the rocket the emission enhances in the lower as well as in the upper parts of the spectrum. On the other hand only the lower increase is maintained when ion gun is removing away on the subpayload. The observed sequence of H.F. spectra is presented.

  7. Hydropathic influences on the quantification of equine heart cytochrome c using relative ion abundance measurements by electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E F; Mansoori, B A; Carroll, C F; Muddiman, D C

    1999-10-01

    The number of publications documenting the utility of electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) for the analysis of biological molecules has increased in geometric proportion spanning diverse areas of research. Currently, we are investigating the capabilities of ESI-FTICR to quantify relative molecular ion abundances of biopolymers, an area which has not been explored rigorously. We present here the results of an investigation of a two-component system utilizing equine heart cytochrome c (EH) as the analyte and bovine heart cytochrome c (BH) as a constant concentration internal standard. As these compounds are relatively large ( approximately 12 kDa), they will become multiply charged during the electrospray process. Using appropriate solution and instrument conditions, the 7(+) and 8(+) charge states were enhanced for both cytochrome c species. We report that using the average of the ion abundances for the two charge states observed for each species, the linear curve (intensity ratio vs concentration ratio) had a dynamic range of 0.045-2.348 microM (1.7 orders of magnitude). Linear least-squares regression analysis (LLSRA) of these averaged ion abundances (i.e. [(EH + 7H(+))(7+)/(BH + 7H(+))(7+) + (EH + 8H(+))(8+)/(BH + 8H(+))(8+)]/2) yielded the equation y = 1.005x + 0.027. The slope of the line with its calculated precision, reported as one standard deviation, is 1.005 +/- 0.0150, which is statistically ideal (i.e. equal to unity). However, LLSRA of the ion abundances of the two individual charge states were significantly different (i.e. the slope of the (EH + 7H(+))(7+)/(BH + 7H(+))(7+) peak intensity ratio vs molar ratio data was 0.885 +/- 0.0183 and the slope of the (EH + 8H(+))(8+)/(BH + 8H(+))(8+) data was 1.125 +/- 0.0308). We attribute this difference to the variation in primary amino acid sequence for the two cytochrome c species. Both have 104 amino acids, but there are three residue

  8. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ions for Local Tumor Control of a Radioresistant Prostate Carcinoma in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Peschke, Peter; Karger, Christian P.; Scholz, Michael; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ion beams relative to X-rays for local tumor control in a syngeneic rat prostate tumor (Dunning subline R3327-AT1). Methods and Materials: A total of 198 animals with tumors in the distal thigh were treated with increasing single and split doses of either {sup 12}C ions or photons using a 20-mm spread-out Bragg peak. Endpoints of the study were local control (no tumor recurrence within 300 days) and volumetric changes after irradiation. The resulting values for D{sub 50} (dose at 50% tumor control probability) were used to determine RBE values. Results: The D{sub 50} values for single doses were 32.9 {+-} 0.9 Gy for {sup 12}C ions and 75.7 {+-} 1.6 Gy for photons. The respective values for split doses were 38.0 {+-} 2.3 Gy and 90.6 {+-} 2.3 Gy. The corresponding RBE values were 2.30 {+-} 0.08 for single and 2.38 {+-} 0.16 for split doses. The most prominent side effects were dry and moist desquamation of the skin, which disappeared within weeks. Conclusion: The study confirmed the effectiveness of carbon ion therapy for severely radioresistant tumors. For 1- and 2-fraction photon and {sup 12}C ion radiation, we have established individual D{sub 50} values for local tumor control as well as related RBE values.

  9. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.F.; Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations of books, conference proceedings, journals, and patents published in 1992 on the following types of microscopy: atom probe field ion microscopy (108 items); field emission microscopy (101 items); and field ion microscopy (48 items). An addendum of 34 items missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  10. Trial of a negative ion generator device in remediating problems related to indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, W.; Camp, J.; Horstman, S. )

    1991-06-01

    It has been suggested that supplementation of indoor air with negative ions can improve air quality. This study examined the effects of a negative ion-generator device on air contaminants and symptom reporting in two office buildings. Separate sets of functional and nonfunctional negative ion generators were monitored using a double blind, crossover design involving two 5-week exposure periods. There were no detectable direct or residual effects of negative ion generator use on air ion levels, airborn particulates, carbon dioxide levels, or symptom reporting. Symptom reporting declined at both sites initially and appeared to be consistent with placebo effect. Job dissatisfaction was an apparent contributor to symptom reporting, with a magnitude comparable to presumed effects of air quality. Further testing of such devices is needed before they should be considered for office air quality problems.

  11. Changes in Transcript Related to Osmosis and Intracellular Ion Homeostasis in Paulownia tomentosa under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guoqiang; Wang, Limin; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Li, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is an important economic and greening tree species that is cultivated widely, including salt environment. Our previous studies indicated its autotetraploid induced by colchicine showed better stress tolerance, but the underlying molecular mechanism related to ploidy and salt stress is still unclear. To investigate this issue, physiological measurements and transcriptome profiling of diploid and autotetraploid plants untreated and treated with NaCl were performed. Through the comparisons among four accessions, for one thing, we found different physiological changes between diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa; for another, and we detected many differentially expressed unigenes involved in salt stress response. These differentially expressed unigenes were assigned to several metabolic pathways, including “plant hormone signal transduction,” “RNA transporter,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” and “plant-pathogen interaction,” which constructed the complex regulatory network to maintain osmotic and intracellular ion homeostasis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the expression patterns of 20 unigenes. The results establish the foundation for the genetic basis of salt tolerance in P. tomentosa, which in turn accelerates Paulownia breeding and expands available arable land. PMID:27066034

  12. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality.

  13. Changes in Transcript Related to Osmosis and Intracellular Ion Homeostasis in Paulownia tomentosa under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoqiang; Wang, Limin; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Li, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is an important economic and greening tree species that is cultivated widely, including salt environment. Our previous studies indicated its autotetraploid induced by colchicine showed better stress tolerance, but the underlying molecular mechanism related to ploidy and salt stress is still unclear. To investigate this issue, physiological measurements and transcriptome profiling of diploid and autotetraploid plants untreated and treated with NaCl were performed. Through the comparisons among four accessions, for one thing, we found different physiological changes between diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa; for another, and we detected many differentially expressed unigenes involved in salt stress response. These differentially expressed unigenes were assigned to several metabolic pathways, including "plant hormone signal transduction," "RNA transporter," "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," and "plant-pathogen interaction," which constructed the complex regulatory network to maintain osmotic and intracellular ion homeostasis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the expression patterns of 20 unigenes. The results establish the foundation for the genetic basis of salt tolerance in P. tomentosa, which in turn accelerates Paulownia breeding and expands available arable land.

  14. Effect of strontium ions substitution on gene delivery related properties of calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, A; Fathi, M H; Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, H

    2010-09-01

    Gene therapy has been considered a strategy for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to a specific site. Calcium phosphates are one gene delivery vector group of interest. However, low transfection efficiency has limited the use of calcium phosphate in gene delivery applications. Present work aims at studying the fabrication of strontium substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles with improved gene delivery related properties. Strontium substituted calcium phosphate was prepared using a simple sol gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, zeta potential measurement and ion release evaluation were used to characterize the samples. This characterization showed strontium and carbonate co-substituted calcium phosphate which resulted in nano size particles with low crystallinity, high specific surface area, positive surface charge, and a high dissolution rate. These improved properties could increase the DNA concentration on the vector as well as the endosomal escape of the complex that leads to higher transfection efficiency of this novel gene delivery vector.

  15. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Fe Ions for Induction ofMicro-Nuclei at Low Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Groesser, Torsten; Chun, Eugene; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2007-01-16

    Dose-response curves for induction of micro-nuclei (MN) was measured in Chinese hamster V79 and xrs6 (Ku80-) cells and in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells in the dose range of 0.05-1 Gy. The Chinese Hamster cells were exposed to 1 GeV/u Fe ions, 600 MeV/u Fe ions, and 300 MeV/u Fe ions (LETs of 151, 176 and 235 keV/{micro}m respectively) as well as with 320 kVp X-rays as reference. Second-order polynomials were fitted to the induction curves and the initial slopes (the alpha values) were used to calculate RBE. For the repair proficient V79 cells the RBE at these low doses increased with LET. The values obtained were 3.1 (LET=151 keV/{micro}m), 4.3 (LET = 176 keV/{micro}m) and 5.7 (LET = 235 keV/{micro}m), while the RBE was close to 1 for the repair deficient xrs6 cells regardless of LET. For the MCF10A cells the RBE was determined for 1 GeV/u Fe ions and found to be 5.4, slightly higher than for V79 cells. To test the effect of shielding, the 1 GeV/u Fe ion beam was intercepted by various thickness of high-density polyethylene plastic absorbers, which resulted in energy loss and fragmentation. It was found that the MN yield for V79 cells placed behind the absorbers decreased in proportion to the decrease in dose both before and after the Fe ion Bragg peak (excluding the area around the Fe-ion Bragg peak itself), indicating that RBE did not change significantly due to shielding. At the Bragg peak the effectiveness for MN formation per unit dose was decreased, indicating an 'overkill' effect by low-energy very high-LET Fe ions.

  16. Distribution pattern of rare earth ions between water and montmorillonite and its relation to the sorbed species of the ions.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Tada, Akisa; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2004-09-01

    REE (rare earth element) distribution coefficients (Kd) between the aqueous phase and montmorillonite surface were obtained to investigate the relation between the REE distribution patterns and the species of REE sorbed on the solid-water interface. It was shown that the features in the REE patterns, such as the slope of the REE patterns, the tetrad effect, and the Y/Ho ratio, were closely related to the REE species at the montmorillonite-water interface. In a binary system (REE-montmorillonite) below pH 5, three features (a larger Kd value for a lighter REE, the absence of the tetrad effect, and the Y/Ho ratio being unchanged from its initial value) suggest that hydrated REE are directly sorbed as an outer-sphere complex at the montmorillonite-water interface. Above pH 5.5, the features in the REE patterns, the larger Kd value for heavier REE, the M-type tetrad effect, and the reduced Y/Ho ratio, showed the formation of an inner-sphere complex of REE with -OH group at the montmorillonite surface. In addition, the REE patterns in the presence of humic acid at pH 5.9 were also studied, where the REE patterns became flat, suggesting that the humate complex is dominant as both dissolved and sorbed species of REE in the ternary system. All of these results were consistent with the spectroscopic data (laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy) showing the local structure of Eu(III) conducted in the same experimental system. The present results suggest that the features in the REE distribution patterns include information on the REE species at the solid-water interface.

  17. Ion phase-space vortices and their relation to small amplitude double layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecseli, Hans L.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of ion phase-space vortices are reviewed with particular attention to their role in the formation of small amplitude double layers in current-carrying plasmas. In a one-dimensional analysis, many such double layers simply add up to produce a large voltage drop. A laboratory experiment is carried out in order to investigate the properties of ion phase-space vortices in three dimensions. Their lifetime is significantly reduced as compared with similar results from one-dimensional numerical simulations of the problem.

  18. Charge-state related effects in sputtering of LiF by swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, W.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Bender, M.; Boduch, P.; Grande, P. L.; Lebius, H.; Lelièvre, D.; Marmitt, G. G.; Rothard, H.; Seidl, T.; Severin, D.; Voss, K.-O.; Toulemonde, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2017-02-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of LiF single crystals is composed of a jet-like peak superimposed on a broad isotropic distribution. By using incident ions of fixed energy but different charges states, the influence of the electronic energy loss on both components is probed. We find indications that isotropic sputtering originates from near-surface layers, whereas the jet component may be affected by contributions from depth up to about 150 nm.

  19. Acute toxicity and accumulation of ZnO NPs in Ceriodaphnia dubia: Relative contributions of dissolved ions and particles.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Iswarya, V; Nagarajan, R; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-08-01

    Although the ecotoxicological effects of various metal oxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms are being actively studied, the contributions of particles and dissolved ions towards toxicity are still not well understood. The current study aims to assess the contribution of ZnO NP(particle) and ZnO NP(ion) to the overall toxicity and accumulation of ZnO NP(total) in Ceriodaphnia dubia. The aggregation and dissolution kinetics were studied for three different sizes (50nm, 100nm and bulk) of ZnO particles at 0.05, 0.12, 0.25 and 0.5mg/L concentrations in the sterile lake water medium at 6, 12, 24, and 48h intervals. The 48h LC50 of ZnO NP(total) was found to be 0.431, 0.605 and 0.701mg/L for 50, 100nm and bulk particles exposure. However, LC50 of Zn(ion) was found to be 1.048, 1.343 and 2.046mg/L for dissolved ions from different sizes (50nm, 100nm, and bulk) of ZnO particles. At LC50 concentration, the accumulation of 90-95% was noted for the NP(particles) across the sizes employed, while only about 4-5% contribution was from the NP(ion) to the overall accumulation NP(total). The relative contribution of ZnO NP(ion) to overall toxicity and accumulation was found to be lesser than that of ZnO NP(particles) across the sizes used in the study.

  20. The Antagonistic Effect of Selenium on Lead Toxicity Is Related to the Ion Profile in Chicken Liver.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tong; Gao, Xuejiao; Liu, Guowen

    2016-02-01

    The interactions between the essential element selenium (Se) and the toxic element lead (Pb) have been reported extensively; however, limited data are available regarding the effects of Se on Pb and the ion profile in chicken liver. Whether the change in the ion profile was involved in the protective process of Se and the toxic effect of Pb is unknown. In the present study, we detected 26 ion profiles (including those of Na, Mg, K, Ca, B, Si, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Sb, Ba, Tl, Li, Al, As, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb) in chicken liver following treatment with Se or Pb and with the compound treatment of Se and Pb. The results showed that Se supplementation decreased the content of B and Cr and increased that of Zn and Ba (P < 0.05); however, Pb exposure decreased Cr, Mn, Cu, Se, Mo, and Hg and increased V, Fe, Cd, and Sn (P < 0.05). The results showed that Se and Pb primarily influenced essential microelements and toxic microelements in the chicken liver. In this process, Se alleviated the increased Cd and Pb induced by Pb exposure but aggravated the decreased Cu and Mn. The results also indicated that there existed both synergistic and antagonistic interactions between different ions, further verifying the principal component analysis. Thus, the results showed that prolonged exposure to Se and Pb influences the ion profiles in chicken liver. The protective role of Se and toxic effect of Pb may be related to these changing ion profiles in chicken liver.

  1. Dual Mechanisms of Ion Uptake in Relation to Vacuolation in Corn Roots

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Kenji; Laties, George G.

    1966-01-01

    Absorption isotherms for chloride and rubidium ions have been determined through a wide concentration range for nonvacuolate root tips, and for vacuolate subapical sections of corn root. In the range 0 to 0.5 mm, chloride absorption is hyperbolic with concentration in both tips and proximal sections. At high concentrations, 1 to 50 mm, a second multiple-hyperbolic isotherm for chloride is noted in vacuolate tissue, while the isotherm for nonvacuolate tips rises exponentially. A linear to exponentially rising isotherm is taken to signify diffusive permeation. The same distinction between tip and subapical tissue characterizes Rb absorption. Rb uptake is indifferent to the nature of the counterion at all concentrations in the tip, while the counterion exerts a predictable influence on Rb absorption in proximal tissue. The effect of a poorly absorbable anion on Rb uptake is greater in the high concentration range. Evidence is presented for the metabolic nature of ion transport into nonvacuolate root tips. Verification is offered that ion uptake is mediated by dual mechanisms, and the thesis is developed that the high-affinity (low Ks) system mediates ion passage through the plasma membrane while the low-affinity (high Ks) system implements transport through the tonoplast. PMID:16656332

  2. Dual mechanisms of ion uptake in relation to vacuolation in corn roots.

    PubMed

    Torii, K; Laties, G G

    1966-05-01

    Absorption isotherms for chloride and rubidium ions have been determined through a wide concentration range for nonvacuolate root tips, and for vacuolate subapical sections of corn root. In the range 0 to 0.5 mm, chloride absorption is hyperbolic with concentration in both tips and proximal sections. At high concentrations, 1 to 50 mm, a second multiple-hyperbolic isotherm for chloride is noted in vacuolate tissue, while the isotherm for nonvacuolate tips rises exponentially. A linear to exponentially rising isotherm is taken to signify diffusive permeation.The same distinction between tip and subapical tissue characterizes Rb absorption. Rb uptake is indifferent to the nature of the counterion at all concentrations in the tip, while the counterion exerts a predictable influence on Rb absorption in proximal tissue. The effect of a poorly absorbable anion on Rb uptake is greater in the high concentration range. Evidence is presented for the metabolic nature of ion transport into nonvacuolate root tips. Verification is offered that ion uptake is mediated by dual mechanisms, and the thesis is developed that the high-affinity (low K(s)) system mediates ion passage through the plasma membrane while the low-affinity (high K(s)) system implements transport through the tonoplast.

  3. Determination of glycoalkaloids and relative aglycones by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Kettrup, Antonius; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2002-09-01

    Glycoalkaloids are naturally occurring nitrogen-containing compounds present in many species of the family Solanaceae, including cultivated and wild potatoes (Solanum spp.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon spp.), etc. These compounds have pharmacological and toxicological effects on humans due to their significant anticholinesterase activity and disruption of cell membranes. Herein is reported the development of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using nonaqueous (NA) separation solutions in combination with ion trap mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS) detection for the identification and quantification of glycoalkaloids and their relative aglycones. A mixture 90:10 v/v of MeCN-MeOH containing 50 mM ammonium acetate and 1.2 M acetic acid (applied voltage of 25.5 kV) was selected as a good compromise for the separation and detection of these compounds. The electrospray MS measurements were carried out in the positive ionization mode using a coaxial sheath liquid, methanol-water (1:1) with 1% of acetic acid at a flow rate of 2.5 microL/min. Under optimized experimental conditions, the predominant ion was the protonated molecular ion ([M+H](+)) of solanidine (m/z = 398), tomatidine (m/z = 416), chaconine (m/z = 852), solanine (m/z = 868), and tomatine (m/z = 1034). MS/MS experiments were carried out systematically by changing the relative collisional energy and monitoring the intensities of the fragment ions that were not high enough to allow better quantification than with the mother ions. The method was used for analyzing glycoalkaloids in potato extracts.

  4. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ions in a Rat Prostate Carcinoma In Vivo: Comparison of 1, 2, and 6 Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, Christian P.; Peschke, Peter; Scholz, Michael; Huber, Peter E.; Debus, Jürgen

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and the effective α/β ratio for local tumor control of a radioresistant rat prostate tumor (Dunning subline R3327-AT1) after 6 fractions of carbon ions and photons. Methods and Materials: A total of 82 animals with tumors in the distal thigh were treated with 6 fractions of either photons or carbon ions, by use of increasing dose levels and a 2-cm spread-out Bragg peak. Endpoints of the study were local control (no tumor recurrence within 300 days) and volumetric changes after irradiation. The resulting values for dose at 50% tumor control probability were used to determine RBE values. Including data for 1 and 2 fractions from a previous study, we estimated α/β ratios. Results: For 6 fractions, the values for dose at 50% tumor control probability were 116.6 ± 3.0 Gy for photons and 43.7 ± 2.3 Gy for carbon ions and the resulting RBE was 2.67 ± 0.15. The α/β ratio was 84.7 ± 13.8 Gy for photons and 66.0 ± 21.0 Gy for carbon ions. Using these data together with the linear-quadratic model, we estimated the maximum RBE to be 2.88 ± 0.27. Conclusions: The study confirmed the increased effectiveness of carbon ions relative to photons over the whole dose range for a highly radioresistant tumor. The maximum RBE below 3 is in line with other published in vivo data. The RBE values may be used to benchmark RBE models. Hypoxia seems to have a major impact on the radiation response, although this still has to be confirmed by dedicated experiments.

  5. Relating the 3D electrode morphology to Li-ion battery performance; a case for LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Singh, Deepak P.; Wang, Hongqian; Wagemaker, Marnix; Barnett, Scott

    2016-08-01

    One of the main goals in lithium ion battery electrode design is to increase the power density. This requires insight in the relation between the complex heterogeneous microstructure existing of active material, conductive additive and electrolyte providing the required electronic and Li-ion transport. FIB-SEM is used to determine the three phase 3D morphology, and Li-ion concentration profiles obtained with Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) are compared for two cases, conventional LiFePO4 electrodes and better performing carbonate templated LiFePO4 electrodes. This provides detailed understanding of the impact of key parameters such as the tortuosity for electron and Li-ion transport though the electrodes. The created hierarchical pore network of the templated electrodes, containing micron sized pores, appears to be effective only at high rate charge where electrolyte depletion is hindering fast discharge. Surprisingly the carbonate templating method results in a better electronic conductive CB network, enhancing the activity of LiFePO4 near the electrolyte-electrode interface as directly observed with NDP, which in a large part is responsible for the improved rate performance both during charge and discharge. The results demonstrate that standard electrodes have a far from optimal charge transport network and that significantly improved electrode performance should be possible by engineering the microstructure.

  6. Calculation of Dose, Dose Equivalent, and Relative Biological Effectiveness for High Charge and Energy Ion Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Reginatto, M.; Hajnal, F.; Chun, S. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Green's function for the transport of ions of high charge and energy is utilized with a nuclear fragmentation database to evaluate dose, dose equivalent, and RBE for C3H1OT1/2 cell survival and neoplastic transformation as a function of depth in soft tissue. Such evaluations are useful to estimates of biological risk for high altitude aircraft, space operations, accelerator operations, and biomedical applications.

  7. Calculation of dose, dose equivalent, and relative biological effectiveness for high charge and energy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Chun, S. Y.; Reginatto, M.; Hajnal, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Green's function for the transport of ions of high charge and energy is utilized with a nuclear fragmentation database to evaluate dose, dose equivalent, and RBE for C3H10T1/2 cell survival and neo-plastic transformation as function of depth in soft tissue. Such evaluations are useful to estimates of biological risk for high altitude aircraft, space operations, accelerator operations, and biomedical application.

  8. A crystallographic study of the binding of 13 metal ions to two related RNA duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Ennifar, Eric; Walter, Philippe; Dumas, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Metal ions, and magnesium in particular, are known to be involved in RNA folding by stabilizing secondary and tertiary structures, and, as cofactors, in RNA enzymatic activity. We have conducted a systematic crystallographic analysis of cation binding to the duplex form of the HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site for the subtype-A and -B natural sequences. Eleven ions (K+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Sr2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Au3+ and Pt4+) and two hexammines [Co (NH3)6]3+ and [Ru (NH3)6]3+ were found to bind to the DIS duplex structure. Although the two sequences are very similar, strong differences were found in their cation binding properties. Divalent cations bind almost exclusively, as Mg2+, at ‘Hoogsteen’ sites of guanine residues, with a cation-dependent affinity for each site. Notably, a given cation can have very different affinities for a priori equivalent sites within the same molecule. Surprisingly, none of the two hexammines used were able to efficiently replace hexahydrated magnesium. Instead, [Co (NH3)4]3+ was seen bound by inner-sphere coordination to the RNA. This raises some questions about the practical use of [Co (NH3)6]3+ as a [Mg (H2O)6]2+ mimetic. Also very unexpected was the binding of the small Au3+ cation exactly between the Watson–Crick sites of a G-C base pair after an obligatory deprotonation of N1 of the guanine base. This extensive study of metal ion binding using X-ray crystallography significantly enriches our knowledge on the binding of middleweight or heavy metal ions to RNA, particularly compared with magnesium. PMID:12736317

  9. Bactericidal properties of hydrogen peroxide and copper or iron-containing complex ions in relation to leukocyte function.

    PubMed

    Elzanowska, H; Wolcott, R G; Hannum, D M; Hurst, J K

    1995-03-01

    Various combinations of hydrogen peroxide, reductant (ascorbic acid and superoxide ion), and copper or iron salts and their coordination complexes were examined to determine their cytotoxicity toward several bacteria with diverse metabolic capabilities and cell envelope structures. Four sets of bactericidal conditions were identified, comprising: (1) high concentration levels (5-100 mM) of H2O2 in the absence of exogenous metal ions and reductant; (2) ferrous or ferric coordination complexes plus enzymatically generated O2.- and H2O2 at relatively low steady-state concentration levels; (3) cupric ion plus low concentration levels of H2O2 (1 microM-1 mM) and ascorbate (10 microM-4 mM); (4) cuprous ion (or cupric ion plus ascorbate) in the absence of O2 and H2O2. Rates of losses in viabilities increased proportionately with increases in the concentration of H2O2 in metal-free environments and with each of the components in the Cu2+/ascorbate/H2O2 bactericidal assay system. Oxidant levels required for equivalent killing increased with increasing cell densities of the bacterial suspensions over the range investigated (2 x 10(7)-2 x 10(9) cfu/ml). Other experimental conditions or other combinations of reagents, most notably Fe3+/ascorbate/H2O2 systems, did not generate bactericidal environments. The patterns of response of the three organisms tested, Streptococcus lactis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were similar, suggesting common bactericidal mechanisms. However, preliminary evidence suggests that the lethal lesions caused by the various bactericidal conditions are distinct: As discussed, each of the four bactericidal conditions could conceivably be attained within the phagosomes of leukocytes, although none has as yet been identified.

  10. The relation between momentum transfer and capture and total scattering cross sections for ion-dipole collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. V., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Numerical values of momentum transfer cross sections sigma sub m for ion-dipole collisions are compared with the corresponding capture cross sections sigma sub c as a function of ion velocity and rotational temperature. For values of dipole moment mu from 1 to 4 Debyes the sigma sub m/sigma sub c ratio is in the range 1.2 to 2.0 (roughly). This is in contrast to the simple relation for Langevin collisions where sigma sub m/sigma sub c is equal to or approximately 1.10 independent of polarizability of the target atom. At low temperatures, the momentum transfer cross sections can be as large as 2000 A squared but they are only about 15 to 30 percent of the total scattering cross sections sigma sub S.

  11. Ion-exchange chromatography used to isolate a spermadhesin-related protein from domestic goat (Capra hircus) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Dárcio Italo Alves; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Bloch, Carlos; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Freitas, Vicente José de Figueirêdo

    2006-03-31

    Mammalian seminal plasma contains among others, proteins called spermadhesins, which are the major proteins of boar and stallion seminal plasma. These proteins appear to be involved in capacitation and sperm-egg interaction. Previously, we reported the presence of a protein related to spermadhesins in goat seminal plasma. In the present study, we have further characterized this protein, and we propose ion-exchange chromatography to isolate this seminal protein. Semen was obtained from four adult Saanen bucks. Seminal plasma was pooled, dialyzed against distilled water and freeze-dried. Lyophilized proteins were loaded onto an ion-exchange chromatography column. Dialyzed-lyophilized proteins from the main peak of DEAE-Sephacel were applied to a C2/C18 column coupled to an RP-HPLC system, and the eluted proteins were lyophilized for electrophoresis. The N-terminal was sequenced and amino acid sequence similarity was determined using CLUSTAL W. Additionally, proteins from DEAE-Sephacel chromatography step were dialyzed and submitted to a heparin-Sepharose high-performance liquid chromatography. Goat seminal plasma after ion-exchange chromatography yielded 6.47 +/- 0.63 mg (mean +/- SEM) of the major retained fraction. The protein was designated BSFP (buck seminal fluid protein). BSFP exhibited N-terminal sequence homology to boar, stallion and bull spermadhesins. BSFP showed no heparin-binding capabilities. These results together with our previous data indicate that goat seminal plasma contains a protein that is structurally related to proteins of the spermadhesin family. Finally, this protein can be efficiently isolated by ion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography.

  12. Mars Express observations of high altitude planetary ion beams and their relation to the "energetic plume" loss channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Johnson, Blake C.; Fränz, Markus; Barabash, Stas

    2014-12-01

    This study presents observational evidence of high-energy (ions >2 keV) beams of planetary ions above Mars' induced magnetospheric boundary (IMB) and relates them with the energetic plume loss channel calculated from numerical models. A systematic search of the Mars Express (MEX) ion data using an orbit filtering criteria is described, using magnetometer data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) to determine the solar wind motional electric field (Esw) direction. Two levels of statistical survey are presented, one focused on times when the MEX orbit was directly in line with the Esw and another for all angles between the MEX location and the Esw. For the first study, within the 3 year overlap of MGS and MEX, nine brief intervals were found with clear and unambiguous high-energy O+ observations consistent with the energetic plume loss channel. The second survey used a point-by-point determination of MEX relative to the E-field and contained many thousands of 192 s measurements. This study yielded only a weak indication for an Esw-aligned plume. Furthermore, the y-z components of the weighted average velocities in the bins of this y-z spatial domain survey do not systematically point in the Esw direction. The first survey implies the existence of this plume and shows that its characteristics are seemingly consistent with the expected energy and flight direction from numerical studies; the second study softens the finding and demonstrates that there are many planetary ions beyond the IMB moving in unexpected directions. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed.

  13. Systematic analysis of RBE and related quantities using a database of cell survival experiments with ion beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Thomas; Scholz, Uwe; ElsäSser, Thilo; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    For tumor therapy with light ions and for experimental aspects in particle radiobiology the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is an important quantity to describe the increased effectiveness of particle radiation. By establishing and analysing a database of ion and photon cell survival data, some remarkable properties of RBE-related quantities were observed. The database consists of 855 in vitro cell survival experiments after ion and photon irradiation. The experiments comprise curves obtained in different labs, using different ion species, different irradiation modalities, the whole range of accessible energies and linear energy transfers (LETs) and various cell types. Each survival curve has been parameterized using the linear-quadratic (LQ) model. The photon parameters, α and β, appear to be slightly anti-correlated, which might point toward an underlying biological mechanism. The RBE values derived from the survival curves support the known dependence of RBE on LET, on particle species and dose. A positive correlation of RBE with the ratio α/β of the photon LQ parameters is found at low doses, which unexpectedly changes to a negative correlation at high doses. Furthermore, we investigated the course of the β coefficient of the LQ model with increasing LET, finding typically a slight initial increase and a final falloff to zero. The observed fluctuations in RBE values of comparable experiments resemble overall RBE uncertainties, which is of relevance for treatment planning. The database can also be used for extensive testing of RBE models. We thus compare simulations with the local effect model to achieve this goal. PMID:23266948

  14. Physicochemical properties and biological activity: thermodynamic properties of compounds related to acetylcholine assessed from depression of freezing-point and enthalpies of dilution.

    PubMed

    Barlow, R B

    1974-07-01

    1 Measurements have been made of the osmotic coefficients and enthalpies of dilution of acetylcholine and of compounds related to it in which the carbonyl and ether groups have been replaced by methylene and the trimethylammonium group by triethylammonium. All were iodides. Measurements were also made with tetraethylammonium iodide and agree with published values.2 Where necessary the affinities of the compounds for acetylcholine receptors in the guinea-pig ileum and frog rectus, or their activities relative to acetylcholine, have been measured.3 The osmotic coefficients were used to calculate activity coefficients and excess free energies, which have been used with the excess enthalpies to calculate the excess entropies of the solutions. These indicate that the ester and carbonyl groups have a marked ordering effect on the ions in water compared with methylene groups; the ether group has an intermediate effect.4 When the results are interpreted in terms of ion-pair formation they can be used to calculate the ion-association constants and enthalpies and entropies of formation of ion-pairs, and lead to similar conclusions: that the order associated with ion-pair formation is greater with the esters and ketones. There appears to be extensive ion-association in the concentrations (0.5 to 1M) usually used in n.m.r. studies.5 There is no obvious correlation between the effects of groups on water and their activity or affinity at muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors but it is possible that ability to activate nicotine-sensitive receptors may be associated with an increase in order, though it would be necessary to study entropy changes in systems actually involving receptors in order to prove this. It is also necessary to suppose that ability to activate these receptors is limited to compounds with small onium groups.

  15. Plasmaspheric ion temperature dynamics related to ionospheric and ring current parameter variations: Multipoint observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, Galina; Bezrukikh, Vladilen; Verigin, Mikhael

    Thermal plasma measurements on INTERBALL 2 (1996) and its subsatellite MAGION 5 (1999 - 2001) are used to deduce proton temperature and density distributions in the Earth's plasmasphere. A study of the temperature behavior during moderate magnetic storms development revealed that in the inner plasmasphere (L ¡ 2.8) night time ion temperature was depressed in the storm main phase, but exceeded quiet time values in the storm recovery phase. Multipoint observations in the plasmasphere, ionosphere (DMSP) and magnetosphere (IMAGE, POLAR) are used for examining possible reasons of such temperature behavior. This work was partially supported by Programs P16/2 and OFN 16 of Russian Academy of Sciences.

  16. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  17. Relative contributions of terrestrial and solar wind ions in the plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennartsson, W.; Sharp, R. D.

    A major uncertainty concerning the origins of plasma sheet ions is due to the fact that terrestrial H(+) can have similar fluxes and energies as H(+) from the solar wind. The situation is especially ambiguous during magnetically quiet conditions (AE less than 60 gamma) when H(+) typically contributes more than 90 percent of the plasma sheet ion population. In this study that problem is examined using a large data set obtained by the ISEE-1 Plasma Composition Experiment. The data suggest that one component of the H(+) increases in energy with increasing activity, roughly in proportion to 1/4 the energy of the He(++), whereas the other H(+) component has about the same energy at all activity levels, as do the O(+) and the He(+). If it is assumed that the H(+) of solar wind origin on the average has about the same energy-per-nucleon as the He(++), which is presumably almost entirely from the solar wind, then the data imply that as much as 20-30 percent of the H(+) can be of terrestrial origin even during quiet conditions.

  18. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capan, I.; Pastuović, Ž.; Siegele, R.; Jaćimović, R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 109 cm-2 to 1010 cm-2 and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 1012 cm-2. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V2(-/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V2(=/-) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V2(-/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  19. Effect of surface related organic vibrational modes in luminescent upconversion dynamics of rare earth ions doped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Smolarek, Szymon; Kong, Xianggui; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert Manfred; Zhang, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles are known to be subject to the surface factors. For their biological/biomedical applications, typically, surface of the nanoparticles has to be modified which inevitably affects their performance. In this work we have studied the interaction between the surface related organic vibrational modes and the luminescent centers--rare earth ions--in one of the most efficient luminescence upconversion nanosystems--NaYF4. Specifically, the surface quenching centers, the surface related luminescent centers, as well as the role of shell properties, are investigated spectroscopically. Our results demonstrate that the surface related high-frequency vibrational modes can be critical to the spectral properties of the nanosystems once the surface is not well separated from the discrete luminescent centers.

  20. Linear rate-equilibrium relations arising from ion channel-bilayer energetic coupling

    PubMed Central

    Greisen, Per; Lum, Kevin; Ashrafuzzaman, Md.; Greathouse, Denise V.; Andersen, Olaf S.; Lundbæk, Jens A.

    2011-01-01

    Linear rate-equilibrium (RE) relations, also known as linear free energy relations, are widely observed in chemical reactions, including protein folding, enzymatic catalysis, and channel gating. Despite the widespread occurrence of linear RE relations, the principles underlying the linear relation between changes in activation and equilibrium energy in macromolecular reactions remain enigmatic. When examining amphiphile regulation of gramicidin channel gating in lipid bilayers, we noted that the gating process could be described by a linear RE relation with a simple geometric interpretation. This description is possible because the gating process provides a well-understood reaction, in which structural changes in a bilayer-embedded model protein can be studied at the single-molecule level. It is thus possible to obtain quantitative information about the energetics of the reaction transition state and its position on a spatial coordinate. It turns out that the linear RE relation for the gramicidin monomer-dimer reaction can be understood, and the quantitative relation between changes in activation energy and equilibrium energy can be interpreted, by considering the effects of amphiphiles on the changes in bilayer elastic energy associated with channel gating. We are not aware that a similar simple mechanistic explanation of a linear RE relation has been provided for a chemical reaction in a macromolecule. RE relations generally should be useful for examining how amphiphile-induced changes in bilayer properties modulate membrane protein folding and function, and for distinguishing between direct (e.g., due to binding) and indirect (bilayer-mediated) effects. PMID:21768343

  1. Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

    2014-12-01

    The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery,only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Relative Information Content and Top-down Proteomics by Mass Spectrometry: The Utility of Ion/Ion Proton-transfer Reactions in Electrospray-based Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Chrisman, Paul A.; Erickson, David E.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations of electrospray ionization (ESI) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were employed to examine the informing power associated with “top-down” proteomics implemented with some commonly used mass analyzers, i.e. the quadrupole ion trap (QIT), the Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICRMS) and the time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Using a ratio of the separated (or resolved) peaks to the total number of predicted peaks as a measure of informing power, the ESI/MS simulation of a mixture of proteins showed that the FT-ICRMS exhibited the highest informing power among the three instruments being studied, with the QIT giving the lowest informing power, which was expected from the analysis of the “component capacity” of the three approaches. Also as expected on the basis of resolving elements per component, a dramatic increase in the informing power of the approach was obtained when ion/ion proton-transfer reactions were used to reduce the number of peaks and to minimize overlap between ions of different mass and charge but similar mass-to-charge ratio. With the assumptions made in this study, the informing power of the TOF+ion/ion approach rivaled or even exceeded that of the FT-ICRMS approach, despite significantly lower mass resolution. This result stemmed both from a reduction in the number of peaks and their dispersion over a much wider range of mass-to-charge ratios. Similar results were obtained from the CID simulation, where the informing power of different approaches was evaluated on the basis of the ratio of the number of ions for which a mass could be determined unambiguously to the total number of ions in the spectra. PMID:17263338

  3. Relative dissociation fractions of N2O under 15 -30 -keV H-,C- , and O- negative-ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dedong; Guo, Guannan; Min, Guangxin; Zhang, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    The relative dissociation fractions of N2O are studied under 15-30-keV negative ions H-,C- , and O- impact. The recoil ions and ion pairs originating from the target molecule N2O are detected and identified in coincidence with scattered ions in single electron loss (SL) and double electron loss (DL) channels using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The dissociation fractions for the production of the fragment ions are obtained. We find that the relative dissociation fractions in SL are smaller than those in DL, and the degree of fragmentation will become greater with the impact energy increasing. We also analyze the coincident TOF spectra of two fragment ions which are produced from dissociation of N2O2 + and give the possible dissociation pathways of N2O2 + with 15 -30 -keV H-,C- , and O- impact. There are many studies on N2O with positive-ion, photon, and electron impact, and we compare our results under negative-ion impact with those works.

  4. Average electric wave spectra across the plasma sheet and their relation to ion bulk speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Treumann, R. A.; Labelle, J.; Anderson, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    Using 4 months of tail data obtained by the ELF/MF spectrum analyzer of the wave experiment and the three-dimensional plasma instrument on board the AMPTE/IRM satellite, a statistical survey on the electric wave spectral density in the earth's plasma sheet has been conducted. More than 50,000 10-s-averaged electric wave spectra were analyzed with respect to differences between their values in the inner and outer central plasma sheet and the plasma sheet boundary layer as well as their dependence on radial distance and ion bulk speed. High-speed flows are dominated by broadband electrostatic noise with highest spectral densities in the plasma sheet boundary, where broadband electrostatic noise also exists during periods of low-speed flows. The broadband electrostatic noise has a typical spectral index of about -2. During low-speed flows the spectra in the central plasma sheet show distinct emissions at the electron cyclotron odd half-harmonic and upper hybrid frequency. Wave intensities during episodes of fast perpendicular flows are higher than those associated with fast parallel flows.

  5. Non-acidic activation of pain-related Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3 by lipids.

    PubMed

    Marra, Sébastien; Ferru-Clément, Romain; Breuil, Véronique; Delaunay, Anne; Christin, Marine; Friend, Valérie; Sebille, Stéphane; Cognard, Christian; Ferreira, Thierry; Roux, Christian; Euller-Ziegler, Liana; Noel, Jacques; Lingueglia, Eric; Deval, Emmanuel

    2016-02-15

    Extracellular pH variations are seen as the principal endogenous signal that triggers activation of Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs), which are basically considered as proton sensors, and are involved in various processes associated with tissue acidification. Here, we show that human painful inflammatory exudates, displaying non-acidic pH, induce a slow constitutive activation of human ASIC3 channels. This effect is largely driven by lipids, and we identify lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and arachidonic acid (AA) as endogenous activators of ASIC3 in the absence of any extracellular acidification. The combination of LPC and AA evokes robust depolarizing current in DRG neurons at physiological pH 7.4, increases nociceptive C-fiber firing, and induces pain behavior in rats, effects that are all prevented by ASIC3 blockers. Lipid-induced pain is also significantly reduced in ASIC3 knockout mice. These findings open new perspectives on the roles of ASIC3 in the absence of tissue pH variation, as well as on the contribution of those channels to lipid-mediated signaling.

  6. Ion mobility sensor

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  7. Influence of Age on the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiation for Induction of Rat Mammary Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Daino, Kazuhiro; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Doi, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Daisuke; Nishimura, Yukiko; Okutani, Tomomi; Takabatake, Masaru; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The risk of developing secondary cancer after radiotherapy, especially after treatment of childhood cancers, remains a matter of concern. The high biological effects of carbon-ion radiation have enabled powerful radiotherapy, yet the approach is commonly restricted to the treatment of adults. Susceptibility of the fetus to particle radiation–induced cancer is also unclear. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of carbon-ion irradiation in childhood on breast carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: We irradiated female Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages (embryonic days 3, 13, and 17 and 1, 3, 7, and 15 weeks after birth) with {sup 137}Cs γ rays or a 290-MeV/u monoenergetic carbonion beam (linear energy transfer, 13 keV/μm). All animals were screened weekly for mammary carcinoma by palpation until they were 90 weeks old. Results: Irradiation of fetal and mature (15-week-old) rats with either radiation source at a dose of 0.2 or 1 Gy did not substantially increase the hazard ratio compared with the nonirradiated group. Dose responses (0.2-2.0 Gy) to γ rays were similar among the groups of rats irradiated 1, 3, and 7 weeks after birth. The effect of carbon ions increased along with the age at the time of irradiation, indicating relative biological effectiveness values of 0.2 (−0.3, 0.7), 1.3 (1.0, 1.6), and 2.8 (1.8, 3.9) (mean and 95% confidence interval) for animals that were 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings imply that carbonion therapy may be associated with a risk of secondary breast cancer in humans, the extent of which may depend on the age of the patient at the time of irradiation.

  8. Ion Composition of Fog Water and Its Relation to Air Pollutants during Winter Fog Events in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Xie, Yu-Jing; Shi, Chun-E.; Liu, Duan-Yang; Niu, Sheng-Jie; Li, Zi-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Intensive field experiments focused on fog chemistry were carried out in the northern suburb of Nanjing during the winters of 2006 and 2007. Thirty-seven fog water samples were collected in nine fog events. Based on the chemical analysis results of those samples and the simultaneous measurements of air pollution gases and atmospheric aerosols, the chemical characteristics of fog water and their relations with air pollutants during fog evolution were investigated. The results revealed an average total inorganic ionic concentration TIC = 21.18 meq/L, and the top three ion concentrations were those of SO4 2-, NH4 + and Ca2+ (average concentrations 6.99, 5.95, 3.77 meq/L, respectively). However, the average pH value of fog water was 5.85, which is attributable to neutralization by basic ions (NH4 + and Ca2+). The average TIC value of fog water measured in advection-radiation fog was around 2.2 times that in radiation fog, and the most abundant cation was NH4 + in advection-radiation fog and Ca2+ in radiation fog. In dense fog episodes, the concentration variations of primary inorganic pollution gases showed a "V"-shaped pattern, while those of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) displayed a "Λ"-shaped pattern. The dense fog acted as both the source and sink of atmospheric aerosol particles; fog processes enhanced particle formation, leading to the phenomenon that the aerosol concentration after fog dissipation was higher than that before the fog, and at the same time, mass concentration of PM10 reached the lowest value in the late stage of extremely dense fog episodes because of the progressive accumulated effect of wet deposition of large fog droplets. Both air pollution gases and aerosols loading controlled the ion compositions of fog water. The Ca2+ in fog water originated from airborne particles, while SO4 2- and NH4 + were from both heterogeneous production and soluble particulate species.

  9. Modifications of EL2 related stable and metastable defects in semi-insulating GaAs by high energy light ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiraj, D.; Ghosh, S.

    2005-10-01

    We report the effect of high energy light ion irradiation on the defect energy levels related to the stable and metastable states of EL2 in undoped semi-insulating GaAs. GaAs samples have been irradiated at different fluences with 50 MeV Li ions. The energy of the irradiated ions is chosen in such a way that the range of the ions is more than the sample thickness. So the implantation of the irradiated ions and the formation of the extended defects at the end of the range could be avoided. The modification of the existing native point defects and the formation of new point defects under irradiation have been studied by photocurrent and thermally stimulated current spectroscopic measurements under the photoexcitation of both sub-band gap and above band gap lights.

  10. How Closely Related Are Conformations of Protein Ions Sampled by IM-MS to Native Solution Structures?

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Russell, David H

    2015-09-01

    Here, we critically evaluate the effects of changes in the ion internal energy (E(int)) on ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCS) of ions of two structurally diverse proteins, specifically the [M + 6H](6+) ion of ubiquitin (ubq(6+)), the [M + 5H](5+) ion of the intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) apo-metallothionein-2A (MT), and its partially- and fully-metalated isoform, the [CdiMT](5+) ion. The ion-neutral CCS for ions formed by "native-state" ESI show a strong dependence on E(int). Collisional activation is used to increase E(int) prior to the ions entering and within the traveling wave (TW) ion mobility analyzer. Comparisons of experimental CCSs with those generated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for solution-phase ions and solvent-free ions as a function of temperature provide new insights about conformational preferences and retention of solution conformations. The E(int)-dependent CCSs, which reveal increased conformational diversity of the ion population, are discussed in terms of folding/unfolding of solvent-free ions. For example, ubiquitin ions that have low internal energies retain native-like conformations, whereas ions that are heated by collisional activation possess higher internal energies and yield a broader range of CCS owing to increased conformational diversity due to losses of secondary and tertiary structures. In contrast, the CCS profile for the IDP apoMT is consistent with kinetic trapping of an ion population composed of a wide range of conformers, and as the E(int) is increased, these structurally labile conformers unfold to an elongated conformation.

  11. How Closely Related Are Conformations of Protein Ions Sampled by IM-MS to Native Solution Structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Russell, David H.

    2015-09-01

    Here, we critically evaluate the effects of changes in the ion internal energy (Eint) on ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCS) of ions of two structurally diverse proteins, specifically the [M + 6H]6+ ion of ubiquitin (ubq6+), the [M + 5H]5+ ion of the intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) apo-metallothionein-2A (MT), and its partially- and fully-metalated isoform, the [CdiMT]5+ ion. The ion-neutral CCS for ions formed by "native-state" ESI show a strong dependence on Eint. Collisional activation is used to increase Eint prior to the ions entering and within the traveling wave (TW) ion mobility analyzer. Comparisons of experimental CCSs with those generated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for solution-phase ions and solvent-free ions as a function of temperature provide new insights about conformational preferences and retention of solution conformations. The Eint-dependent CCSs, which reveal increased conformational diversity of the ion population, are discussed in terms of folding/unfolding of solvent-free ions. For example, ubiquitin ions that have low internal energies retain native-like conformations, whereas ions that are heated by collisional activation possess higher internal energies and yield a broader range of CCS owing to increased conformational diversity due to losses of secondary and tertiary structures. In contrast, the CCS profile for the IDP apoMT is consistent with kinetic trapping of an ion population composed of a wide range of conformers, and as the Eint is increased, these structurally labile conformers unfold to an elongated conformation.

  12. Determination of secondary ion mass spectrometry relative sensitivity factors for polar and non-polar ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Laufer, Andreas; Volbers, Niklas; Eisermann, Sebastian; Meyer, Bruno K.; Potzger, Kay; Geburt, Sebastian; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is regarded as a promising material for optoelectronic devices, due to its electronic properties. Solely, the difficulty in obtaining p-type ZnO impedes further progress. In this connection, the identification and quantification of impurities is a major demand. For quantitative information using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), so-called relative sensitivity factors (RSF) are mandatory. Such conversion factors did not yet exist for ZnO. In this work, we present the determined RSF values for ZnO using primary (ion implanted) as well as secondary (bulk doped) standards. These RSFs have been applied to commercially available ZnO substrates of different surface termination (a-plane, Zn-face, and O-face) to quantify the contained impurities. Although these ZnO substrates originate from the same single-crystal, we observe discrepancies in the impurity concentrations. These results cannot be attributed to surface termination dependent RSF values for ZnO.

  13. Molecular Physiology of SPAK and OSR1: Two Ste20-Related Protein Kinases Regulating Ion Transport

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Kenneth B.; Delpire, Eric

    2015-01-01

    SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress responsive kinase) are members of the germinal center kinase VI sub-family of the mammalian Ste20 (Sterile20)-related protein kinase family. Although there are 30 enzymes in this protein kinase family, their conservation across the fungi, plant and animal kingdom confirms their evolutionary importance. Already, a large volume of work has accumulated on the tissue distribution, binding partners, signaling cascades, and physiological roles of mammalian SPAK and OSR1 in multiple organ systems. After reviewing this basic information, we will examine newer studies that demonstrate the pathophysiological consequences to SPAK and/or OSR1 disruption, discuss the development and analysis of genetically-engineered mouse models, and address the possible role these serine/threonine kinases might have in cancer proliferation and migration. PMID:23073627

  14. Universal relations between non-Gaussian fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Deng, Jian; Kohyama, Hiroaki; Labun, Lance

    2017-01-01

    We show that universality near a critical end point implies a characteristic relation between third- and fourth-order baryon susceptibilities χ3 and χ4, resulting in a banana-shaped loop when χ4 is plotted as a function of χ3 along a freeze-out line. This result relies only on the derivative relation between χ3 and χ4, the enhancement of the correlation length and the scaling symmetry near a critical point, and the freeze-out line near the critical point not too parallel to the μB axis. Including the individual enhancements of χ3 and χ4 near a critical point, these features may be a consistent set of observations supporting the interpretation of baryon fluctuation data as arising from criticality.

  15. From chain collapse to new structures: spectroscopic properties of poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) upon binding by alkyl trimethylammonium bromide surfactants.

    PubMed

    Franco, I Echavarri; Lorchat, P; Lamps, J-P; Schmutz, M; Schröder, A; Catala, J-M; Combet, J; Schosseler, F

    2012-03-13

    The binding of cationic surfactants with varying alkyl chain length to a regiorandom conjugated polyanion, poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) (PTAA), is studied in an aqueous buffer by using absorption and emission spectroscopies, photon correlation spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. We study the mixed solutions as a function of composition ratio R of surfactant molecules to monomer units molar concentrations, at low polymer concentration and in a very wide composition range (10(-6) < R < 10(2)) below the critical micellar concentration. Upon surfactant binding, the molecularly dispersed chains first collapse progressively and then form new structures as the mixed aggregates get enriched in surfactant. The collapse leads to a strong decrease of the conjugation length and to a blue shift of the absorption spectra by 30 to 50 nm. The new structures are responsible for a new intense emission band at about 600 nm, red-shifted by nearly 130 nm from the initial emission maximum of the polymer (~472 nm). As the surfactant tail becomes shorter, the blue shift of the absorption spectra and the intensity raise of the new emission are delayed to larger composition ratios while their variations become smoother functions of the surfactant concentration. These particular spectroscopic properties of PTAA seem related to its unique combination of a strongly hydrophobic backbone, a large ratio of contour length to persistence length, and an overall good aqueous solubility. Our results show that such features are well suited to design a colorimetric biosensor at small composition ratio, and a fluorescent biomarker at large composition ratio.

  16. Correction of precursor and product ion relative abundances in order to standardize CID spectra and improve Ecom50 accuracy for non-targeted metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Ritvik; Hill, Dennis W.; Lai, Steven; Ming-Hui, Chen; Grant, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative biases in the abundance of precursor and product ions due to mass discrimination in RF-only ion guides results in inaccurate collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra. We evaluated the effects of collision cell RF voltage and collision energy on CID spectra using ten singly protonated compounds (46–854 Da) in an orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The relative ion transfer efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of ions transferred through the ion guide at any particular RF voltage was shown to be dependent on the ion’s m/z. We developed an algorithm to correct for the mass discriminating effects of RF voltage on CID spectra. The algorithm was tested for both precursor and product ions at multiple RF voltages and collision energies in order to ensure reliability. Our results suggest that compounds that generate major product ions with m/z values <150 have peak intensities that deviate substantially from their actual abundance. This has implications for small molecule metabolomics research, particularly for studies that rely on CID spectra matching methods for structure identification. PMID:25960696

  17. Alkali Metal Ion Complexes with Phosphates, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Related Ligands of Biological Relevance. Their Properties in Solution.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Foti, Claudia; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Alkali metal ions play very important roles in all biological systems, some of them are essential for life. Their concentration depends on several physiological factors and is very variable. For example, sodium concentrations in human fluids vary from quite low (e.g., 8.2 mmol dm(-3) in mature maternal milk) to high values (0.14 mol dm(-3) in blood plasma). While many data on the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in various fluids are available, the information on other alkali metal cations is scarce. Since many vital functions depend on the network of interactions occurring in various biofluids, this chapter reviews their complex formation with phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, and related ligands of biological relevance. Literature data on this topic are quite rare if compared to other cations. Generally, the stability of alkali metal ion complexes of organic and inorganic ligands is rather low (usually log K < 2) and depends on the charge of the ligand, owing to the ionic nature of the interactions. At the same time, the size of the cation is an important factor that influences the stability: very often, but not always (e.g., for sulfate), it follows the trend Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) > Cs(+). For example, for citrate it is: log K ML = 0.88, 0.80, 0.48, 0.38, and 0.13 at 25 °C and infinite dilution. Some considerations are made on the main aspects related to the difficulties in the determination of weak complexes. The importance of the alkali metal ion complexes was also studied in the light of modelling natural fluids and in the use of these cations as probes for different processes. Some empirical relationships are proposed for the dependence of the stability constants of Na(+) complexes on the ligand charge, as well as for correlations among log K values of NaL, KL or LiL species (L = generic ligand).

  18. Carbon Ion Irradiation of the Rat Spinal Cord: Dependence of the Relative Biological Effectiveness on Linear Energy Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Saager, Maria; Glowa, Christin; Peschke, Peter; Brons, Stephan; Scholz, Michael; Huber, Peter E.; Debus, Jürgen; Karger, Christian P.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions in the rat spinal cord as a function of linear energy transfer (LET). Methods and Materials: As an extension of a previous study, the cervical spinal cord of rats was irradiated with single doses of carbon ions at 6 positions of a 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak (16-99 keV/μm). The TD{sub 50} values (dose at 50% complication probability) were determined according to dose-response curves for the development of paresis grade 2 within an observation time of 300 days. The RBEs were calculated using TD{sub 50} for photons of our previous study. Results: Minimum latency time was found to be dose-dependent, but not significantly LET-dependent. The TD{sub 50} values for the onset of paresis grade 2 within 300 days were 19.5 ± 0.4 Gy (16 keV/μm), 18.4 ± 0.4 Gy (21 keV/μm), 17.7 ± 0.3 Gy (36 keV/μm), 16.1 ± 1.2 Gy (45 keV/μm), 14.6 ± 0.5 Gy (66 keV/μm), and 14.8 ± 0.5 Gy (99 keV/μm). The corresponding RBEs increased from 1.26 ± 0.05 (16 keV/μm) up to 1.68 ± 0.08 at 66 keV/μm. Unexpectedly, the RBE at 99 keV/μm was comparable to that at 66 keV/μm. Conclusions: The data suggest a linear relation between RBE and LET at high doses for late effects in the spinal cord. Together with additional data from ongoing fractionated irradiation experiments, these data will provide an extended database to systematically benchmark RBE models for further improvements of carbon ion treatment planning.

  19. Ion-pair supercritical fluid chromatography of metoprolol and related amino alcohols on diol silica.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhaal, Olle; Edström, Lena; Persson, Bengt-Arne

    2006-11-17

    In this paper, a chromatographic system based on carbon dioxide with methanol as mobile phase, and diol silica as stationary phase has been investigated for metoprolol and related amino alcohols by addition of strong acids to systems with triethylamine base as primary additive. Standard conditions used were 10% of methanol, containing 24 mM of acid and 18 mM of triethylamine, in carbon dioxide with a flow rate of 1.5 ml min(-1). The column dimensions were 125 mm x 4 mm I.D. and kept at 40 degrees C with a back pressure of 150 bar. Effects on selectivity were stronger with trifluoroacetic acid than with ethanesulfonic acid. From a large set of related analytes, it was shown that selectivity changes were significant when the structure close to the nitrogen of the amino alcohol analyte differed. The stability of the column in the short time perspective was examined and it showed negligible changes. For a diastereoisomeric pair, not resolved in a basic system with triethylamine nor by addition of ethanesulfonic acid, resolution improved to about 2.1 with trifluoroacetic acid. The described approach offers a way to tune the selectivity of SFC systems when amines are analyzed without the need to change stationary phase for the chromatographic separation.

  20. Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2010-12-14

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  1. Relative biological effectiveness of light ions in human tumoural cell lines: role of protein p53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggio, L.; Cavinato, M.; Cherubini, R.; Conzato, M.; Cucinotta, F.; Favaretto, S.; Gerardi, S.; Lora, S.; Stoppa, P.; Williams, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Protons and alpha particles of high linear energy transfer (LET) have shown an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with respect to X/gamma rays for several cellular and molecular endpoints in different in vitro cell systems. To contribute to understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the increased effectiveness of high LET radiation, an extensive study has been designed. The present work reports the preliminary result of this study on two human tumoural cell lines, DLD1 and HCT116, (with different p53 status), which indicate that for these cell lines, p53 does not appear to take a part in the response to radiation induced DNA damage, suggesting an alternative p53-independent pathway and a cell biochemical mechanism dependent on the cell type.

  2. Analysis of inorganic nitrogen and related anions in high salinity water using ion chromatography with tandem UV and conductivity detectors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brian; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2011-09-01

    Over 97% of the Earth's water is high salinity water in the form of gulfs, oceans, and salt lakes. There is an increasing concern for the quality of water in bays, gulfs, oceans, and other natural waters. These waters are affected by many different sources of contamination. The sources are, but not limited to, groundwater run-off of nitrogen containing fertilizer, pesticides, cleaning agents, solid wastes, industrial waters, and many more. The final destinations of these contaminants are rivers, lakes, and bayous that eventually will lead to bays, gulfs, and oceans. Many industries depend on the quality of these waters, such as the fishing industry. In addition to wild marine life, there are large aquariums and fish and shrimp farms that are required to know the quality of the water. However, the ability of these industries to monitor their processes is limited. Most analytical methods do not apply to the analysis of high salinity waters. They are dependent on wet chemistry techniques, spectrophotometers, and flow analyzers. These methods do not have the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity when compared to ion chromatography (IC). Since the inception of IC, it has become a standard practice for determining the content of many different water samples. Many IC methods are limited in the range of analytes that can be detected, as well as the numerous sample sources of which the methods are applicable. The main focus of current IC methods does not include high salinity waters. This research demonstrates an ion chromatographic method that has the ability to determine low level concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and related anions (nitrite-N, nitrate-N, phosphorous-P, sulfate, bromide, chloride, sulfide, fluoride, ammonia, calcium, and magnesium) in a single run using a combination of UV and conductivity detectors. This method is applicable to various waters, and uses both freshwater and high salinity water samples.

  3. High Relative Biologic Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiation on Induction of Rat Mammary Carcinoma and its Lack of H-ras and Tp53 Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Hatano, Yukiko; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Yoshinaga, Shinji Ph.D.; Kawano, Akihiro; Maekawa, Akihiko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: The high relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy-ion radiation has enabled powerful radiotherapy. The potential risk of later onset of secondary cancers, however, has not been adequately studied. We undertook the present study to clarify the RBE of therapeutic carbon ion radiation and molecular changes that occur in the rat mammary cancer model. Methods and Materials: We observed 7-8-week-old rats (ACI, F344, Wistar, and Sprague-Dawley) until 1 year of age after irradiation (0.05-2 Gy) with either 290 MeV/u carbon ions with a spread out Bragg peak (LET 40-90 keV/{mu}m) generated from the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba or {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays. Results: Carbon ions significantly induced mammary carcinomas in Sprague-Dawley rats but less so in other strains. The dose-effect relationship for carcinoma incidence in the Sprague-Dawley rats was concave downward, providing an RBE of 2 at a typical therapeutic dose per fraction. In contrast, {approx}10 should be considered for radiation protection at low doses. Immunohistochemically, 14 of 18 carcinomas were positive for estrogen receptor {alpha}. All carcinomas examined were free of common H-ras and Tp53 mutations. Importantly, lung metastasis (7%) was characteristic of carbon ion-irradiated rats. Conclusions: We found clear genetic variability in the susceptibility to carbon ion-induced mammary carcinomas. The high RBE for carbon ion radiation further supports the importance of precise dose localization in radiotherapy. Common point mutations in H-ras and Tp53 were not involved in carbon ion induction of rat mammary carcinomas.

  4. Enhancement of the deposition of ultrafine secondary organic aerosols by the negative air ion and the effect of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuo-Pin

    2012-11-01

    Deposition is an important process for the removal of aerosol particles. Negative air ion (NAI) generators can charge the ultrafine airborne particles and enhance their deposition rate. However, many NAI generators may also emit ozone and increase the concentration of particles in the presence of biogenic volatile organic compounds owing to the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. To validate the effectiveness of NAI generator the authors investigated the enhancement effect of an NAI generator on the deposition of the ultrafine SOAs generated from the ozonolysis of d-limonene in a test chamber under controlled ventilation rate and relative humidity (RH). The experimental results demonstrated that compared with other effects, including the gravity, particle eddy diffusion, and the Brownian diffusion, the effect of NAIs is the most dominate one on the deposition of SOA particles onto the wall surface in the near-wall region (<1 cm away from the wall). According to these experiments, the tested NAI generator could efficiently enhance the deposition rate by an enhancement factor ranging from 8.17 +/- 0.38 to 25.3 +/- 1.1, with a low ozone production rate. This NAI generator had better performance on the deposition of the SOAs with smaller particle sizes and it performed even better under higher RH. The enhancement effect of the NAI generator was related to its high NAI production and electric field strength.

  5. Rapid separation of desloratadine and related compounds in solid pharmaceutical formulation using gradient ion-pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinjian; Rustum, Abu M

    2010-01-05

    We reported the development of an ion-pair chromatographic method to separate desloratadine and all known related compounds in Clarinex Tablets, which use desloratadine as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). For the first time, baseline separation for desloratadine and all known related compounds was achieved by utilizing a YMC-Pack Pro C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6 mm I.D., 3 microm particle size, 120A pore size) and a gradient elution method. The mobile phase A contains 3 mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), 15 mM sodium citrate buffer at pH 6.2, and 40 mM sodium sulfate, while the mobile phase B is acetonitrile. Chromsword, an artificial intelligence method development tool, was used to optimize several key chromatographic parameters simultaneously including buffer pH/solvent strength, and temperature/gradient profile. The resolution of desloratadine and desloratadine 3,4-dehydropiperidine derivative, one of the critical pairs was improved by adding 40 mM sodium sulfate. Ultraviolet detection at 267 nm was used to achieve the detection for desloratadine and all compounds. This method has been successfully validated according to ICH guidelines in terms of linearity, accuracy, quantitation limit/detection limit, precision, specificity and robustness. It could be used as a stability indicating method for desloratadine drug substances or drug products that use desloratadine as active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  6. Reactivity of niobium-carbon cluster ions with hydrogen molecules in relation to formation mechanism of Met-Car cluster ions.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Ken; Fukushima, Naoya; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2008-07-03

    It is known that a niobium-carbon Met-Car cluster ion (Nb 8C 12 (+)) and its intermediates (Nb 4C 4 (+), Nb 6C 7 (+), etc.) are selectively formed by the aggregation of the Nb atoms in the presence of hydrocarbons. To elucidate the formation mechanism, we prepared Nb n C m (+) with every combination of n and m in the gas phase by the laser vaporization technique. The reactivity of Nb n C m (+) with H 2 was examined under the multiple collision condition, finding that Nb n C m (+) between Nb 2C 3 (+) and Nb 8C 12 (+) are not reactive with H 2. On the basis of the H 2 affinity of Nb n C m (+) experimentally obtained, we propose a dehydrogenation-controlled formation mechanism of niobium-carbon Met-Car cluster ions.

  7. Detection of cw-related species in complex aerosol particles deposited on surfaces with an ion trap-based aerosol mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, William A; Reilly, Pete; Whitten, William B

    2007-01-01

    A new type of aerosol mass spectrometer was developed by minimal modification of an existing commercial ion trap to analyze the semivolatile components of aerosols in real time. An aerodynamic lens-based inlet system created a well-collimated particle beam that impacted into the heated ionization volume of the commercial ion trap mass spectrometer. The semivolatile components of the aerosols were thermally vaporized and ionized by electron impact or chemical ionization in the source. The nascent ions were extracted and injected into the ion trap for mass analysis. The utility of this instrument was demonstrated by identifying semivolatile analytes in complex aerosols. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop methods for identifying chemical species related to CW agent exposure. Our efforts focused on detection of CW-related species doped on omnipresent aerosols such as house dust particles vacuumed from various surfaces found in any office building. The doped aerosols were sampled directly into the inlet of our mass spectrometer from the vacuumed particle stream. The semivolatile analytes were deposited on house dust and identified by positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry up to 2.5 h after deposition. Our results suggest that the observed semivolatile species may have been chemisorbed on some of the particle surfaces in submonolayer concentrations and may remain hours after deposition. This research suggests that identification of trace CW agent-related species should be feasible by this technique.

  8. Effects of soil salinity on the content, composition, and ion binding capacity of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Hua; Nie, Siming; Liang, Zhengwei

    2017-03-01

    Soil aggregation, an ecosystem function correlated with the concentration of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), is highly disturbed in saline soil. However, few studies have focused on differences in amount, composition, and ion binding capacity of GRSP in typical sodic-saline soils. In this study, a field study was performed in Songnen Plain. Combined indicators of soil salinity (Q value) were significant negatively correlated with GRSP concentration by Principal Component Analysis. Multiple linear regression models showed that soil salinity might account for 46%, 25% and 44% variation in total GRSP (T-GRSP), easily-extractable GRSP (EE-GRSP) and difficultly-extractable GRSP (DE-GRSP), respectively. Soil bulk density had most important impact on GRSP concentration, followed by the pH, soil EC had the weak influence. Comparative analysis was carried out between low-salinity and high-salinity soil. Purified T-GRSP of high-saline soil contained higher N content (13.13%), lower C content (43.41%) and lower functional groups relative content (e.g. CO and SiOSi). Purified T-GRSP of high-salinity soil had a greater binding capacity with calcium and phosphorus, the binding capacity could compensate the GRSP loss about 29.8% and 14.1%, respectively. Our findings suggested that sodic salinization of the soil led to a decrease in GRSP concentration and a change in the component percentages. This change in composition might be related to adaptation of fungi-plant systems to varied environments. The calcium and phosphorus binding capacity had a positive dependent of soil salinization, which was possible to develop ecological management or recovery technology in the future.

  9. Fructose-induced increase in intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration in rat hepatocytes: relation with the enzymes of glycogen metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Gaussin, V; Gailly, P; Gillis, J M; Hue, L

    1997-01-01

    In rat hepatocytes subjected to a fructose load, ATP content decreased from 3.8 to 2.6 micromol/g of cells. Under these conditions, the intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration,as measured with mag-fura 2, increased from 0.25 to 0.43 micromol/g of cells and 0.35 micromol of Mg2+ ions were released per g of cells in the extracellular medium. Therefore the increase in the intracellular free Mg2+ ion concentration was less than expected from the decrease in ATP, indicating that approx. 80% of the Mg2+ ions released from MgATP2- were buffered inside the cells. When this buffer capacity was challenged with an extra Mg2+ ion load by blocking the fructose-induced Mg2+ efflux, again approx. 80% of the extra Mg2+ ion load was buffered. The remaining 20% appearing as free Mg2+ions in fructose-treated hepatocytes could act as second messenger for enzymes having a Km for Mg2+ in the millimolar range. Fructose activated glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, although both the time course and the dose-dependence of activation were different. This was reflected in a stimulation of glycogen synthesis with concentrations of fructose below 5 mM. Indeed, activation of glycogen synthase reached a maximum at 30 min of incubation and was observed with small (5 mM or less) concentrations of fructose, whereas the activation of glycogen phosphorylase was almost immediate (within 5 min) and maximal with large doses of fructose. The fructose-induced activation of glycogen phosphorylase, but not that of glycogen synthase, could be related to an increase in free Mg2+ ion concentration. PMID:9307033

  10. An approach to fouling characterization of an ion-exchange membrane using current-voltage relation and electrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Soo; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Yeon, Kyeong-Ho; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2006-02-01

    Fouling phenomena of an anion-exchange membrane by bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using current-voltage relation and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in this study. Electrochemical parameters of the Neosepta CMX cation- and AMX anion-exchange membrane (Tokuyama Corp., Japan) such as limiting current density (LCD), transport number, plateau length, and fraction of the conducting phase were measured. Fraction of the conducting phase of the ion-exchange membranes, calculated from the modified Sand equation, played an important role in determining the electrochemical parameters in the presence of foulants such as BSA. Fraction of the conducting phase of the AMX membrane significantly decreased in the presence of BSA. Two distinguishable slopes were observed in the over-LCD region of the current-voltage (I-V) curve, indicating the change of resistance. To further elucidate the phenomena, the electrical impedance spectroscopic study was carried out using the offset alternating current. It was found that the negatively charged loose fouling layer changed to the dense deposited BSA on the surface of the AMX membrane occurring along with enhanced water dissociation phenomena at the surface of the fouled AMX membrane at a higher current density. This result was confirmed by water dissociation experiments in a six-compartment electrodialysis cell.

  11. Hysteresis effects on I-V relations in a single crystal of the Cu-In-Te system with two mobile ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Arranz, A.

    2013-02-01

    Three slices of the same In-rich chalcopyrite single crystal ingot of the Cu-In-Te system with different compositions and stoichiometric deviations are studied by means of electrical measurements. The slices are mixed electronic and ionic conductors, and under a constant applied voltage and under dark conditions, variations of the current intensity with time are observed due to ionic motion. The measuring time was 25, or 300 s, in measurements carried out subsequently two months later. Symmetric electrodes formed by graphite paint are used on both sides of the samples. The electrode/semiconductor/electrode solid-state device does not block the electrons, while it blocks the ions at the semiconductor/electrode interface. Nonlinear I-V relations and different hysteresis effects are obtained, relating the different ionic mobilities to the measuring time. To understand the different I-V relations and hysteresis cycles, a two-mobile-ion framework is applied. The effect of ion motion in the electronic current and the voltage drop at the semiconductor/electrode interface, due to ionic accumulation, are studied. The different results in each sample can only be explained by taking into account the motion of two different ions, and the different compositions and stoichiometric deviations of the slices. The understanding and, above all, the control of the ionic motion in In-rich chalcopyrites could be the key to improve the reproducibility of solar cell efficiency.

  12. Regulatory Action of Calcium Ion on Cyclic AMP-Enhanced Expression of Implantation-Related Factors in Human Endometrial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Isaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stroma and gland development is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP), but the role of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) on cAMP mediated-signaling in human endometrial stroma and glandular epithelia has not been well-characterized. The present study was designed to investigate the role of intracellular Ca2+ on cAMP mediated-decidualization and gland maturation events, which can be identified by the up-regulation of prolactin and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)1 in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and glandular epithelial EM-1 cells. Increases in decidual prolactin and IGFBP-1 transcript levels, induced by cAMP-elevating agents forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, were inhibited by Ca2+ influx into ESCs with Ca2+ ionophores (alamethicin, ionomycin) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibitors of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC), nifedipine and verapamil, enhanced the decidual gene expression. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store, up-regulated prolactin and IGFBP-1 expression. Ca2+ ionophores decreased intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas nifedipine, verapamil or dantrolene increased cAMP concentrations in ESCs. In glandular epithelial cells, similar responses in COX2 expression and PGE2 production were found when intracellular cAMP levels were up-regulated by decreases in Ca2+ concentrations. Thus, a marked decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels caused the elevation of cAMP concentrations, resulting in enhanced expression of implantation-related factors including decidual markers. These findings suggest that fluctuation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations alters intracellular cAMP levels, which then regulate differentiation of endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells. PMID:26161798

  13. Regulatory Action of Calcium Ion on Cyclic AMP-Enhanced Expression of Implantation-Related Factors in Human Endometrial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Isaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stroma and gland development is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP), but the role of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) on cAMP mediated-signaling in human endometrial stroma and glandular epithelia has not been well-characterized. The present study was designed to investigate the role of intracellular Ca2+ on cAMP mediated-decidualization and gland maturation events, which can be identified by the up-regulation of prolactin and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)1 in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and glandular epithelial EM-1 cells. Increases in decidual prolactin and IGFBP-1 transcript levels, induced by cAMP-elevating agents forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, were inhibited by Ca2+ influx into ESCs with Ca2+ ionophores (alamethicin, ionomycin) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibitors of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC), nifedipine and verapamil, enhanced the decidual gene expression. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store, up-regulated prolactin and IGFBP-1 expression. Ca2+ ionophores decreased intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas nifedipine, verapamil or dantrolene increased cAMP concentrations in ESCs. In glandular epithelial cells, similar responses in COX2 expression and PGE2 production were found when intracellular cAMP levels were up-regulated by decreases in Ca2+ concentrations. Thus, a marked decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels caused the elevation of cAMP concentrations, resulting in enhanced expression of implantation-related factors including decidual markers. These findings suggest that fluctuation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations alters intracellular cAMP levels, which then regulate differentiation of endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells.

  14. La10W2O21: an anion-deficient fluorite-related superstructure with oxide ion conduction.

    PubMed

    Chambrier, Marie-Hélène; Le Bail, Armel; Giovannelli, Fabien; Redjaïmia, Abdelkrim; Florian, Pierre; Massiot, Dominique; Suard, Emmanuelle; Goutenoire, François

    2014-01-06

    The crystal structure of La10W2O21, which has to be reformulated (La5.667W0.333)LaWO14□2, is best described, on average, by a 2 × 2 × 2 anion-deficient fluorite-related superstructure cubic cell, with space group F4 3m, Z = 4, and a = 11.17932(6) Å, similar to Y7ReO14--δ. The 32 cations are distributed with lanthanum on the 4a-site, tungsten on the 4b-site, and a partial occupancy of the 24g-site by La (94%) and W. The 56 oxygen atoms occupy four 16e-sites, three of them fully and with an occupancy of 1/2 for the fourth one. Others M10W2O21 (M = Er, Y) adopt a 3 × 2 × 2 fluorite superstructure with W in octahedral sites, whereas W is mainly in tetrahedral sites in La10W2O21. Several powerful techniques such as crystal image furnace synthesis, (139)La nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) were used to achieve our results. Transmission electron microscopy (microdiffraction, CBED, and Tanaka patterns) brought us the real symmetry, showing that indeed classical cubic twinning along the 3-fold axis does take place. The surprising La/W mixed site is nicely confirmed by (139)La NMR. This compound exhibits interesting fast oxide ion conducting properties, comparable with LAMOX (Lacorre et al. Nature 2000, 404, 856-858) at low temperature. As opposed to many ionic conductors, no temperature structural transition is observed. Its conductivity is about 6.4 × 10(-4) S·cm(-1) at 700 °C.

  15. Dependence of relative intensity of L 1 sub-shell X-rays on ion beam energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, P. C.; Reis, M. A.; Barradas, N. P.; Kavčič, Matjaž

    2007-08-01

    In a previous work, it was shown that L shell X-ray yields relative to the Lα transition depend on the irradiation ion beam energy and the chemical species being irradiated [M.A. Reis, P.C. Chaves, J.C. Soares, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 239 (2005) 413]. Further studies give rise to the possibility that this dependence persists for transitions to the same sub-shell, where the ionization process is expected to play no role [P.C. Chaves, M.A. Reis, in: Miloš Budnar, Matjaž Kavčič (Eds.), Proceedings (CD) of the Tenth International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission and its Analytical Application, 4-8 June, Portorož - Slovenia, J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, 2004, p. 810]. In the present work, very high counting statistics (>4 × 106 counts in the peak) W-L spectra collected using a Si(Li) detector and Mo-L spectra obtained using the high resolution Johanson type crystal spectrometer from the Josef Stefan Institute were studied. In the case of Mo, an ultra pure Mo metal foil was used to avoid any possible target contamination and spectra were obtained for proton beam energies between 0.4 and 2.0 MeV. In the case of the W spectra, proton beam energies between 1.40 and 2.38 MeV were used. Normalizing to the theoretical yield ratios and plotting results as a function of the reduced velocity allows a single curve to be drawn for both cases. In this communication the results obtained are presented and discussed.

  16. Ion focusing

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  17. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  18. Novel topoisomerase I-targeting antitumor agents synthesized from the N,N,N-trimethylammonium derivative of ARC-111, 5H-2,3-dimethoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy-5-[(2-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)ethyl]dibenzo[c,h][1,6]naphthyridin-6-one iodide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Satyanarayana, Mavurapu; Tsai, Yuan-Chin; Liu, Angela A; Liu, Leroy F; LaVoie, Edmond J

    2009-09-01

    Several new TOP1-targeting agents were prepared using as an intermediate the N,N,N-trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt 2 of ARC-111. Direct displacement of the quaternary ammonium group with hydroxide, cyclopropylamine, imidazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, alkylethylenediamines, ethanolamine, and polyhydroxylated alkylamines provides a convenient means for furthering insight into the structure-activity relationships within this series of non-camptothecin TOP1-targeting agents. The relative TOP1-targeting activities and cytotoxicities were evaluated in RPMI8402 and P388 cells and their camptothecin-resistant variants. Their potential to serve as substrates for the efflux transporters MDR1 and BCRP, which are associated with multidrug resistance, was also assessed.

  19. Novel topoisomerase I-targeting antitumor agents synthesized from the N,N,N-trimethylammonium derivative of ARC-111, 5H-2,3-dimethoxy-8,9-methylenedioxy-5-[(2-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)ethyl]dibenzo[c,h][1,6]-naphthyridin-6-one iodide

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Satyanarayana, Mavurapu; Tsai, Yuan-Chin; Liu, Angela A.; Liu, Leroy F.; LaVoie, Edmond J.

    2009-01-01

    Several new TOP1-targeting agents were prepared using as an intermediate the N,N,N-trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt 2 of ARC-111. Direct displacement of the quaternary ammonium group with hydroxide, cyclopropylamine, imidazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, alkylethylenediamines, ethanolamine, and polyhydroxylated alkylamines provides a convenient means for furthering insight into the structure–activity relationships within this series of non-camptothecin TOP1-targeting agents. The relative TOP1-targeting activities and cytotoxicities were evaluated in RPMI8402 and P388 cells and their camptothecin-resistant variants. Their potential to serve as substrates for the efflux transporters MDR1 and BCRP, which are associated with multidrug resistance, was also assessed. PMID:19299037

  20. Rapid MCNP simulation of DNA double strand break (DSB) relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for photons, neutrons, and light ions.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert D; Streitmatter, Seth W; Argento, David C; Kirkby, Charles; Goorley, John T; Moffitt, Greg; Jevremovic, Tatjana; Sandison, George A

    2015-11-07

    To account for particle interactions in the extracellular (physical) environment, information from the cell-level Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) for DNA double strand break (DSB) induction has been integrated into the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) radiation transport code system. The effort to integrate these models is motivated by the need for a computationally efficient model to accurately predict particle relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in cell cultures and in vivo. To illustrate the approach and highlight the impact of the larger scale physical environment (e.g. establishing charged particle equilibrium), we examined the RBE for DSB induction (RBEDSB) of x-rays, (137)Cs γ-rays, neutrons and light ions relative to γ-rays from (60)Co in monolayer cell cultures at various depths in water. Under normoxic conditions, we found that (137)Cs γ-rays are about 1.7% more effective at creating DSB than γ-rays from (60)Co (RBEDSB  =  1.017) whereas 60-250 kV x-rays are 1.1 to 1.25 times more efficient at creating DSB than (60)Co. Under anoxic conditions, kV x-rays may have an RBEDSB up to 1.51 times as large as (60)Co γ-rays. Fission neutrons passing through monolayer cell cultures have an RBEDSB that ranges from 2.6 to 3.0 in normoxic cells, but may be as large as 9.93 for anoxic cells. For proton pencil beams, Monte Carlo simulations suggest an RBEDSB of about 1.2 at the tip of the Bragg peak and up to 1.6 a few mm beyond the Bragg peak. Bragg peak RBEDSB increases with decreasing oxygen concentration, which may create opportunities to apply proton dose painting to help address tumor hypoxia. Modeling of the particle RBE for DSB induction across multiple physical and biological scales has the potential to aid in the interpretation of laboratory experiments and provide useful information to advance the safety and effectiveness of hadron therapy in the treatment of cancer.

  1. Rapid MCNP simulation of DNA double strand break (DSB) relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for photons, neutrons, and light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Robert D.; Streitmatter, Seth W.; Argento, David C.; Kirkby, Charles; Goorley, John T.; Moffitt, Greg; Jevremovic, Tatjana; Sandison, George A.

    2015-11-01

    To account for particle interactions in the extracellular (physical) environment, information from the cell-level Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) for DNA double strand break (DSB) induction has been integrated into the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) radiation transport code system. The effort to integrate these models is motivated by the need for a computationally efficient model to accurately predict particle relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in cell cultures and in vivo. To illustrate the approach and highlight the impact of the larger scale physical environment (e.g. establishing charged particle equilibrium), we examined the RBE for DSB induction (RBEDSB) of x-rays, 137Cs γ-rays, neutrons and light ions relative to γ-rays from 60Co in monolayer cell cultures at various depths in water. Under normoxic conditions, we found that 137Cs γ-rays are about 1.7% more effective at creating DSB than γ-rays from 60Co (RBEDSB  =  1.017) whereas 60-250 kV x-rays are 1.1 to 1.25 times more efficient at creating DSB than 60Co. Under anoxic conditions, kV x-rays may have an RBEDSB up to 1.51 times as large as 60Co γ-rays. Fission neutrons passing through monolayer cell cultures have an RBEDSB that ranges from 2.6 to 3.0 in normoxic cells, but may be as large as 9.93 for anoxic cells. For proton pencil beams, Monte Carlo simulations suggest an RBEDSB of about 1.2 at the tip of the Bragg peak and up to 1.6 a few mm beyond the Bragg peak. Bragg peak RBEDSB increases with decreasing oxygen concentration, which may create opportunities to apply proton dose painting to help address tumor hypoxia. Modeling of the particle RBE for DSB induction across multiple physical and biological scales has the potential to aid in the interpretation of laboratory experiments and provide useful information to advance the safety and effectiveness of hadron therapy in the treatment of cancer.

  2. Quantification of Carbohydrates and Related Materials Using Sodium Ion Adducts Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sung Hee; Park, Kyung Man; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Seong Hoon; Kim, Myung Soo

    2016-11-01

    The utility of sodium ion adducts produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization for the quantification of analytes with multiple oxygen atoms was evaluated. Uses of homogeneous solid samples and temperature control allowed the acquisition of reproducible spectra. The method resulted in a direct proportionality between the ion abundance ratio I([A + Na]+)/I([M + Na]+) and the analyte concentration, which could be used as a calibration curve. This was demonstrated for carbohydrates, glycans, and polyether diols with dynamic range exceeding three orders of magnitude.

  3. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE)

    EPA Science Inventory



    Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) utilizes selected ion recording with a double focusing mass spectrometer to simultaneously determine exact masses and relative isotopic abundances from mass peak profiles. These can be determined more accurately and at higher sensitivity ...

  4. Selective Inhibition of Absorption and Long Distance Transport in Relation to the Dual Mechanisms of Ion Absorption in Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Luttge, Ulrich; Laties, George G.

    1967-01-01

    The influence of several uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibitors of terminal electron transport was studied on absorption and long distance transport of both K and C1 at concentrations within each range of the dual isotherm typical of ion uptake by maize roots. At low concentrations in the range of system 1, the system considered to implement ion movement through the plasma membrane, root absorption and long distance transport are equally inhibited by a given inhibitor. In the high range of system 2, the system considered to mediate ion passage through the tonoplast, long distance transport is markedly less sensitive to inhibitors than is absorption. The observations are in accord with the hypothesis that only system 1 is involved in the uptake of ions from the external solution into the symplast, and hence into the xylem. At high concentrations, entrance into the symplasm is deemed to be largely by diffusion and therefore less inhibitor sensitive. With respect to absorption by the roots, the plasma membrane system is more inhibitor sensitive than is the tonoplast system. It is suggested that the difference in sensitivity is real, and not the consequence of an inequality of inhibitor concentration in the vicinity of the plasma membrane and tonoplast respectively. Images PMID:6040889

  5. Use of Lactated Ringer’s solution does not eliminate the risk of strong ion difference-related metabolic acidosis following on-pump cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Jovaisa, T; Vicka, V; Linkaitė, G; Guseinovaitė, J; Ringaitienė, D; Norkienė, I

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the effects of plasma sodium levels on postoperative outcomes. A trend of using balanced crystalloid solutions is based on the extensive data on chloride and the strong ion difference-related acidosis. However, effects of sodium are often overlooked in this context. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of the routine use of Lactated Ringer’s Solution (RL) on postoperative changes in sodium concentrations and whether these changes result in metabolic acidosis. We performed database analysis of 358 consecutive elective on-pump cardiac surgery cases in a tertiary referral university hospital. Approval from the institutional ethics committee was obtained for this study. Intraoperative fluid balance was 2726±1073 ml and the total volume of intravenous infusions in the first 24 hours was 5865 (±1073) ml, 95% of which was RL; 58% of the patients had metabolic acidosis with a base excess below (–)2 mmol L–1 on arrival at the intensive care unit. There was a significant correlation between a strong ion difference and base excess (p less than 0.01). A significant improvement in metabolic acidosis was noted within the first 24 hours, from a base excess of (–)2.49±2.8 to 0.32±2.6 mmol L–1 (p less than 0.001). All of the improvement in the base excess is explained by a change in the strong ion difference from the mean value of 31±4.3 to 34.2±3.6 mmol L–1 (p less than 0.001). Changes in the strong ion difference were primarily driven by changes in the serum sodium concentration, which were three-fold higher compared to those of chloride [–2.36 (±2.6) mmol L–1 (p less than 0.001) and 0.84 (±3.2) mmol L–1, respectively (p = 0.01)]. In conclusion, our data confirm that there is a direct correlation between a strong ion difference and base excess following on-pump cardiac surgery. The use of RL prevented significant hyperchloraemia, but did not eliminate the risk of strong ion difference-related metabolic acidosis. The

  6. The EGFR mutation status affects the relative biological effectiveness of carbon-ion beams in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Amornwichet, Napapat; Oike, Takahiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Nirodi, Chaitanya S; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Makino, Haruhiko; Kimura, Yuka; Hirota, Yuka; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kohno, Takashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) holds promise to treat inoperable locally-advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), a disease poorly controlled by standard chemoradiotherapy using X-rays. Since CIRT is an extremely limited medical resource, selection of NSCLC patients likely to benefit from it is important; however, biological predictors of response to CIRT are ill-defined. The present study investigated the association between the mutational status of EGFR and KRAS, driver genes frequently mutated in NSCLC, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams over X-rays. The assessment of 15 NSCLC lines of different EGFR/KRAS mutational status and that of isogenic NSCLC lines expressing wild-type or mutant EGFR revealed that EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, but not KRAS-mutant cells, show low RBE. This was attributable to (i) the high X-ray sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, since EGFR mutation is associated with a defect in non-homologous end joining, a major pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and (ii) the strong cell-killing effect of carbon-ion beams due to poor repair of carbon-ion beam-induced DSBs regardless of EGFR mutation status. These data highlight the potential of EGFR mutation status as a predictor of response to CIRT, i.e., CIRT may show a high therapeutic index in EGFR mutation-negative NSCLC.

  7. Tailoring the composition of self-assembled Si(1-x)C(x) quantum dots: simulation of plasma/ion-related controls.

    PubMed

    Rider, A E; Ostrikov, K; Levchenko, I

    2008-09-03

    Precise control of composition and internal structure is essential for a variety of novel technological applications which require highly tailored binary quantum dots (QDs) with predictable optoelectronic and mechanical properties. The delicate balancing act between incoming flux and substrate temperature required for the growth of compositionally graded (Si(1-x)C(x); x varies throughout the internal structure), core-multishell (discrete shells of Si and C or combinations thereof) and selected composition (x set) QDs on low-temperature plasma/ion-flux-exposed Si(100) surfaces is investigated via a hybrid numerical simulation. Incident Si and C ions lead to localized substrate heating and a reduction in surface diffusion activation energy. It is shown that by incorporating ions in the influx, a steady-state composition is reached more quickly (for selected composition QDs) and the composition gradient of a Si(1-x)C(x) QD may be fine tuned; additionally (with other deposition conditions remaining the same), larger QDs are obtained on average. It is suggested that ionizing a portion of the influx is another way to control the average size of the QDs, and ultimately, their internal structure. Advantages that can be gained by utilizing plasma/ion-related controls to facilitate the growth of highly tailored, compositionally controlled quantum dots are discussed as well.

  8. Matrix effects on the relative sensitivity factors for manganese and chromium during ion microprobe analysis of carbonate: Implications for early Solar System chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Heber, Veronika S.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2017-03-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53 Mn decays to 53 Cr providing a relative chronometer for dating the formation of Mn-rich minerals in meteorites. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been extensively used for in situ dating of meteoritic olivine and carbonate by the 53 Mn-53 Cr system, however a significant analytical challenge has been realising accurate measurements of the Mn/Cr ratio in individual minerals of differing chemical compositions. During SIMS analysis, elements are ionised with differing efficiencies and standard materials are required to calibrate measured ion intensities in terms of relative elemental concentrations. The carbonate system presents a particular analytical difficulty since such standards are not naturally available due to low and variable Cr contents. Here, we utilise ion implantation of Cr into carbonate and other phases to accurately determine the relative sensitivity factors of Mn/Cr during SIMS analysis. We find significant variations in Mn/Cr RSF values among different carbonate minerals that depend systematically on chemical composition and we propose an empirical correction scheme that quantitatively yields an accurate RSF for carbonates of diverse chemical compositions. Correction of SIMS carbonate data for this strong matrix effect may help to reconcile some outstanding problems regarding the timescales of aqueous alteration processes in carbonaceous chondrites. Mn-Cr ages, revised based our new understanding of the matrix effect, are, in general, earlier than previously thought and the duration of carbonate formation is shorter.

  9. Solutions to Defect-Related Problems in Implanted Silicon by Controlled Injection of Vacancies by High-Energy Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, J.L.; Holland, O.W.; Roth, E.

    1998-11-04

    Amorphization and a dual implant technique have been used to manipulate residual defects that persist following implantation and post-implant thermal treatments. Residual defects can often be attributed to ion-induced defect excesses. A defect is considered to be excess when it occurs in a localized region at a concentration greater than its complement. Sources of excess defects include spatially separated Frenkel pairs, excess interstitials resulting from the implanted atoms, and sputtering. Pre-amorphizing prior to dopant implantation has been proposed to eliminate dopant broadening due to ion channeling as well as dopant diffusion during subsequent annealing. However, transient-enhanced diffusion (TED) of implanted boron has been observed in pre-amorphized Si. The defects driving this enhanced boron diffusion are thought to be the extended interstitial-type defects that form below the amorphous-crystalline interface during implantation. A dual implantation process was applied in an attempt to reduce or eliminate this interfacial defect band. High-energy, ion implantation is known to inject a vacancy excess in this region. Vacancies were implanted at a concentration coincident with the excess interstitials below the a-c interface to promote recombination between the two defect species. Preliminary results indicate that a critical fluence, i.e., a sufficient vacancy concentration, will eliminate the interstitial defects. The effect of the reduction or elimination of these interfacial defects upon TED of boron will be discussed. Rutherford backscattering/channeling and cross section transmission electron microscopy analyses were used to characterize the defect structure within the implanted layer. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to profile the dopant distributions.

  10. Microwave emission related to cyclotron instabilities in a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, I.; Tarvainen, O.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been essential in the research and applications of nuclear physics over the past 40 years. They are extensively used in a wide range of large-scale accelerator facilities for the production of highly charged heavy ion beams of stable and radioactive elements. ECRISs are susceptible to kinetic instabilities due to resonance heating mechanism leading to anisotropic electron velocity distribution function. Instabilities of cyclotron type are a proven cause of frequently observed periodic bursts of ‘hot’ electrons and bremsstrahlung, accompanied with emission of microwave radiation and followed by considerable drop of multiply charged ions current. Detailed studies of the microwave radiation associated with the instabilities have been performed with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen and argon plasmas. It is demonstrated that during the development of cyclotron instability ‘hot’ electrons emit microwaves in sub-microsecond scale bursts at temporally descending frequencies in the 8-15 GHz range with two dominant frequencies of 11.09 and 12.59 GHz regardless of ECRIS settings i.e. magnetic field strength, neutral gas pressure or species and microwave power. The experimental data suggest that the most probable excited plasma wave is a slow extraordinary Z-mode propagating quasi-longitudinally with respect to the external magnetic field.

  11. Absorption and long distance transport by isolated stele of maize roots in relation to the dual mechanisms of ion absorption.

    PubMed

    Lüttge, U; Laties, G G

    1967-06-01

    Ion absorption and transport by intact roots, isolated cortex and isolated stele were compared shortly after tissue isolation and after aging. Absorption isotherms in the low and in the high concentration range show that in stripped-stele, which absorbs at a very low rate immediately after isolation, the capacity of system 1 but not system 2 is built up with aging. In agreement with this result analysis of individual fluxes across plasmamembrane and tonoplast reveals that only the influx from the medium into the cytoplasm increases considerably with aging of stele. Changes observed in aging excised roots and in isolated cortex are much less significant. In spite of the increase of absorption with aging by isolated stele, long distance transport, which is essentially passive through freshly stripped stele, decreases with aging. The reported results reflect the marked permeability of the plasmamembrane of fresh isolated stele, and demonstrate the importance of the cortex as a tissue "collecting" ions for long distance transport. New evidence for the theory of symplasmatic transport of ions into the xylem vessels is thus provided.

  12. Direct evaluation of radiobiological parameters from clinical data in the case of ion beam therapy: an alternative approach to the relative biological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cometto, A; Russo, G; Bourhaleb, F; Milian, F M; Giordanengo, S; Marchetto, F; Cirio, R; Attili, A

    2014-12-07

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) concept is commonly used in treatment planning for ion beam therapy. Whether models based on in vitro/in vivo RBE data can be used to predict human response to treatments is an open issue. In this work an alternative method, based on an effective radiobiological parameterization directly derived from clinical data, is presented. The method has been applied to the analysis of prostate cancer trials with protons and carbon ions.Prostate cancer trials with proton and carbon ion beams reporting 5 year-local control (LC5) and grade 2 (G2) or higher genitourinary toxicity rates (TOX) were selected from literature to test the method. Treatment simulations were performed on a representative subset of patients to produce dose and linear energy transfer distribution, which were used as explicative physical variables for the radiobiological modelling. Two models were taken into consideration: the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) and a linear model (LM). The radiobiological parameters of the LM and MKM were obtained by coupling them with the tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability models to fit the LC5 and TOX data through likelihood maximization. The model ranking was based on the Akaike information criterion.Results showed large confidence intervals due to the limited variety of available treatment schedules. RBE values, such as RBE = 1.1 for protons in the treated volume, were derived as a by-product of the method, showing a consistency with current approaches. Carbon ion RBE values were also derived, showing lower values than those assumed for the original treatment planning in the target region, whereas higher values were found in the bladder. Most importantly, this work shows the possibility to infer the radiobiological parametrization for proton and carbon ion treatment directly from clinical data.

  13. Carbon-containing compounds on fusion-related surfaces: Thermal and ion-induced formation and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsmeier, Christian

    2004-12-01

    The deposition of carbon on metals is the unavoidable consequence of the application of different wall materials in present and future fusion experiments like ITER. Presently used and prospected materials besides carbon (CFC materials in high heat load areas) are tungsten and beryllium. The simultaneous application of different materials leads to the formation of surface compounds due to the erosion, transport and re-deposition of material during plasma operations. The formation and erosion processes are governed by widely varying surface temperatures and kinetic energies as well as the spectrum of impinging particles from the plasma. The knowledge of the dependence on these parameters is crucial for the understanding and prediction of the compound formation on wall materials. The formation of surface layers is of great importance, since they not only determine erosion rates, but also influence the ability of the first wall for hydrogen isotope inventory accumulation and release. Surface compound formation, diffusion and erosion phenomena are studied under well-controlled ultra-high vacuum conditions using in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ion beam analysis techniques available at a 3 MV tandem accelerator. XPS provides chemical information and allows distinguishing elemental and carbidic phases with high surface sensitivity. Accelerator-based spectroscopies provide quantitative compositional analysis and sensitivity for deuterium in the surface layers. Using these techniques, the formation of carbidic layers on metals is studied from room temperature up to 1700 K. The formation of an interfacial carbide of several monolayers thickness is not only observed for metals with exothermic carbide formation enthalpies, but also in the cases of Ni and Fe which form endothermic carbides. Additional carbon deposited at 300 K remains elemental. Depending on the substrate, carbon diffusion into the bulk starts at elevated temperatures together with additional

  14. Electrical potential oscillations--movement relations in circumnutating sunflower stem and effect of ion channel and proton pump inhibitors on circumnutation.

    PubMed

    Kurenda, Andrzej; Stolarz, Maria; Zdunek, Artur

    2015-02-01

    The physiological control and molecular mechanism of circumnutation (CN) has not yet been fully understood. To gain information on the CN mechanism, the relationship between the changes of electrical potential and movement in the circumnutating sunflower stem and effect of ion channels and proton pump inhibitors on CN parameters were evaluated. Long-term electrophysiological measurements and injection of solutions of ion channel inhibitors (ICI) into sunflower stem with the simultaneous time-lapse recording of the movement were made. The oscillations of electrical potential (OEP) - movement relations - consist of cells depolarization on the deflected side of the stem and, at this same time, cells hyperpolarization on the opposite side of the stem. The delay of organ movement in relation to electrical changes of approximately 28 min (22% of the period) may indicate that the ionic fluxes causing the OEP are the primary phenomenon. The biggest decrease of CN period was observed after injection of proton pump (approximately 26%) and cation channel (approximately 25%) inhibitors, while length and amplitude were reduced mainly by calcium channel inhibitors (approximately 67%). Existence of OEP only in circumnutating part of sunflower stem and reduction of CN parameters and OEP amplitude after application of ICI prove that the CN cellular mechanism is associated with transmembrane ion transport.

  15. Comparison of human Ether-à-go-go related gene screening assays based on IonWorks Quattro and thallium flux.

    PubMed

    Bridal, Terry R; Margulis, Michael; Wang, Xin; Donio, Michael; Sorota, Steve

    2010-12-01

    In vitro screens using cellular preparations expressing human Ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channels have become an intrinsic tool for evaluating cardiac liability of compounds during early preclinical stage development. Although hERG channel blocking effects are most reliably evaluated using the low-throughput, manual patch clamp technique, methods and technologies that yield hERG activity data in multiwell format are required to address increased throughput requirements. In most cases, multiwell approaches to measuring hERG activity involve achieving a reasonable balance between throughput and data fidelity. Here we compared two functional multiwell hERG assays: a fluorescence-based fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR(®)) screen measuring thallium (Tl(+)) influx through hERG channels and an automated patch clamp assay using an IonWorks Quattro(®). Mean Z' values for FLIPR-Tl(+) and IonWorks Quattro assays were similar, 0.57 ± 0.09 (±SD; n = 10) versus 0.63 ± 0.11 (n = 12), respectively. IC₅₀ determinations for a set of 17 reference compounds were used to evaluate potency shifts relative to conventional voltage clamp data. The reference compound set included members that are known to exert severe potency shifts in multiwell assays. Mean potency shift values for FLIPR-Tl(+) and IonWorks Quattro assays were 117- and 8-fold, respectively. On the basis of reduced potency shifts and low data variability, we conclude that the IonWorks Quattro screen was a better predictor of hERG activity in conventional whole-cell patch clamp than the Tl(+) influx assay.

  16. Relative Penetration of Zinc Oxide and Zinc Ions into Human Skin after Application of Different Zinc Oxide Formulations.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amy M; Song, Zhen; Moghimi, Hamid R; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-02-23

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is frequently used in commercial sunscreen formulations to deliver their broad range of UV protection properties. Concern has been raised about the extent to which these ZnO particles (both micronized and nanoparticulate) penetrate the skin and their resultant toxicity. This work has explored the human epidermal skin penetration of zinc oxide and its labile zinc ion dissolution product that may potentially be formed after application of ZnO nanoparticles to human epidermis. Three ZnO nanoparticle formulations were used: a suspension in the oil, capric caprylic triglycerides (CCT), the base formulation commonly used in commercially available sunscreen products; an aqueous ZnO suspension at pH 6, similar to the natural skin surface pH; and an aqueous ZnO suspension at pH 9, a pH at which ZnO is stable and there is minimal pH-induced impairment of epidermal integrity. In each case, the ZnO in the formulations did not penetrate into the intact viable epidermis for any of the formulations but was associated with an enhanced increase in zinc ion fluorescence signal in both the stratum corneum and the viable epidermis. The highest labile zinc fluorescence was found for the ZnO suspension at pH 6. It is concluded that, while topically applied ZnO does not penetrate into the viable epidermis, these applications are associated with hydrolysis of ZnO on the skin surface, leading to an increase in zinc ion levels in the stratum corneum, thence in the viable epidermis and subsequently in the systemic circulation and the urine.

  17. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The {sup 132}Sn{sup +} case study

    SciTech Connect

    Osswald, F. Bouquerel, E.; Boutin, D.; Dinkov, A.; Sellam, A.

    2014-12-15

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  18. Relative populations of excited levels within the ground configuration of Si-like Cu, Zn, Ge and Se ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datla, R. U.; Roberts, J. R.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    Populations of 3p2 1D2, 3P1, 3P2 levels in Si-like Cu, Zn, Ge, and Se ions have been deduced from the measurements of absolute intensities of magnetic dipole transitions within the 3s2 3p2 ground configuration. The measured population ratios are compared with theoretical calculations based on the distorted-wave approximation for the electron collisions and a semiclassical approximation for the proton collisions. The observed deviation from the statistical distribution for the excited-level populations within the ground configuration along the silicon isoelectronic sequence is in agreement with theoretical prediction.

  19. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the three-dimensional flow field and relative analyte concentration distribution in an atmospheric pressure ion source.

    PubMed

    Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.

  20. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Three-Dimensional Flow Field and Relative Analyte Concentration Distribution in an Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J.; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.

  1. Characteristics of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) in relation to auroral forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, R. G.; Grydeland, T.; Samara, M.

    2014-10-01

    Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) have been observed with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) ever since it began operating in 2006. The nearly continuous operation of PFISR since then has led to a large number of NEIAL observations from there, where common-volume, high-resolution auroral imaging data are available. We aim to systematically distinguish the different types of auroral forms that are associated with different NEIAL features, including spectral shape and altitude extent. We believe that NEIALs occur with a continuum of morphological characteristics, although we find that most NEIALs observed with PFISR fall into two general categories. The first group occurs at fairly low altitudes - F region or below - and have power at, and spread between, the ion-acoustic peaks. The second group contains the type of NEIALs that have previously been observed with the EISCAT radars, those that extend to high altitudes (600 km or more) and often have large asymmetries in the power enhancements between the two ion-acoustic shoulders. We find that there is a correlation between the auroral structures and the type of NEIALs observed, and that the auroral structures present during NEIAL events are consistent with the likely NEIAL generation mechanisms inferred in each case. The first type of NEIAL - low altitude - is the most commonly observed with PFISR and is most often associated with active, structured auroral arcs, such as substorm growth phase, and onset arcs and are likely generated by Langmuir turbulence. The second type of NEIAL - high altitude - occurs less frequently in the PFISR radar and is associated with aurora that contains large fluxes of low-energy electrons, as can happen in poleward boundary intensifications as well as at substorm onset and is likely the result of current-driven instabilities and in some cases Langmuir turbulence as well. In addition, a preliminary auroral photometry analysis revealed that there is an

  2. DNA-based Nanoconstructs for the Detection of Ions and Biomolecules with Related Raman/SERS Signature Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenneman, Kimber L.

    The utilization of DNA aptamers and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for the detection of ions and biomolecules was investigated. In recent years, there have been many studies based on the use of DNA and RNA aptamers, which are single stranded oligonucleotides capable of binding to biomolecules, other molecules, and ions. In many of these cases, the conformational changes of these DNA and RNA aptamers are suitable to use fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) or nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) techniques to detect such analytes. Coupled with this growth in such uses of aptamers, there has been an expanded use of semiconductor quantum dots as brighter, longer-lasting alternatives to fluorescent dyes in labeling and detection techniques of interest in biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) and a zinc aptamer were used to detect mercury, lead, zinc, and cadmium. These probes were tested in a liquid assay as well as on a filter paper coupon. Biomolecules were also studied and detected using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), including DNA aptamers and C-reactive protein (CRP). Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool for sensor development, label-free detection, and has the potential for remote sensing. Raman spectra provide information on the vibrational modes or phonons, between and within molecules. Therefore, unique spectral fingerprints for single molecules can be obtained. SERS is accomplished through the use of substrates with nanometer scale geometries made of metals with many free electrons, such as silver, gold, or copper. In this research silver SERS substrates were used to study the SERS signature of biomolecules that typically produce very weak Raman signals.

  3. Ion specific effects: decoupling ion-ion and ion-water interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinsuk; Kang, Tae Hui; Kim, Mahn Won; Han, Songi

    2015-01-01

    Ion-specific effects in aqueous solution, known as the Hofmeister effect is prevalent in diverse systems ranging from pure ionic to complex protein solutions. The objective of this paper is to explicitly demonstrate how complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions manifest themselves in the Hofmeister effects, based on a series of recent experimental observation. These effects are not considered in the classical description of ion effects, such as the Deryaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory that, likely for that reason, fail to describe the origin of the phenomenological Hofmeister effect. However, given that models considering the basic forces of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions can offer rationalization for the core experimental observations, a universal interaction model stands a chance to be developed. In this perspective, we separately derive the contribution from ion-ion electrostatic interaction and ion-water interaction from second harmonic generation (SHG) data at the air-ion solution interface, which yields an estimate of ion-water interactions in solution. Hofmeister ion effects observed on biological solutes in solution should be similarly influenced by contributions from ion-ion and ion-water interactions, where the same ion-water interaction parameters derived from SHG data at the air-ion solution interface could be applicable. A key experimental data set available from solution systems to probe ion-water interaction is the modulation of water diffusion dynamics near ions in bulk ion solution, as well as near biological liposome surfaces. It is obtained from Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP), a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry technique. The surface water diffusivity is influenced by the contribution from ion-water interactions, both from localized surface charges and adsorbed ions, although the relative contribution of the former is larger on liposome surfaces. In this perspective, ion-water interaction

  4. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  5. Imaging and relative quantification of sup 127 I in human thyroid follicles by analytical ion microscope: Characterization of benign thyroid epithelial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Fragu, P.; Briancon, C.; Noel, M.; Halpern, S. )

    1989-08-01

    Analytical ion microscopy (AIM) can be used for imaging and relative quantification of chemical elements in tissue sections. We used this technique to assess the changes in 127I mapping within thyroid follicular cells and follicular lumina in benign thyroid epithelial abnormalities from 17 patients and in macroscopically normal perinodular tissue surrounding solitary cold nodules from 8 patients. Among the 17 patients, 9 had simple goiters, 5 had toxic nodular goiters, and 3 had hypofunctioning (cold) nodules. The tissue samples were fixed chemically and embedded in methacrylate resin to ensure preservation of organified iodine, and thin sections were analyzed by AIM. 127I was found in the follicular lumina and follicular epithelial cells of most specimens. The local concentration of 127I, which is proportional to the ratio of the two secondary ion beam currents of iodine and carbon, was evaluated in 30 follicular lumina and 30 follicular epithelial cells of each specimen. In normal tissue, the relative 127I concentration within follicular cells (mean, 0.72; range 0.01-8.30) was much lower than that in follicular lumina (mean, 4.63; range, 0.18-36.74). In simple goiter tissue, follicular lumen (mean, 0.57; range, 0.00-5.76), and cell (mean, 0.17; range, 0.002-1.82) relative 127I concentrations were below normal, but both distributions remained different. On the contrary, in toxic nodular goiter tissue the follicular cell relative 127I concentration (mean, 0.96; range, 0.003-27.3) largely overlapped that of the follicular lumina (mean, 2.1; range, 0.001-36.5). The cold nodules had the lowest relative follicular lumina 127I concentration (mean, 0.008; range, undetectable-0.07), and the relative cellular 127I concentrations were undetectable in 67%. These results demonstrate the capacity of AIM to characterize the functional activity of thyroid tissue without prior administration of radio-iodine.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of the relative biological effectiveness for DNA double strand breaks from 300 MeV u-1 carbon-ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. W.; Pan, C. Y.; Hsiao, Y. Y.; Chao, T. C.; Lee, C. C.; Tung, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 300 MeV u-1 carbon-ion beams at different depths in a cylindrical water phantom of 10 cm radius and 30 cm long. RBE values for the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), a biological endpoint closely related to cell inactivation, are estimated for monoenergetic and energy-modulated carbon ion beams. Individual contributions to the RBE from primary ions and secondary nuclear fragments are simulated separately. These simulations are based on a multi-scale modelling approach by first applying the FLUKA (version 2011.2.17) transport code to estimate the absorbed doses and fluence energy spectra, then using the MCDS (version 3.10A) damage code for DSB yields. The approach is efficient since it separates the non-stochastic dosimetry problem from the stochastic DNA damage problem. The MCDS code predicts the major trends of the DSB yields from detailed track structure simulations. It is found that, as depth is increasing, RBE values increase slowly from the entrance depth to the plateau region and change substantially in the Bragg peak region. RBE values reach their maxima at the distal edge of the Bragg peak. Beyond this edge, contributions to RBE are entirely from nuclear fragments. Maximum RBE values at the distal edges of the Bragg peak and the spread-out Bragg peak are, respectively, 3.0 and 2.8. The present approach has the flexibility to weight RBE contributions from different DSB classes, i.e. DSB0, DSB+ and DSB++.

  7. Stability of colliding ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, E.A.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1980-11-01

    We determine conditions for stability of two identical colliding ion beams in the presence of neutralizing electrons, but no background ions. Such a situation is envisioned for the Counterstreaming Ion Torus. The ion beams are taken to be Maxwellian in their frames of reference. The approximation of electrostatic and electromagnetic modes is made. The stability of the electrostatic modes depends on the relation between the ion electron temperature ratio and the relative beam velocities. The stability of the electromagnetic mode depends on the relation between the ion plasma ..beta.. and the relative beam velocities.

  8. Intracellular ion activities in frog skin in relation to external sodium and effects of amiloride and/or ouabain.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, B J; Kernan, R P

    1984-01-01

    Intracellular activities of sodium, potassium and chloride ions, aiNa, aiK, and aiCl were measured with ion-selective single-, double- and triple-barrelled micro-electrodes in skin and isolated epithelia of Rana temporaria bathed on both sides with normal or modified physiological saline. Apical and basolateral membrane potentials, psi ac and psi cs and resistance Ra and Rb respectively were also measured and from the latter the fractional resistance of the apical membrane, F(Ra) and voltage divider ratio, delta psi ac/delta psi cs were measured as criteria of satisfactory membrane penetration by the micro-electrodes. Under control conditions, aiNa was 12.3 +/- 0.8 mM, aiK was 70.3 +/- 22 mM and aiCl was 20.3 +/- 1.6 mM with psi ac averaging -38.0 +/- 3.2 mV. When 10(-4) M-amiloride was added to the apical bathing fluid aiNa fell within 10 min to 1.18 +/- 0.1 mM and aiCl to 5.2 +/- 0.9 mM, while aiK increased to 86.2 +/- 3.8 mM as measured from the basolateral border of isolated epithelia. The sodium transport pool of the skin was measured from the fall in aiNa in the presence of amiloride and could be expressed as 33 X 10(-9) mol cm-2 of epithelium. The mean rate of fall of aiNa under these conditions corresponded to an efflux rate at the basolateral border of 30.1 X 10(-9) mol cm-2 min-1 (48 microA cm-2) giving a half-time for turnover of the sodium transport pool of 33 s. Reduction of sodium concentration in the apical fluid from the normal 79 mM-Na to 10, 1 and 0.1 mM caused aiNa to fall in stages to 2 mM. Because psi ac increased in negativity to -101 mV in the process, this driving force for passive sodium accumulation, more than offset the increased sodium gradient opposing sodium influx across the apical border. PMID:6610743

  9. Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX).

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Lepage, Carmela R Jackson; Savage, Paul B; Bowerbank, Christopher R; Lee, Edgar D; Lukacs, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H](+)) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H](+) ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d(15) provided evidence that [M+H](+) production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H](+) ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample.

  10. Rapid simultaneous analysis of 17 haloacetic acids and related halogenated water contaminants by high-performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xue, Runmiao; Donovan, Ariel; Shi, Honglan; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos; Eichholz, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs), which include chloroacetic acids, bromoacetic acids, and emerging iodoacetic acids, are toxic water disinfection byproducts. General screening methodology is lacking for simultaneously monitoring chloro-, bromo-, and iodoacetic acids. In this study, a rapid and sensitive high-performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of chloro-, bromo-, and iodo- acetic acids and related halogenated contaminants including bromate, bromide, iodate, and iodide was developed to directly analyze water samples after filtration, eliminating the need for preconcentration, and chemical derivatization. The resulting method was validated in both untreated and treated water matrices including tap water, bottled water, swimming pool water, and both source water and drinking water from a drinking water treatment facility to demonstrate application potential. Satisfactory accuracies and precisions were obtained for all types of tested samples. The detection limits of this newly developed method were lower or comparable with similar techniques without the need for extensive sample treatment requirement and it includes all HAAs and other halogenated compounds. This provides a powerful methodology to water facilities for routine water quality monitoring and related water research, especially for the emerging iodoacetic acids. Graphical abstract High performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for detection of haloacetic acids in water.

  11. Separation of phytic acid and other related inositol phosphates by high-performance ion chromatography and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Chuan; Li, Betty W

    2003-11-07

    A high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic method was developed for the separation of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates (myo-inositol bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, and pentakisphosphates) with gradient elution and ultraviolet absorbance detection after post-column derivatization. With the acidic eluents, the combination of anion-exchange and ion suppression retention mechanisms led to the separation of 35 inositol phosphates (excluding enantiomers) into 27 peaks for the first time, and the retention behaviors of all myo-inositol bis- to hexakisphosphate isomers were studied. The whole separation procedure was completed within 65 min. Based on the investigations of nonenzymatic hydrolysis of phytic acid under different conditions by using this method, an in-house reference standard solution was produced, which can be used for method development. In addition, by applying this method to in vitro kinetic studies, at least one new enzymatic hydrolysis pathway of phytic acid was found, and one rule of enzymatic dephosphorylation of inositol phosphates (position effect) was proposed and another one (neighboring effect) was confirmed. The principle of the proposed identification approach for several inositol phosphate isomers based on hydrolysis products study will be applicable to other natural products analysis, for which standards are very expensive or not available.

  12. Metal Ion Imbalance-Related Oxidative Stress Is Involved in the Mechanisms of Liver Injury in a Rat Model of Chronic Aluminum Exposure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hong; Guo, Yuanxin; Lei, Wenjuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Xinyue; Yang, Junqing; He, Qin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of chronic aluminum overload on rat liver function and its induction of pathological changes in metal ion levels and oxidative stress in hepatic tissues. Wistar rats were intragastrically administered aluminum gluconate (200 mg Al(3+)/Kg) once a day, 5 days a week, for 20 weeks. HE staining was used to visualize pathological changes in rat liver tissue. A biochemical method was adopted to detect ALT, AST, ALP, and GGT levels, as well as liver SOD activity and blood plasma MDA content. A plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer was used to detect Al, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu ion contents in liver tissue. Our results showed obvious vacuolar degeneration, granular degeneration, and spotty necrosis in chronic Al-overload rat hepatocytes. The levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and GGT were significantly increased. Liver SOD activity was significantly decreased, and MDA content was significantly increased. In Al-overload rat liver, Al, Mn, Fe, and Cu contents were significantly increased, and in Al-overload rat serum, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu contents were significantly decreased. However, the Al level in Al-overload rat serum was not significantly different from that in control rat serum. These results suggest that chronic aluminum overload causes obvious damage to rat liver and causes imbalances in Al, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu levels in rat liver and serum. Metal ion imbalance-related oxidative stress may be involved in the mechanism of chronic liver injury caused by aluminum overload.

  13. Ion-Ion Neutralization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    plasma were identified using a downstream quadrupole mass spectrometer. In these experimento it is a simple matter to establish H+(H 2 0):f as the...pressure as predicted by the Thomson t2rnary mechanism whicK hzr been suownr to be valid experimentally at hiTh rrsurs (,han and Peron, 1:EI4 hereafter t...of NO , NO2 ions in various gases and the ternary recombination coefficients of these ions in the higher pres:;ure ( Thomson ) re"ie. Equation (5) cr>n

  14. Effects of indirect actions and oxygen on relative biological effectiveness: estimate of DSB induction and conversion induced by gamma rays and helium ions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ju-Ying; Chen, Fang-Hsin; Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Hsiao, Ya-Yun

    2015-07-01

    Clustered DNA damage other than double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be detrimental to cells and can lead to mutagenesis or cell death. In addition to DSBs induced by ionizing radiation, misrepair of non-DSB clustered damage contributes extra DSBs converted from DNA misrepair via pathways for base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair. This study aimed to quantify the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) when DSB induction and conversion from non-DSB clustered damage misrepair were used as biological endpoints. The results showed that both linear energy transfer (LET) and indirect action had a strong impact on the yields for DSB induction and conversion. RBE values for DSB induction and maximum DSB conversion of helium ions (LET = 120 keV/μm) to (60)Co gamma rays were 3.0 and 3.2, respectively. These RBE values increased to 5.8 and 5.6 in the absence of interference of indirect action initiated by addition of 2-M dimethylsulfoxide. DSB conversion was ∼1-4% of the total non-DSB damage due to gamma rays, which was lower than the 10% estimate by experimental measurement. Five to twenty percent of total non-DSB damage due to helium ions was converted into DSBs. Hence, it may be possible to increase the yields of DSBs in cancerous cells through DNA repair pathways, ultimately enhancing cell killing.

  15. Three-Dimensional Optical Tomography and Correlated Elemental Analysis of Hybrid Perovskite Microstructures: An Insight into Defect-Related Lattice Distortion and Photoinduced Ion Migration.

    PubMed

    Galisteo-López, Juan F; Li, Yuelong; Míguez, Hernán

    2016-12-15

    Organic lead halide perovskites have recently been proposed for applications in light-emitting devices of different sorts. More specifically, regular crystalline microstructures constitute an efficient light source and fulfill the geometrical requirements to act as resonators, giving rise to waveguiding and optical amplification. Herein we show three-dimensional laser scanning confocal tomography studies of different types of methylammonium lead bromide microstructures which have allowed us to dissect their photoemission properties with a precision of 0.036 μm(3). This analysis shows that their spectral emission presents strong spatial variations which can be attributed to defect-related lattice distortions. It is also largely enhanced under light exposure, which triggers the migration of halide ions away from illuminated regions, eventually leading to a strongly anisotropic degradation. Our work points to the need for performing an optical quality test of individual crystallites prior to their use in optoelectronics devices and provides a means to do so.

  16. Disturbances in cellular features and elemental homeostasis in the integument of a freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) in relation to hydrogen ion concentration of polluted water.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Ramanujam, S N; Dkhar, R S; Bhattacharjee, C R; Purkayastha, D

    2001-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the cellular and morphological defects in the integument of Channa punctatus, associated with heavy metal and other environmental pollution was related to a significant extent to the hydrogen ion concentration of the water. At low pH, the epidermis showed severe lesions, and the scale lost its attachment with the skin, due to lepidontal alterations of the circuli. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of the tissue indicated disturbances in the homeostasis of several elements, which probably played a major role in causing the cellular and morphological defects. Experimental monitoring of the pH of the polluted water to near-neutral, reduced significantly the extent of cellular and morphological defects and disturbances in elemental homeostasis.

  17. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: simulations for tamped targets and for disk experiments in accelerator test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-22

    Calculations suggest that experiments relating to disk heating, as well as beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current design proposals for accelerator test-facilities. Since the test-facilities have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics. In this regard, the low beam emittance of suggested multi-beam designs are very useful. Possibly even higher focal spot brightness could be obtained by plasma lenses which involve external fields on the beam which is stripped to a higher charge state by passing through a plasma cell. Preliminary results suggest that intensities approx. 10/sup 13/ - 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ are achievable. Given these intensities, deposition experiments with heating of disks to greater than a million degrees Kelvin (100 eV) are expected.

  18. Long-term effect of salinity on plant quality, water relations, photosynthetic parameters and ion distribution in Callistemon citrinus.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, S; Sánchez-Blanco, M J

    2014-07-01

    The effect of saline stress on physiological and morphological parameters in Callistemon citrinus plants was studied to evaluate their adaptability to irrigation with saline water. C. citrinus plants, grown under greenhouse conditions, were subjected to two irrigation treatments lasting 56 weeks: control (0.8 dS·m(-1)) and saline (4 dS·m(-1)). The use of saline water in C. citrinus plants decreased aerial growth, increased the root/shoot ratio and improved the root system (increased root diameter and root density), but flowering and leaf colour were not affected. Salinity caused a decrease in stomatal conductance and evapotranspiration, which may prevent toxic levels being reached in the shoot. Net photosynthesis was reduced in plants subjected to salinity, although this response was evident much later than the decrease in stomatal conductance. Stem water potential was a good indicator of salt stress in C. citrinus. The relative salt tolerance of Callistemon was related to storage of higher levels of Na+ and Cl- in the roots compared with the leaves, especially in the case of Na+, which could have helped to maintain the quality of plants. The results show that saline water (around 4 dS·m(-1)) could be used for growing C. citrinus commercially. However, the cumulative effect of irrigating with saline water for 11 months was a decrease in photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency, meaning that the interaction of the salinity level and the time of exposure to the salt stress should be considered important in this species.

  19. Secondary ion collection and transport system for ion microprobe

    DOEpatents

    Ward, James W.; Schlanger, Herbert; McNulty, Jr., Hugh; Parker, Norman W.

    1985-01-01

    A secondary ion collection and transport system, for use with an ion microprobe, which is very compact and occupies only a small working distance, thereby enabling the primary ion beam to have a short focal length and high resolution. Ions sputtered from the target surface by the primary beam's impact are collected between two arcuate members having radii of curvature and applied voltages that cause only ions within a specified energy band to be collected. The collected ions are accelerated and focused in a transport section consisting of a plurality of spaced conductive members which are coaxial with and distributed along the desired ion path. Relatively high voltages are applied to alternate transport sections to produce accelerating electric fields sufficient to transport the ions through the section to an ion mass analyzer, while lower voltages are applied to the other transport sections to focus the ions and bring their velocity to a level compatible with the analyzing apparatus.

  20. Comparison of the depot effect and immunogenicity of liposomes based on dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA), 3β-[N-(N',N'-Dimethylaminoethane)carbomyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol), and 1,2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP): prolonged liposome retention mediates stronger Th1 responses.

    PubMed

    Henriksen-Lacey, Malou; Christensen, Dennis; Bramwell, Vincent W; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter; Perrie, Yvonne

    2011-02-07

    The immunostimulatory capacities of cationic liposomes are well-documented and are attributed both to inherent immunogenicity of the cationic lipid and more physical capacities such as the formation of antigen depots and antigen delivery. Very few studies have however been conducted comparing the immunostimulatory capacities of different cationic lipids. In the present study we therefore chose to investigate three of the most well-known cationic liposome-forming lipids as potential adjuvants for protein subunit vaccines. The ability of 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)carbomyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) liposomes incorporating immunomodulating trehalose dibehenate (TDB) to form an antigen depot at the site of injection (SOI) and to induce immunological recall responses against coadministered tuberculosis vaccine antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 are reported. Furthermore, physical characterization of the liposomes is presented. Our results suggest that liposome composition plays an important role in vaccine retention at the SOI and the ability to enable the immune system to induce a vaccine specific recall response. While all three cationic liposomes facilitated increased antigen presentation by antigen presenting cells, the monocyte infiltration to the SOI and the production of IFN-γ upon antigen recall was markedly higher for DDA and DC-Chol based liposomes which exhibited a longer retention profile at the SOI. A long-term retention and slow release of liposome and vaccine antigen from the injection site hence appears to favor a stronger Th1 immune response.

  1. Analysis of S-adenosylmethionine and related sulfur metabolites in bacterial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (BAA-47) by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization coupled to a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Bianco, Giuliana; Abate, Salvatore; Mattia, Daniela

    2009-11-01

    A comprehensive and highly selective method for detecting in bacterial supernatants a modified sulfur nucleoside, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), and its metabolites, i.e., S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), adenosine (Ado), 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), adenine (Ade), S-adenosyl-methioninamine (dcSAM), homocysteine (Hcy) and methionine (Met), was developed. The method is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) coupled to a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap (LTQ) and 7-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). A gradient elution was employed with a binary solvent of 0.05 M ammonium formate at pH 4 and acetonitrile. The assay involves a simultaneous cleanup of cell-free bacterial broths by solid-phase extraction and trace enrichment of metabolites with a 50-fold concentration factor by using immobilized phenylboronic and anion-exchange cartridges. While the quantitative determination of SAM was performed using stable-isotope-labeled SAM-d3 as an internal standard, in the case of Met and Ade, Met-13C and Ade-15N2 were employed as isotope-labeled internal standards, respectively. This method enabled the identification of SAM and its metabolites in cell-free culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in Davis minimal broth (formulation without sulphur organic compounds), with routine sub-ppm mass accuracies (-0.27 +/- 0.68 ppm). The resulting contents of S(C)S(S)-SAM, S(S)-dcSAM, MTA, Ado and Met in the free-cell supernatant of P. aeruginosa was 56.4 +/- 2.1 nM, 32.2 +/- 2.2 nM, 0.91 +/- 0.10 nM, 19.6 +/- 1.2 nM and 1.93 +/- 0.02 microM (mean +/- SD, n = 4 extractions), respectively. We report also the baseline separation (Rs > or = 1.5) of both diastereoisomeric forms of SAM (S(C)S(S) and S(C)R(S)) and dcSAM (S(S) and R(S)), which can be very useful to establish the relationship between the biologically active versus the inactive species, S(C)S(S)/S(C)R(S) and S(S)/R(S) of SAM and dc

  2. Effects of europium ions (Eu3+) on the distribution and related biological activities of elements in Lathyrus sativus L roots.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong Er; Gao, Yong Sheng; Li, Feng Min; Zeng, Fuli

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses were used to study the distributions of different types of elements in the epidermis, exodermis, endodermis, and vascular cylinder of the fracture face in the Lathyrus sativus L. roots in the presence or absence of Eu3+. Some index of the biological activity related to the elements binding with protein were determined also. The results showed that the tissular distributions of elements in the fracture face are different in the presence and absence of Eu3+. The atomic percentages of P, S, Ca, and Mn were influenced more than those of other elements. Eu3+ promoted the biological activities of various kinds of element. The one possible mechanism changing the biological activities was that the reaction of Eu3+ +e--> Eu2+ would influence the electron capture or transport in elements of binding protein. Another mechanism was that CaM-Ca2+ becoming CaM-Eu3+ through Eu3+ instead of Ca2+ would affect the biological activity of elements by regulating the Ca2+ level in the plant cell.

  3. Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kips, R; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D; Amonette, J; Wang, Z; Johnson, T; Gerlach, D; Olsen, K B

    2009-05-29

    Both nuclear forensics and environmental sampling depend upon laboratory analysis of nuclear material that has often been exposed to the environment after it has been produced. It is therefore important to understand how those environmental conditions might have changed the chemical composition of the material over time, particularly for chemically sensitive compounds. In the specific case of uranium enrichment facilities, uranium-bearing particles stem from small releases of uranium hexafluoride, a highly reactive gas that hydrolyzes upon contact with moisture from the air to form uranium oxyfluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) particles. The uranium isotopic composition of those particles is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify whether a facility is compliant with its declarations. The present study, however, aims to demonstrate how knowledge of time-dependent changes in chemical composition, particle morphology and molecular structure can contribute to an even more reliable interpretation of the analytical results. We prepared a set of uranium oxyfluoride particles at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, European Commission, Belgium) and followed changes in their composition, morphology and structure with time to see if we could use these properties to place boundaries on the particle exposure time in the environment. Because the rate of change is affected by exposure to UV-light, humidity levels and elevated temperatures, the samples were subjected to varying conditions of those three parameters. The NanoSIMS at LLNL was found to be the optimal tool to measure the relative amount of fluorine in individual uranium oxyfluoride particles. At PNNL, cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved U(VI) fluorescence microspectroscopy (CLIFS) was used to monitor changes in the molecular structure.

  4. Relation between force and calcium ion concentration in different fibre types of the iliofibularis muscle of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Stienen, G J; van der Laarse, W J; Diegenbach, P C; Elzinga, G

    1987-01-01

    Calcium activated isometric force was measured in segments of single muscle fibres of the iliofibularis muscle of Xenopus laevis skinned by freeze-drying. A subdivision in five different fibre types was made, based on the location of the fibres inside the muscle, fibre diameter and a quantitative histochemical assay for succinate dehydrogenase activity. The Ca2+ sensitivity was characterized by fitting a Hill curve to the force levels reached at different Ca2+ concentrations. The parameter n of this equation indicates the steepness and pK the midpoint of this force-pCa relation. A considerable variability in the Ca2+ sensitivity characteristics was found between different fibres. The parameter n varied between 1.1 and 4.2 while pK varied between 5.5 and 6.6. The distribution of the data indicates the presence of three groups with different Ca2+ sensitivity; a group of fibres with low Ca2+ sensitivity but with considerable variation of the steepness of the Ca2+ sensitivity curves (type 1 fibres), an intermediate group (type 2, 3 and 4 fibres) with also considerable variation in steepness of the Ca2+ sensitivity curves, in which the lowest values for n are found in type 3 and 4 fibres and a group with high Ca2+ sensitivity and low n containing at least one tonic (type 5) fibre. At sub-saturating Ca2+ concentrations occasionally a transient decrease of the rate of force development was found which resembled the force oscillation reported for some mammalian muscle fibres.

  5. Trace Metal Characterization and Ion Exchange Capacity of Devonian to Pennsylvanian Age Bedrock in New York and Pennsylvania in Relation to Drinking Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spradlin, J.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Siegel, D. I.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of an evaluation of the trace and major metal composition of shallow sedimentary rock formations in the Appalachian Basin that control the quality of potable water produced in domestic and other wells. In particular, we quantify the mobile and total metals for which there are health concerns related to unconventional gas exploitation; Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba, As, and Pb. To do this, we sampled the upper 400 feet of Devonian to Pennsylvanian aged bedrock from Marcellus, NY to State College, PA. We used a variation of the U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test to assess water reactivity and leaching potential. Al, Zn, and U potentially can be leached from aquifer rocks naturally under acidic conditions, such as where pyrite might oxidize, to above current allowable regulatory values for these metals (2 mg/L, 5 mg/L, and 0.03 mg/L respectively) from some of the clay-rich formations. Groundwater analyses from both New York and Pennsylvania show that natural ion exchange occurs along flow paths from ridges to valleys. We find the laboratory cation exchange capacity (CEC) spans what might be expected for illite and chlorite commonly found in these rocks. Given the low surface area of the mineral surfaces of the fractures through which most of the water moves, the observed ion exchange in these rocks is not well understood. Along with this broad scale study area we investigated a Devonian outcrop 4 miles North of Cortland, NY to evaluate small-scale trace metal heterogeneity within a single stratigraphic section. Together these two studies provide important information to determine the extent to which ground water might be naturally high in trace metal composition, either because of geochemical conditions or entrainment of suspended material not removed prior to sampling.

  6. Relating the current science of ion-defect behavior in ice to a plausible mechanism for directional charge transfer during ice particle collisions.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J Paul

    2011-11-28

    A melding of modern experimental results descriptive of fundamental ion defect properties of ice is presented as a logical basis of a mechanism for the preferential transfer of positive charge from large to small colliding ice particles. The result may relate to the electrification of storm clouds. It is broadly agreed that such localized charge transfer during collision of small upwardly mobile ice particles with falling ice granules (i.e., graupel/hail) can lead to macroscopic charge separation capable of initiating lightning strikes during the expansion stage of a storm cell. Though the larger particles are thought to become negatively charged during the collisions neither a generally favored charge-exchange agent nor a preferred mechanism for the directional particle-to-particle charge transfer exists. Nevertheless, should ionic point defects of ice play a key role, the fundamental properties of ice defects considered here must apply. They include: (1) above 140 K protons move readily within and on the surface of ice while hydroxide ions are orders-of-magnitude less mobile, (2) whether generated by dissociation of HCl buried in ice, during neat ice particle growth, or at platinum-ice interfaces, interior protons move to and apparently collect at the ice-vacuum interface, and (3) proton activity and populations are orders-of-magnitude greater at the surface of ice films and free-standing ice particles than in the interior. From these fundamentals an untested argument is developed that within an ensemble of free floating ice particles the proton density at the surface is greater for larger particles. This implies a plausible proton-based mechanism that is consistent with current concepts of ice particle charging through collisions.

  7. Ni(ii) ions cleave and inactivate human alpha-1 antitrypsin hydrolytically, implicating nickel exposure as a contributing factor in pathologies related to antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wezynfeld, Nina Ewa; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Bal, Wojciech; Frączyk, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Human alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an abundant serum protein present at a concentration of 1.0-1.5 g L(-1). AAT deficiency is a genetic disease that manifests with emphysema and liver cirrhosis due to the accumulation of a misfolded AAT mutant in hepatocytes. Lung AAT amount is inversely correlated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a serious and often deadly condition, with increasing frequency in the aging population. Exposure to cigarette smoke and products of fossil fuel combustion aggravates AAT deficiency and COPD according to mechanisms that are not fully understood. Taking into account that these fumes contain particles that can release nickel to human airways and skin, we decided to investigate interactions of AAT with Ni(ii) ions within the paradigm of Ni(ii)-dependent peptide bond hydrolysis. We studied AAT protein derived from human blood using HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry. These studies were aided by spectroscopic experiments on model peptides. As a result, we identified three hydrolysis sites in AAT. Two of them are present in the N-terminal part of the molecule next to each other (before Thr-13 and Ser-14 residues) and effectively form one N-terminal cleavage site. The single C-terminal cleavage site is located before Ser-285. The N-terminal hydrolysis was more efficient than the C-terminal one, but both abolished the ability of AAT to inhibit trypsin in an additive manner. Nickel ions bound to hydrolysis products demonstrated an ability to generate ROS. These results implicate Ni(ii) exposure as a contributing factor in AAT-related pathologies.

  8. Comprehensive DFT and MO studies on glyoxilic acid oxime and related ions in gas phase and solution: Conformations, basicities and acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Ivelina; Trendafilova, Natasha

    2006-02-01

    Density functional (BLYP, B3LYP and BHLYP) and highly correlated MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations have been performed to investigate conformers, energy barriers, intramolecular H-bond strength, gas-phase basicity and deprotonation energies of glyoxilic acid oxime ( gao) and related ions in gas phase and in aqueous solution (SCRF-PCM method). BHLYP/6-311G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31++G(d) predictions for the global minimum conformer of gao were consistent with experiment. BLYP level overestimated the H-bond and stabilized incorrectly the H-bonded conformer. The calculations in solution indicated destabilization of H-bonded conformers due to the small polarizability and weaken of the H-bond. The same global minimum structures in gas phase and aqueous solution were found for gao-neutral ( ectt) and gao-dianion ( e- 2), whereas they were different for gao-anion because of the strong decrease of the conformational energies in solution. The global minimum structures of the neutral, anion and dianion of gao, obtained in solution, are in agreement with experiment. The gas-phase basicity (GB) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) calculations revealed the same sites for electrophilic attack, supported by the nature of HOMO: the carbonylic oxygen for the neutral, the carboxylic oxygen for the anion and the oxime nitrogen for the dianion. MEP results in gas phase and in solution suggested a region between the two atoms, but not on one atom in accordance with bidentate binding of gao ions to a metal. The BHLYP/6-31++G(d,p) molecular properties of gao were in best consistent with CCSD(T) results. The thermodynamical properties (GB and bond deprotonation energy) of gao were better estimated at B3LYP level.

  9. Age-Related Changes to Human Stratum Corneum Lipids Detected Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Following in Vivo Sampling.

    PubMed

    Starr, Nichola J; Johnson, Daniel J; Wibawa, Judata; Marlow, Ian; Bell, Mike; Barrett, David A; Scurr, David J

    2016-04-19

    This work demonstrates the ability to detect changes in both quantity and spatial distribution of human stratum corneum (SC) lipids from samples collected in vivo. The SC functions as the predominant barrier to the body, protecting against the penetration of xenobiotic substances. Changes to the SC lipid composition have been associated with barrier impairment and consequent skin disorders, and it is therefore important to monitor and quantify changes to this structure. This work demonstrates the first reported use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to assess physiological changes to human SC as a function of depth. This technique provides exceptional sensitivity and chemical specificity, allowing analysis of single tape stripped samples taken from volunteers. Using this methodology we were able to successfully identify chemical differences in human SC resulting from both intrinsic and extrinsic (photo) aging. Samples were collected from women of two age groups (under 27 and postmenopausal) and from two body sites with varying UV exposure (inner forearm and dorsal hand), and differences were identified using multivariate data analysis. The key finding was the significant aged-related increase and change in spatial distribution of the sterol cholesterol sulfate, a membrane stabilizing lipid. Significant changes in the prevalence of both lignoceric acid (C24:0) and hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) were also observed. This work describes previously unreported age-related chemical changes to human SC, providing an insight into aging mechanisms which may improve the design of both pharmaceutical and cosmetic topical products.

  10. Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1a in the amygdala is involved in pain and anxiety-related behaviours associated with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Aissouni, Youssef; El Guerrab, Abderrahim; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Ferrier, Jérémy; Chalus, Maryse; Lemaire, Diane; Grégoire, Stéphanie; Etienne, Monique; Eschalier, Alain; Ardid, Denis; Lingueglia, Eric; Marchand, Fabien

    2017-03-02

    Chronic pain is associated with anxiety and depression episodes. The amygdala plays a key role in the relationship between emotional responses and chronic pain. Here, we investigated the role of Acid-Sensing Ion Channels 1a within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), in pain and associated anxiety in a rat model of monoarthritis (MoAr). Administration within the BLA of PcTx1 or mambalgin-1, two specific inhibitors of ASIC1a-containing channels significantly inhibited pain and anxiety-related behaviours in MoAr rats. The effect of PcTx1 was correlated with a reduction of c-Fos expression in the BLA. We examined the expression profile of ASICs and other genes in the amygdala in MoAr and sham animals, and found no variation of the expression of ASIC1a, which was confirmed at the protein level. However, an increase in the BLA of MoAr rats of both PI3Kinase mRNA and the phosphorylated form of Akt, along with Bdnf mRNA, suggest that the BDNF/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway might regulate ASIC1a in BLA neurons as demonstrated in spinal sensitisation phenomenon. We also observed changes in several kinase mRNAs expression (PICK1, Sgk1) that are potentially involved in ASIC1a regulation. These results show a crucial role of ASIC1a channels in the BLA in pain and anxiety-related behaviours during arthritis.

  11. Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1a in the amygdala is involved in pain and anxiety-related behaviours associated with arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Aissouni, Youssef; El Guerrab, Abderrahim; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Ferrier, Jérémy; Chalus, Maryse; Lemaire, Diane; Grégoire, Stéphanie; Etienne, Monique; Eschalier, Alain; Ardid, Denis; Lingueglia, Eric; Marchand, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is associated with anxiety and depression episodes. The amygdala plays a key role in the relationship between emotional responses and chronic pain. Here, we investigated the role of Acid-Sensing Ion Channels 1a within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), in pain and associated anxiety in a rat model of monoarthritis (MoAr). Administration within the BLA of PcTx1 or mambalgin-1, two specific inhibitors of ASIC1a-containing channels significantly inhibited pain and anxiety-related behaviours in MoAr rats. The effect of PcTx1 was correlated with a reduction of c-Fos expression in the BLA. We examined the expression profile of ASICs and other genes in the amygdala in MoAr and sham animals, and found no variation of the expression of ASIC1a, which was confirmed at the protein level. However, an increase in the BLA of MoAr rats of both PI3Kinase mRNA and the phosphorylated form of Akt, along with Bdnf mRNA, suggest that the BDNF/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway might regulate ASIC1a in BLA neurons as demonstrated in spinal sensitisation phenomenon. We also observed changes in several kinase mRNAs expression (PICK1, Sgk1) that are potentially involved in ASIC1a regulation. These results show a crucial role of ASIC1a channels in the BLA in pain and anxiety-related behaviours during arthritis. PMID:28321113

  12. Temporal Lobe Reactions After Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy: Comparison of Relative Biological Effectiveness–Weighted Tolerance Doses Predicted by Local Effect Models I and IV

    SciTech Connect

    Gillmann, Clarissa; Jäkel, Oliver; Schlampp, Ingmar; Karger, Christian P.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)–weighted tolerance doses for temporal lobe reactions after carbon ion radiation therapy using 2 different versions of the local effect model (LEM I vs LEM IV) for the same patient collective under identical conditions. Methods and Materials: In a previous study, 59 patients were investigated, of whom 10 experienced temporal lobe reactions (TLR) after carbon ion radiation therapy for low-grade skull-base chordoma and chondrosarcoma at Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany in 2002 and 2003. TLR were detected as visible contrast enhancements on T1-weighted MRI images within a median follow-up time of 2.5 years. Although the derived RBE-weighted temporal lobe doses were based on the clinically applied LEM I, we have now recalculated the RBE-weighted dose distributions using LEM IV and derived dose-response curves with Dmax,V-1 cm³ (the RBE-weighted maximum dose in the remaining temporal lobe volume, excluding the volume of 1 cm³ with the highest dose) as an independent dosimetric variable. The resulting RBE-weighted tolerance doses were compared with those of the previous study to assess the clinical impact of LEM IV relative to LEM I. Results: The dose-response curve of LEM IV is shifted toward higher values compared to that of LEM I. The RBE-weighted tolerance dose for a 5% complication probability (TD{sub 5}) increases from 68.8 ± 3.3 to 78.3 ± 4.3 Gy (RBE) for LEM IV as compared to LEM I. Conclusions: LEM IV predicts a clinically significant increase of the RBE-weighted tolerance doses for the temporal lobe as compared to the currently applied LEM I. The limited available photon data do not allow a final conclusion as to whether RBE predictions of LEM I or LEM IV better fit better clinical experience in photon therapy. The decision about a future clinical application of LEM IV therefore requires additional analysis of temporal lobe reactions in a

  13. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  14. Analysis of risedronate and related substances by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for the analysis of risedronate and related substances by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). After optimization of the chromatographic conditions, satisfactory separation of the compounds was achieved on an Intersil C(8) column with an isocratic mobile phase: 8:4:88 (v/v) acetonitrile-methanol-12 mM ammonium acetate buffer containing 35 mM n-amylamine (pH 7.0). The mobile-phase flow rate was 1.0 mL min(-1). The calibration plot was linear in the range of 352 to 1760 microg mL(-1) for risedronate. The precision and reproducibility were 0.3 and 0.5%, respectively. The average recovery of risedronate was 100.4% and the RSD was 0.6%. The method was validated and shown to be precise, accurate, and specific for the assay of risedronate in both bulk material and dosage forms. The proposed liquid-chromatographic method can be satisfactorily used for the quality control of risedronate.

  15. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  16. Temporal Lobe Reactions After Radiotherapy With Carbon Ions: Incidence and Estimation of the Relative Biological Effectiveness by the Local Effect Model

    SciTech Connect

    Schlampp, Ingmar; Karger, Christian P.; Jaekel, Oliver; Scholz, Michael; Didinger, Bernd; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Hoess, Angelika; Kraemer, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To identify predictors for the development of temporal lobe reactions (TLR) after carbon ion radiation therapy (RT) for radiation-resistant tumors in the central nervous system and to evaluate the predictions of the local effect model (LEM) used for calculation of the biologically effective dose. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study reports the TLR rates in patients with skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas irradiated with carbon ions at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, in the years 2002 and 2003. Calculation of the relative biological effectiveness and dose optimization of treatment plans were performed on the basis of the LEM. Clinical examinations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months after RT and annually thereafter. Local contrast medium enhancement in temporal lobes, as detected on MRI, was regarded as radiation-induced TLR. Dose-volume histograms of 118 temporal lobes in 59 patients were analyzed, and 16 therapy-associated and 2 patient-associated factors were statistically evaluated for their predictive value for the occurrence of TLR. Results: Median follow-up was 2.5 years (range, 0.3--6.6 years). Age and maximum dose applied to at least 1 cm{sup 3} of the temporal lobe (D{sub max,V-1cm}3, maximum dose in the remaining temporal lobe volume, excluding the volume 1 cm{sup 3} with the highest dose) were found to be the most important predictors for TLR. Dose response curves of D{sub max,V-1cm}3 were calculated. The biologically equivalent tolerance doses for the 5% and 50% probabilities to develop TLR were 68.8 {+-} 3.3 Gy equivalents (GyE) and 87.3 {+-} 2.8 GyE, respectively. Conclusions: D{sub max,V-1cm}3 is predictive for radiation-induced TLR. The tolerance doses obtained seem to be consistent with published data for highly conformal photon and proton irradiations. We could not detect any clinically relevant deviations between clinical findings and expectations based on predictions of the LEM.

  17. Novel, Precise, Accurate Ion-Pairing Method to Determine the Related Substances of the Fondaparinux Sodium Drug Substance: Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Amol A.; Madhavan, P.; Deshpande, Girish R.; Chandel, Ravi Kumar; Yarbagi, Kaviraj M.; Joshi, Alok R.; Moses Babu, J.; Murali Krishna, R.; Rao, I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fondaparinux sodium is a synthetic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). This medication is an anticoagulant or a blood thinner, prescribed for the treatment of pulmonary embolism and prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis. Its determination in the presence of related impurities was studied and validated by a novel ion-pair HPLC method. The separation of the drug and its degradation products was achieved with the polymer-based PLRPs column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) in gradient elution mode. The mixture of 100 mM n-hexylamine and 100 mM acetic acid in water was used as buffer solution. Mobile phase A and mobile phase B were prepared by mixing the buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 90:10 (v/v) and 20:80 (v/v), respectively. Mobile phases were delivered in isocratic mode (2% B for 0–5 min) followed by gradient mode (2–85% B in 5–60 min). An Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD) was connected to the LC system to detect the responses of chromatographic separation. Further, the drug was subjected to stress studies for acidic, basic, oxidative, photolytic, and thermal degradations as per ICH guidelines and the drug was found to be labile in acid, base hydrolysis, and oxidation, while stable in neutral, thermal, and photolytic degradation conditions. The method provided linear responses over the concentration range of the LOQ to 0.30% for each impurity with respect to the analyte concentration of 12.5 mg/mL, and regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient value (r2) of more than 0.99 for all the impurities. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 1.4 µg/mL and 4.1 µg/mL, respectively, for fondaparinux. The developed ion-pair method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to accuracy, selectivity, precision, linearity, and robustness. PMID:27110496

  18. Ion plating for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    The ion plating techniques are classified relative to the instrumental set up, evaporation media, and mode of transport. A distinction is drawn between the low vacuum (plasma) and high vacuum (ion beam) techniques. Ion plating technology is discussed at the fundamental and industrial level. At the fundamental level, the capabilities and limitations of the plasma (evaporant flux) and film characteristics are evaluated. And on the industrial level, the performance and potential uses of ion plated films are discussed.

  19. Effect of salinity and water stress during the reproductive stage on growth, ion concentrations, Delta 13C, and delta 15N of durum wheat and related amphiploids.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolores; Voltas, Jordi; Araus, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    The physiological performance of durum wheat and two related amphiploids was studied during the reproductive stage under different combinations of salinity and irrigation. One triticale, one tritordeum, and four durum wheat genotypes were grown in pots in the absence of stress until heading, when six different treatments were imposed progressively. Treatments resulted from the combination of two irrigation regimes (100% and 35% of container water capacity) with three levels of water salinity (1.8, 12, and 17 dS m(-1)), and were maintained for nearly 3 weeks. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence and content were measured prior to harvest; afterwards shoot biomass and height were recorded, and Delta(13)C, delta(15)N, and the concentration of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and several ions (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) were analysed in shoot material. Compared with control conditions (full irrigation with Hoagland normal) all other treatments inhibited photosynthesis through stomatal closure, accelerated senescence, and decreased biomass. Full irrigation with 12 dS m(-1) outperformed other stress treatments in terms of biomass production and physiological performance. Biomass correlated positively with N and delta(15)N, and negatively with Na(+) across genotypes and fully irrigated treatments, while relationships across deficit irrigation conditions were weaker or absent. Delta(13)C did not correlate with biomass across treatments, but it was the best trait correlating with phenotypic differences in biomass within treatments. Tritordeum produced more biomass than durum wheat in all treatments. Its low Delta(13)C and high K(+)/Na(+) ratio, together with a high potential growth, may underlie this finding. Mechanisms relating delta(15)N and Delta(13)C to biomass are discussed.

  20. Mn-Cr relative sensitivity factor in ferromagnesian olivines defined for SIMS measurements with a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe: Implications for dating secondary fayalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2016-02-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53Mn, which decays to 53Cr with a half-life of ∼3.7 Myr, is useful for sequencing objects that formed within the first 20 Myr of Solar System evolution. 53Mn-53Cr relative chronology enables aqueously formed secondary minerals such as fayalite and various carbonates in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites to be dated, thereby providing chronological constraints on aqueous alteration processes. In situ measurements of Mn-Cr isotope systematics in fayalite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) require consideration of the relative sensitivities of the 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, for which a relative sensitivity factor [RSF = (55Mn+/52Cr+)SIMS/(55Mn/52Cr)true] is defined using appropriate standards. In the past, San Carlos olivine (Fa∼10) was commonly used for this purpose, but a growing body of evidence suggests that it is an unsuitable standard for meteoritic fayalite (Fa>90). Natural fayalite also cannot be used as a standard because it contains only trace amounts of chromium, which makes determining a true 55Mn/52Cr ratio and its degree of heterogeneity very difficult. To investigate the dependence of the Mn-Cr RSF on ferromagnesian olivine compositions, we synthesized a suite of compositionally homogeneous Mn,Cr-bearing liquidus-phase ferromagnesian olivines (Fa31-99). Manganese-chromium isotopic measurements of San Carlos olivine and synthesized ferromagnesian olivines using the University of Hawai'i Cameca ims-1280 SIMS show that the RSF for Fa10 is ∼0.9; it increases rapidly between Fa10 and Fa31 and reaches a plateau value of ∼1.5 ± 0.1 for Fa>34. The RSF is time-dependent: it increases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content <30 and decreases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content >50. The RSF measured on ferroan olivine (Fa>90) is influenced by pit shape, whereas the RSF measured on magnesian olivine (Fa10) is less sensitive to changes in pit shape. For these reasons, 53Mn-53Cr

  1. Ion-dust streaming instability with non-Maxwellian ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kählert, Hanno

    2015-07-15

    The influence of non-Maxwellian ions on the ion-dust streaming instability in a complex plasma is investigated. The ion susceptibility employed for the calculations self-consistently accounts for the acceleration of the ions by a homogeneous background electric field and their collisions with neutral gas particles via a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision term [e.g., A. V. Ivlev et al., Phys. Rev. E 71, 016405 (2005)], leading to significant deviations from a shifted Maxwellian distribution. The dispersion relation and the properties of the most unstable mode are studied in detail and compared with the Maxwellian case. The largest deviations occur at low to intermediate ion-neutral damping. In particular, the growth rate of the instability for ion streaming below the Bohm speed is found to be lower than in the case of Maxwellian ions, yet remains on a significant level even for fast ion flows above the Bohm speed.

  2. Comment on ``Measurement of the ion drag force on falling dust particles and its relation to the void formation in complex (dusty) plasmas'' [Phys. Plasmas 10, 1278 (2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrapak, S. A.; Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Konopka, U.; Thoma, M. H.; Quinn, R. A.

    2003-11-01

    It is shown that the quantitative interpretation of recent experiments to determine the ion drag force in complex (dusty) plasmas [C. Zafiu, A. Melzer, and A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 9, 4794 (2002); 10, 1278 (2003)] is not correct. A comparison of different models of the ion drag force is carried out to illustrate the complexity of this issue and to highlight the current level of the research.

  3. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Posada, Olga M.; Gilmour, Denise; Tate, Rothwelle J.; Grant, M. Helen

    2014-11-15

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  4. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  5. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  6. Ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  7. Probing structural patterns of ion association and solvation in mixtures of imidazolium ionic liquids with acetonitrile by means of relative (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Marekha, Bogdan A; Kalugin, Oleg N; Bria, Marc; Idrissi, Abdenacer

    2015-09-21

    Mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with polar aprotic solvents in different combinations and under different conditions (concentration, temperature etc.) are used widely in electrochemistry. However, little is known about the key intermolecular interactions in such mixtures depending on the nature of the constituents and mixture composition. In order to systematically address the intermolecular interactions, the chemical shift variation of (1)H and (13)C nuclei has been followed in mixtures of imidazolium ILs 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BmimBF4), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF6), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BmimTfO) and 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) with molecular solvent acetonitrile (AN) over the entire composition range at 300 K. The concept of relative chemical shift variation is proposed to assess the observed effects on a unified and unbiased scale. We have found that hydrogen bonds between the imidazolium ring hydrogen atoms and electronegative atoms of anions are stronger in BmimBF4 and BmimTfO ILs than those in BmimTFSI and BmimPF6. Hydrogen atom at position 2 of the imidazolium ring is substantially more sensitive to interionic hydrogen bonding than those at positions 4-5 in the case of BmimTfO and BmimTFSI ILs. These hydrogen bonds are disrupted upon dilution in AN due to ion dissociation which is more pronounced at high dilutions. Specific solvation interactions between AN molecules and IL cations are poorly manifested.

  8. DNA breakage induced by 1,2,4-benzenetriol: relative contributions of oxygen-derived active species and transition metal ions.

    PubMed

    Li, A S; Bandy, B; Tsang, S; Davison, A J

    2001-05-01

    We report here the relative roles of metals and selected reactive oxygen species in DNA damage by the genotoxic benzene metabolite 1,2,4-benzenetriol, and the interactions of antioxidants in affording protection. 1,2,4-Benzenetriol induces scission in supercoiled phage DNA in neutral aqueous solution with an effective dose (ED(50)) of 6.7 microM for 50% cleavage of 2.05 microg/ml supercoiled PM2 DNA. In decreasing order of effectiveness: catalase (20 U/ml), formate (25 mM), superoxide dismutase (20 U/ml), and mannitol (50 mM) protected, from 85 to 28%. Evidently, H(2)O(2) is the dominant active species, with O(2)(*)(-) and *OH playing subordinate roles. Desferrioxamine or EDTA inhibited DNA breakage by 81-85%, despite accelerating 1,2,4-benzenetriol autoxidation. Consistent with this suggestion of a crucial role for metals, addition of cupric, cuprous, ferric, or ferrous ions enhanced DNA breakage, with copper being more active than iron. Combinations of scavengers protected more effectively than any single scavenger alone, with implications for antioxidants acting in concert in living cells. Synergistic combinations were superoxide dismutase with *OH scavengers, superoxide dismutase with desferrioxamine, and catalase with desferrioxamine. Antagonistic (preemptive) combinations were catalase with superoxide dismutase, desferrioxamine with *OH scavengers, and catalase with *OH scavengers. The most striking aspect of synergism was the extent to which metal chelation (desferrioxamine) acted synergistically with either catalase or superoxide dismutase to provide virtually complete protection. Concluding, 1,2,4-benzenetriol-induced DNA damage occurs mainly by site-specific, Fenton-type mechanisms, involving synergism between several reactive intermediates. Multiple antioxidant actions are needed for effective protection.

  9. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  10. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  11. The potential of at-home prediction of the formation of urolithiasis by simple multi-frequency electrical conductivity of the urine and the comparison of its performance with urine ion-related indices, color and specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Silverio, Angelito A; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wang, Hai-Lung; Kung, Chien-Min; Chen, Jun; Tsai, Vincent F S

    2016-04-01

    It is important to control daily diet, water intake and life style as well as monitor the quality of urine for urolithiasis prevention. For decades, many ion-related indices have been developed for predicting the formation of urinary stones or urolithiasis, such as EQUILs, relative supersaturation (RSS), Tiselius indices (TI), Robertson risk factor algorithms (RRFA) and more recently, the Bonn risk index. However, they mostly demand robust laboratory analysis, are work-intensive, and even require complex computational programs to get the concentration patterns of several urine analytes. A simple and fast platform for measuring multi-frequency electrical conductivity (MFEC) of morning spot urine (random urine) to predict the onset of urolithiasis was implemented in this study. The performance thereof was compared to ion-related indices, urine color and specific gravity. The concentrations of relevant ions, color, specific gravity (SG) and MFEC (MFEC tested at 1, 10, 100, 5001 KHz and 1 MHz) of 80 random urine samples were examined after collection. Then, the urine samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h to determine whether sedimentation would occur or not. Ion-activity product index of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) EQ2) was calculated. The correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color, SG and MFEC were analyzed. AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color and MFEC (at 5 frequencies) all demonstrated good prediction (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, respectively) for stone formation. The positive correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2 and MFEC is also significant (p = 0.01). MFEC provides a good metric for predicting the onset of urolithiasis, which is comparable to conventional ion-related indices and urine color. This technology can be implemented with much ease for objectively monitoring the quality of urine at points-of-care or at home.

  12. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-09-16

    Improvements are presented in calutron devices and, more specifically, dealswith an improved mounting arrangement fer the ion source of the calutron. An important feature of the invention resides in a pluraiity of insulators so mounted as to be accessible from the exterior of the calutron tank and supporting at their inner ends the ion source. These insutators are arranged in mutually parallel relation and also parallel to the flux of the nmgnetic field, whereby the strain of the supporting elements is reduced to a minimum. In addition the support assembly is secured to a removable wall portion of the task to facilitate withdrawal and examination of the ion producing mechanism.

  13. Desorption of cluster ions from solid Ne by low-energy ion impact.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, T; Fukai, K; Koizumi, T; Hirayama, T

    2010-12-01

    We investigated Ne(+) ions and Ne(n)(+) (n = 2-20) cluster ions desorbed from the surface of solid Ne by 1.0 keV Ar(+) ion impact. Kinetic energy analysis shows a considerably narrower energy distribution for Ne(n)(+) (n ≥ 3) ions than for Ne(n)(+) (n = 1, 2) ions. The dependence of ion yields on Ne film thickness indicates that cluster ions (n ≥ 3) are desorbed only from relatively thick films. We conclude that desorbed ions grow into large cluster ions during the outflow of deep bulk atoms to the vacuum.

  14. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    PubMed

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio.

  15. Breeding of D(-)-lactic acid high producing strain by low-energy ion implantation and preliminary analysis of related metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting-Ting; Bai, Zhong-Zhong; Wang, Li-Juan; He, Bing-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The low-energy nitrogen ion beam implantation technique was used in the breeding of mutant D(-)-lactic-acid-producing strains. The wild strain Sporolactobacillus sp. DX12 was mutated by an N(+) ion beam with energy of 10keV and doses ranging from 0.4 x 10(15) to 6.60 x 10(15) ions/cm(2). Combined with an efficient screening method, an efficient mutant Y2-8 was selected after two times N(+) ion beam implantation. By using the mutant Y2-8, 121.6g/l of D-lactic acid was produced with the molar yields of 162.1% to the glucose. The yield of D-lactic acid by strain Y2-8 was 198.8% higher than the wild strain. Determination of anaerobic metabolism by Biolog MT2 was used to analyze the activities of the concerned enzymes in the lactic acid metabolic pathway. The results showed that the activities of the key enzymes responded on the substrates such as 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and D-lactate dehydrogenase were considerably higher in the mutants than the wild strain. These might be affected by ion beam implantation.

  16. The relative roles of passive surface forces and active ion transport in the modulation of airway surface liquid volume and composition.

    PubMed

    Tarran, R; Grubb, B R; Gatzy, J T; Davis, C W; Boucher, R C

    2001-08-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed recently that offer different views on the role of airway surface liquid (ASL) in lung defense. The "compositional" hypothesis predicts that ASL [NaCl] is kept low (<50 mM) by passive forces to permit antimicrobial factors to act as a chemical defense. The "volume" hypothesis predicts that ASL volume (height) is regulated isotonically by active ion transport to maintain efficient mechanical mucus clearance as the primary form of lung defense. To compare these hypotheses, we searched for roles for: (1) passive forces (surface tension, ciliary tip capillarity, Donnan, and nonionic osmolytes) in the regulation of ASL composition; and (2) active ion transport in ASL volume regulation. In primary human tracheobronchial cultures, we found no evidence that a low [NaCl] ASL could be produced by passive forces, or that nonionic osmolytes contributed substantially to ASL osmolality. Instead, we found that active ion transport regulated ASL volume (height), and that feedback existed between the ASL and airway epithelia to govern the rate of ion transport and volume absorption. The mucus layer acted as a "reservoir" to buffer periciliary liquid layer height (7 microm) at a level optimal for mucus transport by donating or accepting liquid to or from the periciliary liquid layer, respectively. These data favor the active ion transport/volume model hypothesis to describe ASL physiology.

  17. Non-destructive ion trap mass spectrometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Frankevich, Vladimir E.; Soni, Manish H.; Nappi, Mario; Santini, Robert E.; Amy, Jonathan W.; Cooks, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to an ion trap mass spectrometer of the type having an ion trapping volume defined by spaced end caps and a ring electrode. The ion trap includes a small sensing electrode which senses characteristic motion of ions trapped in said trapping volume and provides an image current. Ions are excited into characteristic motion by application of an excitation pulse to the trapped ions. The invention also relates to a method of operating such an ion trap.

  18. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  19. Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulik, James D.; Sawicki, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Accurate for the analysis of ions in solution, this form of analysis enables the analyst to directly assay many compounds that previously were difficult or impossible to analyze. The method is a combination of the methodologies of ion exchange, liquid chromatography, and conductimetric determination with eluant suppression. (Author/RE)

  20. Occurrence and Origin of Methane in Relation to Major Ion Concentrations in Groundwater Wells of the Denver-Julesburg and Piceance Basins of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. D.; Sherwood, O.; Lackey, G.; Burke, T. L.; Osborn, S. G.; Ryan, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. To address these concerns, we examined geochemical data from a publicly available Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database. The data consist of over 17,000 samples from 4,756 unique surface and groundwater locations collected since 1990, representing one of the most extensive databases of groundwater quality in relation to oil and gas development anywhere. Following rigorous data QA/QC, we classified groundwater samples with respect to major ion composition and compared the assigned water "types" along with other geochemical parameters to methane concentrations and carbon isotopes in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) and Piceance Basins in Colorado. 88% of samples with elevated methane (defined as > 1 mg L-1) were classified as Na-HCO3 type in the DJ basin and 78% were classified as either Na-HCO3 or Na-Cl type in the Piceance basin. Of the elevated methane samples, 96% and 69% in the DJ and Piceance basins respectively had microbial gas signatures, as determined by d13C values < - 60 ‰. Samples with elevated methane concentrations had higher pH, higher concentrations of chloride and sodium and lower concentrations of calcium in both the DJ and Piceance Basin. Elevated methane concentrations were predominately microbial in origin and correlated to indicators of increased water-rock interactions and anaerobic groundwater conditions, indicating that methane observed in these groundwater samples are largely a result of natural processes. Rare occurrences of stray thermogenic gas (d13C > 55 ‰, gas wetness > 5 % C2+ hydrocarbons) were most frequently associated with the Na-HCO3 water type in the DJ basin (67% of occurrences) and were randomly distributed across water types in the Piceance Basin. Investigation of natural and anthropogenic causes for the presence of methane is ongoing, using

  1. Tachykinin-Related Peptides Share a G Protein-Coupled Receptor with Ion Transport Peptide-Like in the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified an orphan Bombyx mori neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor (BNGR)-A24 as an ion transport peptide-like (ITPL) receptor. BNGR-A24 belongs to the same clade as BNGR-A32 and -A33, which were recently identified as natalisin receptors. Since these three BNGRs share high similarities with known receptors for tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs), we examined whether these BNGRs can function as physiological receptors for five endogenous B. mori TRPs (TK-1–5). In a heterologous expression system, BNGR-A24 acted as a receptor for all five TRPs. In contrast, BNGR-A32 responded only to TK-5, and BNGR-A33 did not respond to any of the TRPs. These findings are consistent with recent studies on the ligand preferences for B. mori natalisins. Furthermore, we evaluated whether the binding of ITPL and TRPs to BNGR-A24 is competitive by using a Ca2+ imaging assay. Concomitant addition of a TRP receptor antagonist, spantide I, reduced the responses of BNGR-A24 not only to TK-4 but also to ITPL. The results of a binding assay using fluorescent-labeled BNGR-A24 and ligands demonstrated that the binding of ITPL to BNGR-A24 was inhibited by TK-4 as well as by spantide I, and vice versa. In addition, the ITPL-induced increase in cGMP levels of BNGR-A24-expressing BmN cells was suppressed by the addition of excess TK-4 or spantide I. The intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP, as second messenger candidates of the TRP signaling, were not altered by the five TRPs, suggesting that these peptides act via different signaling pathways from cAMP and cGMP signaling at least in BmN cells. Taken together, the present findings suggest that ITPL and TRPs are endogenous orthosteric ligands of BNGR-A24 that may activate discrete signaling pathways. This receptor, which shares orthosteric ligands, may constitute an important model for studying ligand-biased signaling. PMID:27248837

  2. Observations in the downward auroral current region of Saturn's magnetosphere by Cassini: Electron and ion beams and their relation to the Low-frequency waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, P.; Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    On day 291 of year 2008, while Cassini was crossing the auroral regions, magnetospheric instruments onboard the spacecraft measured unusual strong signals: 1) a very intense field-aligned current system was identified using the magnetometer (MAG), 2) strong electron and ion flux were measured by the detectors of charged particles (CAPS-Cassini plasma spectrometer; MIMI-Magnetospheric imaging instrument), and a strong enhancement of the radio (ie. Saturn Kilometric Radiation) and plasma waves in the low-frequency range was identified by the electric antennas (RPWS; Radio and plasma wave science). Our analysis focuses on the observations in the downward auroral current region. In this region, CAPS measured upward directed field-aligned electron flux and ion flux within the 100eV-100keV energy range. While the upward electron fluxes are expected, the observation of upward-directed ion beams is surprising but has been previously observed at Earth and was explained by the so-called Pressure-cooker effect. RPWS measured strong enhancement of low-frequency waves below the electron cyclotron frequency. 3 types of plasma wave emissions were identified: a) Broadband extremely low frequency waves (BBELF), b) Whistler-mode (WM), and c) Electrostatic/Electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave (ICW) harmonics. In this work, we investigate the origin of WM and ICW in terms of beam-plasma instability, for which we calculate the growth rates. We then discuss the origin of BBELF in terms of turbulence. Finally we will discuss the origin of the heating of the ions by wave-particle interaction (WPI) with the identified low-frequency waves and the effectiveness of pressure-cooker effect.

  3. Advanced ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted on a ring cusp magnetic field ion thruster; in which the anode, cathode and discharge chamber backplate were moved relative to the magnetic cusp; are described. Optimum locations for the anode, cathode and backplate which yield the lowest energy cost per plasma ion and highest extracted ion fraction are identified. The results are discussed in terms of simple physical models. The results of preliminary experiments into the operation of hollow cathodes on nitrogen and xenon over a large pressure range (0.1 to 100 Torr) are presented. They show that the cathode discharge transfers from the cathode insert to the exterior edge of the orifice plate as the interelectrode pressure is increased. Experimental evidence showing that a new ion extractor grid concept can be used to stabilize the plasma sheath at the screen grid is presented. This concept, identified by the term constrained sheath optics, is shown to hold ion beamlet divergence and impingement characteristics to stable values as the beamlet current and the net and total accelerating voltages are changed. The current status of a study of beamlet vectoring induced by displacing the accelerator and/or decelerator grids of a three grid ion extraction system relative to the screen grid is discussed.

  4. [Particle therapy: carbon ions].

    PubMed

    Pommier, Pascal; Hu, Yi; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Chapet, Olivier; Balosso, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiation therapy. It has been first proposed in the forties by Robert Wilson, however the first dedicated centres for human care have been build up only recently in Japan and Germany. The interest of carbon ion is twofold: 1) the very sharp targeting of the tumour with the so called spread out Bragg peak that delivers most of the beam energy in the tumour and nothing beyond it, sparing very efficiently the healthy tissues; 2) the higher relative biological efficiency compared to X rays or protons, able to kill radioresistant tumour cells. Both properties make carbon ions the elective therapy for non resectable radioresistant tumours loco-regionally threatening. The technical and clinical experience accumulated during the recent decades is summarized in this paper along with a detailed presentation of the elective indications. A short comparison between conventional radiotherapy and hadrontherapy is proposed for the indications which are considered as priority for carbon ions.

  5. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  6. ION SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  7. Ion loss in weakly collisional three ion species plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkowitz, Noah; Yip, Chi-Shung; Severn, Greg

    2016-10-01

    Ion velocity distribution functions (ivdfs) at sheath-presheath boundaries are studied with laser-induced fluorescence in weakly collisional Xe-Kr-Ar and Xe-Ar-Ne plasmas using tunable diode lasers for Ar + and Xe + ions. The argon and xenon ivdfs are measured at the sheath-presheath boundary near a negatively biased boundary plate. The plasma potential profiles are measured by an emissive probe throughout the sheath and presheath. Relative ion concentrations resulting from the neutral gas mixtures are calculated using G-H. Kim's loss-production balance method. Ne + and Kr + ions are added to plasmas with approximately equal amounts of Ar + and Xr + ions, where Ar + and Xe + ions are previously observed to reach the sheath edge at nearly the system sound speed. In two ion species plasmas, instability enhanced collisional friction was demonstrated to dictate the escape velocities of the ions. When three ion species are present, it is demonstrated that as the concentration of the third ion species increases, Xe + and Ar + ion velocities at the sheath edge deviates from the common sound speed and approach their individual Bohm velocities. These observations are consistent with the predictions of the instability enhanced collisional friction theory This work was supported by NSF under Grant No. 1464741 and U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-SC00114226.

  8. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  9. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  10. A 30-cm diameter argon ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

  11. Crystal Structure of Garnet-Related Li-Ion Conductor Li7-3x Ga x La3Zr2O12: Fast Li-Ion Conduction Caused by a Different Cubic Modification?

    PubMed

    Wagner, Reinhard; Redhammer, Günther J; Rettenwander, Daniel; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Schmidt, Walter; Wilkening, Martin; Amthauer, Georg

    2016-03-22

    Li-oxide garnets such as Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) are among the most promising candidates for solid-state electrolytes to be used in next-generation Li-ion batteries. The garnet-structured cubic modification of LLZO, showing space group Ia-3d, has to be stabilized with supervalent cations. LLZO stabilized with Ga(3+) shows superior properties compared to LLZO stabilized with similar cations; however, the reason for this behavior is still unknown. In this study, a comprehensive structural characterization of Ga-stabilized LLZO is performed by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Coarse-grained samples with crystal sizes of several hundred micrometers are obtained by solid-state reaction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction results show that Li7-3x Ga x La3Zr2O12 with x > 0.07 crystallizes in the acentric cubic space group I-43d. This is the first definite record of this cubic modification for LLZO materials and might explain the superior electrochemical performance of Ga-stabilized LLZO compared to its Al-stabilized counterpart. The phase transition seems to be caused by the site preference of Ga(3+). (7)Li NMR spectroscopy indicates an additional Li-ion diffusion process for LLZO with space group I-43d compared to space group Ia-3d. Despite all efforts undertaken to reveal structure-property relationships for this class of materials, this study highlights the potential for new discoveries.

  12. Crystal Structure of Garnet-Related Li-Ion Conductor Li7–3xGaxLa3Zr2O12: Fast Li-Ion Conduction Caused by a Different Cubic Modification?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Li-oxide garnets such as Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) are among the most promising candidates for solid-state electrolytes to be used in next-generation Li-ion batteries. The garnet-structured cubic modification of LLZO, showing space group Ia-3d, has to be stabilized with supervalent cations. LLZO stabilized with Ga3+ shows superior properties compared to LLZO stabilized with similar cations; however, the reason for this behavior is still unknown. In this study, a comprehensive structural characterization of Ga-stabilized LLZO is performed by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Coarse-grained samples with crystal sizes of several hundred micrometers are obtained by solid-state reaction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction results show that Li7–3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 with x > 0.07 crystallizes in the acentric cubic space group I-43d. This is the first definite record of this cubic modification for LLZO materials and might explain the superior electrochemical performance of Ga-stabilized LLZO compared to its Al-stabilized counterpart. The phase transition seems to be caused by the site preference of Ga3+. 7Li NMR spectroscopy indicates an additional Li-ion diffusion process for LLZO with space group I-43d compared to space group Ia-3d. Despite all efforts undertaken to reveal structure–property relationships for this class of materials, this study highlights the potential for new discoveries. PMID:27019548

  13. Models including electron correlation in relation to Fock's proposed expansion of the ground-state wave function of He-like atomic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, M. L.; March, N. H.; Nieto, L. M.

    2011-12-15

    Here attention is first drawn to the importance of gaining insight into Fock's early proposal for expanding the ground-state wave function for He-like atomic ions in hyperspherical coordinates. We approach the problem via two solvable models, namely, (i) the s-term model put forth by Temkin [Phys. Rev. 126, 130 (1962)] and (ii) the Hookean atom model proposed by Kestner and Sinanoglu [Phys. Rev. 128, 2687 (1962)]. In both cases the local kinetic energy can be obtained explicitly in hyperspherical coordinates. Separation of variables occurs in both model wave functions, though in a different context in the two cases. Finally, a k-space formulation is proposed that should eventually result in distinctive identifying characteristics of Fock's nonanalyticities for He-like atomic ions when both electrons are close to the nucleus.

  14. Interrupting the flux of delocalized electrons on a dibenzo-18-crown-6-embedded graphite sheet and its relative counteraction in the presence of potassium ions.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Taherpour, Avat Arman; Pashabadi, Afshin

    2016-06-20

    Delocalized electrons are free to move throughout a graphite sheet. Based on the interruption of this flux, a new strategy has been developed to establish a highly sensitive impedimetric sensing device for K(+) ions. Here, we report on the successful application of a simple graphite paste incorporated into dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), which effectively impedes the electron flux on the graphite sheet. Most importantly, this interruption can be selectively obviated in the presence of potassium ion. Our quantum mechanics-density functional theory (QM-DFT) calculations revealed that, among the possible surface-configurations of the ligand on the graphite surface, the "distorted concave" form is a more energy-favorable configuration and existed in a higher probability. This form is capable of impeding the passage of delocalized electrons over the graphite sheets. From modeling of the detecting processes, the surface configuration of DB18C6 in treating with K(+) was intensely changed to "convex", which facilitates the passage of electrons along the graphite sheet. Optimizations of the structures of DB18C6 and its 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 complexes with potassium ion were also performed using QM-DFT calculations. On the other hand, the modeling of the graphene sheet was performed using the molecular mechanics MMFF94 method, which was used to model the detecting process. The proposed sensor was found to quantify the potassium ion by faradaic impedance spectroscopy in the range of 50 to 1500 pM with a detection limit of 35 pM.

  15. Ion thermal effects on slow mode solitary waves in plasmas with two adiabatic ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, F. Hellberg, M. A. Mace, R. L.

    2015-09-15

    Using both the Sagdeev and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) methods, ion thermal effects on slow mode ion acoustic solitons and double layers are investigated in a plasma with two adiabatic positive ion species. It is found that reducing the gap between the two ion thermal speeds by increasing the relative temperature of the cool ions increases the typical soliton/double layer speeds for all values of the ion-ion density ratio and reduces the range in the density ratio that supports double layers. The effect of increasing the relative cool ion temperature on the soliton/double layer amplitudes depends on the relative densities. For lower values of the ion density ratio, an increase in cool ion temperature leads to a significant decrease in soliton/double layer amplitude, so one may find that solitons of all permissible speeds lie within the range of KdV theory.

  16. Ion/Neutral, Ion/Electron, Ion/Photon, and Ion/Ion Interactions in Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Do we need them all? Are they enough?

    PubMed Central

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Mentinova, Marija

    2011-01-01

    A range of strategies and tools has been developed to facilitate the determination of primary structures of analyte molecules of interest via tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The two main factors that determine the primary structural information present in an MS/MS spectrum are the type of ion generated from the analyte molecule and the dissociation method. The ion-type subjected to dissociation is determined by the ionization method/conditions and ion transformation processes that might take place after initial gas-phase ion formation. Furthermore, the range of analyte-related ion types can be expanded via derivatization reactions prior to mass spectrometry. Dissociation methods include those that simply alter the population of internal states of the mass-selected ion (i.e., activation methods like collision-induced dissociation) as well as processes that rely on transformation of the ion-type prior to dissociation (e.g., electron capture dissociation). A variety of ionic interactions has been studied for the purpose of ion dissociation and ion transformation that include ion/neutral, ion/photon, ion/electron, and ion/ion interactions. A wide range of phenomena has been observed, many of which have been explored/developed as means for structural analysis. The techniques arising from these phenomena are discussed within the context of the elements of structure determination in tandem mass spectrometry, viz., ion-type definition and dissociation. Unique aspects of the various ion interactions are emphasized along with any barriers to widespread implementation. PMID:21472539

  17. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  18. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  19. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  20. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies. PMID:7428744

  1. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-06-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies.

  2. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  3. Ion Channels in Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pravir; Kumar, Dhiraj; Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Ambasta, Rashmi K

    2016-01-01

    The convergent endeavors of the neuroscientist to establish a link between clinical neurology, genetics, loss of function of an important protein, and channelopathies behind neurological disorders are quite intriguing. Growing evidence reveals the impact of ion channels dysfunctioning in neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Many neurological/neuromuscular disorders, viz, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related disorders are caused due to altered function or mutation in ion channels. To maintain cell homeostasis, ion channels are playing a crucial role which is a large transmembrane protein. Further, these channels are important as it determines the membrane potential and playing critically in the secretion of neurotransmitter. Behind NDDs, losses of pathological proteins and defective ion channels have been reported and are found to aggravate the disease symptoms. Moreover, ion channel dysfunctions are eliciting a range of symptoms, including memory loss, movement disabilities, neuromuscular sprains, and strokes. Since the possible mechanistic role played by aberrant ion channels, their receptor and associated factors in neurodegeneration remained elusive; therefore, it is a challenging task for the neuroscientist to implement the therapeutics for targeting NDDs. This chapter reviews the potential role of the ion channels in membrane physiology and brain homeostasis, where ion channels and their associated factors have been characterized with their functional consequences in neurological diseases. Moreover, mechanistic role of perturbed ion channels has been identified in various NDDs, and finally, ion channel modulators have been investigated for their therapeutic intervention in treating common NDDs.

  4. Cyclic surface morphology change related to Li ion movement in Li secondary microbattery embedded in Si substrate: Atomic force microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, K.; Kuriyama, K.

    2004-05-01

    Surface morphology and charge/discharge characteristic in a 5×5 μm2 area of an all-solid-state Li secondary battery (Al/Li/SiO2-15 at. %P2O5/LiMn2O4/polycrystalline silicon) embedded in a Si substrate are simultaneously observed by atomic force microscopy with a conductive probe. The battery area of 5×5 μm2 shows charge/discharge behavior corresponding to the movement of ˜2.9×1010 Li+ ions/μm2, reflecting the cyclic movement of Li+ ions. The Al electrode consisting of scale-shaped grains of 0.1-1.5 μm in size rises by ˜30 nm during the first charge operation. The surface of the Al electrode shows a cyclic change from scaly to wrinkled structures with the charge/discharge operations, indicating the drawing of the excess Li in the anode into the glassy electrolyte. These results are promising for the realization of a micrometer-sized battery.

  5. Evaluation of multiple reaction monitoring cubed for the analysis of tachykinin related peptides in rat spinal cord using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pailleux, Floriane; Beaudry, Francis

    2014-02-01

    Targeted peptide methods generally use HPLC-MS/MRM approaches. Although dependent on the instrumental resolution, interferences may occur while performing analysis of complex biological matrices. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) is a technique, which provides a significantly better selectivity, compared with HPLC-MS/MRM assay. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) allows the detection and quantitation by enriching standard MRM with secondary product ions that are generated within the linear ion trap. Substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are tachykinin peptides playing a central role in pain transmission. The objective of this study was to verify whether HPLC-MS/MRM(3) could provide significant advantages over a more traditional HPLC-MS/MRM assay for the quantification of SP and NKA in rat spinal cord. The results suggest that reconstructed MRM(3) chromatograms display significant improvements with the nearly complete elimination of interfering peaks but the sensitivity (i.e. signal-to-noise ratio) was severely reduced. The precision (%CV) observed was between 3.5% and 24.1% using HPLC-MS/MRM and in the range of 4.3-13.1% with HPLC-MS/MRM(3), for SP and NKA. The observed accuracy was within 10% of the theoretical concentrations tested. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) may improve the assay sensitivity to detect difference between samples by reducing significantly the potential of interferences and therefore reduce instrumental errors.

  6. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and particularly describes a novel ion source. The unique feature of this source lies in the shaping of the ionizing electron stream to conform to the arc plasma boundary at the exit slit of the ionization chamber, thereby increasing the ion density produced at the plasma boundary. The particular structure consists of an electron source disposed at onc end of an elongated ionization chambcr and a coilimating electrode positioned to trim the electron stream to a crescent shape before entering the ionization chamber.

  7. Molecular cloning of ion channels in Felis catus that are related to periodic paralyses in man: a contribution to the understanding of the genetic susceptibility to feline neck ventroflexion and paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Marlyn; Kunii, Ilda S.; Paninka, Rolf M.; Simões, Denise M. N.; Castillo, Víctor A.; Reche, Archivaldo; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Dias da Silva, Magnus R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neck ventroflexion in cats has different causes; however, the most common is the hypokalemia associated with flaccid paralysis secondary to chronic renal failure. In humans, the most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis are hypokalemia precipitated by thyrotoxicosis and familial forms linked to mutations in sodium, potassium, and calcium channel genes. Here, we describe the sequencing and analysis of skeletal muscle ion channels in Felis catus that could be related to periodic paralyses in humans, contributing to the understanding of the genetic susceptibility to feline neck ventroflexion and paralysis. We studied genomic DNA from eleven cats, including five animals that were hyperthyroid with hypokalemia, although only one presented with muscle weakness, and six healthy control domestic cats. We identified the ion channel ortholog genes KCNJ2, KCNJ12, KCNJ14, CACNA1S and SCN4A in the Felis catus genome, together with several polymorphic variants. Upon comparative alignment with other genomes, we found that Felis catus provides evidence for a high genomic conservation of ion channel sequences. Although we hypothesized that neck ventroflexion in cats could be associated with a thyrotoxic or familial periodic paralysis channel mutation, we did not identify any previously detected human channel mutation in the hyperthyroid cat presenting hypokalemia. However, based on the small number of affected cats in this study, we cannot yet rule out this molecular mechanism. Notwithstanding, hyperthyroidism should still be considered as a differential diagnosis in hypokalemic feline paralysis. PMID:25063199

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  9. Expression pattern of potential biomarker genes related to growth, ion regulation and stress in response to ammonia exposure, food deprivation and exercise in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Diricx, Marjan; Chan, Lai Pong; Liew, Hon Jung; Kumar, Vikas; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-10-15

    Waterborne ammonia has become a persistent pollutant of aquatic habitats. During certain periods (e.g. winter), food deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural water. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by their genes. In this present study, toxicogenomic analyses using real time PCR was used to characterize expression patterns of potential biomarker genes controlling growth, ion regulation and stress responses in common carp subjected to elevated ammonia (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and fasting (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Both feeding groups of fish were exposed to high environment ammonia (HEA) for 0 h (control), 3h, 12h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days, and were sampled after performing swimming at different speeds (routine versus exhaustive). Results show that the activity and expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an important branchial ion regulatory enzyme, was increased after 4-10 days of exposure. Effect of HEA was also evident on expression patterns of other ion-regulatory hormone and receptor genes; prolactin and cortisol receptor mRNA level(s) were down-regulated and up-regulated respectively after 4, 10 and 21 days. Starvation and exhaustive swimming, the additional challenges in present study significantly further enhanced the HEA effect on the expression of these two genes. mRNA transcript of growth regulating hormone and receptor genes such as Insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone receptor, and the thyroid hormone receptor were reduced in response to HEA and the effect of ammonia was exacerbated in starved fish, with levels that were remarkably reduced compared to fed exposed fish. However, the expression of the growth

  10. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole.

  11. The modulatory effect of zinc ions on voltage-gated potassium currents in cultured rat hippocampal neurons is not related to Kv1.3 channels.

    PubMed

    Teisseyre, A; Mercik, K; Mozrzymas, J W

    2007-12-01

    We applied the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to study the influence of zinc ions (Zn(2+)) and extracellular protons at acidic pH (pH(o)) on voltage-gated potassium currents in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The first goal of the study was to estimate whether Kv1.3 currents significantly contributed to voltage-gated potassium currents in examined cells. Then, the influence of both ions on the activity of other voltage-gated potassium currents in the neurons was examined. We examined both the total current and the delayed - rectifier component. Results obtained in both cases were not significantly different from each other. Available data argued against any significant contribution of Kv1.3 currents to the recorded currents. Nevertheless, application of Zn(2+) in the concentration range from 100 microM to 5 mM reversibly modulated the recorded currents. The activation midpoint was shifted by about 40 mV (total current) and 30 mV (delayed-rectifier current) towards positive membrane potentials and the activation kinetics were slowed significantly (2 - 3 fold) upon application of Zn(2+). The inactivation midpoint was also shifted towards positive membrane potentials, but less significantly (about 14 mV). The current amplitudes were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner to about 0.5 of the control value. The effects of Zn(2+) were saturated at the concentration of 1 mM. Raising extracellular proton concentration by lowering the pH(o) from 7.35 to 6.4 did not affect significantly the currents. Possible mechanisms underlying the observed phenomena and their possible physiological significance are discussed.

  12. Toward remote ion-ion entanglement with barium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Thomas W.; Auchter, Carolyn; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Blinov, Boris B.

    2015-03-01

    We present work toward remote entanglement of barium ions in traps separated by a few meters. A new version of an ion trap specialized for remote entanglement is introduced. The new trap allows for highly efficient collection of ion fluorescence while simultaneously minimizing ion micromotion and aligning the trap position precisely to the focus of an in-vacuum parabolic mirror by using a set of bias electrodes and a piezoelectric micro-positioning system. The success rate of the remote entanglement procedure depends strongly on the efficiency with which ion fluorescence can be coupled into an optical fiber. Characterization of our system in terms of ion fluorescence collection and fiber coupling efficiency is presented. Results demonstrating entanglement between a single barium ion and single spontaneously emitted photons are shown. The entanglement fidelity of the ion-photon state is measured to be 0.84(1) and a CHSH Bell signal of 2.303(36) finds violation of the CHSH version of the Bell inequality by over eight standard deviations. Barium's relatively long wavelength transitions make it an ideal candidate for our longer term goal of remote entanglement of ions separated by a kilometer or more. Such long distance remote entanglement should allow for a loophole-free verification of the violation of the Bell inequality.

  13. Mitochondrial Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In work spanning more than a century, mitochondria have been recognized for their multifunctional roles in metabolism, energy transduction, ion transport, inheritance, signaling, and cell death. Foremost among these tasks is the continuous production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, which requires a large electrochemical driving force for protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This process requires a membrane with relatively low permeability to ions to minimize energy dissipation. However, a wealth of evidence now indicates that both selective and nonselective ion channels are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, along with several known channels on the outer membrane. Some of these channels are active under physiological conditions, and others may be activated under pathophysiological conditions to act as the major determinants of cell life and death. This review summarizes research on mitochondrial ion channels and efforts to identify their molecular correlates. Except in a few cases, our understanding of the structure of mitochondrial ion channels is limited, indicating the need for focused discovery in this area. PMID:17059356

  14. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don A.

    2002-01-01

    The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

  15. Quantitative description of ion transport in Donnan ion exchange membrane systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, W.E.; Baker, B.L.

    1980-05-01

    Presented are simplified mass transfer techniques describing the transfer of ions in continuous ion selective membrane systems in which the resistance to ion transport through the membrane is small in relation to the resistance to ion transport in the solution phase. Methods are developed through the application of the transfer unit concept to the Donnan equilibrium. This equilibrium describes the equilibrium ion concentration on either side of an ion selective membrane. Data from one cation selection system is presented as evidence of the validity of these methods. Further techniques are shown that will allow the determination of ion transport given only equipment parameters and solution diffusivities. Supporting data are shown.

  16. Ion Beam Modification of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, B; de la Rubia, T D; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V; Rehn, L E

    2005-10-10

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, IBMM 2004, and is published by Elsevier-Science Publishers as a special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods B. The conference series is the major international forum to present and discuss recent research results and future directions in the field of ion beam modification, synthesis and characterization of materials. The first conference in the series was held in Budapest, Hungary, 1978, and subsequent conferences were held every two years at locations around the Globe, most recently in Japan, Brazil, and the Netherlands. The series brings together physicists, materials scientists, and ion beam specialists from all over the world. The official conference language is English. IBMM 2004 was held on September 5-10, 2004. The focus was on materials science involving both basic ion-solid interaction processes and property changes occurring either during or subsequent to ion bombardment and ion beam processing in relation to materials and device applications. Areas of research included Nanostructures, Multiscale Modeling, Patterning of Surfaces, Focused Ion Beams, Defects in Semiconductors, Insulators and Metals, Cluster Beams, Radiation Effects in Materials, Photonic Devices, Ion Implantation, Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine including New Materials, Imaging, and Treatment.

  17. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  18. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Electrochemical properties of SnO2 nanorods as anode materials in lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Song-Lin; Liu, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Tai-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Well-dispersed SnO2 nanorods with diameter of 4-15 nm and length of 100-200 nm are synthesised through a hydrothermal route and their potential as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries is investigated. The observed initial discharge capacity is as high as 1778 mA·h/g, much higher than the theoretical value of the bulk SnO2 (1494 mA·h/g). During the following 15 cycles, the reversible capacity decreases from 929 to 576 mA·h/g with a fading rate of 3.5% per cycle. The fading mechanism is discussed. Serious capacity fading can be avoided by reducing the cycling voltages from 0.05-3.0 to 0.4-1.2 V. At the end, SnO2 nanorods with much smaller size are synthesized and their performance as anode materials is studied. The size effect on the electrochemical properties is briefly discussed.

  19. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  20. The transition from water-breathing to air-breathing is associated with a shift in ion uptake from gills to gut: a study of two closely related erythrinid teleosts, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary transition from water-breathing to air-breathing involved not only a change in function of the organs of respiratory gas exchange and N-waste excretion, but also in the organs of ion uptake from the environment. A combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques was used to look at the relative importance of the gills versus the gut in Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) balance in two closely related erythrinid species: a facultative air-breather, the jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus) and an obligate water-breather, the traira (Hoplias malabaricus). The jeju has a well-vascularized physostomous swimbladder, while that in the traira is poorly vascularized, but the gills are much larger. Both species are native to the Amazon and are common in the ion-poor, acidic blackwaters of the Rio Negro. Under fasting conditions, the traira was able to maintain positive net Na(+) and Cl(-) balance in this water, and only slightly negative net K(+) balance. However, the jeju was in negative net balance for all three ions and had lower plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, despite exhibiting higher branchial Na(+), K(+)ATPase and v-type H(+)ATPase activities. In the intestine, activities of these same enzymes were also higher in the jeju, and in vitro measurements of net area-specific rates of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) absorption, as well as the overall intestinal absorption capacities for these three ions, were far greater than in the traira. When acutely exposed to disturbances in water O2 levels (severe hypoxia ~15% or hyperoxia ~420% saturation), gill ionoregulation was greatly perturbed in the traira but less affected in the jeju, which could "escape" the stressor by voluntarily air-breathing. We suggest that a shift of ionoregulatory capacity from the gills to the gut may have occurred in the evolutionary transition to air-breathing in jeju, and in consequence branchial ionoregulation, while less powerful, is also less impacted by variations in water O2 levels.

  1. Instrumentation: Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of ion chromatography in separating and measuring anions. The principles of ion exchange are presented, along with some applications of ion chromatography in industry. Ion chromatography systems are described, as well as ion pair and ion exclusion chromatography, column packings, detectors, and programming. (TW)

  2. Fundamental studies of ion injection and trapping of electrosprayed ions on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarmby, Scott Thomas

    The quadrupole ion trap is a highly versatile and sensitive analytical mass spectrometer. Because of the advantages offered by the ion trap, there has been intense interest in coupling it to ionization techniques such as electrospray which form ions externally to the ion trap. In this work, experiments and computer simulations were employed to study the injection of electrosprayed ions into the ion trap of a Finnigan MAT LCQ LC/MS n mass spectrometer. The kinetic energy distribution of the ion beam was characterized and found to be relatively wide, a result of the high pressures from the atmospheric pressure source. One of the most important experimental parameters which affects ion injection efficiency is the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode. A theoretical model was fit to experimental data allowing the optimum RF voltage for trapping a given m/z ion to be predicted. Computer simulations of ion motion were performed to study the effect of various instrumental parameters on trapping efficiency. A commercially available ion optics program, SIMION v6.0, was chosen because it allowed the actual ion trap electrode geometry including endcap holes to be simulated. In contrast to previous computer simulations, SIMION provided the ability to start ions outside the ion trap and to simulate more accurately the injection of externally formed ions. The endcap holes were found to allow the RF field to penetrate out of the ion trap and affect ions as they approached the ion trap. From these simulations, a model for the process by which injected ions are trapped was developed. Using these computer simulations, techniques of improving trapping efficiency were investigated. Most previous techniques perturb ions which are already in the ion trap and therefore cannot be used to accumulate ions; the ability to accumulate ions is a necessity with ionization sources such as electrospray which form ions continuously. One such novel technique for improving trapping efficiency

  3. Ion trap mass spectrometry of externally generated ions

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Van Berkel, G.J.; Georinger, D.E. ); Glish, G.L.

    1994-07-01

    This discussion provides background for consideration of the merits of ion trap MS in conjunction with an external ion source relative to a scanning beam-type form of mass analysis. Emphasis has been placed primarily on efficiency. However, a variety of other factors can be major considerations, depending upon the application. For example, the ion trap has clear advantages over most other forms of MS in terms of size, weight, and pumping requirements. These advantages make the ion trap attractive for field applications, particularly because the performance characteristics of the ion trap need not be compromised in a compact system. One of the most significant advantages is the high efficiency obtainable with tandem MS experiments by using collisional activation via resonance excitation. Under favorable conditions, the conversion of 100% of the parent ions to product ions can be achieved, although 10-50% conversions are more typical. The analogous conversion in most beam-type tendem MS experiments is typically 1-3 orders of magnitude lower; thus, significant reductions in detection limits by use of the ion trap can be anticipated in analyses requiring two or more stages of MS. 61 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Allosteric Modulation of Related Ligand-Gated Ion Channels Synergistically Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus and Enhances Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhenglin; Yoshimura, Ryan F.; Villegier, Anne-Sophie; Hogenkamp, Derk J.; Whittemore, Edward R.; Huang, Jin-Cheng; Tran, Minhtam B.; Belluzzi, James D.; Yakel, Jerrel L.; Gee, Kelvin W.

    2011-01-01

    α5 Subunit-containing GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and α7 neuronal nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that mediate cognitive and attentional processes in the hippocampus. α5 GABAARs alter network activity by tonic inhibition of CA1/CA3 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. Postsynaptic α7 nAChRs in the hippocampus regulate inhibitory GABAergic interneuron activity required for synchronization of pyramidal neurons in the CA1, whereas presynaptic α7 nAChRs regulate glutamate release. Can simultaneous allosteric modulation of these LGICs produce synergistic effects on cognition? We show that combined transient application of two allosteric modulators that individually 1) inhibit α5 GABAARs and 2) enhance α7 nAChRs causes long-term potentiation (LTP) of mossy fiber stimulation-induced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSC) from CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices. The LTP effect evoked by two compounds is replicated by 3-(2,5-difluorophenyl)-6-(N-ethylindol-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (522-054), a compound we designed to simultaneously inhibit α5 GABAARs and enhance α7 nAChRs. Selective antagonists for either receptor block sustained EPSC potentiation produced by 522-054. In vivo, 522-054 enhances performance in the radial arm maze and facilitates attentional states in the five-choice serial reaction time trial with similar receptor antagonist sensitivity. These observations may translate into therapeutic utility of dual action compounds in diseases of hippocampal-based cognitive impairment. PMID:21159751

  5. Hydrated Ions: From Individual Ions to Ion Pairs to Ion Clusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Houyang; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2015-10-01

    The structure of hydrated ions plays a central role in chemical and biological sciences. In the present paper, five ions, namely, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-), are examined using molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to hydrated individual ions and ion pairs identified previously, hydrated ion clusters containing 3, 4, 5, or more ions are identified in the present paper. The dependence of hydration numbers and mole fractions of individual ions, ion pairs, and larger ion clusters on the electrolyte concentration is determined. As the electrolyte concentration increases, the mole fraction of hydrated individual ions decreases, and the mole fraction of hydrated larger ion clusters increases. The results also reveal that the hydrogen bonding numbers of the H2O molecules of the first hydration shells of individual ions, ion pairs, and larger ion clusters are insensitive to the electrolyte concentration, but sensitive to the nature and conformation of ions.

  6. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  7. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  8. Analysis of the Summer 2004 ozone budget over the United States using Intercontinental Transport Experiment Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS) observations and Model of Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART-4) simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, G. G.; Emmons, L. K.; Hess, P. G.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Thompson, A. M.; Yorks, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The origin of ozone over the summertime contiguous United States during summer 2004 was examined using the Intercontinental Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-04) over North America. We estimate the budget using the global chemistry transport Model of Ozone and Related Tracers version 4 (MOZART-4) with synthetic tracers that keep track of the ozone produced from selected NOx sources (stratosphere, lightning, anthropogenic, and biomass burning sources in Eurasia and the contiguous United States, and North American boreal fires). This "model budget" is analyzed in conjunction with results from a "laminar identification method" (LID), a more empirical approach to extracting information about contributions from ozone transported down from the stratosphere, advection, and convection. Both methods give comparable results for the contribution from stratospheric ozone, an average over all sites of 20 ± 7% for the LID budget and of 26 ± 6% for the model budget (the standard deviation gives the variability over the IONS sites). These results point toward the important contribution of downward transport of ozone from the stratosphere in assessing tropospheric ozone. The contributions for the other tracers are 25 ± 9% for U.S. sources, 13 ± 5% for Eurasian sources, 3 ± 2% for boreal fires and 10 ± 2% from lightning. In the boundary layer the dominant contribution generally comes from local (U.S.) sources. Eurasian sources can add up to 8% on average for some sites, lightning up to 4%, and North American boreal fires up to 10%. Variations in the tracer contributions across the different sites can be large, but the budget estimated by the model for the entire United States is similar to the budget averaged over the IONS-04 sites which lets us conclude that the sample of locations and launch days conveys a proper representation of the large-scale picture.

  9. Unidentified ions in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Optical spectra were taken of comets Halley, West, and Brorsen-Metcalf in the wavelength region 3200 to 6400 A. These spectra were offset approximately 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) km tailward from the nucleus so that the features detected were all ions with the exception of a very small residual C2 emission at 5165 A. The full labeled tail spectrum of comet Halley is given. While most of the features detected are attributable to CO(+), H2O(+), CO2(+), CH(+), and OH(+), there are three moderately strong bands in the spectra of comets Halley and Brorsen-Metcalf which remain unidentified. These features were not detected in comet West. All three spectra in the 4800 to 5400 A region are presented, Brorsen-Metcalf is the gassiest of the three. The central wavelengths of the unidentified features are 4930, 5300, and 6000 A. In an effort to identify the ions responsible for these features as well as to confirm previous identifications, laboratory spectra of ions were compared with the comet spectra. H2O(+) and CO(+) are known to have extensive emission in the 4800 to 6200 A region. Therefore, the possibility that these unidentified features are due to H2O(+) and CO(+) was investigated. A search for the following bands was conducted: H2O(+) (11-0), H2O(+) (12-0), H2O(+) (13-1), CO(+) (1-1), and CO(+) (0-0). CO(+) (1-1) and CO(+) (0-0) were previously identified and are present in all the spectra examined. The H2O(+) (11-0) band was identified. Comparison of the H2O(+) (11-0) synthetic spectrum with comet Brorsen-Metcalf data is presented. The relative fluxes of the blended H2O(+) lines in the synthetic spectrum match those of the cometary data. After eliminating H2O(+) and CO(+) as significant contributors to the stronger unidentified features, spectra of ions which are not yet identified in the optical region of comets were compared to the data. These ions are NH(+), CS(+), and C2(+). None of these ions appears to be a significant contributor to the optical spectra of these

  10. Improved ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  11. Multi-source ion funnel

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Keqi; Belov, Mikhail B.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-12-27

    A method for introducing ions generated in a region of relatively high pressure into a region of relatively low pressure by providing at least two electrospray ion sources, providing at least two capillary inlets configured to direct ions generated by the electrospray sources into and through each of the capillary inlets, providing at least two sets of primary elements having apertures, each set of elements having a receiving end and an emitting end, the primary sets of elements configured to receive a ions from the capillary inlets at the receiving ends, and providing a secondary set of elements having apertures having a receiving end and an emitting end, the secondary set of elements configured to receive said ions from the emitting end of the primary sets of elements and emit said ions from said emitting end of the secondary set of elements. The method may further include the step of providing at least one jet disturber positioned within at least one of the sets of primary elements, providing a voltage, such as a dc voltage, in the jet disturber, thereby adjusting the transmission of ions through at least one of the sets of primary elements.

  12. ION GUN

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  13. Effects of Ion-Ion Collisions and Inhomogeneity in Two-Dimensional Kinetic Ion Simulations of Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B I; Divol, L; Langdon, A B; Williams, E A

    2005-10-17

    Two-dimensional simulations with the BZOHAR [B.I. Cohen, B.F. Lasinski, A.B. Langdon, and E.A. Williams, Phys. Plasmas 4, 956 (1997)] hybrid code (kinetic particle ions and Boltzmann fluid electrons) have been used to investigate the saturation of stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBBS) instability including the effects of ion-ion collisions and inhomogeneity. Ion-ion collisions tend to increase ion-wave dissipation, which decreases the gain exponent for stimulated Brillouin backscattering; and the peak Brillouin backscatter reflectivities tend to decrease with increasing collisionality in the simulations. Two types of Langevin-operator, ion-ion collision models were implemented in the simulations. In both models used the collisions are functions of the local ion temperature and density, but the collisions have no velocity dependence in the first model. In the second model, the collisions are also functions of the energy of the ion that is being scattered so as to represent a Fokker-Planck collision operator. Collisions decorrelate the ions from the acoustic waves in SBS, which disrupts ion trapping in the acoustic wave. Nevertheless, ion trapping leading to a hot ion tail and two-dimensional physics that allows the SBS ion waves to nonlinearly scatter remain robust saturation mechanisms for SBBS in a high-gain limit over a range of ion collisionality. SBS backscatter in the presence of a spatially nonuniform plasma flow is also investigated. Simulations show that depending on the sign of the spatial gradient of the flow relative to the backscatter, ion trapping effects that produce a nonlinear frequency shift can enhance (auto-resonance) or decrease (anti-auto-resonance) reflectivities in agreement with theoretical arguments.

  14. Negative Ions for Emerging Interdisciplinary Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Samar K.

    2011-09-01

    In many applications related to ion beam-materials interactions negative ions are particularly desirable due to its merit to yield a very low surface charge-up voltage, ˜ a few volts, for both electrically isolated surfaces and insulators. Some important applications pertaining to ion beam-material interactions include surface analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), voltage-contrast microscopy for semiconductor device inspection, materials processing, and ion beam lithography. These applications primarily require vacuum environments. On the other hand, a distinct area of activities constitutes formation of ions and ion transport in ambient environmental conditions, i.e., at atmospheric pressures. In this context, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an important analytical device that uses negative ions and operates at ambient conditions. IMS is widely used in both physical and biological sciences including monitoring environmental conditions, security screening and disease detection. This article highlights several critical issues related to the ionization sources and ion transport in IMS. Additionally, the critical issues related to ion sources, transport and focusing are discussed in the context of SIMS with sub-micrometer spatial resolution.

  15. Mini RF-driven ion source for focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Chang, A.; Leung, K.N.

    2002-08-02

    Mini RF-driven ion sources with 1.2 cm and 1.5 cm inner chamber diameter have been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Several gas species have been tested including argon, krypton and hydrogen. These mini ion sources operate in inductively coupled mode and are capable of generating high current density ion beams at tens of watts. Since the plasma potential is relatively low in the plasma chamber, these mini ion sources can function reliably without any perceptible sputtering damage. The mini RF-driven ion sources will be combined with electrostatic focusing columns, and are capable of producing nano focused ion beams for micro machining and semiconductor fabrications.

  16. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  17. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  18. Biomedical research with heavy ions at the IMP accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    The main ion-beam acceleration facilities and research activities at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly introduced. Some of the biomedical research with heavy ions such as heavy-ion biological effect, basic research related to heavy-ion cancer therapy and radiation breeding at the IMP accelerators are presented.

  19. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    1994-12-31

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

  20. Mixed-mode reversed-phase and ion-exchange monolithic columns for micro-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhengjin; Smith, Norman W; Ferguson, Paul D; Taylor, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of RP/ion-exchange mixed-mode monolithic materials for capillary LC. Following deactivation of the capillary surface with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (gamma-MAPS), monoliths were formed by copolymerisation of pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate (PEDAS), 2-sulphoethyl methacrylate (SEMA) with/without ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) within 100 microm id capillaries. In order to investigate the porous properties of the monoliths prepared in our laboratory, mercury intrusion porosimetry, SEM and micro-HPLC were used to measure the monolithic structures. The monolithic columns prepared without EDMA showed bad mechanical stability at high pressure, which is undesirable for micro-HPLC applications. However, it was observed that the small amount (5% w/w) of EDMA clearly improved the mechanical stability of the monoliths. In order to evaluate their application for micro-HPLC, a range of neutral, acidic and basic compounds was separated with these capillaries and satisfactory separations were obtained. In order to further investigate the separation mechanism of these monolithic columns, comparative studies were carried out on the poly(PEDAS-co-SEMA) monolithic column and two other monoliths, poly(PEDAS) and poly(PEDAS-co-2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium methylsulphate (METAM)). As expected, different selectivities were observed for the separation of basic compounds on all three monolithic columns using the same separation conditions. The mobile phase pH also showed clear influence on the retention time of basic compounds. This could be explained by ion-exchange interaction between positively charged analytes and the negatively charged sulphate group.

  1. NBCe1-A Transmembrane Segment 1 Lines the Ion Translocation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quansheng; Azimov, Rustam; Kao, Liyo; Newman, Debra; Liu, Weixin; Abuladze, Natalia; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira

    2009-03-27

    The electrogenic Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBCe1-A) transports sodium and bicarbonate across the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubule. In this study the structural requirement of transmembrane segment 1 (TM1) residues in mediating NBCe1-A transport was investigated. Twenty-five introduced cysteine mutants at positions Gln-424 to Gly-448 were tested for their sensitivity to the methanethiosulfonate reagents (2-sulfonatoethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSES), [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate (MTSET), and (2-aminoethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA). Two mutants, T442C and A435C, showed 100 and 70% sensitivity, respectively, to inhibition by all the three methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents, I441C had >50% sensitivity to MTSET and MTSEA, and A428C had 50% sensitivity to MTSEA inhibition. A helical wheel plot showed that mutants T442C, A435C, and A428C are clustered on one face of TM1 within a 100 degrees arc. Topology analysis of TM1 with biotin maleimide and 2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino) ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA) revealed Thr-442 marks the C-terminal end of TM1 and that extracellular FGGLLG stretch is in a small aqueous-accessible cavity. Functional studies indicated that Thr-442 resides in a narrow region of the ion translocation pore with strong delta(-) helical dipole influence. Analysis of the corresponding residue of NBCe1-A-Thr-442 in AE1 (Thr-422) shows it is functionally insensitive to MTSES and unlabeled with MTS-TAMRA, indicating that AE1-TM1 is oriented differently from NBCe1-A. In summary, we have identified residues Thr-442, Ala-435, and Ala-428 in TM1 lining the ion translocation pore of NBCe1-A. Our findings are suggestive of a delta(-) helical dipole at the C-terminal end of TM1 involving Thr-442 that plays a critical role in the function of the cotransporter.

  2. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  3. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W. M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  4. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts.

  5. Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.; Foosland, D. W.; Smith, C. W.; Lee, M. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The linear theory of electromagnetic instabilities driven by an energetic ion beam streaming parallel to a magnetic field in a homogeneous Vlasov plasma is considered. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation are presented. At propagation parallel to the magnetic field, there are four distinct instabilities. A sufficiently energetic beam gives rise to two unstable modes with right-hand polarization, one resonant with the beam, the other nonresonant. A beam with sufficiently large T (perpendicular to B)/T (parallel to B) gives rise to the left-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability at relatively small beam velocities, and a sufficiently hot beam drives unstable a left-hand beam resonant mode. The parametric dependences of the growth rates for the three high beam velocity instabilities are presented here. In addition, some properties at oblique propagation are examined. It is demonstrated that, as the beam drift velocity is increased, relative maxima in growth rates can arise at harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance for both right and left elliptically polarized modes.

  6. Ion dip spectroscopy of cold molecules and ions. Progress report and renewal proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wessel, J.

    1987-08-13

    A research program is underway with the objective of developing techniques of high resolution multiphoton spectroscopy for selective, ultrasensitive molecular detection. Methods under study include various forms of ion dip spectroscopy and new methods of ion fragmentation spectroscopy. The studies are providing a new understanding of the fundamental spectroscopy and photophysics of large molecular ions. Dimer and cluster ions of polynuclear aromatics and related species are also being investigated, with potential detection applications.

  7. Ion association in natural brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  8. Gas-phase transformation of phosphatidylcholine cations to structurally informative anions via ion/ion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stutzman, John R; Blanksby, Stephen J; McLuckey, Scott A

    2013-04-02

    Gas-phase transformation of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (PC) monocations to structurally informative anions is demonstrated via ion/ion reactions with doubly deprotonated 1,4-phenylenedipropionic acid (PDPA). Two synthetic PC isomers, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(16:0/18:1)) and 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(18:1/16:0)), were subjected to this ion/ion chemistry. The product of the ion/ion reaction is a negatively charged complex, [PC + PDPA - H](-). Collisional activation of the long-lived complex causes transfer of a proton and methyl cation to PDPA, generating [PC - CH3](-). Subsequent collisional activation of the demethylated PC anions produces abundant fatty acid carboxylate anions and low-abundance acyl neutral losses as free acids and ketenes. Product ion spectra of [PC - CH3](-) suggest favorable cleavage at the sn-2 position over the sn-1 due to distinct differences in the relative abundances. In contrast, collisional activation of PC cations is absent of abundant fatty acid chain-related product ions and typically indicates only the lipid class via formation of the phosphocholine cation. A solution phase method to produce the gas-phase adducted PC anion is also demonstrated. Product ion spectra derived from the solution phase method are similar to the results generated via ion/ion chemistry. This work demonstrates a gas-phase means to increase structural characterization of phosphatidylcholines via ion/ion chemistry.

  9. Theoretical Study of Dual-Direction Dipolar Excitation of Ions in Linear Ion Traps.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qiankun; Xu, Fuxing; Wang, Liang; Huang, Xiaohua; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Rizhi; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-04-01

    The ion enhanced activation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) by simultaneous dipolar excitation of ions in the two radial directions of linear ion trap (LIT) have been recently developed and tested by experiment. In this work, its detailed properties were further studied by theoretical simulation. The effects of some experimental parameters such as the buffer gas pressure, the dipolar excitation signal phases, power amplitudes, and frequencies on the ion trajectory and energy were carefully investigated. The results show that the ion activation energy can be significantly increased by dual-direction excitation using two identical dipolar excitation signals because of the addition of an excitation dimension and the fact that the ion motion radius related to ion kinetic energy can be greater than the field radius. The effects of higher-order field components, such as dodecapole field on the performance of this method are also revealed. They mainly cause ion motion frequency shift as ion motion amplitude increases. Because of the frequency shift, there are different optimized excitation frequencies in different LITs. At the optimized frequency, ion average energy is improved significantly with relatively few ions lost. The results show that this method can be used in different kinds of LITs such as LIT with 4-fold symmetric stretch, linear quadrupole ion trap, and standard hyperbolic LIT, which can significantly increase the ion activation energy and CID efficiency, compared with the conventional method.

  10. Theoretical Study of Dual-Direction Dipolar Excitation of Ions in Linear Ion Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Qiankun; Xu, Fuxing; Wang, Liang; Huang, Xiaohua; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Rizhi; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-04-01

    The ion enhanced activation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) by simultaneous dipolar excitation of ions in the two radial directions of linear ion trap (LIT) have been recently developed and tested by experiment. In this work, its detailed properties were further studied by theoretical simulation. The effects of some experimental parameters such as the buffer gas pressure, the dipolar excitation signal phases, power amplitudes, and frequencies on the ion trajectory and energy were carefully investigated. The results show that the ion activation energy can be significantly increased by dual-direction excitation using two identical dipolar excitation signals because of the addition of an excitation dimension and the fact that the ion motion radius related to ion kinetic energy can be greater than the field radius. The effects of higher-order field components, such as dodecapole field on the performance of this method are also revealed. They mainly cause ion motion frequency shift as ion motion amplitude increases. Because of the frequency shift, there are different optimized excitation frequencies in different LITs. At the optimized frequency, ion average energy is improved significantly with relatively few ions lost. The results show that this method can be used in different kinds of LITs such as LIT with 4-fold symmetric stretch, linear quadrupole ion trap, and standard hyperbolic LIT, which can significantly increase the ion activation energy and CID efficiency, compared with the conventional method.

  11. Using nanoelectrospray ion mobility spectrometry (GEMMA) to determine the size and relative molecular mass of proteins and protein assemblies: a comparison with MALLS and QELS.

    PubMed

    Kapellios, E A; Karamanou, S; Sardis, M F; Aivaliotis, M; Economou, A; Pergantis, S A

    2011-03-01

    The determination of protein assembly size and relative molecular mass is currently of great importance in biochemical analysis. In particular, the technique of nanoelectrospray (nES) with a gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (GEMMA) has received increased attention for such measurements. However, in order for the GEMMA technique to gain broader acceptance in protein analysis, it must be further evaluated and compared with other established bioanalytical techniques. In the present study, nES-GEMMA was evaluated for the analysis of a set of protein and protein complexes involved in the Sec and the bacterial type III secretion pathway of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. The same set of proteins, isolated and purified using standard biochemical protocols, were also analyzed using multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), following size exclusion chromatography. This allowed for direct comparisons between the three techniques. It was found that nES-GEMMA, in comparison to the more established MALLS and QELS techniques, offers several complementary advantages. It requires considerably less amount of material, i.e., nanogram vs. milligram amounts, and time per sample analysis, i.e., few minutes vs. tens of minutes. Whereas the determined size and relative molecular mass are similar between the compared methods, the electrophoretic diameters determined using nES-GEMMA seem to be systematically smaller compared to the hydrodynamic diameter derived by QELS. Some of the GEMMA technique disadvantages include its narrow dynamic range, limited by the fact that at elevated protein concentrations there is increased potential for the occurrence of nES-induced oligomers. Thus, it is preferred to analyze dilute protein solutions because non-specific oligomers are less likely to occur whereas biospecific oligomers remain detected. To further understand the formation of nES-oligomers, the effect of buffer

  12. Theoretical study of effects of the entrance channel on the relative yield of complete fusion and quasifission in heavy-ion collisions within a dinuclear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheyli, S.; Khanlari, M. Varasteh

    2016-09-01

    The relative yield of complete fusion and quasifission components for the 12C+204Pb , 19F+197Au , 30Si+186W , and 48Ca+168Er reactions which all lead to the compound nucleus 216Ra are analyzed to calculate the entrance channel effects by comparison of capture, complete fusion, and quasifission cross sections, emission barriers (Bfus*,Bq f ), as well as complete fusion probability estimated by statistical method within the framework of the dinuclear system model. The difference among complete fusion probabilities calculated by the dinuclear system model for different entrance channels can be explained by the hindrance to complete fusion due to the larger inner fusion barrier Bfus* for the transformation of the dinuclear system into a compound nucleus and the increase of the quasifission contribution due to the decreasing of the emission barrier Bq f of quasifission as a function of the angular momentum. Although these reactions with different entrance channels populate the same compound nucleus 216Ra at similar excitation energies, the model predicts the negligible quasifission probability for reactions having higher entrance channel mass asymmetry and the dominant decay channel is complete fission. For reactions induced by massive projectiles such as Si and Ca having lower entrance channel mass asymmetry, the quasifission component is dominant in the evolution of dinuclear system, and the fusion process is extremely hindered.

  13. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  14. The DCU laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

    2010-04-01

    Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

  15. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOEpatents

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  16. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOEpatents

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  17. Highly-Charged Ions in Traps - Progress and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, D. A.; Schneider, D.; Steiger, J.; Beck, B. R.; Holder, J. P.; Weinberg, G.; Gruber, L.; Moehs, D. P.; McDonald, J.

    Penning and Kingdon ion traps have been used to study low-energy multiply-charged ions with charge states up to 80+ during the last few years. The ions have been captured into the traps from beams of external multiply-charged ion sources, or have been produced inside the trap. Measurements of cross sections for electron capture from neutrals to ions and studies of relative double electron capture rates have been completed. The lifetimes of metastable levels of ions, precision spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions in traps, and cooling of trapped ions using lasers, ion-ion elastic collisions, and parallel-tuned circuits, are briefly reviewed. Prospects for the future of highly-charged ions in traps are also discussed.

  18. Differential expression of store-operated calcium- and proliferation-related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells following TRPC1 ion channel silencing.

    PubMed

    Selli, Cigdem; Pearce, Dominic A; Sims, Andrew H; Tosun, Metiner

    2016-09-01

    TRPC1 and store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry have previously been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. The aim of the study was to determine genes and processes associated with TRPC1 down-regulation and the resulting increase of SOC entry and decrease in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. For this purpose, transcriptome analysis was performed to determine differentially expressed genes in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. SOC entry- and proliferation-related genes correlated with TRPC1 down-regulation were also examined. Changes in SOC entry and cell proliferation were monitored in the TRPC1-silenced and parental cells and found to be significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in TRPC1-silenced cells. A total of 71 genes were significantly differentially expressed (40 up- and 31 down-regulated), including four mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling-associated genes. STIM1 levels were significantly up-regulated and negatively correlated with TRPC1 levels. In addition, expression of two cell cycle regulation genes, CDK11A/11B and URGCP, was observed to decrease, whereas ERBB3 and FGFR4, pro-survival genes, increased significantly in TRPC1-silenced cells. In conclusion, these results suggest reciprocal alterations in TRPC1 and STIM1 levels and a role for STIM1 in the regulation of SOC entry in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. In addition to TRPC1, STIM1 may participate in Huh7 cell proliferation by regulating SOC entry. Alterations in MAPK signalling genes may be involved in diminished cell proliferation in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. Similarly, changes in cell cycle regulating genes in TRPC1-silenced cells indicate possible cell cycle arrest along with compensatory up-regulation of ERBB3 growth factor receptor-amongst others-to maintain hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation.

  19. Relative effectiveness at 1 gy after acute and fractionated exposures of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer for lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Farris Iii, Alton B; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Ya

    2015-02-01

    Space radiation, which is comprised of high-energy charged (HZE) particles with different high-linear energy transfer (LET), induces more severe biological effects than the Earth's radiation. NASA has mandated that risk estimates of carcinogenesis induced by exposure to HZE particles with different LET be determined before conducting human explorations of Mars. Because lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in humans, it is critical the risk of that radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis be included when estimating the risks of space radiation to astronauts. To address this, we examined the incidence of lung tumorigenesis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice at 1.5 years after 1 Gy exposure (single or fractionated dose) to different types of radiation with different LET (iron, silicon, oxygen and X ray). We chose wild-type mice for this study because previous studies of radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis using mutant mice models (either downregulated tumor suppressors or upregulated oncogenes) may not accurately reflect the response of healthy individuals (astronauts) to space radiation. Our study clearly showed that HZE particles (iron, silicon and oxygen) induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis than X rays, and that their relative effectiveness at 1 Gy was >6. In addition, we found that silicon exposure appears to induce more aggressive lung tumors. These results provide valuable information for future followup experiments to study the underlying mechanism of lung tumorigenesis, which will improve risk estimation of space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis and help in the development of mitigators to reduce risk if it exceeds NASA guidelines.

  20. Flux Estimates of Ions from the Lunar Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, M.; Hartle, R. E.; Killen, R. M.; Saito, Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Glocer, A.

    2012-01-01

    We compare estimates for the ion fluxes of twelve expected constituents of the lunar exosphere with estimates for the ion fluxes ejected from the lunar surface by solar wind ions and electrons. Our estimates demonstrate that measurements of lunar ions will help constrain the abundances of many undetected species in the lunar exosphere, particularly AI and Si, because the expected ion flux levels from the exosphere exceed those from the surface. To correctly infer the relative abundances of exospheric ions and neutrals from Kaguya Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) measurements, we must take into account the velocity distributions of local ions. The predicted spectrum underestimates the measured levels of 0+ relative to other lunar ion species, a result that may suggest contributions by molecular ions to the measured 0+ rates.

  1. High Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2005-11-22

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing a device for transmitting ions from an ion source which allows the transmission of ions without significant delay to an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  2. Speciation analysis of orthophosphate and myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in soil- and plant-related samples by high-performance ion chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rugova, Ariana; Puschenreiter, Markus; Santner, Jakob; Fischer, Lisa; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    A novel method based on high-performance ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry employing strong anion exchange chromatography with HNO3 gradient elution for simultaneous analysis of orthophosphate and myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 ) in soil solution and plant extracts is presented. As inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of phosphorus at m/z 31 is hampered by N-based interferences, (31)P was measured as (31)P(16)O(+) at m/z 47 employing dynamic reaction cell technique with O2 as reaction gas. Orthophosphate and IP6 were separated within a total chromatographic run-time of 12 min revealing a limit of detection of 0.3 μmol/L. The coefficients of determination obtained in a working range of 1-100 and 1-30 μmol/L were 0.9991 for orthophosphate and 0.9968 for IP6, respectively. The method was successfully applied to extracts from three different soils as well as root and shoot extracts of Brassica napus L. The precision of three independently prepared soil extracts was in the range of 4-10% relative standard deviation for PO4 (3-) and 3-8% relative standard deviation for IP6. Soil adsorption/desorption kinetics for IP6/orthophosphate were performed for investigating the sorption behavior of the two P species in the experimental soils.

  3. Effect of mid-altitude ion heating on ion outflow at polar latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Peng; Wilson, G. R.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ion heating on polar ion outflow, when either the parallel or perpendicular (or both) ion temperatures at the exobase are elevated above values typical for the ionosphere, was investigated using a modified semikinetic steady-state model of Barakat and Schunk (1983) that allowed for anisotropic ion heating at the exobase and eliminated lower boundary potential jumps. In addition, the relative impact of the ion heating vs electron heating on the oxygen escape fluxes was investigated by examining the flux of O(+) ions for various combinations of electron and ion temperatures. It is demonstrated that the O(+) escape flux can be increased, to levels as high as were obtained by Barakat and Schunk (1983) with the electron temperatures of 10,000 K, by raising, instead, the ion temperatures (but to values considerably less than the 100,000 K observed by Moore et al., 1986).

  4. Ions and ion accelerators for cancer treatment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelec, Krsto

    Energetic ions in the mass range up to neon may have important advantages in cancer treatment when compared to other, conventional types of radiation. This review will first consider radiobiological properties of several types of radiation (photons, electrons, protons and ions), pointing out to the relevant characteristics of ions compared to other types. Parameters of ion beams as required for cancer treatment will then be defined, followed by the review of the status of proton and ion therapy and clinical trials, and a description of operating and planned facilities. Finally, on the basis of existing experience and desired future performance, a possible design of such a facility will be suggested.

  5. Directly Driven Ion Outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Moore, T. E.; Russell, C. T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examine ionospheric outflows in the high altitude magnetospheric polar cap during the POLAR satellite's apogee on April 19, 1996 using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) instrument. The elevated levels of O(+) observed in this pass may be due to the geophysical conditions during and prior to the apogee pass. In addition to the high abundance of O(+) relative to H(+), several other aspects of this data are noteworthy. We observe relationships between the density, velocity, and temperature which appear to be associated with perpendicular heating and the mirror force, rather than adiabatic expansion. The H(+) outflow is at a fairly constant flux which is consistent with being source limited by charge exchange at lower altitudes. Local centrifugal acceleration in the polar cap is found to be insufficient to account for the main variations we observe in the outflow velocity. The solar wind speed is high during this pass approximately 700 kilometers per second, and there are Alfve'n waves present in the solar wind such that the solar wind speed and IMF Bx are correlated. In this pass both the H(+) and O(+) outflow velocities correlate with both the solar wind speed and IMF fluctuations. Polar cap magnetometer and Hydra electron data show the same long period wave structure as found in the solar wind and polar cap ion outflow. In addition, the polar cap Poynting flux along the magnetic field direction correlates well with the H(+) temperature (R=0.84). We conclude that the solar wind can drive polar cap ion outflow particularly during polar squalls by setting up a parallel drop that is tens of eV which then causes the ion outflow velocity of O(+) and H(+), the electrons, and magnetic perturbations to vary in a similar fashion.

  6. Laser Ion Acceleration Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Sato, D.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.

    2013-10-01

    An intense femtosecond pulsed laser is employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching, the ion particle energy control, etc. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions are accelerated. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions was improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or by a near critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation was realized by holes behind the solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching were successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. The present study proposed a novel concept for a future compact laser ion accelerator, based on each component study required to control the ion beam quality and parameters. Partly supported by JSPS, MEXT, CORE, Japan/US Cooperation program, ASHULA and ILE/Osaka University.

  7. Ion coalescence of neutron encoded TMT 10-plex reporter ions.

    PubMed

    Werner, Thilo; Sweetman, Gavain; Savitski, Maria Fälth; Mathieson, Toby; Bantscheff, Marcus; Savitski, Mikhail M

    2014-04-01

    Isobaric mass tag-based quantitative proteomics strategies such as iTRAQ and TMT utilize reporter ions in the low mass range of tandem MS spectra for relative quantification. The recent extension of TMT multiplexing to 10 conditions has been enabled by utilizing neutron encoded tags with reporter ion m/z differences of 6 mDa. The baseline resolution of these closely spaced tags is possible due to the high resolving power of current day mass spectrometers. In this work we evaluated the performance of the TMT10 isobaric mass tags on the Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometers for the first time and demonstrated comparable quantification accuracy and precision to what can be achieved on the Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometers. However, we discovered, upon analysis of complex proteomics samples on the Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometers, that the proximate TMT10 reporter ion pairs become prone to coalescence. The fusion of the different reporter ion signals into a single measurable entity has a detrimental effect on peptide and protein quantification. We established that the main reason for coalescence is the commonly accepted maximum ion target for MS2 spectra of 1e6 on the Q Exactive instruments. The coalescence artifact was completely removed by lowering the maximum ion target for MS2 spectra from 1e6 to 2e5 without any losses in identification depth or quantification quality of proteins.

  8. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  9. Physics of ion sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.T.

    1984-04-01

    The ejection of atoms by the ion bombardment of solids is discussed in terms of linear collision cascade theory. A simple argument describes the energies of the ejecta, but elaborate models are required to obtain accurate sputtering yields and related quantities. These include transport theoretical models based on linearized Boltzmann equations, computer simulation models based on the binary collision approximation, and classical many-body dynamical models. The role of each kind of model is discussed. Several aspects of sputtering are illustrated by results from the simulation code MARLOWE. 20 references, 6 figures.

  10. Experimental evaluation of a negative ion source for a heavy ionfusion negative ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.

    2005-01-18

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photodetached to neutrals [1,2,3]. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that is used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  11. Ion Outflow at Mars Using MEX Ion And Electron Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, C. M.; Andersson, L.; Frahm, R. A.; Lundin, R. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is widely believed that Mars once hosted a significant amount of water on its surface that is no longer present. Identifying and constraining various escape channels for the Martian atmosphere into space is critical in helping determine the evolution of the planet and its water content. Previous authors have looked for significant ion escape at Mars. Using higher energy (10-50eV) ion data from the ESA MEX spacecraft, significant ion escape was observed in the northern hemisphere but not in the southern. One possible explanation that has been put forward to explain this is that the magnetic crustal fields located primarily in the southern hemisphere at Mars trap ions and recycle them back to the planet as Mars rotates from day to night. Here we propose a different escape channel previously not considered for ions. Estimations suggest that the proposed channel contains at least three times as many ions in the southern hemisphere as in the northern. During strong solar wind compression events this channel could potentially contain as many ions as observed flowing tail ward in nominal solar wind conditions. Data also suggest that differences between northern and southern hemispheres are in part dependent on the ion energies analyzed and provide information regarding the relative importance of physical processes present there. Particle tracing simulations support the data analysis and demonstrate the possibility of this escape channel. The results and implications of these studies are presented along with discussion of the importance of various factors involved in the data analysis and simulations.

  12. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  13. Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Wahl, Jon H.; Hofstadler, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

  14. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  15. Process for modifying the metal ion sorption capacity of a medium

    DOEpatents

    Lundquist, Susan H.

    2002-01-01

    A process for modifying a medium is disclosed that includes treating a medium having a metal ion sorption capacity with a solution that includes: A) an agent capable of forming a complex with metal ions; and B) ions selected from the group consisting of sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, and combinations thereof, to create a medium having an increased capacity to sorb metal ions relative to the untreated medium.

  16. Anisotropic water reorientation around ions.

    PubMed

    Tielrooij, K J; van der Post, S T; Hunger, J; Bonn, M; Bakker, H J

    2011-11-03

    We study the reorientation dynamics of water molecules around ions using terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and polarization-resolved femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. The results are discussed in relation to the ion-specific Hofmeister series and the concomitant "structure-making" and "structure-breaking" effects of ions on water. We show that when a dissolved salt consists of a strongly hydrated ion with a weakly hydrated counterion the reorientation of water molecules around the strongly hydrated ion is anisotropic, in the sense that differently charged ions affect reorientation along different molecular axes: cations mainly slow the reorientation dynamics of the water dipole vectors, and anions mainly slow down the reorientation dynamics of the hydroxyl group that points toward the anion. In both cases, motion along only one molecular axis is impeded, so that the hydration shell is best described as semirigid. In this semirigid hydration picture, water molecules in the first hydration shell show anisotropic reorientation, whereas water molecules outside the first hydration shell remain unaffected. The inferred anisotropy in molecular motion explains why terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, which probes dipolar relaxation, is more sensitive to cation hydration effects while femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy, which is sensitive to reorientation of hydroxyl groups, is more sensitive to anion hydration effects. We also show that dissolution of CsI-a salt for which both cation and anion are weakly hydrated-has little effect on water reorientation dynamics, with hydration water displaying dynamics that are similar to those in bulk water.

  17. Meteoric Ions in Planetary Ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar system debris, in the form of meteoroids, impacts every planet. The flux, relative composition and speed of the debris at each planet depends on the planet's size and location in the solar system. Ablation in the atmosphere evaporates the meteoric material and leaves behind metal atoms. During the ablation process metallic ions are formed by impact ionization. For small inner solar system planets, including Earth, this source of ionization is typically small compared to either photoionization or charge exchange with ambient molecular ions. For Earth, the atmosphere above the main deposition region absorbs the spectral lines capable of ionizing the major metallic atoms (Fe and Mg) so that charge exchange with ambient ions is the dominant source. Within the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars (and possibly Venus), photoionization is important in determining the ion density. For a heavy planet like Jupiter, far from the sun, impact ionization of ablated neutral atoms by impacts with molecules becomes a prominent source of ionization due to the gravitational acceleration to high incident speeds. We will describe the processes and location and extent of metal ion layers for Mars, Earth and Jupiter, concentrating on flagging the uncertainties in the models at the present time. This is an important problem, because low altitude ionosphere layers for the planets, particularly at night, probably consist predominantly of metallic ions. Comparisons with Earth will be used to illustrate the differing processes in the three planetary atmospheres.

  18. Ion mixing and phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. S.; Liu, B. X.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-05-01

    Interactions induced by ion irradiation are generally considered to be non-equilibrium processes, whereas phase diagrams are determined by phase equilibria. These two entities are seemingly unrelated. However, if one assumes that quasi-equilibrium conditions prevail after the prompt events, subsequent reactions are driven toward equilibrium by thermodynamical forces. Under this assumption, ion-induced reactions are related to equilibrium and therefore to phase diagrams. This relationship can be seen in the similarity that exists in thin films between reactions induced by ion irradiation and reactions induced by thermal annealing. In the latter case, phase diagrams have been used to predict the phase sequence of stable compound formation, notably so in cases of silicide formation. Ion-induced mixing not only can lead to stable compound formation, but also to metastable alloy formation. In some metal-metal systems, terminal solubilities can be greatly extended by ion mixing. In other cases, where the two constituents of the system have different crystal structures, extension of terminal solubility from both sides of the phase diagram eventually becomes structurally incompatible and a glassy (amorphous) mixture can form. The composition range where this bifurcation is likely to occur is in the two-phase regions of the phase diagram. These concepts are potentially useful guides in selecting metal pairs that from metallic glasses by ion mixing. In this report, phenomenological correlation between stable (and metastable) phase formation and phase diagram is discussed in terms of recent experimental data.

  19. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  20. Small radio frequency driven multicusp ion source for positive hydrogen ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.T.; Herz, P.R.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S. )

    1994-04-01

    A compact, 2.5 cm diam rf-driven multicusp ion source has been developed and tested for H[sup +] ion production in pulse mode operation. The source is optimized for atomic hydrogen ion species and extractable current. It is found that hydrogen ion beam current densities in excess of 650 mA/cm[sup 2] can be achieved with H[sup +] species above 80%. The geometry and position of the porcelain-coated copper antenna were found to be of great significance in relation to the efficiency of the ion source.

  1. Plasma ion dynamics and beam formation in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Miracoli, R.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gambino, N.; Chikin, S.

    2010-02-15

    In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources it has been demonstrated that plasma heating may be improved by means of different microwave to plasma coupling mechanisms, including the ''frequency tuning'' and the ''two frequency heating''. These techniques affect evidently the electron dynamics, but the relationship with the ion dynamics has not been investigated in details up to now. Here we will try to outline these relations: through the study of ion dynamics we may try to understand how to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources brightness. A simple model of the ion confinement and beam formation will be presented, based on particle-in-cell and single particle simulations.

  2. Ion pair receptors†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Kuk

    2010-01-01

    Compared with simple ion receptors, which are able to bind either a cation or an anion, ion pair receptors bearing both a cation and an anion recognition site offer the promise of binding ion pairs or pairs of ions strongly as the result of direct or indirect cooperative interactions between co-bound ions. This critical review focuses on the recent progress in the design of ion pair receptors and summarizes the various binding modes that have been used to accommodate ion pairs (110 references). PMID:20737073

  3. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  4. Heavy-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2000-11-01

    Heavy-ion radiotherapy using high-energy carbon beams has been performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The physical frame works for heavy-ion radiotherapy are established using physical understandings of radiation physics. In order to increase the accuracy of heavy-ion radiotherapy, many physical problems should be solved. Unsolved problems, such as the depth dose distributions, range of heavy-ion in patients and heavy-ion dosimetry in the radiation therapy, are discussed. .

  5. Influence of ion streaming instabilities on transport near plasma boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, Scott D.

    2016-04-01

    Plasma boundary layers are susceptible to electrostatic instabilities driven by ion flows in presheaths and, when present, these instabilities can influence transport. In plasmas with a single species of positive ion, ion-acoustic instabilities are expected under conditions of low pressure and large electron-to-ion temperature ratio ({{T}e}/{{T}i}\\gg 1 ). In plasmas with two species of positive ions, ion-ion two-stream instabilities can also be excited. The stability phase-space is characterized using the Penrose criterion and approximate linear dispersion relations. Predictions for how these instabilities affect ion and electron transport in presheaths, including rapid thermalization due to instability-enhanced collisions and an instability-enhanced ion-ion friction force, are briefly reviewed. Recent experimental tests of these predictions are discussed along with research needs required for further validation. The calculated stability boundaries provide a guide to determine the experimental conditions at which these effects can be expected.

  6. The electromagnetic ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peter Gary, S.; Schriver, David

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities driven by an anisotropic, relatively cool ion beam are studied for the case in which both the beam and the instabilities propagate parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field. At modest beam-core relative drift speeds, sufficiently large perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature ratios and sufficiently large plasma beta, the mode of fastest growth rate is the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability. Because the right-hand polarized waves observed upstream of slow shocks in the earth's magnetotail can lead to the appropriate beam anisotropy, the ion cyclotron instability may be present and account for the left-hand polarized magnetic waves observed there. Also, because of its relatively low phase speed, the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability may provide the scattering necessary for ion Fermi acceleration at slow shocks of sufficiently high plasma beta.

  7. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  8. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  9. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  10. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jungen, Ch.

    2015-01-22

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering.

  11. Ion implantation technology and ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitani, Michiro

    2014-02-01

    Ion implantation (I/I) technology has been developed with a great economic success of industries of VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integrated circuit) devices. Due to its large flexibility and good controllability, the I/I technology has been assuming various challenging requirements of VLSI evolutions, especially in advanced evolutional characteristics of CMOSFET. Here, reviewing the demands of VLSI manufacturing to the I/I technology, required characteristics of ion implanters, and their ion sources are discussed.

  12. Ion-Containing Polymers: Ionomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazuin, C. G.; Eisenberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates how the incorporation of relatively low amounts of ionic material into nonionic polymers affects the structure and properties of these polymers. The extent to which properties are altered depends on dielectric constant of the backbone, position and type of ionic group, counterion type, ion concentration, and degree of neutralization.…

  13. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  14. Ion flux profiles observed at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, C. M.; Andersson, L.; Lundin, R. N.; Frahm, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    How Mars lost it's water and atmosphere is still an important question. Many studies have investigated high-energy ion fluxes (>10 eV) surrounding the planet and derived ion outflow rates in order to determine atmospheric loss. These rates suggest that the outflow from high-energy ions is not the dominant escape path for atmospheric loss. Over the years increasing evidence has indicated that the loss of low-energy ions are more important than the high-energy ion loss. In this presentation ion observations (down to the spacecraft potential) from the Mars Express (MEX) mission (2010/11), are used to describe the ion altitude distribution at Mars. The focus of this study is below the altitude of ~1000 km. Within the Mars environment, using the MEX electron observations different plasma regions was identified. Supported by electron identification, different altitude profiles of ion fluxes have been analyzed from the different plasma regions. One of the results from this study is that the altitude profile of the ion flux observed below the photoelectron boundary is different when comparing the northern and the southern hemispheres. The ion distributions, resulting altitude profile, the influence of the crustal magnetic field at Mars, and the implications relating to plasma outflow will be discussed in this presentation.

  15. Functional ion channels in stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gui-Rong; Deng, Xiu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical signals generated by ion channels play crucial roles in excitation genesis and impulse conduction in excitable cells as well as in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in proliferative cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple ion channels are heterogeneously present in different stem cells; however, patterns and phenotypes of ion channels are species- and/or origin-dependent. This editorial review focuses on the recent findings related to the expression of functional ion channels and the roles of these channels in regulation of cell proliferation in stem cells. Additional effort is required in the future to clarify the ion channel expression in different types of stem cells; special attention should be paid to the relationship between ion channels and stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. PMID:21607133

  16. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  17. Ion flooding to precharge insulating materials

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Steadman, P.; Bounds, J.; Whitley, C.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The collection of ions created by alpha particles in air is a powerful technique for detecting the presence of alpha-emitting radioactive contamination. These ions have a relatively long lifetime (greater than 5 seconds) in air so the ions can travel much longer distances than the alpha particles themselves. However, such ion detection is difficult when the object being surveyed is an insulating material. An insulating object does not release ions generated until the surface of the object has completely discharged. Thus, there are significant response-time problems with contamination on insulating objects. This project sought to investigate the technique of {open_quotes}flooding{close_quotes} the suspect object with ions prior to the actual contamination detection measurement. Our preliminary conclusion is that such flooding will enhance detection speed on insulating objects.

  18. Xe/+/ -induced ion-cyclotron harmonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.

    Xenon ion sources on an ejectable package separated from the main payload during the flights of Porcupine rockets F3 and F4 which were launched from Kiruna, Sweden on March 19 and 31, 1979, respectively. The effects of the xenon ion beam, detected by the LF (f less than 16 kHz) wideband electric field experiment and analyzed by using a sonograph, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the stimulation of the ion-cyclotron harmonic waves which are usually linked to the local proton gyro-frequency, but are sometimes related to half that frequency. It was found that in a plasma dominated by O(+) ions, a small amount (1-10%) of protons could cause an effect such that the O(+) cyclotron harmonic waves are set up by the hydrogen ions, the net result being the observation of harmonic emissions separated by the hydrogen ion gyro frequency.

  19. PULSED ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.E.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1958-06-17

    An ion source is described for producing very short high density pulses of ions without bcam scattering. The ions are created by an oscillating electron discharge within a magnetic field. After the ions are drawn from the ionization chamber by an accelerating electrode the ion beam is under the influence of the magnetic field for separation of the ions according to mass and, at the same time, passes between two neutralizing plntes maintained nt equal negative potentials. As the plates are formed of a material having a high ratio of secondary electrons to impinging ions, the ion bombardment of the plntes emits electrons which neutralize the frirge space-charge of the beam and tend to prevent widening of the beam cross section due to the mutual repulsion of the ions.

  20. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  1. ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1959-04-14

    This patcnt relates to calutron devices and deals particularly with the mechanism used to produce the beam of ions wherein a charge material which is a vapor at room temperature is used. A charge container located outside the tank is connected through several conduits to various points along the arc chamber of the ion source. In addition, the rate of flow of the vapor to the arc chamber is controlled by a throttle valve in each conduit. By this arrangement the arc can be regulated accurately and without appreciable time lag, inasmuch as the rate of vapor flow is immediately responsive to the manipulation of the throttle valves.

  2. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-10-08

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes. 6 figs.

  3. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

  4. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  5. Use of a Hand-Portable Gas Chromatograph-Toroidal Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Self-Chemical Ionization Identification of Degradation Products Related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) Methyl Phosphonothiolate (VX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    M+H]+ in a triple quadrupole instrument [19], and methanol CI using an ion trap instrument [6] led to observation of a m/z 128 product ion. 4...products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is...is used with a quadrupole mass filter detector [1]. When EI is used in this man- ner, unimolecular decomposition is the norm, producing neutral and

  6. High-Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2004-11-16

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  7. Energetic ions in dipolarization events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Runov, A.; Hesse, M.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate ion acceleration in dipolarization events in the magnetotail, using the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection and flow bursts as basis for test particle tracing. The simulation results are compared with "Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms" observations. We provide quantitative answers to the relative importance of source regions and source energies. Flux decreases at proton energies up to 10-20 keV are found to be due to sources of lobe or plasma sheet boundary layer particles that enter the near tail via reconnection. Flux increases result from both thermal and suprathermal ion sources. Comparable numbers of accelerated protons enter the acceleration region via cross-tail drift from the dawn flanks of the near-tail plasma sheet and via reconnection of field lines extending into the more distant tail. We also demonstrate the presence of earthward plasma flow and accelerated suprathermal ions ahead of a dipolarization front. The flow acceleration stems from a net Lorentz force, resulting from reduced pressure gradients within a pressure pile-up region ahead of the front. Suprathermal precursor ions result from, typically multiple reflections at the front. Low-energy ions also become accelerated due to inertial drift in the direction of the small precursor electric field.

  8. Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.

    PubMed

    Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

    2009-06-01

    The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed.

  9. High sensitivity charge amplifier for ion beam uniformity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  10. Interaction between Low Energy Ions and the Complicated Organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zeng-liang

    1999-12-01

    Low energy ions exist widely in natural world, but people pay a little attention on the interaction between low energy ions and matter, it is even more out of the question of studying on the relation of low energy ions and the complicated organism. The discovery of bioeffect induced by ion implantation has, however, opened a new branch in the field of ion beam application in life sciences. This paper reports recent advances in research on the role of low energy ions in chemical synthesis of the biomolecules and application in genetic modification.

  11. Proton hydrates as soft ion/ion proton transfer reagents for multiply deprotonated biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Jeremiah J.; Hodges, Brittany D. M.; Saad, Ola M.; Leary, Julie A.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-10-01

    Ion/ion proton transfer from protonated strong gaseous bases such as pyridine and 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (i.e., the proton sponge), to multiply charged anions derived from a sulfated pentasaccharide drug, Arixtra(TM), gives rise to extensive fragmentation of the oligosaccharide. This drug serves as a model for sulfated glycosaminoglycans, an important class of polymers in glycobiology. The extent of fragmentation appears to correlate with the proton affinity of the molecule used to transfer the proton, which in turn correlates with the reaction exothermicity. Consistent with tandem mass spectrometry results, anions with sodium counter-ions are more stable with respect to fragmentation under ion/ion proton transfer conditions than ions of the same charge state with protons counter-ions. Proton hydrates were found to give rise to much less anion fragmentation and constitute the softest protonation agents thus far identified for manipulating the charge states of multiply charged biopolymer anions. The reaction exothermicities associated with proton hydrates comprised of five or more water molecules are lower than that for protonated proton sponge, which is among the softest reagents thus far examined for ion/ion proton transfer reactions. The partitioning of ion/ion reaction exothermicity among all of the degrees of freedom of the products may also differ for proton hydrates relative to protonated molecules. However, a difference in energy partitioning need not be invoked to rationalize the results reported here.

  12. Production of N[sup +] ions from a multicusp ion beam apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kango Leung; Kunkel, W.B.; Walther, S.R.

    1993-03-30

    A method of generating a high purity (at least 98%) N[sup +] ion beam using a multicusp ion source having a chamber formed by a cylindrical chamber wall surrounded by a plurality of magnets, a filament centrally disposed in said chamber, a plasma electrode having an extraction orifice at one end of the chamber, a magnetic filter having two parallel magnets spaced from said plasma electrode and dividing the chamber into arc discharge and extraction regions. The method includes ionizing nitrogen gas in the arc discharge region of the chamber, maintaining the chamber wall at a positive voltage relative to the filament and at a magnitude for an optimum percentage of N[sup +] ions in the extracted ion beams, disposing a hot liner within the chamber and near the chamber wall to limit recombination of N[sup +] ions into the N[sub 2][sup +] ions, spacing the magnets of the magnetic filter from each other for optimum percentage of N[sup 3] ions in the extracted ion beams, and maintaining a relatively low pressure downstream of the extraction orifice and of a magnitude (preferably within the range of 3-8[times]10[sup [minus]4] torr) for an optimum percentage of N[sup +] ions in the extracted ion beam.

  13. Production of N.sup.+ ions from a multicusp ion beam apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kunkel, Wulf B.; Walther, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of generating a high purity (at least 98%) N.sup.+ ion beam using a multicusp ion source (10) having a chamber (11) formed by a cylindrical chamber wall (12) surrounded by a plurality of magnets (13), a filament (57) centrally disposed in said chamber, a plasma electrode (36) having an extraction orifice (41) at one end of the chamber, a magnetic filter having two parallel magnets (21, 22) spaced from said plasma electrode (36) and dividing the chamber (11) into arc discharge and extraction regions. The method includes ionizing nitrogen gas in the arc discharge region of the chamber (11), maintaining the chamber wall (12) at a positive voltage relative to the filament (57) and at a magnitude for an optimum percentage of N.sup.+ ions in the extracted ion beams, disposing a hot liner (45) within the chamber and near the chamber wall (12) to limit recombination of N.sup.+ ions into the N.sub.2.sup.+ ions, spacing the magnets (21, 22) of the magnetic filter from each other for optimum percentage of N.sup.3 ions in the extracted ion beams, and maintaining a relatively low pressure downstream of the extraction orifice and of a magnitude (preferably within the range of 3-8.times.10.sup.-4 torr) for an optimum percentage of N.sup.+ ions in the extracted ion beam.

  14. Laboratory Measurements of the Relative Oscillator Strengths of the Fe XVII Lines 3C and 3D Using an X-ray Laser and an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Hi-Light Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    X-ray emission from neon-like Fe XVII has been observed in a plethora of celestial sources including stellar atmospheres, galaxy clusters, elliptical galaxies, and supernova remnants. Two of the strongest lines emitted from Fe XVII are the 3d to 2p transitions located at 15.01 and 15.26 angstroms and known as 3C and 3D, respectively. Owing to their strength and presence over a large temperature range, diagnostics involving these lines are of high value. Unfortunately, even though many theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted on 3C and 3D, significant discrepancies among different theories, and between theory and both laboratory and observational measurements have been found. Many different theoretical approaches have been pursued in attempt to resolve the discrepancies, but none has provided a consistent solution (Brown & Beiersdorfer Physical Review Letters, 2012). As a result, the diagnostic utility of these lines has not been fully realized. In order to further probe the nature of these X-ray transitions, we have used the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free electron laser in conjunction with the portable FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to photo-excite these lines and measure their relative oscillator strength, Ro. Our results, Ro = 2.61+/- 0.23 (Bernitt, et al. Nature 2012) differs by over 3σ from the best quantum mechanical calculations. We present an overview of these measurements and their implications, as well as a sampling of other photoabsorption measurements using the FLASH-EBIT at various third and fourth generation light sources. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.o.E. by under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and GSFC.

  15. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  16. SEPARATION OF PLUTONYL IONS

    DOEpatents

    Connick, R.E.; McVey, Wm.H.

    1958-07-15

    A process is described for separating plutonyl ions from the acetate ions with which they are associated in certaln carrier precipitation methods of concentrating plutonium. The method consists in adding alkaline earth metal ions and subsequently alkalizing the solution, causing formation of an alkaltne earth plutonate precipitate. Barium hydroxide is used in a preferred embodiment since it provides alkaline earth metal ion and alkalizes the solution in one step forming insoluble barium platonate.

  17. Intense ion beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, Jr., Stanley; Sudan, Ravindra N.

    1977-08-30

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation.

  18. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  19. Evolution of Instrumentation for the Study of Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Chemistry via Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of gas phase ion/ion chemistry accessible to mass spectrometry is largely defined by the available tools. Due to the development of novel instrumentation, a wide range of reaction phenomenologies have been noted, many of which have been studied extensively and exploited for analytical applications. This perspective presents the development of mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for the study of the gas phase ion/ion chemistry in which at least one of the reactants is multiply-charged. The instrument evolution is presented within the context of three essential elements required for any ion/ion reaction study: the ionization source(s), the reaction vessel or environment, and the mass analyzer. Ionization source arrangements have included source combinations that allow for reactions between multiply charged ions of one polarity and singly charged ions of opposite polarity, arrangements that enable the study of reactions of multiply charged ions of opposite polarity, and most recently, arrangements that allow for ion formation from more than two ion sources. Gas phase ion/ion reaction studies have been performed at near atmospheric pressure in flow reactor designs and within electrodynamic ion traps operated in the mTorr range. With ion trap as a reaction vessel, ionization and reaction processes can be independently optimized and ion/ion reactions can be implemented within the context of MSn experiments. Spatial separation of the reaction vessel from the mass analyzer allows for the use of any form of mass analysis in conjunction with ion/ion reactions. Time-of-flight mass analysis, for example, has provided significant improvements in mass analysis figures of merit relative to mass filters and ion traps. PMID:18083527

  20. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  1. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  2. Ion trap simulation tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  3. Dynamic hydration numbers for biologically important ions.

    PubMed

    Kiriukhin, Michael Y; Collins, Kim D

    2002-10-16

    The role of ionized groups in biological systems is determined by their affinity for water [Biophys. J. 72 (1997) 65-76]. The tightly bound water associated with biologically important ions increases their apparent size. We define the apparent dynamic hydration number of an ion here as the number of tightly bound water molecules that must be assigned to the ion to explain its apparent molecular weight on a Sephadex G-10 size exclusion column, and report the first accurate determination of tightly bound water for 23 ions of biological significance, including H(+) and HO(-). We also calculate the radius of the equivalent hydrated sphere (r(h)) for each ion. We find that the ratio of the hydrated volumes of two ions approximates the ratio of the square of the charges of the same two ions. Since the 'ionic strength' of the solution also depends upon the square of the charges on the ions, our results suggest that ionic strength effects may largely arise from local effects related to the hydrated volume of the ion--that is, from space filling, osmotic, water activity, surface tension and hydration shell overlap effects rather than from long-range electric field effects.

  4. Sources of polyatomic ions of organic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, G H; Takeuchi, M; Ryuto, H

    2010-02-01

    We have developed two types of liquid ion sources, one of which was a polyatomic ion source using liquid organic materials with a high-vapor pressure. Liquid materials such as octane and ethanol could be heated up to a maximum temperature of 100 degrees C, and the vapors were introduced into an ion source. They were ionized by an electron bombardment method and extracted from the ionizer. The ion current obtained at an extraction voltage of 2 kV was 230 microA for octane and several fragment ions such as alkyl ions were produced. On the other hand, another type of polyatomic ion source using alkyl naphthalene mixed with ionic liquid such as imidazolium dicyanamide has been developed. Instead of the electron bombardment method, a high-electric field method was used for the ion-emission from a sharp tip, because the vapor pressure of the liquid materials was relatively low. The threshold voltage was approximately 4.5 kV and the ion current of approximately 250 nA was obtained at an extraction voltage of 9.5 kV.

  5. DETERMINATION OF ION AND NEUTRAL LOSS COMPOSITIONS AND DECONVOLUTION OF PRODUCT ION MASS SPECTRA USING AN ORTHOGONAL ACCELERATION, TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER AND AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exact masses of monoisotopic ions and the relative isotopic abundances (RIAs) of ions greater in mass by 1 and 2 Da than the monoisotopic ion are independent and complementary physical properties useful for istinguishing among ion compositions possible for a given nominal mass. U...

  6. Determination of gas phase protein ion densities via ion mobility analysis with charge reduction.

    PubMed

    Maisser, Anne; Premnath, Vinay; Ghosh, Abhimanyu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Attoui, Michel; Hogan, Christopher J

    2011-12-28

    We use a charge reduction electrospray (ESI) source and subsequent ion mobility analysis with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA, with detection via both a Faraday cage electrometer and a condensation particle counter) to infer the densities of single and multiprotein ions of cytochrome C, lysozyme, myoglobin, ovalbumin, and bovine serum albumin produced from non-denaturing (20 mM aqueous ammonium acetate) and denaturing (1 : 49.5 : 49.5, formic acid : methanol : water) ESI. Charge reduction is achieved through use of a Po-210 radioactive source, which generates roughly equal concentrations of positive and negative ions. Ions produced by the source collide with and reduce the charge on ESI generated drops, preventing Coulombic fissions, and unlike typical protein ESI, leading to gas-phase protein ions with +1 to +3 excess charges. Therefore, charge reduction serves to effectively mitigate any role that Coulombic stretching may play on the structure of the gas phase ions. Density inference is made via determination of the mobility diameter, and correspondingly the spherical equivalent protein volume. Through this approach it is found that for both non-denaturing and denaturing ESI-generated ions, gas-phase protein ions are relatively compact, with average densities of 0.97 g cm(-3) and 0.86 g cm(-3), respectively. Ions from non-denaturing ESI are found to be slightly more compact than predicted from the protein crystal structures, suggesting that low charge state protein ions in the gas phase are slightly denser than their solution conformations. While a slight difference is detected between the ions produced with non-denaturing and denaturing ESI, the denatured ions are found to be much more dense than those examined previously by drift tube mobility analysis, in which charge reduction was not employed. This indicates that Coulombic stretching is typically what leads to non-compact ions in the gas-phase, and suggests that for gas phase

  7. Tailored-waveform collisional activation of peptide ion electron transfer survivor ions in cation transmission mode ion/ion reaction experiments.

    PubMed

    Han, Hongling; Londry, Frank A; Erickson, David E; McLuckey, Scott A

    2009-04-01

    Broadband resonance excitation via a tailored waveform in a high pressure collision cell (Q2) on a hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) tandem mass spectrometer has been implemented for cation transmission mode electron transfer ion/ion reactions of tryptic polypeptides. The frequency components in the broadband waveform were defined to excite the first generation intact electron transfer products for relatively large tryptic peptides. The optimum amplitude of the arbitrary waveform applied has been determined empirically to be 3.0 V(p-p), which is effective for relatively high mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio precursor ions with little elimination of sequence information for low m/z ions. The application of broadband activation during the transmission mode ion/ion reaction obviates frequency and amplitude tuning normally associated with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). This approach has been demonstrated with triply and doubly charged tryptic peptides with and without post-translational modifications. Enhanced structural information was achieved by production of a larger number of informative c- and z-type fragments using the tailored waveform on unmodified and modified (phosphorylated and glycosylated) peptides when the first generation intact electron transfer products fell into the defined frequency range. This approach can be applied to a wide range of tryptic peptide ions, making it attractive as a rapid and general approach for ETD LC-MS/MS of tryptic peptides in a QqTOF instrument.

  8. Tailored-waveform Collisional Activation of Peptide Ion Electron Transfer Survivor Ions in Cation Transmission Mode Ion/Ion Reaction Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongling; Londry, Frank A.; Erickson, David E.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Broad-band resonance excitation via a tailored waveform in a high pressure collision cell (Q2) on a hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) tandem mass spectrometer has been implemented for cation transmission mode electron transfer ion/ion reactions of tryptic polypeptides. The frequency components in the broadband waveform were defined to excite the first generation intact electron transfer products for relatively large tryptic peptides. The optimum amplitude of the arbitrary waveform applied has been determined empirically to be 3.0 Vp-p, which is effective for relatively high mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio precursor ions with little elimination of sequence information for low m/z ions. The application of broadband activation during the transmission mode ion/ion reaction obviates frequency and amplitude tuning normally associated with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). This approach has been demonstrated with triply and doubly charged tryptic peptides with and without post-translational modifications. Enhanced structural information was achieved by production of a larger number of informative c- and z-type fragments using the tailored waveform on unmodified and modified (phosphorylated and glycosylated) peptides when the first generation intact electron transfer products fell into the defined frequency range. This approach can be applied to a wide range of tryptic peptide ions, making it attractive as a rapid and general approach for ETD LC-MS/MS of tryptic peptides in a QqTOF instrument. PMID:19305916

  9. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-19

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  10. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-01

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  11. Pick-up ion energization at the termination shock

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, S Peter; Winske, Dan; Wu, Pin; Schwadron, N A

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional hybrid simulations are used to investigate how pickup ions are energized at the perpendicular termination shock. Contrary to previous models based on pickup ion energy gain by repeated crossings of the shock front (shock surfing) or due to a reforming shock front, the present simulations show that pickup ion energy gain involves a gyro-phasedependent interaction with the inhomogeneous motional electric field at the shock. The process operates at all relative concentrations of pickup ion density.

  12. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Peter J.; McKown, Henry S.; Smith, David H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

  13. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, P.J.; McKown, H.S.; Smith, D.H.

    1982-04-26

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  14. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1958-08-19

    A novel ion source is described for use in a calutron which has the prime adwantage of reducing the nunnber of unwanted ions in the ion generating mechamism.An important feature of the invention resides In an arc chamber having a lining of the polyisotopic material to be treated In the calutron and bombardment of the linirg with positive ions of a light gas to induce sputtering and ionization of the lining. With the reduction of unwanted ions in the source beam provided by the described source, the calutron operation may be more accurately controlled.

  15. Segmented ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for large-area, high-power ion engines comprise dividing a single engine into a combination of smaller discharge chambers (or segments) configured to operate as a single large-area engine. This segmented ion thruster (SIT) approach enables the development of 100-kW class argon ion engines for operation at a specific impulse of 10,000 s. A combination of six 30-cm diameter ion chambers operating as a single engine can process over 100 kW. Such a segmented ion engine can be operated from a single power processor unit.

  16. Ion channels in asthma.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  17. Secondary-ion and electron production from surfaces bombarded by large polyatomic ions.

    PubMed

    Martens, J; Ens, W; Standing, K G; Verentchikov, A

    1992-02-01

    Heavy molecular ions with energies in the range 10-20 keV and masses from 276 u to 132,000 u, produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption, were used as primary projectiles to produce secondary-ion spectra from a variety of surfaces in a tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer. In the negative mode the ratio of electron emission to secondary-ion emission was found to decrease rapidly with increasing projectile mass. Ion emission was found to dominate for primary ions larger than approximately 10,000 u. Positive or negative molecular ions and cations were observed from several organic targets of masses up to 1140 u (gramicidin S) for incident projectiles up to mass 132,000 u, i.e., for projectile speeds down to approximately 7000 m/s. Other ions characteristic of the target were also observed for these projectiles. Thus, large polyatomic ions can cause secondary-ion desorption even at very low velocity. The background ions of both polarities are similar to those found in keV particle bombardment by monatomic projectiles. The same ions are observed for all the projectiles; most can be identified with hydrocarbon background. The relative intensities of the background positive ions are largely independent of projectile, and for both polarities the ratio of the ions characterizing the target to those forming the background is approximately constant for all the projectiles. These results strongly suggest that the background ions come from the usual layer of organic impurities attached to the target surface. No direct evidence for surface-induced dissociation was observed in this mass and energy range.

  18. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  19. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  20. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

  1. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOEpatents

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  2. Laser ablation production of Ba, Ca, Dy, Er, La, Lu, and Yb ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmschenk, S.; Becker, P.

    2017-04-01

    We use a pulsed nitrogen laser to produce atomic ions by laser ablation, measuring the relative ion yield for several elements, including some that have only recently been proposed for use in cold trapped ion experiments. For barium, we monitor the ion yield as a function of the number of applied ablation pulses for different substrates. We also investigate the ion production as a function of the pulse energy, and the efficiency of loading an ion trap as a function of radiofrequency voltage.

  3. Relation of specific conductance in ground water to intersection of flow paths by wells, and associated major ion and nitrate geochemistry, Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Austin, Texas, 1978-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, Bradley D.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of karst flow systems can be complicated by the presence of solution-enlarged conduits, which can transmit large volumes of water through the aquifer rapidly. If the geochemistry at a well can be related to streamflow or spring discharge (springflow), or both, the relations can indicate the presence of recent recharge in water at the well, which in turn might indicate that the well intersects a conduit (and thus a major flow path). Increasing knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of conduits in the aquifer can contribute to better understanding of aquifer framework and function. To that end, 26 wells in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer, Austin, Texas, were investigated for potential intersection with conduits; 26 years of arbitrarily timed specific conductance measurements in the wells were compared to streamflow in five creeks that provide recharge to the aquifer and were compared to aquifer flow conditions as indicated by Barton Springs discharge. A nonparametric statistical test (Spearman's rho) was used to divide the 26 wells into four groups on the basis of correlation of specific conductance of well water to streamflow or spring discharge, or both. Potential relations between conduit intersection by wells and ground-water geochemistry were investigated through analysis of historical major ion and nitrate geochemistry for wells in each of the four groups. Specific conductance at nine wells was negatively correlated with both streamflow and spring discharge, or streamflow only. These correlations were interpreted as evidence of an influx of surface-water recharge during periods of high streamflow and the influence at the wells of water from a large, upgradient part of the aquifer; and further interpreted as indicating that four wells intersect major aquifer flow paths and five wells intersect minor aquifer flow paths (short, tributary conduits). Specific conductance at six wells was positively correlated with spring

  4. ION PAIR DISSOCIATION: Spectroscopy and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suits, Arthur G.; Hepburn, John W.

    2006-05-01

    Ion pair dissociation processes may be studied using coherent vacuum ultraviolet laser sources in a manner entirely analogous to photoelectron spectroscopy, albeit with the anion playing the role of a heavy electron. If the excitation energy is above the dissociation energy and the kinetic energy of the fragment is measured using ion imaging, this approach is termed ion pair imaging spectroscopy (IPIS) and is related to conventional photoelectron spectroscopy. If the excitation energy is just below the dissociation energy and pulsed-field dissociation is employed, this approach is analogous to mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy and is termed threshold ion pair production spectroscopy (TIPPS). These approaches provide a novel means of investigating ion thermochemistry and spectroscopy and superexcited state decay dynamics at high resolution.

  5. Surface modification of sapphire by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, C.J.

    1998-11-01

    The range of microstructures and properties of sapphire (single crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that are produced by ion implantation are discussed with respect to the implantation parameters of ion species, fluence, irradiation temperature and the orientation of the ion beam relative to crystallographic axes. The microstructure of implanted sapphire may be crystalline with varying concentrations of defects or it may be amorphous perhaps with short-range order. At moderate to high fluences, implanted metallic ions often coalesce into pure metallic colloids and gas ions form bubbles. Many of the implanted microstructural features have been identified from studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering-channeling. The chemical, mechanical, and physical properties reflect the microstructures.

  6. Observations of ion streaming during substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Williams, D. J.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    The ion beam phenomenon at the plasma sheet boundary is examined for individually identifiable substorms, and the substorm-associated particle phenomena are evaluated in terms of the energy-angle distributions of the plasma population and three-dimensional energetic ion distributions. In all seven cases studied it is found that ion beams streaming earthward and/or tailward are always present at the edge of the plasma sheet adjacent to the tail lobe. Ion beams penetrating into the plasma sheet region with no detectable density gradient are also observed. Beams at tens to hundreds of eV often stream tailward and are often long lasting, suggesting that they may be related to ionospheric sources. Both tailward and earthward streaming beams are detected for ion beams above 1 keV, consistent with an origin from the distant tail, propagation toward earth, and mirroring back under single particle motions.

  7. [Determination of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions in environmental water by two-dimensional ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Yali

    2013-03-01

    A procedure for the determination of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions in environmental water by two-dimensional ion chromatography has been developed. At first the iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were separated from interfering ions by a column (IonPac AS16, 250 mm x 4 mm). The iodide ion, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were then enriched with an enrichment column (MAC-200, 80 mm x 0.75 mm). In the 2nd-dimensional chromatography, iodide thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were separated and quantified by a capillary column (IonPac AS20 Capillary, 250 mm x 0.4 mm). The linear ranges were 0.05 -100 pg/L with correlation coefficients of 0. 999 9, and the detection limits were 0. 02 - 0.05 micro gg/L. The spiked recoveries of iodide, thiocyanate and perchlorate ions were in the range of 85.1% to 100.1%. The relative standard deviations of the recoveries were 1.7% to 4.9%.

  8. Ion exchange in KTiOPO4 crystals irradiated by copper and hydrogen ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruifeng; Lu, Fei; Lian, Jie; Liu, Hanping; Liu, Xiangzhi; Lu, Qingming; Ma, Hongji

    2008-05-12

    Cs(+)-K+ ion exchanges were produced on KTiOPO4 crystals which is prior irradiated by Cu+ can H+ ions. The energy and dose of implanted Cu+ ions are 1.5 MeV and 0.5 x 10(14) ions/cm2, and that of H+ are 300 keV and 1 x 10(16) ions/cm2, respectively. The temperature of ions exchange is 430 degrees C, and the time range from 15 minutes to 30 minutes. The prism coupling method is used to measure the dark mode spectra of the samples. Compared with results of ion exchange on the sample without irradiations, both the number of guided mode and its corresponding effective refractive index are decreased. The experimental results indicate that the ion exchange rate closely related with the lattice damage and the damage layers formed in the depth of maximum nuclear energy deposition act as a barrier to block the ions diffuse into the sample and the concentration of defects can modify the speed of ion exchange..

  9. Hot ions observed by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer inside the Comet Halley contact surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.; Young, D. T.; Balsiger, H.; Buehler, F.; Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Shelly, E. G.

    1986-01-01

    Just inside the contact surface (approx. 4700 km) the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) sensor of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer detected a sudden, intense burst of ions that lasted until the HERS sensor ceased transmitting data at a distance 3000 km from comet Halley. During this interval ions with M/Q=1, 2, 12, 14, 16, 19, 24 and 28 were observed. The heavier ions appear in two populations (in the S/C frame): a very low energy, almost omnidirectional distribution, and a more energetic (approx. < ram speed) population coming from the ram direction. The low energy ions may belong to the natural Halley environment or be generated at the spacecraft by dust and gas bombardment. The ions may also be related to spacecraft charging processes on Giotto.

  10. ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Preparation of polymer-coated, scintillating ion-exchange resins for monitoring of 99Tc in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Seliman, Ayman F; Samadi, Azadeh; Husson, Scott M; Borai, Emad H; DeVol, Timothy A

    2011-06-15

    The present study was oriented to prepare new scintillating anion-exchange resins for measurement of (99)TcO(4)(-) in natural waters. The organic fluor 2-(1-naphthyl)-5-phenyloxazole was diffused into (chloromethyl)polystyrene resin. Thereafter, a thin layer of poly[[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride] was grafted from the resin surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization as an attempt to overcome potential problems related to the leaching of fluor molecules during usage. The residual chloromethyl groups of the polymer-coated resin were aminated by reaction with two different tertiary amines, triethylamine (TEA) and methyldioctylamine (MDOA). Off- and on-line quantification of (99)Tc was achieved with high detection efficiencies of 60.72 ± 1.93% and 72.83 ± 0.81% for resin with TEA and MDOA functional groups, respectively. The detection limit was determined to be less than the maximum contaminant level (33 Bq L(-1)) established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The two functionalized resins were demonstrated to be selective for pertechnetate from synthetic groundwater containing up to 1000 ppm Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), and HCO(3)(-) and up to 1200 ppb Cr(2)O(7)(2-) in an acidic medium.

  12. Strong ambipolar-driven ion upflow within the cleft ion fountain during low geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yangyang; Knudsen, David J.; Burchill, Johnathan K.; Howarth, Andrew; Yau, Andrew; Redmon, Robert J.; Miles, David M.; Varney, Roger H.; Nicolls, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate low-energy (<10 eV) ion upflows (mainly O+) within the cleft ion fountain (CIF) using conjunctions of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite, the DMSP F16 satellite, the SuperDARN radar, and the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar North (RISR-N). The SEI instrument on board e-POP enables us to derive ion upflow velocities from the 2-D images of ion distribution functions with a frame rate of 100 images per second, and with a velocity resolution of the order of 25 m/s. We identify three cleft ion fountain events with very intense (>1.6 km/s) ion upflow velocities near 1000 km altitude during quiet geomagnetic activity (Kp < 3). Such large ion upflow velocities have been reported previously at or below 1000 km, but only during active periods. Analysis of the core ion distribution images allows us to demonstrate that the ion temperature within the CIF does not rise by more than 0.3 eV relative to background values, which is consistent with RISR-N observations in the F region. The presence of soft electron precipitation seen by DMSP and lack of significant ion heating indicate that the ion upflows we observe near 1000 km altitude are primarily driven by ambipolar electric fields. DC field-aligned currents (FACs) and convection velocity gradients accompany these events. The strongest ion upflows are associated with downward current regions, which is consistent with some (although not all) previously published results. The moderate correlation coefficient (0.51) between upflow velocities and currents implies that FACs serve as indirect energy inputs to the ion upflow process.

  13. Coexisting stable conformations of gaseous protein ions.

    PubMed Central

    Suckau, D; Shi, Y; Beu, S C; Senko, M W; Quinn, J P; Wampler, F M; McLafferty, F W

    1993-01-01

    For further insight into the role of solvent in protein conformer stabilization, the structural and dynamic properties of protein ions in vacuo have been probed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. Multiply charged ions generated by electrospray ionization of five proteins show exchange reactions with 2H2O at 10(-7) torr (1 torr = 133.3 Pa) exhibiting pseudo-first-order kinetics. Gas-phase compactness of the S-S cross-linked RNase A relative to denatured S-derivatized RNase A is indicated by exchange of 35 and 135 hydrogen atoms, respectively. For pure cytochrome c ions, the existence of at least three distinct gaseous conformers is indicated by the substantially different values--52, 113, and 74--of reactive H atoms; the observation of these same values for ions of a number--2, 7, and 5, respectively--of different charge states indicates conformational insensitivity to coulombic forces. For each of these conformers, the compactness in vacuo indicated by these values corresponds directly to that of a known conformer structure in the solution from which the conformer ions are produced by electrospray. S-derivatized RNase A ions also exist as at least two gaseous conformers exchanging 50-140 H atoms. Gaseous conformer ions are isometrically stable for hours; removal of solvent greatly increases conformational rigidity. More specific ion-molecule reactions could provide further details of conformer structures. Images PMID:8381533

  14. Sputtering erosion in ion and plasma thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Pradosh K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental set-up to measure low-energy (below 1 keV) sputtering of materials is described. The materials to be bombarded represent ion thruster components as well as insulators used in the stationary plasma thruster. The sputtering takes place in a 9 inch diameter spherical vacuum chamber. Ions of argon, krypton and xenon are used to bombard the target materials. The sputtered neutral atoms are detected by a secondary neutral mass spectrometer (SNMS). Samples of copper, nickel, aluminum, silver and molybdenum are being sputtered initially to calibrate the spectrometer. The base pressure of the chamber is approximately 2 x 10(exp -9) Torr. the primary ion beam is generated by an ion gun which is capable of delivering ion currents in the range of 20 to 500 nA. The ion beam can be focused to a size approximately 1 mm in diameter. The mass spectrometer is positioned 10 mm from the target and at 90 deg angle to the primary ion beam direction. The ion beam impinges on the target at 45 deg. For sputtering of insulators, charge neutralization is performed by flooding the sample with electrons generated from an electron gun. Preliminary sputtering results, methods of calculating the instrument response function of the spectrometer and the relative sensitivity factors of the sputtered elements will be discussed.

  15. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOEpatents

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  16. ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1957-12-24

    This patent relates to ion sources and more particularly describes an ion source for a calutron which has the advantage of efficient production of an ion beam and long operation time without recharging. The source comprises an arc block provided with an arc chamber connected to a plurality of series-connected charge chambers and means for heating the charge within the chambers. A cathode is disposed at one end of the arc chamber and enclosed hy a vapor tight housing to protect the cathode. The arc discharge is set up between the cathode and the block due to a difference in potentials placed on these parts, and a magnetic field is aligned with the arc discharge. Cooling of the arc block is accomplished by passing coolant through a hollow stem secured at one end to the block and rotatably mounted at the other end through the wall of the calutron. The ions are removed through a slit in the arc chamber by accelerating electrodes.

  17. The acrylonitrile dimer ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervasti, Henri K.; Jobst, Karl J.; Burgers, Peter C.; Ruttink, Paul J. Ae; Terlouw, Johan K.

    2007-04-01

    Large energy barriers prohibit the rearrangement of solitary acrylonitrile ions, CH2CHCN+, into their more stable hydrogen-shift isomers CH2CCNH+ or CHCH-CNH+. This prompted us to examine if these isomerizations occur by self-catalysis in acrylonitrile dimer ions. Such ions, generated by chemical ionization experiments of acrylonitrile with an excess of carbon dioxide, undergo five dissociations in the [mu]s time frame, as witnessed by peaks at m/z 53, 54, 79, 80 and 105 in their metastable ion mass spectrum. Collision experiments on these product ions, deuterium labeling, and a detailed computational analysis using the CBS-QB3 model chemistry lead to the following conclusions: (i) the m/z 54 ions are ions CH2CHCNH+ generated by self-protonation in ion-dipole stabilized hydrogen-bridged dimer ions [CH2CHCN...H-C(CN)CH2]+ and [CH2CHCN...H-C(H)C(H)CN]+; the proton shifts in these ions are associated with a small reverse barrier; (ii) dissociation of the H-bridged ions into CH2CCNH+ or CHCH-CNH+ by self-catalysis is energetically feasible but kinetically improbable: experiment shows that the m/z 53 ions are CH2CHCN+ ions, generated by back dissociation; (iii) the peaks at m/z 79, 80 and 105 correspond with the losses of HCN, C2H2 and H, respectively. The calculations indicate that these ions are generated from dimer ions that have adopted the (much more stable) covalently bound "head-to-tail" structure [CH2CHCN-C(H2)C(H)CN]+; experiments indicate that the m/z 79 (C5H5N) and m/z 105 (C6H6N2) ions have linear structures but the m/z 80 (C4H4N2) ions consist of ionized pyrimidine in admixture with its stable pyrimidine-2-ylidene isomer. Acrylonitrile is a confirmed species in interstellar space and our study provides experimental and computational evidence that its dimer radical cation yields the ionized prebiotic pyrimidine molecule.

  18. Atomic ion clock with two ion traps, and method to transfer ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D. (Inventor); Chung, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An atomic ion clock with a first ion trap and a second ion trap, where the second ion trap is of higher order than the first ion trap. In one embodiment, ions may be shuttled back and forth from one ion trap to the other by application of voltage ramps to the electrodes in the ion traps, where microwave interrogation takes place when the ions are in the second ion trap, and fluorescence is induced and measured when the ions are in the first ion trap. In one embodiment, the RF voltages applied to the second ion trap to contain the ions are at a higher frequency than that applied to the first ion trap. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  19. The ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonator in a fusion environment

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.

    2014-06-01

    An investigation is made of a shear Alfvén wave resonator for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. For small perpendicular scale-lengths the shear mode, which propagates predominantly along the magnetic field direction, experiences a parallel reflection where the wave frequency matches the local ion-ion hybrid frequency. In a tokamak device operating with a deuterium–tritium fuel, this effect can form a natural resonator because of the variation in local field strength along a field line. The relevant kinetic dispersion relation is examined to determine the relative importance of Landau and cyclotron damping over the possible resonator parameter space. A WKB model based on the kinetic dispersion relation is used to determine the eigenfrequencies and the quality factors of modes trapped in the resonator. The lowest frequency found has a value slightly larger than the ion-ion hybrid frequency at the outboard side of a given flux surface. The possibility that the resonator modes can be driven unstable by energetic alpha particles is considered. It is found that within a bandwidth of roughly 600 kHz above the ion-ion hybrid frequency on the outboard side of the flux surface, the shear modes can experience significant spatial amplification. An assessment is made of the form of an approximate global eigenmode that possesses the features of a resonator. It is identified that magnetic field shear combined with large ion temperature can cause coupling to an ion-Bernstein wave, which can limit the instability.

  20. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  1. The light ion trough.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A distinct feature of the ion composition results from the OGO-2, 4 and 6 satellites is the light ion trough, wherein the mid-latitude concentrations of H+ and He+ decrease sharply with latitude. In contrast to the 'main trough' in electron density observed primarily as a nightside phenomenon, the light ion trough persists during both day and night. For daytime winter hemisphere conditions and for all seasons during night, the mid-latitude light ion concentration decrease is a pronounced feature. In the dayside summer and equinox hemispheres, the rate of light ion decrease with latitude is comparatively gradual, and the trough boundary is less well defined, particularly for quiet magnetic conditions. In response to magnetic storms, the light ion trough minimum moves equatorward, and deepens, consistent with earlier evidence of the contraction of the plasmasphere in response to storm time enhancements in magnetospheric plasma convection.

  2. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  3. Auroral ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalimov, S. L.

    From the altitude of 500 km to 15 R sub E everywhere conic like distributions of H+, O+, He+ ions are moving upwards from the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field lines in the auroral zone. The distributed ions suggest the existence of ion transverse acceleration mechanisms (ITAM) acting below the observation point. The more plausible mechanisms are connected with the resonance of the type wave particle between ions and the observed EIC and LH waves and are also due to the existence of the local transverse electric fields in the ionoshere and the magnetosphere. The known ion transverse acceleration mechanisms were complemented by new results. The conical distributions of ionospheric ions at different altitudes in the auroral zone are pointed out.

  4. On the Origin of Inner Source Pickup Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochsler, Peter; Möbius, Eberhard; Kucharek, Harald; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2010-12-01

    Inner source pickup ions are thought to originate from the interaction of solar wind ions with interplanetary dust grains in the inner heliosphere. Processes which produce inner source pickup ions, and which have been considered so far are implantation of solar wind on grains and subsequent desorption, charge exchange of solar wind ions during transit through submicron dust grains, sputtering and backscattering of ions. A large fraction if not all of the dust crossing the sphere of the Earth's orbit must end up as pickup ions as is evidenced from the comparable order of magnitude of dust flux inward and pickup ion flux outward at 1 AU. This suggests that the ultimate fate for a large fraction of small interplanetary dust particles after evaporation or sputtering is conversion into pickup ions. Sputtering becomes particularly efficient when dust particles-after fragmentation by collisions with each other-have diminished to sizes comparable to the range of solar wind ions in dust material. The sputter products, charged or neutral molecules, atoms or ions, ultimately will undergo photodissociation, photoionization, ionization by charge exchange with solar wind ions, and/or ionization by electron collisions. We investigate the relative importance of various processes on pickup ions on their way out of the inner heliosphere and the relevance of inner source pickup ions for diagnostics of dust particles near the Sun.

  5. Two mechanisms of ion selectivity in protein binding sites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Roux, Benoît

    2010-11-23

    A theoretical framework is presented to clarify the molecular determinants of ion selectivity in protein binding sites. The relative free energy of a bound ion is expressed in terms of the main coordinating ligands coupled to an effective potential of mean force representing the influence of the rest of the protein. The latter is separated into two main contributions. The first includes all the forces keeping the ion and the coordinating ligands confined to a microscopic subvolume but does not prevent the ligands from adapting to a smaller or larger ion. The second regroups all the remaining forces that control the precise geometry of the coordinating ligands best adapted to a given ion. The theoretical framework makes it possible to delineate two important limiting cases. In the limit where the geometric forces are dominant (rigid binding site), ion selectivity is controlled by the ion-ligand interactions within the matching cavity size according to the familiar "snug-fit" mechanism of host-guest chemistry. In the limit where the geometric forces are negligible, the ion and ligands behave as a "confined microdroplet" that is free to fluctuate and adapt to ions of different sizes. In this case, ion selectivity is set by the interplay between ion-ligand and ligand-ligand interactions and is controlled by the number and the chemical type of ion-coordinating ligands. The framework is illustrated by considering the ion-selective binding sites in the KcsA channel and the LeuT transporter.

  6. Positive Ion Photodissociation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-08

    order perturbation theory was found to account well for the iT-it substituent effects , but within a perturbation-theory framework the 7T-7i* band...substituent effects on energy levels of this ionic chromophore. This study, publication #23, is reproduced as Appendix A. N -14- VI. ION STRUCTURES...splitting of the ion cyclo- tron resonances can occur by coupling to rotational degrees of freedom of the ion, although these effects are negligible except

  7. Collection of ions

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Koster, James E.

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide an improved technique for detecting ions as the area from which ions are attracted to a detector is increased, consequently increasing the number of ions detected. This is achieved by providing the outer electrodes of the detector connected to the electrical potential, together with alternate intermediate electrodes. The other intermediate electrodes and preferably the housing are grounded. The technique renders such detection techniques more sensitive and gives them a lower threshold at which they can function.

  8. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  9. ION ACCELERATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.; Martin, J.A.

    1960-02-23

    Well focused, intense ion beams are obtained by providing a multi- apertured source grid in front of an ion source chamber and an accelerating multi- apertured grid closely spaced from and in alignment with the source grid. The longest dimensions of the elongated apertures in the grids are normal to the direction of the magnetic field used with the device. Large ion currents may be withdrawn from the source, since they do not pass through any small focal region between the grids.

  10. APPARATUS FOR HEATING IONS

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, E.S.; Garren, A.A.; Kippenhan, D.O.; Lamb, W.A.S.; Riddell, R.J. Jr.

    1960-01-01

    The heating of ions in a magnetically confined plasma is accomplished by the application of an azimuthal radiofrequency electric field to the plasma at ion cyclotron resonance. The principal novelty resides in the provision of an output tank coil of a radiofrequency driver to induce the radiofrequency field in the plasma and of electron current bridge means at the ends of the plasma for suppressing radial polarization whereby the radiofrequency energy is transferred to the ions with high efficiency.

  11. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  12. Apparatus for neutralization of accelerated ions

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.; Frank, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for neutralization of a beam of accelerated ions, such as hydrogen negative ions (H.sup.-), using relatively efficient strip diode lasers which emit monochromatically at an appropriate wavelength (.lambda. = 8000 A for H.sup.- ions) to strip the excess electrons by photodetachment. A cavity, formed by two or more reflectors spaced apart, causes the laser beams to undergo multiple reflections within the cavity, thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the illumination required to obtain an acceptable percentage (.about. 85%) of neutralization.

  13. Photodissociation of Mg +(NH 3) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shinji; Okai, Nobuhiro; Fuke, Kiyokazu

    2001-10-01

    Electronically excited states of Mg +(NH 3) are studied by photodissociation after mass selection. The dissociation spectrum shows relatively sharp vibronic transitions centered at about 28 000 and 36 000 cm-1. These absorption bands are assigned to the 2P- 2S type transitions localized on the Mg + ion. In photodissociation, a photoinduced charge-transfer process to produce NH 3+ is observed in addition to evaporation and intracluster reaction processes to produce Mg + and MgNH 2+ ions, respectively. The mechanism for the production of these ions is discussed in terms of the predissociative and non-adiabatic interactions between the low-lying states.

  14. The production and destruction of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li[sup [minus

  15. Heavy ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  16. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  17. Cardiac ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552

  18. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  19. Doppler ion program description

    SciTech Connect

    Henline, P.

    1980-12-01

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities.

  20. Ion beam thruster shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion thruster beam shield is provided that comprises a cylindrical housing that extends downstream from the ion thruster and a plurality of annular vanes which are spaced along the length of the housing, and extend inwardly from the interior wall of the housing. The shield intercepts and stops all charge exchange and beam ions, neutral propellant, and sputter products formed due to the interaction of beam and shield emanating from the ion thruster outside of a fixed conical angle from the thruster axis. Further, the shield prevents the sputter products formed during the operation of the engine from escaping the interior volume of the shield.

  1. Ions in the Terrestrial Atmosphere and Other Solar System Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Tammet, Hannes

    2008-06-01

    Charged molecular clusters, traditionally called small ions, carry electric currents in atmospheres. Charged airborne particles, or aerosol ions, play an important role in generation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Growth of ions depends on the trace gas content, which is highly variable in the time and space. Even at sub-ppb concentrations, electrically active organic compounds ( e.g. pyridine derivatives) can affect the ion composition and size. The size and mobility are closely related, although the form of the relationship varies depending on the critical diameter, which, at 273 K, is about 1.6 nm. For ions smaller than this the separation of quantum levels exceeds the average thermal energy, allowing use of a molecular aggregate model for the size-mobility relation. For larger ions the size-mobility relation approaches the Stokes-Cunningham-Millikan law. The lifetime of a cluster ion in the terrestrial lower atmosphere is about one minute, determined by the balance between ion production rate, ion-ion recombination, and ion-aerosol attachment.

  2. Ions in the Terrestrial Atmosphere and Other Solar System Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Tammet, Hannes

    Charged molecular clusters, traditionally called small ions, carry electric currents in atmospheres. Charged airborne particles, or aerosol ions, play an important role in generation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Growth of ions depends on the trace gas content, which is highly variable in the time and space. Even at sub-ppb concentrations, electrically active organic compounds (e.g. pyridine derivatives) can affect the ion composition and size. The size and mobility are closely related, although the form of the relationship varies depending on the critical diameter, which, at 273 K, is about 1.6 nm. For ions smaller than this the separation of quantum levels exceeds the average thermal energy, allowing use of a molecular aggregate model for the size-mobility relation. For larger ions the size-mobility relation approaches the Stokes-Cunningham-Millikan law. The lifetime of a cluster ion in the terrestrial lower atmosphere is about one minute, determined by the balance between ion production rate, ion-ion recombination, and ion-aerosol attachment.

  3. Development of a four-zone carousel process packed with metal ion-imprinted polymer for continuous separation of copper ions from manganese ions, cobalt ions, and the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution used as eluent.

    PubMed

    Jo, Se-Hee; Park, Chanhun; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Dukjoon; Mun, Sungyong

    2011-08-19

    A three-zone carousel process, in which Cu(II)-imprinted polymer (Cu-MIP) and a buffer solution were employed as adsorbent and eluent respectively, has been developed previously for continuous separation of Cu²⁺ (product) from Mn²⁺ and Co²⁺ (impurities). Although this process was reported to be successful in the aforementioned separation task, the way of using a buffer solution as eluent made it inevitable that the product stream included the buffer-related metal ions (i.e., the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution) as well as copper ions. For a more perfect recovery of copper ions, it would be necessary to improve the previous carousel process such that it can remove the buffer-related metal ions from copper ions while maintaining the previous function of separating copper ions from the other 2 impure heavy-metal ions. This improvement was made in this study by proposing a four-zone carousel process based on the following strategy: (1) the addition of one more zone for performing the two-step re-equilibration tasks and (2) the use of water as the eluent of the washing step in the separation zone. The operating conditions of such a proposed process were determined on the basis of the data from a series of single-column experiments. Under the determined operating conditions, 3 runs of carousel experiments were carried out. The results of these experiments revealed that the feed-loading time was a key parameter affecting the performance of the proposed process. Consequently, the continuous separation of copper ions from both the impure heavy-metal ions and the buffer-related metal ions could be achieved with a purity of 91.9% and a yield of 92.8% by using the proposed carousel process based on a properly chosen feed-loading time.

  4. NBCe1-A Transmembrane Segment 1 Lines the Ion Translocation Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Quansheng; Azimov, Rustam; Kao, Liyo; Newman, Debra; Liu, Weixin; Abuladze, Natalia; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The electrogenic Na+/\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{HCO}}_{3}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} cotransporter (NBCe1-A) transports sodium and bicarbonate across the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubule. In this study the structural requirement of transmembrane segment 1 (TM1) residues in mediating NBCe1-A transport was investigated. Twenty-five introduced cysteine mutants at positions Gln-424 to Gly-448 were tested for their sensitivity to the methanethiosulfonate reagents (2-sulfonatoethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSES), [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate (MTSET), and (2-aminoethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA). Two mutants, T442C and A435C, showed 100 and 70% sensitivity, respectively, to inhibition by all the three methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents, I441C had >50% sensitivity to MTSET and MTSEA, and A428C had 50% sensitivity to MTSEA inhibition. A helical wheel plot showed that mutants T442C, A435C, and A428C are clustered on one face of TM1 within a 100° arc. Topology analysis of TM1 with biotin maleimide and 2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino) ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA) revealed Thr-442 marks the C-terminal end of TM1 and that extracellular FGGLLG stretch is in a small aqueous-accessible cavity. Functional studies indicated that Thr-442 resides in a narrow region of the ion translocation pore with strong δ- helical dipole influence. Analysis of the corresponding residue of NBCe1-A-Thr-442 in AE1 (Thr-422) shows it is functionally insensitive to MTSES and unlabeled with MTS-TAMRA, indicating that AE1-TM1 is oriented differently from NBCe1-A. In summary, we have identified residues Thr-442, Ala-435, and Ala-428 in TM1 lining the ion translocation

  5. Cold Strontium Ion Source for Ion Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jarom; Durfee, Dallin

    2015-05-01

    We are working on a cold source of Sr Ions to be used in an ion interferometer. The beam will be generated from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of Sr atoms by optically ionizing atoms leaking out a carefully prepared hole in the MOT. A single laser cooling on the resonant transition (461 nm) in Sr should be sufficient for trapping, as we've calculated that losses to the atom beam will outweigh losses to dark states. Another laser (405 nm), together with light from the trapping laser, will drive a two photon transition in the atom beam to an autoionizing state. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  6. Recent progress and applications of ion-exclusion/ion-exchange chromatography for simultaneous determination of inorganic anions and cations.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of ion chromatography is to determine both anions and cations found in samples with a single chromatographic run. In the present article, recent progress in ion-exclusion/ion-exchange chromatography for the simultaneous determinations of inorganic anions and cations are reviewed. Firstly, the principle and the control for the simultaneous separation and detection of analyte ions using ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography with a weakly acidic cation-exchange column are outlined. Then, advanced chromatographic techniques in terms of analytical time, selectively and sensitivity are summarized. As a related method, ion-exclusion/anion-exchange chromatography with an anion-exchange column could be used for the simultaneous determination of inorganic nitrogen species, such as ammonium, nitrite and nitrate ions. Their usefulness and applications to water-quality monitoring and related techniques are also described.

  7. Studies on the solid-state ion exchange of nickel ions into zeolites using DRS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanjanchi, M. A.; Ebrahimian, A.

    2004-05-01

    The coordination of Ni 2+ ions in the dehydrated nickel-exchanged zeolites was investigated from the analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra. Solid-state ion exchange method was used to prepare nickel-containing mordenite, Y, L and mazzite zeolites. In the dehydrated mordenite and zeolite Y, nickel cations are presented in both forms of tetrahedral and distorted tetrahedral symmetries. The relative amount of tetrahedral and distorted tetrahedral nickel species are related to the heating temperature and heating time used for calcinations. In the dehydrated zeolite L and mazzite, Ni 2+ ions are mainly in the distorted octahedral symmetries.

  8. Ion Phase Space Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Daniel Peter

    1987-09-01

    Experimental measurements are presented of ion phase space evolution in a collisionless magnetoplasma utilizing nonperturbing laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics. Ion configuration space and velocity space transport, and ion thermodynamic information were derived from the phase space diagrams for the following beam-plasma and obstacle-plasma systems:(UNFORMATTED TABLE OR EQUATION FOLLOWS) OBSTACLE & PLASMA SPECIES qquad disc & quad Ba ^+/e^ qquad disc & quad Ba^+/SF _6^-/e^ BEAM SPECIES & PLASMA SPECIES} qquad Ba^+ & quad Cs^+/e^ qquad Cs^+ & quad Ba^+/e^ qquad Ba^+ & quad Cs^+/SF_6 ^-/e^ qquad e^- & quad Ba^+ /e^ TABLE/EQUATION ENDS The ions were roughly mass symmetric. Plasma systems were reconstructed from multiple discrete Ba(II) ion velocity distributions with spatial, temporal, and velocity resolution of 1 mm^3, 2 musec, and 3 times 1010 cm ^3/sec^3 respectively. Phase space reconstructions indicated resonant ion response to the current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron wave (EICW) in the case of an electron beam and to the ion cyclotron-cyclotron wave in the case of ion beams. Ion energization was observed in both systems. Local particle kinetic energy densities increase far above thermal levels in the presence of the EICW and ICCW. Time-resolved measurements of the EICW identified phase space particle bunching. The nonlinear evolution of f_{rm i}(x,v,t) was investigated for both beam systems. The near wake of conducting electrically floating disc obstacle was studied. Anomalous cross field diffusion (D_bot > 10 ^4 cm^2/sec) and ion energization were correlated with strong, low-frequency turbulence generated by the obstacle. Ion perpendicular kinetic energy densities doubled over thermal levels in the near wake. Upstream of the obstacle, l ~ 50 lambda_ {rm D}, a collisionless shock was indicated; far downstream, an ion flux peak was observed. Three negative ion plasma (NIP) sources were developed and characterized in the course of research: two

  9. Mercury ion thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Matossian, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    The Mercury Ion Thruster Technology program was an investigation for improving the understanding of state-of-the-art mercury ion thrusters. Emphasis was placed on optimizing the performance and simplifying the design of the 30 cm diameter ring-cusp discharge chamber. Thruster performance was improved considerably; the baseline beam-ion production cost of the optimized configuration was reduced to Epsilon (sub i) perspective to 130 eV/ion. At a discharge propellant-utilization efficiency of 95 percent, the beam-ion production cost was reduced to about 155 eV/ion, representing a reduction of about 40 eV/ion over the corresponding value for the 30 cm diameter J-series thruster. Comprehensive Langmuir-probe surveys were obtained and compared with similar measurements for a J-series thruster. A successful volume-averaging scheme was developed to correlate thruster performance with the dominant plasma processes that prevail in the two thruster designs. The average Maxwellian electron temperature in the optimized ring-cusp design is as much as 1 eV higher than it is in the J-series thruster. Advances in ion-extraction electrode fabrication technology were made by improving materials selection criteria, hydroforming and stress-relieving tooling, and fabrications procedures. An ion-extraction performance study was conducted to assess the effect of screen aperture size on ion-optics performance and to verify the effectiveness of a beam-vectoring model for three-grid ion optics. An assessment of the technology readiness of the J-series thruster was completed, and operation of an 8 cm IAPS thruster using a simplified power processor was demonstrated.

  10. Ion channels in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  11. Selective coulometric release of ions from ion selective polymeric membranes for calibration-free titrations.

    PubMed

    Bhakthavatsalam, Vishnupriya; Shvarev, Alexey; Bakker, Eric

    2006-08-01

    Coulometry belongs to one of the few known calibration-free techniques and is therefore highly attractive for chemical analysis. Titrations performed by the coulometric generation of reactants is a well-known approach in electrochemistry, but suffers from limited selectivity and is therefore not generally suited for samples of varying or unknown composition. Here, the selective coulometric release of ionic reagents from ion-selective polymeric membrane materials ordinarily used for the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes is described. The selectivity of such membranes can be tuned to a significant extent by the type and concentration of ionophore and lipophilic ion-exchanger and is today well understood. An anodic current of fixed magnitude and duration may be imposed across such a membrane to release a defined quantity of ions with high selectivity and precision. Since the applied current relates to a defined ion flux, a variety of non-redox active ions may be accurately released with this technique. In this work, the released titrant's activity was measured with a second ionophore-based ion-selective electrode and corresponded well with expected dosage levels on the basis of Faraday's law of electrolysis. Initial examples of coulometric titrations explored here include the release of calcium ions for complexometric titrations, including back titrations, and the release of barium ions to determine sulfate.

  12. H/D exchange of gas phase bradykinin ions in a linear quadrupole ion trap.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dunmin; Douglas, D J

    2003-02-01

    The gas phase H/D exchange reaction of bradykinin ions, as well as fragment ions of bradykinin generated through collisions in an orifice skimmer region, have been studied with a linear quadrupole ion trap (LIT) reflectron time-of-flight (rTOF) mass spectrometer system. The reaction in the trap takes only tens of seconds at a pressure of few mTorr of D2O or CD3OD. The exchange rate and hydrogen exchange level are not sensitive to the trapping q value over a broad range, provided q is not close to the stability boundary (q = 0.908). The relative rates and hydrogen exchange levels of protonated and sodiated +1 and +2 ions are similar to those observed previously by others with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer system. The doubly and triply protonated ions show multimodal isotopic distributions, suggesting the presence of several different conformations. The y fragment ions show greater exchange rates and levels than a or b ions, and when water or ammonia is lost from the fragment ions, no exchange is observed.

  13. Abnormal Ion Permeation through Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, M. R.; Stutts, M. J.; Spock, A.; Fischer, N.; Gatzy, J. T.; Boucher, R. C.

    1983-09-01

    The epithelium of nasal tissue excised from subjects with cystic fibrosis exhibited higher voltage and lower conductance than tissue from control subjects. Basal sodium ion absorption by cystic fibrosis and normal nasal epithelia equaled the short-circuit current and was amiloride-sensitive. Amiloride induced chloride ion secretion in normal but not cystic fibrosis tissue and consequently was more effective in inhibiting the short-circuit current in cystic fibrosis epithelia. Chloride ion-free solution induced a smaller hyperpolarization of cystic fibrosis tissue. The increased voltage and amiloride efficacy in cystic fibrosis reflect absorption of sodium ions across an epithelium that is relatively impermeable to chloride ions.

  14. Beam ion confinement on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hao, G. Z.; Podesta, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.

    2016-10-01

    A second and more tangential neutral beam line is a major upgrade component of the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U) with the purpose of improving neutral beam current drive efficiency and providing more flexibility in current/pressure profile control. Good beam ion confinement is essential to achieve the anticipated improvements in performance. In the planned beam ion confinement experiment, various short and long (relative to fast ion slowing-down time) neutral beam (NB) pulses from six neutral beam sources will be injected into center-stack limited L-mode plasmas to characterize the beam ion confinement and distribution function produced by the new and the existing NBI lines. The neutron rate decay after the turn-off of short NB pulses will be used to estimate the beam ion confinement time and to investigate its dependence on NB source/geometry, injection energy, and plasma current. The tangential and vertical Fast-Ion D-Alpha (FIDA) diagnostics and multi-view Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) arrays will be used to measure beam ion slowing-down distribution function and spatial profile during the injection of relatively long NB pulses. Beam ion prompt losses will be monitored with a scintillator Fast Lost Ion Probe (sFLIP) diagnostic. The experimental data and comparisons with classical predictions from NUBEAM modeling will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE DE-AC0209CH11466, DE-FG02-06ER54867, and DE-FG03-02ER54681.

  15. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  16. Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, M. A.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Dudnikova, G. I.; Liseykina, T. V.; Diamond, P. H.; Papadopoulos, K.; Liu, C.-S.; Su, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    An analytic solution describing an ion-acoustic collisionless shock, self-consistently with the evolution of shock-reflected ions, is obtained. The solution extends the classic soliton solution beyond a critical Mach number, where the soliton ceases to exist because of the upstream ion reflection. The reflection transforms the soliton into a shock with a trailing wave and a foot populated by the reflected ions. The solution relates parameters of the entire shock structure, such as the maximum and minimum of the potential in the trailing wave, the height of the foot, as well as the shock Mach number, to the number of reflected ions. This relation is resolvable for any given distribution of the upstream ions. In this paper, we have resolved it for a simple "box" distribution. Two separate models of electron interaction with the shock are considered. The first model corresponds to the standard Boltzmannian electron distribution in which case the critical shock Mach number only insignificantly increases from M ≈1.6 (no ion reflection) to M ≈1.8 (substantial reflection). The second model corresponds to adiabatically trapped electrons. They produce a stronger increase, from M ≈3.1 to M ≈4.5 . The shock foot that is supported by the reflected ions also accelerates them somewhat further. A self-similar foot expansion into the upstream medium is described analytically.

  17. Metal Ions in Unusual Valency States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Robin M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses reactivity of metal ions with the primary products of water radiolysis, hyper-reduced metal ions, zero-valent metal ions, unstable divalent ions from the reduction of bivalent ions, hyper-oxidized metal ions, and metal complexes. (CS)

  18. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  19. Quadrupole ion traps.

    PubMed

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    The extraordinary story of the three-dimensional radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap, accompanied by a seemingly unintelligible theoretical treatment, is told in some detail because of the quite considerable degree of commercial success that quadrupole technology has achieved. The quadrupole ion trap, often used in conjunction with a quadrupole mass filter, remained a laboratory curiosity until 1979 when, at the American Society for Mass Spectrometry Conference in Seattle, George Stafford, Jr., of Finnigan Corp., learned of the Masters' study of Allison Armitage of a combined quadrupole ion trap/quadrupole mass filter instrument for the observation of electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra of simple compounds eluting from a gas chromatograph. Stafford developed subsequently the mass-selective axial instability method for obtaining mass spectra from the quadrupole ion trap alone and, in 1983, Finnigan Corp. announced the first commercial quadrupole ion trap instrument as a detector for a gas chromatograph. In 1987, confinement of ions generated externally to the ion trap was demonstrated and, soon after, the new technique of electrospray ionization was shown to be compatible with the ion trap.

  20. Ion-beam technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  1. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  2. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  3. Alfven ion-cyclotron heating of ionospheric O(+) ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Sydora, R. D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1988-01-01

    Transversely heated ionospheric ions, in particular O(+) ions, are often observed flowing upward along auroral field lines. Currents observed in association with the transversely heated ions can drive shear Alfven waves and electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves unstable which can, in turn, be resonantly absorbed by the ions to produce the heating. Particle simulations are used to examine self-consistently the excitation of these waves and the associated heating. It is shown that the growth of the electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves quickly becomes suppressed as the ions become heated and the dominant wave fields are those of the shear Alfven wave. The resultant transverse ion heating is larger and faster than that produced by solely electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave heating. Due to trapping of ions by the shear Alfven wave, the temperature of the O(+) ions remains comparable to that of the H(+) ions.

  4. ION PULSE GENERATION

    DOEpatents

    King, R.F.; Moak, C.D.; Parker, V.E.

    1960-10-11

    A device for generating ions in an ion source, forming the ions into a stream, deflecting the stream rapidly away from and back to its normal path along the axis of a cylindrical housing, and continually focusing the stream by suitable means into a sharp, intermittent beam along the axis is described. The beam exists through an axial aperture into a lens which focuses it into an accelerator tube. The ions in each burst are there accelerated to very high energies and are directed against a target placed in the high-energy end of the tube. Radiations from the target can then be analyzed in the interval between incidence of the bursts of ions on the target.

  5. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  6. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sanjeev S; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-09-23

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for various physiological processes such as the conscious sensations of touch and hearing, and the unconscious sensation of blood flow. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels.

  7. Ion track doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Chadderton, L. T.; Cruz, S. A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Hnatowicz, V.; Te Kaat, E. H.; Melnikov, A. A.; Varichenko, V. S.; Zaitsev, A. M.

    1994-10-01

    Longitudinal dopant distribution along ion tracks in soft (polymers [1?5]) and hard (diamond [6,7]) condensed carbonaceous matter have been studied by neutron depth profiling and cathodoluminesence. Both in-diffusion from the aqueous phase and energetic ion implantation were used in primary track doping. In-situ self-decoration of tracks and post-implantation with a secondary ion species were used in the specific case of ion implantation. Radial dopant distributions were also studied by means of a modified tomographic procedure. Decorative doping of ion bombarded solids is useful in probing track structure, and especially in pointing the way to potential development of nanometric-sized electronic devices.

  8. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  9. Ion chemistry in space.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M; Geppert, W D; Nyman, G

    2012-06-01

    We review the gas-phase chemistry in extraterrestrial space that is driven by reactions with atomic and molecular ions. Ions are ubiquitous in space and are potentially responsible for the formation of increasingly complex interstellar molecules. Until recently, positively charged atoms and molecules were the only ions known in space; however, this situation has changed with the discovery of various molecular anions. This review covers not only the observation, distribution and reactions of ions in space, but also laboratory-based experimental and theoretical methods for studying these ions. Recent results from space-based instruments, such as those on the Cassini-Huygens space mission and the Herschel Space Observatory, are highlighted.

  10. Low energy ion distribution around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Tanaka, T.; Asamura, K.; Nishino, M. N.; Yamamoto, T.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2009-04-01

    originating from the solar wind ions reflected/scattered at the lunar surface and are picked up and accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field, and 4) Ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar atmosphere. The flux of the solar wind ions scattered at the lunar surface is less than about 1% of the incident solar wind ions. They have lower energy than the incident solar wind ions since part of the energy is lost when solar wind ions collide with the Moon surface. Though solar wind consists of alpha particles as a second major component, the scattered ions consist of almost no alpha particles. When KAGUYA flew over South Pole Aitken region, where strong magnetic anomalies exist, solar wind ions reflected by magnetic anomalies are observed. Different from the ions scattered at the lunar surface, these reflected ions have nearly the same energy as the incident solar wind ions. When reflected ions are observed, the simultaneously measured electrons are often heated and the incident solar wind ions are sometimes slightly decelerated. The reflected/scattered ions are picked up by the solar wind convection electric field and they are accelerated viewed from the Moon reference frame. Since these ions have initial velocity that is as fast as the incident solar wind ions, the maximum possible acceleration is three times the solar wind velocity that is different from the pickup acceleration of the ionized neutral particles that has been observed around comets where the maximum acceleration is twice the solar wind velocity. Another important discovery of IMA is the first in-situ measurements of the alkali ions originating from the Moon surface/atmosphere. The ions generated on the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering, solar photon stimulated desorption, or micro-meteorite vaporization are accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by IMA. The mass profiles of these ions show heavy ions including C+, N+, O+ and Na+/Mg+, K+/Ar+. Though the relation

  11. Ion-dependent gating of kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels are an important class of signalling protein that depend on small chemical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, l-glutamate, glycine and gamma-aminobutyrate for activation. Although numerous in number, neurotransmitter substances have always been thought to drive the receptor complex into the open state in much the same way and not rely substantially on other factors. However, recent work on kainate-type (KAR) ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) has identified an exception to this rule. Here, the activation process fails to occur unless external monovalent anions and cations are present. This absolute requirement of ions singles out KARs from all other ligand-gated ion channels, including closely related AMPA- and NMDA-type iGluR family members. The uniqueness of ion-dependent gating has earmarked this feature of KARs as a putative target for the development of selective ligands; a prospect all the more compelling with the recent elucidation of distinct anion and cation binding pockets. Despite these advances, much remains to be resolved. For example, it is still not clear how ion effects on KARs impacts glutamatergic transmission. I conclude by speculating that further analysis of ion-dependent gating may provide clues into how functionally diverse iGluRs families emerged by evolution. Consequently, ion-dependent gating of KARs looks set to continue to be a subject of topical inquiry well into the future.

  12. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  13. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  14. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  15. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    DOE PAGES

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion sourcemore » for regular operation.« less

  16. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  17. Secondary ion coincidence in highly charged ion based secondary ion mass spectroscopy for process characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A.V.; Schenkel, T.; Barnes, A.V.; Schneider, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Coincidence counting in highly charged ion based secondary ion mass spectroscopy has been applied to the characterization of selective tungsten deposition via disilane reduction of tungsten hexafluoride on a patterned SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer. The high secondary ion yield and the secondary ion emission from a small area produced by highly charged ions make the coincidence technique very powerful.

  18. In Situ Measurements of Meteoric Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Aiken, Arthur C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extraterrestrial material is the source of metal ions in the Earth's atmosphere, Each year approx. 10(exp 8) kg of material is intercepted by the Earth. The origin of this material is predominantly solar orbiting interplanetary debris from comets or asteroids that crosses the Earth's orbit. It contains a very small amount of interstellar material. On occasion the Earth passes through enhanced amounts of debris associated with the orbit of a decaying comet. This leads to enhanced meteor shower displays for up to several days. The number flux of shower material is typically several times the average sporadic background influx of material. Meteoric material is some of the earliest material formed in the solar system. By studying the relative elemental abundances of atmospheric metal ions, information can be gained on the chemical composition of cometary debris and the chemical makeup of the early solar system. Using in situ sampling with rocket-borne ion mass spectrometers; there have been approximately 50 flights that made measurements of the metal ion abundances at attitudes between 80 and 130 km. It is this altitude range where incoming meteoric particles am ablated, the larger ones giving rise to visible meteor. displays. In several rocket measurements isotopic ratios of different atomic ion mass components and metal molecular ion concentrations have been determined and used to identify unambiguously the measured species and to investigate the processes controlling the metal ion distributions The composition of the Earth's ionosphere was first sampled by an ion mass spectrometer flown an a rocket in 1956. In 1958 a rocket-borne ion spectrometer identified, fbr the first time, a layer of metal ions near 95 km. These data were interpreted as evidence of an extraterrestrial rather than a terrestrial source. Istomin predicted: "It seems probable that with some improvement in the method that analysis of the ion composition in the E-region may be used for determining

  19. Relativistic Magnetoacoustic Ion Cyclotron Instabilities Driven by MeV Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. R.; Chen, Y. Y.; Huang, J. D.; Huang, X. E.

    2002-11-01

    The relativistic instabilities of the magnetoacoustic ion cyclotron waves driven by MeV ions is studied and compared with the classical instabilities. The waves can be unstable classically as driven by the fast ions due to the coupling of electromagnetic Alfven mode and the ion Bernstein mode. [ R. O. Dendy, C. N. Lashmore-Davies, and K. F. Kam Phys.Fluids B4 (4) Dec (1992)]. Obtained from the kinetic theory, the relativistic dispersion relation that includes the instability driving terms of both classical and relativistic effects is studied analytically and numerically. The growth rate raised by the relativistic effects is significantly larger than that of the classical effects. There are three relativistic terms from the electrostatic component, electromagnetic field component, and their coupling, respectively. All have the same sign; that is, they enhance each other to drive the relativistic magnetoacoustic ion cyclotron instability.

  20. Formation of molecular ions by radiative association of cold trapped atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; da Silva, Humberto, Jr.; Aymar, Mireille; Raoult, Maurice

    2015-05-01

    Radiative emission during cold collisions between trapped laser-cooled Rb atoms and alkaline-earth ions (Ca+ , Sr+ , Ba+) and Yb+ are studied theoretically, using accurate effective-core-potential based quantum chemistry calculations of potential energy curves and transition dipole moments of the related molecular ions. Radiative association of molecular ions is predicted to occur for all systems with a cross section two to ten times larger than the radiative charge transfer one. Partial and total rate constants are also calculated and compared to available experiments. Narrow shape resonances are expected, which could be detectable at low temperature with an experimental resolution at the limit of the present standards. Vibrational distributions show that the final molecular ions are not created in their ground state level. Supported by the Marie-Curie ITN ``COMIQ: Cold Molecular Ions at the Quantum limit'' of the EU (#607491).

  1. Simulation of ion beam sputtering with SDTrimSP, TRIDYN and SRIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofsäss, H.; Zhang, K.; Mutzke, A.

    2014-08-01

    A quantitative simulation of ion beam sputtering and related collision cascade effects is essential for applications of ion beam irradiation in thin film deposition, surface treatment and sculpting with focused ion beams, ion beam smoothing of surfaces and ion-induced nanopattern formation. The understanding of fundamental ion-solid interaction processes relevant for nanostructure formation, ion-induced mass redistribution, sputter yield amplification, ion beam mixing and dynamic compositional changes requires reliable simulations of ion-solid interaction processes in particular at low ion energies. In this contribution we discuss the possibilities, the key benefits and the limitations of three popular binary collision Monte Carlo simulation programs (SDTrimSP, TRIDYN and SRIM). The focus will be set to the calculation of angle dependent sputter yields, angular distribution of sputtered particles, sputter yields for compound materials, sputter yield amplification effects, as well as the extraction of parameters relevant for modeling ion-induced surface pattern formation from vacancy and recoil atom distributions.

  2. Advanced ion thruster and electrochemical launcher research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical model of orificed hollow cathode operation predicted experimentally observed cathode performance with reasonable accuracy. The deflection and divergence characteristics of ion beamlets emanating from a two grid optics system as a function of the relative offset of screen and accel grids hole axes were described. Ion currents associated with discharge chamber operation were controlled to improve ion thruster performance markedly. Limitations imposed by basic physical laws on reductions in screen grid hole size and grid spacing for ion optics systems were described. The influence of stray magnetic fields in the vicinity of a neutralizer on the performance of that neutralizer was demonstrated. The ion current density extracted from a thruster was enhanced by injecting electrons into the region between its ion accelerating grids. Theoretical analysis of the electrothermal ramjet concept of launching space bound payloads at high acceleration levels is described. The operation of this system is broken down into two phases. In the light gas gun phase the payload is accelerated to the velocity at which the ramjet phase can commence. Preliminary models of operation are examined and shown to yield overall energy efficiences for a typical Earth escape launch of 60 to 70%. When shock losses are incorporated these efficiencies are still observed to remain at the relatively high values of 40 to 50%.

  3. Greatly Increasing Trapped Ion Populations for Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-10-18

    The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source, and limited to injected ion populations of ~106 charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods (e.g. in extended pulses). In this work a new SLIM ‘flat funnel’ (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations. Ion current measurements indicate a capacity of ~3.2×108 charges for the extended trapping volume, over an order of magnitude greater than the IFT. The orthogonal ion injection into a funnel shaped separation region can greatly reduce space charge effects during the initial IM separation stage, and the gradually reduced width of the path allows the ion packet to be increasingly compressed in the lateral dimension as the separation progresses, allowing e.g. efficient transmission through conductance limits or compatibility with subsequent ion manipulations. This work examined the TW, RF, and DC confining field SLIM parameters involved in ion accumulation, injection, transmission and separation in the FF IM module using both direct ion current and MS measurements. Wide m/z range ion transmission is demonstrated, along with significant increases in signal to noise (S/N) ratios due to the larger ion populations injected. Additionally, we observed a reduction in the chemical background, which was attributed to more efficient desolvation of solvent related clusters over the extended ion accumulation periods. The TW SLIM FF IM module is anticipated to be especially effective as a front end for long path SLIM IM separation modules.

  4. Ion thruster performance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A model of ion thruster performance is developed for high flux density, cusped magnetic field thruster designs. This model is formulated in terms of the average energy required to produce an ion in the discharge chamber plasma and the fraction of these ions that are extracted to form the beam. The direct loss of high energy (primary) electrons from the plasma to the anode is shown to have a major effect on thruster performance. The model provides simple algebraic equations enabling one to calculate the beam ion energy cost, the average discharge chamber plasma ion energy cost, the primary electron density, the primary-to-Maxwellian electron density ratio and the Maxwellian electron temperature. Experiments indicate that the model correctly predicts the variation in plasma ion energy cost for changes in propellant gas (Ar, Kr and Xe), grid transparency to neutral atoms, beam extraction area, discharge voltage, and discharge chamber wall temperature. The model and experiments indicate that thruster performance may be described in terms of only four thruster configuration dependent parameters and two operating parameters. The model also suggests that improved performance should be exhibited by thruster designs which extract a large fraction of the ions produced in the discharge chamber, which have good primary electron and neutral atom containment and which operate at high propellant flow rates.

  5. Ion channels in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Martinac, Boris; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies of ion channels have for long been dominated by the animalcentric, if not anthropocentric view of physiology. The structures and activities of ion channels had, however, evolved long before the appearance of complex multicellular organisms on Earth. The diversity of ion channels existing in cellular membranes of prokaryotes is a good example. Though at first it may appear as a paradox that most of what we know about the structure of eukaryotic ion channels is based on the structure of bacterial channels, this should not be surprising given the evolutionary relatedness of all living organisms and suitability of microbial cells for structural studies of biological macromolecules in a laboratory environment. Genome sequences of the human as well as various microbial, plant and animal organisms unambiguously established the evolutionary links, whereas crystallographic studies of the structures of major types of ion channels published over the last decade clearly demonstrated the advantage of using microbes as experimental organisms. The purpose of this review is not only to provide an account of acquired knowledge on microbial ion channels but also to show that the study of microbes and their ion channels may also hold a key to solving unresolved molecular mysteries in the future. PMID:18923187

  6. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  7. Ion photon emission microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P.; Doyle, B. L.; Banks, J. C.; Battistella, A.; Gennaro, G.; McDaniel, F. D.; Mellon, M.; Vittone, E.; Vizkelethy, G.; Wing, N. D.

    2003-09-01

    A new ion-induced emission microscopy has been invented and demonstrated, which is called ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM). It employs a low current, broad ion beam impinging on a sample, previously coated or simply covered with a few microns of a fast, highly efficient phosphor layer. The light produced at the single ion impact point is collected with an optical microscope and projected at high magnification onto a single photon position sensitive detector (PSD). This allows maps of the ion strike effects to be produced, effectively removing the need for a microbeam. Irradiation in air and even the use of alpha particle sources with no accelerator are possible. Potential applications include ion beam induced charge collection studies of semiconducting and insulating materials, single event upset studies on microchips and even biological cells in radiobiological effectiveness experiments. We describe the IPEM setup, including a 60× OM-40 microscope with a 1.5 mm hole for the beam transmission and a Quantar PSD with 60 μm pixel. Bicron plastic scintillator blades of 10 μm were chosen as a phosphor for their nanosecond time resolution, homogeneity, utility and commercial availability. The results given in this paper are for a prototype IPEM system. They indicate a resolution of ˜12 μm, the presence of a spatial halo and a He-ion efficiency of ˜20%. This marks the first time that nuclear microscopy has been performed with a radioactive source.

  8. Ion channels in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  9. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING IONS OF VAPORIZABLE MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Starr, C.

    1957-11-19

    This patent relates to electronic discharge devices used as ion sources, and in particular describes an ion source for application in a calutron. The source utilizes two cathodes disposed at opposite ends of a longitudinal opening in an arc block fed with vaporized material. A magnetic field is provided parallel to the length of the arc block opening. The electrons from the cathodes are directed through slits in collimating electrodes into the arc block parallel to the magnetic field and cause an arc discharge to occur between the cathodes, as the arc block and collimating electrodes are at a positive potential with respect to the cathode. The ions are withdrawn by suitable electrodes disposed opposite the arc block opening. When such an ion source is used in a calutron, an arc discharge of increased length may be utilized, thereby increasing the efficiency and economy of operation.

  10. Ion dynamics during seizures

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Joseph V.; Burman, Richard J.; Katz, Arieh A.; Akerman, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in membrane voltage brought about by ion fluxes through voltage and transmitter-gated channels represent the basis of neural activity. As such, electrochemical gradients across the membrane determine the direction and driving force for the flow of ions and are therefore crucial in setting the properties of synaptic transmission and signal propagation. Ion concentration gradients are established by a variety of mechanisms, including specialized transporter proteins. However, transmembrane gradients can be affected by ionic fluxes through channels during periods of elevated neural activity, which in turn are predicted to influence the properties of on-going synaptic transmission. Such activity-induced changes to ion concentration gradients are a feature of both physiological and pathological neural processes. An epileptic seizure is an example of severely perturbed neural activity, which is accompanied by pronounced changes in intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations. Appreciating the factors that contribute to these ion dynamics is critical if we are to understand how a seizure event evolves and is sustained and terminated by neural tissue. Indeed, this issue is of significant clinical importance as status epilepticus—a type of seizure that does not stop of its own accord—is a life-threatening medical emergency. In this review we explore how the transmembrane concentration gradient of the six major ions (K+, Na+, Cl−, Ca2+, H+and HCO3−) is altered during an epileptic seizure. We will first examine each ion individually, before describing how multiple interacting mechanisms between ions might contribute to concentration changes and whether these act to prolong or terminate epileptic activity. In doing so, we will consider how the availability of experimental techniques has both advanced and restricted our ability to study these phenomena. PMID:26539081

  11. Effects of ion motion on linear Landau damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Kong, Xiang-Mu; Su, Fu-Fang

    2017-02-01

    The effects of ion motion on Landau damping has been studied by the use of one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson simulation. It is shown that the ion motion may significantly change the development of the linear Landau damping. When the ion mass is multiple of proton mass, its motion will halt the linear Landau damping at some time due to the excitation of ion acoustic waves. The latter will dominate the system evolution at the later stage and hold a considerable fraction of the total energy in the system. With very small ion mass, such as in electron-positron plasma, the ion motion can suppress the linear Landau damping very quickly. When the initial field amplitude is relatively high such as with the density perturbation amplitude δn/n0 > 0.1, the effect of ion motion on Landau damping is found to be weak or even ignorable.

  12. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

  13. ION ROCKET ENGINE

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Voelker, F. III

    1961-12-19

    A thrust generating engine utilizing cesium vapor as the propellant fuel is designed. The cesium is vaporized by heat and is passed through a heated porous tungsten electrode whereby each cesium atom is fonized. Upon emergfng from the tungsten electrode, the ions are accelerated rearwardly from the rocket through an electric field between the tungsten electrode and an adjacent accelerating electrode grid structure. To avoid creating a large negative charge on the space craft as a result of the expulsion of the positive ions, a source of electrons is disposed adjacent the ion stream to neutralize the cesium atoms following acceleration thereof. (AEC)

  14. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  15. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  16. Ion-acoustic Shocks with Reflected Ions: Implications for laser-based proton accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdeev, Roald; Malkov, Mikhail; Dudnikova, Galina; Liseykina, Tatyana; Diamond, Patrick; Liu, C.-S.; Su, J.-J.

    2014-10-01

    Analytic solution for an ion-acoustic collisionless shock with reflected ions is obtained. Its relation to classical non-reflecting solitons propagating at Mach numbers strictly limited by M ions and turns into a shock. The shock has a double-structure consisting of two receding transitions. The first transition is the ion-acoustic shock itself formed in place of the soliton. The shock reflected ions progressively fill up an extended foot region ending with the second transition that propagates faster than the rear shock but slower than the most of reflected ions. A small fraction of these ions still remains trapped in the transition to maintain charge neutrality. Most of them pass through this front transition, and accelerate whereas their distribution becomes noteworthily monoenergetic. The obtained solution may thus have interesting implications for the laser-based ion accelerators. Applications to particle acceleration in geophysical and astrophysical shocks are discussed. Partially supported by NASA, ATP NNX14AH36G, and the US DoE.

  17. Correlation between y-type ions observed in ion trap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Carly A; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B

    2009-09-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion trap platforms, there is concern in the field regarding the generalizability of these spectra to MRM-MS on a triple quadrupole instrument. In light of this concern, many operators perform an optimization step to determine the most intense fragments for a target peptide on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. We have addressed this issue by targeting, on a triple quadrupole, the top six y-ion peaks from ion trap-derived consensus library spectra for 258 doubly charged peptides from three different sample sets and quantifying the observed elution curves. This analysis revealed a strong correlation between the y-ion peak rank order and relative intensity across platforms. This suggests that y-type ions obtained from ion trap-based library spectra are well-suited for generating MRM-MS assays for triple quadrupoles and that optimization is not required for each target peptide.

  18. Correlation between y-Type Ions Observed in Ion Trap and Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Carly A.; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion trap platforms, there is concern in the field regarding the generalizability of these spectra to MRM-MS on a triple quadrupole instrument. In light of this concern, many operators perform an optimization step to determine the most intense fragments for a target peptide on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. We have addressed this issue by targeting, on a triple quadrupole, the top six y-ion peaks from ion trap-derived consensus library spectra for 258 doubly charged peptides from three different sample sets and quantifying the observed elution curves. This analysis revealed a strong correlation between the y-ion peak rank order and relative intensity across platforms. This suggests that y-type ions obtained from ion trap-based library spectra are well-suited for generating MRM-MS assays for triple quadrupoles and that optimization is not required for each target peptide. PMID:19603825

  19. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms.

  20. Fast Li-Ion-Conducting Garnet-Related Li7–3xFexLa3Zr2O12 with Uncommon I4̅3d Structure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fast Li-ion-conducting Li oxide garnets receive a great deal of attention as they are suitable candidates for solid-state Li electrolytes. It was recently shown that Ga-stabilized Li7La3Zr2O12 crystallizes in the acentric cubic space group I4̅3d. This structure can be derived by a symmetry reduction of the garnet-type Ia3̅d structure, which is the most commonly found space group of Li oxide garnets and garnets in general. In this study, single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirms the presence of space group I4̅3d also for Li7–3xFexLa3Zr2O12. The crystal structure was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, and Mößbauer spectroscopy. The crystal–chemical behavior of Fe3+ in Li7La3Zr2O12 is very similar to that of Ga3+. The symmetry reduction seems to be initiated by the ordering of Fe3+ onto the tetrahedral Li1 (12a) site of space group I4̅3d. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed a Li-ion bulk conductivity of up to 1.38 × 10–3 S cm–1 at room temperature, which is among the highest values reported for this group of materials. PMID:27570369