Science.gov

Sample records for relatedness multiple paternity

  1. A MOLECULAR EXAMINATION OF RELATEDNESS, MULTIPLE PATERNITY, AND COHABITATION OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WOODRAT (NEOTOMA MICROPUS)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, B. Dnate’; Mendez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-two individuals of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) were captured from 198 excavated middens at 10 discrete collecting sites from a single population in south-central Texas. Field data, mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, and polymorphic microsatellite loci (5–7) were used to determine genetic patterns in parentage, relatedness, and mating strategy. Microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (average observed heterozygosity = 0.859) and were used to construct genotypes that were unique for each individual (probability of identical genotypes: 1 in 2,104,567). Results indicated a high frequency of multiple paternity (6 of 9 litters), evidence of repeat mating between the same 2 individuals, and no indication of male dominance at any collection site. Examination of these data suggested a promiscuous mating system. Within a site, average relatedness between adult females was similar to that between adult males. A higher level of cohabitation from that previously documented was recorded and finer-scale analyses revealed high levels of relatedness between most cohabiting individuals. Taken with results from other studies of mating behaviors of N. micropus, our results suggest that mating and social behavior of this species are likely influenced by population density. PMID:20011670

  2. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it

  3. Male dominance, paternity, and relatedness in the Jamaican fruit-eating bat (Artibeus jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Ortega, Jorge; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Arita, Héctor T; Fleischer, Robert C

    2003-09-01

    We analysed variation at 14 nuclear microsatellite loci to assess the genetic structure, relatedness, and paternity of polygynous Jamaican fruit-eating bats. A total of 84 adults captured in two caves exhibited little genetic differentiation between caves (FST = 0.008). Average relatedness among adult females in 10 harem groups was very low (R = 0.014 +/- 0.011), providing no evidence of harem structure. Dominant and subordinate males shared paternity in large groups, while dominant and satellite males shared paternity in smaller groups. However, our results suggest that male rank influences paternity. Dominant males fathered 69% of 40 offspring, followed by satellite (22%) and subordinate males (9%). Overall adult male bats are not closely related, however, in large harem groups we found that subordinate and dominant males exhibited relatedness values consistent with a father-offspring relationship. Because dominant and subordinate males also sired all the pups in large groups, we propose that their association provides inclusive fitness to them.

  4. Relatedness, body size and paternity in the alpine newt, Triturus alpestris.

    PubMed

    Garner, Trenton W J; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2003-03-22

    Sexual selection has traditionally been investigated assuming that male quality is as skewed as patterns of male reproductive success can sometimes be. Recently, female choice has been investigated under the model of genetic compatibility, which assumes that each individual female has her own 'best' mate and there is no overall optimal choice for all females. We investigated female mate choice in the newt species Triturus alpestris, a member of a genus where female choice has been investigated only within the context of the optimal male (female choice for condition-dependent traits). We provided females with two males that differed in one condition-dependent trait (body size) and overall genetic composition. Both male body size and female body size did not influence paternity, but the degree of genetic relatedness between females and potential mates did. Two components of fitness (fecundity and hatching success) did not differ between singly and multiply sired clutches, indicating that females do not employ polyandry as a means of increasing offspring fitness through genetic bet-hedging. Instead, we hypothesize that females may mate initially for fertility assurance, but prefer less-related males as the most genetically compatible mates. PMID:12769462

  5. Mating strategies in dominant meerkats: evidence for extra-pair paternity in relation to genetic relatedness between pair mates.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2013-07-01

    Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations.

  6. Mating strategies in dominant meerkats: evidence for extra-pair paternity in relation to genetic relatedness between pair mates.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2013-07-01

    Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations. PMID:23675879

  7. Molecular Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in a Freshwater Shrimp Species Caridina ensifera

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Gen Hua; Chang, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. Conclusions/Significance Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species. PMID:20856862

  8. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  9. Effective Population Sizes with Multiple Paternity

    PubMed Central

    Sugg, D. W.; Chesser, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    While the concept of effective population size is of obvious applicability to many questions in population genetics and conservation biology, its utility has suffered due to a lack of agreement among its various formulations. Often, mathematical formulations for effective sizes apply restrictive assumptions that limit their applicability. Herein, expressions for effective sizes of populations that account for mating tactics, biases in sex ratios, and differential dispersal rates (among other parameters) are developed. Of primary interest is the influence of multiple paternity on the maintenance of genetic variation in a population. In addition to the standard inbreeding and variance effective sizes, intragroup (coancestral) and intergroup effective sizes also are developed. Expressions for effective sizes are developed for the beginning of nonrandom gene exchanges (initial effective sizes), the transition of gene correlations (instantaneous effective sizes), and the steady-state (asymptotic effective size). Results indicate that systems of mating that incorporate more than one male mate per female increase all effective sizes above those expected from polygyny and monogamy. Instantaneous and asymptotic sizes can be expressed relative to the fixation indices. The parameters presented herein can be utilized in models of effective sizes for the study of evolutionary biology and conservation genetics. PMID:7982568

  10. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful. PMID:26733693

  11. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful.

  12. Multiple paternity and hybridization in two smooth-hound sharks

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B.; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations. PMID:26257113

  13. Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-07-01

    Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis.

  14. Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E.; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J.

    2014-01-01

    Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis. PMID:25018559

  15. Genetic variation, multiple paternity, and measures of reproductive success in the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata).

    PubMed

    González-Garza, Blanca Idalia; Stow, Adam; Sánchez-Teyer, Lorenzo Felipe; Zapata-Pérez, Omar

    2015-12-01

    The Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico contains some of the largest breeding groups of the globally distributed and critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). An improved understanding of the breeding system of this species and how its genetic variation is structured among nesting areas is required before the threats to its survival can be properly evaluated. Here, we genotype 1195 hatchlings and 41 nesting females at 12 microsatellite loci to assess levels of multiple paternity, genetic variation and whether individual levels of homozygosity are associated with reproductive success. Of the 50 clutches analyzed, only 6% have multiple paternity. The distribution of pairwise relatedness among nesting localities (rookeries) was not random with elevated within-rookery relatedness, and declining relatedness with geographic distance indicating some natal philopatry. Although there was no strong evidence that particular rookeries had lost allelic variation via drift, younger turtles had significantly lower levels of genetic variation than older turtles, suggesting some loss of genetic variation. At present there is no indication that levels of genetic variation are associated with measures of reproductive success such as clutch size, hatching success, and frequency of infertile eggs. PMID:26811751

  16. Multiple paternity in the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Harry, J L; Briscoe, D A

    1988-01-01

    Genotypic ratios within clutches of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) embryos, from the Mon Repos rookery (Queensland), deviate significantly from the Mendelian ratios expected on the null hypothesis of single paternity. One-third of all clutches provide evidence for multiple insemination, indicating that multiple mating constitutes the major breeding pattern for C. caretta. Clutches from two females indicate that C. caretta females may mate between nestings.

  17. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment

    PubMed Central

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain these insights, six Flemish communities were selected in this study based on the differences in geography and historical development. After rigorous selection of appropriate DNA donors, low relatedness between Y chromosomes of different surnames was found within each community, although there is co-occurrence of these surnames in each community since the start of the surname adoption between the 14th and 15th century. Next, the high communal diversity in Y-chromosomal lineages was comparable with the regional diversity across Flanders at that time. Moreover, clinal distributions of particular Y-chromosomal lineages between the communities were observed according to the clinal distributions earlier observed across the Flemish regions and Western Europe. No significant indication for genetic differences between communities with distinct historical development was found in the analysis. These genetic results provide relevant information for studies in historical sciences, archaeology, forensic genetics and genealogy. PMID:25873146

  18. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-07-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain these insights, six Flemish communities were selected in this study based on the differences in geography and historical development. After rigorous selection of appropriate DNA donors, low relatedness between Y chromosomes of different surnames was found within each community, although there is co-occurrence of these surnames in each community since the start of the surname adoption between the 14th and 15th century. Next, the high communal diversity in Y-chromosomal lineages was comparable with the regional diversity across Flanders at that time. Moreover, clinal distributions of particular Y-chromosomal lineages between the communities were observed according to the clinal distributions earlier observed across the Flemish regions and Western Europe. No significant indication for genetic differences between communities with distinct historical development was found in the analysis. These genetic results provide relevant information for studies in historical sciences, archaeology, forensic genetics and genealogy. PMID:25873146

  19. Multiple paternity in the red-eyed treefrog Agalychnis callidryas (Cope).

    PubMed

    d'Orgeix, C A; Turner, B J

    1995-08-01

    DNA fingerprinting of tadpoles from two different 'one female-two male' matings of the red-eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas, revealed multiple paternity of offspring. Offspring were assigned paternity based on bands shared with the putative father, but not shared between putative fathers or with the mother. Paternity was split approximately 44/56% and 36/64% in two matings. These results do not support a hypothesis of sperm priority in access to unfertilized eggs by primary males. Multiple paternity may be commonplace in species of anurans with matings by multiple males.

  20. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  1. Multiple paternity in a salamander with socially monogamous behaviour.

    PubMed

    Liebgold, Eric B; Cabe, Paul R; Jaeger, Robert G; Leberg, Paul L

    2006-11-01

    In the majority of birds and mammals, social monogamy is not congruent with genetic monogamy. No research to date has compared social and genetic monogamy in amphibians. We analysed paternity in clutches of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus), a species in which social monogamy has been demonstrated in the laboratory, and 28% of individuals in the forest are found in male-female pairs in the noncourtship season. We collected 16 clutches of eggs of P. cinereus in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia and collected tail clippings from attending mothers. We genotyped embryos and adults at five microsatellite loci in order to analyse paternity of clutches. Most clutches (84.6%) had multiple sires, with two to three sires per clutch. In this study, 25% of clutches had males in addition to females attending eggs. None of the mothers of these clutches were genetically monogamous. All attending males sired some of the offspring in the clutch that they attended (between 9% and 50%) but never sired a majority in that clutch. We conclude that, at least in this population, social monogamy in P. cinereus is not concomitant with genetic monogamy.

  2. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies. PMID:27262290

  3. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  4. Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Reusch, T B

    2000-11-01

    The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. Outcrossing was detectable by the presence of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the loci. In outcrossing cases, three microsatellite alleles were present in unripe seeds, consisting of both maternal alleles and the paternal allele composing the triploid primary endosperm. In ripe seeds, only the diploid embryonal genotype was amplifiable by PCR. Two intertidal populations situated in the German Wadden Sea were almost entirely outcrossing (t +/- SE 0.96 +/- 0.03, N=60 and 0.97 +/- 0.029, N=37). Because of the high polymorphism displayed by the eight chosen microsatellites, representing a total of 69 and 76 alleles, the likelihood of erroneously inferring selfing was small (alpha=0.0026 and 0.0007). In order to study the correlation of paternity, the coefficient of relatedness was determined within sibships. Relatedness (r +/- SE) was calculated as 0.357 +/- 0.059 and 0.343 +/- 0.037, indicating multiple paternities within inflorescences. Small amounts of tissue (< or = 0.1 mg) such as the developing seeds of recently fertilized ovules, were sufficient for PCR-amplification. Hence, PCR-based methods, such as multilocus microsatellite genotyping, allow the detection of pollen origin early in the development of progeny. They will be useful to distinguish postfertilization processes such as selective abortion and germination from other prefertilization determinants of plant mating systems.

  5. Microsatellites indicate a high frequency of multiple paternity in Apodemus (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Baker, R J; Makova, K D; Chesser, R K

    1999-01-01

    Microsatellites were employed to estimate frequency of multiple paternity litters of two species of mice (genus Apodemus): striped field mouse (A. agrarius), and wood mouse (A. sylvaticus). Ten pregnant females of A. agrarius and six of A. sylvaticus were collected from natural populations in the northern Ukraine and analysed with 11 and nine microsatellite loci, respectively. Multiple paternity was indicated in eight of 10 litters in A. agrarius and in three of six litters in A. sylvaticus. Multiple paternity was documented at several loci (ranging from two to 10). In two cases (A. agrarius), three males were estimated to have fathered the litter. PMID:12187947

  6. Implications of multiple mating for offspring relatedness and shoaling behaviour in juvenile guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L

    2008-12-23

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) can confer important benefits to females, but few studies have considered its potential costs. One such cost may arise through differences in the relatedness of offspring born to females with different mating histories; offspring born to monandrous females are always full siblings, while those produced by polyandrous females may be full or half siblings. These differences may have important consequences for social interactions among offspring. We used artificial insemination in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a promiscuous live-bearing fish, to evaluate shoaling behaviour in polyandrous and monandrous broods. We combined this information with known parentage data for the polyandrous broods to determine whether sibling relatedness influenced offspring shoaling behaviour. While we detected no effect of mating treatment (polyandry/monandry) on shoaling behaviour, we found that pairs of full siblings spent significantly more time shoaling (and in close proximity) than pairs of half siblings. This latter finding confirms the ability of newborn guppies to distinguish brood mates on the basis of kinship, but also suggests an important and hitherto unrealized potential cost of polyandry: a reduction in within-brood relatedness with potentially important implications for offspring social behaviour.

  7. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  8. Microsatellite Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in the Marine Gastropod Rapana venosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background Inferring of parentage in natural populations is important in understanding the mating systems of a species, which have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. Muricidae, a large group (approximately 1,600 species) of marine gastropods, are poorly investigated in patterns of multiple paternity and sperm competition based on molecular techniques. The veined Rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, a commercially important muricid species with internal fertilization, is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to facilitate understanding of their reproductive strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed five highly polymorphic microsatellites in R. venosa and applied them to identify multiple paternity in 19 broods (1381 embryos) collected from Dandong, China. Multiple paternity was detected in 17 (89.5%) of 19 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 7 (4.3 on average). Of the 17 multiply sired broods, 16 (94.1%) were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, and had a dominant sire which was also dominant in each assayed capsule. Conclusions Our results indicate that a high level of multiple paternity occurs in the wild population of R. venosa. Similar patterns of multiple paternity in the 2–6 assayed capsules from each brood imply that fertilization events within the body of a female occur mostly (but not entirely) as random draws from a “well-but-not-perfectly blended sperm pool” of her several mates. Strongly skewed distributions of fertilization success among sires also suggest that sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice might be important for post-copulatory paternity biasing in this species. PMID:24466127

  9. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-10-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

  10. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-01-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

  11. The Effect of Multiple Paternity on Genetic Diversity of Small Populations during and after Colonisation

    PubMed Central

    Rafajlović, Marina; Eriksson, Anders; Rimark, Anna; Hintz-Saltin, Sara; Charrier, Grégory; Panova, Marina; André, Carl; Johannesson, Kerstin; Mehlig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration) has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by males increased the heterozygosity by in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity. PMID:24204577

  12. The effect of multiple paternity on genetic diversity of small populations during and after colonisation.

    PubMed

    Rafajlović, Marina; Eriksson, Anders; Rimark, Anna; Hintz-Saltin, Sara; Charrier, Grégory; Panova, Marina; André, Carl; Johannesson, Kerstin; Mehlig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration) has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by [Formula: see text] males increased the heterozygosity by [Formula: see text] in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was [Formula: see text] compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity. PMID:24204577

  13. Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  14. Polygynandry, extra-group paternity and multiple-paternity litters in European badger (Meles meles) social groups.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry

    2007-12-01

    The costs and benefits of natal philopatry are central to the formation and maintenance of social groups. Badger groups, thought to form passively according to the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), are maintained through natal philopatry and delayed dispersal; however, there is minimal evidence for the functional benefits of such grouping. We assigned parentage to 630 badger cubs from a high-density population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, born between 1988 and 2005. Our methodological approach was different to previous studies; we used 22 microsatellite loci to assign parent pairs, which in combination with sibship inference provided a high parentage assignment rate. We assigned both parents to 331 cubs at > or = 95% confidence, revealing a polygynandrous mating system with up to five mothers and five fathers within a social group. We estimated that only 27% of adult males and 31% of adult females bred each year, suggesting a cost to group living for both sexes. Any strong motivation or selection to disperse, however, may be reduced because just under half of the paternities were gained by extra-group males, mainly from neighbouring groups, with males displaying a mixture of paternity strategies. We provide the strongest evidence to date for multiple-paternity litters, and for the first time show that within-group and extra-group males can sire cubs in the same litter. We investigate the factors that may play a role in determining the degree of delayed dispersal and conclude that the ecological constraints hypothesis, benefits of philopatry hypothesis, and life history hypothesis may all play a part, as proposed by the broad constraints hypothesis. PMID:17971085

  15. Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects: what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne P A; Simmons, Leigh W; Baer, Boris

    2012-12-01

    Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution.

  16. Synchronous polyandry and multiple paternity in the frog Crinia georgiana (Anura: Myobatrachidae).

    PubMed

    Roberts; Standish; Byrne; Doughty

    1999-03-01

    Multiple paternity has rarely been reported in anuran amphibians, with only three previous documented examples. For the Australian frog Crinia georgiana, we observed synchronous polyandry in an average of 44% of matings observed at four field sites. This suggests matings involving more than one male are common in this species. One to eight males were observed in amplectant groups with second males amplexed ventrally. Genetic analyses, using allozyme electrophoresis, of offspring from two matings indicated that at least two of three possible males fathered offspring. Third males were unlikely to have shared paternity, explained by their inappropriate position during amplexus. Multiple paternity may be more common in frogs than has been reported. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Multiple Paternity in Urban Norway Rats: Extended Ranging for Mates.

    PubMed

    Glass, Gregory E; Klein, Sabra L; Norris, Douglas E; Gardner, Lynne C

    2016-05-01

    Norway rats are an abundant synanthropic species in urban settings and serve as reservoirs for many pathogens. Attempts to control their populations have met with little success. Recent genetic studies suggest that local populations are structured and few individuals move significant distances, but there is substantial gene flow. To understand these observations and their implications on control strategies, we genotyped 722 rats from 20 alleys in Baltimore to establish paternity for 180 embryos. Up to 88 males may have contributed to the litters. All litters were sired by ≥2 males, with an average of 4.9 (range 2-7) males. For dams and sires with known locations, most matings (71.7%; n = 46) occurred among animals from different alleys. The average distance between sires and dams was 114 meters (range 8-352 meters). In 10/17 (58.8%) litters, the majority of the identified sires were captured in different alleys than the females. Sires were significantly less related to females than were the males captured in the females' alleys. Although rats may generally restrict their movements, either receptive females and/or breeding males engage in mate-seeking behaviors that extend beyond movement patterns at other times. This geographically extends the sizes of local populations and buffers them from the impacts of control strategies that focus on local infestations. PMID:26885622

  18. Evidence of multiple paternity in Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) in Belize, CA, inferred from microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    McVay, John D; Rodriguez, David; Rainwater, Thomas R; Dever, Jennifer A; Platt, Steven G; McMurry, Scott T; Forstner, Michael R J; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2008-12-01

    Microsatellite data were generated from hatchlings collected from ten nests of Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from New River Lagoon and Gold Button Lagoon in Belize to test for evidence of multiple paternity. Nine microsatellite loci were genotyped for 188 individuals from the 10 nests, alongside 42 nonhatchlings from Gold Button Lagoon. Then mitochondrial control region sequences were generated for the nonhatchlings and for one individual from each nest to test for presence of C. acutus-like haplotypes. Analyses of five of the nine microsatellite loci revealed evidence that progeny from five of the ten nests were sired by at least two males. These data suggest the presence of multiple paternity as a mating strategy in the true crocodiles. This information may be useful in the application of conservation and management techniques to the 12 species in this genus, most of which are threatened or endangered. PMID:18831002

  19. Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens.

    PubMed

    Pélabon, C; Albertsen, E; Falahati-Anbaran, M; Wright, J; Armbruster, W S

    2015-09-01

    Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success among pollen donors, and whether siring success and seed mass are correlated. We then report the results of an experiment on Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae), assessing these critical variables in conjunction with a comparison of seed mass resulting from crosses with single vs. multiple pollen donors. Siring success differed among males when competing for fertilization, but average seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. Furthermore, paternal identity explained only 3.8% of the variance in seed mass, and siring success was not correlated with the mass of the seeds produced. Finally, within-infructescence variance in seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. These results suggest that neither differential allocation nor sibling rivalry has any effect on the average mass of seeds in multiply sired fruits in D. scandens. Overall, the limited paternal effects observed in most studies and the possibility of diversification bet hedging among flowers (but not within flowers), suggest that multiple paternity within fruits or infructescence is unlikely to affect seed mass in a large number of angiosperm species. PMID:26174371

  20. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    PubMed

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H H; McKeown, Niall J; Shaw, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.

  1. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H. H.; McKeown, Niall J.; Shaw, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection. PMID:26872354

  2. Early male reproductive advantage, multiple paternity and sperm storage in an amphibian aggregate breeder.

    PubMed

    Tennessen, J A; Zamudio, K R

    2003-06-01

    We tested whether the order in which males encounter females affects reproductive fitness in spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). Using mating chambers in the field, we allowed one male access to a female before a second male. We then used four microsatellite markers in paternity analyses of the resulting larvae. First males sired a significantly larger number of offspring than second males, suggesting that male reproductive success is greatly enhanced by early arrival at breeding ponds. Multiple paternity was common among clutches, and frequently larvae were assigned to unidentified males that had not been in the chambers. Sperm from these males had either been stored by females for a year or obtained more recently at other breeding sites. PMID:12755884

  3. High frequency of multiple paternity in the largest rookery of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Judith A; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Leippert, Fabio; Margaritoulis, Dimitris; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2007-09-01

    Mating systems are a central component in the evolution of animal life histories and in conservation genetics. The patterns of male reproductive skew and of paternal shares in batches of offspring, for example, affect genetic effective population size. A prominent characteristic of mating systems of sea turtles seem to be a considerable intra- and interspecific variability in the degree of polyandry. Because of the difficulty of observing the mating behaviour of sea turtles directly in the open sea, genetic paternity analysis is particularly useful for gaining insights into this aspect of their reproductive behaviour. We investigated patterns of multiple paternity in clutches of loggerhead sea turtles in the largest Mediterranean rookery using four highly variable microsatellite loci. Furthermore, we tested for a relationship between the number of fathers detected in clutches and body size of females. More than one father was detected in the clutches of 14 out of 15 females, with two clutches revealing the contribution of at least five males. In more than half the cases, the contributions of different fathers to a clutch did not depart from equality. The number of detected fathers significantly increased with increasing female body size. This relationship indicates that males may prefer to mate with large, and therefore productive, females. Our results suggest that polyandry is likely to increase effective population size compared to a population in which females would mate with only one male; male reproductive contributions being equal.

  4. Multiple paternity in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus): effects on offspring genetic diversity and body mass

    PubMed Central

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Musolf, Kerstin; Klaus, Teresa; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating is common in many species, but it is unclear whether multiple paternity enhances offspring genetic diversity or fitness. We conducted a survey on wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus), and we found that in 73 pregnant females, 29% of litters had multiple sires, which is remarkably similar to the 23–26% found in feral populations of Mus musculus domesticus in the USA and Australia, respectively. The question is: How has selection maintained multiple mating in these subspecies since the evolutionary divergence, ca. 2800–6000 years ago? We found no evidence that multiple paternity enhanced females’ litter size, contrary to the fertility assurance or genetic benefits hypotheses. Multiple paternity was associated with reduced mean and variance in offspring body mass, which suggests that females allocate fewer resources or that there is increased intrauterine conflict in multiple-versus single-sired litters. We found increased allelic diversity (though not heterozygosity) in multiple-sired litters, as predicted by the genetic diversity hypothesis. Finally, we found that the dams’ heterozygosity was correlated with the mean heterozygosity of their offspring in single-and multiple-sired litters, suggesting that outbred, heterozygous females were more likely to avoid inbreeding than inbred, homozygous females. Future studies are needed to examine how increased genetic diversity of litters and smaller mean (and variance) offspring body mass associated with multiple paternity affect offspring fitness. PMID:24558575

  5. Multiple paternity in an aggregate breeding amphibian: the effect of reproductive skew on estimates of male reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Myers, E M; Zamudio, K R

    2004-07-01

    Aggregate, or explosive, breeding is widespread among vertebrates and likely increases the probability of multiple paternity. We assessed paternity in seven field-collected clutches of the explosively breeding spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) using 10 microsatellite loci to determine the frequency of multiple paternity and the number of males contributing to a female's clutch. Using the Minimum Method of allele counts, multiple paternity was evident in 70% of these egg masses. Simple allele counts underestimate the number of contributing males because this method cannot distinguish multiple fathers with common or similar alleles. Therefore, we used computer simulations to estimate from the offspring genotypes the most likely number of contributing fathers given the distributions of allele frequencies in this population. We determined that two to eight males may contribute to A. maculatum clutches; therefore, multiple paternity is a common strategy in this aggregate breeding species. In aggregate mating systems competition for mates can be intense, thus differential reproductive success (reproductive skew) among males contributing to a female's clutch could be a probable outcome. We use our data to evaluate the potential effect of reproductive skew on estimates of the number of contributing males. We simulated varying scenarios of differential male reproductive success, ranging from equal contribution to high reproductive skew among contributing sires in multiply sired clutches. Our data suggest that even intermediate levels of reproductive skew decrease confidence substantially in estimates of the number of contributing sires when parental genotypes are unknown. PMID:15189216

  6. Size breeds success: multiple paternity, multivariate selection and male semelparity in a small marsupial, Antechinus stuartii.

    PubMed

    Holleley, C E; Dickman, C R; Crowther, M S; Oldroyd, B P

    2006-10-01

    Mating in the marsupial genus Antechinus is a synchronous annual event that is characterized by monoestry in females and abrupt postmating mortality in males. Male semelparity (multiple copulations during a single breeding season per lifetime) is often assumed to occur as a consequence of the intense mating effort expended by males in the rut, but the forces selecting for this remain elusive. Here, we investigate selection in male brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii, and test two hypotheses for the evolution of semelparity: intermale competition and sperm competition. If intermale competition drives semelparity, we predicted that males would be under strong selection for large body size. If sperm competition is important, we predicted that selection would be strongest on scrotal size, a surrogate for testes volume. Using microsatellite markers, we found that 92% of females in free-living conditions mated with multiple males, producing litters of eight that had up to four fathers. These observations confirm the potential for sperm competition. Using selection analysis, we then found paternity success in 119 males to be related most strongly to body mass and scrotal size, thus providing support for both hypotheses. Large males presumably experience increased paternity success by gaining more matings or prolonged copulations via mate guarding, while large testes may allow increased sperm investment per copulation. Increased levels of free corticosteroid hormones in males facilitate the extreme mating effort during the short period of rut, but lead to immune suppression and consequently to the phenomenon of postmating mortality. PMID:16968281

  7. Assessing multiple paternity in three commercially exploited shark species: Mustelus mustelus, Carcharhinus obscurus and Sphyrna lewini.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, C; Wintner, S P; Bester-Van Der Merwe, A E

    2016-08-01

    In this study, multiple paternity (MP) was investigated in three commercially important shark species, common smoothhound Mustelus mustelus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus and scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini occurring in southern Africa. Reduced marker panels of between five and six microsatellite loci were constructed for each species and used to genotype and assess the presence of MP in a total of 60 M. mustelus individuals from six litters, 90 C. obscurus individuals from 14 litters and 54 S. lewini individuals from 13 litters. Analysis in GERUD and COLONY revealed the presence of MP in all three species. Multiple paternities were observed in 67, 35 and 46% of the litters of M. mustelus, C. obscurus and S. lewini, with corresponding average sire size of 1·6, 1·4 and 2·0, respectively. The variation in the rate of MP among the three species is in accordance with previous studies whilst the comparatively high frequency of MP observed for M. mustelus, matches what has previously been reported for shark species demonstrating aggregation behaviour. PMID:27237109

  8. Relatedness predicts multiple measures of investment in cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Gavin M.; Echeverri, Sebastian; Heinrich, Dirk; Kolberg, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Although communal goods are often critical to society, they are simultaneously susceptible to exploitation and are evolutionarily stable only if mechanisms exist to curtail exploitation. Mechanisms such as punishment and kin selection have been offered as general explanations for how communal resources can be maintained. Evidence for these mechanisms comes largely from humans and social insects, leaving their generality in question. To assess how communal resources are maintained, we observed cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers (Philetairus socius). The communal nest of sociable weavers provides thermal benefits for all individuals but requires continual maintenance. We observed cooperative nest construction and also recorded basic morphological characteristics. We also collected blood samples, performed next-generation sequencing, and isolated 2358 variable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate relatedness. We find that relatedness predicts investment in cooperative nest construction, while no other morphological characters significantly explain cooperative output. We argue that indirect benefits are a critical fitness component for maintaining the cooperative behavior that maintains the communal good. PMID:26726282

  9. Multiple paternity in Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Littorinidae) revealed by microsatellite analyses.

    PubMed

    Paterson, I G; Partridge, V; Buckland-Nicks, J

    2001-06-01

    Parental identity for juvenile Littorina obtusata was determined from three egg masses by means of microsatellite DNA markers. Results confirm that the attendant adult female in each case was the dam of the offspring and that at least 4-6 males contributed to each brood. This correlates with our behavioral observations that indicated multiple copulations between the female and several males in each experimental aquarium. A significant number of offspring from each brood were sired by non-sampled males (males that had copulated with females before capture) whose sperm had been stored by the female. This is the first direct evidence of multiple paternity in the Littorinidae. Results are discussed in reference to current theories of sperm competition, male precedence, and cryptic female choice. PMID:11441969

  10. Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy with features of multiple imprinting disorders: diagnostic and management issues.

    PubMed

    Inbar-Feigenberg, Michal; Choufani, Sanaa; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chen, Yi-An; Steele, Leslie; Shuman, Cheryl; Ray, Peter N; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in only seven live born individuals to date. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of multiple paternal UPD syndromes with high variability, likely due to the variable levels of mosaicism in different somatic tissues. We report an eighth case in a female patient with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD which highlights the complex clinical presentation. Our patient had features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome, and congenital hyperinsulinism. The clinical findings included prematurity, organomegaly, hemihyperplasia, developmental delay, benign tumors, and cystic lesions. The diagnosis in our patient was established utilizing microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis performed on leukocyte DNA. Targeted multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of chromosome regions 11p15 and 15q13 confirmed mosaicism for paternal UPD at these genomic regions. This case represents the first report of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in the diagnosis of genome-wide paternal UPD. The application of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on selected individuals with complex clinical presentations could be a valuable diagnostic tool to improve the detection rate of mosaic genome-wide paternal UPD. This approach, which screens many loci simultaneously, is more cost-effective and less labor-intensive than performing multiple targeted DNA methylation-based assays. Identification of individuals with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD is an important goal as it confers a low recurrence risk for the family and identifies individuals who require surveillance due to increased tumor risk.

  11. Frequency of multiple paternity in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias in the western north Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Ana; Grubbs, Dean; McDowell, Jan; Musick, John; Portnoy, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple paternity (MP) has been shown to be widespread in elasmobranch fishes although its prevalence and the number of sires per litter vary considerably among species. In the squaloid shark Squalus acanthias, MP has been reported, but whether it is a common feature of the species' reproductive strategy is unknown. In this study, we determined the frequency of MP in 29 litters of S. acanthias sampled from the lower Chesapeake Bay and coastal Virginia waters, using 7 highly polymorphic nuclear DNA microsatellite loci. Only 5 litters (17% of the total) were genetically polyandrous, with at least 2 sires per litter. Litter size increased with female size but was similar between polyandrous and monandrous females. PMID:20650933

  12. Mating strategies and multiple paternity, assessed by microsatellites, of the dispersal-limited, ectoparasitic tree-hole tick, Ixodes arboricola.

    PubMed

    Van Oosten, A R; Matthysen, E; Heylen, D J A

    2016-08-01

    Multiple mating is common among ticks, a large group of haematophagous ectoparasites, but multiple paternity has rarely been investigated. Multiple paternity may be common because the resultant increased genetic diversity allows ticks to rapidly evolve in relation to host responses and increases colonisation potential in novel habitats. Knowledge concerning mating systems is important because ticks may have profound effects on their hosts and are the principal transmitters of many pathogenic agents. In the current study, we investigated the mating system of the nidicolous tick Ixodes arboricola. These ticks attach to their bird hosts in the nest, which restricts gene flow but facilitates finding a partner off-host. Having genetically variable offspring may be beneficial for ticks which may encounter very different conditions when dispersed to the nest of another host type. We conducted an experiment in which female ticks fed on great tit nestlings and mated with two males in three treatments of the females: mating with both males before feeding, mating with one male before and the other male after feeding, or mating with both males after feeding. We investigated paternity with microsatellites. In a complementary experiment we investigated male preference for unfed or engorged females, and measured mating duration. We predicted (i) there would be multiple mating by I. arboricola males and females, leading to multiple paternity, and (ii) males would prefer to mate with engorged females and those matings would last longer because engorged females present a higher probability of successful reproduction. We found multiple paternity within clutches but no indications of sperm precedence. Males preferred to mate with engorged females and those matings lasted significantly longer, even including attachment beyond egg deposition. We suggest such mate guarding and male preference for mating after feeding is adaptive because there is no first male precedence. Male preference

  13. Relationship between multiple paternity and reproductive parameters for Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Trombetas River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis. PMID:26909934

  14. Relationship between multiple paternity and reproductive parameters for Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Trombetas River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis.

  15. A tale of two siblings: multiple paternity in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) demonstrated using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Vonhof, M J; Barber, D; Fenton, M B; Strobeck, C

    2006-01-01

    In many bat species, the opportunity for sperm competition or other mechanisms of post-copulatory paternity biasing is thought to be great, due to the long delay between copulation and fertilization, demonstrated sperm storage capabilities, and observed promiscuity. We present the results of the first study to assess whether litters of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) containing dizygotic twins share the same father. We sampled 26 mother-offspring triads from three colonies in Indiana and Illinois, as well as 299 additional adults (237 females and 62 males) from these colonies and six other maternity colonies in the same area in 1997-1998. All individuals were genotyped at nine highly variable autosomal microsatellite loci and one X-linked locus. We assessed multiple paternity using autosomal and X-linked locus exclusions, and using maximum-likelihood methods. All methods confirmed multiple paternity within litters, and the maximum-likelihood analyses indicated that almost half of the sampled litters were composed of maternal half-siblings rather than full-siblings. Our results highlight the potential importance of post-copulatory mechanisms of paternity determination in the mating system of big brown bats, and have important implications for gene flow and population structuring in this species. PMID:16367843

  16. The origins and relatedness of multiple reproductives in colonies of the termite Nasutitermes corniger

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, L.; Adams, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    Colonies of the termite Nasutitermes corniger often contain multiple reproductive queens and kings. We used double-strand conformation polymorphism (DSCP) analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to determine the probable origins of co-occurring reproductives. Colonies differed in queen and king number, in the number of nests containing reproductives, and in the genetic relationships among reproductives. Most of the 44 colonies contained a single pair of maternally unrelated reproductives. In the two single-nest colonies with a pair of queens, the two queens differed in mtDNA haplotype, suggesting nest-founding by unrelated queens. In the seven single-nest colonies with larger numbers of reproductives (11–49), all reproductives shared the same haplotype, a pattern consistent with replacement of a single pair by several offspring. As predicted by theory, the number of coexisting queens was greater for replacement reproductives than for co-foundresses. Several complex colonies contained multiple queens of two or more haplotypes distributed among several interconnected nests. This indicates that several matrilines can persist within a colony through one or more generations of budding and replacement, a hypothesis confirmed by orphaning experiments. The various modes of termite colony formation rival the diversity seen in ant species and demonstrate the remarkable convergence of behaviours between the two groups.

  17. Genetic relatedness does not retain spatial pattern across multiple spatial scales: dispersal and colonization in the coral, Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Gorospe, Kelvin D; Karl, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Patterns of isolation by distance are uncommon in coral populations. Here, we depart from historical trends of large-scale, geographical genetic analyses by scaling down to a single patch reef in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i, USA, and map and genotype all colonies of the coral, Pocillopora damicornis. Six polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to assess population genetic and clonal structure and to calculate individual colony pairwise relatedness values. Our results point to an inbred, highly clonal reef (between 53 and 116 clonal lineages of 2352 genotyped colonies) with a much skewed genet frequency distribution (over 70% of the reef was composed of just seven genotypes). Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed that corals found close together on the reef were more genetically related than corals further apart. Spatial genetic structure disappears, however, as spatial scale increases and then becomes negative at the largest distances. Stratified, random sampling of three neighbouring reefs confirms that reefs are demographically open and inter-reef genetic structuring was not detected. Attributing process to pattern in corals is complicated by their mixed reproductive strategies. Separate autocorrelation analyses, however, show that the spatial distribution of both clones and nonclones contributes to spatial genetic structure. Overall, we demonstrate genetic structure on an intrareef scale and genetic panmixia on an inter-reef scale indicating that, for P. damicornis, the effect of small- and large-scale dispersal processes on genetic diversity are not the same. By starting from an interindividual, intrareef level before scaling up to an inter-reef level, this study demonstrates that isolation-by-distance patterns for the coral P. damicornis are limited to small scales and highlights the importance of investigating genetic patterns and ecological processes at multiple scales. PMID:23786173

  18. Male-biased sexual size dimorphism, resource defense polygyny, and multiple paternity in the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii).

    PubMed

    Hudson, Cameron M; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10-16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories. PMID:23840725

  19. High multiple paternity and low last-male sperm precedence in a hermaphroditic planarian flatworm: consequences for reciprocity patterns.

    PubMed

    Pongratz, N; Michiels, N K

    2003-06-01

    It is difficult to predict a priori how mating success translates into fertilization success in simultaneous hermaphrodites with internal fertilization. Whereas insemination decisions will be determined by male interests, fertilization will depend on female interests, possibly leading to discrepancies between insemination and fertilization patterns. The planarian flatworm Schmidtea polychroa, a simultaneous hermaphrodite in which mating partners trade sperm was studied. Sperm can be stored for months yet individuals mate frequently. Using microsatellites, maternity and paternity data were obtained from 748 offspring produced in six groups of 10 individuals during four weeks. Adults produced young from four mates on average. Reciprocal fertilization between two mates was found in only 41 out of 110 registered mate combinations, which is clearly less than what is predicted from insemination patterns. Multiple paternity was high: > 80% of all cocoons had two to five fathers for only three to five offspring per cocoon. Because animals were collected from a natural population, 28% of all hatchlings were sired by unknown sperm donors in the field, despite a 10-day period of acclimatization and within-group mating. This percentage decreased only moderately throughout the experiment, showing that sperm can be stored and used for at least a month, despite frequent mating and sperm digestion. The immediate paternity a sperm donor could expect to obtain was only about 25%. Male reproductive success increased linearly with the number of female partners, providing support for Bateman's principle in hermaphrodites. Our results suggest that hermaphrodites do not trade fertilizations when trading sperm during insemination, lending support to the view that such conditional sperm exchange is driven by exchange of resources.

  20. High frequency of multiple paternity in broods of a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence.

    PubMed

    Sefc, Kristina M; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2008-05-01

    In several animal taxa, genetic analyses have demonstrated that social monogamy and biparental brood care do not preclude polygamous reproduction. Few studies have been conducted in fish, but in fish species without alternative reproductive phenotypes, social monogamy was largely congruent with genetic parentage. In contrast to these findings, we report an exceptionally high level of multiple paternity in a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence (Variabilichromis moorii), inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial data of 10 broods. Whereas all offspring in a nest shared a common mother, each brood was sired by 2 to > 10 males. None of the inferred sires was assigned a large proportion of the brood. Paternity was estimated as the minimum number of sires required to explain multilocus offspring genotypes, and as the maximum-likelihood number of sires given population allele frequencies. Analysis of simulated brood genotypes suggested that, although these two methods tend to under- and overestimate, respectively, the true number of sires, primary sires with many offspring in a brood would have been detected. Hence, the genetic data indicate that the nest tending males suffer substantial cuckoldry and provide alloparental care for a large number of unrelated fry. We have no data on the social status of the cuckolding males, but due to synchronous spawning of pairs and commitment to brood care of paired males, it is possible that most of the parasitic spawners are solitary males.

  1. Fast versus slow larval growth in an invasive marine mollusc: does paternity matter?

    PubMed

    Le Cam, Sabrina; Pechenik, Jan A; Cagnon, Mathilde; Viard, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive strategies and parental effects play a major role in shaping early life-history traits. Although polyandry is a common reproductive strategy, its role is still poorly documented in relation to paternal effects. Here, we used as a case study the invasive sessile marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a mollusc with polyandry and extreme larval growth variation among sibling larvae. Based on paternity analyses, the relationships between paternal identity and the variations in a major early life-history trait in marine organisms, that is, larval growth, were investigated. Using microsatellite markers, paternities of 437 fast- and slow-growing larvae from 6 broods were reliably assigned to a set of 20 fathers. No particular fathers were found responsible for the specific growth performances of their offspring. However, the range of larval growth rates within a brood was significantly correlated to 1) an index of sire diversity and 2) the degree of larvae relatedness within broods. Multiple paternity could thus play an important role in determining the extent of pelagic larval duration and consequently the range of dispersal distances achieved during larval life. This study also highlighted the usefulness of using indices based on fathers' relative contribution to the progeny in paternity studies.

  2. Paternity in horseshoe crabs when spawning in multiple-male groups.

    PubMed

    Brockmann; Nguyen; Potts

    2000-12-01

    Unpaired or satellite male horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, are attracted to and often form a group around a pair (a female with an attached male) that is nesting in the high intertidal zone. These males are engaged in sperm competition. We observed nesting pairs and their associated satellites in the wild, collected and reared their eggs and used genetic markers to examine paternity. We found that the unpaired, satellite males are highly successful at fertilizing eggs; two satellites can leave the attached male with few fertilizations. Two satellites together are each as successful as one spawning with a pair. A satellite's location around the female greatly affects his success, and males compete for access to a position over the dorsal canal between the prosoma and opisthosoma of the female and under the front margin of the paired male where they are most likely to fertilize eggs. Although eggs and sperm retain their viability for some time after spawning, nearly all eggs are fertilized by the satellites that are around the nesting pair at the time of egg laying and by the attached male. A number of factors including beach current, female size and male behaviour affect the outcome of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. First analysis of multiple paternity in an oviparous shark, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula L.).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Andrew M; Jacoby, David M P; Casane, Didier; McHugh, Matthew; Croft, Darren P; Genner, Martin J; Sims, David W

    2012-01-01

    Multiple paternity (MP) has been demonstrated in a variety of sharks, although its prevalence and the number of sires per litter vary considerably among species. To date, such analyses have focused on viviparous species that possess only part of the wide spectrum of reproductive strategies developed in elasmobranchs. We analyzed MP in an oviparous species, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). In total, 150 neonates originating from 13 different mothers were genotyped using 12 microsatellite loci. MP was commonplace, with progeny from 92% of females sired by multiple males. This result is consistent with the reproductive biology of the species, particularly its protracted breeding season and potential for long-term sperm storage. The significance of these findings is discussed in light of small-spotted catshark behavior, which suggests that the cost of avoiding mating attempts initiated by males may be high and is therefore supportive of convenience polyandry as an explanation for MP. Eggs were followed from the time they were laid to when they hatched, offering a rare opportunity to investigate juvenile development in more detail. PMID:22058410

  4. Same school, different conduct: rates of multiple paternity vary within a mixed-species breeding school of semi-pelagic cichlid fish (Cyprichromis spp.).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Caleb; Werdenig, Alexandra; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M

    2016-01-01

    Mating system variability is known to exist between and within species, often due to environmental influences. An open question is whether, vice versa, similar environmental conditions entail congruent mating behavior, for example in terms of multiple paternity, in species or populations sharing largely comparable breeding modes. This study employed microsatellite markers to investigate the incidence of multiple paternity in Cyprichromis coloratus and Cyprichromis leptosoma, two sympatric, closely related, mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with similar ecological and behavioral characteristics including the formation of open-water schools. Mouthbrooding females of both species were collected from the same mixed-species breeding school at the same time, minimizing environmental variation during courtship and mating. In C. coloratus, four of 12 broods had more than one sire, with a mean of 1.33 reconstructed sires per brood. C. leptosoma exhibited multiple paternity in 18 of 22 broods, with a mean of 2.59 or 2.86 reconstructed sires per brood according to the programs gerud and colony, respectively. In addition, two broods were found to contain offspring transplanted from another brood. There was no significant difference in brood size between species, but mean sire number did differ significantly. Hence, substantial similarity in reproductive behavior along with shared environmental conditions during courtship and spawning did not lead to equal rates of polyandry or sneaking in the two species.

  5. Visual Phenotype Matching: Cues to Paternity Are Present in Rhesus Macaque Faces

    PubMed Central

    Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Widdig, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize kin and thus behaviourally discriminate between conspecifics based on genetic relatedness is of importance both in acquiring inclusive fitness benefits and to enable optimal inbreeding. In primates, mechanisms allowing recognition of paternal relatives are of particular interest, given that in these mating systems patrilineal information is unlikely to be available via social familiarity. Humans use visual phenotype matching based on facial features to identify their own and other's close relatives, and recent studies suggest similar abilities may be present in other species. However it is unclear to what extent familial resemblances remain detectable against the background levels of relatedness typically found within demes in the wild – a necessary condition if facial cues are to function in kin recognition under natural conditions. Here, we experimentally investigate whether parent-offspring relationships are discernible in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) faces drawn from a large free-ranging population more representative of the latter scenario, and in which genetic relatedness has been well quantified from pedigrees determined via molecular markers. We used the human visual system as a means of integrating multiple types of facial cue simultaneously, and demonstrate that paternal, as well as maternal, resemblance to both sons and daughters can be detected even by human observers. Experts performed better than participants who lacked previous experience working with nonhuman primates. However the finding that even naïve individuals succeeded at the task underlines the strength of the phenotypic cues present in faces. PMID:23451032

  6. Paternal therapy with disease modifying drugs in multiple sclerosis and pregnancy outcomes: a prospective observational multicentric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients undergo disease modifying drug (DMD) therapy at childbearing age. The objective of this prospective, collaborative study, was to assess outcomes of pregnancies fathered by MS patients undergoing DMD. Methods Structured interviews on pregnancies fathered by MS patients gathered in the Italian Pregnancy Dataset were collected; pregnancies were divided according to father exposure or unexposure to DMD at time of procreation. Treatment were compared with multivariable logistic and linear models. Results Seventy-eight pregnancies fathered by MS patients were tracked. Forty-five patients were taking DMD at time of conception (39 beta-interferons, 6 glatiramer acetate), while 33 pregnancies were unexposed to DMD. Seventy-five pregnancies ended in live-births, 44 in the exposed and 31 in the unexposed group. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the risk of spontaneous abortion or malformations (p > 0.454), mean gestational age (p = 0.513), frequency of cesarean delivery (p = 0.644), birth weight (p = 0.821) and birth length (p = 0.649). In comparison with data of the Italian general population, the proportion of spontaneous abortion and caesarean delivery in exposed pregnancies fell within the estimates, while the proportion of pre-term delivery in the exposed group was higher than expected. Conclusions Our data indicate no association between paternal DMD exposure at time of conception and risk of spontaneous abortion, adverse fetal outcomes and congenital malformations. Further studies clarifying the role of DMD fathers intake prior and during pregnancy are desirable, to supply guidelines for clinical practice. PMID:24884599

  7. Late paternities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Late paternities are frequent. Very often these couples ask for medically assisted procreation. In general, it is considered that the couple should not be treated differently from the couple where the father is younger. Recent studies show a certain number of specific risks linked to the late paternities. Doctors and society do not act in the same way towards men and women: a 'sensible age' for women to no longer attempt pregnancy has been set in many countries at 42 years of age, whereas men aged 80 can benefit from IVF attempts and be reimbursed by the state or insurance companies. This is an obvious inequity. PMID:17579995

  8. Towards a Family Process Model of Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms: Exploring Multiple Relations with Child and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy S.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has focused on maternal dysphoria and child adjustment. However, family process models indicate gaps in the study of paternal dysphoria, broader family functioning, and diverse child outcomes. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers and fathers of kindergarten children completed measures of depressive symptoms, family…

  9. Multiple paternity is a shared reproductive strategy in the live-bearing surfperches (Embiotocidae) that may be associated with female fitness.

    PubMed

    LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D

    2014-06-01

    According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including samples from a broader range of reproductive size classes, we found evidence of a Bateman gradient in two surfperch species from distinct embiotocid clades. Using microsatellite analyses, we found that 100% of the spotfin surfperch families sampled exhibit multiple paternity (Hyperprosopon anale, the basal taxon from the only clade that has not previously been investigated) indicating that this tactic is a shared reproductive strategy among surfperches. Further, we detected evidence for a Bateman gradient in H. anale; however, this result was not significant after correction for biases. Similarly, we found evidence for multiple paternity in 83% of the shiner surfperch families (Cymatogaster aggregata) sampled. When we combine these data with a previous study on the same species, representing a larger range of reproductive size classes and associated brood sizes, we detect a Bateman gradient in shiner surfperch for the first time that remains significant after several conservative tests for bias correction. These results indicate that sexual selection is likely complex in this system, with the potential for conflicting optima between sexes, and imply a positive shift in fertility (i.e., increasing number) and reproductive tactic with respect to the mating system and number of sires throughout the reproductive life history of females. We argue that the complex reproductive natural history of surfperches is characterized by several traits that may be associated with cryptic female

  10. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578

  11. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  12. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ginsberg, Joshua R.; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578

  13. Relationship of the estrogen surge and multiple mates to cub paternity in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): implications for optimal timing of copulation or artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Wildt, David E; Hull, Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of ex situ breeding programs for endangered species can be limited by challenges in mimicking mating competitions that naturally occur among multiple mates in the wild. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of timed natural matings and/or artificial inseminations in the context of the urinary estrogen surge on cub production in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We used a large cohort of giant pandas, including 12 females and 17 males. DNA paternity exclusion was used to pinpoint accurately the interval during the estrogen surge that coincided with the ideal sperm deposition time to produce offspring. Of the 31 cubs (in 19 pregnancies), 22 (71.0%; 15 pregnancies) were produced from matings occurring on the day of or the day after the maximal urinary estrogen peak. Sixteen of the 19 pregnancies (84.2%) produced at least one offspring sired by the first male mating with the dam. There was a preponderance of twins (12 of 19; 63.2%), and dual paternities were discovered in 3 of 12 twin sets (25%). These findings indicate a strong relationship between the excreted estrogen surge and sperm deposition to achieve pregnancy in the giant panda. To ensure the production of the most genetically diverse young, it is imperative that the most appropriate male mate first and on the day of or the day after the highest detected estrogen value. There is no advantage to increasing the number of copulations or mating partners within 1 day of the estrogen peak on the incidence of twinning, although this practice may increase the prevalence of dual paternity in cases of multiple births.

  14. Relationship of the estrogen surge and multiple mates to cub paternity in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): implications for optimal timing of copulation or artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Wildt, David E; Hull, Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of ex situ breeding programs for endangered species can be limited by challenges in mimicking mating competitions that naturally occur among multiple mates in the wild. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of timed natural matings and/or artificial inseminations in the context of the urinary estrogen surge on cub production in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We used a large cohort of giant pandas, including 12 females and 17 males. DNA paternity exclusion was used to pinpoint accurately the interval during the estrogen surge that coincided with the ideal sperm deposition time to produce offspring. Of the 31 cubs (in 19 pregnancies), 22 (71.0%; 15 pregnancies) were produced from matings occurring on the day of or the day after the maximal urinary estrogen peak. Sixteen of the 19 pregnancies (84.2%) produced at least one offspring sired by the first male mating with the dam. There was a preponderance of twins (12 of 19; 63.2%), and dual paternities were discovered in 3 of 12 twin sets (25%). These findings indicate a strong relationship between the excreted estrogen surge and sperm deposition to achieve pregnancy in the giant panda. To ensure the production of the most genetically diverse young, it is imperative that the most appropriate male mate first and on the day of or the day after the highest detected estrogen value. There is no advantage to increasing the number of copulations or mating partners within 1 day of the estrogen peak on the incidence of twinning, although this practice may increase the prevalence of dual paternity in cases of multiple births. PMID:22976278

  15. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911

  16. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring.

    PubMed

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother-offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection.

  17. Multiple Influences of Semantic Memory on Sentence Processing: Distinct Effects of Semantic Relatedness on Violations of Real-World Event/State Knowledge and Animacy Selection Restrictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb's broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related…

  18. Multiple Influences of Semantic Memory on Sentence Processing: Distinct Effects of Semantic Relatedness on Violations of Real-World Event/State Knowledge and Animacy Selection Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb’s broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related potentials on post-verbal Agent arguments as participants read and made plausibility judgments about passive English sentences. The N400 evoked by incoming animate Agent arguments that violated expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, was strongly attenuated when they were semantically related to the context. In contrast, semantic relatedness did not modulate the N400 evoked by inanimate Agent arguments that violated the preceding verb’s animacy selection restrictions. These findings suggest that, under these task and experimental conditions, semantic relatedness can facilitate processing of post-verbal animate arguments that violate specific expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, but only when the semantic features of these arguments match the coarser-grained animacy restrictions of the verb. Animacy selection restriction violations also evoked a P600 effect, which was not modulated by semantic relatedness, suggesting that it was triggered by propositional impossibility. Together, these data indicate that the brain distinguishes between real-world event/state knowledge and animacy-based selection restrictions during online processing. PMID:23284226

  19. Relating paternity to paternal care.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Intuition suggests, to most people, that parents should be selected to care for their offspring in relation to how certain they are of being the parents of those offspring. Theoretical models of the relationship between parental investment and certainty of parentage predict the two to be related only when some other assumptions are made, few of which can be taken for granted. I briefly review the models and their assumptions, and discuss two kinds of difficulty facing an empiricist wishing to test the models. The first is the problem of unmeasured (and immeasurable) variables. The second is the problem that even the most extensive models do not capture the complexity that can be demonstrated in real systems. I illustrate some of these problems, and some qualitative tests of the models, with experimental work on a population of the collared flycatcher. My conclusion is that although there are some cases where the models have qualitative support, we are a long way from understanding whether paternal care is commonly adjusted in relation to certainty of paternity. PMID:11958702

  20. A Hierarchical Multiple-Level Approach to the Assessment of Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition: Implications for Research, Clinical Practice, and DSM Planning.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2016-01-01

    Extant research suggests there is considerable overlap between so-called 2-polarities models of personality development; that is, models that propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between 2 key developmental tasks across the life span-the development of self-definition on the one hand and of relatedness on the other. These models have attracted considerable research attention and play a central role in DSM planning. This article provides a researcher- and clinician-friendly guide to the assessment of these personality theories. We argue that current theoretical models focus on issues of relatedness and self-definition at different hierarchically organized levels of analysis; that is (a) at the level of broad personality features, (b) at the motivational level (i.e., the motivational processes underlying the development of these dimensions), and (c) at the level of underlying internal working models or cognitive affective schemas, and the specific interpersonal features and problems in which they are expressed. Implications for further research and DSM planning are outlined.

  1. Measuring relatedness between inbred individuals.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lacy, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relatedness between individuals is an important measure in many areas of biology. However, some relatedness measures for use with molecular (allele) data assume that the individuals themselves are not inbred. Here, we present a new measure of relatedness based on the different modes of identity-by-descent for alleles that has an upper bound of 1 even when the individuals being compared are themselves inbred. This new measure is compared to several other measures of relatedness using several simple examples and pedigree data from the wolf population in Isle Royale National Park.

  2. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  3. Evolutionary history of partible paternity in lowland South America

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Flinn, Mark V.; Hill, Kim R.

    2010-01-01

    Partible paternity, the conception belief that more than one man can contribute to the formation of a fetus, is common in lowland South America and characterized by nonexclusive mating relationships and various institutionalized forms of recognition and investment by multiple cofathers. Previous work has emphasized the fitness benefits for women where partible paternity beliefs facilitate paternal investment from multiple men and may reduce the risk of infanticide. In this comparative study of 128 lowland South American societies, the prevalence of partible paternity beliefs may be as much as two times as common as biologically correct beliefs in singular paternity. Partible paternity beliefs are nearly ubiquitous in four large language families—Carib, Pano, Tupi, and Macro-Je. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that partible paternity evolved deep in Amazonian prehistory at the root of a tentative Je-Carib-Tupi clade. Partible paternity often occurs with uxorilocal postmarital residence (males transfer), although there are exceptions. Partible paternity may have benefits for both sexes, especially in societies where essentially all offspring are said to have multiple fathers. Despite a decrease in paternity certainty, at least some men probably benefit (or mitigate costs) by increasing their number of extramarital partners, using sexual access to their wives to formalize male alliances, and/or sharing paternity with close kin. PMID:20974947

  4. Preferences of newborn mice for odours indicating closer genetic relatedness: is experience necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Todrank, Josephine; Busquet, Nicolas; Baudoin, Claude; Heth, Giora

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from studies with adult rodents indicates that individual recognition enables distinctions between familiar individuals irrespective of relatedness (but including close kin) and a separate mechanism enables discriminations based on genetic relatedness without prior familiarity. For example, adult mice could assess the extent of their genetic relatedness to unfamiliar individuals using perceptual similarities between their individual odours. The ontogeny of this genetic relatedness assessment mechanism, however, had not been investigated. Here, in two-choice tests, newborn mice differentially preferred odours of more genetically similar lactating females (paternal aunts to unrelated conspecific and conspecific to heterospecific) even without prior direct exposure to adults with the tested genotypes. The results provide a direct demonstration of genetic relatedness assessment abilities in newborns and show that experience with parental odours is not necessary for genetic relatedness distinctions. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether exposure to odours of other foetuses in the womb or littermates shortly after birth affects this genetic relatedness assessment process. PMID:16191620

  5. Relatedness, conflict, and the evolution of eusociality.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyun; Rong, Stephen; Queller, David C

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise. PMID:25799485

  6. Relatedness, Conflict, and the Evolution of Eusociality

    PubMed Central

    Queller, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise. PMID:25799485

  7. Relatedness, conflict, and the evolution of eusociality.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyun; Rong, Stephen; Queller, David C

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise.

  8. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  9. Relatedness and social organization of coypus in the Argentinean pampas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  10. Paternity and inheritance of wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, John

    1981-06-01

    One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

  11. Does the Structure of Female Rhesus Macaque Coo Calls Reflect Relatedness and/or Familiarity?

    PubMed Central

    Mundry, Roger; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Fischer, Julia; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, kin relations strongly shape the social structure of a group. In female-bonded species, maternal relatedness is likely to be mediated via familiarity, but evidence is accumulating that non-human primates are able to recognize kin that they are not familiar with and adjust their behavior accordingly. In playback experiments, female rhesus macaques showed increased interest in ‘coo’ calls produced by unfamiliar paternal half-sisters compared to ‘coo’ calls produced by unfamiliar unrelated females, suggesting that these calls should have some common structural characteristics that facilitate the discrimination of kin from non-kin. Here we analyzed ‘coo’ calls of 67 adult female rhesus macaques from four groups and seven matrilines living on the island of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico). We tested whether the call structure of closely maternal and/or paternal related females, as determined from extensive pedigree data, differed from the call structure of unrelated females, while controlling for familiarity (i.e., group-matrilineal membership and age difference) of subjects. In contrast to our expectation, kinship did not predict similarities in ‘coo’ call structure, whereas ‘coo’ structure was more similar when produced by females of similar age as well as by females with higher familiarity, suggesting that experience is more decisive than genetic background. The high number of individuals in the analysis and the high accuracy of the assignment of calls to individuals render a lack of power as an unlikely explanation. Thus, based on the results of this study, kin recognition in rhesus monkeys does neither appear to be based on the assessment of self-similarity, nor on the comparison among related subjects (i.e., acoustic phenotype matching), but appears to be mediated by different or multiple cues. Furthermore, the results support the notion that frequent social interactions result in increasing acoustic similarity within largely

  12. Does the Structure of Female Rhesus Macaque Coo Calls Reflect Relatedness and/or Familiarity?

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, Dana; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Mundry, Roger; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Fischer, Julia; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, kin relations strongly shape the social structure of a group. In female-bonded species, maternal relatedness is likely to be mediated via familiarity, but evidence is accumulating that non-human primates are able to recognize kin that they are not familiar with and adjust their behavior accordingly. In playback experiments, female rhesus macaques showed increased interest in 'coo' calls produced by unfamiliar paternal half-sisters compared to 'coo' calls produced by unfamiliar unrelated females, suggesting that these calls should have some common structural characteristics that facilitate the discrimination of kin from non-kin. Here we analyzed 'coo' calls of 67 adult female rhesus macaques from four groups and seven matrilines living on the island of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico). We tested whether the call structure of closely maternal and/or paternal related females, as determined from extensive pedigree data, differed from the call structure of unrelated females, while controlling for familiarity (i.e., group-matrilineal membership and age difference) of subjects. In contrast to our expectation, kinship did not predict similarities in 'coo' call structure, whereas 'coo' structure was more similar when produced by females of similar age as well as by females with higher familiarity, suggesting that experience is more decisive than genetic background. The high number of individuals in the analysis and the high accuracy of the assignment of calls to individuals render a lack of power as an unlikely explanation. Thus, based on the results of this study, kin recognition in rhesus monkeys does neither appear to be based on the assessment of self-similarity, nor on the comparison among related subjects (i.e., acoustic phenotype matching), but appears to be mediated by different or multiple cues. Furthermore, the results support the notion that frequent social interactions result in increasing acoustic similarity within largely innate call types

  13. Relatedness communicated in lemur scent.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Hayes, R Andrew; Nahrung, Helen F; Goodwin, Thomas E; Harelimana, Innocent H; Macdonald, Laura J; Wright, Patricia C

    2013-08-01

    Lemurs are the most olfactory-oriented of primates, yet there is still only a basic level of understanding of what their scent marks communicate. We analyzed scent secretions from Milne-Edwards' sifakas (Propithecus edwardsi) collected in their natural habitat of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We sought to test whether the scent mark could signal genetic relatedness in addition to species, sex, season, and individuality. We not only found correlations (r (2) = 0.38, P = 0.017) between the total olfactory fingerprint and genetic relatedness but also between relatedness and specific components of the odor, despite the complex environmental signals from differences in diet and behavior in a natural setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an association between genetic relatedness and chemical communication in a wild primate population. Furthermore, we found a variety of compounds that were specific to each sex and each sampling period. This research shows that scent marks could act as a remote signal to avoid inbreeding, optimize mating opportunities, and potentially aid kin selection.

  14. Relatedness communicated in lemur scent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Hayes, R. Andrew; Nahrung, Helen F.; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Harelimana, Innocent H.; MacDonald, Laura J.; Wright, Patricia C.

    2013-08-01

    Lemurs are the most olfactory-oriented of primates, yet there is still only a basic level of understanding of what their scent marks communicate. We analyzed scent secretions from Milne-Edwards' sifakas ( Propithecus edwardsi) collected in their natural habitat of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We sought to test whether the scent mark could signal genetic relatedness in addition to species, sex, season, and individuality. We not only found correlations ( r 2 = 0.38, P = 0.017) between the total olfactory fingerprint and genetic relatedness but also between relatedness and specific components of the odor, despite the complex environmental signals from differences in diet and behavior in a natural setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an association between genetic relatedness and chemical communication in a wild primate population. Furthermore, we found a variety of compounds that were specific to each sex and each sampling period. This research shows that scent marks could act as a remote signal to avoid inbreeding, optimize mating opportunities, and potentially aid kin selection.

  15. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Charlie D.; Hodgson, David J.; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K.; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G. F.

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  16. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  17. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  18. The NR-6: a new brief measure of nature relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The construct of (dis)connection with nature or “nature relatedness” has become increasingly useful in the study of environmental behavior as well as psychological health and well-being. Strong nature relatedness is associated with greater happiness and ecologically sustainable behavior. A number of scales reliably assess individual differences in nature relatedness, but some circumstances may necessitate a brief measure. We developed a short-form version of the nature relatedness scale (NR-6), comprised of 6 items from the “self” and “experience” dimensions, and tested the new scale's predictive ability across multiple samples and with longitudinal data in students, community members, and business people. The new NR-6 scale demonstrated good internal consistency, temporal stability, and predicted happiness, environmental concern, and nature contact. This new brief measure of connectedness may have advantages where time and space are limited and the research context requires an assessment of connectedness elements rather than environmental attitudes. PMID:24198806

  19. [Psychoneuroses of paternity. Puerperal psychoneuroses in man].

    PubMed

    Millet, L; Karkous, E; Jorda, P; Cabal, P

    1978-03-01

    Psychotic, neurotic and psychosomatic disturbances, directly promoted by fatherhood condition, seem more frequent than the small number of publications about this subject allow to suppose. Twenty original observations are expounded and discussed; they allow the importance of basic psychological ground; it is necessary to differentiate distinctly between initial paternity disturbances, among immature patients, inducing total disorder, and multiple paternity perturbations where anxiety and culpability feeling prevail. Regarding these disturbances and the sociological phenomenon of the "couvade", the real puerperality in men is investigated in connection with the personal and relational structure of the individual.

  20. Reproductive skew and relatedness in social groups of European badgers, Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Johnson, Paul J; Burke, Terry

    2008-04-01

    Reproductive skew is a measure of the proportion of individuals of each sex that breed in a group and is a valuable measure for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sociality. Here, we provide the first quantification of reproductive skew within social groups of European badgers Meles meles, throughout an 18-year study in a high-density population. We used 22 microsatellite loci to analyse within-group relatedness and demonstrated that badger groups contained relatives. The average within-group relatedness was high (R = 0.20) and approximately one-third of within-group dyads were more likely to represent first-order kin than unrelated pairs. Adult females within groups had higher pairwise relatedness than adult males, due to the high frequency of extra-group paternities, rather than permanent physical dispersal. Spatial clustering of relatives occurred among neighbouring groups, which we suggest was due to the majority of extra-group paternities being attributable to neighbouring males. Reproductive skew was found among within-group candidate fathers (B = 0.26) and candidate mothers (B = 0.07), but not among breeding individuals; our power to detect skew in the latter was low. We use these results to evaluate reproductive skew models. Although badger society best fits the assumptions of the incomplete-control models, our results were not consistent with their predictions. We suggest that this may be due to female control of paternity, female-female reproductive suppression occurring only in years with high food availability resulting in competition over access to breeding sites, extra-group paternity masking the benefits of natal philopatry, and/or the inconsistent occurrence of hierarchies that are linear when established. PMID:18371017

  1. Paternity analysis in Excel.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

    2007-12-01

    Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR).

  2. DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PATERNITY IN THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE (MICROTUS CANICAUDUS) BY RAPD-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic relatedness of gray-tailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This work is the first reported use of the RAPD method for pedigree analysis of M. canicaudus and demonstrates the feasibility of RAPD for assessing paternity...

  3. Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations.

    PubMed

    Davies, N G; Gardner, A

    2014-06-01

    W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect group. However, haplodiploidy might still explain the sex of workers if this mode of inheritance has itself been responsible for the rarity of paternal care in this group. Here, we perform a theoretical kin selection analysis to investigate the evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. We find that haplodiploidy may either inhibit or promote paternal care depending on model assumptions, but that under the most plausible scenarios it promotes - rather than inhibits - paternal care. Our analysis casts further doubt upon there being a causal link between haplodiploidy and eusociality. PMID:24773069

  4. Convergent development of low-relatedness supercolonies in Myrmica ants.

    PubMed

    van der Hammen, T; Pedersen, J S; Boomsma, J J

    2002-08-01

    Many ant species have independently evolved colony structures with multiple queens and very low relatedness among nestmate workers, but it has remained unclear whether low-relatedness kin structures can repeatedly arise in populations of the same species. Here we report a study of Danish island populations of the red ant Myrmica sulcinodis and show that it is likely that such repeated developments occur. Two microsatellite loci were used to estimate genetic differentiation (F(ST)) among three populations and nestmate relatedness within these populations. The F(ST) values were highly significant due to very different allele frequencies among the three populations with relatively few common alleles and relatively many rare alleles, possibly caused by single queen foundation and rare subsequent immigration. Given the isolation of the islands and the low investment in reproduction, we infer that each of the populations was most likely established by a single queen, even though all three extant populations now have within-colony relatedness 95%), and the genetic differentiation of nests showed a significantly positive correlation with the distance between them. Both male-biased sex-ratio and genetic viscosity are expected characteristics of populations where queens have very local dispersal and where new colonies are initiated through nest-budding. Based on a comparison with other M. sulcinodis populations we hypothesise a distinct succession of population types and suggest that this may be a possible pathway to unicoloniality, ie, development towards a complete lack of colony kin structure and unrelated nestmate workers. PMID:12136409

  5. Paternal occupation and anencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. )

    1990-03-01

    It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

  6. Paternal age bioethics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin R

    2015-09-01

    Modern genetic sequencing studies have confirmed that the sperm of older men contain a greater number of de novo germline mutations than the sperm of younger men. Although most of these mutations are neutral or of minimal phenotypic impact, a minority of them present a risk to the health of future children. If demographic trends towards later fatherhood continue, this will likely lead to a more children suffering from genetic disorders. A trend of later fatherhood will accelerate the accumulation of paternal-origin de novo mutations in the gene pool, gradually reducing human fitness in the long term. These risks suggest that paternal age is of ethical importance. Children affected by de novo mutations arising from delayed fatherhood can be said to be harmed, in the sense of 'impersonal' harm or 'non-comparative' harm. Various strategies are open at societal and individual levels towards reducing deleterious paternal age effects. Options include health education to promote earlier fatherhood, incentives for young sperm donors and state-supported universal sperm banking. The latter approach would likely be of the greatest benefit and could in principle be implemented immediately. More futuristically, human germline genetic modification offers the potential to repair heritable mutational damage. PMID:26037282

  7. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a…

  8. High relatedness in a social amoeba: the role of kin-discriminatory segregation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Owen M; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2012-07-01

    A major challenge for social theory is to explain the importance of kin discrimination for the evolution of altruism. One way to assess the importance of kin discrimination is to test its effects on increasing relatedness within groups. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates to form a fruiting body composed of dead stalk and live spores. Previous studies of a natural population showed that where D. discoideum occurs in the soil, multiple clones are often found in the same small soil samples. However, actual fruiting bodies usually contain only one clone. We here performed experiments to gauge the effect of kin-discriminatory segregation on increasing relatedness. We mixed co-occurring clones from this population using a relatedness level found in small soil samples. We found a lower proportion of uniclonal fruiting bodies and a lower level of relatedness compared with natural fruiting bodies. We found that the amount of relatedness increase attributable to kin-discriminatory segregation was small. These findings suggest a relatively minor influence of kin-discriminatory segregation on relatedness in D. discoideum. We discuss our results comparing with the results of previous studies, including those of wild clones and laboratory mutants. We ask why wild clones of D. discoideum exhibit a low degree of kin-discriminatory segregation, and what alternative factors might account for high relatedness in D. discoideum. PMID:22357265

  9. High relatedness in a social amoeba: the role of kin-discriminatory segregation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Owen M; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2012-07-01

    A major challenge for social theory is to explain the importance of kin discrimination for the evolution of altruism. One way to assess the importance of kin discrimination is to test its effects on increasing relatedness within groups. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates to form a fruiting body composed of dead stalk and live spores. Previous studies of a natural population showed that where D. discoideum occurs in the soil, multiple clones are often found in the same small soil samples. However, actual fruiting bodies usually contain only one clone. We here performed experiments to gauge the effect of kin-discriminatory segregation on increasing relatedness. We mixed co-occurring clones from this population using a relatedness level found in small soil samples. We found a lower proportion of uniclonal fruiting bodies and a lower level of relatedness compared with natural fruiting bodies. We found that the amount of relatedness increase attributable to kin-discriminatory segregation was small. These findings suggest a relatively minor influence of kin-discriminatory segregation on relatedness in D. discoideum. We discuss our results comparing with the results of previous studies, including those of wild clones and laboratory mutants. We ask why wild clones of D. discoideum exhibit a low degree of kin-discriminatory segregation, and what alternative factors might account for high relatedness in D. discoideum.

  10. High relatedness in a social amoeba: the role of kin-discriminatory segregation

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Owen M.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Queller, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge for social theory is to explain the importance of kin discrimination for the evolution of altruism. One way to assess the importance of kin discrimination is to test its effects on increasing relatedness within groups. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates to form a fruiting body composed of dead stalk and live spores. Previous studies of a natural population showed that where D. discoideum occurs in the soil, multiple clones are often found in the same small soil samples. However, actual fruiting bodies usually contain only one clone. We here performed experiments to gauge the effect of kin-discriminatory segregation on increasing relatedness. We mixed co-occurring clones from this population using a relatedness level found in small soil samples. We found a lower proportion of uniclonal fruiting bodies and a lower level of relatedness compared with natural fruiting bodies. We found that the amount of relatedness increase attributable to kin-discriminatory segregation was small. These findings suggest a relatively minor influence of kin-discriminatory segregation on relatedness in D. discoideum. We discuss our results comparing with the results of previous studies, including those of wild clones and laboratory mutants. We ask why wild clones of D. discoideum exhibit a low degree of kin-discriminatory segregation, and what alternative factors might account for high relatedness in D. discoideum. PMID:22357265

  11. Paternalism and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-29

    In one of a series of articles on philosophical medical ethics, Gillon considers various moral arguments in support of medical paternalism. He maintains that the utilitarian principle of maximizing happiness by improving health, minimizing suffering, and prolonging life is not promoted by granting physicians the authority to deceive patients or to make decisions for them in areas of moral and subjective choice. If one wants to do good for a patient, one generally needs to find out what the patient wants one to do. Gillon concludes that many utilitarians agree with deontologists that respect for autonomy is required if human welfare really is to be maximized.

  12. Genetic evidence of extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the monk parakeet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a widespread invasive species native to southern South America that has become established in many regions of the world. Monk parakeets breed in a large, fully enclosed structure built from twigs, which consist of one to many individual brooding chambers. The species has been considered to be socially and genetically monogamous. However, genetic relatedness of adults to juveniles in the native area was found to be lower than expected for monogamy. To assess the significance of this discrepancy, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at two sites in Córdoba province, Argentina. Results We sampled 154 nestlings and 42 adults in Córdoba, Argentina. Mean value of pairwise relatedness of nestlings within chambers was about 0.40. Contrarily, relatedness of nestlings between chambers was close to zero. We found a considerable degree of variation in nestling pairwise relatedness and parentage within chambers, including chambers with combinations of unrelated, half-sib, and full-sib nestlings. The proportion of sibling relatedness indicated monogamy in 47% and extra pair-paternity in 40% of the chambers. We also found intra-brood parasitism in 3% of the chambers. Conclusions Our results indicate that the monk parakeet is sexually polygamous in its native range in Argentina, which is consistent with the observed mean value of relatedness of adults to juveniles of about 0.4. We also confirm the existence of intra-brood parasitism. High density of monk parakeets may favor occurrence of extra-pair paternity and intra-brood parasitism in the native sites. PMID:24209709

  13. Estimation of relatedness by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M

    1988-09-01

    The recent discovery of hypervariable VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) loci has led to much excitement among population biologists regarding the feasibility of deriving individual estimates of relatedness in field populations by DNA fingerprinting. It is shown that unbiased estimates of relatedness cannot be obtained at the individual level without knowledge of the allelic distributions in both the individuals of interest and the base population unless the proportion of shared marker alleles between unrelated individuals is essentially zero. Since the latter is usually on the order of 0.1-0.5 and since there are enormous practical difficulties in obtaining the former, only an approximate estimator for the relatedness can be given. The bias of this estimator is individual specific and inversely related to the number of marker loci and frequencies of marker alleles. Substantial sampling variance in estimates of relatedness arises from variation in identity by descent within and between loci and, with finite numbers of alleles, from variation in identity in state between genes that are not identical by descent. In the extreme case of 25 assayed loci, each with an effectively infinite number of alleles, the standard error of a relatedness estimate is no less than 14%, 20%, 35%, and 53% of the expectation for full sibs and second-, third-, and fourth-order relationships, respectively. Attempts to ascertain relatedness by means of DNA fingerprinting should proceed with caution.

  14. A maximum-likelihood estimation of pairwise relatedness for autopolyploids

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K; Guo, S T; Shattuck, M R; Chen, S T; Qi, X G; Zhang, P; Li, B G

    2015-01-01

    Relatedness between individuals is central to ecological genetics. Multiple methods are available to quantify relatedness from molecular data, including method-of-moment and maximum-likelihood estimators. We describe a maximum-likelihood estimator for autopolyploids, and quantify its statistical performance under a range of biologically relevant conditions. The statistical performances of five additional polyploid estimators of relatedness were also quantified under identical conditions. When comparing truncated estimators, the maximum-likelihood estimator exhibited lower root mean square error under some conditions and was more biased for non-relatives, especially when the number of alleles per loci was low. However, even under these conditions, this bias was reduced to be statistically insignificant with more robust genetic sampling. We also considered ambiguity in polyploid heterozygote genotyping and developed a weighting methodology for candidate genotypes. The statistical performances of three polyploid estimators under both ideal and actual conditions (including inbreeding and double reduction) were compared. The software package POLYRELATEDNESS is available to perform this estimation and supports a maximum ploidy of eight. PMID:25370210

  15. Parentage and relatedness in polyandrous comb-crested jacanas using ISSRs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Mace, Terrence R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the first analysis of parentage and relatedness in a natural vertebrate population, using Intersimple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Thus, 28 ISSR markers were used in a study of a sex-role reversed, simultaneously polyandrous shorebird from northeastern Australia, the comb-crested jacana (Irediparra gallinacea). Assessment of parentage was based on comparison of field observations, novel bands, individual-specific bands found in 7/9 males and 4/6 females, and a 99% CI exclusion criteria. Integrating results from these approaches resulted in confirmation of paternity in all 36 chicks. In only one case (2.8% of chicks) was a co-mate assigned paternity. Thus, comb-crested jacanas appear to be genetically monogamous. These results showed resemblance to sequentially polyandrous birds but differed from the simultaneously polyandrous wattled jacana ( Jacana jacana; Emlen et al. 1998). A significant relationship between relatedness and ISSR similarity resulted in recognition that 14/15 adults sampled may be related to at least one other adult by 0.25 or more. Lack of dispersal may be explained by physical limitations and adequate regional habitat. ISSRs proved to be simple and helpful in resolving these issues.

  16. Obesity, paternalism and fairness.

    PubMed

    Kniess, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Many liberal theories are committed to the promotion of population health, and the principle of non-interference in individual life plans. Public health interventions often bring out a tension between these two values. In this paper, I examine this tension by assessing the justifiability of liberty-restricting policies in the field of obesity prevention. As I want to show, a 'soft' form of paternalism, which interferes with people's choices to safeguard their true interests, goes some way in justifying such policies, but it leaves unaddressed the problem of limiting the liberty of those whose true interest is in pursuing an unhealthy lifestyle. I argue that in this latter case, the key to reconcile the promotion of population health with the respect for individual liberty is distributive justice: when we cannot help those who care about their health without doing the same for those who do not, fairness will often require us to do so.

  17. Religion as a means to assure paternity.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-19

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  18. Religion as a means to assure paternity.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-19

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy.

  19. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  20. [POST MORTEM PATERNITY].

    PubMed

    Marguénaud, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Post mortem paternity, namely the procreation after the death of the man whom is part of the couple, is one of the questions which raised the most hesitations since the first bioethics laws of 1994. The National Assembly, encouraged by several opinions of the CCNE (National advisory committee of ethics) had let itself convince that the transfer had, at least, to be authorized in utero embryos preserved at the regard of which no one could not claim to have rights equal or higher than those of the woman concerned. However, the Senate always ended up obtaining the maintenance of an absolute prohibition of posthumous procreation (starting) from the spermatozoids or frozen embryos. This indifference with the cruelty of the application of the law to the women plunged into mourning--based on a paradoxical appreciation of the interest of the child not to be born orphan, and on a not very glorious taking into account of the interest of the Body of notaries not to change its practices--is particularly debatable. One can, nevertheless, try to understand it according to the obsession of the legalization of surrogate motherhood by application of the principle of nondiscrimination which could justify the requests of the men who, thanks to a surrogate mother, would wish to become fathers starting from gametes or embryos taken or created before the death of their wife or partner. PMID:27356350

  1. Relatedness influences signal reliability in evolving robots.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Sara; Floreano, Dario; Keller, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    Communication is an indispensable component of animal societies, yet many open questions remain regarding the factors affecting the evolution and reliability of signalling systems. A potentially important factor is the level of genetic relatedness between signallers and receivers. To quantitatively explore the role of relatedness in the evolution of reliable signals, we conducted artificial evolution over 500 generations in a system of foraging robots that can emit and perceive light signals. By devising a quantitative measure of signal reliability, and comparing independently evolving populations differing in within-group relatedness, we show a strong positive correlation between relatedness and reliability. Unrelated robots produced unreliable signals, whereas highly related robots produced signals that reliably indicated the location of the food source and thereby increased performance. Comparisons across populations also revealed that the frequency for signal production-which is often used as a proxy of signal reliability in empirical studies on animal communication-is a poor predictor of signal reliability and, accordingly, is not consistently correlated with group performance. This has important implications for our understanding of signal evolution and the empirical tools that are used to investigate communication.

  2. Changes in Differentiation-Relatedness During Psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Calamaras, Martha R; Reviere, Susan L; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine (a) if the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale of Self and Object Representations (D-RS), a coding model used with the Object Relations Inventory (Blatt, Wein, Chevron, & Quinlan, 1979 ) could be reliably applied to transcripts of psychoanalyses, and (b) if levels of differentiation-relatedness improve over the course of psychoanalysis. Participants were 4 creative writers who underwent psychoanalysis as part of a longitudinal research project focused on the processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis. Transcripts from the beginning and termination phases of psychoanalysis were coded by 2 independent raters for global, low, and high levels of self and other differentiation-relatedness and compared. There was good interrater agreement, suggesting that, like other forms of narrative material, psychoanalysis transcripts can be reliably rated for levels of object relations. Analysands showed an increase in global levels of differentiation-relatedness from a predominance of emergent ambivalent constancy (M = 6.2) at the beginning of analysis to consolidated, constant representations of self and other (M = 7.5) at the end of analysis. These preliminary findings contribute significantly to the empirical literature with regard to the measurement of self and object representations and change in these representations over the course of psychoanalysis.

  3. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  4. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    PubMed Central

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males – ’mother's curse’. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. ’reverse dominance’) are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why ’mother's curse’ is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025

  5. Social Relatedness and Autism: Current Research, Issues, Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Anne S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This literature review focuses on recent studies devoted to hypothesized aspects of social relatedness in autism, discussing attachment and social interest, recognition of and communication of emotions, social cognition, social communication, symbolic play, neuroanatomy of social relatedness, and neurochemistry of social relatedness. (JDD)

  6. Why Do Cuckolded Males Provide Paternal Care?

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Ashleigh S.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Cornwallis, Charlie K.

    2013-01-01

    In most species, males do not abandon offspring or reduce paternal care when they are cuckolded by other males. This apparent lack of adjustment of paternal investment with the likelihood of paternity presents a potential challenge to our understanding of what drives selection for paternal care. In a comparative analysis across birds, fish, mammals, and insects we identify key factors that explain why cuckolded males in many species do not reduce paternal care. Specifically, we show that cuckolded males only reduce paternal investment if both the costs of caring are relatively high and there is a high risk of cuckoldry. Under these circumstances, selection is expected to favour males that reduce paternal effort in response to cuckoldry. In many species, however, these conditions are not satisfied and tolerant males have outcompeted males that abandon young. PMID:23555193

  7. Dominance, body size and internal relatedness influence male reproductive success in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence. PMID:20188027

  8. Dominance, body size and internal relatedness influence male reproductive success in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence.

  9. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The complete birth population in Norway 1967-98.
PARTICIPANTS—67 795 families.
MAIN RESULTS—The birth weight correlations were 0.226 for mother-child and 0.126 for father-child. The spousal correlation was low, 0.020. The relative risk of low birth weight in the first born child was 8.2 if both parents were low birth weight themselves, with both parents being above 4 kg as the reference. The estimate of heritability is about 0.25 for birth weight, under the assumption that cultural transmission on the paternal side has no effect on offspring prenatal growth.
CONCLUSIONS—Paternal birth weight is a significant and independent predictor of low birth weight in offspring. The estimate of the heritability of birth weight in this study is lower than previously estimated from data within one generation in the Norwegian population.


Keywords: birth weight; genes; paternal effects PMID:11707480

  10. The relationship between nature relatedness and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Patricia; Brymer, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between anxiety and feelings of being connected to nature. Two standardised self-report scales, the Nature Relatedness Scale and the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety, were used in tandem with a qualitative question. Quantitative results indicated that connection to nature was significantly related to lower levels of overall, state cognitive and trait cognitive anxiety. Qualitative results revealed seven themes: relaxation, time out, enjoyment, connection, expanse, sensory engagement and a healthy perspective. Taken together, these results suggest that opportunities that enhance experiences of being connected to nature may reduce unhelpful anxiety.

  11. Genetic relatedness influences plant biomass accumulation in eelgrass (Zostera marina).

    PubMed

    Stachowicz, John J; Kamel, Stephanie J; Hughes, A Randall; Grosberg, Richard K

    2013-05-01

    In multispecies assemblages, phylogenetic relatedness often predicts total community biomass. In assemblages dominated by a single species, increasing the number of genotypes increases total production, but the role of genetic relatedness is unknown. We used data from three published experiments and a field survey of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a habitat-forming marine angiosperm, to examine the strength and direction of the relationship between genetic relatedness and plant biomass. The genetic relatedness of an assemblage strongly predicted its biomass, more so than the number of genotypes. However, contrary to the pattern observed in multispecies assemblages, maximum biomass occurred in assemblages of more closely related individuals. The mechanisms underlying this pattern remain unclear; however, our data support a role for both trait differentiation and cooperation among kin. Many habitat-forming species interact intensely with conspecifics of varying relatedness; thus, genetic relatedness could influence the functioning of ecosystems dominated by such species.

  12. DNA fingerprinting in relation to male dominance and paternity in a captive colony of tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Ewen, K R; Temple-Smith, P D; Bowden, D K; Marinopoulos, J; Renfree, M B; Yan, H

    1993-09-01

    The tammar wallaby has a polygynous mating system in which the dominant male usually controls initial access to oestrous females by mating first and then guarding the female from the advances of other subordinate males. In this study we used DNA fingerprinting with a human 3' hypervariable region (HVR) alpha globin probe to examine the paternity of pouch young progeny from 13 female tammars that were given continual access during the breeding season to a group of four sexually mature males. Constant individual-specific DNA profiles were observed for each animal. Paternity for 22 pouch young was successfully assigned using visual and computer-based analyses. However, no statistical difference was observed between the number of young sired by any of the four males (chi 2 = 2, d.f. = 3, P > 0.1). Mate guarding by the dominant male in our captive breeding group was not, therefore, sufficient to prevent successful subsequent matings by subordinates nor to enhance the genetic contribution of this male to the next generation. In each analysis, visual and computer assignments of paternity coincided, and these concurred with the results of a relatedness test which found that a large number of DNA bands were shared by sires and their progeny. The results from this paternity study show that first mating and subsequent mate guarding by the dominant male tammar wallaby in our captive group do not significantly skew the outcome of paternity towards this male and away from other males that subsequently mate with each female.

  13. Comparative analysis of male androgen responsiveness to social environment in birds: the effects of mating system and paternal incubation.

    PubMed

    Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Winkler, Hans; Oliveira, Rui F

    2003-04-01

    Male androgen responses to social challenges have been predicted to vary with mating system, male-male aggressiveness, and the degree of paternal investment in birds ("challenge hypothesis," Am. Nat. 136 (1990), 829). This study focused on the interspecific predictions of the challenge hypothesis. Comparative methods were used to control for effects of the phylogenetic relatedness among the sampled species. Male androgen data of 84 bird species were collected from literature records on seasonal androgen patterns. From these, the androgen responsiveness (AR) was calculated as described in the original challenge hypothesis (i.e., maximum physiological level/breeding baseline). Scatterplots of AR versus mating strategy, male-male aggressiveness, and the degree of paternal care confirmed the expected interspecific patterns. When phylogenetic analyses were performed among all of the sampled species, the effects of paternal investment disappeared while the AR remained covarying to a high degree with mating system and male-male aggressiveness. Although these mechanisms may be different at the intraspecific level, this suggests that interspecific differences of AR in male birds may have evolved in response to changes of mating strategies, rather than in response to altered paternal duties. However, control for phylogeny among the subsample of 32 passerine species revealed that if any paternal investment contributed to the observed variance in AR, then the change from "no male incubation" to "male shares incubation duties" represented the most effective, whereas the male's contribution to feeding offspring did not explain the observed variation of AR. PMID:12788297

  14. Mosaic paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21[19]/46,XX[4], and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient. PMID:26219535

  15. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  16. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development. PMID:25045174

  17. Paternally biased X inactivation in mouse neonatal brain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background X inactivation in female eutherian mammals has long been considered to occur at random in embryonic and postnatal tissues. Methods for scoring allele-specific differential expression with a high degree of accuracy have recently motivated a quantitative reassessment of the randomness of X inactivation. Results After RNA-seq data revealed what appeared to be a chromosome-wide bias toward under-expression of paternal alleles in mouse tissue, we applied pyrosequencing to mouse brain cDNA samples from reciprocal cross F1 progeny of divergent strains and found a small but consistent and highly statistically significant excess tendency to under-express the paternal X chromosome. Conclusions The bias toward paternal X inactivation is reminiscent of marsupials (and extraembryonic tissues in eutherians), suggesting that there may be retained an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mark driving the bias. Allelic bias in expression is also influenced by the sampling effect of X inactivation and by cis-acting regulatory variation (eQTL), and for each gene we quantify the contributions of these effects in two different mouse strain combinations while controlling for variability in Xce alleles. In addition, we propose an efficient method to identify and confirm genes that escape X inactivation in normal mice by directly comparing the allele-specific expression ratio profile of multiple X-linked genes in multiple individuals. PMID:20663224

  18. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  19. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  20. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  1. Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in Savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2013-03-01

    Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated with paternal care. These associations have primarily been demonstrated in species where investment in paternal care begins well after mating activity is complete, when offspring are hatched or born. Different patterns may emerge in studies of species where investment in mating and paternal care overlap temporally, for instance in non-seasonal breeders in which males mate with multiple females sequentially and may simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons, fecal concentrations of T (fT) were positively associated with both mate guarding ("consortship") - a measure of current reproductive activity - and with the number of immature offspring a male had in his social group - a measure of past reproductive activity and an indicator of likely paternal behavior. To further examine the relationship between T and potential paternal behavior, we next drew on an intensive 8-month study of male behavior, and found that fathers were more likely to be in close proximity to their offspring than expected by chance. Because male baboons are known to provide paternal care, and because time in proximity to offspring would facilitate such care, this suggests that T concentrations in wild male baboons may be associated with both current reproductive activity and with current paternal behavior. These results are consistent with the predicted positive association between T and mating effort but not with a negative association between T and paternal care; in male baboons, high levels of T occur in males that are differentially associating with their offspring.

  2. Pre-Hispanic Mortuary Practices in Quebrada de Humahuaca (North-Western Argentina): Genetic Relatedness among Individuals Buried in the Same Grave.

    PubMed

    Russo, M Gabriela; Mendisco, Fanny; Avena, Sergio A; Dejean, Cristina B; Seldes, Verónica

    2016-07-01

    Almost all pre-Hispanic societies from Quebrada de Humahuaca (north-western Argentina) buried their defuncts in domestic areas, demonstrating the importance of death and its daily presence among the living. Presumably, the collective graves contained related individuals, a hypothesis that can be tested through the study of ancient DNA. This study analyzes autosomal and uniparental genetic markers in individuals from two archaeological sites in Quebrada de Humahuaca occupied during the Late Formative (1450-1050 BP) and Regional Developments I (1050-700 BP) periods. Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplotypes were compared in order to establish possible maternal and paternal relatedness. Genotypes for 15 autosomal STRs were used to calculate pairwise relatedness coefficients and pedigree probabilities. High kinship levels among individuals buried in the same graves were found in both sites. Although only two particular cases were analyzed, these results represent an important contribution to the study of mortuary practices in the region by means of ancient DNA.

  3. Pre-Hispanic Mortuary Practices in Quebrada de Humahuaca (North-Western Argentina): Genetic Relatedness among Individuals Buried in the Same Grave.

    PubMed

    Russo, M Gabriela; Mendisco, Fanny; Avena, Sergio A; Dejean, Cristina B; Seldes, Verónica

    2016-07-01

    Almost all pre-Hispanic societies from Quebrada de Humahuaca (north-western Argentina) buried their defuncts in domestic areas, demonstrating the importance of death and its daily presence among the living. Presumably, the collective graves contained related individuals, a hypothesis that can be tested through the study of ancient DNA. This study analyzes autosomal and uniparental genetic markers in individuals from two archaeological sites in Quebrada de Humahuaca occupied during the Late Formative (1450-1050 BP) and Regional Developments I (1050-700 BP) periods. Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplotypes were compared in order to establish possible maternal and paternal relatedness. Genotypes for 15 autosomal STRs were used to calculate pairwise relatedness coefficients and pedigree probabilities. High kinship levels among individuals buried in the same graves were found in both sites. Although only two particular cases were analyzed, these results represent an important contribution to the study of mortuary practices in the region by means of ancient DNA. PMID:27346733

  4. Towards a framework for developing semantic relatedness reference standards.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-04-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the "moderate" range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development.

  5. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  6. A molecular analysis of African lion (Panthera leo) mating structure and extra-group paternity in Etosha National Park.

    PubMed

    Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B

    2013-05-01

    The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P < 0.05), indicating that variation in pride-level social structure may explain intergroup variation in EGP. Prides with a lower male-to-female ratio were significantly more likely to experience EGP in this population. The results of this study challenge the current models of African lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals.

  7. Paternal filicide in Québec.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    In this retrospective study, relevant demographic, social, and clinical variables were examined in 77 cases of paternal filicide. Between 1991 and 2001, all consecutive coroners' files on domestic homicide in Québec, Canada, were reviewed, and 77 child victims of 60 male parent perpetrators were identified. The results support data indicating that more fathers commit filicide than do mothers. A history of family abuse was characteristic of a substantial number of cases, and most of the cases involved violent means of homicide. Filicide was frequently (60%) followed by the suicide of the perpetrator and more so (86%) in cases involving multiple sibling victims. The abuse of drugs and alcohol was rare. At the time of the offense, most of the perpetrators were suffering from a psychiatric illness, usually depressive disorder. Nearly one-third were in a psychotic state. The proportion of fatal abuse cases was comparatively low. Many of the perpetrators had had contact with health professionals prior to the offense, although none had received treatment for a psychiatric illness. PMID:16186200

  8. Estimating Relatedness in the Presence of Null Alleles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang; Ritland, Kermit; Dunn, Derek W; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of genetics and ecology often require estimates of relatedness coefficients based on genetic marker data. However, with the presence of null alleles, an observed genotype can represent one of several possible true genotypes. This results in biased estimates of relatedness. As the numbers of marker loci are often limited, loci with null alleles cannot be abandoned without substantial loss of statistical power. Here, we show how loci with null alleles can be incorporated into six estimators of relatedness (two novel). We evaluate the performance of various estimators before and after correction for null alleles. If the frequency of a null allele is <0.1, some estimators can be used directly without adjustment; if it is >0.5, the potency of estimation is too low and such a locus should be excluded. We make available a software package entitled PolyRelatedness v1.6, which enables researchers to optimize these estimators to best fit a particular data set.

  9. The Relation of Attachment Security to Adolescents' Paternal and Peer Relationships, Depression, and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Marsh, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with…

  10. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  11. Female choice and the relatedness of mates in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): mate choice and inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Trevor E; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2008-09-01

    Several studies suggest that females may offset the costs of genetic incompatibility by exercising pre-copulatory or post-copulatory mate choice to bias paternity toward more compatible males. One source of genetic incompatibility is the degree of relatedness among mates; unrelated males are expected to be genetically more compatible with a female than her relatives. To address this idea, we investigated the potential for inbreeding depression and paternity biasing mechanisms (pre- and post-copulatory) of inbreeding avoidance in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Inbreeding resulted in a reduction in offspring number and quality. Females mated to siblings gave birth to significantly fewer offspring compared to females mated to non-siblings and inbred male offspring took longer to reach sexual maturity. There was no evidence of inbreeding avoidance in pre-copulatory behaviors of females or males. Sexual responsiveness of females to courting males and the number of sexual behaviors males directed at females did not decrease as a function of the relatedness of the two individuals. We also tested whether female guppies can use post-copulatory mechanisms to bias sperm usage toward unrelated males by comparing the number of offspring produced by females mated to two of their siblings (SS), two males unrelated to the female (NN), or to one unrelated male and a sibling male (NS). We found that NS females produced a number of offspring not significantly different than what would be expected if fertilization success were halfway between completely outbreeding (NN) and completely inbreeding (SS) females. This suggests that there is no significant improvement in the number of offspring produced by females mating to both related and unrelated males, relative to that which would be expected if sperm from both males were used equally. Our results suggest that female guppies do not discriminate against closely related males or their sperm.

  12. Paternal factors in spontaneous first trimester miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Jaleel, Riffat; Khan, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : To determine whether paternal factors i.e., age, tobacco use and genital tract infection increase the risk for spontaneous first trimester miscarriage. Methodology : This case control study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Unit V / IV, Dow Medical College & Lyari General Hospital, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. Duration of study was two and half years, from Nov, 2007 to Apr, 2010. Inclusion criteria were pregnant women with age 20 – 35 years irrespective of parity. Exclusion criteria were known medical illness in either partner, induced abortion and recurrent miscarriages. Studied paternal factors were age, tobacco use and genital tract infection. Data was computed using SPSS version 16. Significance of paternal factors was determined by Logistic Regression Analysis. Results : Total cases studied were 200, while there were 400 controls. Mean maternal age was 27.6±4.9 years in cases and 26.5±4.5 years in controls. Mean paternal age was 35.5±6.2 years in cases and 32.3±5.4 years in controls. Paternal age was >35 years in 54.5% cases and 16.8% controls. Spearman Bivariate correlation revealed paternal age > 35 years (p=0.000) and genital tract infection (p=0.043) as significant factors. Only paternal age >35 years (p=0.000) remained significant in Final Model after entering into logistic regression. Conclusion: Paternal age beyond 35 years was found to be significantly related to first trimester spontaneous miscarriages. PMID:24353621

  13. Social structure of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu): does relatedness matter?

    PubMed

    Biondo, Cibele; Izar, Patrícia; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Bussab, Vera S R

    2014-11-01

    Relatedness is considered an important factor in shaping social structure as the association among kin might facilitate cooperation via inclusive fitness benefits. We addressed here the influence of relatedness on the social structure of a Neotropical ungulate, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). As peccaries are highly social and cooperative, live in stable cohesive herds and show certain degree of female philopatry and high mean relatedness within herds, we hypothesized that kin would be spatially closer and display more amicable and less agonistic interactions than non-kin. We recorded spatial association patterns and rates of interactions of two captive groups. Pairwise relatedness was calculated based on microsatellite data. As predicted, we found that kin were spatially closer than non-kin, which suggests that relatedness is a good predictor of spatial association in peccaries. However, relatedness did not predict the rates of social interactions. Although our results indirectly indicate some role of sex, age and familiarity, further studies are needed to clarify the factors that shape the rates of interactions in collared peccaries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  14. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  15. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective.

  16. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. PMID:26644589

  17. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P; Carracedo, Angel; Guidet, Francois; Luque, Juan A; Lessig, Rüdiger; Mayr, Wolfgang R; Pascali, Vince L; Prinz, Mechthild; Schneider, Peter M; Morling, Niels

    2007-12-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a likelihood ratio principle - yielding the paternity index, PI. Here, we have made five supplementary biostatistical recommendations. The first recommendation clarifies and defines basic concepts of genetic hypotheses and calculation concerns needed to produce valid PIs. The second and third recommendations address issues associated with population genetics (allele probabilities, Y-chromosome markers, mtDNA, and population substructuring) and special circumstances (deficiency/reconstruction and immigration cases), respectively. The fourth recommendation considers strategies regarding genetic evidence against paternity. The fifth recommendation covers necessary documentation, reporting details and assumptions underlying calculations. The PTC strongly suggests that these recommendations should be adopted by all laboratories involved in paternity testing as the basis for their biostatistical analysis.

  18. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children With Mathematics Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were related to one of the operands via a shared multiplication row (e.g., 3 × 4 = 16). Distance was defined by a slow and inaccurate response to false results that were close in magnitude to the true result (e.g., 6 × 8 = 49). The presence of these effects indicates that participants are sensitive to numerical features of products. TA children demonstrated sensitivity to relatedness and distance from second grade onward. With age their sensitivity expanded from easy problems (e.g., 2 × 3) to difficult ones (e.g., 8 × 9). Children with MLD were sensitive to relatedness on easy problems. Their sensitivity to distance differed from the pattern seen in sixth grade and was partial in eighth grade. The presence of numerical sensitivity in children with MLD calls for instructional methods that would further develop their number sense.

  19. Paternal Psychiatric Symptoms and Maladaptive Paternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between paternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Paternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed among 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Paternal…

  20. Towards a Framework for Developing Semantic Relatedness Reference Standards

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B.; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the “moderate” range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development. PMID:21044697

  1. Preconception Maternal and Paternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Birth Size: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. Objective: We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Methods: Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Results: Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84–195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98–170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Conclusions: Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. Citation: Robledo CA, Yeung E

  2. Is there a greater maternal than paternal influence on offspring adiposity in India?

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V; Ackerson, Leland K; Davey Smith, George

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has provided conflicting evidence regarding fetal roots of adiposity in India. To compare the strength of association between maternal and paternal body mass indexes (BMIs) corrected for height with offspring BMI in India to examine the potential for intrauterine mechanisms to influence offspring adiposity in India, we analysed a sample of 16,528 mother-father-offspring trios from the 2005 to 2006 Indian National Family Health Survey. Children were aged 0-59 months with parents aged 15-49 years (mothers) and 15-54 years (fathers). Linear and logistic regression models, specified in multiple ways, were used to estimate associations between parental BMI* (BMI redefined by power term x (kg/m(x)) to be independent from height), and child BMI/top decile of child BMI. Higher values of maternal BMI and paternal BMI were associated with higher values of offspring BMI. In comparing the effects of maternal BMI and paternal BMI, however, no consistent differences were found in the strength of these parental influences on offspring BMI. In the fully adjusted linear model, the standardised coefficient was 0.131 (95% CI 0.110 to 0.154) for maternal BMI* and 0.079 (95% CI 0.056 to 0.103) for paternal BMI*; with evidence of heterogeneity between maternal-offspring and paternal-offspring associations (p=0.005). This was not robust in the unstandardised regression (β=0.056, 95% CI 0.044 to 0.067 for maternal BMI and β=0.039, 95% CI 0.025 to 0.053 for paternal BMI, p=0.093). Mixed results indicate that compared with paternal BMI, maternal BMI did not have a consistently stronger influence on offspring BMI in India.

  3. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  4. Paternal Transmission and Anticipation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Husted, Janice; Scutt, Laura E.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have observed anticipation (earlier age at onset (AAO) or increased disease severity in successive generations) in familial schizophrenia. In other disorders, where the molecular mechanism (repeat expansion) is known, anticipation varies in degree depending on the sex of the transmitting parent. We investigated parental sex effects on anticipation in schizophrenia, using a familial sample of affected two-generation pairs in which anticipation had previously been demonstrated using the median intergenerational difference (MID) in AAO. A Wilcoxon rank sum test for independent samples was used to determine whether MID in AAO was significantly different for paternal and maternal transmission. Results suggested that in a sample of 127 parent-offspring pairs, anticipation was greater with paternal than with maternal transmission (MID = 18 and 14 years, respectively, P = 0.05). Paternal effects were strongest in 39 parent-offspring pairs with early-onset offspring (≤21 years) (MID = 22 and 17 years, respectively, for paternal and maternal transmission, P = 0.01). However, assessment of the effect of possible selection biases suggests that preferential ascertainment of late-onset fathers may have exerted important effects. While the results support possible paternal effects, further studies are needed to draw firm conclusions about true parent-of-origin effects on anticipation in familial schizophrenia. PMID:9613855

  5. Human-modified habitats change patterns of population genetic structure and group relatedness in Peter's tent-roosting bats.

    PubMed

    Sagot, Maria; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Although coloniality is widespread among mammals, it is still not clear what factors influence composition of social groups. As animals need to adapt to multiple habitat and environmental conditions throughout their range, variation in group composition should be influenced by adaptive adjustment to different ecological factors. Relevant to anthropogenic disturbance, increased habitat modification by humans can alter species' presence, density, and population structure. Therefore, it is important to understand the consequences of changes to landscape composition, in particular how habitat modification affects social structure of group-forming organisms. Here, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different habitat characteristics at different scales affect structure of social groups. By dividing analyses by age and sex, we determined that genetic structure was greater for adult females than adult males or offspring. Habitat variables explained 80% of the variation in group relatedness (mainly influenced by female relatedness) with roost characteristics contributing the most explained variation. This suggests that females using roosts of specific characteristics exhibit higher relatedness and seem to be philopatric. These females mate with more males than do more labile female groups. Results describe ecological and microevolutionary processes, which affect relatedness and social structure; findings are highly relevant to species distributions in both natural and human-modified environments. PMID:27648225

  6. Examining Evidence for Autonomy and Relatedness in Urban Inuit Parenting

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.; Smylie, Janet K.; Prince, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy–relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:23946698

  7. Model-free Estimation of Recent Genetic Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Conomos, Matthew P.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Weir, Bruce S.; Thornton, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Genealogical inference from genetic data is essential for a variety of applications in human genetics. In genome-wide and sequencing association studies, for example, accurate inference on both recent genetic relatedness, such as family structure, and more distant genetic relatedness, such as population structure, is necessary for protection against spurious associations. Distinguishing familial relatedness from population structure with genotype data, however, is difficult because both manifest as genetic similarity through the sharing of alleles. Existing approaches for inference on recent genetic relatedness have limitations in the presence of population structure, where they either (1) make strong and simplifying assumptions about population structure, which are often untenable, or (2) require correct specification of and appropriate reference population panels for the ancestries in the sample, which might be unknown or not well defined. Here, we propose PC-Relate, a model-free approach for estimating commonly used measures of recent genetic relatedness, such as kinship coefficients and IBD sharing probabilities, in the presence of unspecified structure. PC-Relate uses principal components calculated from genome-screen data to partition genetic correlations among sampled individuals due to the sharing of recent ancestors and more distant common ancestry into two separate components, without requiring specification of the ancestral populations or reference population panels. In simulation studies with population structure, including admixture, we demonstrate that PC-Relate provides accurate estimates of genetic relatedness and improved relationship classification over widely used approaches. We further demonstrate the utility of PC-Relate in applications to three ancestrally diverse samples that vary in both size and genealogical complexity. PMID:26748516

  8. Justified hard paternalism: a response to Ten.

    PubMed

    Rainbolt, George W

    1989-04-01

    In a brief response to C.L. Ten's critique in the same issue of Bioethics of an earlier article by Rainbolt, Rainbolt defends his thesis that prescription drug laws are examples of permissible hard paternalism. They are not justifiable by soft paternalism, which permits interference with people's conduct only when their choices are insufficiently voluntary, because people who buy prescription drugs have good metaknowledge, i.e., they know that they do not know much about drugs and are making a decision based on this knowledge. PMID:11649244

  9. Paternal influences on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Cleghorn de Rohrmoser, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected characteristics of the paternal work environment and occupational history to the incidence of complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and anomalies in birth outcomes. The literature suggested that male exposure to teratogenic hazards in the form of radiation and chemical compounds, primarily in the form of solvents, has been implicated in reproductive disorders and malformed offspring in animals. Similarly, some recent research suggests that the exposure of male workers to such hazards on their job may have consequences for their spouses and children. Based on these experimental research studies and analyses of persons working in high risk occupations, a broader study of the potential contribution of paternal work environment variables to the success of pregnancy and birth outcomes seemed warranted. Based upon the literature review, a model was proposed for predicting complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and birth outcome (normal birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations and fetal death). From the 1980 National Natality Survey and the 1980 National Fetal Mortality Survey, four sub-samples of married couples, with both husband and wife employed, were selected on the basis of one of the four birth outcomes. The model called for controlling a range of maternal intrinsic and extrinsic health and behavioral variables known to be related to birth outcomes. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to analyze the effects of father's exposure to radiation and solvents on the job, to complications in pregnancy and labor, and to birth outcome, while controlling for maternal variables. The results indicated that none of the paternal variables were predictors of complications in labor. Further, there was no clear pattern of results, though father's degree of exposure to solvents, and exposures to radiation did reach significance in some analyses.

  10. Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

  11. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  12. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  13. Predictably Philandering Females Prompt Poor Paternal Provisioning.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julia; Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Winney, Isabel; Simons, Mirre; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry

    2016-08-01

    One predicted cost of female infidelity in socially monogamous species is that cuckolded males should provide less parental care. This relationship is robust across species, but evidence is ambiguous within species. We do not know whether individual males reduce their care when paired with cheating females compared with when paired with faithful females (within-male adjustment) or, alternatively, if the males that pair with cheating females are the same males that provide less parental care in general (between-male effect). Our exceptionally extensive long-term data set of repeated observations of a wild passerine allows us to disentangle paternal care adjustment within males-within pairs and between males-while accounting for environmental variables. We found a within-male adjustment of paternal provisioning, but not incubation effort, relative to the cuckoldry in their nest. This effect was mainly driven by females differing consistently in their fidelity. There was no evidence that this within-male adjustment also took place across broods with the same female, and we found no between-male effect. Interestingly, males that gained more extrapair paternity provided less care. Data from a cross-foster experiment suggested that males did not use kin recognition to assess paternity. Our results provide insight into the role of individual variation in parental care and mating systems. PMID:27420786

  14. Paternal inheritance of mitochondria in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Soichi

    2010-03-01

    To analyze mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)inheritance, differences in mtDNA between Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas smithii, respiration deficiency and antibiotic resistance were used to distinguish mtDNA origins. The analyses indicated paternal inheritance. However, these experiments raised questions regarding whether paternal inheritance occurred normally.Mitochondrial nucleoids were observed in living zygotes from mating until 3 days after mating and then until progeny formation. However, selective disappearance of nucleoids was not observed. Subsequently, experimental serial backcrosses between the two strains demonstrated strict paternal inheritance. The fate of mt+ and mt- mtDNA was followed using the differences in mtDNA between the two strains. The slow elimination of mt+ mtDNA through zygote maturation in darkness was observed, and later the disappearance of mt+ mtDNA was observed at the beginning of meiosis. To explain the different fates of mtDNA, methylation status was investigated; however, no methylation was detected. Variously constructed diploid cells showed biparental inheritance. Thus, when the mating process occurs normally, paternal inheritance occurs. Mutations disrupting mtDNA inheritance have not yet been isolated. Mutations that disrupt maternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) do not disrupt inheritance of mtDNA. The genes responsible for mtDNA inheritance are different from those of chloroplasts.

  15. Temporally dynamic habitat suitability predicts genetic relatedness among caribou

    PubMed Central

    Yannic, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Le Corre, Maël; Dussault, Christian; Bernatchez, Louis; Côté, Steeve D.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity plays a central role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. While species utilization of the landscape is usually viewed as constant within a year, the spatial distribution of individuals is likely to vary in time in relation to particular seasonal needs. Understanding temporal variation in landscape use and genetic connectivity has direct conservation implications. Here, we modelled the daily use of the landscape by caribou in Quebec and Labrador, Canada and tested its ability to explain the genetic relatedness among individuals. We assessed habitat selection using locations of collared individuals in migratory herds and static occurrences from sedentary groups. Connectivity models based on habitat use outperformed a baseline isolation-by-distance model in explaining genetic relatedness, suggesting that variations in landscape features such as snow, vegetation productivity and land use modulate connectivity among populations. Connectivity surfaces derived from habitat use were the best predictors of genetic relatedness. The relationship between connectivity surface and genetic relatedness varied in time and peaked during the rutting period. Landscape permeability in the period of mate searching is especially important to allow gene flow among populations. Our study highlights the importance of considering temporal variations in habitat selection for optimizing connectivity across heterogeneous landscape and counter habitat fragmentation. PMID:25122223

  16. Temporally dynamic habitat suitability predicts genetic relatedness among caribou.

    PubMed

    Yannic, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Le Corre, Maël; Dussault, Christian; Bernatchez, Louis; Côté, Steeve D

    2014-10-01

    Landscape heterogeneity plays a central role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. While species utilization of the landscape is usually viewed as constant within a year, the spatial distribution of individuals is likely to vary in time in relation to particular seasonal needs. Understanding temporal variation in landscape use and genetic connectivity has direct conservation implications. Here, we modelled the daily use of the landscape by caribou in Quebec and Labrador, Canada and tested its ability to explain the genetic relatedness among individuals. We assessed habitat selection using locations of collared individuals in migratory herds and static occurrences from sedentary groups. Connectivity models based on habitat use outperformed a baseline isolation-by-distance model in explaining genetic relatedness, suggesting that variations in landscape features such as snow, vegetation productivity and land use modulate connectivity among populations. Connectivity surfaces derived from habitat use were the best predictors of genetic relatedness. The relationship between connectivity surface and genetic relatedness varied in time and peaked during the rutting period. Landscape permeability in the period of mate searching is especially important to allow gene flow among populations. Our study highlights the importance of considering temporal variations in habitat selection for optimizing connectivity across heterogeneous landscape and counter habitat fragmentation. PMID:25122223

  17. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  18. Temporally dynamic habitat suitability predicts genetic relatedness among caribou.

    PubMed

    Yannic, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Le Corre, Maël; Dussault, Christian; Bernatchez, Louis; Côté, Steeve D

    2014-10-01

    Landscape heterogeneity plays a central role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. While species utilization of the landscape is usually viewed as constant within a year, the spatial distribution of individuals is likely to vary in time in relation to particular seasonal needs. Understanding temporal variation in landscape use and genetic connectivity has direct conservation implications. Here, we modelled the daily use of the landscape by caribou in Quebec and Labrador, Canada and tested its ability to explain the genetic relatedness among individuals. We assessed habitat selection using locations of collared individuals in migratory herds and static occurrences from sedentary groups. Connectivity models based on habitat use outperformed a baseline isolation-by-distance model in explaining genetic relatedness, suggesting that variations in landscape features such as snow, vegetation productivity and land use modulate connectivity among populations. Connectivity surfaces derived from habitat use were the best predictors of genetic relatedness. The relationship between connectivity surface and genetic relatedness varied in time and peaked during the rutting period. Landscape permeability in the period of mate searching is especially important to allow gene flow among populations. Our study highlights the importance of considering temporal variations in habitat selection for optimizing connectivity across heterogeneous landscape and counter habitat fragmentation.

  19. Is semantic preview benefit due to relatedness or plausibility?

    PubMed

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that skilled readers of English benefit from processing a parafoveal preview of a semantically related word. However, in previous investigations of semantic preview benefit using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm the semantic relatedness between the preview and target has been confounded with the plausibility of the preview word in the sentence. In the present study, preview relatedness and plausibility were independently manipulated in neutral sentences read by a large sample of skilled adult readers. Participants were assessed on measures of reading and spelling ability to identify possible sources of individual differences in preview effects. The results showed that readers benefited from a preview of a plausible word, regardless of the semantic relatedness of the preview and the target. However, there was limited evidence of a semantic relatedness benefit when the plausibility of the preview was controlled. The plausibility preview benefit was strongest for low proficiency readers, suggesting that poorer readers were more likely to program a forward saccade based on information extracted from the preview. High proficiency readers showed equivalent disruption from all nonidentical previews suggesting that they were more likely to suffer interference from the orthographic mismatch between preview and target. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752734

  20. Social evolution in the shadow of asymmetrical relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, D. B.; Taylor, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of altruism and spite remains an enduring problem of social evolution. It is well known that selection for these actions depends on the structure of the population—that is, on actors' genetic relationships to recipients and to the ‘neighbourhood’ upon which the effects of their actions redound. Less appreciated, however, is that population structure can cause genetic asymmetries between partners whereby the relatedness (defined relative to the neighbourhood) of an individual i to a partner j will differ from the relatedness of j to i. Here, we introduce a widespread mechanism of kin recognition to a model of dispersal in subdivided populations. In so doing, we uncover three remarkable consequences of asymmetrical relatedness. First, altruism directed at phenotypically similar partners evolves more easily among migrant than native actors. Second, spite directed at dissimilar partners evolves more easily among native than migrant actors. Third, unlike migrants, natives can evolve to pay costs that far outstrip those they spitefully impose on others. We find that the frequency of natives relative to migrants amplifies the asymmetries between them. Taken together, our results reveal differentiated patterns of ‘phenocentrism’ that readily arise from asymmetries of relatedness. PMID:25925099

  1. Effect Logical Relatedness and Semantic Overlap on Argument Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandotkar, Srikanth; Magliano, Joseph P.; Britt, M. Anne

    2016-01-01

    In two studies we examined the extent to which skilled and less-skilled reasoners of arguments relied on relevance relations (semantic and logical relatedness) between claims and reasons when evaluating arguments. College students, selected as having high or low analytical reasoning skill, evaluated the quality of a set of two sentence arguments…

  2. Epigenetic inheritance and evolution: A paternal perspective on dietary influences.

    PubMed

    Soubry, Adelheid

    2015-07-01

    The earliest indications for paternally induced transgenerational effects from the environment to future generations were based on a small number of long-term epidemiological studies and some empirical observations. Only recently have experimental animal models and a few analyses on human data explored the transgenerational nature of phenotypic changes observed in offspring. Changes include multiple metabolic disorders, cancer and other chronic diseases. These phenotypes cannot always be explained by Mendelian inheritance, DNA mutations or genetic damage. Hence, a new compelling theory on epigenetic inheritance is gaining interest, providing new concepts that extend Darwin's evolutionary theory. Epigenetic alterations or "epimutations" are being considered to explain transgenerational inheritance of parentally acquired traits. The responsible mechanisms for these epimutations include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA-mediated effects. This review explores the literature on a number of time-dependent environmentally induced epigenetic alterations, specifically those from dietary exposures. We suggest a role for the male germ line as one of nature's tools to capture messages from our continuously changing environment and to transfer this information to subsequent generations. Further, we open the discussion that the paternally inherited epigenetic information may contribute to evolutionary adaptation.

  3. Epigenetic inheritance and evolution: A paternal perspective on dietary influences.

    PubMed

    Soubry, Adelheid

    2015-07-01

    The earliest indications for paternally induced transgenerational effects from the environment to future generations were based on a small number of long-term epidemiological studies and some empirical observations. Only recently have experimental animal models and a few analyses on human data explored the transgenerational nature of phenotypic changes observed in offspring. Changes include multiple metabolic disorders, cancer and other chronic diseases. These phenotypes cannot always be explained by Mendelian inheritance, DNA mutations or genetic damage. Hence, a new compelling theory on epigenetic inheritance is gaining interest, providing new concepts that extend Darwin's evolutionary theory. Epigenetic alterations or "epimutations" are being considered to explain transgenerational inheritance of parentally acquired traits. The responsible mechanisms for these epimutations include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA-mediated effects. This review explores the literature on a number of time-dependent environmentally induced epigenetic alterations, specifically those from dietary exposures. We suggest a role for the male germ line as one of nature's tools to capture messages from our continuously changing environment and to transfer this information to subsequent generations. Further, we open the discussion that the paternally inherited epigenetic information may contribute to evolutionary adaptation. PMID:25769497

  4. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  5. Habitat selection predicts genetic relatedness in an alpine ungulate.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Northrup, Joseph M; White, Kevin S; Boyce, Mark S; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W

    2012-06-01

    Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, whereas population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables. We combined ecological and genetic approaches by using RSFs to predict genetic relatedness across a heterogeneous landscape. We constructed sex- and season-specific resistance surfaces based on RSFs estimated using data from 102 GPS (global positioning system) radio-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in southeast Alaska, USA. Based on mountain goat ecology, we hypothesized that summer and male surfaces would be the best predictors of relatedness. All individuals were genotyped at 22 microsatellite loci, which we used to estimate genetic relatedness. Summer resistance surfaces derived from RSFs were the best predictors of genetic relatedness, and winter models the poorest. Mountain goats generally selected for areas close to escape terrain and with a high heat load (a metric related to vegetative productivity and snow depth), while avoiding valleys. Male- and female-specific surfaces were similar, except for winter, for which male habitat selection better predicted genetic relatedness. The null models of isolation-by-distance and barrier only outperformed the winter models. This study merges high-resolution individual locations through GPS telemetry and genetic data, that can be used to validate and parameterize landscape genetics models, and further elucidates the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and genetic differentiation. PMID:22834373

  6. Habitat selection predicts genetic relatedness in an alpine ungulate.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Northrup, Joseph M; White, Kevin S; Boyce, Mark S; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W

    2012-06-01

    Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, whereas population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables. We combined ecological and genetic approaches by using RSFs to predict genetic relatedness across a heterogeneous landscape. We constructed sex- and season-specific resistance surfaces based on RSFs estimated using data from 102 GPS (global positioning system) radio-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in southeast Alaska, USA. Based on mountain goat ecology, we hypothesized that summer and male surfaces would be the best predictors of relatedness. All individuals were genotyped at 22 microsatellite loci, which we used to estimate genetic relatedness. Summer resistance surfaces derived from RSFs were the best predictors of genetic relatedness, and winter models the poorest. Mountain goats generally selected for areas close to escape terrain and with a high heat load (a metric related to vegetative productivity and snow depth), while avoiding valleys. Male- and female-specific surfaces were similar, except for winter, for which male habitat selection better predicted genetic relatedness. The null models of isolation-by-distance and barrier only outperformed the winter models. This study merges high-resolution individual locations through GPS telemetry and genetic data, that can be used to validate and parameterize landscape genetics models, and further elucidates the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and genetic differentiation.

  7. The Genetic Relatedness in Groups of Joint-Nesting Taiwan Yuhinas: Low Genetic Relatedness with Preferences for Male Kin

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Ru; Li, Shou-Hsien; Fang, Shu; Pu, Chang-En; Yuan, Hsiao-Wei; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relative importance of direct and indirect fitness and, thus, the role of kinship in the evolution of social behavior is much debated. Studying the genetic relatedness of interacting individuals is crucial to improving our understanding of these issues. Here, we used a seven-year data set to study the genetic structure of the Taiwan yuhina (Yuhina brunneciceps), a joint-nesting passerine. Ten microsatellite loci were used to investigate the pair-wised relatedness among yuhina breeding group members. We found that the average genetic relatedness between same-sex group members was very low (0.069 for male dyads and 0.016 for female dyads). There was also a low ratio of closely-related kin (r>0.25) in the cooperative breeding groups of yuhinas (21.59% and 9.68% for male and female dyads, respectively). However, the relatedness of male dyads within breeding groups was significantly higher than female dyads. Our results suggest that yuhina cooperation is maintained primarily by direct fitness benefits to individuals; however, kin selection might play a role in partner choice for male yuhinas. Our study also highlights an important, but often neglected, question: Why do animals form non-kin groups, if kin are available? We use biological market theory to propose an explanation for group formation of unrelated Taiwan yuhinas. PMID:26086267

  8. The Genetic Relatedness in Groups of Joint-Nesting Taiwan Yuhinas: Low Genetic Relatedness with Preferences for Male Kin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mark; Zhong, Quen-Dian; Cheng, Yi-Ru; Li, Shou-Hsien; Fang, Shu; Pu, Chang-En; Yuan, Hsiao-Wei; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relative importance of direct and indirect fitness and, thus, the role of kinship in the evolution of social behavior is much debated. Studying the genetic relatedness of interacting individuals is crucial to improving our understanding of these issues. Here, we used a seven-year data set to study the genetic structure of the Taiwan yuhina (Yuhina brunneciceps), a joint-nesting passerine. Ten microsatellite loci were used to investigate the pair-wised relatedness among yuhina breeding group members. We found that the average genetic relatedness between same-sex group members was very low (0.069 for male dyads and 0.016 for female dyads). There was also a low ratio of closely-related kin (r>0.25) in the cooperative breeding groups of yuhinas (21.59% and 9.68% for male and female dyads, respectively). However, the relatedness of male dyads within breeding groups was significantly higher than female dyads. Our results suggest that yuhina cooperation is maintained primarily by direct fitness benefits to individuals; however, kin selection might play a role in partner choice for male yuhinas. Our study also highlights an important, but often neglected, question: Why do animals form non-kin groups, if kin are available? We use biological market theory to propose an explanation for group formation of unrelated Taiwan yuhinas.

  9. Mitochondrial endonuclease G mediates breakdown of paternal mitochondria upon fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Li, Hanzeng; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Lin, Jason L J; Lee, Eui-Seung; Harry, Brian L; Skeen-Gaar, Riley Robert; Suehiro, Yuji; William, Donna; Mitani, Shohei; Yuan, Hanna S; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-07-22

    Mitochondria are inherited maternally in most animals, but the mechanisms of selective paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) are unknown. While examining fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans, we observed that paternal mitochondria rapidly lose their inner membrane integrity. CPS-6, a mitochondrial endonuclease G, serves as a paternal mitochondrial factor that is critical for PME. We found that CPS-6 relocates from the intermembrane space of paternal mitochondria to the matrix after fertilization to degrade mitochondrial DNA. It acts with maternal autophagy and proteasome machineries to promote PME. Loss of cps-6 delays breakdown of mitochondrial inner membranes, autophagosome enclosure of paternal mitochondria, and PME. Delayed removal of paternal mitochondria causes increased embryonic lethality, demonstrating that PME is important for normal animal development. Thus, CPS-6 functions as a paternal mitochondrial degradation factor during animal development. PMID:27338704

  10. Mitochondrial endonuclease G mediates breakdown of paternal mitochondria upon fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Li, Hanzeng; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Lin, Jason L J; Lee, Eui-Seung; Harry, Brian L; Skeen-Gaar, Riley Robert; Suehiro, Yuji; William, Donna; Mitani, Shohei; Yuan, Hanna S; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-07-22

    Mitochondria are inherited maternally in most animals, but the mechanisms of selective paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) are unknown. While examining fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans, we observed that paternal mitochondria rapidly lose their inner membrane integrity. CPS-6, a mitochondrial endonuclease G, serves as a paternal mitochondrial factor that is critical for PME. We found that CPS-6 relocates from the intermembrane space of paternal mitochondria to the matrix after fertilization to degrade mitochondrial DNA. It acts with maternal autophagy and proteasome machineries to promote PME. Loss of cps-6 delays breakdown of mitochondrial inner membranes, autophagosome enclosure of paternal mitochondria, and PME. Delayed removal of paternal mitochondria causes increased embryonic lethality, demonstrating that PME is important for normal animal development. Thus, CPS-6 functions as a paternal mitochondrial degradation factor during animal development.

  11. Queen execution increases relatedness among workers of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Maki N; Ito, Fuminori; Goka, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Polygyny in social insects can greatly reduce within-nest genetic relatedness. In polygynous ant species, potential rival queens in colonies with multiple queens are often executed by other queens, workers, or both. The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, native to South America, forms a "supercolony" that is composed of a large number of nests and is considered to contribute to the ant's invasion success. Currently, four mutually antagonistic supercolonies are contiguously distributed within a small area of Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic structure and relatedness within and among the four supercolonies using microsatellite markers to clarify how L. humile maintains its supercoloniality. The results of AMOVA and BASP, the F ST values, and the existence of several private alleles indicated that the L. humile population in the Kobe area had a characteristic genetic structure. Within a given supercolony, there was significant genetic differentiation (F ST) among workers collected in May and those collected in September. The significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium increased, and the relatedness among workers significantly increased from May to September in all supercolonies. This result suggested that the supercolonies replaced old queens with new ones during the reproductive season, thus supporting the plausibility of queen execution. From the perspective of kin selection, workers collectively eliminate queens, thereby increasing their own inclusive fitness. Restricted gene flow among supercolonies, together with mating with sib and queen execution, could help to maintain the unique social structure of L. humile, the distribution of which is expanding worldwide. PMID:26445661

  12. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Qing; Liu, Jianqiao

    2016-01-01

    The impact of paternal age on reproduction, especially using assisted reproductive technologies, has not been well studied to date. To investigate the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes, here we performed a retrospective analysis of 2,627 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and May 2015. Effect of paternal age on embryo quality [number of fertilized oocytes, 2 pronucleus zygotes (2PNs), viable embryos, and high-quality embryos] was analyzed by multiple linear regression. Relationships between paternal age and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed by binary logistic regression. After adjusting for female age, no association between paternal age and the following parameters of embryo quality was observed: number of fertilized oocytes (B = -0.032; 95% CI -0.069–0.005; P = 0.088), number of 2PNs (B = -0.005; 95% CI -0.044–0.034; P = 0.806), and number of viable embryos (B = -0.025; 95% CI -0.052–0.001; P = 0.062). However, paternal age negatively influenced the number of high-quality embryos (B = -0.020; 95% CI -0.040–0.000; P = 0.045). Moreover, paternal age had no effect on pregnancy outcomes (OR for a 5-year interval), including the rates of clinical pregnancy (OR 0.919; 95% CI 0.839–1.006; P = 0.067), ongoing pregnancy (OR 0.914; 95% CI 0.833–1.003; P = 0.058), early pregnancy loss (OR 1.019; 95% CI 0.823–1.263; P = 0.861), live births (OR 0.916; 95% CI 0.833–1.007; P = 0.070), and preterm births (OR 1.061; 95% CI 0.898–1.254; P = 0.485). Therefore, increased paternal age negatively influences the number of high-quality embryos, but has no effect on pregnancy outcomes in couples undergoing ICSI cycles. However, more studies including men aged over 60 years with a longer-term follow-up are needed. PMID:26901529

  13. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis)

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Marissa L.; Ward, Simon J.; Temple-Smith, Peter D.; Selwood, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus. PMID:25923325

  14. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis).

    PubMed

    Parrott, Marissa L; Ward, Simon J; Temple-Smith, Peter D; Selwood, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus.

  15. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  16. Paternal contribution: new insights and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Krawetz, Stephen A

    2005-08-01

    It has been widely held that all that fathers essentially contribute to the next generation is half their genome. However, recent progress towards understanding biological processes such as sperm maturation and fertilization now indicates that the paternal contribution has been underestimated. To tackle some of the misconceptions surrounding the paternal contribution, the factors that are actually delivered by the sperm at fertilization and their potential developmental functions will be discussed using data from humans and animal models. Although still in their infancy, the practical applications of using sperm RNAs have already emerged in reproductive medicine as markers that are indicative of successful vasectomy. They are also beginning to appear in the forensic sciences and, within the next decade, might appear in the environmental sciences.

  17. Investigation of factors associated with paternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Tiffany Renee; Bhise, Archit; Feingold, Eleanor; Tinker, Stuart; Masse, Nirupama; Sherman, Stephanie L

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies on relatively small samples of individuals with trisomy 21 caused by paternally derived errors have shown that: (1) advanced paternal age is not a risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction (NDJ), (2) absence of recombination, but not the location of recombination is associated with paternal NDJ and (3) there is an excess of males among live-births with paternally derived trisomy 21. An excess of males is also observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. Using 128 families that had a child with trisomy 21 due to a paternally derived error, we examined: paternal age, recombination and the male/female sex ratio. We genotyped STRs along 21q to identify the origin of the error and the location of recombination on the paternal chromosome. Results showed that 32% of paternal meiotic errors occurred in meiosis I (MI) and 68% in meiosis II (MII). We confirmed the lack of a paternal age association with either type of error (mean paternal age for controls, MI, and MII errors: 31.3 +/- 6.6, 32.2 +/- 6.3, 30.6 +/- 6.5, respectively). However, contrary to previous findings, we did not find altered patterns of recombination among paternal MI or MII errors. We found an increased male/female sex ratio among paternal (1.28, 95% CI: 0.68-1.91) and maternal (1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33) meiotic errors. While the sex ratio among individuals with paternal errors was not statistically significant, these findings suggest that selection against female fetuses with trisomy 21 may contribute to the excess of males observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. PMID:19606484

  18. Investigation of Factors Associated With Paternal Nondisjunction of Chromosome 21

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Tiffany Renee; Bhise, Archit; Feingold, Eleanor; Tinker, Stuart; Masse, Nirupama; Sherman, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on relatively small samples of individuals with trisomy 21 caused by paternally derived errors have shown that: (1) advanced paternal age is not a risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction (NDJ), (2) absence of recombination, but not the location of recombination is associated with paternal NDJ and (3) there is an excess of males among live-births with paternally derived trisomy 21. An excess of males is also observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. Using 128 families that had a child with trisomy 21 due to a paternally derived error, we examined: paternal age, recombination and the male/female sex ratio. We genotyped STRs along 21q to identify the origin of the error and the location of recombination on the paternal chromosome. Results showed that 32% of paternal meiotic errors occurred in meiosis I (MI) and 68% in meiosis II (MII). We confirmed the lack of a paternal age association with either type of error (mean paternal age for controls, MI, and MII errors: 31.3 ± 6.6, 32.2 ± 6.3, 30.6 ± 6.5, respectively). However, contrary to previous findings, we did not find altered patterns of recombination among paternal MI or MII errors. We found an increased male/female sex ratio among paternal (1.28, 95% CI: 0.68–1.91) and maternal (1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.33) meiotic errors. While the sex ratio among individuals with paternal errors was not statistically significant, these findings suggest that selection against female fetuses with trisomy 21 may contribute to the excess of males observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. PMID:19606484

  19. The study of relatedness and genetic diversity in cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Dessauer, H.C.; Longmire, J.; Briles, W.E.; Simon, R.C.; Wood, Don A.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) is responsible for recovery of endangered species in the wild and, when necessary, maintenance in captivity. These programs provide an immediate measure of insurance against extinction. A prerequisite inherent in all of these programs is the preservation of enough genetic diversity to maintain a viable population and to maintain the capacity of the population to respond to change. Measures of genetic diversity examine polymorphic genes that are not influenced by selection pressures. Examples of these techniques and those used to determine relatedness are discussed. Studies of genetic diversity, electrophoresis of blood proteins, relatedness, blood typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms which are being used by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center are discussed in detail.

  20. Shared decision making, paternalism and patient choice.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In patient centred care, shared decision making is a central feature and widely referred to as a norm for patient centred medical consultation. However, it is far from clear how to distinguish SDM from standard models and ideals for medical decision making, such as paternalism and patient choice, and e.g., whether paternalism and patient choice can involve a greater degree of the sort of sharing involved in SDM and still retain their essential features. In the article, different versions of SDM are explored, versions compatible with paternalism and patient choice as well as versions that go beyond these traditional decision making models. Whenever SDM is discussed or introduced it is of importance to be clear over which of these different versions are being pursued, since they connect to basic values and ideals of health care in different ways. It is further argued that we have reason to pursue versions of SDM involving, what is called, a high level dynamics in medical decision-making. This leaves four alternative models to choose between depending on how we balance between the values of patient best interest, patient autonomy, and an effective decision in terms of patient compliance or adherence: Shared Rational Deliberative Patient Choice, Shared Rational Deliberative Paternalism, Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision, and Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise. In relation to these models it is argued that we ideally should use the Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision model. However, when the patient and professional fail to reach consensus we will have reason to pursue the Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise model since this will best harmonise between the different values at stake: patient best interest, patient autonomy, patient adherence and a continued care relationship.

  1. Deduction of paternity index from DNA mixture.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiang Hai; Lau, Tai Shang; Ngan, Karenda Fai Ngor; Wang, Jun

    2002-08-28

    Determination of individual genotypes in DNA mixture remains a challenge in forensic science. Using an approach of mixture of distributions, this article provides formula for calculation of paternity index (PI) in cases where only tissue mixture of the mother and alleged father, the genotypes of the mother and child, but not that of the alleged father are available. The formula has been used to solve a real case using mother's vaginal tissue contaminated with semen from alleged father.

  2. Paternity testing using microsatellite DNA markers in captive Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Sakaoka, Ken; Suzuki, Isao; Kasugai, Naeko; Fukumoto, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the paternity of 39 Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) hatched at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium between 1995 and 2005 breeding seasons using microsatellite DNA markers. Among the 13 microsatellite marker loci tested in this study, eight markers amplified and were found to be polymorphic in the colony's founders of the captive population (n = 26). Multiple marker analysis confirmed that all the hatchlings shared alleles with their social fathers and that none of them were sired by any male (all males ≥4 years old in the exhibit tank during each reproductive season; n = 9-15) other than the one carrying out parental duties, except in the case of two inbred hatchlings whose half-sibling parents shared the same father. These results demonstrated that extra-pair paternity (EPP) did not occur in this captive population and that even if EPP has been detected among them, the probability of excluding all other possible fathers in the exhibit tank is extremely high based on paternity exclusion probabilities across the investigated loci. The paternity exclusion probabilities were almost the same between 1994 and 2005. The probability of identity across the investigated loci declined between the two time points, but was still high. These results are reflected in a very short history of breeding in this captive population. In other words, the parentage analyses using a suite of microsatellite markers will be less effective as generations change in small closed populations, such as zoo and aquarium populations.

  3. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    PubMed

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection. PMID:27494031

  4. Genetic relatedness of Trichomonas vaginalis reference and clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Denise C; Mena, Leandro; Lushbaugh, William B; Meade, John C

    2010-12-01

    We have determined the metronidazole susceptibility status of 20 Trichomonas vaginalis isolates from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and assessed the level of genetic relatedness in these isolates using 32 additional T. vaginalis clinical isolates for comparison. These ATCC isolates are commonly used as reference strains in T. vaginalis research and this information provides a rational basis for selection of reference strains for use in comparative studies of T. vaginalis phenotypic and clinical characteristics. PMID:21118935

  5. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations

    PubMed Central

    Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28–45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0–69.1% common alleles and 45.6–48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8–77.0% common alleles and 51.7–60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection. PMID:27494031

  6. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    PubMed

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  7. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

  8. Making pathogens sociable: The emergence of high relatedness through limited host invasibility

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Edwin; O'Neill, Sarah; Matthews, Andrew; Raymond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation depends upon high relatedness, the high genetic similarity of interacting partners relative to the wider population. For pathogenic bacteria, which show diverse cooperative traits, the population processes that determine relatedness are poorly understood. Here, we explore whether within-host dynamics can produce high relatedness in the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. We study the effects of host/pathogen interactions on relatedness via a model of host invasion and fit parameters to competition experiments with marked strains. We show that invasibility is a key parameter for determining relatedness and experimentally demonstrate the emergence of high relatedness from well-mixed inocula. We find that a single infection cycle results in a bottleneck with a similar level of relatedness to those previously reported in the field. The bottlenecks that are a product of widespread barriers to infection can therefore produce the population structure required for the evolution of cooperative virulence. PMID:26125685

  9. How Children’s Educational Outcomes and Criminality Vary by Duration and Frequency of Paternal Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies of the consequences of paternal incarceration for children treat paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event (a child either experiences paternal incarceration or does not), although effects could accumulate with both the frequency and duration of paternal incarcerations. In this article I use register data on Danish children from birth cohort 1991, some of whom experienced paternal incarceration before age 15, to show how educational outcomes and criminality up to age 20 vary by frequency and total duration of paternal incarceration. The high quality of Danish register data also allows me to distinguish between paternal arrest and paternal incarceration and to show results for the total duration of paternal incarcerations conditioned on frequency of paternal incarceration. Results show that educational outcomes and criminality indeed correlate with duration and frequency of paternal incarceration, indicating that treating paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event blurs important heterogeneity in the consequences of paternal incarceration. PMID:27471324

  10. The effects of categorical relatedness on judgements of learning (JOLs).

    PubMed

    Matvey, Greg; Dunlosky, John; Schwartz, Bennett L

    2006-02-01

    On-line monitoring during study can be influenced by the relatedness shared between the cue and target of a paired associate. We examined the effects on people's judgements of learning (JOLs) of a different kind of relatedness, which occurs in a list organised into sets of categorically related words and unrelated words. In two experiments, participants studied a list of words organised into a series of sets of four categorically related words or four unrelated words. In Experiment 1, JOLs were made immediately after each word had been studied, and JOL magnitude was greater for related than unrelated words. In Experiment 2, JOLs were delayed after study and, as expected, they were substantially greater for related sets of words. Serial position effects (an increase in JOL magnitude across the words of a related set) were evident with immediate JOLs but not with delayed JOLs. The relatedness effect was not present early in the list for immediate JOLs but was present throughout the list for delayed JOLs. We conclude by discussing some preliminary explanations for these new phenomena.

  11. Kin selection and polygyny: can relatedness lower the polygyny threshold?

    PubMed Central

    Grønstøl, Gaute; Blomqvist, Donald; Pauliny, Angela; Wagner, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Resource polygyny incurs costs of having to share breeding resources for female breeders. When breeding with a relative, however, such costs may be lessened by indirect fitness benefits through kin selection, while benefits from mutualistic behaviour, such as communal defence, may increase. If so, females should be less resistant to sharing a territory with a related female than with a non-related one. We investigated whether kin selection may lower the threshold of breeding polygynously, predicting a closer relatedness between polygynous females breeding on the same territory than between females breeding on different territories. Northern lapwings, Vanellus vanellus, are suitable for testing this hypothesis as they are commonly polygynous, both sexes take part in nest defence, and the efficiency of nest defence increases with the number of defenders. Using an index of relatedness derived from DNA fingerprinting, we found that female lapwings that shared polygynous dyads were on average twice as closely related as were random females. Furthermore, relatedness did not correlate with distance between breeders, indicating that our findings cannot be explained by natal philopatry alone. Our results suggest that the polygyny threshold in lapwings may be lowered by inclusive fitness advantages of kin selection. PMID:26543568

  12. Kin selection and polygyny: can relatedness lower the polygyny threshold?

    PubMed

    Grønstøl, Gaute; Blomqvist, Donald; Pauliny, Angela; Wagner, Richard H

    2015-06-01

    Resource polygyny incurs costs of having to share breeding resources for female breeders. When breeding with a relative, however, such costs may be lessened by indirect fitness benefits through kin selection, while benefits from mutualistic behaviour, such as communal defence, may increase. If so, females should be less resistant to sharing a territory with a related female than with a non-related one. We investigated whether kin selection may lower the threshold of breeding polygynously, predicting a closer relatedness between polygynous females breeding on the same territory than between females breeding on different territories. Northern lapwings, Vanellus vanellus, are suitable for testing this hypothesis as they are commonly polygynous, both sexes take part in nest defence, and the efficiency of nest defence increases with the number of defenders. Using an index of relatedness derived from DNA fingerprinting, we found that female lapwings that shared polygynous dyads were on average twice as closely related as were random females. Furthermore, relatedness did not correlate with distance between breeders, indicating that our findings cannot be explained by natal philopatry alone. Our results suggest that the polygyny threshold in lapwings may be lowered by inclusive fitness advantages of kin selection. PMID:26543568

  13. The relatedness-of-meaning effect for ambiguous words in lexical-decision tasks: when does relatedness matter?

    PubMed

    Hino, Yasushi; Kusunose, Yuu; Lupker, Stephen J

    2010-09-01

    Effects of the number of meanings (NOM) and the relatedness of those meanings (ROM) were examined for Japanese Katakana words using a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, only a NOM advantage was observed. In Experiment 2, the same Katakana words produced a ROM advantage when Kanji words and nonwords were added. Because the Kanji nonwords consisted of unrelated characters whereas the Kanji words consisted of related characters, participants may have used the relatedness of activated meanings as a cue in making lexical decisions in this experiment, artificially creating a ROM advantage for Katakana words. Consistent with this explanation, no ROM effect for Katakana words was observed in Experiment 3 when the Kanji nonwords consisted of characters with similar (i.e., related) meanings. These results pose a further challenge to the position that the speed of semantic coding is modulated by ROM for ambiguous words. PMID:20873915

  14. Addressing policy barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Alio, Amina P; Bond, M Jermane; Padilla, Yolanda C; Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Lu, Michael; Parker, Willie J

    2011-05-01

    Efforts to reduce infant mortality in the United States have failed to incorporate paternal involvement. Research suggests that paternal involvement, which has been recognized as contributing to child development and health for many decades, is likely to affect infant mortality through the mother's well-being, primarily her access to resources and support. In spite of that, systemic barriers facing the father and the influence on his involvement in the pregnancy have received little attention. The Commission on Paternal Involvement in Pregnancy Outcomes (CPIPO) has identified the most important social barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy and outlined a set of key policy priorities aimed at fostering paternal involvement. This article summarizes the key recommendations, including equitable paternity leave, elimination of marriage as a tax and public assistance penalty, integration of fatherhood initiatives in MCH programs, support of low-income fathers through employment training, father inclusion in family planning services, and expansion of birth data collection to include father information. PMID:21472512

  15. Families, murder, and insanity: a psychiatric review of paternal neonaticide.

    PubMed

    Kaye, N S; Borenstein, N M; Donnelly, S M

    1990-01-01

    Neonaticide is the killing of a newborn within the first 24 h of life. Although relatively uncommon, numerous cases of maternal neonaticide have been reported. To date, only two cases of paternal neonaticide have appeared in the literature. The authors review neonaticide and present two new case reports of paternal neonaticide. A psychodynamic explanation of paternal neonaticide is formulated. A new definition for neonaticide, more consistent with biological and psychological determinants, is suggested.

  16. Paternal Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Other Phenols in Relation to Reproductive Outcomes among Couples from a Fertility Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Laura E.; Williams, Paige L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Toth, Thomas L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human exposure to phenols, including bisphenol A and parabens, is widespread. Evidence suggests that paternal exposure to environmental chemicals may adversely affect reproductive outcomes. Objectives We evaluated associations of paternal phenol urinary concentrations with fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth. Methods Male–female couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in a prospective study of environmental determinants of fertility and pregnancy outcomes were included. The geometric mean of males’ specific gravity–adjusted urinary phenol concentrations measured before females’ cycle was quantified. Associations between male urinary phenol concentrations and fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth were investigated using generalized linear mixed models to account for multiple cycles per couple. Results Couples (n = 218) underwent 195 IUI and 211 IVF cycles. Paternal phenol concentrations were not associated with fertilization or live birth following IVF. In adjusted models, compared with the lowest quartile of methyl paraben, paternal concentrations in the second quartile were associated with decreased odds of live birth following IUI (adjusted odds ratio = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.82). Conclusions To our knowledge, these are some of the first data on the association of paternal urinary phenol concentrations with reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. Although these results do not preclude possible adverse effects of paternal paraben exposures on such outcomes, given the modest sample size, further understanding could result from confirmation using a larger and more diverse population. Citation Dodge LE, Williams PL, Williams MA, Missmer SA, Toth TL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2015. Paternal urinary concentrations of parabens and other phenols in relation to reproductive outcomes among couples from a fertility clinic. Environ Health Perspect 123

  17. Reporting for duty: the paternal function and clinical formulations.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nick

    2015-02-01

    The author highlights some developments in the theory of the preoedipal paternal function and paternal functionary and incorporates these ideas in developing clinical formulations for four clinical cases that privilege the preoedipal paternal function. In particular, four aspects of the preoedipal paternal function are identified, and for each a clinical case is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of widening clinical formulations to ensure clinicians have the widest possible set of clinical ideas and hence interventions and techniques at their fingertips. PMID:25688683

  18. Relatedness among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi drives plant growth and intraspecific fungal coexistence.

    PubMed

    Roger, Aurélien; Colard, Alexandre; Angelard, Caroline; Sanders, Ian R

    2013-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with most plant species. They are ecologically important determinants of plant growth and diversity. Considerable genetic variation occurs in AMF populations. Thus, plants are exposed to AMF of varying relatedness to each other. Very little is known about either the effects of coexisting AMF on plant growth or which factors influence intraspecific AMF coexistence within roots. No studies have addressed whether the genetics of coexisting AMF, and more specifically their relatedness, influences plant growth and AMF coexistence. Relatedness is expected to influence coexistence between individuals, and it has been suggested that decreasing ability of symbionts to coexist can have negative effects on the growth of the host. We tested the effect of a gradient of AMF genetic relatedness on the growth of two plant species. Increasing relatedness between AMFs lead to markedly greater plant growth (27% biomass increase with closely related compared to distantly related AMF). In one plant species, closely related AMF coexisted in fairly equal proportions but decreasing relatedness lead to a very strong disequilibrium between AMF in roots, indicating much stronger competition. Given the strength of the effects with such a shallow relatedness gradient and the fact that in the field plants are exposed to a steeper gradient, we consider that AMF relatedness can have a strong role in plant growth and the ability of AMF to coexist. We conclude that AMF relatedness is a driver of plant growth and that relatedness is also a strong driver of intraspecific coexistence of these ecologically important symbionts. PMID:23823490

  19. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating. PMID:25251734

  20. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  1. Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism

    PubMed Central

    Birks, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133

  2. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    PubMed

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  3. Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

    2006-01-01

    We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

  4. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

  5. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  6. Inherited alleles revealing an incestuous paternity.

    PubMed

    Jankova-Ajanovska, R; Jakovski, Z; Janeska, B; Simjanovska, L; Duma, A

    2010-01-01

    Some rape cases result in the pregnancy of the victim and if the case is not reported to the police after the act with a subsequent gynaecological examination of the girl and the taking of a vaginal swab, there is no way of connecting the rape case with the perpetrator, except by parentage determination using DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis after abortion or induced delivery. In order to solve the rape case of a minor girl of 14 years which resulted with pregnancy, where a 60-year-old man was accused of the rape, DNA was extracted from blood samples from the girl and the putative assailant and from the foetus after its induced delivery. The autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) typing for 15 different loci showed differences in 6 STR loci between the putative assailant as a father and the foetus, thus excluding the tested paternity. A large number of identical loci between the mother's and the child's genotype led us to consider the possibility of incestuous paternity. Analysis of DNA samples from the girl's father and brother clarified the case as brother-sister incest.

  7. Inherited alleles revealing an incestuous paternity.

    PubMed

    Jankova-Ajanovska, R; Jakovski, Z; Janeska, B; Simjanovska, L; Duma, A

    2010-01-01

    Some rape cases result in the pregnancy of the victim and if the case is not reported to the police after the act with a subsequent gynaecological examination of the girl and the taking of a vaginal swab, there is no way of connecting the rape case with the perpetrator, except by parentage determination using DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis after abortion or induced delivery. In order to solve the rape case of a minor girl of 14 years which resulted with pregnancy, where a 60-year-old man was accused of the rape, DNA was extracted from blood samples from the girl and the putative assailant and from the foetus after its induced delivery. The autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) typing for 15 different loci showed differences in 6 STR loci between the putative assailant as a father and the foetus, thus excluding the tested paternity. A large number of identical loci between the mother's and the child's genotype led us to consider the possibility of incestuous paternity. Analysis of DNA samples from the girl's father and brother clarified the case as brother-sister incest. PMID:21258293

  8. Kinetics and specificity of paternal mitochondrial elimination in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-09-01

    In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME.

  9. Kinetics and specificity of paternal mitochondrial elimination in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME. PMID:27581092

  10. Kinetics and specificity of paternal mitochondrial elimination in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME. PMID:27581092

  11. Relatedness among honeybees (Apis mellifera) of a drone congregation

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, E.; Solignac, M.; Garnery, L.; Gries, M.; Cornuet, J.-M.; Koeniger, N.

    1998-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) queen mates during nuptial flights, in the so-called drone congregation area where many males from surrounding colonies gather. Using 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we studied a sample of 142 drones captured in a congregation close to Oberursel (Germany). A parentage test based on lod score showed that this sample contained one group of four brothers, six groups of three brothers, 20 groups of two brothers and 80 singletons. These values are very close to a Poisson distribution. Therefore, colonies were apparently equally represented in the drone congregation, and calculations showed that the congregation comprised males that originated from about 240 different colonies. This figure is surprisingly high. Considering the density of colonies around the congregation area and the average flight range of males, it suggests that most colonies within the recruitment perimeter delegated drones to the congregation with an equal probability, resulting in an almost perfect panmixis. Consequently, the relatedness between a queen and her mates, and hence the inbreeding coefficient of the progeny, should be minimized. The relatedness among the drones mated to the same queen is also very low, maximizing the genetic diversity among the different patrilines of a colony.

  12. Admixed origin of the Kayah (Red Karen) in Northern Thailand revealed by biparental and paternal markers.

    PubMed

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Srikummool, Metawee; Pittayaporn, Pittayawat; Seielstad, Mark; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Kumar, Vikrant; Prombanchachai, Thanawut; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) variation and the presence of Y chromosomal haplogroups from 44 individuals of the Kayah or Red Karen (KA) in Northern Thailand. The results based on autosomal STRs indicated that the KA exhibited closer genetic relatedness to populations from adjacent regions in Southeast Asia (SEA) than populations from Northeast Asia (NEA) and Tibet. Moreover, an admixed origin of the KA forming three population groups was observed: NEA, Southern China, and Northern Thailand. The NEA populations made a minor genetic contribution to the KA, while the rest came from populations speaking Sino-Tibetan (ST) languages from Southern China and Tai-Kadai (TK) speaking groups from Northern Thailand. The presence of six paternal haplogroups, composed of dual haplogroups prevalent in NEA (NO, N, and D1) and SEA (O2 and O3) as well as the intermediate genetic position of the KA between the SEA and NEA also indicated an admixed origin of male KA lineages. Our genetic results thus agree with findings in linguistics that Karenic languages are ST languages that became heavily influenced by TK during their southward spread. A result of the Mongol invasions during the 13th century A.D. is one possible explanation for genetic contribution of NEA to the KA.

  13. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  14. Medical paternalism serves the patient best.

    PubMed

    Lim, L S

    2002-03-01

    It seems obvious that in a post-modern, constructivist world where meaning and value systems are often subjective and relative, any absolutist view is likely to be questionable. This is more so if it relates to ethics, the foundations, interpretation and application of which have been and continue to be much debated. So, in addressing the proposition, my efforts were directed at identifying a position that would mediate polarity. I examined the contention that the doctor, because he is better informed, may claim greater acuity and powers of judgment, and its defences against the charge of interfering with individual liberty and autonomy through various arguments such as the harm principle, the welfare, the principle of legal moralism and the appeal to uncertainty. While there is some validity to the arguments proposed, absolute paternalism would seem incompatible with respect for individual rights. How satisfactory, then, is the paradigm shift from paternalism to the independent choice model where the doctor presents neutral statistics as little biased as possible by his own views and judgments and leaves the decision making entirely to the patient or his/her relatives. This clearly had its limitations too. As with much of human experience, the answer would seem to rest in mediating the happy mean. Recognising a distinction between autonomy (self-determination) and independence (total freedom of choice without any interference) allows for a model of qualified independence or "enhanced autonomy" (Quill & Brody, 1996). This is predicated on doctor-patient dialogue, exchange of ideas/views, negotiation of differences, and sharing power and influence for the common purpose of serving the patient's best interest. This model would seem to be a responsible and effective approach to management of clinical dilemmas, as well as one that in its pluralistic approach is consistent with fundamental moral and philosophic propositions. It is by no means flawless, but in an

  15. Medical paternalism serves the patient best.

    PubMed

    Lim, L S

    2002-03-01

    It seems obvious that in a post-modern, constructivist world where meaning and value systems are often subjective and relative, any absolutist view is likely to be questionable. This is more so if it relates to ethics, the foundations, interpretation and application of which have been and continue to be much debated. So, in addressing the proposition, my efforts were directed at identifying a position that would mediate polarity. I examined the contention that the doctor, because he is better informed, may claim greater acuity and powers of judgment, and its defences against the charge of interfering with individual liberty and autonomy through various arguments such as the harm principle, the welfare, the principle of legal moralism and the appeal to uncertainty. While there is some validity to the arguments proposed, absolute paternalism would seem incompatible with respect for individual rights. How satisfactory, then, is the paradigm shift from paternalism to the independent choice model where the doctor presents neutral statistics as little biased as possible by his own views and judgments and leaves the decision making entirely to the patient or his/her relatives. This clearly had its limitations too. As with much of human experience, the answer would seem to rest in mediating the happy mean. Recognising a distinction between autonomy (self-determination) and independence (total freedom of choice without any interference) allows for a model of qualified independence or "enhanced autonomy" (Quill & Brody, 1996). This is predicated on doctor-patient dialogue, exchange of ideas/views, negotiation of differences, and sharing power and influence for the common purpose of serving the patient's best interest. This model would seem to be a responsible and effective approach to management of clinical dilemmas, as well as one that in its pluralistic approach is consistent with fundamental moral and philosophic propositions. It is by no means flawless, but in an

  16. Consequences of paternal cocaine exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Lidow, Irina A; Lidow, Michael S

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the potential neuroteratological effects of paternal cocaine (COC) exposure using the novel mouse model of inhalational drug administration. In this model, mice were trained to self-administer COC in multi-hour daily inhalation sessions reminiscent of crack binges. The controls included males pair-fed with COC-inhaling animals as well as ad-lib-fed males. All males were bred with drug-naive females. The newborn pups sired by COC-inhaling males had a reduced biparietal head diameter, suggesting a decreased cerebral volume. When the pups reached adulthood, their sustained visuo-spatial attention and spatial working memory were tested using a 5-arm maze paradigm. During the attention tests, the percentage of correct trials at the shortest stimulus duration employed in the study (0.5 s) was significantly lower for the male offspring of COC-inhaling fathers as compared to the offspring of both pair-fed and ad-lib-fed controls. For the females sired by COC-inhaling fathers, the deficit was observed at light stimulus durations of 0.5 and 0.75 s. Also, during the working memory tests, the male offspring of COC-inhaling fathers required more sessions than the offspring of either pair-fed or ad-lib-fed fathers to reach the selected criterion at retention intervals of 16 min and longer. The impairment of working memory in female offspring of COC-inhaling fathers was even stronger, as the offspring needed more sessions to reach the criterion as compared to their control counterparts, even at retention intervals as short as 4 min. These findings suggest that paternal COC abuse prior to coitus may impact the development of the offspring, particularly if they are females. We further showed that chronic COC exposure in male mice does not result in substantial breakage of spermatozoal DNA, but significantly alters expression of DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3a in the germ cell-rich seminiferous tubules of the testis. Since these enzymes are essential for

  17. The inherent paternalism in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wulff, H R

    1995-06-01

    It is sometimes suggested that the physician should offer the patient "just the facts," preferably in a "value-free manner," explain the different options, and then leave it to the patient to make the choice. This paper explores the extent to which this adviser model is realistic. The clinical decision process and the various components of clinical reasoning are discussed, and a distinction is made between the biological, empirical, empathic/hermeneutic and ethical components. The discussion is based on the ethical norms of the public health services in the Nordic countries, and the problems are illustrated by a clinical example. It is concluded that the adviser model is unrealistic. Patient information is important, but the complexity of clinical reasoning makes it impossible to separate facts and value judgments. It is claimed that there is an inherent element of paternalism in clinical decision-making and that clinical practice presupposes a mutual trust between physician and patient. PMID:7658175

  18. Medical maternalism: beyond paternalism and antipaternalism.

    PubMed

    Specker Sullivan, Laura

    2016-07-01

    This paper argues that the concept of paternalism is currently overextended to include a variety of actions that, while resembling paternalistic actions, are importantly different. I use the example of Japanese physicians' non-disclosures of cancer diagnoses directly to patients, arguing that the concept of maternalism better captures these actions. To act paternalistically is to substitute one's own judgement for that of another person and decide in place of that person for his/her best interest. By contrast, to act maternalistically is to decide for another person based on a reasonable understanding of that person's own preferences. The concept of maternalism allows for a more thorough assessment of the moral justification of these types of actions. I conclude that it is possible, at least in principle, to justify Japanese physicians' non-disclosures, and that this justification must be based on an understanding of these actions as maternalistic.

  19. Student Perceptions and Motivation in the Classroom: Exploring Relatedness and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette; Dodge, Tonya

    2009-01-01

    According to Self-Determination Theory, feelings of relatedness and value of a behavior are critical factors that affect internalization and integration. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors that influence relatedness and value in an academic setting. Specifically, the study investigated the effects of autonomy, mastery goals,…

  20. Peers and Teachers as Sources of Relatedness Perceptions, Motivation, and Affective Responses in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality)…

  1. Urban High-School Girls' Sense of Relatedness and Their Engagement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane; Garn, Alex C.

    2012-01-01

    A sense of relatedness is individuals' views about themselves as connected to others and worthy of love and respect from others. Using the Self-System Model of Motivational Development as the framework, this study was designed to examine associations of urban high-school girls' relatedness toward teachers and peers with their behavioral and…

  2. Coordination, Competition, and Neutrality: Autonomy and Relatedness Patterns in Girls' Interactions with Mentors and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Christine L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Das, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Healthy development necessitates that adolescents maintain connections with others while developing an autonomous identity. In the extant literature, however, autonomy and relatedness are often placed at odds, particularly in discussions of girls. We explore how autonomy and relatedness co-occur in girls' interactions with peers and mentors in the…

  3. Applying the nursing theory of human relatedness to alcoholism and recovery in alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.

  4. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  5. Relatedness and helping in fish: examining the theoretical predictions

    PubMed Central

    Stiver, Kelly A; Dierkes, Petra; Taborsky, Michael; Lisle Gibbs, H; Balshine, Sigal

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to explain the evolution of cooperation, yet little attention has been paid to what factors control the amount or kind of cooperation performed. Kin selection theory suggests that more cooperation, or help, should be given by relatives. However, recent theory suggests that under specific ecological and demographic conditions, unrelated individuals must ‘pay to stay’ in the group and therefore may help more. We tested these contrasting predictions using the cooperatively breeding fish, Neolamprologus pulcher, and found that the degree of work effort by helpers depended on which helping behaviours were considered and on their level of relatedness to the breeding male or female. In the field, helpers unrelated to the breeding male performed more territory defence, while helpers unrelated to the breeding female contributed less to territory defence. In the laboratory, unrelated group members helped more. Our work demonstrates that a number of factors in addition to kinship shape cooperative investment patterns. PMID:16048775

  6. Paternalism and levels of knowledge: a comment on Rainbolt.

    PubMed

    Ten, C L

    1989-04-01

    In an article in the January 1989 issue of Bioethics, George W. Rainbolt argued that prescription drug laws are justified as examples of permissible hard paternalism, which allows interference with people's voluntary choices, but that they cannot be justified as soft paternalism, which permits interference with people's conduct only when their choices are insufficiently voluntary. In this comment, Ten contends that Rainbolt's case against soft paternalism fails because Rainbolt does not pay sufficient attention to the relationship between first-level knowledge and metaknowledge and to the different requirements of voluntary risk-taking. PMID:11649243

  7. SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIRTHPLACE OF PATERNAL AND MATERNAL GRANDFATHER IN THE JERUSALEM PERINATAL COHORT PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D

    2009-01-01

    Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifest in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964–76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3–2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0–2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3–0.8 and 0.4, 0.2–0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc “hypothesis-generating” findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome. PMID:19361958

  8. Paternally Inherited Gsα Mutation Impairs Adipogenesis and Potentiates a Lean Phenotype In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jan-jan; Russell, Elizabeth; Zhang, Deyu; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Pignolo, Robert J.; Shore, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Paternally inherited inactivating mutations of the GNAS gene have been associated with a rare and disabling genetic disorder, progressive osseous heteroplasia, in which heterotopic ossification occurs within extraskeletal soft tissues, such as skin, subcutaneous fat, and skeletal muscle. This ectopic bone formation is hypothesized to be caused by dysregulated mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation that affects a bipotential osteogenic-adipogenic lineage cell fate switch. Interestingly, patients with paternally inherited inactivating mutations of GNAS are uniformly lean. Using a mouse model of Gsα-specific exon 1 disruption, we examined whether heterozygous inactivation of Gnas affects adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells from subcutaneous adipose tissues (fat pad). We found that paternally inherited Gsα inactivation (Gsα+/p−) impairs adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). The Gsα+/p− mutation in ASCs also decreased expression of the adipogenic factors CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)β, C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and adipocyte protein 2. Impaired adipocyte differentiation was rescued by an adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, and provided evidence that Gsα-cAMP signals are necessary in early stages of this process. Supporting a role for Gnas in adipogenesis in vivo, fat tissue weight and expression of adipogenic genes from multiple types of adipose tissues from Gsα+/p− mice were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the inhibition of adipogenesis by paternally inherited Gsα mutation also enhances expression of the osteogenic factors, msh homeobox 2, runt-related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin. These data support the hypothesis that Gsα plays a critical role in regulating the balance between fat and bone determination in soft tissues, a finding that has important implications for a wide variety of disorders of osteogenesis and adipogenesis. PMID

  9. The relation between thematic role computing and semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Haiyan; Lu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Sentence comprehension involves timely computing different types of relations between its verbs and noun arguments, such as morphosyntactic, semantic, and thematic relations. Here, we used EEG technique to investigate the potential differences in thematic role computing and lexical-semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension, and the interaction between these two types of processes. Mandarin Chinese sentences were used as materials. The basic structure of those sentences is "Noun+Verb+'le'+a two-character word", with the Noun being the initial argument. The verb disambiguates the initial argument as an agent or a patient. Meanwhile, the initial argument and the verb are highly or lowly semantically related. The ERPs at the verbs revealed that: relative to the agent condition, the patient condition evoked a larger N400 only when the argument and verb were lowly semantically related; however, relative to the high-relatedness condition, the low-relatedness condition elicited a larger N400 regardless of the thematic relation; although both thematic role variation and semantic relatedness variation elicited N400 effects, the N400 effect elicited by the former was broadly distributed and reached maximum over the frontal electrodes, and the N400 effect elicited by the latter had a posterior distribution. In addition, the brain oscillations results showed that, although thematic role variation (patient vs. agent) induced power decreases around the beta frequency band (15-30 Hz), semantic relatedness variation (low-relatedness vs. high-relatedness) induced power increases in the theta frequency band (4-7 Hz). These results suggested that, in the sentence context, thematic role computing is modulated by the semantic relatedness between the verb and its argument; semantic relatedness processing, however, is in some degree independent from the thematic relations. Moreover, our results indicated that, during on-line sentence comprehension, thematic

  10. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis

    PubMed Central

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  11. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis.

    PubMed

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0(DSS)), or non-supplemented tap water (F0(Ctrl)) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0(DSS) males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0(DSS) mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0(Ctrl) males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  12. Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rascati, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

  13. Paternal postpartum depression: what health care providers should know.

    PubMed

    Musser, Anna K; Ahmed, Azza H; Foli, Karen J; Coddington, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched. In comparison, PPD in fathers and its potential effects on the family are not widely recognized. Studies have shown the importance of optimal mental health in fathers during the postpartum period. Negative effects of paternal PPD affect marital/partner relationships, infant bonding, and child development. To promote optimal health for parents and children, pediatric nurse practitioners must stay up to date on this topic. This article discusses the relationship of paternal PPD to maternal PPD; the consequences, signs, and symptoms; and the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in assessing and managing paternal PPD.

  14. A defence of medical paternalism: maximising patients' autonomy.

    PubMed Central

    Komrad, M S

    1983-01-01

    All illness represents a state of diminished autonomy and therefore the doctor-patient relationship necessarily and justifiably involves a degree of medical paternalism argues the author, an American medical student. In a broad-ranging paper he discusses the concepts of autonomy and paternalism in the context of the doctor-patient relationship. Given the necessary diminution of autonomy which illness inflicts, a limited form of medical paternalism, aimed at restoring or maximising the patient's autonomy is entirely acceptable, and indeed fundamental to the relationship he argues. However, the exercise of this paternalism should be flexible and related to the current 'level of autonomy' of the patient himself. An editorial in this issue comments briefly on this paper. PMID:6834402

  15. Paternal RNA contributions in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckius, Marlon; Grün, Dominic; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Development of the early embryo is thought to be mainly driven by maternal gene products and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Here, we used metabolic labeling to show that RNA can be transferred by sperm into the oocyte upon fertilization. To identify genes with paternal expression in the embryo, we performed crosses of males and females from divergent Caenorhabditis elegans strains. RNA sequencing of mRNAs and small RNAs in the 1-cell hybrid embryo revealed that about one hundred sixty paternal mRNAs are reproducibly expressed in the embryo and that about half of all assayed endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs are also of paternal origin. Together, our results suggest an unexplored paternal contribution to early development. PMID:24894551

  16. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  17. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-11-01

    Early - intrauterine - environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life.

  18. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    PubMed

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  19. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Natasha B.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2009-01-01

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness. PMID:19520802

  20. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-01

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness. PMID:19520802

  1. The role of associative strength in the semantic relatedness effect on immediate serial recall.

    PubMed

    Tse, Chi-Shing

    2009-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of semantic relatedness on immediate serial recall. The type of semantic relatedness was manipulated by using lists of study items that are or are not from the same category (e.g., apple, banana, grape), and/or lists of study items that are or are not associated with each other (e.g., honey, sugar, sour). Whether the type of semantic relatedness was manipulated within or between participants, positive categorical and associative relatedness effects occurred in percent serial recall and negative categorical and associative relatedness effects occurred in order retention after the level of item recall was controlled. The R parameters, which were estimated by fitting Schweickert's (1993) multinomial processing tree model to the percent serial recall data, indicated a positive semantic relatedness effect on item redintegration. Regression analyses further showed that inter-item associative strength significantly predicts the percent serial recall after partialling out the effect of types of semantic relatedness or theme-item associative strength. Both Hulme et al.'s (1997) item redintegration theory and Stuart and Hulme's (2000) associative-link hypothesis are discussed.

  2. The absence of the paternal penis.

    PubMed

    Elise, D

    1998-01-01

    Girls' experiences of object loss, in conjunction with female anatomical structure, may lend themselves to a particular genital anxiety regarding openness and emptiness. The relational void in giving up the mother as love object may lead to an internal self-representation of a "hole" to be filled, much as the mouth sucks the pacifier in the absence of the nipple. This image may then be extended to the genital representation. In turning to the father, a girl may find that she lacks a relationship with him in the relational space opened up by the loss of the mother; the penis is symbolically withheld from her in the father's relational distance. This lack of sexual and relational gratification, it is proposed, may be schematized by a female as her body being empty of something. The father's absence--the absence of the paternal penis--may lead to an absence of the mental representation of the vagina and to an inhibition of the role the vagina then plays for a woman in sexual desire. Vaginal repression may serve to disguise object hunger that might otherwise be experienced as vaginal longing. An abbreviated clinical vignette, revolving around a masturbatory fantasy, is offered in partial illustration of the thesis.

  3. Paternal Transmission of Stressed-Induced Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, David M.; LaPlant, Quincey; Watts, Emily L.; Hodes, Georgia E.; Russo, Scott J.; Feng, Jian; Oosting, Ronald S.; Vialou, Vincent; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been recent interest in the possibility that epigenetic mechanisms might contribute to the trans-generational transmission of stress-induced vulnerability. Here, we focused on possible paternal transmission using the social defeat stress paradigm. Methods Adult male mice exposed to chronic social defeat stress, or control non-defeated mice, were bred with normal female mice and their offspring were assessed behaviorally for depressive- and anxiety-like measures. Plasma levels of corticosterone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also assayed. To directly assess the role of epigenetic mechanisms, we used in vitro fertilization (IVF); behavioral assessments were conducted on offspring of mice from IVF-control and IVF-defeated fathers. Results We show that both male and female offspring from defeated fathers exhibit increased measures of several depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. The male offspring of defeated fathers also display increased baseline plasma levels of corticosterone and decreased levels of VEGF. However, most of these behavioral changes were not observed when offspring were generated through IVF. Conclusion These results suggest that, while behavioral adaptations that occur after chronic social defeat stress can be transmitted from the father to his male and female F1 progeny, only very subtle changes might be transmitted epigenetically under the conditions tested. PMID:21679926

  4. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  5. Neither testosterone levels nor aggression decrease when the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) displays paternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Juana, Luis; Bárbara, Vázquez-Gaytán; Martín, Martínez-Torres; Agustín, Carmona; Guillermo, Ramos-Blancas; Guadalupe, Ortíz

    2010-03-01

    The first studies that correlated mammalian paternal behavior and testosterone levels indicated that the concentration of this steroid hormone decreases when males exhibit paternal care. However, recent studies have also shown that testosterone levels do not decrease when males display paternal behavior. In this study, we measured testosterone levels in plasma throughout the reproductive cycle of the Mongolian gerbil. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with paternal care as well as aggression. We also examined whether there is a trade-off between paternal behavior and aggression in this mammal. Our results show that Mongolian gerbil testosterone levels do not decrease when the males give paternal care. Likewise, male Mongolian gerbils exhibit high levels of aggression while displaying paternal behavior, indicating that there is no trade-off between aggression and paternal behavior. More studies are needed to determine whether testosterone is involved in the regulation of paternal behavior in this rodent.

  6. Pathways to social evolution: reciprocity, relatedness, and synergy.

    PubMed

    Van Cleve, Jeremy; Akçay, Erol

    2014-08-01

    Many organisms live in populations structured by space and by class, exhibit plastic responses to their social partners, and are subject to nonadditive ecological and fitness effects. Social evolution theory has long recognized that all of these factors can lead to different selection pressures but has only recently attempted to synthesize how these factors interact. Using models for both discrete and continuous phenotypes, we show that analyzing these factors in a consistent framework reveals that they interact with one another in ways previously overlooked. Specifically, behavioral responses (reciprocity), genetic relatedness, and synergy interact in nontrivial ways that cannot be easily captured by simple summary indices of assortment. We demonstrate the importance of these interactions by showing how they have been neglected in previous synthetic models of social behavior both within and between species. These interactions also affect the level of behavioral responses that can evolve in the long run; proximate biological mechanisms are evolutionarily stable when they generate enough responsiveness relative to the level of responsiveness that exactly balances the ecological costs and benefits. Given the richness of social behavior across taxa, these interactions should be a boon for empirical research as they are likely crucial for describing the complex relationship linking ecology, demography, and social behavior.

  7. The immunological relatedness of neurofilament proteins of higher vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Debus, E; Weber, K

    1984-05-01

    We prepared intermediate filaments from the nervous system of several different species, representing mammals, birds and reptiles. These were examined using a panel of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies originally raised against pig or rat neurofilament proteins. All species studied possessed a single major protein of apparent molecular weight between 68 K and 75 K immunologically related to the lowest molecular weight rat and pig neurofilament protein. All birds and mammals possessed two proteins immunologically related respectively to the pig and rat middle and high molecular weight neurofilament proteins. These data show that the neurofilament triplet proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved three member protein family in birds and mammals, and allow us to suggest a new nomenclature for these three homologous proteins: "H" for the heaviest subunit, "M" for the middle subunit and "L" for the lightest subunit. We found that many monoclonal antibodies stained both the H- and M-proteins of all mammalian and avian species examined, suggesting a close immunological relatedness between these two proteins. The reptiles examined appeared to have only one high molecular weight protein, which was immunologically related to both of the high molecular weight mammalian and avian neurofilament proteins. We also noted a curious situation in neurofilament preparations derived from cows. Both the highest and the middle cow neurofilament proteins were stained by all antibodies which were specific solely for the high molecular weight protein in other species.

  8. Intelligent Focusing in Knowledge Indexing and Retrieval: The Relatedness Tool

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Ron D.; Komorowski, Henryk Jan; Barr, Charles E; Greenes, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Most present day information retrieval systems use the presence or absence of certain words to decide which documents are appropriate for a user's query. This approach has had certain successes, but it fails to capture relationships between concepts represented by the words, and hence reduces the potential specificity of both indexing and searching of documents. A richer representation of the semantics of documents and queries, and methods for reasoning about these representations, have been provided by artificial intelligence. Navigational tools for browsing and authoring knowledge bases (KB's) add a convenient technique for focusing in the complex landscape of semantic representations. The center of such representations is usually a frame or a semantic network system. We are developing a prototype Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) taxonomy to represent objects and relationships in medicine. One focus of our research is improved methods for indexing and querying repositories of biomedical literature. The technique which we propose is based on the notion of relatedness of concepts. To this end we define heuristics which find related concepts and apply it to the UMLS taxonomy. Preliminary results from experiments with the implemented heuristics demonstrate its potential usefulness.

  9. Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008–2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1–7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901

  10. Improving the Accuracy of Attribute Extraction using the Relatedness between Attribute Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollegala, Danushka; Tani, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Extracting attribute-values related to entities from web texts is an important step in numerous web related tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and entity disambiguation (namesake disambiguation). For example, for a search query that contains a personal name, we can not only return documents that contain that personal name, but if we have attribute-values such as the organization for which that person works, we can also suggest documents that contain information related to that organization, thereby improving the user's search experience. Despite numerous potential applications of attribute extraction, it remains a challenging task due to the inherent noise in web data -- often a single web page contains multiple entities and attributes. We propose a graph-based approach to select the correct attribute-values from a set of candidate attribute-values extracted for a particular entity. First, we build an undirected weighted graph in which, attribute-values are represented by nodes, and the edge that connects two nodes in the graph represents the degree of relatedness between the corresponding attribute-values. Next, we find the maximum spanning tree of this graph that connects exactly one attribute-value for each attribute-type. The proposed method outperforms previously proposed attribute extraction methods on a dataset that contains 5000 web pages.

  11. Dickeya species relatedness and clade structure determined by comparison of recA sequences.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil; Stead, David; Bew, Janice; Heeney, John; Tsror Lahkim, Leah; Elphinstone, John

    2009-10-01

    Using sequences from the recA locus, we have produced a phylogeny of 188 Dickeya strains from culture collections and identified species relatedness and subspecies clade structure within the genus. Of the six recognized species, Dickeya paradisiaca, D. chrysanthemi and D. zeae were discriminated with long branch lengths. The clade containing the D. paradisiaca type strain included just one additional strain, isolated from banana in Colombia. Strains isolated from Chrysanthemum and Parthenium species made up most of the clade containing the D. chrysanthemi type strain, and the host range of this species was extended to include potato. The D. zeae clade had the largest number of sequevars and branched into two major sister clades that contained all of the Zea mays isolates, and were identified as phylotypes PI and PII. The host range was increased from six to 13 species, including potato. The recA sequence of an Australian sugar-cane strain was sufficiently distinct to rank as a new species-level branch. In contrast to these species, Dickeya dadantii, D. dianthicola and D. dieffenbachiae were distinguished with shorter branch lengths, indicating relatively closer relatedness. The recA sequence for the type strain of D. dadantii clustered separately from other strains of the species. However, sequence comparison of three additional loci revealed that the D. dadantii type strain grouped together with the six other D. dadantii strains that were sequenced. Analysis of all four loci indicated that the D. dadantii strains were most closely related to D. dieffenbachiae. Three further branches (DUC-1, -2 and -3) were associated with these three species, which all diverged from a common origin and can be considered as a species complex. The large clade containing the D. dianthicola type strain comprised 58 strains and had little sequence diversity. One sequevar accounted for the majority of these strains, which were isolated nearly exclusively from eight hosts from Europe

  12. Structured growth and genetic drift raise relatedness in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Buttery, Neil J; Jack, Chandra N; Adu-Oppong, Boahemaa; Snyder, Kate T; Thompson, Christopher R L; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2012-10-23

    One condition for the evolution of altruism is genetic relatedness between altruist and beneficiary, often achieved through active kin recognition. Here, we investigate the power of a passive process resulting from genetic drift during population growth in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We put labelled and unlabelled cells of the same clone in the centre of a plate, and allowed them to proliferate outward. Zones formed by genetic drift owing to the small population of actively growing cells at the colony edge. We also found that single cells could form zones of high relatedness. Relatedness increased at a significantly higher rate when food was in short supply. This study shows that relatedness can be significantly elevated before the social stage without a small founding population size or recognition mechanism.

  13. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Relatedness Among Species of Erwinia and Between Erwinia Species and Other Enterobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Don J.; Fanning, G. R.; Steigerwalt, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Relatedness in species of Erwinia was assessed by determining the extent of reassociation in heterologous deoxyribonucleic acid preparations. Thermal elution chromatography on hydroxyapatite was used to separate reassociated nucleotide sequences from nonreassociated sequences and to determine the thermal stability of related nucleotide sequences. An apparent 15% core of relatedness is present between fire blight, soft-rot, and “atypical” Erwinia species. All Erwinia species showed low to moderate reaction with representative enteric bacteria. PMID:5018020

  14. Paternally induced transgenerational inheritance of susceptibility to diabetes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2014-02-01

    The global prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, and it is contributing to the susceptibility to diabetes and its related epidemic in offspring. Although the impacts of paternal impaired fasting blood glucose and glucose intolerance on the metabolism of offspring have been well established, the exact molecular and mechanistic basis that mediates these impacts remains largely unclear. Here we show that paternal prediabetes increases the susceptibility to diabetes in offspring through gametic epigenetic alterations. In our findings, paternal prediabetes led to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in offspring. Relative to controls, offspring of prediabetic fathers exhibited altered gene expression patterns in the pancreatic islets, with down-regulation of several genes involved in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways. Epigenomic profiling of offspring pancreatic islets revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on paternal prediabetes, including reproducible changes in methylation over several insulin signaling genes. Paternal prediabetes altered overall methylome patterns in sperm, with a large portion of differentially methylated genes overlapping with that of pancreatic islets in offspring. Our study uniquely revealed that prediabetes can be inherited transgenerationally through the mammalian germ line by an epigenetic mechanism.

  15. Promiscuity, paternity and personality in the great tit

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Samantha C.; Chapman, Joanne R.; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Quinn, John L.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding causes of variation in promiscuity within populations remain a major challenge. While most studies have focused on quantifying fitness costs and benefits of promiscuous behaviour, an alternative possibility—that variation in promiscuity within populations is maintained because of linkage with other traits—has received little attention. Here, we examine whether promiscuity in male and female great tits (Parus major)—quantified as extra-pair paternity (EPP) within and between nests—is associated with variation in a well-documented personality trait: exploration behaviour in a novel environment. Exploration behaviour has been shown to correlate with activity levels, risk-taking and boldness, and these are behaviours that may plausibly influence EPP. Exploration behaviour correlated positively with paternity gained outside the social pair among males in our population, but there was also a negative correlation with paternity in the social nest. Hence, while variation in male personality predicted the relative importance of paternity gain within and outside the pair bond, total paternity gained was unrelated to exploration behaviour. We found evidence that males paired with bold females were more likely to sire extra-pair young. Our data thus demonstrate a link between personality and promiscuity, with no net effects on reproductive success, suggesting personality-dependent mating tactics, in contrast with traditional adaptive explanations for promiscuity. PMID:22130602

  16. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Liane

    2016-01-01

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. PMID:27097924

  17. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Stockley, Paula; Hobson, Liane

    2016-04-27

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. PMID:27097924

  18. Novel risk factor in gastroschisis: change of paternity.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Christina D; Chen, Brian H; Kalla, Kristin; Jernigan, Laura; Jones, Kenneth Lyons

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, an increase in the rate of gastroschisis has been documented in several countries throughout the world. Based on accumulating evidence that a maternal immunologic response to a novel set of paternal antigens may be involved in risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia, reduced birth weight, and preterm delivery, we tested the hypothesis that a pregnancy following a change in fathers (change in paternity) may be a risk factor for gastroschisis. Using a case-control design, we compared the prevalence of change in paternity with the index pregnancy in 102 mothers of isolated gastroschisis cases to the prevalence of change in paternity in 117 mothers of non-malformed infants and 78 mothers of infants with neural tube defects or oral clefts. In a multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds of change in paternity in multigravid case mothers were 7.81 times higher (95% Confidence interval 2.80-21.88) relative to multigravid mothers of malformed and non-malformed controls combined, after adjustment for maternal age. These data suggest that maternal immune factors may play a role in the cause of gastroschisis. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and to elucidate possible immunologic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of gastroschisis.

  19. Experimental evolution reveals that high relatedness protects multicellular cooperation from cheaters.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons J M; Aanen, Duur K

    2016-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, there is a potential risk that cheating mutants gain access to the germline. Development from a single-celled zygote resets relatedness among cells to its maximum value each generation, which should accomplish segregation of cheating mutants from non-cheaters and thereby protect multicellular cooperation. Here we provide the crucial direct comparison between high- and low-relatedness conditions to test this hypothesis. We allow two variants of the fungus Neurospora crassa to evolve, one with and one without the ability to form chimeras with other individuals, thus generating two relatedness levels. While multicellular cooperation remains high in the high-relatedness lines, it significantly decreases in all replicate low-relatedness lines, resulting in an average threefold decrease in spore yield. This reduction is caused by cheating mutants with reduced investment in somatic functions, but increased competitive success when fusing with non-cheaters. Our experiments demonstrate that high genetic relatedness is crucial to sustain multicellular cooperation. PMID:27139112

  20. Experimental evolution reveals that high relatedness protects multicellular cooperation from cheaters

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, there is a potential risk that cheating mutants gain access to the germline. Development from a single-celled zygote resets relatedness among cells to its maximum value each generation, which should accomplish segregation of cheating mutants from non-cheaters and thereby protect multicellular cooperation. Here we provide the crucial direct comparison between high- and low-relatedness conditions to test this hypothesis. We allow two variants of the fungus Neurospora crassa to evolve, one with and one without the ability to form chimeras with other individuals, thus generating two relatedness levels. While multicellular cooperation remains high in the high-relatedness lines, it significantly decreases in all replicate low-relatedness lines, resulting in an average threefold decrease in spore yield. This reduction is caused by cheating mutants with reduced investment in somatic functions, but increased competitive success when fusing with non-cheaters. Our experiments demonstrate that high genetic relatedness is crucial to sustain multicellular cooperation. PMID:27139112

  1. Human ability to detect kinship in strangers' faces: effects of the degree of relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Gwenaël; Dridi, Slimane; Graff, Christian; Gentaz, Edouard

    2009-01-01

    The resemblance between human faces has been shown to be a possible cue in recognizing the relatedness between parents and children, and more recently, between siblings. However, the general inclusive fitness theory proposes that kin-selective behaviours are also relevant to more distant relatives, which requires the detection of larger kinship bonds. We conducted an experiment to explore the use of facial clues by ‘strangers’, i.e. evaluators from a different family, to associate humans of varying degrees of relatedness. We hypothesized that the visual capacity to detect relatedness should be weaker with lower degrees of relatedness. We showed that human adults are capable of (although not very efficient at) assessing the relatedness of unrelated individuals from photographs and that visible facial cues vary according to the degree of relatedness. This sensitivity exists even for kin pair members that are more than a generation apart and have never lived together. Collectively, our findings are in agreement with emerging knowledge on the role played by facial resemblance as a kinship cue. But we have progressed further to show how the capacity to distinguish between related and non-related pairs applies to situations relevant to indirect fitness. PMID:19535369

  2. Genetic relatedness between Ardi, Black Bedouin and Damascus goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-06-18

    The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer. Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats exhibited high average allele number and expected heterozygosity of 8.25, 9, and 7.25, and 0.750, 0.804, and 0.779, respectively. F-statistics for population differentiation showed 6.0% of total genetic variation, whereas 94.0% as differentiation between individuals within all populations. The least varied within populations was Ardi goats, then Damascus goats and finally Black Bedouin goats. Furthermore, the Damascus goat population was more differentiated from Black Bedouin goats than from Ardi goats. On the other hand, there was strong evidence of admixture between the majority of Ardi and Black Bedouin goat individuals but little with those of Damascus goats. Genetic distance between Ardi and Black Bedouin goats was the shortest, whereas it was the longest between Ardi and Damascus goats. The phylogenetic tree clearly revealed the expected degree of differentiation in the three populations. From a genetic conservation point of view, it is recommended to maintain the biodiversity of these distinct populations in case genetic migration of genetic resources and genetic conservation are absent.

  3. Atlas of Cryptic Genetic Relatedness Among 1000 Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Larisa; Qiu, Shuhao; Dutta, Rajib; Fedorov, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    A novel computational method for detecting identical-by-descent (IBD) chromosomal segments between sequenced genomes is presented. It utilizes the distribution patterns of very rare genetic variants (vrGVs), which have minor allele frequencies <0.2%. Contrary to the existing probabilistic approaches our method is rather deterministic, because it considers a group of very rare events which cannot happen together only by chance. This method has been applied for exhaustive computational search of shared IBD segments among 1,092 sequenced individuals from 14 populations. It demonstrated that clusters of vrGVs are unique and powerful markers of genetic relatedness, that uncover IBD chromosomal segments between and within populations, irrespective of whether divergence was recent or occurred hundreds-to-thousands of years ago. We found that several IBD segments are shared by practically any possible pair of individuals belonging to the same population. Moreover, shared short IBD segments (median size 183 kb) were found in 10% of inter-continental human pairs, each comprising of a person from sub-Saharan Africa and a person from Southern Europe. The shortest shared IBD segments (median size 54 kb) were found in 0.42% of inter-continental pairs composed of individuals from Chinese/Japanese populations and Africans from Kenya and Nigeria. Knowledge of inheritance of IBD segments is important in clinical case–control and cohort studies, since unknown distant familial relationships could compromise interpretation of collected data. Clusters of vrGVs should be useful markers for familial relationship and common multifactorial disorders. PMID:26907499

  4. Atlas of Cryptic Genetic Relatedness Among 1000 Human Genomes.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Larisa; Qiu, Shuhao; Dutta, Rajib; Fedorov, Alexei

    2016-03-01

    A novel computational method for detecting identical-by-descent (IBD) chromosomal segments between sequenced genomes is presented. It utilizes the distribution patterns of very rare genetic variants (vrGVs), which have minor allele frequencies <0.2%. Contrary to the existing probabilistic approaches our method is rather deterministic, because it considers a group of very rare events which cannot happen together only by chance. This method has been applied for exhaustive computational search of shared IBD segments among 1,092 sequenced individuals from 14 populations. It demonstrated that clusters of vrGVs are unique and powerful markers of genetic relatedness, that uncover IBD chromosomal segments between and within populations, irrespective of whether divergence was recent or occurred hundreds-to-thousands of years ago. We found that several IBD segments are shared by practically any possible pair of individuals belonging to the same population. Moreover, shared short IBD segments (median size 183 kb) were found in 10% of inter-continental human pairs, each comprising of a person from sub-Saharan Africa and a person from Southern Europe. The shortest shared IBD segments (median size 54 kb) were found in 0.42% of inter-continental pairs composed of individuals from Chinese/Japanese populations and Africans from Kenya and Nigeria. Knowledge of inheritance of IBD segments is important in clinical case-control and cohort studies, since unknown distant familial relationships could compromise interpretation of collected data. Clusters of vrGVs should be useful markers for familial relationship and common multifactorial disorders. PMID:26907499

  5. Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726

  6. Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

  7. Experimental parasite infection reveals costs and benefits of paternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056

  8. The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-01-01

    Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

  9. Paternal kin recognition and infant care in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Elizabeth J; Wikberg, Eva C; Kawamura, Shoji; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. We investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. We used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Our analyses suggest that the best predictor of adult and subadult male interactions with an infant is the male's dominance status, not his paternity status. We found that maternal siblings but not paternal siblings handled infants more than did unrelated individuals. We conclude that maternal but not paternal kinship influence patterns of infant handling in white-faced capuchins, regardless of whether or not they can recognize paternal kin. Am. J. Primatol. 78:659-668, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26815856

  10. Cheating does not explain selective differences at high and low relatedness in a social amoeba

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altruism can be favored by high relatedness among interactants. We tested the effect of relatedness in experimental populations of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, where altruism occurs in a starvation-induced social stage when some amoebae die to form a stalk that lifts the fertile spores above the soil facilitating dispersal. The single cells that aggregate during the social stage can be genetically diverse, which can lead to conflict over spore and stalk allocation. We mixed eight genetically distinct wild isolates and maintained twelve replicated populations at a high and a low relatedness treatment. After one and ten social generations we assessed the strain composition of the populations. We expected that some strains would be out-competed in both treatments. In addition, we expected that low relatedness might allow the persistence of social cheaters as it provides opportunity to exploit other strains. Results We found that at high relatedness a single clone prevailed in all twelve populations. At low relatedness three clones predominated in all twelve populations. Interestingly, exploitation of some clones by others in the social stage did not explain the results. When we mixed each winner against the pool of five losers, the winner did not prevail in the spores because all contributed fairly to the stalk and spores. Furthermore, the dominant clone at high-relatedness was not cheated by the other two that persisted at low relatedness. A combination of high spore production and short unicellular stage most successfully explained the three successful clones at low relatedness, but not why one of them fared better at high relatedness. Differences in density did not account for the results, as the clones did not differ in vegetative growth rates nor did they change the growth rates over relevant densities. Conclusions These results suggest that social competition and something beyond solitary growth differences occurs during the vegetative

  11. Genetic covariance between components of male reproductive success: within-pair vs. extra-pair paternity in song sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Reid, J M; Arcese, P; Losdat, S

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary trajectories of reproductive systems, including both male and female multiple mating and hence polygyny and polyandry, are expected to depend on the additive genetic variances and covariances in and among components of male reproductive success achieved through different reproductive tactics. However, genetic covariances among key components of male reproductive success have not been estimated in wild populations. We used comprehensive paternity data from socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to estimate additive genetic variance and covariance in the total number of offspring a male sired per year outside his social pairings (i.e. his total extra-pair reproductive success achieved through multiple mating) and his liability to sire offspring produced by his socially paired female (i.e. his success in defending within-pair paternity). Both components of male fitness showed nonzero additive genetic variance, and the estimated genetic covariance was positive, implying that males with high additive genetic value for extra-pair reproduction also have high additive genetic propensity to sire their socially paired female's offspring. There was consequently no evidence of a genetic or phenotypic trade-off between male within-pair paternity success and extra-pair reproductive success. Such positive genetic covariance might be expected to facilitate ongoing evolution of polygyny and could also shape the ongoing evolution of polyandry through indirect selection. PMID:25186454

  12. The architecture of madness and the good of paternalism.

    PubMed

    Sine, David M

    2008-09-01

    From the era of the asylum to the present day, the architectural design of inpatient facilities has long been considered a contributing factor in the treatment of patients with mental and substance use disorders. The author examines the ethical basis for decisions about the design of psychiatric hospitals--architectural paternalism. The ethic of paternalism in the design of asylums and in contemporary thinking about psychiatric hospital design is described. The author argues that limitation of patients' autonomy and rights by the purpose-built architectural environment is legitimate and ethical.

  13. Calculation of paternity probabilities from multilocus DNA profiles.

    PubMed

    Brenner, C H; Rittner, C; Schneider, P M

    1994-02-01

    We describe a procedure for evaluation of paternity evidence from multi-locus DNA probe patterns. A computer program abstracts a "+/-" notation description from the multilocus profile and then calculates a paternity index based on observed phenotypic fragment frequencies. The biostatistical evaluation considers only bands found in the child and missing from the mother--a simplified approach that is at once robust and conservative. Mutations are of course taken into account. Particular features lending objectivity to the interpretation include computer reading and matching decisions, and specific recognition and statistical compensation for ambiguities ("faint orphans").

  14. The Emergence of Regional Immigrant Concentrations in USA and Australia: A Spatial Relatedness Approach

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Josef; Hasman, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of the US and Australian immigration geography and the process of regional population diversification and the emergence of new immigrant concentrations at the regional level. It presents a new approach in the context of human migration studies, focusing on spatial relatedness between individual foreign-born groups as revealed from the analysis of their joint spatial concentrations. The approach employs a simple assumption that the more frequently the members of two population groups concentrate in the same locations the higher is the probability that these two groups can be related. Based on detailed data on the spatial distribution of foreign-born groups in US counties (2000–2010) and Australian postal areas (2006–2011) we firstly quantify the spatial relatedness between all pairs of foreign-born groups and model the aggregate patterns of US and Australian immigration systems conceptualized as the undirected networks of foreign-born groups linked by their spatial relatedness. Secondly, adopting a more dynamic perspective, we assume that immigrant groups with higher spatial relatedness to those groups already concentrated in a region are also more likely to settle in this region in future. As the ultimate goal of the paper, we examine the power of spatial relatedness measures in projecting the emergence of new immigrant concentrations in the US and Australian regions. The results corroborate that the spatial relatedness measures can serve as useful instruments in the analysis of the patterns of population structure and prediction of regional population change. More generally, this paper demonstrates that information contained in spatial patterns (relatedness in space) of population composition has yet to be fully utilized in population forecasting. PMID:25966371

  15. The emergence of regional immigrant concentrations in USA and Australia: a spatial relatedness approach.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Josef; Hasman, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of the US and Australian immigration geography and the process of regional population diversification and the emergence of new immigrant concentrations at the regional level. It presents a new approach in the context of human migration studies, focusing on spatial relatedness between individual foreign-born groups as revealed from the analysis of their joint spatial concentrations. The approach employs a simple assumption that the more frequently the members of two population groups concentrate in the same locations the higher is the probability that these two groups can be related. Based on detailed data on the spatial distribution of foreign-born groups in US counties (2000-2010) and Australian postal areas (2006-2011) we firstly quantify the spatial relatedness between all pairs of foreign-born groups and model the aggregate patterns of US and Australian immigration systems conceptualized as the undirected networks of foreign-born groups linked by their spatial relatedness. Secondly, adopting a more dynamic perspective, we assume that immigrant groups with higher spatial relatedness to those groups already concentrated in a region are also more likely to settle in this region in future. As the ultimate goal of the paper, we examine the power of spatial relatedness measures in projecting the emergence of new immigrant concentrations in the US and Australian regions. The results corroborate that the spatial relatedness measures can serve as useful instruments in the analysis of the patterns of population structure and prediction of regional population change. More generally, this paper demonstrates that information contained in spatial patterns (relatedness in space) of population composition has yet to be fully utilized in population forecasting.

  16. The Association of Paternal Mood and Infant Temperament: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Shreya; Nazareth, Irwin; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Maternal depression is associated with adverse child development, but little is known about the effects of paternal depression. This pilot study estimated the prevalence of paternal depression and mood state, and assessed the relationship between paternal mood and infant temperament. The participants in the study were 98 fathers of newborn babies.…

  17. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  18. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  19. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers’ experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective behaviors and linguistic stimulation measured during two father-infant interactions. Multinomial logistic regression analyses suggested that a less-supportive work environment was associated with fathers’ membership in multiple lower-quality parenting classes. Greater work pressure and a nonstandard work schedule also predicted fathers’ membership in the latent parenting classes, although these associations differed depending on the number of hours fathers spent in the workplace. PMID:23152644

  20. Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

  1. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

  2. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  3. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

  4. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  5. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  6. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior....

  7. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior....

  8. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior....

  9. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior....

  10. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior....

  11. Paternalism v. autonomy - are we barking up the wrong tree?

    PubMed

    Lepping, Peter; Palmstierna, Tom; Raveesh, Bevinahalli N

    2016-08-01

    We explore whether we can reduce paternalism by increasing patient autonomy. We argue that autonomy should not have any automatic priority over other ethical values. Thus, balancing autonomy v. other ethical pillars and finding the optimal balance between the patient's wishes and those of other relevant stakeholders such as the patient's family has to be dynamic over time. PMID:27482035

  12. The paternity of the power law of human motor control.

    PubMed

    Kvålseth, T O

    1993-02-01

    It is pointed out that, contrary to a recent paternity claim, the power law of human motor control was first discovered by this author more than ten years ago. The classical Fitts' law is shown to be a special case of the power law.

  13. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  14. Fathers and Asthma Care: Paternal Involvement, Beliefs, and Management Skills

    PubMed Central

    Masek, Bruce; Barreto, Esteban; Baer, Lee; Lapey, Allen; Budge, Eduardo; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare asthma care roles of maternal and paternal caregivers, and examine associations between caregiver involvement and the outcomes of adherence, morbidity, and parental quality of life (QoL). Methods Mothers and fathers in 63 families of children, ages 5–9 years, with persistent asthma completed semistructured interviews and questionnaires. Adherence was measured via electronic monitoring. Paired t tests compared parental asthma care roles, and analysis of covariance, controlling for socioeconomic status, evaluated associations of asthma outcomes with caregiver involvement scores. Results Mothers had higher scores on measures of involvement, beliefs in medication necessity, and on four subscales of the Family Asthma Management System Scale interview (Asthma Knowledge, Relationship with Provider, Symptom Assessment, and Response to Symptoms). Maternal QoL was lowest when both maternal and paternal involvement was high. Paternal involvement was associated with increased morbidity. Conclusions There is room for enhancement of fathers’ asthma care roles. Higher levels of paternal involvement may be driven by family need. PMID:25922295

  15. Role-Playing for Inhibited Students in Paternal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saadat, Abdullah I.; Afifi, Elhami A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights classroom role playing in Saudi Arabian classrooms as a psychological aid that fosters self-confidence in inhibited, timid, hesitant, and passive students and relieves them of their paternal communicative limitations. Proposes an overall strategy for role-playing as an effective communicative activity that teachers can exploit to help…

  16. Genetic Analyses of Sorting of Paternally Transmitted Mitochondrial DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organelles are maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. However paternal transmission of plastids and mitochondria occurs rarely in plants. Cucumber is a unique model plant for organellar genetics because its three genomes show differential transmission: maternal for chlorop...

  17. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... child to establish paternity. (c) The IV-D agency must identify and use through competitive...

  18. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... child to establish paternity. (c) The IV-D agency must identify and use through competitive...

  19. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... child to establish paternity. (c) The IV-D agency must identify and use through competitive...

  20. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... child to establish paternity. (c) The IV-D agency must identify and use through competitive...

  1. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... child to establish paternity. (c) The IV-D agency must identify and use through competitive...

  2. High relatedness maintains multicellular cooperation in a social amoeba by controlling cheater mutants

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Owen M.; Foster, Kevin R.; Mehdiabadi, Natasha J.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Queller, David C.

    2007-01-01

    The control of cheating is important for understanding major transitions in evolution, from the simplest genes to the most complex societies. Cooperative systems can be ruined if cheaters that lower group productivity are able to spread. Kin-selection theory predicts that high genetic relatedness can limit cheating, because separation of cheaters and cooperators limits opportunities to cheat and promotes selection against low-fitness groups of cheaters. Here, we confirm this prediction for the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum; relatedness in natural wild groups is so high that socially destructive cheaters should not spread. We illustrate in the laboratory how high relatedness can control a mutant that would destroy cooperation at low relatedness. Finally, we demonstrate that, as predicted, mutant cheaters do not normally harm cooperation in a natural population. Our findings show how altruism is preserved from the disruptive effects of such mutant cheaters and how exceptionally high relatedness among cells is important in promoting the cooperation that underlies multicellular development. PMID:17496139

  3. Genetic relatedness of low solitary nests of Apis dorsata from Marang, Terengganu, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sahebzadeh, Najmeh; Mardan, Makhdzir; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Soon Guan; Adam, Nur Azura; Lau, Wei Hong

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of Apis dorsata from Peninsular Malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. The analysis of 15 single locus DNA microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of A. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. Furthermore, in general, slightly negative values of intercolony relatedness (R) among the nests of A. dorsata were found. However, positive values of mean intercolony relatedness were observed between 54 pairs of nests out of 190 possible combinations. The R values among nest pairs 3-4 and 3-5 was higher than 0.50 showing that their queens were half siblings, whereas nest pair 19-20 showed relatedness of 0.95 indicating that the same queen was sampled. The results that we obtained could not conclusively support the hypothesis of this study that the honey hunters in Marang district of Malaysia repeatedly harvest the same nest located at a different site and at a different time during the same honey harvesting season. However, our finding of an appreciable level of intercolonial relatedness between several pairs of nests in this pioneer study indicated that a comprehensive study with a larger sample size of solitary nests found throughout the region would be necessary to provide concrete proof for this novel idea.

  4. Genetic Relatedness of Low Solitary Nests of Apis dorsata from Marang, Terengganu, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Soon Guan; Adam, Nur Azura; Lau, Wei Hong

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of Apis dorsata from Peninsular Malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. The analysis of 15 single locus DNA microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of A. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. Furthermore, in general, slightly negative values of intercolony relatedness (R) among the nests of A. dorsata were found. However, positive values of mean intercolony relatedness were observed between 54 pairs of nests out of 190 possible combinations. The R values among nest pairs 3–4 and 3–5 was higher than 0.50 showing that their queens were half siblings, whereas nest pair 19–20 showed relatedness of 0.95 indicating that the same queen was sampled. The results that we obtained could not conclusively support the hypothesis of this study that the honey hunters in Marang district of Malaysia repeatedly harvest the same nest located at a different site and at a different time during the same honey harvesting season. However, our finding of an appreciable level of intercolonial relatedness between several pairs of nests in this pioneer study indicated that a comprehensive study with a larger sample size of solitary nests found throughout the region would be necessary to provide concrete proof for this novel idea. PMID:22911733

  5. Clinical Features of Three Girls With Mosaic Genome-Wide Paternal Uniparental Isodisomy

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Jennifer M.; Conlin, Laura K.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Dubbs, Holly A.; Harris, Mary Catherine; Izumi, Kosuke; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Saitta, Sulagna; States, Lisa J.; Swarr, Daniel T.; Wilkens, Alisha B.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Zelley, Kristin; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Nichols, Kim E.; Palladino, Andrew A.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Deardorff, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe three subjects with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy (GWpUPD) each of whom presented initially with overgrowth, hemihyperplasia (HH), and hyperinsulinism (HI). Due to the severity of findings and the presence of additional features, SNP array testing was performed, which demonstrated mosaic GWpUPD. Comparing these individuals to 10 other live-born subjects reported in the literature, the predominant phenotype is that of pUPD11 and notable for a very high incidence of tumor development. Our subjects developed non-metastatic tumors of the adrenal gland, kidney, and/or liver.AllthreesubjectshadpancreatichyperplasiaresultinginHI. Notably, our subjects to date display minimal features of other diseases associated with paternal UPD loci. Both children who survived the neonatal period have displayed near-normal cognitive development, likely due to a favorable tissue distribution of the mosaicism.Tounderstandthe rangeofUPDmosaicismlevels, we studied multiple tissues using SNP array analysis and detected levels of 5–95%, roughly correlating with the extent of tissue involvement.Giventherapidityoftumorgrowthandthedifficulty distinguishing malignant and benign tumors in these GWpUPD subjects, we have utilized increased frequency of ultrasound (US) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening in the first years of life. Because of a later age of onset of additional tumors, continued tumor surveillance into adolescence may need to be considered in these rare patients. PMID:23804593

  6. DNA relatedness among strains of the sweet potato pathogen Streptomyces ipomoea (Person and Martin 1940) Waksman and Henrici 1948.

    PubMed

    Labeda, D P; Lyons, A J

    1992-02-01

    DNA relatedness among 28 putative strains of Streptomyces ipomoea from geographically diverse locations and the type strain, NRRL B-12321, was determined spectrophotometrically. The data confirm that these 28 strains are not closely related genetically to the plant-pathogenic species Streptomyces scabies (39% DNA relatedness) or Streptomyces acidiscabies (17% DNA relatedness) or any other major blue-spored Streptomyces species (less than 30% DNA relatedness). Of the 29 strains examined, 4 could be clearly distinguished from S. ipomoea on the basis of morphological criteria, i.e., they had gray rather than blue spores and produced melanin pigment, and their low DNA relatedness to authentic S. ipomoea strains confirmed their original misidentification. The remaining 25 S. ipomoea strains exhibited high DNA relatedness among themselves (76 to 100% homology), even though they had been isolated in different locations throughout the United States and Japan. The avirulent type strain, NRRL B-12321, exhibited slightly lower DNA relatedness with the virulent strains of S. ipomoea (85% average DNA relatedness) than was observed among the virulent strains (average of 96% DNA relatedness).

  7. Can Multiple "Spatial" Virtual Timelines Convey the Relatedness of Chronological Knowledge across Parallel Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korallo, Liliya; Foreman, Nigel; Boyd-Davis, Stephen; Moar, Magnus; Coulson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Single linear virtual timelines have been used effectively with undergraduates and primary school children to convey the chronological ordering of historical items, improving on PowerPoint and paper/textual displays. In the present study, a virtual environment (VE) consisting of three parallel related timelines (world history and the histories of…

  8. Semantic relatedness among objects promotes the activation of multiple phonological codes during object naming.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D; Schriefers, Herbert; Gorges, Frauke

    2010-02-01

    In a picture-word interference experiment the authors demonstrate that a semantic-categorical relation between a to-be-named target picture and a context picture promotes the phonological activation of the to-be-ignored context picture. No such phonological activation is observed if the objects are semantically unrelated. This finding gives further insight into the mechanisms that modulate the activation flow in the conceptual-lexical system during speech planning. In contrast to recent picture-picture interference studies, the results provide direct evidence that the phonological activation of a context object is dependent on its semantic processing. PMID:19557668

  9. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting.

  10. Genomic prediction of complex human traits: relatedness, trait architecture and predictive meta-models.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S

    2015-07-15

    We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge.

  11. Reciprocal effects of student-teacher and student-peer relatedness: Effects on academic self efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Chen, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocal effects between teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) and two dimensions of classroom peer relatedness, peer liking and peer academic reputation (PAR), across three years in elementary school and the effect of both TSRQ and the peer relatedness dimensions on academic self efficacy. Participants were 695 relatively low achieving, ethnically diverse students recruited into the longitudinal study when they were in first grade. Measures of TSRQ and peer relatedness were assessed in years/grades 2-4. Peer liking and PAR were moderately correlated with each other at each time period. As expected, peer liking and TSRQ exhibited bidirectional effects across the three years. Year 3 TSRQ had an effect on Year 4 PAR, but PAR did not have an effect on TSRQ at either time interval. In an additional analysis, Year 4 PAR mediated the effect of Year 3 TSRQ on Year 5 academic self efficacy. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. PMID:21927528

  12. Semantic relatedness between words in each individual brain: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Hata, Masahiro; Homae, Fumitaka; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-08-26

    The relationship between 2 words is judged by the meanings of words. Here, we examined how the semantic relatedness of words is structured in each individual brain. During measurements of event-related potentials (ERPs), participants performed semantic-relatedness judgments of word pairs. For each participant, we divided word pairs into 2 groups--related and unrelated pairs--and compared their ERPs. All of the participants showed a significant N400 effect. However, when we applied an identical grouping of pairs, this effect was observed only in half the number of the participants. These results show that our single-subject analysis of N400 extracted semantic relatedness of words in the individual brain. Future studies using this analysis will clarify the organization of the mental lexicon.

  13. A Maximum-Likelihood Method for the Estimation of Pairwise Relatedness in Structured Populations

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Amy D.; Weir, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    A maximum-likelihood estimator for pairwise relatedness is presented for the situation in which the individuals under consideration come from a large outbred subpopulation of the population for which allele frequencies are known. We demonstrate via simulations that a variety of commonly used estimators that do not take this kind of misspecification of allele frequencies into account will systematically overestimate the degree of relatedness between two individuals from a subpopulation. A maximum-likelihood estimator that includes FST as a parameter is introduced with the goal of producing the relatedness estimates that would have been obtained if the subpopulation allele frequencies had been known. This estimator is shown to work quite well, even when the value of FST is misspecified. Bootstrap confidence intervals are also examined and shown to exhibit close to nominal coverage when FST is correctly specified. PMID:17339212

  14. Paternity and gregariousness in the sex-changing sessile marine gastropod Crepidula convexa: comparison with other protandrous Crepidula species.

    PubMed

    Le Cam, Sabrina; Riquet, Florentine; Pechenik, Jan A; Viard, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    In sex-changing animals with internal fertilization, gregarious behavior may increase mating opportunities and the frequency of multiple paternity, thus increasing maternal reproductive success. Crepidula convexa is a direct-developing protandrous gastropod characterized by only modest gregarious behavior compared with previously studied members of the genus: females are frequently found isolated. Using 6 microsatellite markers, we analyzed paternity profiles in 10 broods (25 embryos per mother). The number of assigned fathers varied among families from 1 to 4 fathers per brood. Interestingly, polyandry was not detected in solitary females but only in females grouped with conspecific individuals. Overall, we found an average of 1.8 fathers per brood, but this increased to 2.6 fathers per brood when considering only the nonisolated females. Among 18 unambiguously identified fathers, only 5 were collected in our samples, suggesting substantial male mobility. Comparison with previous paternity analyses in Crepidula fornicata and Crepidula coquimbensis revealed that polyandry appears as a common trait of these sex-changing gastropods despite their different grouping behaviors and life histories. As expected, the level of polyandry was nevertheless lower in the modestly gregarious C. convexa. PMID:24489076

  15. Gregariousness and protandry promote reproductive insurance in the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata: evidence from assignment of larval paternity.

    PubMed

    Dupont, L; Richard, J; Paulet, Y-M; Thouzeau, G; Viard, F

    2006-09-01

    According to the size-advantage hypothesis, protandric sequential hermaphroditism is expected when the increase in reproductive success with age or size is small for males but large for females. Interestingly, some protandrous molluscs have developed gregarious strategies that might enhance male reproductive success but at the cost of intraspecific competition. The gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a European invading species, is ideal for investigating mating patterns in a sequential hermaphrodite in relation to grouping behaviour because individuals of different size (age) live in perennial stacks, fertilization is internal and embryos are brooded. Paternity analyses were undertaken in stacks sampled in three close and recently invaded sites in Brittany, France. Paternity assignment of 239 larvae, sampled from a set of 18 brooding females and carried out using five microsatellite loci, revealed that 92% of the crosses occurred between individuals located in the same stack. These stacks thus function as independent mating groups in which individuals may reproduce consecutively as male and female over a short time period, a pattern explained by sperm storage capacity. Gregariousness and sex reversal are promoting reproductive insurance in this species. In addition, females are usually fertilized by several males (78% of the broods were multiply sired) occupying any position within the stack, a result reinforcing the hypothesis of sperm competition. Our study pointed out that mating behaviours and patterns of gender allocation varied in concert across sites suggesting that multiple paternities might enhance sex reversal depending on sperm competition intensity.

  16. Genetic relatedness and disrupted social structure in a poached population of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, Kathleen; Kerr, Ben; Wasser, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    We use genetic measures of relatedness and observations of female bonding to examine the demographic signature of historically heavy poaching of a population of free-ranging African elephants. We collected dung samples to obtain DNA and observed behaviour from 102 elephant families over a 25-month period in 2003-2005 in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Poaching reduced the population by 75% in the decade prior to the 1989 ivory trade ban; park records indicate that poaching dropped significantly in Mikumi following the ban. Using 10 microsatellite loci, DNA was genotyped in 203 elephants and pair-wise relatedness was calculated among adult females within and between groups. The Mikumi population is characterized by small group size, considerable variation in group relatedness, females with no first-order adult relatives and females that form only weak social bonds. We used gene-drop analysis and a model of a genetically intact pedigree to compare our observed Mikumi group relatedness to a simulated genetically intact unpoached expectation. The majority of groups in Mikumi contain 2 to 3 adults; of these, 45% were classified as genetically disrupted. Bonding, quantified with a pair-wise association index, was significantly correlated with relatedness; however only half of the females formed strong bonds with other females, and relatedness was substantially lower for a given bond strength as compared to an unpoached population. Female African elephants without kin demonstrated considerable behavioural plasticity in this disturbed environment, grouping with other females lacking kin, with established groups, or remaining alone, unable to form any stable adult female-bonds. We interpret these findings as the remaining effect of poaching disturbance in Mikumi, despite a drop in the level of poaching since the commercial trade in ivory was banned 15 years ago.

  17. Genetic relatedness and disrupted social structure in a poached population of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, Kathleen; Kerr, Ben; Wasser, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    We use genetic measures of relatedness and observations of female bonding to examine the demographic signature of historically heavy poaching of a population of free-ranging African elephants. We collected dung samples to obtain DNA and observed behaviour from 102 elephant families over a 25-month period in 2003-2005 in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Poaching reduced the population by 75% in the decade prior to the 1989 ivory trade ban; park records indicate that poaching dropped significantly in Mikumi following the ban. Using 10 microsatellite loci, DNA was genotyped in 203 elephants and pair-wise relatedness was calculated among adult females within and between groups. The Mikumi population is characterized by small group size, considerable variation in group relatedness, females with no first-order adult relatives and females that form only weak social bonds. We used gene-drop analysis and a model of a genetically intact pedigree to compare our observed Mikumi group relatedness to a simulated genetically intact unpoached expectation. The majority of groups in Mikumi contain 2 to 3 adults; of these, 45% were classified as genetically disrupted. Bonding, quantified with a pair-wise association index, was significantly correlated with relatedness; however only half of the females formed strong bonds with other females, and relatedness was substantially lower for a given bond strength as compared to an unpoached population. Female African elephants without kin demonstrated considerable behavioural plasticity in this disturbed environment, grouping with other females lacking kin, with established groups, or remaining alone, unable to form any stable adult female-bonds. We interpret these findings as the remaining effect of poaching disturbance in Mikumi, despite a drop in the level of poaching since the commercial trade in ivory was banned 15 years ago. PMID:19175507

  18. Variable approaches to genetic counseling for microarray regions of homozygosity associated with parental relatedness.

    PubMed

    Grote, Lauren; Myers, Melanie; Lovell, Anne; Saal, Howard; Sund, Kristen Lipscomb

    2014-01-01

    SNP microarrays are capable of detecting regions of homozygosity (ROH) which can suggest parental relatedness. This study was designed to describe pre- and post-test counseling practices of genetics professionals regarding ROH, explore perceived comfort and ethical concerns in the follow-up of such results, demonstrate awareness of laws surrounding duty to report consanguinity and incest, and allow respondents to share their personal experiences with results suggesting a parental relationship. A 35 question survey was administered to 240 genetic counselors and geneticists who had ordered or counseled for SNP microarray. The results are presented using descriptive statistics. There was variation in both pre- and post-test counseling practices of genetics professionals. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported pre-test counseling that ROH can indicate parental relatedness. The most commonly reported ethical concern was disclosure of findings suggesting parental relatedness to parents of the patient; only 48.4% reported disclosing parental relatedness when indicated. Fifty-seven percent felt comfortable receiving results suggesting parental consanguinity while 17% felt comfortable receiving results suggesting parental incest. Twenty percent of respondents were extremely/moderately familiar with the laws about duty to report incest. Personal experiences in post-test counseling included both parental acknowledgement and denial of relatedness. This study highlights the differences in genetics professionals' pre- and post-test counseling practices, comfort, and experiences surrounding parental relatedness suggested by SNP microarray results. It identifies a need for professional organizations to offer guidance to genetics professionals about how to respond to and counsel for molecular results suggesting parental consanguinity or incest.

  19. The socio-genetics of a complex society: female gelada relatedness patterns mirror association patterns in a multilevel society.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Alberts, Susan C; Bergman, Thore J

    2014-12-01

    Multilevel societies with fission-fusion dynamics--arguably the most complex animal societies--are defined by two or more nested levels of organization. The core of these societies are modular social units that regularly fission and fuse with one another. Despite convergent evolution in disparate taxa, we know strikingly little about how such societies form and how fitness benefits operate. Understanding the kinship structure of complex societies could inform us about the origins of the social structure as well as about the potential for individuals in these societies to accrue indirect fitness benefits. Here, we combined genetic and behavioural data on geladas (Theropithecus gelada), an Old World Monkey, to complete the most comprehensive socio-genetic analysis of a multilevel society to date. In geladas, individuals in the core social 'units', associate at different frequencies to form 'teams', 'bands' and, the largest aggregations, 'communities'. Units were composed of closely related females, and females remained with their close kin during permanent fissions of units. Interestingly, female-female relatedness also significantly predicted between-unit, between-team and between-band association patterns, while male-male relatedness did not. Thus, it is likely that the socio-genetic structure of gelada society results from females maintaining associations with their female relatives during successive unit fissions--possibly in an attempt to balance the direct and indirect fitness benefits of group living. Overall, the persistence of associations among related females across generations appears to drive the formation of higher levels of gelada society, suggesting that females seek kin for inclusive fitness benefits at multiple levels of gelada society.

  20. A Literature-Based Assessment of Concept Pairs as a Measure of Semantic Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Workman, T. Elizabeth; Rosemblat, Graciela; Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic relatedness between two concepts, according to human perception, is domain-rooted and reflects prior knowledge. We developed a new method for semantic relatedness assessment that reflects human judgment, utilizing semantic predications extracted from PubMed citations by SemRep. We compared the new method to other approaches utilizing path-based, statistical, and context vector methods, using a gold standard for evaluation. The new method outperformed all others, except one variation of the context vector technique. These findings have implications in several natural language processing applications, such as serendipitous knowledge discovery. PMID:24551423

  1. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries

  2. Punishment and Welfare: Paternal Incarceration and Families’ Receipt of Public Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Naomi F.

    2013-01-01

    The United States criminal justice and welfare systems are two important government institutions in the lives of the poor. Despite many theoretical discussions about their relationship, their operation at the level of offenders and families remains poorly understood. This paper utilizes Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data to examine how recent paternal incarceration is associated with families’ receipt of TANF, food stamps, and Medicaid/SCHIP. Results robust to multiple tests find that incarceration is not related to subsequent TANF receipt but is significantly associated with increased receipt of food stamps and Medicaid/SCHIP. The findings suggest that greater government involvement among poor families is an unexpected consequence of mass imprisonment; however, increased participation does not include TANF—the cash assistance program of most concern to theorists. PMID:24244051

  3. Paternal diet defines offspring chromatin state and intergenerational obesity.

    PubMed

    Öst, Anita; Lempradl, Adelheid; Casas, Eduard; Weigert, Melanie; Tiko, Theodor; Deniz, Merdin; Pantano, Lorena; Boenisch, Ulrike; Itskov, Pavel M; Stoeckius, Marlon; Ruf, Marius; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Reuter, Gunter; Iovino, Nicola; Ribeiro, Carlos; Alenius, Mattias; Heyne, Steffen; Vavouri, Tanya; Pospisilik, J Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The global rise in obesity has revitalized a search for genetic and epigenetic factors underlying the disease. We present a Drosophila model of paternal-diet-induced intergenerational metabolic reprogramming (IGMR) and identify genes required for its encoding in offspring. Intriguingly, we find that as little as 2 days of dietary intervention in fathers elicits obesity in offspring. Paternal sugar acts as a physiological suppressor of variegation, desilencing chromatin-state-defined domains in both mature sperm and in offspring embryos. We identify requirements for H3K9/K27me3-dependent reprogramming of metabolic genes in two distinct germline and zygotic windows. Critically, we find evidence that a similar system may regulate obesity susceptibility and phenotype variation in mice and humans. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying intergenerational metabolic reprogramming and carry profound implications for our understanding of phenotypic variation and evolution.

  4. Patient Care and Paternalism: Dilemmas of Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wilbush, Joel

    1990-01-01

    From the clinical records of a country doctor, this vignette concerns a teenaged girl who, having refused treatment, is persuaded, under near duress, to accept a regimen that her family physician considers best for her. Although apparently arrogant paternalism, the practitioner's approach proves, on reflection, to possess considerable merit. The author discusses the ethical principles that have led to rejection of paternalism in the West. Formulated as absolute maxims, they soon require, like all absolutes, a multitude of explanations and additions. Some logical, social, and other “exceptions” are briefly mentioned, because the old doctor's intuitive actions seem to have oddly coincided with a number of them. Yet the questions remain: Should this medical practitioner have become so deeply involved? Should he have interfered with his patient's autonomy to the extent he did? Was he justified? PMID:11659246

  5. Modifiers of epigenetic reprogramming show paternal effects in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Suyinn; Vickaryous, Nicola; Ashe, Alyson; Zamudio, Natasha; Youngson, Neil; Hemley, Sarah; Stopka, Tomas; Skoultchi, Arthur; Matthews, Jacqui; Scott, Hamish S; de Kretser, David; O’Bryan, Moira; Blewitt, Marnie; Whitelaw, Emma

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that epigenetic information can be inherited across generations in mammals, despite extensive reprogramming both in the gametes and in the early developing embryo. One corollary to this is that disrupting the establishment of epigenetic state in the gametes of a parent, as a result of heterozygosity for mutations in genes involved in reprogramming, could affect the phenotype of offspring that do not inherit the mutant allele. Here we show that such effects do occur following paternal inheritance in the mouse. We detected changes to transcription and chromosome ploidy in adult animals. Paternal effects of this type have not been reported previously in mammals and suggest that the untransmitted genotype of male parents can influence the phenotype of their offspring. PMID:17450140

  6. Paternal diet defines offspring chromatin state and intergenerational obesity.

    PubMed

    Öst, Anita; Lempradl, Adelheid; Casas, Eduard; Weigert, Melanie; Tiko, Theodor; Deniz, Merdin; Pantano, Lorena; Boenisch, Ulrike; Itskov, Pavel M; Stoeckius, Marlon; Ruf, Marius; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Reuter, Gunter; Iovino, Nicola; Ribeiro, Carlos; Alenius, Mattias; Heyne, Steffen; Vavouri, Tanya; Pospisilik, J Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The global rise in obesity has revitalized a search for genetic and epigenetic factors underlying the disease. We present a Drosophila model of paternal-diet-induced intergenerational metabolic reprogramming (IGMR) and identify genes required for its encoding in offspring. Intriguingly, we find that as little as 2 days of dietary intervention in fathers elicits obesity in offspring. Paternal sugar acts as a physiological suppressor of variegation, desilencing chromatin-state-defined domains in both mature sperm and in offspring embryos. We identify requirements for H3K9/K27me3-dependent reprogramming of metabolic genes in two distinct germline and zygotic windows. Critically, we find evidence that a similar system may regulate obesity susceptibility and phenotype variation in mice and humans. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying intergenerational metabolic reprogramming and carry profound implications for our understanding of phenotypic variation and evolution. PMID:25480298

  7. [Transferrin variants: significance and identification in paternity cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mauff, G; Doppelfeld, E; Weber, W

    1975-08-01

    Transferrin phenotypes were determined in 3380 sera of unrelated persons of the western region of Germany with 97.60 percent for TfC and 2.40 percent for Tf variants. Identification was achieved by immunochemical means or through autoradiography. Relative mobilities in some variants were measured using Tf B2C (0.7) as reference. Application of Tf variants is demonstrated in paternity cases.

  8. Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition in Normal and Disrupted Personality Development: Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J.

    2013-01-01

    Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span--the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of…

  9. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852

  10. Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness in the Classroom: Applying Self-Determination Theory to Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) assumes that inherent in human nature is the propensity to be curious about one's environment and interested in learning and developing one's knowledge. All too often, however, educators introduce external controls into learning climates, which can undermine the sense of relatedness between teachers and students,…

  11. Transitional Objects in Adult Life: A Process of Continuous Relatedness to the Outside World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark A.

    The practice of psychological intervention often relied on the ability of the therapist to understand how clients maintain a sense of relatedness to their world. Despite the many discontinuities of self-identity that affect the lives of clients, the success of therapy depends on clients' abilities to connect with human and nonhuman objects in…

  12. Developing Intrinsic Motivation: Student Perceived Autonomy, Relatedness and Competence and the Relationship to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, DeAnn M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…

  13. Community-Based Service-Learning as a Context for Youth Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar-Cam, Hayal; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Framed by self-determination and identity development theories, this study examined the process through which participating in a community-based service-learning project supported high school students' feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness, and how these feelings were related to students' intentions for doing more service in…

  14. The Development of Young Chinese Children's Morphological Awareness: The Role of Semantic Relatedness and Morpheme Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Meiling; Chen, Xi; Dronjic, Vedran; Shu, Hua; Anderson, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigated the effects of semantic relatedness of words (closely related vs. distantly related) and morpheme type (free morpheme vs. bound morpheme) on young Chinese children's homophone awareness, an aspect of morphological awareness, in two experiments. The first experiment was a cross-sectional study…

  15. Environmentally Active People: The Role of Autonomy, Relatedness, Competence and Self-Determined Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Anna N.; Fielding, Kelly S.; Louis, Winnifred R.

    2016-01-01

    To identify pathways to lower environmental impacts, this research examined the motivation and antecedents of motivation (autonomy, relatedness, competence), of environmentally active people. Previous research suggests that people with more self-determined motivation for pro-environmental behavior (PEB) should carry out more PEBs, and have lower…

  16. Measuring Semantic Relatedness between Flickr Images: From a Social Tag Based View

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng; Luo, Xiangfeng; Liu, Yunhuai; Mei, Lin; Hu, Chuanping

    2014-01-01

    Relatedness measurement between multimedia such as images and videos plays an important role in computer vision, which is a base for many multimedia related applications including clustering, searching, recommendation, and annotation. Recently, with the explosion of social media, users can upload media data and annotate content with descriptive tags. In this paper, we aim at measuring the semantic relatedness of Flickr images. Firstly, four information theory based functions are used to measure the semantic relatedness of tags. Secondly, the integration of tags pair based on bipartite graph is proposed to remove the noise and redundancy. Thirdly, the order information of tags is added to measure the semantic relatedness, which emphasizes the tags with high positions. The data sets including 1000 images from Flickr are used to evaluate the proposed method. Two data mining tasks including clustering and searching are performed by the proposed method, which shows the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Moreover, some applications such as searching and faceted exploration are introduced using the proposed method, which shows that the proposed method has broad prospects on web based tasks. PMID:24707215

  17. Fostering Students' Moderation Competence: The Interplay between Social Relatedness and Perceived Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bürgermeister, Anika; Ringeisen, Tobias; Raufelder, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the present study examined whether two teaching concepts that varied in their capacity to foster students' self-determination affected students' sense of social relatedness and their perceived moderation competence, as well as the interplay between these two components and the students' performance during a moderation…

  18. The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking Individuals' Connection with Nature to Environmental Concern and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.; Murphy, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. The authors propose a new construct, Nature Relatedness (NR), and a scale that assesses the affective, cognitive, and experiential aspects of individuals' connection to nature. In Study 1, the authors explored the internal structure of the NR item responses in a…

  19. Ambiguity and Relatedness Effects in Semantic Tasks: Are They Due to Semantic Coding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hino, Yasushi; Pexman, Penny M.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic…

  20. Incorporating adverse event relatedness into dose-finding clinical trial designs.

    PubMed

    Darssan, Darsy; Thompson, Mery H; Pettitt, Anthony N

    2014-03-30

    Dose-finding designs estimate the dose level of a drug based on observed adverse events. Relatedness of the adverse event to the drug has been generally ignored in all proposed design methodologies. These designs assume that the adverse events observed during a trial are definitely related to the drug, which can lead to flawed dose-level estimation. We incorporate adverse event relatedness into the so-called continual reassessment method. Adverse events that have 'doubtful' or 'possible' relationships to the drug are modelled using a two-parameter logistic model with an additive probability mass. Adverse events 'probably' or 'definitely' related to the drug are modelled using a cumulative logistic model. To search for the maximum tolerated dose, we use the maximum estimated toxicity probability of these two adverse event relatedness categories. We conduct a simulation study that illustrates the characteristics of the design under various scenarios. This article demonstrates that adverse event relatedness is important for improved dose estimation. It opens up further research pathways into continual reassessment design methodologies. PMID:24122859

  1. The Family-Relatedness of Work Decisions: A Framework and Agenda for Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to global trends such as the increased labor force participation of women, the growing presence of dual-earner couples and single parents in the labor force, and changing values regarding the importance of life balance, individuals' work decisions are being increasingly influenced by family considerations. However, the "family-relatedness" of…

  2. Higher relatedness mitigates mortality in a nematode with lethal male fighting.

    PubMed

    Kapranas, A; Maher, A M D; Griffin, C T

    2016-02-01

    According to kin selection theory, individuals show less aggression towards their relatives. Limited dispersal promotes interactions among relatives but also increases competition among them. The evolution of cooperation in viscous populations has been subject of mainly theoretical exploration. We investigated the influence of relatedness on aggression in males of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema longicaudum that engage in lethal fighting. In a series of in vitro experiments, we found that both competitor male group size and relatedness influence male mortality rates. Higher relatedness led to progressively lower rates of male mortality. In experimentally infected insects, wherein large numbers of males and females interact, the proportion of dead and paralysed (= terminally injured) males was higher when infection was established by infective juveniles originating from a mixture of three lines than in those infected by a single line. The results collectively show that Steinernema longicaudum males recognize their kin and consequently male mortality rates are lower in groups consisting of more related males. Furthermore, this monotonic negative relationship between aggression and relatedness suggests that kin selection benefits are still substantial even under extreme competition. Our experiments also suggest that kin recognition in entomopathogenic nematodes has a genetic basis rather than being strictly based on environmental cues. We discuss our findings within the theoretical context of the evolution of altruistic/cooperative behaviour in structured populations. PMID:26548351

  3. Securing Paternity by Mutilating Female Genitalia in Spiders.

    PubMed

    Mouginot, Pierick; Prügel, Josepha; Thom, Ulrike; Steinhoff, Philip O M; Kupryjanowicz, Janusz; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-11-16

    Competition between males and their sperm over access to females and their eggs has resulted in manifold ways by which males try to secure paternity, ranging from physically guarding the female after mating to reducing her receptivity or her attractiveness to subsequent males by transferring manipulative substances or by mechanically sealing the female reproductive tract with a copulatory plug. Copulations may also result in internal damage of the female genitalia; however, this is not considered as a direct adaptation against sperm competition but as a collateral effect. Here, we present a drastic and direct mechanism for securing paternity: the removal of coupling structures on female genitalia by males. In the orb-weaving spider Larinia jeskovi males remove the scapus, a crucial coupling device on the female external genital region. Reconstruction of the coupling mechanism using micro-CT-scanned mating pairs revealed that several sclerites of the male genitalia interact to break off the scapus. Once it is removed, remating cannot occur due to mechanical coupling difficulties. In the field, male-inflicted genital damage is very prevalent since all female L. jeskovi were found to be mutilated at the end of the mating season. External genital mutilation is an overlooked but widely spread phenomenon since 80 additional spider species were found for which male genital manipulation can be suspected. Interlocking genitalia provide an evolutionary platform for the rapid evolution of this highly effective mechanism to secure paternity, and we suspect that other animal groups with interlocking genital structures might reveal similarly drastic male adaptations.

  4. Paternal fenvalerate exposure influences reproductive functions in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

  5. Paternal Experience and Stress Responses in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Massimo; Franssen, Catherine L; Hampton, Joseph E; Shea, Eleanor A; Fanean, Amanda P; Lambert, Kelly G

    2011-01-01

    Paternal behavior greatly affects the survival, social development, and cognitive development of infants. Nevertheless, little research has been done to assess how paternal experience modifies the behavioral characteristics of fathers, including fear and stress responses to a novel environment. We investigated long-term behavioral and physiologic effects of parental experience in mice (Peromyscus californicus) and how this response activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (as measured by corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] levels) and interacts with anxiety-related behaviors. Three groups of adult males were tested—fathers exposed to pups, virgins exposed to pups, and virgins never exposed to pups—in 2 environments designed to elicit anxiety response: an open field with a novel object placed in the center and a closed cage containing a sample of a component of fox feces. Behavioral responses were measured by using traditional methods (duration and frequency) and behavioral-chain sequences. Results indicated that paternal experience significantly modifies a male mouse's behavioral and physiologic responses to stress-provoking stimuli. Compared with inexperienced male mice, experienced male mice had a significant decrease in the occurrence of incomplete behavioral chains during the exposure to the novel object, an index of reduced stress. Further, even moderate pup exposure induced behavioral modifications in virgin male mice. These behavioral responses were correlated with changes in corticosterone and DHEA levels. Together, these data provide evidence that interactions between male mice and offspring may have mutually beneficial long-term behavioral and physiologic effects. PMID:21819678

  6. Multilocus heterozygosity, parental relatedness and individual fitness components in a wild mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus population.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, Julien; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W

    2009-05-01

    Matings between relatives lead to a decrease in offspring genetic diversity which can reduce fitness, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. Because alpine ungulates generally live in small structured populations and often exhibit a polygynous mating system, they are susceptible to inbreeding. Here, we used marker-based measures of pairwise genetic relatedness and inbreeding to investigate the fitness consequences of matings between relatives in a long-term study population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) at Caw Ridge, Alberta, Canada. We first assessed whether individuals avoided mating with kin by comparing actual and random mating pairs according to their estimated genetic relatedness, which was derived from 25 unlinked polymorphic microsatellite markers and reflected pedigree relatedness. We then examined whether individual multilocus heterozygosity H, used as a measure of inbreeding, was predicted by parental relatedness and associated with yearling survival and the annual probability of giving birth to a kid in adult females. Breeding pairs identified by genetic parentage analyses of offspring that survived to 1 year of age were less genetically related than expected under random matings. Parental relatedness was negatively correlated with offspring H, and more heterozygous yearlings had higher survival to 2 years of age. The probability of giving birth was not affected by H in adult females. Because kids that survived to yearling age were mainly produced by less genetically related parents, our results suggest that some individuals experienced inbreeding depression in early life. Future research will be required to quantify the levels of gene flow between different herds, and evaluate their effects on population genetic diversity and dynamics. PMID:19389162

  7. Multilocus heterozygosity, parental relatedness and individual fitness components in a wild mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus population.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, Julien; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W

    2009-05-01

    Matings between relatives lead to a decrease in offspring genetic diversity which can reduce fitness, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. Because alpine ungulates generally live in small structured populations and often exhibit a polygynous mating system, they are susceptible to inbreeding. Here, we used marker-based measures of pairwise genetic relatedness and inbreeding to investigate the fitness consequences of matings between relatives in a long-term study population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) at Caw Ridge, Alberta, Canada. We first assessed whether individuals avoided mating with kin by comparing actual and random mating pairs according to their estimated genetic relatedness, which was derived from 25 unlinked polymorphic microsatellite markers and reflected pedigree relatedness. We then examined whether individual multilocus heterozygosity H, used as a measure of inbreeding, was predicted by parental relatedness and associated with yearling survival and the annual probability of giving birth to a kid in adult females. Breeding pairs identified by genetic parentage analyses of offspring that survived to 1 year of age were less genetically related than expected under random matings. Parental relatedness was negatively correlated with offspring H, and more heterozygous yearlings had higher survival to 2 years of age. The probability of giving birth was not affected by H in adult females. Because kids that survived to yearling age were mainly produced by less genetically related parents, our results suggest that some individuals experienced inbreeding depression in early life. Future research will be required to quantify the levels of gene flow between different herds, and evaluate their effects on population genetic diversity and dynamics.

  8. The role of relatedness in structuring the social network of a wild guppy population.

    PubMed

    Croft, Darren P; Hamilton, P B; Darden, S K; Jacoby, D M P; James, R; Bettaney, E M; Tyler, C R

    2012-12-01

    The role of relatedness in structuring animal societies has attracted considerable interest. Whilst a significant number of studies have documented kin recognition in shoaling fish under laboratory conditions, there is little evidence that relatedness plays a significant role in structuring social interactions in wild populations that are characterised by fission-fusion dynamics. Previous work has tended to compare relatedness within and among entire shoals. Such an approach however, does not have the ability to detect social sub-structuring within groups, which appears to be a major factor driving the social organisation of fission-fusion animal societies. Here, we use social network analysis combined with DNA microsatellite genotyping to examine the role of relatedness in structuring social relationships in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Consistent with previous findings, female-female dyads formed the strongest social relationships, which were stable over time. Interestingly, we also observed significant co-occurrence of male-male interactions, which is in contrast to previous work. Although we observed social sub-structuring in the population, we found no evidence for relatedness playing a significant role in underpinning this structure. Indeed, only seven first-degree relative dyads were identified among the 180 fish genotyped, indicating that the majority of individuals do not have a first-degree relative in the population. The high genetic diversity observed in this population is indicative of a large effective population size typical of lowland guppy populations. We discuss our findings in the context of the evolution of social organisation and the mechanisms and constraints that may drive the observed patterns in wild populations. PMID:22752186

  9. Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing (NIPAT) through Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao; Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future.

  10. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA: degradation of paternal mitochondria by allogeneic organelle autophagy, allophagy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2012-03-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally observed in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this clearance of paternal mitochondria has remained largely unknown. Recently, we showed that autophagy is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Shortly after fertilization, autophagosomes are induced locally around the penetrated sperm components. These autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genomes remain even in the larval stage. Therefore, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is accomplished by autophagic degradation of paternal mitochondria. We also found that another kind of sperm-derived structure, called the membranous organelle, is degraded by zygotic autophagy as well. We thus propose to term this allogeneic (nonself) organelle autophagy as allophagy.

  11. Paternal modeling, household availability, and paternal intake as predictors of fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption among African American children.

    PubMed

    Harris, Toni S; Ramsey, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The current study examined how African American fathers' dietary practices were associated with their children's dietary consumption. The sample consisted of one hundred and two African American fathers, who had children between the ages of three and thirteen. The fathers provided self-reports of their consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sugar sweetened beverages; modeling of healthy eating; household availability of foods and beverages; and their children's previously mentioned consumption. Sweetened beverages are considered to be any beverage that contains added sweeteners, high-fructose corn syrup, and/or fruit juice concentrates. Paternal modeling and household availability of food and beverages were measured using subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ). Three separate hierarchical regressions were performed to reveal that child fruit and vegetable consumption was only predicted by parental intake. Child sweetened beverage consumption, however, was predicted by paternal intake and household availability. Modeling did not significantly predict children's consumption of fruits, vegetables, or sweetened beverages. The findings suggest that paternal intake of fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages predicts child consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. Family efforts should be made toward increasing father's consumption of healthy foods while decreasing the consumption and availability of sweetened beverages. PMID:25447009

  12. Perceived autonomy and relatedness as moderating the impact of teacher-student mentoring relationships on student academic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Cyrenne, Diane

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the impact of a 10-hour teacher-student mentoring relationship on the academic adjustment of at-risk college students. A quasi-experimental design involving a comparison group (NM: students with No Mentor), a High Relatedness/Autonomy group (HR/HA: students who perceived high levels of relatedness and autonomy during the mentoring process) and a Low Relatedness/Autonomy group (LR/LA: students who perceived low levels of relatedness and autonomy during the mentoring process) was used for that purpose. Academic adjustment and performance were assessed before (Time 1) and five months after involvement in mentoring (Time 3) for all students. Perceived relatedness and autonomy were assessed after the last mentoring meeting (Time 2) for students involved in mentoring relationships only. Results indicated better social adjustment and institutional attachment in college for the HR students than for the LR and NM students, even after controlling for initial adjustment, performance and social network dispositions. In addition, the LR and LA students presented lower academic and emotional adjustment in college and lower academic performance than NM, HR, and HA students. The potential positive and negative impacts of mentoring relationships are discussed in light of autonomy and relatedness processes. Editors' Strategic Implications: Especially valuable is the articulation of why mentoring might be expected to affect social and academic adjustment outcomes via its effects on the development of autonomy and relatedness. Application of attachment theory and measurement to the study of mentoring is a strategy that shows promise. PMID:15977045

  13. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Julia A.; Park, Lara K.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Tai, Albert K.; Koh, Gar Yee; Pfalzer, Anna C.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Mason, Joel B.; Liu, Zhenhua; Byun, Alexander J.; Crott, Jimmy W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well. Objective In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content. Methods Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation) were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL), mildly deficient (DEF), or supplemental (SUPP) quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden. Results No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring. Conclusions In this animal model, modulation of

  14. Adjustment of costly extra-group paternity according to inbreeding risk in a cooperative mammal

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Michael A.; Sanderson, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Females of many animal species seek mating opportunities with multiple males, despite being able to obtain sufficient sperm to father their offspring from a single male. In animals that live in stable social groups, females often choose to mate outside their group resulting in extra-group paternity (EGP). One reason proposed to explain female choice for extra-group males is to obtain compatible genes, for example, in order to avoid inbreeding depression in offspring. The benefits of such extra-group paternities could be substantial if they result in fitter, outbred offspring. However, avoiding inbreeding in this way could be costly for females, for example, through retaliation by cuckolded males or through receiving aggression while prospecting for extra-group mating opportunities. We investigate the costs and benefits of EGP in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo, a cooperatively breeding mammal in which within-group mates are sometimes close relatives. We find that pups born to females that mate with extra-group males are more genetically heterozygous are heavier and are more likely to survive to independence than pups born to females that mate within their group. However, extra-group matings also involve substantial costs as they occur during violent encounters that sometimes result in injury and death. This appears to lead femalebanded mongooses to adaptively adjust EGP levels according to the current risk of inbreeding associated with mating within the group. For group-living animals, the costs of intergroup interactions may help to explain variation in both inbreeding rates and EGP within and between species. PMID:26609201

  15. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories <0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1.0-1.4, and ≥1.5μmol/L, respectively, as compared to population comparison). Parental psychosis, paternal age and offspring language were associated with offspring risk. The findings suggest that paternal exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. PMID:27318522

  16. Paternal deprivation prior to adolescence and vulnerability to pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, L G; Duarte, J S; Paiva, I; Gomes, L; Vicente, V; Aguiar, P

    2012-06-01

    It has been reported that women with prolactinoma were exposed, early in life, to an environment characterized by an absent or violent father. The present study was designed to evaluate whether paternal absence or violent paternal behavior were more prevalent in patients with pituitary adenomas (prolactinoma, acromegaly, non-secreting adenoma and Cushing's disease) compared to a control population. We conducted an observational case-control multicenter study. We interviewed 395 patients with prolactinoma (296 females and 99 males), 130 with acromegaly (87 females and 43 males), 237 with non-secreting adenoma (144 females and 93 males) and 68 with Cushing's disease (61 females and 7 males) and 365 patients from the same clinics with nodular thyroid disease or lymphocytic thyroiditis with euthyroidism as controls. Violent or absent fathers were significantly more prevalent in patients with prolactinoma or acromegaly than in controls (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) but not in patients with non-secreting adenoma or corticotrophinoma. Absent fathers in prolactinoma and acromegaly versus controls: P = 0.001 and P = 0.119. Violent fathers in prolactinoma and acromegaly versus controls: P = 0.069 and P = 0.001. The prevalence of absent or violent fathers was also significantly higher in prolactinoma and acromegaly when compared to non-secreting adenoma (P = 0.039 and P = 0.033, respectively). Paternal deprivation before adolescence may be a risk factor for prolactinoma and acromegaly but not for non-secreting pituitary adenomas or Cushing's disease.

  17. Paternal genetic affinity between western Austronesians and Daic populations

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Austronesian is a linguistic family spread in most areas of the Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean. Based on their linguistic similarity, this linguistic family included Malayo-Polynesians and Taiwan aborigines. The linguistic similarity also led to the controversial hypothesis that Taiwan is the homeland of all the Malayo-Polynesians, a hypothesis that has been debated by ethnologists, linguists, archaeologists, and geneticists. It is well accepted that the Eastern Austronesians (Micronesians and Polynesians) derived from the Western Austronesians (Island Southeast Asians and Taiwanese), and that the Daic populations on the mainland are supposed to be the headstream of all the Austronesian populations. Results In this report, we studied 20 SNPs and 7 STRs in the non-recombining region of the 1,509 Y chromosomes from 30 China Daic populations, 23 Indonesian and Vietnam Malayo-Polynesian populations, and 11 Taiwan aboriginal populations. These three groups show many resemblances in paternal lineages. Admixture analyses demonstrated that the Daic populations are hardly influenced by Han Chinese genetically, and that they make up the largest proportion of Indonesians. Most of the population samples contain a high frequency of haplogroup O1a-M119, which is nearly absent in other ethnic families. The STR network of haplogroup O1a* illustrated that Indonesian lineages did not derive from Taiwan aborigines as linguistic studies suggest, but from Daic populations. Conclusion We show that, in contrast to the Taiwan homeland hypothesis, the Island Southeast Asians do not have a Taiwan origin based on their paternal lineages. Furthermore, we show that both Taiwan aborigines and Indonesians likely derived from the Daic populations based on their paternal lineages. These two populations seem to have evolved independently of each other. Our results indicate that a super-phylum, which includes Taiwan aborigines, Daic, and Malayo-Polynesians, is

  18. Y-STR haplotype diversity and population data for Central Brazil: implications for environmental forensics and paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Vieira, T C; Gigonzac, M A D; Silva, D M; Rodovalho, R G; Santos, G S; da Cruz, A D

    2014-01-01

    The central region of Brazil was colonized by internal migration of individuals of different origins, who contributed to the genetic diversity existing in this population. This study determined the allele frequencies and haplotype diversity of Y-STRs in Goiás State, Central Brazil, and compared the data obtained with a sample of the Brazilian population, consisting of individuals from the five geographical regions of Brazil. A total of 353 males were typed for 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers. We selected males who had no degree of relatedness, from the five mesoregions of Goiás State. DNA was extracted from blood samples followed by the amplification of the 12 Y-chromosome loci. The products were analyzed to obtain the allele profiles on an ABI3500 automated sequencer using the Gene Mapper software. Allele frequencies and haplotype diversity were estimated by direct counting, and gene diversity for each locus was computed using the Arlequin software. The results are consistent with the history of miscegenation of the population of Central Brazil, in which we observed 321 different haplotypes. The average gene diversity at the 12 loci was 0.645. DYS385b and DYS389I showed the highest (0.704) and lowest (0.520) genetic diversity values, respectively. The FST value between the Brazilian and Goiás populations was 0.00951, showing no statistical significance. The results of this study allowed the establishment of haplotypes found in the forensic samples of Goiás State serving as a reference in the elucidation of criminal cases and paternity tests, as well as population and evolutionary inferences. PMID:24841785

  19. A note on paternity computation in cases lacking a mother.

    PubMed

    Brenner, C H

    1993-01-01

    When the mother is unavailable for parentage testing, a calculation must usually be based on types determined for the child and the alleged father. Particularly in the case of DNA typing, the formula is easy to derive. The correct formula is apparently not widely known, however, and in fact, a formula that is obviously incorrect seems often to be used and quoted. The correct method of derivation is indicated, and formulae are given for the various possibilities for patterns of gene-sharing between child and alleged father. In most cases paternity = 1/4Pr(shared allele) is an adequate formula.

  20. High relatedness is necessary and sufficient to maintain multicellularity in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Kuzdzal-Fick, Jennie J; Fox, Sara A; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2011-12-16

    Most complex multicellular organisms develop clonally from a single cell. This should limit conflicts between cell lineages that could threaten the extensive cooperation of cells within multicellular bodies. Cellular composition can be manipulated in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, which allows us to test and confirm the two key predictions of this theory. Experimental evolution at low relatedness favored cheating mutants that could destroy multicellular development. However, under high relatedness, the forces of mutation and within-individual selection are too small for these destructive cheaters to spread, as shown by a mutation accumulation experiment. Thus, we conclude that the single-cell bottleneck is a powerful stabilizer of cellular cooperation in multicellular organisms. PMID:22174251

  1. Interpersonal relatedness, self-definition, and their motivational orientation during adolescence: a theoretical and empirical integration.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C; Blatt, Sidney J; Ryan, Richard; Little, Todd D

    2003-05-01

    The authors examined a theoretical model linking interpersonal relatedness and self-definition (S.J. Blatt, 1974), autonomous and controlled regulation (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 1985), and negative and positive life events in adolescence (N = 860). They hypothesized that motivational orientation would mediate the effects of interpersonal relatedness and self-definition on life events. Self-criticism, a maladaptive form of self-definition, predicted less positive events, whereas efficacy, an adaptive form of self-definition, predicted more positive events. These effects were fully mediated by the absence and presence, respectively, of autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation, predicted by self-criticism and maladaptive neediness, did not predict negative events. Results illustrate the centrality of protective, pleasure-related processes in adaptive adolescent development.

  2. Kin recognition: evidence that humans can perceive both positive and negative relatedness.

    PubMed

    Krupp, D B; DeBruine, L M; Jones, B C; Lalumière, M L

    2012-08-01

    The evolution of spite entails actors imposing costs on 'negative' relatives: those who are less likely than chance to share the actor's alleles and therefore more likely to bear rival alleles. Yet, despite a considerable body of research confirming that organisms can recognize positive relatives, little research has shown that organisms can recognize negative relatives. Here, we extend previous work on human phenotype matching by introducing a cue to negative relatedness: negative self-resembling faces, which differ from an average face in the opposite direction to the way an individual's own face differs from the average. Participants made trustworthiness and attractiveness judgements of pairs of opposite-sex positive and negative self-resembling faces. Analyses revealed opposing effects of positive and negative self-resembling faces on trustworthiness and attractiveness judgements. This is the first clear evidence that humans are sensitive to negative relatedness cues, and suggests the potential for the adaptive allocation of spiteful behaviour. PMID:22694177

  3. Perceptual Simulations and Linguistic Representations Have Differential Effects on Speeded Relatedness Judgments and Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Kurby, Christopher A.; Du, Feng

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effect of spatial iconicity (a perceptual simulation of canonical locations of objects) and word-order frequency on language processing and episodic memory of orientation. Participants made speeded relatedness judgments to pairs of words presented in locations typical to their real world arrangements (e.g., ceiling on top and floor on bottom). They then engaged in a surprise orientation recognition task for the word pairs. We replicated Louwerse’s finding (2008) that word-order frequency has a stronger effect on semantic relatedness judgments than spatial iconicity. This is consistent with recent suggestions that linguistic representations have a stronger impact on immediate decisions about verbal materials than perceptual simulations. In contrast, spatial iconicity enhanced episodic memory of orientation to a greater extent than word-order frequency did. This new finding indicates that perceptual simulations have an important role in episodic memory. Results are discussed with respect to theories of perceptual representation and linguistic processing. PMID:19742388

  4. High-level relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense strains from widely separated outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Tettelin, Hervé; Davidson, Rebecca M; Agrawal, Sonia; Aitken, Moira L; Shallom, Shamira; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Strong, Michael; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; De Groote, Mary Ann; Duarte, Rafael S; Hine, Erin; Parankush, Sushma; Su, Qi; Daugherty, Sean C; Fraser, Claire M; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Holland, Steven M; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Olivier, Kenneth N; Jackson, Mary; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2014-03-01

    Three recently sequenced strains isolated from patients during an outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense infections at a cystic fibrosis center in the United States were compared with 6 strains from an outbreak at a cystic fibrosis center in the United Kingdom and worldwide strains. Strains from the 2 cystic fibrosis outbreaks showed high-level relatedness with each other and major-level relatedness with strains that caused soft tissue infections during an epidemic in Brazil. We identified unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis and soft tissue outbreak strains, separate single-nucleotide polymorphisms only in cystic fibrosis outbreak strains, and unique genomic traits for each subset of isolates. Our findings highlight the necessity of identifying M. abscessus to the subspecies level and screening all cystic fibrosis isolates for relatedness to these outbreak strains. We propose 2 diagnostic strategies that use partial sequencing of rpoB and secA1 genes and a multilocus sequence typing protocol. PMID:24565502

  5. Is prospective memory enhanced by cue-action semantic relatedness and enactment at encoding?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Antonina; Ellis, Judi; Freeman, Jayne

    2012-09-01

    Benefits and costs on prospective memory performance, of enactment at encoding and a semantic association between a cue-action word pair, were investigated in two experiments. Findings revealed superior performance for both younger and older adults following enactment, in contrast to verbal encoding, and when cue-action semantic relatedness was high. Although younger adults outperformed older adults, age did not moderate benefits of cue-action relatedness or enactment. Findings from a second experiment revealed that the inclusion of an instruction to perform a prospective memory task led to increments in response latency to items from the ongoing activity in which that task was embedded, relative to latencies when the ongoing task only was performed. However, this task interference 'cost' did not differ as a function of either cue-action relatedness or enactment. We argue that the high number of cue-action pairs employed here influenced meta-cognitive consciousness, hence determining attention allocation, in all experimental conditions. PMID:22632757

  6. Population structure and relatedness among female Northern Pintails in three California wintering regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Fowler, Ada C.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) were sampled in California's three main Central Valley wintering regions (Sacramento Valley, Suisun Marsh, San Joaquin Valley) during September–October before most regional movements occur and microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were analyzed to examine population structure and relatedness. Despite reportedly high rates of early-fall pairing and regional fidelity, both sets of markers indicated that there was little overall genetic structuring by region. Pintails from Suisun Marsh did exhibit higher relatedness among individuals and capture groups than in the Sacramento or San Joaquin Valleys, likely reflecting a sample comprised of a greater proportion of local breeders. The lack of genetic structuring among regions indicates that a high degree of movement and interchange occurs among pintails wintering in the Central Valley. Thus, although maintaining the existing distribution of pintails among Central Valley regions is important for other reasons, it does not appear to be critical to retain current patterns of population genetic variation. Because of potential lack of independence among highly related study individuals, researchers should consider regional differences in relatedness when designing sampling schemes and interpreting research findings.

  7. [Genetic diversity and relatedness in different generations of the Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) captive population].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Postel'nykh, K A; Nosachenko, G V; Politov, D V

    2014-11-01

    Eight variable microsatellite loci were analyzed in terms of studying the genetic structure of different generations of a captive population of a rare endemic Russian species, the Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus Pallas). It was shown that the founding population of natural origin (15 birds) is characterized by high genetic diversity (N(A) = 6.625, H(O) = 0.767, H(E) = 0.731) and a lack of relatedness (R = -0.079). In the total sample of descendents of the founders (122 individuals from generations F1, F1/F2, F,/F3, F2, F2/F3), this characteristic level of genetic variation was retained; however, we observed a decrease in allelic richness in some generations (F1/F2, F1/F3, F2). We found a low level of relatedness inthe sample of descendents of the founders (F1, F1/F2, F1/F3), while the relatedness was maximal (R = 0.302) in the first-generation descendents of the breeders. A small sample of breeders related to each other of generations F1 and F2 (eight birds) does not represent the entire gene pool of the founders of the Siberian Crane captive population. In view of this, we discuss the need to form a new genetically heterogeneous generation of breeders that would also include Siberian Cranes from the virtually extinct Western Siberian population. PMID:25739288

  8. Could Relatedness Help Explain Why Individuals Lead in Bottlenose Dolphin Groups?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer S.; Wartzok, Douglas; Heithaus, Michael; Krützen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In many species, particular individuals consistently lead group travel. While benefits to followers often are relatively obvious, including access to resources, benefits to leaders are often less obvious. This is especially true for species that feed on patchy mobile resources where all group members may locate prey simultaneously and food intake likely decreases with increasing group size. Leaders in highly complex habitats, however, could provide access to foraging resources for less informed relatives, thereby gaining indirect benefits by helping kin. Recently, leadership has been documented in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) where direct benefits to leaders appear unlikely. To test whether leaders could benefit indirectly we examined relatedness between leader-follower pairs and compared these levels to pairs who associated but did not have leader-follower relationship (neither ever led the other). We found the average relatedness value for leader-follower pairs was greater than expected based on chance. The same was not found when examining non leader-follower pairs. Additionally, relatedness for leader-follower pairs was positively correlated with association index values, but no correlation was found for this measure in non leader-follower pairs. Interestingly, haplotypes were not frequently shared between leader-follower pairs (25%). Together, these results suggest that bottlenose dolphin leaders have the opportunity to gain indirect benefits by leading relatives. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the maintenance of leadership in a highly dynamic fission-fusion population with few obvious direct benefits to leaders. PMID:23516445

  9. Marker-based estimates of relatedness and inbreeding coefficients: an assessment of current methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, J

    2014-03-01

    Inbreeding (F) of and relatedness (r) between individuals are now routinely calculated from marker data in studies in the fields of quantitative genetics, conservation genetics, forensics, evolution and ecology. Although definable in terms of either correlation coefficient or probability of identity by descent (IBD) relative to a reference, they are better interpreted as correlations in marker-based analyses because the reference in practice is frequently the current sample or population whose F and r are being estimated. In such situations, negative estimates have a biological meaning, a substantial proportion of the estimates are expected to be negative, and the average estimates are close to zero for r and equivalent to FIS for F. I show that although current r estimators were developed from the IBD-based concept of relatedness, some of them conform to the correlation-based concept of relatedness and some do not. The latter estimators can be modified, however, so that they estimate r as a correlation coefficient. I also show that F and r estimates can be misleading and become biased and marker dependent when a sample containing a high proportion of highly inbred and/or closely related individuals is used as reference. In analyses depending on the comparison between r (or F) estimates and a priori values expected under ideal conditions (e.g. for identifying genealogical relationship), the estimators should be used with caution.

  10. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure alters the small noncoding RNA profile in sperm and modifies anxiety and depressive phenotypes in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Short, A K; Fennell, K A; Perreau, V M; Fox, A; O'Bryan, M K; Kim, J H; Bredy, T W; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that physiological and behavioral traits may be transgenerationally inherited through the paternal lineage, possibly via non-genomic signals derived from the sperm. To investigate how paternal stress might influence offspring behavioral phenotypes, a model of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation was used. Male breeders were administered water supplemented with corticosterone (CORT) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated female mice. Female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers displayed altered fear extinction at 2 weeks of age. Only male F1 offspring exhibited altered patterns of ultrasonic vocalization at postnatal day 3 and, as adults, showed decreased time in open on the elevated-plus maze and time in light on the light–dark apparatus, suggesting a hyperanxiety-like behavioral phenotype due to paternal CORT treatment. Interestingly, expression of the paternally imprinted gene Igf2 was increased in the hippocampus of F1 male offspring but downregulated in female offspring. Male and female F2 offspring displayed increased time spent in the open arm of the elevated-plus maze, suggesting lower levels of anxiety compared with control animals. Only male F2 offspring showed increased immobility time on the forced-swim test and increased latency to feed on the novelty-supressed feeding test, suggesting a depression-like phenotype in these animals. Collectively, these data provide evidence that paternal CORT treatment alters anxiety and depression-related behaviors across multiple generations. Analysis of the small RNA profile in sperm from CORT-treated males revealed marked effects on the expression of small noncoding RNAs. Sperm from CORT-treated males contained elevated levels of three microRNAs, miR-98, miR-144 and miR-190b, which are predicted to interact with multiple growth factors, including Igf2 and Bdnf. Sustained elevation of glucocorticoids is therefore involved in the transmission of

  11. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure alters the small noncoding RNA profile in sperm and modifies anxiety and depressive phenotypes in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Short, A K; Fennell, K A; Perreau, V M; Fox, A; O'Bryan, M K; Kim, J H; Bredy, T W; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that physiological and behavioral traits may be transgenerationally inherited through the paternal lineage, possibly via non-genomic signals derived from the sperm. To investigate how paternal stress might influence offspring behavioral phenotypes, a model of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation was used. Male breeders were administered water supplemented with corticosterone (CORT) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated female mice. Female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers displayed altered fear extinction at 2 weeks of age. Only male F1 offspring exhibited altered patterns of ultrasonic vocalization at postnatal day 3 and, as adults, showed decreased time in open on the elevated-plus maze and time in light on the light-dark apparatus, suggesting a hyperanxiety-like behavioral phenotype due to paternal CORT treatment. Interestingly, expression of the paternally imprinted gene Igf2 was increased in the hippocampus of F1 male offspring but downregulated in female offspring. Male and female F2 offspring displayed increased time spent in the open arm of the elevated-plus maze, suggesting lower levels of anxiety compared with control animals. Only male F2 offspring showed increased immobility time on the forced-swim test and increased latency to feed on the novelty-supressed feeding test, suggesting a depression-like phenotype in these animals. Collectively, these data provide evidence that paternal CORT treatment alters anxiety and depression-related behaviors across multiple generations. Analysis of the small RNA profile in sperm from CORT-treated males revealed marked effects on the expression of small noncoding RNAs. Sperm from CORT-treated males contained elevated levels of three microRNAs, miR-98, miR-144 and miR-190b, which are predicted to interact with multiple growth factors, including Igf2 and Bdnf. Sustained elevation of glucocorticoids is therefore involved in the transmission of paternal

  12. Helping effort increases with relatedness in bell miners, but ‘unrelated’ helpers of both sexes still provide substantial care

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jonathan; McDonald, Paul G.; te Marvelde, Luc; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Bishop, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Indirect fitness benefits from kin selection can explain why non-breeding individuals help raise the young of relatives. However, the evolution of helping by non-relatives requires direct fitness benefits, for example via group augmentation. Here, we examine nest visit rates, load sizes and prey types delivered by breeding pairs and their helpers in the cooperatively breeding bell miner (Manorina melanophrys). In this system, males remain in their natal colony while young females typically disperse, and helpers of both sexes often assist at multiple nests concurrently. We found extremely clear evidence for the expected effect of genetic relatedness on individual helping effort per nest within colonies. This positive incremental effect of kinship was facultative—i.e. largely the result of within-individual variation in helping effort. Surprisingly, no sex differences were detectable in any aspect of helping, and even non-relatives provided substantial aid. Helpers and breeders of both sexes regulated their provisioning effort by responding visit-by-visit to changes in nestling begging. Helping behaviour in bell miners therefore appears consistent with adaptive cooperative investment in the brood, and kin-selected care by relatives. Similar investment by ‘unrelated’ helpers of both sexes argues against direct fitness benefits, but is perhaps explained by kin selection at the colony level. PMID:19846458

  13. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2011-04-01

    Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  14. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: In this study, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among resistant enterococci from dogs and cats in the United States were determined. Methods and Results: Enterococci resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin,...

  15. The Female Perspective of Mating in A. femoralis, a Territorial Frog with Paternal Care – A Spatial and Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ringler, Eva; Ringler, Max; Jehle, Robert; Hödl, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive significance of sequential polyandry is a challenging question in evolutionary and behavioral biology. Costs and benefits of different mating patterns are shaped by the spatial distribution of individuals and by genetic parameters such as the pairwise relatedness between potential mating partners. Thus, females should become less choosy as costs of mating and searching for mates increase. We used parentage assignments to investigate spatial and genetic patterns of mating across a natural population of the Neotropical frog Allobates femoralis, a species characterized by male territoriality and care and female iteroparity. There was no correlation between genetic and spatial distances between adult individuals across the population. In 72% of cases, females mated with males available within a radius of 20 m. Mean pairwise relatedness coefficients of successful reproducers did not differ from random mating but had a lower variance than expected by chance, suggesting maximal reproductive output at intermediate genetic divergence. We also found evidence for selection in favor of more heterozygous individuals between the embryo and adult stage. The level of sequential polyandry significantly increased with the number of spatially available males. Females that had more candidate males also produced more adult progeny. We hypothesize that the benefits associated with female multiple mating outweigh the costs of in- and outbreeding depression, and consequently precluded the evolution of ‘choosy’ mate selection in this species. PMID:22768260

  16. Paternal Incarceration and Children's Physically Aggressive Behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the causes of children's behavioral problems by considering the effects of paternal incarceration on children's physical aggression at age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that paternal incarceration is associated with…

  17. Paternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 as a cause of recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Wolf, G C; Mao, J; Izquierdo, L; Joffe, G

    1994-02-01

    A paternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 was ascertained through karyotype analysis of an abortus specimen proven to be 46,XX,rec(4),dup q, inv (4)(p13q28). The relationship of paternal pericentric inversion to pregnancy loss is discussed, and a recommendation for karyotype analysis of recurrent abortion specimens is made.

  18. Paternal Child Care and Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Analysis of Reciprocal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Pia S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored reciprocal associations between paternal child-care involvement and relationship quality by following British couples from the birth of a child until he or she reached school age. It extends the literature by distinguishing between paternal engagement in absolute terms and relative to the mother and by considering relationship…

  19. Maternal and Paternal Parenting during Adolescence: Forecasting Early Adult Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of maternal and paternal parenting behavior during adolescence to four domains of early adult functioning. Higher levels of maternal firm control were associated with more secure early adult romantic attachment and lower levels of educational achievement. There were no main effects for fathers, but paternal parenting…

  20. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  1. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E

    2016-01-01

    In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents’ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans. PMID:27424551

  2. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  3. Demographic correlates of paternity confidence and pregnancy outcomes among Albuquerque men.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kermyt G; Kaplan, Hillard; Lancaster, Jane B

    2006-12-01

    We examine the demographic correlates of paternity confidence, or men's assessment of the likelihood that they are the genetic father of a particular child. Evolutionary theory predicts that men will provide less parental investment for putative genetic offspring who are unlikely to be their actual offspring, but confidence of paternity has not been as extensively examined as its importance would merit. Using self-reported data on paternity confidence in 3,360 pregnancies reported by men living in Albuquerque, New Mexico, we find that low paternity confidence is more common among unmarried couples and for unplanned pregnancies. We also find that men are more likely not to state paternity confidence (i.e., they refuse to answer the question) if a pregnancy is unplanned. We additionally examine the pregnancy outcomes associated with confidence of paternity. We find that low paternity confidence pregnancies are significantly more likely to be aborted, and pregnancies for which paternity confidence is unstated are more likely to be aborted or to miscarry. Both abortion and miscarriage are associated with unmarried couples, with unplanned pregnancies, and with couples who have fewer children together.

  4. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and Their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic…

  5. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909

  6. Current Issues in Maternal and Paternal Deprivation. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    An overview of some major current issues in maternal and paternal deprivation is presented. Parts I and II focus on (1) single parents and issues in paternal deprivation and (2) sex stereotyping and issues in maternal deprivation, respectively. More particularly, Part I discusses the effects of divorce and death on children and the problem of…

  7. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909

  8. Normal phenotype with paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, J.L.; Avramopoulos, D. ); Pangalos, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) involving several different chromosomes has been described in several cases of human pathologies. In order to investigate whether UPD for chromosome 21 is associated with abnormal phenotypes, the authors analyzed DNA polymorphisms in DNA from a family with de novo Robertsonian translocation t(21q;21q). The proband was a healthy male with 45 dup(21q) who was ascertained through his trisomy 21 offspring. No phenotypic abnormalities were noted in the physical exam, and his past medical history was unremarkable. The authors obtained genotypes for the proband and his parents' leukocyte DNAs from 17 highly informative short sequence repeat polymorphisms that map in the pericentromeric region and along the entire length of 21q. The order of the markers has been previously determined through the linkage and physical maps of this chromosome. For the nine informative markers there was no maternal allele contribution to the genotype of the proband; in addition, there was always reduction to homozygosity of a paternal allele. These data indicated that there was paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 21 (pUPiD21). The authors conclude that pUPiD21 is not associated with abnormal phenotypes and that there are probably no imprinted genes on chromosome 21. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Zygotic chromosomal structural aberrations after paternal drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Anne Marie; Robaire, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the field of male-mediated reproductive toxicology has received growing attention. It is now well-established that many drugs, chemicals, and environmental factors can harm male germ cells by inducing DNA damage. Male germ cells have extensive repair mechanisms that allow detection and repair of damaged DNA during the early phases of spermatogenesis. However, during the later phase of spermiogenesis, when the haploid spermatids undergo chromatin condensation and become transcriptionally quiescent, their ability to repair damaged DNA is lost.12 It is also thought that the highly compacted chromatin of the sperm can protect DNA against damage.3 Therefore, it is expected that late spermatids will be most susceptible to DNA damaging agents. Unrepaired or misrepaired damage in the germ cells leads to the generation of spermatozoa with DNA damage that can be transmitted to the next generation. Fortunately, the maternal DNA repair machinery is capable of recognizing and repairing, at least to some degree, damaged paternal DNA after fertilization in the zygote. Therefore, the efficiency of the maternal repair machinery will greatly influence the risk of transmitting paternal DNA damage to offspring.4 PMID:25999360

  10. Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, M.; Hughes, K.; Hughes, S.; Ashton, J.

    2005-01-01

    Paternal discrepancy (PD) occurs when a child is identified as being biologically fathered by someone other than the man who believes he is the father. This paper examines published evidence on levels of PD and its public health consequences. Rates vary between studies from 0.8% to 30% (median 3.7%, n = 17). Using information from genetic and behavioural studies, the article identifies those who conceive younger, live in deprivation, are in long term relationships (rather than marriages), or in certain cultural groups are at higher risk. Public health consequences of PD being exposed include family break up and violence. However, leaving PD undiagnosed means cases having incorrect information on their genetics and fathers continuing to suspect that children may not be theirs. Increasing paternity testing and use of DNA techniques in clinical and judicial procedures means more cases of PD will be identified. Given developing roles for individual's genetics in decisions made by health services, private services (for example, insurance), and even in personal lifestyle decisions, the dearth of intelligence on how and when PD should be exposed urgently needs addressing. PMID:16100312

  11. The ethical debate on present day paternity testing practices.

    PubMed

    Mertens, G

    2006-01-01

    The last years, the number of paternity tests on buccal swabs sold over the internet as "test kits", has steeply increased. The commercial providers of these services facilitate controversial practices, including clandestine sampling at home, anonymous sending off for analysis, motherless testing and using "stolen" personal objects containing biological material (combs, cigarette butts). This has led to concern on the consequences on the family unit--especially the child--which may suffer emotionally, physically and financially. In reaction, legal initiatives are appearing throughout Europe. The UK Human Genetics Commission has advised that the non-consensual obtaining and analysis of personal genetic information should be a new criminal offence. The German Federal Court of Justice has ruled that paternity tests performed without the mother's knowledge are inadmissible as evidence in lawsuits. French law strictly forbids the application of DNA testing without the involvement of the court system. In Belgium, a proposal for law has been laid down where the offering to PMID:16792338

  12. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p < .01) and mothers' control (p < .001) were significantly associated with child weight status. Fathers' reinforcement (p < .01) was significantly associated with child physical activity. For screen-time, mothers' monitoring (p < .001) and child characteristics [age (p = .01), sex (p = .01), BMI z-score (p = .03)] were significant predictors. Mothers' parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors.

  13. Paternal Autonomy Restriction, Neighborhood Safety, and Child Anxiety Trajectory in Community Youth

    PubMed Central

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive parenting, primarily examined among middle to upper-middle class mothers, has been positively associated with the presence and severity of anxiety in children. This study employed cross-sectional linear regression and longitudinal latent growth curve analyses to evaluate the main and interactive effects of early childhood paternal autonomy restriction (AR) and neighborhood safety (NS) on the trajectory of child anxiety in a sample of 596 community children and fathers from the NICHD SECYD. Longitudinal analyses revealed that greater paternal AR at age 6 was actually associated with greater decreases in child anxiety in later childhood. Cross-sectional analyses revealed main effects for NS across childhood, and interactive effects of paternal AR and NS that were present only in early childhood, whereby children living in safer neighborhoods demonstrated increased anxiety when experiencing lower levels of paternal AR. Findings further clarify for whom and when paternal AR impacts child anxiety in community youth. PMID:25242837

  14. Parents' Relative Socioeconomic Status and Paternal Involvement in Chinese Families: The Mediating Role of Coparenting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Xinchun; Zou, Shengqi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of coparenting in the association between differences/similarities in paternal and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and paternal involvement in Chinese families. The sample included 244 couples with children aged 3-7 years. Fathers and mothers reported their individual incomes, educational levels, occupations, and coparenting behavior (measured using the Coparenting Scale), and fathers completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the associations between SES and paternal involvement. Results suggested that SES indicator measures were outcome specific. Occupational differences/similarities were associated with paternal involvement indirectly, via fathers' family integrity practices. Income and educational differences/similarities did not affect paternal involvement. The results suggested that the traditional Chinese view that "men are chiefly responsible for activity in society, while women are responsible for the home" has faded. PMID:27445908

  15. Parents’ Relative Socioeconomic Status and Paternal Involvement in Chinese Families: The Mediating Role of Coparenting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Xinchun; Zou, Shengqi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of coparenting in the association between differences/similarities in paternal and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and paternal involvement in Chinese families. The sample included 244 couples with children aged 3–7 years. Fathers and mothers reported their individual incomes, educational levels, occupations, and coparenting behavior (measured using the Coparenting Scale), and fathers completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the associations between SES and paternal involvement. Results suggested that SES indicator measures were outcome specific. Occupational differences/similarities were associated with paternal involvement indirectly, via fathers’ family integrity practices. Income and educational differences/similarities did not affect paternal involvement. The results suggested that the traditional Chinese view that “men are chiefly responsible for activity in society, while women are responsible for the home” has faded. PMID:27445908

  16. The potential contribution of MVR-PCR to paternity probabilities in a case lacking a mother.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, K; Huang, X L; Mizutani, M; Yamamoto, T; Katsumata, R; Uchihi, R; Katsumata, Y; Jeffreys, A J

    1999-07-01

    Minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to a paternity case lacking a mother to evaluate the paternity probability. After three flanking polymorphic sites at each of MS31A and MS32 loci were investigated from the child and alleged father, allele-specific MVR-PCR was performed using genomic DNA. It was confirmed that one allele in the child was identical to that in the alleged father at both loci. Mapped allele codes were compared with allele structures established from population surveys. No perfect matches were found although some motifs were shared with other Japanese alleles. The paternity index and probability of paternity exclusion at these two MVR loci were then estimated, establishing the power of MVR-PCR even in paternity cases lacking a mother.

  17. Longitudinal associations among fathers' perception of coparenting, partner relationship quality, and paternal stress during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal and concurrent associations among fathers' perceptions of partner relationship quality (happiness, conflict), coparenting (shared decision making, conflict), and paternal stress. The sample consisted of 6,100 children who lived with both biological parents at 24 and 48 months in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set. The results showed that there are significant and concurrent associations between fathers' perceptions of the coparenting relationship and paternal stress, and between partner relationship quality and paternal stress. There was also a positive direct longitudinal association between partner relationship conflict and paternal stress. However, we found only one longitudinal cross-system mediation effect: fathers' perception of coparenting conflict at 48 months mediated the association between partner relationship conflict at 24 months and paternal stress at 48 months. The family practice implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24236848

  18. Degradation of paternal mitochondria by fertilization-triggered autophagy in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2011-11-25

    The mitochondrial genome is believed to be maternally inherited in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism responsible for this clearance has been unknown. Here, we show that autophagy, which delivers cytosolic components to lysosomes for degradation, is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans. Immediately after fertilization, sperm-derived components trigger the localized induction of autophagy around sperm mitochondria. Autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genome remain even in the first larval stage. Thus, fertilization-triggered autophagy is required for selective degradation of paternal mitochondria and thereby maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA.

  19. FEMALE AND MALE GENETIC EFFECTS ON OFFSPRING PATERNITY: ADDITIVE GENETIC (CO)VARIANCES IN FEMALE EXTRA-PAIR REPRODUCTION AND MALE PATERNITY SUCCESS IN SONG SPARROWS (MELOSPIZA MELODIA)

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically. PMID:24724612

  20. Female and male genetic effects on offspring paternity: additive genetic (co)variances in female extra-pair reproduction and male paternity success in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain

    2014-08-01

    Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically.

  1. Paternal retrievals increase testosterone levels in both male and female California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) offspring.

    PubMed

    Chary, Mamatha C; Cruz, Jayson P; Bardi, Massimo; Becker, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    The importance of maternal care on offspring development has received considerable attention, although more recently, researchers have begun to focus on the significance of paternal contributions. In the monogamous and bi-parental California mouse, fathers provide high levels of care, and therefore serve as a model system for studying paternal effects on behavior and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. Paternal retrievals in this species influence long term changes in brain (expression of arginine vasopressin-AVP) and behavior (aggression and parenting) in adult male offspring. Further, paternal retrievals induce a transient increase in testosterone (T) in male offspring, which is thought to mediate the relationship between paternal retrievals and AVP expression. Although the father-son relationship has been well characterized, few studies have examined father-daughter interactions. In California mice, paternal retrievals increase aggression in female offspring. Although T has been implicated in the regulation of female aggression, it remains unclear whether T may underlie long-term changes in female offspring aggression in response to paternal retrievals. In the current study, we examined the influence of paternal retrievals on T in both male and female offspring. Retrievals were manipulated experimentally by displacement of the pup and trunk blood was collected from retrieved, non-retrieved, and non-manipulated (baseline) pups. We found that fathers expressed similar levels of retrievals towards sons and daughters, and that T levels were elevated in retrieved, as compared to non-retrieved offspring. Similar to what has been previously described in male offspring and replicated here, female offspring that were retrieved had higher T levels than non-retrieved females. Neither females nor males experienced a change in corticosterone levels in response to retrievals suggesting offspring do not mount a stress response to paternal care. Therefore, our data suggest

  2. Paternal retrievals increase testosterone levels in both male and female California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) offspring.

    PubMed

    Chary, Mamatha C; Cruz, Jayson P; Bardi, Massimo; Becker, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    The importance of maternal care on offspring development has received considerable attention, although more recently, researchers have begun to focus on the significance of paternal contributions. In the monogamous and bi-parental California mouse, fathers provide high levels of care, and therefore serve as a model system for studying paternal effects on behavior and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. Paternal retrievals in this species influence long term changes in brain (expression of arginine vasopressin-AVP) and behavior (aggression and parenting) in adult male offspring. Further, paternal retrievals induce a transient increase in testosterone (T) in male offspring, which is thought to mediate the relationship between paternal retrievals and AVP expression. Although the father-son relationship has been well characterized, few studies have examined father-daughter interactions. In California mice, paternal retrievals increase aggression in female offspring. Although T has been implicated in the regulation of female aggression, it remains unclear whether T may underlie long-term changes in female offspring aggression in response to paternal retrievals. In the current study, we examined the influence of paternal retrievals on T in both male and female offspring. Retrievals were manipulated experimentally by displacement of the pup and trunk blood was collected from retrieved, non-retrieved, and non-manipulated (baseline) pups. We found that fathers expressed similar levels of retrievals towards sons and daughters, and that T levels were elevated in retrieved, as compared to non-retrieved offspring. Similar to what has been previously described in male offspring and replicated here, female offspring that were retrieved had higher T levels than non-retrieved females. Neither females nor males experienced a change in corticosterone levels in response to retrievals suggesting offspring do not mount a stress response to paternal care. Therefore, our data suggest

  3. Trajectories Leading to Autism Spectrum Disorders Are Affected by Paternal Age: Findings from Two Nationally Representative Twin Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, Sebastian; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Carlstrom, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Mill, Jonathan; Rastam, Maria; Hultman, Christina M.; Ronald, Angelica; Anckarsater, Henrik; Plomin, Robert; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive efforts, the causes of autism remain unknown. Advancing paternal age has been associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders. We aim to investigate three unresolved questions: (a) What is the association between paternal age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)?; (b) Does paternal age moderate the genetic and…

  4. Central role of relatedness in Alaska native youth resilience: Preliminary themes from one site of the Circumpolar Indigenous Pathways to Adulthood (CIPA) study.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Moses, Joshua; Hopper, Kim; Joule, Linda; Garoutte, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative study of youth resilience takes place in an Alaska Native community, which has undergone rapid, imposed social change over the last three generations. Elders, and successive generations have grown up in strikingly different social, economic and political contexts. Youth narratives of relationships in the context of adolescent growth and development offer insights to better understand culturally-patterned experience, continuity and change. Local youth and adults shaped the design, implementation and analysis phases of this participatory study. Multiple interviews, totaling 20 older (ages 15-18) and younger (11-14) boys and girls provide accounts of everyday lives and life histories. Although losing close relationships was the most common stressor, many of the participants' resilience strategies centered on their connections to others. Participants cultivated 'relatedness', nurturing relationships that took on kinship qualities. Within these relationships, youth participants acted more responsibly and/or developed a sense of competency and self-worth because of others' reliance on them.

  5. O father where art thou? Paternity analyses in a natural population of the haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus.

    PubMed

    Krueger-Hadfield, S A; Roze, D; Correa, J A; Destombe, C; Valero, M

    2015-02-01

    The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid-diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from the same sporophyte. This is likely a common occurrence when spores from the same parent are dispersed in clumps and recruit together. This pattern of clumped spore dispersal has been hypothesized to explain significant heterozygote deficiency in the dioecious haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus. Fronds and cystocarps (structures in which zygotes are mitotically amplified) were sampled in two 25 m(2) plots located within a high and a low intertidal zone and genotyped at 5 polymorphic microsatellite loci in order to explore the mating system directly using paternity analyses. Multiple males sired cystocarps on each female, but only one of the 423 paternal genotypes corresponded to a field-sampled gametophyte. Nevertheless, larger kinship coefficients were detected between males siring cystocarps on the same female in comparison with males in the entire population, confirming restricted spermatial and clumped spore dispersal. Such dispersal mechanisms may be a mode of reproductive assurance due to nonmotile gametes associated with putatively reduced effects of inbreeding depression because of the free-living haploid stage in C. crispus.

  6. Paternal Incarceration and Adolescent Well-Being: Life Course Contingencies and Other Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Shaw-Smith, Unique R.

    2016-01-01

    Parental incarceration has been found to be associated with a wide range of negative outcomes in both childhood and adolescence. This Article uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to focus on the conditions under which associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent delinquency and depression are strongest. Paternal incarceration is most consistently and positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent depression are weaker and more contingent on gender and other moderating factors. One important moderator is the respondent's retrospective reports that he or she was physically or sexually abused by a parent or other adult caregiver during childhood. For example, in the absence of sexual abuse, paternal incarceration is associated with higher depression among girls. When coupled with reports of sexual abuse, in contrast, paternal incarceration is not associated with girls' depression, suggesting a potential protective effect. The child having ever coresided with his or her father is also found to moderate associations, with paternal incarceration most strongly associated with delinquency and depression among girls who had ever coresided with their fathers. Examination of the duration and timing of paternal incarceration also pointed to gender differences. PMID:27239076

  7. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring.

    PubMed

    Linschooten, Joost O; Verhofstad, Nicole; Gutzkow, Kristine; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Yauk, Carole; Oligschläger, Yvonne; Brunborg, Gunnar; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2013-07-01

    Paternal exposure to high levels of radioactivity causes heritable germline minisatellite mutations. However, the effect of more general paternal exposures, such as cigarette smoking, on germline mutations remains unexplored. We analyzed two of the most commonly used minisatellite loci (CEB1 and B6.7) to identify germline mutations in blood samples of complete mother-father-child triads from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The presence of mutations was subsequently related to general lifestyle factors, including paternal smoking before the partner became pregnant. Paternally derived mutations at the B6.7 locus (mutation frequency 0.07) were not affected by lifestyle. In contrast, high gross yearly income as a general measure of a healthy lifestyle coincided with low-mutation frequencies at the CEB1 locus (P=0.047). Income was inversely related to smoking behavior, and paternally derived CEB1 mutations were dose dependently increased when the father smoked in the 6 mo before pregnancy, 0.21 vs. 0.05 in smoking and nonsmoking fathers, respectively (P=0.061). These results suggest that paternal lifestyle can affect the chance of heritable mutations in unstable repetitive DNA sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting an effect of lifestyle on germline minisatellite mutation frequencies in a human population with moderate paternal exposures. PMID:23538710

  8. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats. PMID:25917305

  9. Exploring the impact of paternal imprisonment on infant mental health.

    PubMed

    Waldegrave, Kathryn; Woodall, James

    2015-06-01

    This paper draws from a study, which explored paternal absence through imprisonment and the impact of this on infant emotional wellbeing and mental health. Little evidence exists to demonstrate the impact of a father's imprisonment on infant involvement, attachment relationships and the consequences of such separation for both infant and father. A scoping study, synthesising literature gathered from a range of academic sources, allowed for exploration of key concepts and clarification of pertinent themes in this relatively under-studied area. Findings suggest that maintaining father involvement while in prison is vital in promoting and maintaining positive infant mental health and that the health visitor is well placed to play a pivotal role in supporting the families of those within the criminal justice system. PMID:26373006

  10. Australian Fathers’ Study: What Influences Paternal Engagement With Antenatal Care?

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Timothy; Luo, Ki-Yung; Kueh, Brandon; Petersen, Rodney W.; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This mixed-methods study explores factors associated with and levels of engagement of fathers in antenatal care. One hundred expectant fathers were recruited from antenatal clinics and community settings in Western Australia. They completed validated questionnaires. Eighty-three percent of expectant fathers reported a lack of engagement with antenatal care. Factors significantly associated with lack of engagement in multivariate analysis were working more than 40 hours a week and lack of adequate consultation by antenatal care staff. In qualitative analysis, 6 themes emerged in association with a lack of engagement. They were role in decision making, time pressures, the observer effect, lack of knowledge, barriers to attendance, and feeling unprepared or anxious. Care providers should involve fathers in consultations to improve paternal engagement. PMID:26834439

  11. Autonomy, Paternalism, and Justice: Ethical Priorities in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, David R.

    2008-01-01

    With attention to the field of public health ethics growing, significant time has been devoted to identifying a sound ethical justification for paternalistic interventions that override individual autonomy to prevent people from adopting unhealthy behaviors. Efforts focused on specifying the conditions that warrant paternalism, however, are largely misplaced. On empirical and ethical grounds, public health should seek instead to expand individual autonomy to improve population health. To promote autonomy, the field should redirect current efforts toward clarifying principles of justice. Although public health’s most highly visible stance is associated with an egalitarian conception of “social justice,” it is imperative that public health professionals address gaping divisions in public understandings of justice. I present recommendations for initiating this process. PMID:18048780

  12. Microsatellite analysis of paternity and reproduction in Arctic grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Craighead, L; Paetkau, D; Reynolds, H V; Vyse, E R; Strobeck, C

    1995-01-01

    We report data from analyses of microsatellite loci of 30 grizzly bear family groups which demonstrate that each cub in a litter can be sired independently, and we derive estimates of maximum reproductive success for males, from an Arctic population in northwestern Alaska that is minimally affected by human activities. These analyses were made possible by the use of single-locus primers that amplified both of an individual's alleles at eight microsatellite loci and by detailed knowledge of maternal/offspring relationships that allowed the identification of paternal alleles. No single male was responsible for more than approximately 11% of known offspring, and no more than 49% of breeding-age males successfully bred. These data contribute to an understanding of the genetic and demographic basis of male reproductive success, which is of vital importance in the maintenance of small, isolated grizzly bear populations.

  13. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats.

  14. Paternally Inherited IGF2 Mutation and Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Begemann, Matthias; Zirn, Birgit; Santen, Gijs; Wirthgen, Elisa; Soellner, Lukas; Büttel, Hans-Martin; Schweizer, Roland; van Workum, Wilbert; Binder, Gerhard; Eggermann, Thomas

    2015-07-23

    In humans, mutations in IGF1 or IGF1R cause intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction; however, data on mutations in IGF2, encoding insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II, are lacking. We report an IGF2 variant (c.191C→A, p.Ser64Ter) with evidence of pathogenicity in a multigenerational family with four members who have growth restriction. The phenotype affects only family members who have inherited the variant through paternal transmission, a finding that is consistent with the maternal imprinting status of IGF2. The severe growth restriction in affected family members suggests that IGF-II affects postnatal growth in addition to prenatal growth. Furthermore, the dysmorphic features of affected family members are consistent with a role of deficient IGF-II levels in the cause of the Silver-Russell syndrome. (Funded by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and the European Union.).

  15. Within-group relatedness is correlated with colony-level social structure and reproductive sharing in a social fish.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Jennifer K; Sovic, Michael G; Gibbs, H Lisle; Reddon, Adam R; O'Connor, Constance M; Ligocki, Isaac Y; Marsh-Rollo, Susan; Balshine, Sigal; Hamilton, Ian M

    2016-08-01

    In group-living species, the degree of relatedness among group members often governs the extent of reproductive sharing, cooperation and conflict within a group. Kinship among group members can be shaped by the presence and location of neighbouring groups, as these provide dispersal or mating opportunities that can dilute kinship among current group members. Here, we assessed how within-group relatedness varies with the density and position of neighbouring social groups in Neolamprologus pulcher, a colonial and group-living cichlid fish. We used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods to generate thousands of polymorphic SNPs. Relative to microsatellite data, RADseq data provided much tighter confidence intervals around our relatedness estimates. These data allowed us to document novel patterns of relatedness in relation to colony-level social structure. First, the density of neighbouring groups was negatively correlated with relatedness between subordinates and dominant females within a group, but no such patterns were observed between subordinates and dominant males. Second, subordinates at the colony edge were less related to dominant males in their group than subordinates in the colony centre, suggesting a shorter breeding tenure for dominant males at the colony edge. Finally, subordinates who were closely related to their same-sex dominant were more likely to reproduce, supporting some restraint models of reproductive skew. Collectively, these results demonstrate that within-group relatedness is influenced by the broader social context, and variation between groups in the degree of relatedness between dominants and subordinates can be explained by both patterns of reproductive sharing and the nature of the social landscape. PMID:27297293

  16. Risk for childhood leukemia associated with maternal and paternal age.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Thomopoulos, Thomas P; Gialamas, Spyros P; Karalexi, Maria A; Biniaris-Georgallis, Stylianos-Iason; Kontogeorgi, Evangelia; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Petridou, Eleni T

    2015-12-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as parental age, in the pathogenesis of childhood leukemias is being intensively examined; the results of individual studies are controversial. This meta-analysis aims to quantitatively synthesize the published data on the association between parental age and risk of two major distinct childhood leukemia types in the offspring. Eligible studies were identified and pooled relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using random-effects models, separately for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Subgroup analyses were performed by study design, geographical region, adjustment factors; sensitivity analyses and meta-regression analyses were also undertaken. 77 studies (69 case-control and eight cohort) were deemed eligible. Older maternal and paternal age were associated with increased risk for childhood ALL (pooled RR = 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10; pooled RR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08, per 5 year increments, respectively). The association between maternal age and risk of childhood AML showed a U-shaped pattern, with symmetrically associated increased risk in the oldest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.06-1.43) and the youngest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.07-1.40) extremes. Lastly, only younger fathers were at increased risk of having a child with AML (pooled RR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.04-1.59). In conclusion, maternal and paternal age represents a meaningful risk factor for childhood leukemia, albeit of different effect size by leukemia subtype. Genetic and socio-economic factors may underlie the observed associations. Well-adjusted studies, scheduled by large consortia, are anticipated to satisfactorily address methodological issues, whereas the potential underlying genetic mechanisms should be elucidated by basic research studies.

  17. Paternalism and factitious disorder: medical treatment in illness deception.

    PubMed

    Fry, Anthony; Gergel, Tania L

    2016-08-01

    The primary aims are to consider whether a range of paternalistic medical interventions can be justified in the treatment of factitious disorder (FD) and to show that the particularities of FD and its management make it an ideal phenomenon to highlight the difficulties of balancing respect for self-determination, responsibility and duty of care in psychiatry. FD is usually classified as a mental disorder involving deliberate and hidden feigning or inducement of illness, in order to achieve patient status. Both the nature of the disorder and the approach to treatment are controversial and under-researched. It is argued that FD should be classified as a mental disorder; may well expose the patient to extreme risk; can warrant paternalistic interventions, in order to fulfil duty of care. Moreover, treatment of FD is inherently paternalistic and therefore raises interesting questions about justifications and type of paternalistic interventions in psychiatry both for FD and in general. A brief account of key questions concerning psychiatry and paternalism is followed by some case histories of FD, the clinical dilemmas posed and the question of how this disorder might warrant paternalistic interventions. In order to answer this question, two things are considered: the legitimacy and character of FD as a mental disorder; possible frameworks for and types of paternalistic interventions. To conclude, it is argued that there are no compelling reasons for rejecting the use of paternalistic interventions for FD, but that further investigation of FD and type and frameworks for psychiatric paternalism, in relation to FD and other mental disorders, are urgently needed. PMID:26063587

  18. Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western

  19. Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western

  20. Effects of semantic relatedness on age-related associative memory deficits: the role of theta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes

    2012-07-16

    Growing evidence suggests that age-related deficits in associative memory are alleviated when the to-be-associated items are semantically related. Here we investigate whether this beneficial effect of semantic relatedness is paralleled by spatio-temporal changes in cortical EEG dynamics during incidental encoding. Young and older adults were presented with faces at a particular spatial location preceded by a biographical cue that was either semantically related or unrelated. As expected, automatic encoding of face-location associations benefited from semantic relatedness in the two groups of age. This effect correlated with increased power of theta oscillations over medial and anterior lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lateral regions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in both groups. But better-performing elders also showed increased brain-behavior correlation in the theta band over the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as compared to young adults. Semantic relatedness was, however, insufficient to fully eliminate age-related differences in associative memory. In line with this finding, poorer-performing elders relative to young adults showed significant reductions of theta power in the left IFG that were further predictive of behavioral impairment in the recognition task. All together, these results suggest that older adults benefit less than young adults from executive processes during encoding mainly due to neural inefficiency over regions of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). But this associative deficit may be partially compensated for by engaging preexistent semantic knowledge, which likely leads to an efficient recruitment of attentional and integration processes supported by the left PPC and left anterior PFC respectively, together with neural compensatory mechanisms governed by the right VLPFC.

  1. Non-equivalent contributions of maternal and paternal genomes to early plant embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Del Toro-De León, Gerardo; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Gillmor, C Stewart

    2014-10-30

    Zygotic genome activation in metazoans typically occurs several hours to a day after fertilization, and thus maternal RNAs and proteins drive early animal embryo development. In plants, despite several molecular studies of post-fertilization transcriptional activation, the timing of zygotic genome activation remains a matter of debate. For example, two recent reports that used different hybrid ecotype combinations for RNA sequence profiling of early Arabidopsis embryo transcriptomes came to divergent conclusions. One identified paternal contributions that varied by gene, but with overall maternal dominance, while the other found that the maternal and paternal genomes are transcriptionally equivalent. Here we assess paternal gene activation functionally in an isogenic background, by performing a large-scale genetic analysis of 49 EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes and testing the ability of wild-type paternal alleles to complement phenotypes conditioned by mutant maternal alleles. Our results demonstrate that wild-type paternal alleles for nine of these genes are completely functional 2 days after pollination, with the remaining 40 genes showing partial activity beginning at 2, 3 or 5 days after pollination. Using our functional assay, we also demonstrate that different hybrid combinations exhibit significant variation in paternal allele activation, reconciling the apparently contradictory results of previous transcriptional studies. The variation in timing of gene function that we observe confirms that paternal genome activation does not occur in one early discrete step, provides large-scale functional evidence that maternal and paternal genomes make non-equivalent contributions to early plant embryogenesis, and uncovers an unexpectedly profound effect of hybrid genetic backgrounds on paternal gene activity.

  2. Wild female baboons bias their social behaviour towards paternal half-sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kerri; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Adult female cercopithecines have long been known to bias their social behaviour towards close maternal kin. However, much less is understood about the behaviour of paternal kin, especially in wild populations. Here, we show that wild adult female baboons bias their affiliative behaviour towards their adult paternal half-sisters in the same manner and to the same extent that they bias their behaviour towards adult maternal half-sisters. Females appear to rely heavily on social familiarity as a means of biasing their behaviour towards paternal half-sisters, but may use phenotype matching as well. PMID:12641905

  3. Evaluation of the paternity probability on an application of minisatellite variant repeat mapping using polymerase chain reaction (MVR-PCR) to paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Huang, X L; Tamaki, K; Yamamoto, T; Yoshimoto, T; Mizutani, M; Leong, Y K; Tanaka, M; Nozawa, H; Uchihi, R; Katsumata, Y

    1999-09-01

    Minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to a practical case of paternity testing to evaluate the paternity probability. In order to obtain single allele mapping by allele-specific MVR-PCR, three flanking polymorphic sites for each of the MS31A and MS32 loci were investigated and all three individuals were typed as heterozygous for at least one flanking polymorphic site at each locus. Allele-specific MVR-PCR was then performed using genomic DNA. It was confirmed that one allele in the child was identical to that from the mother and the other one in the child was identical to that from the alleged father. Mapped allele codes were also compared with those in the database by dot-matrix analysis, and no identical allele was found although some motifs were shared with Japanese alleles. The paternity index and the probability of paternity exclusion in the case at these two MVR loci were calculated using the presumed values of the allele frequencies. These studies seem to illustrate the practical value of MVR mapping of MS31A and MS32 loci in paternity testing.

  4. RNA-mediated paternal heredity of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Valérie; Fourré, Sandra; De Abreu, Diana Andrea Fernandes; Derieppe, Marie-Alix; Remy, Jean-Jacques; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    The paternal heredity of obesity and diabetes induced by a high-fat and/or high-sugar diet (Western-like diet) has been demonstrated through epidemiological analysis of human cohorts and experimental analysis, but the nature of the hereditary vector inducing this newly acquired phenotype is not yet well defined. Here, we show that microinjection of either testis or sperm RNA of male mice fed a Western-like diet into naive one-cell embryos leads to the establishment of the Western-like diet-induced metabolic phenotype in the resulting progenies, whereas RNAs prepared from healthy controls did not. Among multiple sequence differences between the testis transcriptomes of the sick and healthy fathers, we noted that several microRNAs had increased expression, which was of interest because this class of noncoding RNA is known to be involved in epigenetic control of gene expression. When microinjected into naive one-cell embryos, one of these small RNA, i.e., the microRNA miR19b, induced metabolic alterations that are similar to the diet-induced phenotype. Furthermore, this pathological phenotype was inherited by the offspring after crosses with healthy partners. Our results indicate that acquired food-induced trait inheritance might be enacted by RNA signalling. PMID:26658372

  5. RNA-mediated paternal heredity of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Valérie; Fourré, Sandra; De Abreu, Diana Andrea Fernandes; Derieppe, Marie-Alix; Remy, Jean-Jacques; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo

    2015-12-14

    The paternal heredity of obesity and diabetes induced by a high-fat and/or high-sugar diet (Western-like diet) has been demonstrated through epidemiological analysis of human cohorts and experimental analysis, but the nature of the hereditary vector inducing this newly acquired phenotype is not yet well defined. Here, we show that microinjection of either testis or sperm RNA of male mice fed a Western-like diet into naive one-cell embryos leads to the establishment of the Western-like diet-induced metabolic phenotype in the resulting progenies, whereas RNAs prepared from healthy controls did not. Among multiple sequence differences between the testis transcriptomes of the sick and healthy fathers, we noted that several microRNAs had increased expression, which was of interest because this class of noncoding RNA is known to be involved in epigenetic control of gene expression. When microinjected into naive one-cell embryos, one of these small RNA, i.e., the microRNA miR19b, induced metabolic alterations that are similar to the diet-induced phenotype. Furthermore, this pathological phenotype was inherited by the offspring after crosses with healthy partners. Our results indicate that acquired food-induced trait inheritance might be enacted by RNA signalling.

  6. Food sharing in vampire bats: reciprocal help predicts donations more than relatedness or harassment.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald G; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2013-02-22

    Common vampire bats often regurgitate food to roost-mates that fail to feed. The original explanation for this costly helping behaviour invoked both direct and indirect fitness benefits. Several authors have since suggested that food sharing is maintained solely by indirect fitness because non-kin food sharing could have resulted from kin recognition errors, indiscriminate altruism within groups, or harassment. To test these alternatives, we examined predictors of food-sharing decisions under controlled conditions of mixed relatedness and equal familiarity. Over a 2 year period, we individually fasted 20 vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and induced food sharing on 48 days. Surprisingly, donors initiated food sharing more often than recipients, which is inconsistent with harassment. Food received was the best predictor of food given across dyads, and 8.5 times more important than relatedness. Sixty-four per cent of sharing dyads were unrelated, approaching the 67 per cent expected if nepotism was absent. Consistent with social bonding, the food-sharing network was consistent and correlated with mutual allogrooming. Together with past work, these findings support the hypothesis that food sharing in vampire bats provides mutual direct fitness benefits, and is not explained solely by kin selection or harassment.

  7. Genes as Cues of Relatedness and Social Evolution in Heterogeneous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Hammerstein, Peter; McNamara, John M.

    2016-01-01

    There are many situations where relatives interact while at the same time there is genetic polymorphism in traits influencing survival and reproduction. Examples include cheater-cooperator polymorphism and polymorphic microbial pathogens. Environmental heterogeneity, favoring different traits in nearby habitats, with dispersal between them, is one general reason to expect polymorphism. Currently, there is no formal framework of social evolution that encompasses genetic polymorphism. We develop such a framework, thus integrating theories of social evolution into the evolutionary ecology of heterogeneous environments. We allow for adaptively maintained genetic polymorphism by applying the concept of genetic cues. We analyze a model of social evolution in a two-habitat situation with limited dispersal between habitats, in which the average relatedness at the time of helping and other benefits of helping can differ between habitats. An important result from the analysis is that alleles at a polymorphic locus play the role of genetic cues, in the sense that the presence of a cue allele contains statistical information for an organism about its current environment, including information about relatedness. We show that epistatic modifiers of the cue polymorphism can evolve to make optimal use of the information in the genetic cue, in analogy with a Bayesian decision maker. Another important result is that the genetic linkage between a cue locus and modifier loci influences the evolutionary interest of modifiers, with tighter linkage leading to greater divergence between social traits induced by different cue alleles, and this can be understood in terms of genetic conflict. PMID:27341199

  8. Genes as Cues of Relatedness and Social Evolution in Heterogeneous Environments.

    PubMed

    Leimar, Olof; Dall, Sasha R X; Hammerstein, Peter; McNamara, John M

    2016-06-01

    There are many situations where relatives interact while at the same time there is genetic polymorphism in traits influencing survival and reproduction. Examples include cheater-cooperator polymorphism and polymorphic microbial pathogens. Environmental heterogeneity, favoring different traits in nearby habitats, with dispersal between them, is one general reason to expect polymorphism. Currently, there is no formal framework of social evolution that encompasses genetic polymorphism. We develop such a framework, thus integrating theories of social evolution into the evolutionary ecology of heterogeneous environments. We allow for adaptively maintained genetic polymorphism by applying the concept of genetic cues. We analyze a model of social evolution in a two-habitat situation with limited dispersal between habitats, in which the average relatedness at the time of helping and other benefits of helping can differ between habitats. An important result from the analysis is that alleles at a polymorphic locus play the role of genetic cues, in the sense that the presence of a cue allele contains statistical information for an organism about its current environment, including information about relatedness. We show that epistatic modifiers of the cue polymorphism can evolve to make optimal use of the information in the genetic cue, in analogy with a Bayesian decision maker. Another important result is that the genetic linkage between a cue locus and modifier loci influences the evolutionary interest of modifiers, with tighter linkage leading to greater divergence between social traits induced by different cue alleles, and this can be understood in terms of genetic conflict. PMID:27341199

  9. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, A.C.; Barbosa, A.V.; Arais, L.R.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Carneiro, V.C.; Cerqueira, A.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n = 134), their owners (n = 134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n = 44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains. PMID:26887238

  10. Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition in normal and disrupted personality development: retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2013-04-01

    Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span-the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of extant research concerning these models, discusses their implications for psychology and psychiatry, and addresses future research perspectives deriving from these models. We first consider the implications of findings in this area for clinical research and practice. This is followed by a discussion of emerging research findings concerning the role of developmental, cross-cultural, evolutionary, and neurobiological factors influencing the development of these two fundamental personality dimensions. Taken together, this body of research suggests that theoretical formulations that focus on interpersonal relatedness and self-definition as central coordinates in personality development and psychopathology provide a comprehensive conceptual paradigm for future research in psychology and psychiatry exploring the interactions among neurobiological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in adaptive and disrupted personality development across the life span.

  11. Initial phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungal communities affects subsequent litter decomposition rates.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    Ecosystem-level consequences of biodiversity loss of macroorganisms are well understood, while the repercussions of species extirpation in microbial systems are not. We manipulated species richness and phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungi in situ in a boreal forest to address this issue. Litter decomposition rates (as total mass loss) after 2 months were significantly higher in the least phylogenetically related fungal assemblages. Likewise, cellulose loss was also highest in the most distantly related treatments after 1 year. There were marginal effects of species richness on mass loss that only affected decomposition after 2 months. At the end of 1 year of decomposition, most fungal communities had collapsed from their original diversity to two species, mainly in the Penicillium or Hypocrea clades. Two concurrent processes may explain these results: competition between closely related fungal taxa and phylogenetic conservation in cellulose decomposition. Our results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness of fungal communities may be a more appropriate metric than species richness or community composition to predict functional responses of fungal communities to global change.

  12. Food sharing in vampire bats: reciprocal help predicts donations more than relatedness or harassment.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald G; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2013-02-22

    Common vampire bats often regurgitate food to roost-mates that fail to feed. The original explanation for this costly helping behaviour invoked both direct and indirect fitness benefits. Several authors have since suggested that food sharing is maintained solely by indirect fitness because non-kin food sharing could have resulted from kin recognition errors, indiscriminate altruism within groups, or harassment. To test these alternatives, we examined predictors of food-sharing decisions under controlled conditions of mixed relatedness and equal familiarity. Over a 2 year period, we individually fasted 20 vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and induced food sharing on 48 days. Surprisingly, donors initiated food sharing more often than recipients, which is inconsistent with harassment. Food received was the best predictor of food given across dyads, and 8.5 times more important than relatedness. Sixty-four per cent of sharing dyads were unrelated, approaching the 67 per cent expected if nepotism was absent. Consistent with social bonding, the food-sharing network was consistent and correlated with mutual allogrooming. Together with past work, these findings support the hypothesis that food sharing in vampire bats provides mutual direct fitness benefits, and is not explained solely by kin selection or harassment. PMID:23282995

  13. Genetic analysis of human clinical isolates of Lactococcus garvieae: Relatedness with isolates from foods.

    PubMed

    Reguera-Brito, Mercedes; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; Blanco, M Mar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Gibello, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium well-known as an important pathogen in aquaculture, and it is also a human pathogen of increasing clinical significance. Forty-three human L. garvieae isolates from clinical specimens were characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Twenty-six different sequence types (STs) were identified among the human isolates, of which 20 were novel STs. Most human isolates clustered into four clonal complexes, with a predominance of CC3. Within CC3, ST10 was the most common genotype, indicating the existence of a circulating genetic lineage among the human isolates analyzed. The four CCs also grouped L. garvieae strains isolated from meat, dairy and fish, indicating a genetic overlap between isolates from human and these foods. Genetic relatedness among human and food L. garvieae isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of the seven MLST genes. These results represent the first evidence of genetic relatedness between isolates of L. garvieae of human and those isolated meat, milk and dairy products and suggest that, in addition to fish and seafood, these foods might represent important sources of human L. garvieae infections.

  14. Plant regeneration from seeds responds to phylogenetic relatedness and local adaptation in Mediterranean Romulea (Iridaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Carta, Angelino; Hanson, Sarah; Müller, Jonas V

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is the most important transitional event between early stages in the life cycle of spermatophytes and understanding it is crucial to understand plant adaptation and evolution. However, so far seed germination of phylogenetically closely related species has been poorly investigated. To test the hypothises that phylogenetically related plant species have similar seed ecophysiological traits thereby reflecting certain habitat conditions as a result of local adaptation, we studied seed dormancy and germination in seven Mediterranean species in the genus Romulea (Iridaceae). Both the across-species model and the model accounting for shared evolutionary history showed that cool temperatures (≤ 15°C) were the main factor that promoted seed germination. The absence of embryo growth before radicle emergence is consistent with a prompt germination response at cool temperatures. The range of temperature conditions for germination became wider after a period of warm stratification, denoting a weak primary dormancy. Altogether these results indicate that the studied species exhibit a Mediterranean germination syndrome, but with species-specific germination requirements clustered in a way that follows the phylogenetic relatedness among those species. In addition, species with heavier seeds from humid habitats showed a wider range of conditions for germination at dispersal time than species from dry habitats possessing lighter seeds. We conclude that while phylogenetically related species showed very similar germination requirements, there are subtle ecologically meaningful differences, confirming the onset of adaptation to local ecological factors mediated by species relatedness.

  15. Microsatellite marker-based genetic analysis of relatedness between commercial and heritage turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Kamara, D; Gyenai, K B; Geng, T; Hammade, H; Smith, E J

    2007-01-01

    The turkey is second only to the chicken in importance as an agriculturally important poultry species. Unlike the chicken, however, genetic studies of the turkey continue to be limited. For example, to date, many genomic investigations have been conducted to characterize genetic relationships between commercial (CO) and non-CO chicken breeds, whereas the nature of the genetic relatedness between CO and heritage turkeys remains unknown. The objective of the current research was to use microsatellites to analyze the genetic relatedness between CO and heritage domestic turkeys including Narragansett, Bourbon Red, Blue Slate, Spanish Black, and Royal Palm. Primer pairs specific for 10 previously described turkey microsatellite markers were used. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Blue Slate, Bourbon Red, and Narragansett were genetically closely related to the CO strain, with a Nei distance of 0.30, and the Royal Palm and Spanish Black were the least related to the CO strain, with Nei distances of 0.41 and 0.40, respectively. The present work provides a foundation for the basis of using heritage turkeys to genetically improve CO populations by introgression.

  16. Antigenic Relatedness of Norovirus GII.4 Variants Determined by Human Challenge Sera

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Xia, Ming; Tan, Ming; Quigley, Christina; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Lee, Bonita; Pang, Xiaoli; Nie, Jun; Jiang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a single genotype that is responsible for over 50% of NoV gastroenteritis epidemics worldwide. However, GII.4 NoVs have been found to undergo antigenic drifts, likely selected by host herd immunity, which raises an issue for vaccine strategies against NoVs. We previously characterized GII.4 NoV antigenic variations and found significant levels of antigenic relatedness among different GII.4 variants. Further characterization of the genetic and antigenic relatedness of recent GII.4 variants (2008b and 2010 cluster) was performed in this study. The amino acid sequences of the receptor binding interfaces were highly conserved among all GII.4 variants from the past two decades. Using serum samples from patients enrolled in a GII.4 virus challenge study, significant cross-reactivity between major GII.4 variants from 1998 to 2012 was observed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and HBGA receptor blocking assays. The overall abilities of GII.4 NoVs to bind to the A/B/H HBGAs were maintained while their binding affinities to individual ABH antigens varied. These results highlight the importance of human HBGAs in NoV evolution and how conserved antigenic types impact vaccine development against GII.4 variants. PMID:25915764

  17. Plant regeneration from seeds responds to phylogenetic relatedness and local adaptation in Mediterranean Romulea (Iridaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Carta, Angelino; Hanson, Sarah; Müller, Jonas V

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is the most important transitional event between early stages in the life cycle of spermatophytes and understanding it is crucial to understand plant adaptation and evolution. However, so far seed germination of phylogenetically closely related species has been poorly investigated. To test the hypothises that phylogenetically related plant species have similar seed ecophysiological traits thereby reflecting certain habitat conditions as a result of local adaptation, we studied seed dormancy and germination in seven Mediterranean species in the genus Romulea (Iridaceae). Both the across-species model and the model accounting for shared evolutionary history showed that cool temperatures (≤ 15°C) were the main factor that promoted seed germination. The absence of embryo growth before radicle emergence is consistent with a prompt germination response at cool temperatures. The range of temperature conditions for germination became wider after a period of warm stratification, denoting a weak primary dormancy. Altogether these results indicate that the studied species exhibit a Mediterranean germination syndrome, but with species-specific germination requirements clustered in a way that follows the phylogenetic relatedness among those species. In addition, species with heavier seeds from humid habitats showed a wider range of conditions for germination at dispersal time than species from dry habitats possessing lighter seeds. We conclude that while phylogenetically related species showed very similar germination requirements, there are subtle ecologically meaningful differences, confirming the onset of adaptation to local ecological factors mediated by species relatedness. PMID:27516872

  18. Initial phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungal communities affects subsequent litter decomposition rates.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    Ecosystem-level consequences of biodiversity loss of macroorganisms are well understood, while the repercussions of species extirpation in microbial systems are not. We manipulated species richness and phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungi in situ in a boreal forest to address this issue. Litter decomposition rates (as total mass loss) after 2 months were significantly higher in the least phylogenetically related fungal assemblages. Likewise, cellulose loss was also highest in the most distantly related treatments after 1 year. There were marginal effects of species richness on mass loss that only affected decomposition after 2 months. At the end of 1 year of decomposition, most fungal communities had collapsed from their original diversity to two species, mainly in the Penicillium or Hypocrea clades. Two concurrent processes may explain these results: competition between closely related fungal taxa and phylogenetic conservation in cellulose decomposition. Our results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness of fungal communities may be a more appropriate metric than species richness or community composition to predict functional responses of fungal communities to global change. PMID:25331109

  19. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A C; Barbosa, A V; Arais, L R; Ribeiro, P F; Carneiro, V C; Cerqueira, A M F

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n=134), their owners (n=134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n=44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains.

  20. Memory for emotional words: The role of semantic relatedness, encoding task and affective valence.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Pilar; Fraga, Isabel; Comesaña, Montserrat; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been repeatedly demonstrated to be better remembered than neutral ones. The aim of the present study was to test whether this advantage in memory is mainly produced by the affective content of the stimuli or it can be rather accounted for by factors such as semantic relatedness or type of encoding task. The valence of the stimuli (positive, negative and neutral words that could be either semantically related or unrelated) as well as the type of encoding task (focused on either familiarity or emotionality) was manipulated. The results revealed an advantage in memory for emotional words (either positive or negative) regardless of semantic relatedness. Importantly, this advantage was modulated by the encoding task, as it was reliable only in the task which focused on emotionality. These findings suggest that congruity with the dimension attended at encoding might contribute to the superiority in memory for emotional words, thus offering us a more complex picture of the underlying mechanisms behind the advantage for emotional information in memory. PMID:25435268

  1. Memory for emotional words: The role of semantic relatedness, encoding task and affective valence.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Pilar; Fraga, Isabel; Comesaña, Montserrat; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been repeatedly demonstrated to be better remembered than neutral ones. The aim of the present study was to test whether this advantage in memory is mainly produced by the affective content of the stimuli or it can be rather accounted for by factors such as semantic relatedness or type of encoding task. The valence of the stimuli (positive, negative and neutral words that could be either semantically related or unrelated) as well as the type of encoding task (focused on either familiarity or emotionality) was manipulated. The results revealed an advantage in memory for emotional words (either positive or negative) regardless of semantic relatedness. Importantly, this advantage was modulated by the encoding task, as it was reliable only in the task which focused on emotionality. These findings suggest that congruity with the dimension attended at encoding might contribute to the superiority in memory for emotional words, thus offering us a more complex picture of the underlying mechanisms behind the advantage for emotional information in memory.

  2. Biparental Care in Insects: Paternal Care, Life History, and the Function of the Nest

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Seizi

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of parental care is a complex process, and many evolutionary pathways have been hypothesized. Maternal care is common, but paternal care is not. High confidence of paternity should favor the evolution of paternal attendance in caring for young; biparental care is rare because paternity assurance is typically low compared to maternity. Biparental care in insects has evolved several times and has high diversity. To evaluate the conditions for the evolution of biparental care, a comparison across taxa is suitable. In this review, common traits of biparental species are discussed in order to evaluate previous models of biparental care and the life history of insects. It will be shown that nesting is a common feature in biparental insects. Nest structure limits extra-pair copulations, contributing to the evolution of biparental care. PMID:24766389

  3. Paternalism and egregious harm: Prader-Willi Syndrome and the importance of care.

    PubMed

    Groarke, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Paternalism clashes with the usual liberal model. In this paper I argue that attempts to defend even a limited form of paternalism by liberal authors such as Joel Feinberg, Gerald Dworkin and H.L.A. Hart fail. I propose instead a bivalent model for paternalism that appeals to two separate principles: the no-harm principle and the care-principle. The notion of care discussed by contemporary feminist authors is a fundamental moral archetype that permeates history and culture. I go on to consider the case of patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome and argue that paternalism is not only permissible but imperative in cases in egregious harm. This view is enshrined in common law jurisprudence which dismisses consent as a justification in serious crime.

  4. A paternal environmental legacy: evidence for epigenetic inheritance through the male germ line.

    PubMed

    Soubry, Adelheid; Hoyo, Cathrine; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K

    2014-04-01

    Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components. In this essay we suggest the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during sperm development. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs are viable mechanistic candidates for a non-genetic transfer of paternal environmental information, from maturing germ cell to zygote. Inclusion of paternal factors in future research will ultimately improve the understanding of transgenerational epigenetic plasticity and health-related effects in future generations. PMID:24431278

  5. Paternity and Nested-within-Family Marker Assisted Selection in Space Planted Red Clover Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presented is a cost effective marker assisted selection methodology that utilizes individual plant phenotypes, seed production based knowledge of maternity, molecular marker determined paternity, and nested within halfsib family linkage relationships. Combining all above listed components, selection...

  6. To nudge or not to nudge: cancer screening programmes and the limits of libertarian paternalism.

    PubMed

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Brodersen, John

    2012-12-01

    'Nudging--and the underlying idea 'libertarian paternalism'--to an increasing degree influences policy thinking in the healthcare sector. This article discusses the influence exerted upon a woman's choice of participation in the Danish breast screening programme in light of 'libertarian paternalism'. The basic tenet of 'libertarian paternalism' is outlined and the relationship between 'libertarian paternalism' and informed consent investigated. Key elements in the process of enrolling women into the Danish mammography screening programme are introduced. It is shown that for several reasons the influence exerted upon women's choices of participation cannot be justified within a welfare-enhancing libertarian paternalistic framework. The article suggests that screening programmes alternatively adopt a liberty-enhancing approach and considers the practical implications of this alternative.

  7. A paternal environmental legacy: Evidence for epigenetic inheritance through the male germ line

    PubMed Central

    Soubry, Adelheid; Hoyo, Cathrine; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components. In this essay we suggest the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during sperm development. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs are viable mechanistic candidates for a non-genetic transfer of paternal environmental information, from maturing germ cell to zygote. Inclusion of paternal factors in future research will ultimately improve the understanding of transgenerational epigenetic plasticity and health-related effects in future generations. PMID:24431278

  8. A two-process view of Facebook use and relatedness need-satisfaction: disconnection drives use, and connection rewards it.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Abad, Neetu; Hinsch, Christian

    2011-04-01

    Does using Facebook help people to meet their relatedness needs? Study 1 shows that more frequent Facebook usage paradoxically correlates with more relatedness satisfaction (connection) and more relatedness dissatisfaction (disconnection). Study 2 supports a 2-process explanation of this finding, showing that disconnection motivates greater usage as a coping strategy, whereas connection results from greater usage. Study 3 examines the effects of depriving participants of Facebook use for 48 hr. Further supporting the 2-process view, connection decreased, but disconnection was unaffected during the deprivation period; however, those who became more disconnected during the deprivation period engaged in more Facebook use during a 2nd, unconstrained 48-hr period, whereas changes in connection did not predict later use. In Study 4, participants set a Facebook reduction goal; initial disconnection interfered with and predicted worse performance in this goal. Implications for theories of psychological needs, behavioral motives, and adaptive coping are considered.

  9. Early bi-parental separation or neonatal paternal deprivation in mandarin voles reduces adult offspring paternal behavior and alters serum corticosterone levels and neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Zhang, Hui; Li, Xibo; He, Fengqin; Tai, Fadao

    2015-07-01

    Although the effect of early social environments on maternal care in adulthood has been examined in detail, few studies have addressed the long-term effect on paternal care and its underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. Here, using monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) that show high levels of paternal care, the effects of early bi-parental separation (EBPS) or neonatal paternal deprivation (NPD) on adult paternal behavior, serum corticosterone levels, and receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were investigated. Compared to the parental care group (PC), we found that EBPS reduced crouching behavior and increased inactivity, self-grooming, and serum corticosterone levels in adult offspring; and NPD significantly reduced retrieval behavior and increased self-grooming behavior of offspring at adulthood. EBPS displayed more dopamine type I receptor (D1R) mRNA expression in the NAcc, but less oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA expression than PC in the MPOA. Both EBPS and NPD exhibited more mRNA expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) than PC in the MPOA. In the EBPS group, increased serum corticosterone concentration was closely associated with reduced crouching behavior, and reduced expression of OTR was closely associated with altered crouching behavior and increased D1R expression. Our results provide substantial evidence that EBPS or NPD has long-term consequences and reduces paternal behavior in adult animals. Importantly the oxytocin system in the MPOA might interact with NAcc dopamine systems to regulate paternal behavior and EBPS may affect interactions between the MPOA and NAcc.

  10. Superfecundation and dual paternity in a twin pregnancy ending with placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Ambach, E; Parson, W; Brezinka, C

    2000-01-01

    A case of superfecundation and dual paternity in a twin pregnancy is presented. Placental abruption developed at week 33 of gestation and the two boys had to be saved by emergency cesarean section. As they shared one placenta, had almost identical weight and had the same sex, they were assumed to be monozygotic. However, a subsequent paternity suit led to the conclusion, based on DNA-analysis, that the twin brothers had been fathered by two different men. Obstetrical implications are discussed.

  11. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yixuan; Kang, Xiangjin; Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30-34 (4,587 cycles), and 35-38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30-32, 33-35, 36-38, 39-41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35-38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31-34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30-34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30-32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36-38 y and 39-41 y groups.

  12. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring

    PubMed Central

    Linschooten, Joost O.; Verhofstad, Nicole; Gutzkow, Kristine; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Yauk, Carole; Oligschläger, Yvonne; Brunborg, Gunnar; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Paternal exposure to high levels of radioactivity causes heritable germline minisatellite mutations. However, the effect of more general paternal exposures, such as cigarette smoking, on germline mutations remains unexplored. We analyzed two of the most commonly used minisatellite loci (CEB1 and B6.7) to identify germline mutations in blood samples of complete mother–father–child triads from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The presence of mutations was subsequently related to general lifestyle factors, including paternal smoking before the partner became pregnant. Paternally derived mutations at the B6.7 locus (mutation frequency 0.07) were not affected by lifestyle. In contrast, high gross yearly income as a general measure of a healthy lifestyle coincided with low-mutation frequencies at the CEB1 locus (P=0.047). Income was inversely related to smoking behavior, and paternally derived CEB1 mutations were dose dependently increased when the father smoked in the 6 mo before pregnancy, 0.21 vs. 0.05 in smoking and nonsmoking fathers, respectively (P=0.061). These results suggest that paternal lifestyle can affect the chance of heritable mutations in unstable repetitive DNA sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting an effect of lifestyle on germline minisatellite mutation frequencies in a human population with moderate paternal exposures.—Linschooten, J. O., Verhofstad, N., Gutzkow, K., Olsen, A.-K., Yauk, C., Oligschläger, Y., Brunborg, G., van Schooten, F. J., Godschalk, R. W. L. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring. PMID:23538710

  13. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30–34 (4,587 cycles), and 35–38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30–32, 33–35, 36–38, 39–41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35–38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31–34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30–34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30–32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36–38 y and 39–41 y groups. PMID:26352861

  14. Paternal leakage of mitochondrial DNA in experimental crosses of populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    PubMed

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Animal mtDNA is typically assumed to be maternally inherited. Paternal mtDNA has been shown to be excluded from entering the egg or eliminated post-fertilization in several animals. However, in the contact zones of hybridizing species and populations, the reproductive barriers between hybridizing organisms may not be as efficient at preventing paternal mtDNA inheritance, resulting in paternal leakage. We assessed paternal mtDNA leakage in experimental crosses of populations of a cyst-forming nematode, Globodera pallida. A UK population, Lindley, was crossed with two South American populations, P5A and P4A. Hybridization of these populations was supported by evidence of nuclear DNA from both the maternal and paternal populations in the progeny. To assess paternal mtDNA leakage, a ~3.4 kb non-coding mtDNA region was analyzed in the parental populations and in the progeny. Paternal mtDNA was evident in the progeny of both crosses involving populations P5A and P4A. Further, paternal mtDNA replaced the maternal mtDNA in 22 and 40 % of the hybrid cysts from these crosses, respectively. These results indicate that under appropriate conditions, paternal leakage occurs in the mtDNA of parasitic nematodes, and supports the hypothesis that hybrid zones facilitate paternal leakage. Thus, assumptions of strictly maternal mtDNA inheritance may be frequently violated, particularly when divergent populations interbreed.

  15. Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing (NIPAT) through Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future. PMID:27631491

  16. De novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome in 2-cell mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Ma, X S; Wang, X G; Qin, L; Song, C L; Lin, F; Song, J M; Zhu, C C; Liu, H L

    2014-10-27

    The developmental dynamics of DNA methylation events have been well studied. Active demethylation of the paternal genome occurs in the zygote, passive demethylation occurs during cleavage stages, and de novo methylation occurs by the blastocyst stage. It is believed that the paternal genome has lower levels of methylation during early development than the maternal genome. However, in this study, we provide direct and indirect evidence of genome-wide de novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome after the first cell cycle in mouse embryos. Although very little methylation was detected within the male pronucleus in zygotes, an intense methylation signal was clearly visible within the androgenetic 2-cell embryos. Moreover, the DNA methylation level of the paternal genome in the post-zygotic metaphase embryos was similar to that of the maternal genome. Using indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody to methylated lysine 9 in histone H3, we provided new evidence to support the concept of spatial compartmentalization of parental genomes in 2-cell mouse embryos. Nevertheless, the transient segregation of parental genomes was not observed by determining the DNA methylation distribution in the 2-cell embryos even though DNA methylation asymmetry between the maternal and paternal pronucleus existed in the 1-cell stage. The disappearance of separate immunofluorescence signals of 5-methyl cytosine in the 2-cell embryos might be attributed to the de novo methylation of the paternal genome during the first mitotic cycle.

  17. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  18. Paternal effects in Arabidopsis indicate that offspring can influence their own size

    PubMed Central

    House, Clarissa; Roth, Charlotte; Hunt, John; Kover, Paula X.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of genetic variation in offspring size in plants and animals is puzzling because offspring size is often strongly associated with fitness and expected to be under stabilizing selection. An explanation for variation in seed size is conflict between parents and between parents and offspring. However, for this hypothesis to be true, it must be shown that the offspring genotype can affect its own size. The existence of paternal effects would support this hypothesis, but these have rarely been shown. Using a diallel cross among four natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana we show that maternal, paternal and positional effects jointly influence seed size, number and the frequency of seed abortion. We found that seed abortion (%) depends on the combination of maternal and paternal genotypes, suggesting the existence of mate choice or epistatic incompatibility among accessions of A. thaliana. In addition, since paternal genotype explains approximately 10 per cent of the variation in seed size, we propose that A. thaliana's offspring must influence the amount of resources allocated to themselves. Identification of paternal effects in Arabidopsis should facilitate dissection of the genetic mechanisms involved in paternal effects. PMID:20444721

  19. Paternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruiling; Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association between paternal smoking and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method. We identified 18 published epidemiologic studies that reported data on both paternal smoking and childhood ALL risk. We performed a meta-analysis and analyzed dose-response relationships on ALL risk for smoking during preconception, during pregnancy, after birth, and ever smoking. Results. The summary odds ratio (OR) of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking was 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05–1.18, I2 = 18%) during any time period, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08–1.46, I2 = 53%) preconception; 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.43, I2 = 54%) during pregnancy, and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.96–1.60, I2 = 64%) after birth, with a dose-response relationship between childhood ALL and paternal smoking preconception or after birth. Conclusion. The evidence supports a positive association between childhood ALL and paternal ever smoking and at each exposure time period examined. Future epidemiologic studies should assess paternal smoking during well-defined exposure windows and should include biomarkers to assess smoking exposure and toxicological mechanisms. PMID:21765828

  20. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA by diverse mechanisms to eliminate paternal mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2013-08-01

    The mitochondrion is an organelle that has its own DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria play essential roles in energy production and in various cellular processes such as metabolism and signal transduction. In most animals, including humans, although the sperm-derived paternal mitochondria enter the oocyte cytoplasm after fertilization, their mtDNA is never transmitted to the offspring. This pattern of mtDNA inheritance is well known as "maternal inheritance." However, how the paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are eliminated from the cytoplasm of gametes or zygotes remains an enigma. Recently, a variety of mechanisms, including specific nuclease-dependent systems, ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy have been shown to degrade the paternal mtDNA or the paternal mitochondria themselves in order to prevent paternal mtDNA transmission. In this review, we will address the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the elimination of paternal mtDNA or mitochondrial structures for ensuring the maternal transmission of mtDNA.

  1. Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing (NIPAT) through Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao; Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future. PMID:27631491

  2. Paternal age and assisted reproductive outcomes in ICSI donor oocytes: is there an effect of older fathers?

    PubMed Central

    Beguería, R.; García, D.; Obradors, A.; Poisot, F.; Vassena, R.; Vernaeve, V.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does paternal age affect semen quality and reproductive outcomes in oocyte donor cycles with ICSI? SUMMARY ANSWER Paternal age is associated with a decrease in sperm quality, however it does not affect either pregnancy or live birth rates in reproductive treatments when the oocytes come from donors <36 years old and ICSI is used. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The weight of evidence suggest that paternal age is associated with decreasing sperm quality, but uncertainty remains as to whether reproductive outcomes are affected. Although developed to treat severe sperm factor infertility, ICSI is gaining popularity and is often used even in the presence of mild male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A retrospective cohort study spanning the period between February 2007 and June 2010. A total of 4887 oocyte donation cycles were included. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Fertilization was carried out by ICSI in all cycles included, and the semen sample used was from the male partner in all cases. The association of male age with semen parameters (volume, concentration, percentage of motile spermatozoa) was analyzed by multiple analysis of covariance. The association of male age with reproductive outcomes (biochemical pregnancy, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate) was modeled by logistic regression, where the following covariates were introduced: donor age, recipient age, semen state (fresh versus frozen) and number of transferred embryos (3 and 2 versus 1). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified a significant relationship between paternal age and all sperm parameters analyzed: for every 5 years of age, sperm volume decreases by 0.22 ml (P < 0.001), concentration increases by 3.1 million sperm/ml (P = 0.003) and percentage motile spermatozoa decreases by 1.2% (P < 0.001). No differences were found in reproductive outcomes (biochemical pregnancy, miscarriage, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and live birth) among

  3. The course and interrelationship of maternal and paternal perinatal depression.

    PubMed

    Paulson, James F; Bazemore, Sharnail D; Goodman, Janice H; Leiferman, Jenn A

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the study were to describe course of depression in both mothers and fathers from the third trimester of pregnancy through 6 months postpartum and to examine the relationship between maternal and paternal depression. Hypotheses were as follows: (a) Depressive symptoms would be correlated between parents and (b) earlier depressive symptoms in one parent would predict later increases in depression in the other. Eighty cohabitating primiparous couples were recruited from prenatal OBGYN visits and community agencies and enrolled during pregnancy, between 28-week gestation and delivery. Participants completed measures of depression on four occasions: baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum. Ninety-eight percent of the enrolled couples (78; 156 individuals) completed the study. For both mothers and fathers, symptom severity ratings and classification as a probable case were stable across time, with prenatal depression persisting through 6 months in 75 % of mothers and 86 % of fathers. Prenatal depression in fathers predicted worsening depressive symptom severity in mothers across the first six postpartum months but not vice versa. In both expecting/new mothers and fathers, depression demonstrates a stable pattern of occurrence and symptom severity between 28-month gestation and 6 months postpartum. Although prenatal maternal depression is not predictive of symptom change in fathers, mothers with prenatally depressed partners showed significant worsening in overall symptom severity during the first six postpartum months. PMID:26790687

  4. Paternalism and Utilitarianism in Research with Human Participants

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account. PMID:23076346

  5. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    PubMed

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die.

  6. Maternal and paternal diversity in Xinjiang Kazakh population from China.

    PubMed

    Shan, W; Ren, Zh; Wu, W; Hao, H; Abulimiti, A; Chen, K; Zhang, F; Ma, Z; Zheng, X

    2014-11-01

    The ancient silk road of China passed through Xinjiang and facilitated gene exchanges from the East and the West which impacted on the genetic variation and structure of the nomadic Kazakh population residing there. In order to understand the nature of this genetic variation; 151 Xinjiang Kazakh samples were obtained from four main Kazakh groups and were analyzed using mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers. The Xinjiang Kazakh population is heterogeneous, showing the coexistence of matrilineal lineages with different origins. No genetic differentiation of mtDNA is observed among the four different regional Xinjiang Kazakh populations in Xinjiang by AMOVA and Networks. The genetic diversity of Y-STR loci is higher in Xinjiang Kazakhs (0.968 ± 0.014) than the Kazakhs from Kazakhstan (0.629 ± 0.071) and Russia (0.835 ± 0.020). East Eurasians make a more than 50% contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakhs. There is more gene flow from West Eurasian into the maternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakh than to the Kazakhs from Russia and Kazakhstan. Moreover, mtDNA and Y-STR displayed high polymorphism in Xinjiang Kazakhs (the haplotype diversity and power of discrimination were 0.990 ± 0.003, 0.9137 for mtDNA HVS and 0.968 ± 0.014, 0.9489 for Y-STR system, respectively), suggesting they would be very useful and important markers for forensic analysis and population genetic studies.

  7. The paternal function in Winnicott: the psychoanalytical frame.

    PubMed

    Faimberg, Haydée

    2014-08-01

    My first aim has been to identify the implicit assumptions underlying Winnicott's detailed notes on a fragment of an analysis dating from 1955 and published after his death. The importance given by Winnicott to the father figure as early as 1955 is one of my discoveries; another is the deep Freudian roots of his thinking. In this essay I propose a new way of linking together the concepts of 'paternal function' and the 'psychoanalytical frame'. Developing my hypothesis, I compare my reading of Winnicott and my way of reading José Bleger's study on the frame. Like Winnicott, I explore in detail a process of discovery, focusing on what the analyst and the patient are nor fully aware of …'as yet'. I am not proposing to unify Winnicott's and Bleger's thinking. My aim is to avoid the pitfall of eclecticism and, in so doing, to recognize both the related depths they sound in their thinking and their otherness. I want to share with the readers their 'meeting' in my mind. PMID:25229543

  8. Paternalism and utilitarianism in research with human participants.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-03-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account.

  9. Paternalism and utilitarianism in research with human participants.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-03-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account. PMID:23076346

  10. Autonomy and paternalism in medical e-commerce.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-08-01

    One of the overriding interests of the literature on health care economics is to discover where personal choice in market economies end and corrective government intervention should begin. Our study addresses this question in the context of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian principle of harm. Our primary objective is to determine whether public policy interventions concerning more than 35,000 online pharmacies worldwide are necessary and efficient compared to traditional market-oriented approaches. Secondly, we seek to determine whether government interference could enhance personal  utility maximization, despite its direct and indirect (unintended) costs on medical e-commerce. This study finds that containing the negative externalities of medical e-commerce provides the most compelling raison d'etre of government interference. It asserts that autonomy and paternalism need not be mutually exclusive, despite their direct and indirect consequences on individual choice and decision-making processes. Valuable insights derived from Mill's principle should enrich theory-building in health care economics and policy.

  11. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

  12. Autonomy and paternalism in medical e-commerce.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-08-01

    One of the overriding interests of the literature on health care economics is to discover where personal choice in market economies end and corrective government intervention should begin. Our study addresses this question in the context of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian principle of harm. Our primary objective is to determine whether public policy interventions concerning more than 35,000 online pharmacies worldwide are necessary and efficient compared to traditional market-oriented approaches. Secondly, we seek to determine whether government interference could enhance personal  utility maximization, despite its direct and indirect (unintended) costs on medical e-commerce. This study finds that containing the negative externalities of medical e-commerce provides the most compelling raison d'etre of government interference. It asserts that autonomy and paternalism need not be mutually exclusive, despite their direct and indirect consequences on individual choice and decision-making processes. Valuable insights derived from Mill's principle should enrich theory-building in health care economics and policy. PMID:25547271

  13. High symbiont relatedness stabilizes mutualistic cooperation in fungus-growing termites.

    PubMed

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M; Kerstes, Niels A G; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2009-11-20

    It is unclear how mutualistic relationships can be stable when partners disperse freely and have the possibility of forming associations with many alternative genotypes. Theory predicts that high symbiont relatedness should resolve this problem, but the mechanisms to enforce this have rarely been studied. We show that African fungus-growing termites propagate single variants of their Termitomyces symbiont, despite initiating cultures from genetically variable spores from the habitat. High inoculation density in the substrate followed by fusion among clonally related mycelia enhances the efficiency of spore production in proportion to strain frequency. This positive reinforcement results in an exclusive lifetime association of each host colony with a single fungal symbiont and hinders the evolution of cheating. Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites is rare and evolutionarily derived.

  14. Autonomy, competence, and social relatedness in task interest within project-based education.

    PubMed

    Minnaert, Alexander; Boekaerts, Monique; de Brabander, Cornelis

    2007-10-01

    To prepare students for instructive collaboration, it is necessary to have insight into students' psychological needs and interest development. The framework of self-determination theory was used to conduct a field experiment involving 114 students in vocational education. These students followed a practical business course which required they work in small learning groups. During the course, students were asked to complete the Quality of Working in Groups Instrument, an online measure of how strong autonomy, competence, social relatedness, and task interest are fulfilled. SEM showed that students' psychological needs were jointly and uniquely related to task interest over time. The significance of this on-line test for the assessment of interest within project-based education is discussed.

  15. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  16. Delineating the Effect of Semantic Congruency on Episodic Memory: The Role of Integration and Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect—the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words. PMID:25695759

  17. Relatedness is a poor predictor of negative plant-soil feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Zia; Tuck, Sean L

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying negative plant-soil feedbacks remains a critical challenge in plant ecology. If closely related species are more similar, then phylogeny could be used as a predictor for plant species interactions, simplifying our understanding of how plant-soil feedbacks structure plant communities, underlie invasive species dynamics, or reduce agricultural productivity. Here, we test the utility of phylogeny for predicting plant-soil feedbacks by undertaking a hierarchical Bayesian meta-analysis on all available pairwise plant-soil feedback experiments conducted over the last two decades, including 133 plant species in 329 pairwise interactions. We found that the sign and magnitude of plant-soil feedback effects were not explained by the phylogenetic distance separating interacting species. This result was consistent across different life forms, life cycles, provenances, and phylogenetic scales. Our analysis shows that, contrary to widespread assumption, relatedness is a poor predictor of plant-soil feedback effects.

  18. Relatedness of Streptococcus canis from canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed Central

    DeWinter, L M; Prescott, J F

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in dogs caused by Streptococcus canis has been reported by our laboratory. Since clonal expansion is thought to be partially responsible for the spread of invasive strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in humans, the relatedness of 15 isolates of S. canis from canine STSS and/or NF was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and biotyping; production of proteases and of a CAMP-like reaction were also examined. Only 2 of the 15 STSS and/or NF isolates were clonally related, suggesting that the emergence of canine STSS/NF is not the result of clonal expansion of one or more highly virulent strains of S. canis. All of the isolates produced proteases and demonstrated a CAMP-like reaction, which appear to be additional characteristics of S. canis. PMID:10369564

  19. Missing Links in Middle School: Developing Use of Disciplinary Relatedness in Evaluating Internet Search Results.

    PubMed

    Keil, Frank C; Kominsky, Jonathan F

    2013-01-01

    In the "digital native" generation, internet search engines are a commonly used source of information. However, adolescents may fail to recognize relevant search results when they are related in discipline to the search topic but lack other cues. Middle school students, high school students, and adults rated simulated search results for relevance to the search topic. The search results were designed to contrast deep discipline-based relationships with lexical similarity to the search topic. Results suggest that the ability to recognize disciplinary relatedness without supporting cues may continue to develop into high school. Despite frequent search engine usage, younger adolescents may require additional support to make the most of the information available to them. PMID:23840774

  20. Missing Links in Middle School: Developing Use of Disciplinary Relatedness in Evaluating Internet Search Results

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Frank C.; Kominsky, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    In the “digital native” generation, internet search engines are a commonly used source of information. However, adolescents may fail to recognize relevant search results when they are related in discipline to the search topic but lack other cues. Middle school students, high school students, and adults rated simulated search results for relevance to the search topic. The search results were designed to contrast deep discipline-based relationships with lexical similarity to the search topic. Results suggest that the ability to recognize disciplinary relatedness without supporting cues may continue to develop into high school. Despite frequent search engine usage, younger adolescents may require additional support to make the most of the information available to them. PMID:23840774