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Sample records for relatedness multiple paternity

  1. A MOLECULAR EXAMINATION OF RELATEDNESS, MULTIPLE PATERNITY, AND COHABITATION OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WOODRAT (NEOTOMA MICROPUS)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, B. Dnate’; Mendez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bradley, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-two individuals of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) were captured from 198 excavated middens at 10 discrete collecting sites from a single population in south-central Texas. Field data, mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, and polymorphic microsatellite loci (5–7) were used to determine genetic patterns in parentage, relatedness, and mating strategy. Microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (average observed heterozygosity = 0.859) and were used to construct genotypes that were unique for each individual (probability of identical genotypes: 1 in 2,104,567). Results indicated a high frequency of multiple paternity (6 of 9 litters), evidence of repeat mating between the same 2 individuals, and no indication of male dominance at any collection site. Examination of these data suggested a promiscuous mating system. Within a site, average relatedness between adult females was similar to that between adult males. A higher level of cohabitation from that previously documented was recorded and finer-scale analyses revealed high levels of relatedness between most cohabiting individuals. Taken with results from other studies of mating behaviors of N. micropus, our results suggest that mating and social behavior of this species are likely influenced by population density. PMID:20011670

  2. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans.

    PubMed

    Plough, Louis V; Moran, Amy; Marko, Peter

    2014-04-16

    Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it may also provide a mechanism

  3. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it

  4. Male dominance, paternity, and relatedness in the Jamaican fruit-eating bat (Artibeus jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Ortega, Jorge; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Arita, Héctor T; Fleischer, Robert C

    2003-09-01

    We analysed variation at 14 nuclear microsatellite loci to assess the genetic structure, relatedness, and paternity of polygynous Jamaican fruit-eating bats. A total of 84 adults captured in two caves exhibited little genetic differentiation between caves (FST = 0.008). Average relatedness among adult females in 10 harem groups was very low (R = 0.014 +/- 0.011), providing no evidence of harem structure. Dominant and subordinate males shared paternity in large groups, while dominant and satellite males shared paternity in smaller groups. However, our results suggest that male rank influences paternity. Dominant males fathered 69% of 40 offspring, followed by satellite (22%) and subordinate males (9%). Overall adult male bats are not closely related, however, in large harem groups we found that subordinate and dominant males exhibited relatedness values consistent with a father-offspring relationship. Because dominant and subordinate males also sired all the pups in large groups, we propose that their association provides inclusive fitness to them.

  5. Multiple paternities increase genetic diversity of offspring in Brandt's voles.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ying-jun; Wan, Xin-rong; Wolff, Jerry O; Wang, Guiming; Thomas, Shawn; Iglay, Raymond B; Leopold, Bruce D; Liu, Wei

    2010-07-01

    Mating system and philopatry influence the genetic structure of a social group in mammals. Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) lives in social groups year-round and has male biased dispersal, which makes the vole a model system for studies of genetic consequences of mating system and philopatry. This study aimed to test the hypotheses that: (1) multiple paternity (MP) would exist in Brandt's voles, enhance offspring genetic diversity and reduce genetic relatedness between littermates; (2) promiscuity would occur in this species in that males and females mate with multiple partners; and (3) plural breeders of a social group would be genetically related because of philopatry of female juveniles in Brandt's voles. Paternity analysis indicated that MP occurred in 11 (46%) of 24 social groups examined and that promiscuity existed in this species. Multiple paternity litters had twice the offspring genetic diversity and half the average within-litter genetic relatedness of single paternity litters. We also found plural breeding females in six social groups. Average pairwise genetic relatedness of plural breeders ranged from 0.41 to 0.72 in four social groups, suggesting first-order kinship. Future studies need to investigate effects of reproductive skew and MP on population genetic structure of Brandt's voles.

  6. Mating strategies in dominant meerkats: evidence for extra-pair paternity in relation to genetic relatedness between pair mates.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2013-07-01

    Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations.

  7. Molecular Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in a Freshwater Shrimp Species Caridina ensifera

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Gen Hua; Chang, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. Conclusions/Significance Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species. PMID:20856862

  8. Effective Population Sizes with Multiple Paternity

    PubMed Central

    Sugg, D. W.; Chesser, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    While the concept of effective population size is of obvious applicability to many questions in population genetics and conservation biology, its utility has suffered due to a lack of agreement among its various formulations. Often, mathematical formulations for effective sizes apply restrictive assumptions that limit their applicability. Herein, expressions for effective sizes of populations that account for mating tactics, biases in sex ratios, and differential dispersal rates (among other parameters) are developed. Of primary interest is the influence of multiple paternity on the maintenance of genetic variation in a population. In addition to the standard inbreeding and variance effective sizes, intragroup (coancestral) and intergroup effective sizes also are developed. Expressions for effective sizes are developed for the beginning of nonrandom gene exchanges (initial effective sizes), the transition of gene correlations (instantaneous effective sizes), and the steady-state (asymptotic effective size). Results indicate that systems of mating that incorporate more than one male mate per female increase all effective sizes above those expected from polygyny and monogamy. Instantaneous and asymptotic sizes can be expressed relative to the fixation indices. The parameters presented herein can be utilized in models of effective sizes for the study of evolutionary biology and conservation genetics. PMID:7982568

  9. Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    PubMed

    Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

    2012-12-01

    Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring.

  10. Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

    2012-01-01

    Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

  11. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful.

  12. Multiple paternity and hybridization in two smooth-hound sharks.

    PubMed

    Marino, Ilaria A M; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-10

    Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations.

  13. Multiple paternity and hybridization in two smooth-hound sharks

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B.; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations. PMID:26257113

  14. Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-07-01

    Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis.

  15. Genetic variation, multiple paternity, and measures of reproductive success in the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata).

    PubMed

    González-Garza, Blanca Idalia; Stow, Adam; Sánchez-Teyer, Lorenzo Felipe; Zapata-Pérez, Omar

    2015-12-01

    The Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico contains some of the largest breeding groups of the globally distributed and critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). An improved understanding of the breeding system of this species and how its genetic variation is structured among nesting areas is required before the threats to its survival can be properly evaluated. Here, we genotype 1195 hatchlings and 41 nesting females at 12 microsatellite loci to assess levels of multiple paternity, genetic variation and whether individual levels of homozygosity are associated with reproductive success. Of the 50 clutches analyzed, only 6% have multiple paternity. The distribution of pairwise relatedness among nesting localities (rookeries) was not random with elevated within-rookery relatedness, and declining relatedness with geographic distance indicating some natal philopatry. Although there was no strong evidence that particular rookeries had lost allelic variation via drift, younger turtles had significantly lower levels of genetic variation than older turtles, suggesting some loss of genetic variation. At present there is no indication that levels of genetic variation are associated with measures of reproductive success such as clutch size, hatching success, and frequency of infertile eggs.

  16. Multiple paternity in Rana dalmatina, a monogamous territorial breeding anuran.

    PubMed

    Lodé, Thierry; Lesbarrères, David

    2004-01-01

    Polyandry and sperm competition in anurans have rarely been documented. We investigated the genetic paternity inferred from allozyme variations in 650 tadpoles from four natural ponds in a territorial breeding anuran, Rana dalmatina. Multiple paternity was demonstrated, although R. dalmatina is regarded as a monogamous species. Polyandrous mating was not a common event, occurring only in 17.9% of clutches, with no significant differences among clutches. The proportions of tadpoles fathered by a second male did not significantly differ among ponds, showing that multipaternity was not restricted to a single site. Such a polyandry may result from synchronous multiple amplexus and should reduce the heterozygote deficit related to the breeding-pond fidelity usually exhibited by most anurans.

  17. Multiple paternity and kin recognition mechanisms in a guppy population.

    PubMed

    Hain, Timothy J A; Neff, Bryan D

    2007-09-01

    Help directed toward kin (nepotism) is an important example of social behaviour. Such helping behaviour requires a mechanism to distinguish kin from nonkin. The prevailing kin recognition hypothesis is that when familiarity is a reliable cue of relatedness, other mechanisms of recognition will not evolve. However, when familiarity is an unreliable cue of relatedness, kin recognition by phenotype matching is instead predicted to evolve. Here we use genetic markers to show that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from a population in a tributary of the Paria River in Trinidad are characterized by a high degree of multiple mating with 95% of broods having more than one sire and some dams having offspring sired by six males. These levels of multiple mating are the highest reported among live-bearing fishes. The mean relatedness of brood-mates was 0.36 (as compared to 0.5 for full-siblings). Therefore, familiarity does not seem to be a reliable mechanism to assess full-sibling relatedness. Using two-choice behavioural trials, we found that juveniles from this population use both phenotype matching and familiarity to distinguish kin from nonkin. However, we did not find strong evidence that the guppies use these mechanisms to form shoals of related individuals as adults, which is similar to results from other guppy populations in Trinidad. The use of both familiarity and phenotype matching is discussed in the context of the Paria River guppy population's mating system and ecology. Overall, these data provide support for the kin recognition hypothesis and increase our understanding of the evolution of kin recognition systems.

  18. Colony size is linked to paternity frequency and paternity skew in yellowjacket wasps and hornets.

    PubMed

    Loope, Kevin J; Chien, Chun; Juhl, Michael

    2014-12-30

    The puzzle of the selective benefits of multiple mating and multiple paternity in social insects has been a major focus of research in evolutionary biology. We examine paternity in a clade of social insects, the vespine wasps (the yellowjackets and hornets), which contains species with high multiple paternity as well as species with single paternity. This group is particularly useful for comparative analyses given the wide interspecific variation in paternity traits despite similar sociobiology and ecology of the species in the genera Vespula, Dolichovespula and Vespa. We describe the paternity of 5 species of yellowjackets (Vespula spp.) and we perform a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of relatedness, paternity frequency, paternity skew, colony size, and nest site across 22 vespine taxa. We found moderate multiple paternity in four small-colony Vespula rufa-group species (effective paternity 1.5 - 2.1), and higher multiple paternity in the large-colony Vespula flavopilosa (effective paternity ~3.1). Our comparative analysis shows that colony size, but not nest site, predicts average intracolony relatedness. Underlying this pattern, we found that greater colony size is associated with both higher paternity frequency and reduced paternity skew. Our results support hypotheses focusing on the enhancement of genetic diversity in species with large colonies, and run counter to the hypothesis that multiple paternity is adaptively maintained due to sperm limitation associated with large colonies. We confirm the patterns observed in taxonomically widespread analyses by comparing closely related species of wasps with similar ecology, behavior and social organization. The vespine wasps may be a useful group for experimental investigation of the benefits of multiple paternity in the future.

  19. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment

    PubMed Central

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain these insights, six Flemish communities were selected in this study based on the differences in geography and historical development. After rigorous selection of appropriate DNA donors, low relatedness between Y chromosomes of different surnames was found within each community, although there is co-occurrence of these surnames in each community since the start of the surname adoption between the 14th and 15th century. Next, the high communal diversity in Y-chromosomal lineages was comparable with the regional diversity across Flanders at that time. Moreover, clinal distributions of particular Y-chromosomal lineages between the communities were observed according to the clinal distributions earlier observed across the Flemish regions and Western Europe. No significant indication for genetic differences between communities with distinct historical development was found in the analysis. These genetic results provide relevant information for studies in historical sciences, archaeology, forensic genetics and genealogy. PMID:25873146

  20. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  1. Multiple paternity in a salamander with socially monogamous behaviour.

    PubMed

    Liebgold, Eric B; Cabe, Paul R; Jaeger, Robert G; Leberg, Paul L

    2006-11-01

    In the majority of birds and mammals, social monogamy is not congruent with genetic monogamy. No research to date has compared social and genetic monogamy in amphibians. We analysed paternity in clutches of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus), a species in which social monogamy has been demonstrated in the laboratory, and 28% of individuals in the forest are found in male-female pairs in the noncourtship season. We collected 16 clutches of eggs of P. cinereus in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia and collected tail clippings from attending mothers. We genotyped embryos and adults at five microsatellite loci in order to analyse paternity of clutches. Most clutches (84.6%) had multiple sires, with two to three sires per clutch. In this study, 25% of clutches had males in addition to females attending eggs. None of the mothers of these clutches were genetically monogamous. All attending males sired some of the offspring in the clutch that they attended (between 9% and 50%) but never sired a majority in that clutch. We conclude that, at least in this population, social monogamy in P. cinereus is not concomitant with genetic monogamy.

  2. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  3. Implications of multiple mating for offspring relatedness and shoaling behaviour in juvenile guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L

    2008-12-23

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) can confer important benefits to females, but few studies have considered its potential costs. One such cost may arise through differences in the relatedness of offspring born to females with different mating histories; offspring born to monandrous females are always full siblings, while those produced by polyandrous females may be full or half siblings. These differences may have important consequences for social interactions among offspring. We used artificial insemination in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a promiscuous live-bearing fish, to evaluate shoaling behaviour in polyandrous and monandrous broods. We combined this information with known parentage data for the polyandrous broods to determine whether sibling relatedness influenced offspring shoaling behaviour. While we detected no effect of mating treatment (polyandry/monandry) on shoaling behaviour, we found that pairs of full siblings spent significantly more time shoaling (and in close proximity) than pairs of half siblings. This latter finding confirms the ability of newborn guppies to distinguish brood mates on the basis of kinship, but also suggests an important and hitherto unrealized potential cost of polyandry: a reduction in within-brood relatedness with potentially important implications for offspring social behaviour.

  4. Higher Levels of Multiple Paternities Increase Seedling Survival in the Long-Lived Tree Eucalyptus gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Martin F.; Christmas, Matthew J.; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding – named here as the ‘constrained inbreeding hypothesis’. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

  5. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  6. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles)

    PubMed Central

    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-01-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113

  7. Neighbouring-group composition and within-group relatedness drive extra-group paternity rate in the European badger (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W

    2014-10-01

    Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies.

  8. Pollinator identity and spatial isolation influence multiple paternity in an annual plant.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Matthew K; Fant, Jeremie B; Skogen, Krissa A

    2017-03-23

    The occurrence and extent of multiple paternity is an important component of variation in plant mating dynamics. However, links between pollinator activity and multiple paternity are generally lacking, especially for plant species that attract functionally diverse floral visitors. In this study, we separated the influence of two functionally distinct floral visitors (hawkmoths and solitary bees) and characterized their impacts on multiple paternity in a self-incompatible, annual forb, Oenothera harringtonii (Onagraceae). We also situated pollinator-mediated effects in a spatial context by linking variation in multiple paternity to variation in plant spatial isolation. We documented pronounced differences in the number of paternal sires as function of pollinator identity: on average, the primary pollinator (hawkmoths) facilitated mating with nearly twice as many pollen donors relative to the secondary pollinator (solitary bees). This effect was consistent for both isolated and non-isolated individuals, but spatial isolation imposed pronounced reductions on multiple paternity regardless of pollinator identity. Considering that pollinator abundance and pollen dispersal distance did not vary significantly with pollinator identity, we attribute variation in realized mating dynamics primarily to differences in pollinator morphology and behavior as opposed to pollinator abundance or mating incompatibility arising from underlying spatial genetic structure. Our findings demonstrate that functionally distinct pollinators can have strongly divergent effects on polyandry in plants and further suggest that both pollinator identity and spatial heterogeneity have important roles in plant mating dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular evidence for multiple paternity in a population of the Viviparous Tule Perch Hysterocarpus traski.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Xian; Tatarenkov, Andrey; O'Rear, Teejay A; Moyle, Peter B; Avise, John C

    2013-03-01

    Population density might be an important variable in determining the degree of multiple paternity. In a previous study, a high level of multiple paternity was detected in the shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata, a species with high population density and a high mate encounter rate. The tule perch Hysterocarpus traski is phylogenetically closely related to C. aggregata, but it has relatively lower population density, which may result in distinct patterns of multiple paternity in these 2 species. To test the hypothesis that mate encounter rate may affect the rate of successful mating, we used polymorphic microsatellite markers to identify multiple paternity in the progeny arrays of 12 pregnant females from a natural population of tule perch. Multiple paternity was detected in 11 (92%) of the 12 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 4 (mean 2.5) but with no correlation between sire number and brood size. Although the brood size of tule perch is considerably larger than that of shiner perch (40.7 vs. 12.9, respectively), the average number of sires per brood in tule perch is much lower than that in shiner perch (2.5 vs. 4.6, respectively). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mate encounter rate is an important factor affecting multiple mating.

  10. The effect of multiple paternity on genetic diversity of small populations during and after colonisation.

    PubMed

    Rafajlović, Marina; Eriksson, Anders; Rimark, Anna; Hintz-Saltin, Sara; Charrier, Grégory; Panova, Marina; André, Carl; Johannesson, Kerstin; Mehlig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration) has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by [Formula: see text] males increased the heterozygosity by [Formula: see text] in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was [Formula: see text] compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity.

  11. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual.

  12. Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  13. Polygynandry, extra-group paternity and multiple-paternity litters in European badger (Meles meles) social groups.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry

    2007-12-01

    The costs and benefits of natal philopatry are central to the formation and maintenance of social groups. Badger groups, thought to form passively according to the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), are maintained through natal philopatry and delayed dispersal; however, there is minimal evidence for the functional benefits of such grouping. We assigned parentage to 630 badger cubs from a high-density population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, born between 1988 and 2005. Our methodological approach was different to previous studies; we used 22 microsatellite loci to assign parent pairs, which in combination with sibship inference provided a high parentage assignment rate. We assigned both parents to 331 cubs at > or = 95% confidence, revealing a polygynandrous mating system with up to five mothers and five fathers within a social group. We estimated that only 27% of adult males and 31% of adult females bred each year, suggesting a cost to group living for both sexes. Any strong motivation or selection to disperse, however, may be reduced because just under half of the paternities were gained by extra-group males, mainly from neighbouring groups, with males displaying a mixture of paternity strategies. We provide the strongest evidence to date for multiple-paternity litters, and for the first time show that within-group and extra-group males can sire cubs in the same litter. We investigate the factors that may play a role in determining the degree of delayed dispersal and conclude that the ecological constraints hypothesis, benefits of philopatry hypothesis, and life history hypothesis may all play a part, as proposed by the broad constraints hypothesis.

  14. Multiple paternity and sporophytic inbreeding depression in a dioicous moss species.

    PubMed

    Szövényi, P; Ricca, M; Shaw, A J

    2009-11-01

    Multiple paternity (polyandry) frequently occurs in flowering plants and animals and is assumed to have an important function in the evolution of reproductive traits. Polyandry in bryophytes may occur among multiple sporophytes of a female gametophyte; however, its occurrence and extent is unknown. In this study we investigate the occurrence and extent of multiple paternity, spatial genetic structure, and sporophytic inbreeding depression in natural populations of a dioicous bryophyte species, Sphagnum lescurii, using microsatellite markers. Multiple paternity is prevalent among sporophytes of a female gametophyte and male genotypes exhibit significant skew in paternity. Despite significant spatial genetic structure in the population, suggesting frequent inbreeding, the number of inbred and outbred sporophytes was balanced, resulting in an average fixation coefficient and population level selfing rate of zero. In line with the prediction of sporophytic inbreeding depression sporophyte size was significantly correlated with the level of heterozygosity. Furthermore, female gametophytes preferentially supported sporophytes with higher heterozygosity. These results indicate that polyandry provides the opportunity for postfertilization selection in bryophytes having short fertilization distances and spatially structured populations facilitating inbreeding. Preferential maternal support of the more heterozygous sporophytes suggests active inbreeding avoidance that may have significant implications for mating system evolution in bryophytes.

  15. Variability in multiple paternity rates for grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) and scalloped hammerheads (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Green, M E; Appleyard, S A; White, W; Tracey, S; Ovenden, J

    2017-05-08

    This study assessed the presence and prevalence of multiple paternity (MP) in litters of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) and scalloped hammerheads (Sphyrna lewini) opportunistically caught in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Litter size between species were significantly different with an average of 3.3 pups for grey reef sharks and 17.2 pups for scalloped hammerhead. Using 14 and 10 microsatellite loci respectively, we identified MP in 66% of grey reef sharks (4 out of 6 litters) and 100% MP in scalloped hammerheads (5 litters). We found high paternal skew (the uneven contribution of sires per litter) and a positive correlation between female adult size and litter size in scalloped hammerheads but not in grey reef sharks. Differences in the frequency of MP between species and the identification of paternal skew may be linked with mating strategies and post-copulatory mechanisms. Multiple paternity is thought to benefit populations by enhancing genetic diversity therefore increasing the population's genetic resilience to extrinsic pressures. The identification of MP in two shark species reported here, further elucidates the complex breeding strategies elasmobranchs undertake.

  16. The context-dependent effect of multiple paternity on effective population size.

    PubMed

    Lotterhos, Katie E; Lotterhos, Katic E

    2011-06-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) is important because it describes how evolutionary forces will affect a population. The effect of multiple sires per female on N(e) has been the subject of some debate, at the crux of which is the effects of monandry and multiple-paternity (MP) on male variance in reproductive success. In both mating systems, females mate with several males over their lifetimes, but sire offspring with one male at a time in the former and have several sires per clutch in the latter. First, I theoretically show that whether the annual male variance in reproductive success in an MP population is greater or less than that of a monandrous population depends on the distributions of within-clutch paternity. Then, I simulated different distributions of within-clutch paternity under a range of parameters that characterize natural populations to show that an MP population can have an N(e) smaller or larger than that of a monandrous population with otherwise equal dynamics. The N(e(MP)):N(e(Monandry)) ratio increased with mating frequency and female variance in reproductive success, was equalized by long generation times, and was affected by the distribution of within-clutch paternities. The results of this model provide a unifying framework for the debate. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Inter-population variation in multiple paternity and reproductive skew in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Neff, Bryan D; Pitcher, Trevor E; Ramnarine, Indar W

    2008-06-01

    We use microsatellite loci to detail the multiple paternity patterns in broods from 10 wild populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) found in Northern Trinidad. The populations span two major drainages comprising the Caroni and the Oropouche, and include sites that are characterized by either high or low predation. Across the populations the frequency of multiple paternity is high with 95% (range: 70%-100%) of broods having multiple sires. Broods have an average of 3.5 sires (range: 1-9) and a mixed-model analysis suggests that broods from high predation sites have marginally more sires than do those from low predation sites, but this is true only in the Oropouche drainage. There is no difference in sire number between predation sites in the Caroni drainage. Brood size, but not female body length, is correlated with the number of sires and the correlation cannot be attributed solely to the stochastic process associated with sperm competition and a 'fair raffle'. Within broods there is significant skew in reproductive success among males, which may reflect variation in sperm competitiveness or female choice. There is, however, no difference in the skew among populations from different predation regimes or drainages. Finally, high predation populations were characterized by increased genetic variability at the microsatellite loci, suggesting a larger effective population size. We discuss explanations for the high degree of multiple paternity but the general lack of any major differences among broods from ecologically different populations.

  18. Evidence of multiple paternity in Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) in Belize, CA, inferred from microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    McVay, John D; Rodriguez, David; Rainwater, Thomas R; Dever, Jennifer A; Platt, Steven G; McMurry, Scott T; Forstner, Michael R J; Densmore, Llewellyn D

    2008-12-01

    Microsatellite data were generated from hatchlings collected from ten nests of Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from New River Lagoon and Gold Button Lagoon in Belize to test for evidence of multiple paternity. Nine microsatellite loci were genotyped for 188 individuals from the 10 nests, alongside 42 nonhatchlings from Gold Button Lagoon. Then mitochondrial control region sequences were generated for the nonhatchlings and for one individual from each nest to test for presence of C. acutus-like haplotypes. Analyses of five of the nine microsatellite loci revealed evidence that progeny from five of the ten nests were sired by at least two males. These data suggest the presence of multiple paternity as a mating strategy in the true crocodiles. This information may be useful in the application of conservation and management techniques to the 12 species in this genus, most of which are threatened or endangered.

  19. Geographic variation in multiple paternity within natural populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, C. D.; Godin, J.-G. J.; Wright, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Mating can increase an individual's risk of mortality by predation. In response to predation hazards, males in some species court females less often, but alternatively engage in coerced copulations more frequently and females become less selective. Such predator-mediated shifts in mating tactics may result in higher levels of multiple inseminations in females and, thus, in greater frequencies of females with broods of mixed paternity. We tested this hypothesis using two polymorphic microsatellite loci to estimate conservatively multiple paternity in broods of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) originating from ten natural populations that have evolved under different fish predation regimes in Trinidad. The frequency of broods that were multiply sired was significantly greater on average in populations experiencing high predation pressure compared to populations experiencing a relatively low predation risk. These results suggest that the intensity of male sperm competition covaries geographically with predation pressure in this species and that the local risk of predation mediates the opportunity for sexual selection within populations.

  20. High prevalence of multiple paternity in the invasive crayfish species, Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Yue, Gen Hua; Li, Jia Le; Wang, Chun Ming; Xia, Jun Hong; Wang, Gen Lin; Feng, Jian Bing

    2010-02-17

    Reproductive strategy is a central feature of the ecology of invasive species as it determines the potential for population increase and range expansion. The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, has invaded many countries and caused serious problems in freshwater ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of environmental conditions on crayfish paternity and offspring traits in the wild. We studied these reproductive characteristics of P. clarkii in wild populations from two different habitats (ponds and ditches) in three locations with different environmental conditions in China. Genotyping of 1,436 offspring and 30 mothers of 30 broods was conducted by using four microsatellites. An analysis of genotyping results revealed that gravid females were the exclusive mother of the progeny they tended. Twenty-nine of 30 mothers had mated with multiple (2-4) males, each of which contributed differently to the number of offspring in a brood. The average number of fathers per brood and the number of offspring per brood were similar (P>0.05) among six sampling sites, indicating that in P. clarkii multiple paternity and offspring number per brood are independent of environmental conditions studied. Indirect benefits from increasing the genetic diversity of broods, male and sperm competition, and cryptic female choice are a possible explanation for the high level multiple paternity and different contribution of fathers to offspring in this species.

  1. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    PubMed

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H H; McKeown, Niall J; Shaw, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.

  2. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H. H.; McKeown, Niall J.; Shaw, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection. PMID:26872354

  3. High levels of multiple paternity in Littorina saxatilis: hedging the bets?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Tuuli; Panova, Marina; André, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The mating system of a species can have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. We studied the extent of multiple paternity in a gastropod with internal fertilization, the intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis. Paternal genotype reconstruction based on microsatellite markers was performed on the offspring of wild, naturally fertilized females from 2 populations. The numbers of males contributing to the offspring per female were among the highest detected in invertebrates so far, with the exception of social insects. No reproductive skew in favor of males that were genetically more distant from the females was detected, and the pattern of fertilization appeared random. The result fits a hypothesis of indiscriminate mating, with genetic bet hedging as the most likely explanation. Bet hedging may have evolved as a form of inbreeding avoidance, if the snails are not able to recognize relatives. However, nutritional benefits from sperm or sexual conflict with males are additional possibilities that remain to be assessed in this species. Whatever the causes, such high levels of multiple paternity are remarkable and are likely to have a large impact on population structure and dynamics in a species in which migration between populations is spurious.

  4. Patterns of relatedness and parentage in an asocial, polyandrous striped hyena population.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Aaron P; Creel, Scott; Frank, Laurence G; Kalinowski, Steven T

    2007-10-01

    We investigated patterns of relatedness and reproduction in a population of striped hyenas in which individuals are behaviourally solitary but form polyandrous spatial groups consisting of one adult female and multiple adult males. Group-mate males were often close relatives, but were unrelated or distantly related in some cases, indicating that male coalitions are not strictly a result of philopatry or dispersal with cohorts of relatives. Most male-female pairs within spatial groups were unrelated or only distantly related. Considering patterns of relatedness between groups, relatedness was significantly higher among adult males living in non-neighbouring ranges than among neighbouring males. Mean relatedness among male-female dyads was highest for group-mates, but relatedness among non-neighbouring males and females was also significantly higher than among dyads of opposite-sex neighbours. Female-female relatedness also increased significantly with increasing geographic separation. These unusual and unexpected patterns may reflect selection to settle in a nonadjacent manner to reduce inbreeding and/or competition among relatives for resources (both sexes), or mates (males). Finally, resident males fathered the majority of the resident female's cubs, but extra-group paternity was likely in 31% of the cases examined, and multiple paternity was likely in half of the sampled litters.

  5. Multiple paternity in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus): effects on offspring genetic diversity and body mass.

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Musolf, Kerstin; Klaus, Teresa; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating is common in many species, but it is unclear whether multiple paternity enhances offspring genetic diversity or fitness. We conducted a survey on wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus), and we found that in 73 pregnant females, 29% of litters had multiple sires, which is remarkably similar to the 23-26% found in feral populations of Mus musculus domesticus in the USA and Australia, respectively. The question is: How has selection maintained multiple mating in these subspecies since the evolutionary divergence, ca. 2800-6000 years ago? We found no evidence that multiple paternity enhanced females' litter size, contrary to the fertility assurance or genetic benefits hypotheses. Multiple paternity was associated with reduced mean and variance in offspring body mass, which suggests that females allocate fewer resources or that there is increased intrauterine conflict in multiple-versus single-sired litters. We found increased allelic diversity (though not heterozygosity) in multiple-sired litters, as predicted by the genetic diversity hypothesis. Finally, we found that the dams' heterozygosity was correlated with the mean heterozygosity of their offspring in single-and multiple-sired litters, suggesting that outbred, heterozygous females were more likely to avoid inbreeding than inbred, homozygous females. Future studies are needed to examine how increased genetic diversity of litters and smaller mean (and variance) offspring body mass associated with multiple paternity affect offspring fitness.

  6. Genetic dissimilarity predicts paternity in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Jehle, Robert; Sztatecsny, Marc; Wolf, Jochen B W; Whitlock, April; Hödl, Walter; Burke, Terry

    2007-10-22

    Under sperm competition, paternity is apportioned by polyandrous females according to the order of matings and the genetic quality of the inseminating males. In order to distinguish between these two effects, we sequentially paired 12 female smooth newts (Lissotriton vulgaris) with each of two males and, where possible, repeated the same procedure in reverse order of the identical males after assumed sperm depletion. For a total of 578 offspring, amplified fragment length polymorphisms genetic markers revealed multiple paternities in all matings, without significant first- or second-male sperm precedence. The paternity share of individual males was transitive across the two trials with male order switch, and successful males had a significantly higher genetic dissimilarity to the female than expected by chance. We argue that patterns of paternity in natural newt populations are determined through a combination of good genes and relatedness.

  7. Relatedness predicts multiple measures of investment in cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Gavin M; Echeverri, Sebastian; Heinrich, Dirk; Kolberg, Holger

    2015-11-01

    Although communal goods are often critical to society, they are simultaneously susceptible to exploitation and are evolutionarily stable only if mechanisms exist to curtail exploitation. Mechanisms such as punishment and kin selection have been offered as general explanations for how communal resources can be maintained. Evidence for these mechanisms comes largely from humans and social insects, leaving their generality in question. To assess how communal resources are maintained, we observed cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers (Philetairus socius). The communal nest of sociable weavers provides thermal benefits for all individuals but requires continual maintenance. We observed cooperative nest construction and also recorded basic morphological characteristics. We also collected blood samples, performed next-generation sequencing, and isolated 2358 variable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate relatedness. We find that relatedness predicts investment in cooperative nest construction, while no other morphological characters significantly explain cooperative output. We argue that indirect benefits are a critical fitness component for maintaining the cooperative behavior that maintains the communal good.

  8. Relatedness predicts multiple measures of investment in cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Gavin M.; Echeverri, Sebastian; Heinrich, Dirk; Kolberg, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Although communal goods are often critical to society, they are simultaneously susceptible to exploitation and are evolutionarily stable only if mechanisms exist to curtail exploitation. Mechanisms such as punishment and kin selection have been offered as general explanations for how communal resources can be maintained. Evidence for these mechanisms comes largely from humans and social insects, leaving their generality in question. To assess how communal resources are maintained, we observed cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers (Philetairus socius). The communal nest of sociable weavers provides thermal benefits for all individuals but requires continual maintenance. We observed cooperative nest construction and also recorded basic morphological characteristics. We also collected blood samples, performed next-generation sequencing, and isolated 2358 variable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate relatedness. We find that relatedness predicts investment in cooperative nest construction, while no other morphological characters significantly explain cooperative output. We argue that indirect benefits are a critical fitness component for maintaining the cooperative behavior that maintains the communal good. PMID:26726282

  9. Size breeds success: multiple paternity, multivariate selection and male semelparity in a small marsupial, Antechinus stuartii.

    PubMed

    Holleley, C E; Dickman, C R; Crowther, M S; Oldroyd, B P

    2006-10-01

    Mating in the marsupial genus Antechinus is a synchronous annual event that is characterized by monoestry in females and abrupt postmating mortality in males. Male semelparity (multiple copulations during a single breeding season per lifetime) is often assumed to occur as a consequence of the intense mating effort expended by males in the rut, but the forces selecting for this remain elusive. Here, we investigate selection in male brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii, and test two hypotheses for the evolution of semelparity: intermale competition and sperm competition. If intermale competition drives semelparity, we predicted that males would be under strong selection for large body size. If sperm competition is important, we predicted that selection would be strongest on scrotal size, a surrogate for testes volume. Using microsatellite markers, we found that 92% of females in free-living conditions mated with multiple males, producing litters of eight that had up to four fathers. These observations confirm the potential for sperm competition. Using selection analysis, we then found paternity success in 119 males to be related most strongly to body mass and scrotal size, thus providing support for both hypotheses. Large males presumably experience increased paternity success by gaining more matings or prolonged copulations via mate guarding, while large testes may allow increased sperm investment per copulation. Increased levels of free corticosteroid hormones in males facilitate the extreme mating effort during the short period of rut, but lead to immune suppression and consequently to the phenomenon of postmating mortality.

  10. Microsatellite DNA markers applied to detection of multiple paternity in Caiman latirostris in Santa Fe, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amavet, Patricia; Rosso, Esteban; Markariani, Rosa; Piña, Carlos Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Detecting multiple paternity in wild populations of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) has important implications for conservation efforts. We have applied microsatellite markers to examine genetic variation in C. latirostris and also have provided the first data concerning detection of multiple paternity in wild populations of this species. Blood samples from four nest-guarding C. latirostris females and their hatchlings were obtained from Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Amplified products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 10% polyacrylamide gels and visualized with silver staining. Four out of the eight markers tested reliably amplified and yielded useful data. Using polyacrylamide gels with silver staining provides high enough resolution to obtain individual genotypes. In order to assess the presence or absence of more than two parents in each nest, we used the single locus Minimum Method, and applied Cervus 3.0 and Gerud 2.0 software in parentage analyses. Our results indicate more than one father in at least two families. This behavior could be the consequence of high habitat variability in the area where our population was sampled. The ability to understand mating systems is important for maintaining viable populations of exploited taxa like C. latirostris.

  11. Assessing multiple paternity in three commercially exploited shark species: Mustelus mustelus, Carcharhinus obscurus and Sphyrna lewini.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, C; Wintner, S P; Bester-Van Der Merwe, A E

    2016-08-01

    In this study, multiple paternity (MP) was investigated in three commercially important shark species, common smoothhound Mustelus mustelus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus and scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini occurring in southern Africa. Reduced marker panels of between five and six microsatellite loci were constructed for each species and used to genotype and assess the presence of MP in a total of 60 M. mustelus individuals from six litters, 90 C. obscurus individuals from 14 litters and 54 S. lewini individuals from 13 litters. Analysis in GERUD and COLONY revealed the presence of MP in all three species. Multiple paternities were observed in 67, 35 and 46% of the litters of M. mustelus, C. obscurus and S. lewini, with corresponding average sire size of 1·6, 1·4 and 2·0, respectively. The variation in the rate of MP among the three species is in accordance with previous studies whilst the comparatively high frequency of MP observed for M. mustelus, matches what has previously been reported for shark species demonstrating aggregation behaviour.

  12. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  13. Influence of multiple infection and relatedness on virulence: disease dynamics in an experimental plant population and its castrating parasite.

    PubMed

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration.

  14. Influence of pollen transport dynamics on sire profiles and multiple paternity in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Randall J; Wilson, William G; Holmquist, Karsten G; Karron, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    In many flowering plants individual fruits contain a mixture of half- and full- siblings, reflecting pollination by several fathers. To better understand the mechanisms generating multiple paternity within fruits we present a theoretical framework linking pollen carryover with patterns of pollinator movement. This 'sire profile' model predicts that species with more extensive pollen carryover will have a greater number of mates. It also predicts that flowers on large displays, which are often probed consecutively during a single pollinator visitation sequence, will have a lower effective number of mates. We compared these predictions with observed values for bumble bee-pollinated Mimulus ringens, which has restricted carryover, and hummingbird-pollinated Ipomopsis aggregata, which has extensive carryover. The model correctly predicted that the effective number of mates is much higher in the species with more extensive carryover. This work extends our knowledge of plant mating systems by highlighting mechanisms influencing the genetic composition of sibships.

  15. Multiple paternity in two natural populations (orchard and vineyard) of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Ochando, M D; Reyes, A; Ayala, F J

    1996-01-01

    Male mating success is an important fitness component in Drosophila. The seminal fluid conveyed with the sperm inhibits the proclivity of the female to remate and reduces her fitness. Nevertheless, females may remate before they have exhausted the sperm from the first male and consequently use sperm from both males. We have studied concurrent multiple paternity (CMP) in two Drosophila melanogaster populations, from an apple orchard and a vineyard just after harvest. CMP is high in both populations, somewhat greater than 50%; but it is not significantly higher in the vineyard, where the population density is much greater than in the orchard. Population density had been thought to be an important determinant of CMP incidence. We have used four gene loci coding for enzymes as independent markers for detecting CMP. PMID:8876212

  16. Influence of Pollen Transport Dynamics on Sire Profiles and Multiple Paternity in Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Randall J.; Wilson, William G.; Holmquist, Karsten G.; Karron, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    In many flowering plants individual fruits contain a mixture of half- and full- siblings, reflecting pollination by several fathers. To better understand the mechanisms generating multiple paternity within fruits we present a theoretical framework linking pollen carryover with patterns of pollinator movement. This ‘sire profile’ model predicts that species with more extensive pollen carryover will have a greater number of mates. It also predicts that flowers on large displays, which are often probed consecutively during a single pollinator visitation sequence, will have a lower effective number of mates. We compared these predictions with observed values for bumble bee-pollinated Mimulus ringens, which has restricted carryover, and hummingbird-pollinated Ipomopsis aggregata, which has extensive carryover. The model correctly predicted that the effective number of mates is much higher in the species with more extensive carryover. This work extends our knowledge of plant mating systems by highlighting mechanisms influencing the genetic composition of sibships. PMID:24098473

  17. Relationship between multiple paternity and reproductive parameters for Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Trombetas River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C

    2016-01-29

    Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis.

  18. The origins and relatedness of multiple reproductives in colonies of the termite Nasutitermes corniger

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, L.; Adams, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    Colonies of the termite Nasutitermes corniger often contain multiple reproductive queens and kings. We used double-strand conformation polymorphism (DSCP) analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to determine the probable origins of co-occurring reproductives. Colonies differed in queen and king number, in the number of nests containing reproductives, and in the genetic relationships among reproductives. Most of the 44 colonies contained a single pair of maternally unrelated reproductives. In the two single-nest colonies with a pair of queens, the two queens differed in mtDNA haplotype, suggesting nest-founding by unrelated queens. In the seven single-nest colonies with larger numbers of reproductives (11–49), all reproductives shared the same haplotype, a pattern consistent with replacement of a single pair by several offspring. As predicted by theory, the number of coexisting queens was greater for replacement reproductives than for co-foundresses. Several complex colonies contained multiple queens of two or more haplotypes distributed among several interconnected nests. This indicates that several matrilines can persist within a colony through one or more generations of budding and replacement, a hypothesis confirmed by orphaning experiments. The various modes of termite colony formation rival the diversity seen in ant species and demonstrate the remarkable convergence of behaviours between the two groups.

  19. Multiple paternity or multiple queens: two routes to greater intracolonial genetic diversity in the eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W; Oldroyd, B P

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the evolution of multiple mating by females (polyandry) is an important question in behavioural ecology. Most leading explanations for polyandry by social insect queens are based upon a postulated fitness benefit from increased intracolonial genetic diversity, which also arises when colonies are headed by multiple queens (polygyny). An indirect test of the genetic diversity hypotheses is therefore provided by the relationship between polyandry and polygyny across species, which should be negative if the genetic diversity hypotheses are correct. Here, we conduct a powerful comparative investigation of the relationship between polyandry and polygyny for 241 species of eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). We find a clear and significant negative relationship between polyandry and polygyny after controlling for phylogeny. These results strongly suggest that fitness benefits resulting from increased intracolonial genetic diversity have played an important role in the evolution of polyandry, and possibly polygyny, in social insects.

  20. On the evolutionary consequences of increasing litter size with multiple paternity in wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa).

    PubMed

    Gayet, Thibault; Devillard, Sébastien; Gamelon, Marlène; Brandt, Serge; Say, Ludovic; Baubet, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation, and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter at one reproductive event, may be associated with the retention of high genetic diversity and an increase of litter size. We tested these hypotheses by estimating the number of sires per litter based on a six-year long monitoring of a wild boar population subject to particularly high harvesting pressure. Our results show a high and stable genetic diversity and high rates of multiple paternity compared to other populations, thus depicting a promiscuous/polyandrous mating system in this population. We also show that litter size is positively linked to the number of sires, suggesting that multiple paternity increases fecundity. We finally discuss that multiple paternity may be one of the factors allowing rapid evolution of this population by maintaining both genetic and phenotypic diversity.

  1. Genetic relatedness does not retain spatial pattern across multiple spatial scales: dispersal and colonization in the coral, Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Gorospe, Kelvin D; Karl, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Patterns of isolation by distance are uncommon in coral populations. Here, we depart from historical trends of large-scale, geographical genetic analyses by scaling down to a single patch reef in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i, USA, and map and genotype all colonies of the coral, Pocillopora damicornis. Six polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to assess population genetic and clonal structure and to calculate individual colony pairwise relatedness values. Our results point to an inbred, highly clonal reef (between 53 and 116 clonal lineages of 2352 genotyped colonies) with a much skewed genet frequency distribution (over 70% of the reef was composed of just seven genotypes). Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed that corals found close together on the reef were more genetically related than corals further apart. Spatial genetic structure disappears, however, as spatial scale increases and then becomes negative at the largest distances. Stratified, random sampling of three neighbouring reefs confirms that reefs are demographically open and inter-reef genetic structuring was not detected. Attributing process to pattern in corals is complicated by their mixed reproductive strategies. Separate autocorrelation analyses, however, show that the spatial distribution of both clones and nonclones contributes to spatial genetic structure. Overall, we demonstrate genetic structure on an intrareef scale and genetic panmixia on an inter-reef scale indicating that, for P. damicornis, the effect of small- and large-scale dispersal processes on genetic diversity are not the same. By starting from an interindividual, intrareef level before scaling up to an inter-reef level, this study demonstrates that isolation-by-distance patterns for the coral P. damicornis are limited to small scales and highlights the importance of investigating genetic patterns and ecological processes at multiple scales.

  2. Male-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism, Resource Defense Polygyny, and Multiple Paternity in the Emei Moustache Toad (Leptobrachium boringii)

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Cameron M.; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10–16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories. PMID:23840725

  3. Multiple paternity and postcopulatory sexual selection in a hermaphrodite: what influences sperm precedence in the garden snail Helix aspersa?

    PubMed

    Evanno, Guillaume; Madec, Luc; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2005-03-01

    Sperm competition has been studied in many gonochoric animals but little is known about its occurrence in simultaneous hermaphrodites, especially in land snails. The reproductive behaviour of the land snail Helix aspersa involves several features, like multiple mating, long-term sperm storage and dart-shooting behaviour, which may promote sperm competition. Cryptic female choice may also occur through a spermatheca subdivided into tubules, which potentially allows compartmentalized sperm storage of successive mates. In order to determine the outcome of postcopulatory sexual selection in this species, we designed a cross-breeding experiment where a recipient ('female') mated with two sperm donors ('males'). Mates came from either the same population as the recipient or from a distinct one. To test for the influence a recipient can have on the paternity of its offspring, we excluded the effects of dart shooting by using only virgin snails as sperm donors because they do not shoot any dart before their first copulation. We measured the effects of size of mates as well as time to first and second mating on second mate sperm precedence (P2; established using microsatellite markers). Multiple paternity was detected in 62.5% of clutches and overall there was first-mate sperm precedence with a mean P2 of 0.24. Generalized linear modelling revealed that the best predictors of paternity were the time between matings and the time before first mating. Overall, both first and second mates that copulated quickly got greater parentage, which may suggest that postcopulatory events influence patterns of sperm precedence in the garden snail.

  4. High multiple paternity and low last-male sperm precedence in a hermaphroditic planarian flatworm: consequences for reciprocity patterns.

    PubMed

    Pongratz, N; Michiels, N K

    2003-06-01

    It is difficult to predict a priori how mating success translates into fertilization success in simultaneous hermaphrodites with internal fertilization. Whereas insemination decisions will be determined by male interests, fertilization will depend on female interests, possibly leading to discrepancies between insemination and fertilization patterns. The planarian flatworm Schmidtea polychroa, a simultaneous hermaphrodite in which mating partners trade sperm was studied. Sperm can be stored for months yet individuals mate frequently. Using microsatellites, maternity and paternity data were obtained from 748 offspring produced in six groups of 10 individuals during four weeks. Adults produced young from four mates on average. Reciprocal fertilization between two mates was found in only 41 out of 110 registered mate combinations, which is clearly less than what is predicted from insemination patterns. Multiple paternity was high: > 80% of all cocoons had two to five fathers for only three to five offspring per cocoon. Because animals were collected from a natural population, 28% of all hatchlings were sired by unknown sperm donors in the field, despite a 10-day period of acclimatization and within-group mating. This percentage decreased only moderately throughout the experiment, showing that sperm can be stored and used for at least a month, despite frequent mating and sperm digestion. The immediate paternity a sperm donor could expect to obtain was only about 25%. Male reproductive success increased linearly with the number of female partners, providing support for Bateman's principle in hermaphrodites. Our results suggest that hermaphrodites do not trade fertilizations when trading sperm during insemination, lending support to the view that such conditional sperm exchange is driven by exchange of resources.

  5. High frequency of multiple paternity in broods of a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence.

    PubMed

    Sefc, Kristina M; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2008-05-01

    In several animal taxa, genetic analyses have demonstrated that social monogamy and biparental brood care do not preclude polygamous reproduction. Few studies have been conducted in fish, but in fish species without alternative reproductive phenotypes, social monogamy was largely congruent with genetic parentage. In contrast to these findings, we report an exceptionally high level of multiple paternity in a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence (Variabilichromis moorii), inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial data of 10 broods. Whereas all offspring in a nest shared a common mother, each brood was sired by 2 to > 10 males. None of the inferred sires was assigned a large proportion of the brood. Paternity was estimated as the minimum number of sires required to explain multilocus offspring genotypes, and as the maximum-likelihood number of sires given population allele frequencies. Analysis of simulated brood genotypes suggested that, although these two methods tend to under- and overestimate, respectively, the true number of sires, primary sires with many offspring in a brood would have been detected. Hence, the genetic data indicate that the nest tending males suffer substantial cuckoldry and provide alloparental care for a large number of unrelated fry. We have no data on the social status of the cuckolding males, but due to synchronous spawning of pairs and commitment to brood care of paired males, it is possible that most of the parasitic spawners are solitary males.

  6. Fast versus slow larval growth in an invasive marine mollusc: does paternity matter?

    PubMed

    Le Cam, Sabrina; Pechenik, Jan A; Cagnon, Mathilde; Viard, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive strategies and parental effects play a major role in shaping early life-history traits. Although polyandry is a common reproductive strategy, its role is still poorly documented in relation to paternal effects. Here, we used as a case study the invasive sessile marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a mollusc with polyandry and extreme larval growth variation among sibling larvae. Based on paternity analyses, the relationships between paternal identity and the variations in a major early life-history trait in marine organisms, that is, larval growth, were investigated. Using microsatellite markers, paternities of 437 fast- and slow-growing larvae from 6 broods were reliably assigned to a set of 20 fathers. No particular fathers were found responsible for the specific growth performances of their offspring. However, the range of larval growth rates within a brood was significantly correlated to 1) an index of sire diversity and 2) the degree of larvae relatedness within broods. Multiple paternity could thus play an important role in determining the extent of pelagic larval duration and consequently the range of dispersal distances achieved during larval life. This study also highlighted the usefulness of using indices based on fathers' relative contribution to the progeny in paternity studies.

  7. Paternity in horseshoe crabs when spawning in multiple-male groups.

    PubMed

    Brockmann; Nguyen; Potts

    2000-12-01

    Unpaired or satellite male horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, are attracted to and often form a group around a pair (a female with an attached male) that is nesting in the high intertidal zone. These males are engaged in sperm competition. We observed nesting pairs and their associated satellites in the wild, collected and reared their eggs and used genetic markers to examine paternity. We found that the unpaired, satellite males are highly successful at fertilizing eggs; two satellites can leave the attached male with few fertilizations. Two satellites together are each as successful as one spawning with a pair. A satellite's location around the female greatly affects his success, and males compete for access to a position over the dorsal canal between the prosoma and opisthosoma of the female and under the front margin of the paired male where they are most likely to fertilize eggs. Although eggs and sperm retain their viability for some time after spawning, nearly all eggs are fertilized by the satellites that are around the nesting pair at the time of egg laying and by the attached male. A number of factors including beach current, female size and male behaviour affect the outcome of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  8. Paternity Outcomes in the Freshwater Gastropod, Chilina dombeiana in the Biobío River, Chile

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Studying the mating system of obligate aquatic organisms that inhabit river ecosystems is important for understanding its evolution as well as the role of biological and environmental factors in modulating population dynamics and species distributional patterns. Here, we studied the reproductive strategy of the Chilean endemic freshwater snail, Chilina dombeiana, in the Biobío River, one of the largest rivers in Chile. This species has a low potential for dispersal given the absence of a free-swimming larval stage (benthic larval development) and given that adults have a low capacity for mobility. We hypothesized that: 1. Females would mate with different males (polyandry) resulting in intrabrood multiple paternity, 2. Individuals from closer sites would be more related than individuals from distant sites, and 3. Male parental contributions would be unevenly distributed within broods. Individuals from three different sites were sampled along the river: upper, mid, and river mouth. In the laboratory, hatching juveniles from a total of 15 broods were collected for paternity analyses. We used microsatellite markers and the programs GERUD and COLONY to determine whether multiple paternity exists and to estimate the contribution of different males to the brood. We found that multiple paternity was very common at all of the sites analyzed with as many as 8 males fertilizing a single female and a mean of 4.2 fathers per brood estimated by COLONY. Sire contribution was skewed to particular males in several broods. In addition, overall relatedness among broods for the three sites ranged from 0.17 to 0.45 with evidence of many half-siblings. Relatedness differed among the three sites. Particularly in upstream sites or in anthropogenically disturbed populations, the high levels of multiple paternity observed in C. dombeiana may be an efficient strategy to avoid inbreeding and prevent the loss of genetic diversity within populations. PMID:28068418

  9. First analysis of multiple paternity in an oviparous shark, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula L.).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Andrew M; Jacoby, David M P; Casane, Didier; McHugh, Matthew; Croft, Darren P; Genner, Martin J; Sims, David W

    2012-01-01

    Multiple paternity (MP) has been demonstrated in a variety of sharks, although its prevalence and the number of sires per litter vary considerably among species. To date, such analyses have focused on viviparous species that possess only part of the wide spectrum of reproductive strategies developed in elasmobranchs. We analyzed MP in an oviparous species, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). In total, 150 neonates originating from 13 different mothers were genotyped using 12 microsatellite loci. MP was commonplace, with progeny from 92% of females sired by multiple males. This result is consistent with the reproductive biology of the species, particularly its protracted breeding season and potential for long-term sperm storage. The significance of these findings is discussed in light of small-spotted catshark behavior, which suggests that the cost of avoiding mating attempts initiated by males may be high and is therefore supportive of convenience polyandry as an explanation for MP. Eggs were followed from the time they were laid to when they hatched, offering a rare opportunity to investigate juvenile development in more detail.

  10. Geographic variation in sperm traits reflects predation risk and natural rates of multiple paternity in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Elgee, K E; Evans, J P; Ramnarine, I W; Rush, S A; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2010-06-01

    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are models for understanding the interplay between natural and sexual selection. In particular, predation has been implicated as a major force affecting female sexual preferences, male mating tactics and the level of sperm competition. When predation is high, females typically reduce their preferences for showy males and engage more in antipredator behaviours, whereas males exploit these changes by switching from sexual displays to forced matings. These patterns are thought to account for the relatively high levels of multiple paternity in high-predation populations compared to low-predation populations. Here, we assess the possible evolutionary consequences of these patterns by asking whether variation in sperm traits reflect differences in predation intensity among four pairs of Trinidadian populations: four that experience relatively low levels of predation from a gape-limited predator and four that experience relatively high levels of predation from a variety of piscivores. We found that males in high-predation populations had faster swimming sperm with longer midpieces compared to males in low-predation populations. However, we found no differences among males in high- and low-predation populations with respect to sperm number, sperm head length, flagellum length and total sperm length.

  11. Same school, different conduct: rates of multiple paternity vary within a mixed-species breeding school of semi-pelagic cichlid fish (Cyprichromis spp.).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Caleb; Werdenig, Alexandra; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M

    2016-01-01

    Mating system variability is known to exist between and within species, often due to environmental influences. An open question is whether, vice versa, similar environmental conditions entail congruent mating behavior, for example in terms of multiple paternity, in species or populations sharing largely comparable breeding modes. This study employed microsatellite markers to investigate the incidence of multiple paternity in Cyprichromis coloratus and Cyprichromis leptosoma, two sympatric, closely related, mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with similar ecological and behavioral characteristics including the formation of open-water schools. Mouthbrooding females of both species were collected from the same mixed-species breeding school at the same time, minimizing environmental variation during courtship and mating. In C. coloratus, four of 12 broods had more than one sire, with a mean of 1.33 reconstructed sires per brood. C. leptosoma exhibited multiple paternity in 18 of 22 broods, with a mean of 2.59 or 2.86 reconstructed sires per brood according to the programs gerud and colony, respectively. In addition, two broods were found to contain offspring transplanted from another brood. There was no significant difference in brood size between species, but mean sire number did differ significantly. Hence, substantial similarity in reproductive behavior along with shared environmental conditions during courtship and spawning did not lead to equal rates of polyandry or sneaking in the two species.

  12. Brood mixing and reduced polyandry in a maternally mouthbrooding cichlid with elevated among-breeder relatedness.

    PubMed

    Sefc, Kristina M; Hermann, Caroline M; Taborsky, Barbara; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Uniparental maternal brood care often coincides with multiple paternity and single maternity of broods, possibly reflecting benefits of polyandry and costs of uniparental care. Genetic data from the maternally mouthbrooding cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus revealed the opposite pattern--low polyandry and allomaternal care. More than 70% of the investigated females had mated with a single male, and 14% of the females had unrelated fry in their broods. Broods with foreign fry were in the late stage of brood care, in which females guard free-swimming fry and recall the broods into their mouths for protection. With one exception, fostering females were related to their adopted fry at the level of first cousins (R(QG) > 0.12), but relatedness between fosters and adopted fry was not significantly higher than between fosters and fry tended by other females. Relatedness among breeders extended to the level of first-order relatives. Mean relatedness among contemporaneously breeding dams (R(QG) = 0.08) was significantly higher than among dams breeding in different seasons (R(QG) = -0.04), which suggests a temporal or spatial concentration of mouthbrooding relatives. Indeed, females sometimes brood in small groups. This behaviour may reduce brood predation but will increase the risk of brood mixing, which is possibly mitigated by low costs of brood care and indirect benefits accrued by relatedness among the breeders in the group. Remarkably, the apparent inbreeding potential did not give rise to bet-hedging polyandry or active avoidance of relatives, as half of the mated individuals were related at R(QG)  > 0.13 and polyandry did not coincide with high within-pair relatedness. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Visual Phenotype Matching: Cues to Paternity Are Present in Rhesus Macaque Faces

    PubMed Central

    Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Widdig, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize kin and thus behaviourally discriminate between conspecifics based on genetic relatedness is of importance both in acquiring inclusive fitness benefits and to enable optimal inbreeding. In primates, mechanisms allowing recognition of paternal relatives are of particular interest, given that in these mating systems patrilineal information is unlikely to be available via social familiarity. Humans use visual phenotype matching based on facial features to identify their own and other's close relatives, and recent studies suggest similar abilities may be present in other species. However it is unclear to what extent familial resemblances remain detectable against the background levels of relatedness typically found within demes in the wild – a necessary condition if facial cues are to function in kin recognition under natural conditions. Here, we experimentally investigate whether parent-offspring relationships are discernible in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) faces drawn from a large free-ranging population more representative of the latter scenario, and in which genetic relatedness has been well quantified from pedigrees determined via molecular markers. We used the human visual system as a means of integrating multiple types of facial cue simultaneously, and demonstrate that paternal, as well as maternal, resemblance to both sons and daughters can be detected even by human observers. Experts performed better than participants who lacked previous experience working with nonhuman primates. However the finding that even naïve individuals succeeded at the task underlines the strength of the phenotypic cues present in faces. PMID:23451032

  14. High degree of multiple paternity in the viviparous Shiner Perch, Cymatogaster aggregata, a fish with long-term female sperm storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Xian; Avise, John C

    2011-01-01

    The Shiner Perch (Cymatogaster aggregata Gibbons) exhibits a viviparous reproductive mode and long-term female sperm storage, two biological features that may predispose this fish species for both intense sperm competition and frequent multiple paternity within broods. To test these hypotheses, we used polymorphic microsatellite markers to identify sires and quantify paternal contributions to the progeny arrays of 27 pregnant females from a natural population of C. aggregata. The number of sires per brood ranged from one to eight (mean 4.6), typically with skewed distributions of fertilization success by the fathers but no correlation between sire number and brood size. The extraordinarily high incidences of multiple paternity in this species probably are due in part to high rates of mate encounter, but selection pressures related to the avoidance of maternal-fetal incompatibility may further have promoted the evolution of polyandrous mating behaviors in this female-pregnant species. Our genetic data are consistent with the hypothesis that viviparity, long-term sperm storage, and extreme polyandry are interrelated reproductive phenomena that should promote the evolution of post-copulatory sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice in these fishes.

  15. Paternal therapy with disease modifying drugs in multiple sclerosis and pregnancy outcomes: a prospective observational multicentric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients undergo disease modifying drug (DMD) therapy at childbearing age. The objective of this prospective, collaborative study, was to assess outcomes of pregnancies fathered by MS patients undergoing DMD. Methods Structured interviews on pregnancies fathered by MS patients gathered in the Italian Pregnancy Dataset were collected; pregnancies were divided according to father exposure or unexposure to DMD at time of procreation. Treatment were compared with multivariable logistic and linear models. Results Seventy-eight pregnancies fathered by MS patients were tracked. Forty-five patients were taking DMD at time of conception (39 beta-interferons, 6 glatiramer acetate), while 33 pregnancies were unexposed to DMD. Seventy-five pregnancies ended in live-births, 44 in the exposed and 31 in the unexposed group. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the risk of spontaneous abortion or malformations (p > 0.454), mean gestational age (p = 0.513), frequency of cesarean delivery (p = 0.644), birth weight (p = 0.821) and birth length (p = 0.649). In comparison with data of the Italian general population, the proportion of spontaneous abortion and caesarean delivery in exposed pregnancies fell within the estimates, while the proportion of pre-term delivery in the exposed group was higher than expected. Conclusions Our data indicate no association between paternal DMD exposure at time of conception and risk of spontaneous abortion, adverse fetal outcomes and congenital malformations. Further studies clarifying the role of DMD fathers intake prior and during pregnancy are desirable, to supply guidelines for clinical practice. PMID:24884599

  16. Towards a Family Process Model of Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms: Exploring Multiple Relations with Child and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy S.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has focused on maternal dysphoria and child adjustment. However, family process models indicate gaps in the study of paternal dysphoria, broader family functioning, and diverse child outcomes. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers and fathers of kindergarten children completed measures of depressive symptoms, family…

  17. Towards a Family Process Model of Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms: Exploring Multiple Relations with Child and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy S.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has focused on maternal dysphoria and child adjustment. However, family process models indicate gaps in the study of paternal dysphoria, broader family functioning, and diverse child outcomes. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers and fathers of kindergarten children completed measures of depressive symptoms, family…

  18. Multiple paternity is a shared reproductive strategy in the live-bearing surfperches (Embiotocidae) that may be associated with female fitness

    PubMed Central

    LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D

    2014-01-01

    According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including samples from a broader range of reproductive size classes, we found evidence of a Bateman gradient in two surfperch species from distinct embiotocid clades. Using microsatellite analyses, we found that 100% of the spotfin surfperch families sampled exhibit multiple paternity (Hyperprosopon anale, the basal taxon from the only clade that has not previously been investigated) indicating that this tactic is a shared reproductive strategy among surfperches. Further, we detected evidence for a Bateman gradient in H. anale; however, this result was not significant after correction for biases. Similarly, we found evidence for multiple paternity in 83% of the shiner surfperch families (Cymatogaster aggregata) sampled. When we combine these data with a previous study on the same species, representing a larger range of reproductive size classes and associated brood sizes, we detect a Bateman gradient in shiner surfperch for the first time that remains significant after several conservative tests for bias correction. These results indicate that sexual selection is likely complex in this system, with the potential for conflicting optima between sexes, and imply a positive shift in fertility (i.e., increasing number) and reproductive tactic with respect to the mating system and number of sires throughout the reproductive life history of females. We argue that the complex reproductive natural history of surfperches is characterized by several traits that may be associated with cryptic female

  19. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ginsberg, Joshua R.; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578

  20. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  1. Multiple Influences of Semantic Memory on Sentence Processing: Distinct Effects of Semantic Relatedness on Violations of Real-World Event/State Knowledge and Animacy Selection Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb’s broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related potentials on post-verbal Agent arguments as participants read and made plausibility judgments about passive English sentences. The N400 evoked by incoming animate Agent arguments that violated expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, was strongly attenuated when they were semantically related to the context. In contrast, semantic relatedness did not modulate the N400 evoked by inanimate Agent arguments that violated the preceding verb’s animacy selection restrictions. These findings suggest that, under these task and experimental conditions, semantic relatedness can facilitate processing of post-verbal animate arguments that violate specific expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, but only when the semantic features of these arguments match the coarser-grained animacy restrictions of the verb. Animacy selection restriction violations also evoked a P600 effect, which was not modulated by semantic relatedness, suggesting that it was triggered by propositional impossibility. Together, these data indicate that the brain distinguishes between real-world event/state knowledge and animacy-based selection restrictions during online processing. PMID:23284226

  2. Multiple Influences of Semantic Memory on Sentence Processing: Distinct Effects of Semantic Relatedness on Violations of Real-World Event/State Knowledge and Animacy Selection Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2012-11-01

    We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb's broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related potentials on post-verbal Agent arguments as participants read and made plausibility judgments about passive English sentences. The N400 evoked by incoming animate Agent arguments that violated expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, was strongly attenuated when they were semantically related to the context. In contrast, semantic relatedness did not modulate the N400 evoked by inanimate Agent arguments that violated the preceding verb's animacy selection restrictions. These findings suggest that, under these task and experimental conditions, semantic relatedness can facilitate processing of post-verbal animate arguments that violate specific expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, but only when the semantic features of these arguments match the coarser-grained animacy restrictions of the verb. Animacy selection restriction violations also evoked a P600 effect, which was not modulated by semantic relatedness, suggesting that it was triggered by propositional impossibility. Together, these data indicate that the brain distinguishes between real-world event/state knowledge and animacy-based selection restrictions during online processing.

  3. Multiple Influences of Semantic Memory on Sentence Processing: Distinct Effects of Semantic Relatedness on Violations of Real-World Event/State Knowledge and Animacy Selection Restrictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb's broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related…

  4. Relationship of the estrogen surge and multiple mates to cub paternity in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): implications for optimal timing of copulation or artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Wildt, David E; Hull, Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of ex situ breeding programs for endangered species can be limited by challenges in mimicking mating competitions that naturally occur among multiple mates in the wild. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of timed natural matings and/or artificial inseminations in the context of the urinary estrogen surge on cub production in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We used a large cohort of giant pandas, including 12 females and 17 males. DNA paternity exclusion was used to pinpoint accurately the interval during the estrogen surge that coincided with the ideal sperm deposition time to produce offspring. Of the 31 cubs (in 19 pregnancies), 22 (71.0%; 15 pregnancies) were produced from matings occurring on the day of or the day after the maximal urinary estrogen peak. Sixteen of the 19 pregnancies (84.2%) produced at least one offspring sired by the first male mating with the dam. There was a preponderance of twins (12 of 19; 63.2%), and dual paternities were discovered in 3 of 12 twin sets (25%). These findings indicate a strong relationship between the excreted estrogen surge and sperm deposition to achieve pregnancy in the giant panda. To ensure the production of the most genetically diverse young, it is imperative that the most appropriate male mate first and on the day of or the day after the highest detected estrogen value. There is no advantage to increasing the number of copulations or mating partners within 1 day of the estrogen peak on the incidence of twinning, although this practice may increase the prevalence of dual paternity in cases of multiple births.

  5. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring.

    PubMed

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother-offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection.

  6. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911

  7. Reconfiguring Relatedness in Anorexia.

    PubMed

    Warin, Megan J

    2006-04-01

    Anthropological concepts of relatedness have not been addressed in any of the writings on anorexia, despite the literature being replete with negative connotations of sociality such as withdrawal, regression, and toxic families (in the form of 'obsessive mothers' or 'absent fathers'). As a departure to the vast literature on this topic, this multi-sited ethnographic project draws on the recent critiques and broadening of the concept of kinship to examine the ways in which a group of people with a diagnosis of anorexia understood and experienced relatedness in their everyday lives, that is, how they continually transformed connections by truncating, creating, sustaining and abandoning them. Those practices that are taken for granted as creating and sustaining relatedness-from the everyday practices of commensality to the capacity to have children-were consistently negated. Negating consensual avenues of relatedness did not leave these people in a void. On the contrary, new and productive meanings and experiences of being related were created and people entered into a relationship with anorexia that, in turn, tempered their relationships with their everyday worlds. In examining the 'relational matrix' of anorexia, new spaces of agency, ambiguity and power are illuminated.

  8. Relating paternity to paternal care.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Intuition suggests, to most people, that parents should be selected to care for their offspring in relation to how certain they are of being the parents of those offspring. Theoretical models of the relationship between parental investment and certainty of parentage predict the two to be related only when some other assumptions are made, few of which can be taken for granted. I briefly review the models and their assumptions, and discuss two kinds of difficulty facing an empiricist wishing to test the models. The first is the problem of unmeasured (and immeasurable) variables. The second is the problem that even the most extensive models do not capture the complexity that can be demonstrated in real systems. I illustrate some of these problems, and some qualitative tests of the models, with experimental work on a population of the collared flycatcher. My conclusion is that although there are some cases where the models have qualitative support, we are a long way from understanding whether paternal care is commonly adjusted in relation to certainty of paternity. PMID:11958702

  9. A Hierarchical Multiple-Level Approach to the Assessment of Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition: Implications for Research, Clinical Practice, and DSM Planning.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2016-01-01

    Extant research suggests there is considerable overlap between so-called 2-polarities models of personality development; that is, models that propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between 2 key developmental tasks across the life span-the development of self-definition on the one hand and of relatedness on the other. These models have attracted considerable research attention and play a central role in DSM planning. This article provides a researcher- and clinician-friendly guide to the assessment of these personality theories. We argue that current theoretical models focus on issues of relatedness and self-definition at different hierarchically organized levels of analysis; that is (a) at the level of broad personality features, (b) at the motivational level (i.e., the motivational processes underlying the development of these dimensions), and (c) at the level of underlying internal working models or cognitive affective schemas, and the specific interpersonal features and problems in which they are expressed. Implications for further research and DSM planning are outlined.

  10. A genetic analysis of the Virginia opossum mating system: evidence of multiple paternity in a highly fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James C; Beatty, William S; Olson, Zachary H; Rhodes, Olin E

    2010-01-01

    Using molecular techniques, we examined patterns of paternity in Virginia opossums occupying a highly fragmented agricultural landscape in northern Indiana. During 2008, we collected tissue from 64 females and their pouch young in 34 forest patches distributed over a 1100-km(2) region. Using genotypes from 10 microsatellite loci, we determined the minimum number of fathers contributing to each litter using GERUD 1.0. Genotyped offspring with known mothers were then analyzed using CERVUS 3.0, incorporating genotypes from 317 males sampled from 2007-2008 to identify potential fathers. Our analyses revealed that promiscuity was common among females, with 26 (41%) litters having > or = 2 sires. Despite the fact that we intensively sampled forest patches for potential fathers, we only were able to identify 13 fathers contributing to 14 litters, with an average Euclidean distance of 18.7 km between father-offspring pairs found in disparate patches (N = 6). Our inability to identify most (85%) fathers of sampled litters, coupled with the extensive distances observed between putative father-offspring pairs, suggests that opossums may not maintain explicit home ranges in highly fragmented landscapes.

  11. Genetic diversity does not explain variation in extra-pair paternity in multiple populations of a songbird.

    PubMed

    Liu, I A; Johndrow, J E; Abe, J; Lüpold, S; Yasukawa, K; Westneat, D F; Nowicki, S

    2015-05-01

    Many songbirds are socially monogamous but genetically polyandrous, mating with individuals outside their pair bonds. Extra-pair paternity (EPP) varies within and across species, but reasons for this variation remain unclear. One possible source of variation is population genetic diversity, which has been shown in interspecific meta-analyses to correlate with EPP but which has limited support from intraspecific tests. Using eight populations of the genetically polyandrous red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), including an island population, we investigated whether population-level differences in genetic diversity led to differences in EPP. We first measured genetic diversity over 10 microsatellite loci and found, as predicted, low genetic diversity in the island population. Additional structure analyses with multilocus genotypes and mtDNA showed the island population to be distinct from the continental populations. However, the island population's EPP rate fell in the middle of the continental populations' distribution, whereas the continental populations themselves showed significant variation in EPP. This result suggests that genetic diversity by itself is not a predictor of EPP rate. We discuss reasons for the departure from previous results, including hypotheses for EPP that do not solely implicate female-driven behaviour. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Flying the nest: male dispersal and multiple paternity enables extrafamilial matings for the invasive bark beetle Dendroctonus micans.

    PubMed

    Fraser, C I; Brahy, O; Mardulyn, P; Dohet, L; Mayer, F; Grégoire, J-C

    2014-10-01

    There is an evolutionary trade-off between the resources that a species invests in dispersal versus those invested in reproduction. For many insects, reproductive success in patchily-distributed species can be improved by sibling-mating. In many cases, such strategies correspond to sexual dimorphism, with males-whose reproductive activities can take place without dispersal-investing less energy in development of dispersive resources such as large body size and wings. This dimorphism is particularly likely when males have little or no chance of mating outside their place of birth, such as when sperm competition precludes successful fertilisation in females that have already mated. The economically important bark beetle pest species Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) has been considered to be exclusively sibling-mating, with 90% of females having already mated with their brothers by emergence. The species does not, however, show strong sexual dimorphism; males closely resemble females, and have been observed flying through forests. We hypothesised that this lack of sexual dimorphism indicates that male D. micans are able to mate with unrelated females, and to sire some or all of their offspring, permitting extrafamilial reproduction. Using novel microsatellite markers, we carried out cross-breeding laboratory experiments and conducted paternity analyses of resulting offspring. Our results demonstrate that a second mating with a less-related male can indeed lead to some offspring being sired by the latecomer, but that most are sired by the first, sibling male. We discuss these findings in the context of sperm competition versus possible outbreeding depression.

  13. Flying the nest: male dispersal and multiple paternity enables extrafamilial matings for the invasive bark beetle Dendroctonus micans

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, C I; Brahy, O; Mardulyn, P; Dohet, L; Mayer, F; Grégoire, J-C

    2014-01-01

    There is an evolutionary trade-off between the resources that a species invests in dispersal versus those invested in reproduction. For many insects, reproductive success in patchily-distributed species can be improved by sibling-mating. In many cases, such strategies correspond to sexual dimorphism, with males–whose reproductive activities can take place without dispersal–investing less energy in development of dispersive resources such as large body size and wings. This dimorphism is particularly likely when males have little or no chance of mating outside their place of birth, such as when sperm competition precludes successful fertilisation in females that have already mated. The economically important bark beetle pest species Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) has been considered to be exclusively sibling-mating, with 90% of females having already mated with their brothers by emergence. The species does not, however, show strong sexual dimorphism; males closely resemble females, and have been observed flying through forests. We hypothesised that this lack of sexual dimorphism indicates that male D. micans are able to mate with unrelated females, and to sire some or all of their offspring, permitting extrafamilial reproduction. Using novel microsatellite markers, we carried out cross-breeding laboratory experiments and conducted paternity analyses of resulting offspring. Our results demonstrate that a second mating with a less-related male can indeed lead to some offspring being sired by the latecomer, but that most are sired by the first, sibling male. We discuss these findings in the context of sperm competition versus possible outbreeding depression. PMID:24736784

  14. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  15. Dynamic adjustment of parental care in response to perceived paternity.

    PubMed

    Neff, B D; Gross, M R

    2001-08-07

    Theories of parental care evolution predict that genetic relatedness will be an important variable in the amount of care a parent provides. However, current inferences of relatedness-based parental investment from studies in humans and birds remain challenged. No study has yet demonstrated parental care adjustment in a manner uncomplicated by life-history correlates or experimental design. We now present a unique test that controls for individual life histories and demonstrates paternity-related dynamic adjustments in parental care. Brood-rearing male bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) that are cuckolded to a varying degree will either increase or decrease their parental investment in response to changing information on paternity during brood development. Specifically, as parental males detect paternity lost to cuckolders and, hence, a reduction in the value of their brood, they adaptively lower their level of parental care. Conversely, if they detect that their paternity is higher than previously assessed, they adaptively raise their level of parental care. This dynamic adjustment during brood rearing indicates the importance of genetic relatedness in parental investment decisions and provides needed empirical support for theoretical predictions.

  16. Epigenetics and the origins of paternal effects.

    PubMed

    Curley, James P; Mashoodh, Rahia; Champagne, Frances A

    2011-03-01

    Though there are multiple routes through which parents can influence their offspring, recent studies of environmentally induced epigenetic variation have highlighted the role of non-genomic pathways. In addition to the experience-dependent modification of DNA methylation that can be achieved via mother-infant interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which paternal influences on offspring development can be achieved. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that paternal nutritional and toxicological exposures as well as paternal age and phenotypic variation can lead to variations in offspring and, in some cases, grand-offspring development. These findings suggest a potential epigenetic germline inheritance of paternal effects. However, it may be important to consider the interplay between maternal and paternal influences as well as the experimental dissociation between experience-dependent and germline transmission when exploring the role of epigenetic variation within the germline as a mediator of these effects. In this review, we will explore these issues, with a particular focus on the potential role of paternally induced maternal investment, highlight the literature illustrating the transgenerational impact of paternal experiences, and discuss the evidence supporting the role of epigenetic mechanisms in maintaining paternal effects both within and across generations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Karl P; Jorgensen, Tove H; Jolliffe, Kevin G; Jolliffe, San-Marie; Henwood, Jock; Richardson, David S

    2013-04-01

    Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses of genetic biases to paternity in one such species, the critically endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. In the majority of females (90.7%, N = 43), all offspring were sired by a single male. In the few cases of multiple paternity (9.3%), two males fertilized each female. Importantly, the identity and proportional fertilization success of males were consistent across all sequential nests laid by individual females over the breeding season (up to five nests over 75 days). No males were identified as having fertilized more than one female, suggesting that a large number of males are available to females. No evidence for biases to paternity based on heterozygosity or relatedness was found. These results indicate that female hawksbill turtles are predominantly monogamous within a season, store sperm for the duration of the nesting season and do not re-mate between nests. Furthermore, females do not appear to be using sperm storage to facilitate sexual selection. Consequently, the primary value of storing sperm in marine turtles may be to uncouple mating and fertilization in time and avoid costly re-mating.

  18. The NR-6: a new brief measure of nature relatedness.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K; Zelenski, John M

    2013-01-01

    The construct of (dis)connection with nature or "nature relatedness" has become increasingly useful in the study of environmental behavior as well as psychological health and well-being. Strong nature relatedness is associated with greater happiness and ecologically sustainable behavior. A number of scales reliably assess individual differences in nature relatedness, but some circumstances may necessitate a brief measure. We developed a short-form version of the nature relatedness scale (NR-6), comprised of 6 items from the "self" and "experience" dimensions, and tested the new scale's predictive ability across multiple samples and with longitudinal data in students, community members, and business people. The new NR-6 scale demonstrated good internal consistency, temporal stability, and predicted happiness, environmental concern, and nature contact. This new brief measure of connectedness may have advantages where time and space are limited and the research context requires an assessment of connectedness elements rather than environmental attitudes.

  19. Relatedness, Conflict, and the Evolution of Eusociality

    PubMed Central

    Queller, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise. PMID:25799485

  20. Relatedness, conflict, and the evolution of eusociality.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyun; Rong, Stephen; Queller, David C

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise.

  1. Reconsidering paternalism in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2017-08-30

    The ethical standards that regulate clinical research have multiple rationales. Among them is the need to protect potential subjects from making imprudent decisions, which extends beyond the soft paternalistic concern to protect people from making uninformed decisions to participate in trials. This article argues that a plausible risk/benefit restriction on clinical trials is presumptively justified by hard paternalism, which in turn is supported by a deeper fairness-based rationale. This presumptive case for hard paternalism in research is not defeated by the alleged right to participate in clinical trials, by concerns about insult or status, by the need to conduct early phase trials that promise little to no benefit to participants, or by the recognition that some potential subjects are altruistically motivated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  3. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  4. Relatedness and social organization of coypus in the Argentinean pampas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  5. Paternity and inheritance of wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, John

    1981-06-01

    One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

  6. Paternity fraud and compensation for misattributed paternity.

    PubMed

    Draper, Heather

    2007-08-01

    Claims for reimbursement of child support, the reversal of property settlements and compensation can arise when misattributed paternity is discovered. The ethical justifications for such claims seem to be related to the financial cost of bringing up children, the absence of choice about taking on these expenses, the hard work involved in child rearing, the emotional attachments that are formed with children, the obligation of women to make truthful claims about paternity, and the deception involved in infidelity. In this paper it is argued that there should not be compensation for infidelity and that reimbursement is appropriate where the claimant has made child support payments but has not taken on the social role of father. Where the claimant's behaviour suggests a social view of fatherhood, on the other hand, claims for compensation are less coherent. Where the genetic model of fatherhood dominates, the "other" man (the woman's lover and progenitor of the children) might also have a claim for the loss of the benefits of fatherhood. It is concluded that claims for reimbursement and compensation in cases of misattributed paternity produce the same distorted and thin view of what it means to be a father that paternity testing assumes, and underscores a trend that is not in the interests of children.

  7. Paternity fraud and compensation for misattributed paternity

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Claims for reimbursement of child support, the reversal of property settlements and compensation can arise when misattributed paternity is discovered. The ethical justifications for such claims seem to be related to the financial cost of bringing up children, the absence of choice about taking on these expenses, the hard work involved in child rearing, the emotional attachments that are formed with children, the obligation of women to make truthful claims about paternity, and the deception involved in infidelity. In this paper it is argued that there should not be compensation for infidelity and that reimbursement is appropriate where the claimant has made child support payments but has not taken on the social role of father. Where the claimant's behaviour suggests a social view of fatherhood, on the other hand, claims for compensation are less coherent. Where the genetic model of fatherhood dominates, the “other” man (the woman's lover and progenitor of the children) might also have a claim for the loss of the benefits of fatherhood. It is concluded that claims for reimbursement and compensation in cases of misattributed paternity produce the same distorted and thin view of what it means to be a father that paternity testing assumes, and underscores a trend that is not in the interests of children. PMID:17664309

  8. Does the Structure of Female Rhesus Macaque Coo Calls Reflect Relatedness and/or Familiarity?

    PubMed Central

    Mundry, Roger; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Fischer, Julia; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, kin relations strongly shape the social structure of a group. In female-bonded species, maternal relatedness is likely to be mediated via familiarity, but evidence is accumulating that non-human primates are able to recognize kin that they are not familiar with and adjust their behavior accordingly. In playback experiments, female rhesus macaques showed increased interest in ‘coo’ calls produced by unfamiliar paternal half-sisters compared to ‘coo’ calls produced by unfamiliar unrelated females, suggesting that these calls should have some common structural characteristics that facilitate the discrimination of kin from non-kin. Here we analyzed ‘coo’ calls of 67 adult female rhesus macaques from four groups and seven matrilines living on the island of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico). We tested whether the call structure of closely maternal and/or paternal related females, as determined from extensive pedigree data, differed from the call structure of unrelated females, while controlling for familiarity (i.e., group-matrilineal membership and age difference) of subjects. In contrast to our expectation, kinship did not predict similarities in ‘coo’ call structure, whereas ‘coo’ structure was more similar when produced by females of similar age as well as by females with higher familiarity, suggesting that experience is more decisive than genetic background. The high number of individuals in the analysis and the high accuracy of the assignment of calls to individuals render a lack of power as an unlikely explanation. Thus, based on the results of this study, kin recognition in rhesus monkeys does neither appear to be based on the assessment of self-similarity, nor on the comparison among related subjects (i.e., acoustic phenotype matching), but appears to be mediated by different or multiple cues. Furthermore, the results support the notion that frequent social interactions result in increasing acoustic similarity within largely

  9. Paternal nicotine exposure alters hepatic xenobiotic metabolism in offspring.

    PubMed

    Vallaster, Markus P; Kukreja, Shweta; Bing, Xin Y; Ngolab, Jennifer; Zhao-Shea, Rubing; Gardner, Paul D; Tapper, Andrew R; Rando, Oliver J

    2017-02-14

    Paternal environmental conditions can influence phenotypes in future generations, but it is unclear whether offspring phenotypes represent specific responses to particular aspects of the paternal exposure history, or a generic response to paternal 'quality of life'. Here, we establish a paternal effect model based on nicotine exposure in mice, enabling pharmacological interrogation of the specificity of the offspring response. Paternal exposure to nicotine prior to reproduction induced a broad protective response to multiple xenobiotics in male offspring. This effect manifested as increased survival following injection of toxic levels of either nicotine or cocaine, accompanied by hepatic upregulation of xenobiotic processing genes, and enhanced drug clearance. Surprisingly, this protective effect could also be induced by a nicotinic receptor antagonist, suggesting that xenobiotic exposure, rather than nicotinic receptor signaling, is responsible for programming offspring drug resistance. Thus, paternal drug exposure induces a protective phenotype in offspring by enhancing metabolic tolerance to xenobiotics.

  10. Relatedness communicated in lemur scent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Hayes, R. Andrew; Nahrung, Helen F.; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Harelimana, Innocent H.; MacDonald, Laura J.; Wright, Patricia C.

    2013-08-01

    Lemurs are the most olfactory-oriented of primates, yet there is still only a basic level of understanding of what their scent marks communicate. We analyzed scent secretions from Milne-Edwards' sifakas ( Propithecus edwardsi) collected in their natural habitat of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We sought to test whether the scent mark could signal genetic relatedness in addition to species, sex, season, and individuality. We not only found correlations ( r 2 = 0.38, P = 0.017) between the total olfactory fingerprint and genetic relatedness but also between relatedness and specific components of the odor, despite the complex environmental signals from differences in diet and behavior in a natural setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an association between genetic relatedness and chemical communication in a wild primate population. Furthermore, we found a variety of compounds that were specific to each sex and each sampling period. This research shows that scent marks could act as a remote signal to avoid inbreeding, optimize mating opportunities, and potentially aid kin selection.

  11. Relatedness communicated in lemur scent.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Hayes, R Andrew; Nahrung, Helen F; Goodwin, Thomas E; Harelimana, Innocent H; Macdonald, Laura J; Wright, Patricia C

    2013-08-01

    Lemurs are the most olfactory-oriented of primates, yet there is still only a basic level of understanding of what their scent marks communicate. We analyzed scent secretions from Milne-Edwards' sifakas (Propithecus edwardsi) collected in their natural habitat of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We sought to test whether the scent mark could signal genetic relatedness in addition to species, sex, season, and individuality. We not only found correlations (r (2) = 0.38, P = 0.017) between the total olfactory fingerprint and genetic relatedness but also between relatedness and specific components of the odor, despite the complex environmental signals from differences in diet and behavior in a natural setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an association between genetic relatedness and chemical communication in a wild primate population. Furthermore, we found a variety of compounds that were specific to each sex and each sampling period. This research shows that scent marks could act as a remote signal to avoid inbreeding, optimize mating opportunities, and potentially aid kin selection.

  12. Paternal epigenetic programming: evolving metabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Hur, Suzy S J; Cropley, Jennifer E; Suter, Catherine M

    2017-04-01

    Parental health or exposures can affect the lifetime health outcomes of offspring, independently of inherited genotypes. Such 'epigenetic' effects occur over a broad range of environmental stressors, including defects in parental metabolism. Although maternal metabolic effects are well documented, it has only recently been established that that there is also an independent paternal contribution to long-term metabolic health. Both paternal undernutrition and overnutrition can induce metabolic phenotypes in immediate offspring, and in some cases, the induced phenotype can affect multiple generations, implying inheritance of an acquired trait. The male lineage transmission of metabolic disease risk in these cases implicates a heritable factor carried by sperm. Sperm-based transmission provides a tractable system to interrogate heritable epigenetic factors influencing metabolism, and as detailed here, animal models of paternal programming have already provided some significant insights. Here, we review the evidence for paternal programming of metabolism in humans and animal models, and the available evidence on potential underlying mechanisms. Programming by paternal metabolism can be observed in multiple species across animal phyla, suggesting that this phenomenon may have a unique evolutionary significance.

  13. The NR-6: a new brief measure of nature relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The construct of (dis)connection with nature or “nature relatedness” has become increasingly useful in the study of environmental behavior as well as psychological health and well-being. Strong nature relatedness is associated with greater happiness and ecologically sustainable behavior. A number of scales reliably assess individual differences in nature relatedness, but some circumstances may necessitate a brief measure. We developed a short-form version of the nature relatedness scale (NR-6), comprised of 6 items from the “self” and “experience” dimensions, and tested the new scale's predictive ability across multiple samples and with longitudinal data in students, community members, and business people. The new NR-6 scale demonstrated good internal consistency, temporal stability, and predicted happiness, environmental concern, and nature contact. This new brief measure of connectedness may have advantages where time and space are limited and the research context requires an assessment of connectedness elements rather than environmental attitudes. PMID:24198806

  14. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Charlie D.; Hodgson, David J.; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K.; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G. F.

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  15. Decisions about parental care in response to perceived paternity.

    PubMed

    Neff, Bryan D

    2003-04-17

    Evolutionary ecologists are attempting to explain how parents make behavioural decisions about how much care to provide to their young. Theory predicts that when genetic relatedness to young is decreased by cuckoldry, for example, parents should reduce their care in favour of alternative broods that provide greater reproductive success. Experimental manipulation of perceived paternity has been used to test the theory, but such studies have generated mixed results. Some manipulations can fail to alter a parent's perceived paternity, whereas others may directly affect parental behaviour when, for instance, the manipulation involves capturing the parent. No study has demonstrated parental care adjustment in a manner uncomplicated by experimental design or life history correlates. Here I test the theory using the fact that nest-tending parental male bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) can assess their paternity using both the visual presence of parasitic cuckolder males during spawning, and olfactory cues released by newly hatched eggs. By manipulating both types of cues I show that parental males dynamically adjust their parental care, favouring broods that are apparently most closely related. These results confirm the importance of genetic relatedness in parental care decision-making.

  16. Multiple dimensions of relatedness among words

    PubMed Central

    Pastizzo, Matthew John; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2010-01-01

    Words can be similar with respect to form (viz., spelling, pronunciation), meaning, or both form and meaning. In three lexical decision experiments (48 ms forward masked, 116 ms, and 250 ms SOAs), targets (e.g., FLOAT) followed prime words related by form only (e.g., COAT), meaning only (e.g., SWIM), or form and meaning (e.g., BOAT). BOAT–FLOAT and SWIM–FLOAT type pairs showed reduced target decision latencies relative to unrelated controls when primes were unmasked, but not when they were masked, and the magnitude of facilitation increased with increasing prime duration. By contrast, COAT–FLOAT type pairs produced significant inhibition at the shorter two prime durations. In all three experiments, including at the shortest SOA, (BOAT–FLOAT) pairs that shared form and meaning differed from COAT–FLOAT type pairs that shared only form. We discuss the similarity of the BOAT–FLOAT pattern to that of morphological facilitation and argue that if the same mechanism underlies both outcomes then activation of a shared morphemic representation need not underlie morphological facilitation. PMID:20523760

  17. Single paternity of clutches in American Woodcock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziel, H.; McAuley, D.G.; Rhymer, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Based on behavioral observations, the mating system of American Woodcock has been variously described as monogamous, a dispersed lek, or resource defense polygyny. Males perform elaborate mating displays that attract females to their display sites where copulations occur. We used microsatellite markers, developed for Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax), to assess paternity in American Woodcock. In 3 yr, we collected blood samples from 21 females and broods and 90 males. We found no evidence of multiple paternity within broods; paternity in all broods could be explained by 1 father. For 8 broods, we were able to infer probable fathers from males we sampled in the field. All 8 broods were found close to the singing site of the male or males that matched as possible fathers. Two males may have fathered 2 broods each, suggesting that polygyny may be a component of the woodcock mating system.

  18. Paternity analysis in Excel.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

    2007-12-01

    Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR).

  19. Reproductive skew and relatedness in social groups of European badgers, Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Johnson, Paul J; Burke, Terry

    2008-04-01

    Reproductive skew is a measure of the proportion of individuals of each sex that breed in a group and is a valuable measure for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sociality. Here, we provide the first quantification of reproductive skew within social groups of European badgers Meles meles, throughout an 18-year study in a high-density population. We used 22 microsatellite loci to analyse within-group relatedness and demonstrated that badger groups contained relatives. The average within-group relatedness was high (R = 0.20) and approximately one-third of within-group dyads were more likely to represent first-order kin than unrelated pairs. Adult females within groups had higher pairwise relatedness than adult males, due to the high frequency of extra-group paternities, rather than permanent physical dispersal. Spatial clustering of relatives occurred among neighbouring groups, which we suggest was due to the majority of extra-group paternities being attributable to neighbouring males. Reproductive skew was found among within-group candidate fathers (B = 0.26) and candidate mothers (B = 0.07), but not among breeding individuals; our power to detect skew in the latter was low. We use these results to evaluate reproductive skew models. Although badger society best fits the assumptions of the incomplete-control models, our results were not consistent with their predictions. We suggest that this may be due to female control of paternity, female-female reproductive suppression occurring only in years with high food availability resulting in competition over access to breeding sites, extra-group paternity masking the benefits of natal philopatry, and/or the inconsistent occurrence of hierarchies that are linear when established.

  20. Consistent male-male paternity differences across female genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Craig D H; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2009-04-23

    In a recent paper, we demonstrated that male-female genetic relatedness determines male probability of paternity in experimental sperm competition in the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), with a more closely related male outcompeting his rival. Here, we test the hypothesis that a male-male difference in siring success with one female significantly predicts the corresponding difference in siring success with another female. With male sperm concentration held constant, and the proportion of viable sperm controlled statistically, the male-male difference in siring success with one female strongly predicted the corresponding difference in siring success with another female, and alone explained more than 62 per cent of the variance in male-male siring differences. This study demonstrates that male siring success is primarily dictated by among-male differences in innate siring success with less influence of male-female relatedness.

  1. DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PATERNITY IN THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE (MICROTUS CANICAUDUS) BY RAPD-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic relatedness of gray-tailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This work is the first reported use of the RAPD method for pedigree analysis of M. canicaudus and demonstrates the feasibility of RAPD for assessing paternity...

  2. DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PATERNITY IN THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE (MICROTUS CANICAUDUS) BY RAPD-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic relatedness of gray-tailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This work is the first reported use of the RAPD method for pedigree analysis of M. canicaudus and demonstrates the feasibility of RAPD for assessing paternity...

  3. Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations.

    PubMed

    Davies, N G; Gardner, A

    2014-06-01

    W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect group. However, haplodiploidy might still explain the sex of workers if this mode of inheritance has itself been responsible for the rarity of paternal care in this group. Here, we perform a theoretical kin selection analysis to investigate the evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. We find that haplodiploidy may either inhibit or promote paternal care depending on model assumptions, but that under the most plausible scenarios it promotes - rather than inhibits - paternal care. Our analysis casts further doubt upon there being a causal link between haplodiploidy and eusociality.

  4. Paternal programming in sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Laura R.; Bell, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    In a wide range of organisms, including humans, mothers can influence offspring via the care they provide. Comparatively little is known about the effects of fathering on offspring. Here, we test the hypothesis that fathers are capable of programming their offspring for the type of environment they are likely to encounter. Male threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, were either exposed to predation risk while fathering or not. Fathers altered their paternal behaviour when exposed to predation risk, and consequently produced adult offspring with phenotypes associated with strong predation pressure (smaller size, reduced body condition, reduced behavioural activity). Moreover, more attentive fathers produced offspring that showed stronger antipredator responses. These results are consistent with behaviourally mediated paternal programming: fathers can alter offspring phenotypes to match their future environment and influence offspring traits well into adulthood. PMID:27011391

  5. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a…

  6. Development of Product Relatedness and Distance Effects in Typical Achievers and in Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a…

  7. [Paternal postpartum depression: a review].

    PubMed

    Gressier, Florence; Tabat-Bouher, Myriam; Cazas, Odile; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Postpartum depression affects 1 in 10 fathers worldwide. Paternal PPD tends to develop gradually during the first year. Maternal depression is one of the most important risk factors for depression in fathers. Changes in hormones during the postpartum period in fathers are biological risk factors for PPD. Paternal PPD has negative impacts on family. Paternal PPD has negative effects on the infant's development, independently of maternal PPD. It is essential to identify paternal PPD at early stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. High relatedness in a social amoeba: the role of kin-discriminatory segregation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Owen M; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2012-07-07

    A major challenge for social theory is to explain the importance of kin discrimination for the evolution of altruism. One way to assess the importance of kin discrimination is to test its effects on increasing relatedness within groups. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates to form a fruiting body composed of dead stalk and live spores. Previous studies of a natural population showed that where D. discoideum occurs in the soil, multiple clones are often found in the same small soil samples. However, actual fruiting bodies usually contain only one clone. We here performed experiments to gauge the effect of kin-discriminatory segregation on increasing relatedness. We mixed co-occurring clones from this population using a relatedness level found in small soil samples. We found a lower proportion of uniclonal fruiting bodies and a lower level of relatedness compared with natural fruiting bodies. We found that the amount of relatedness increase attributable to kin-discriminatory segregation was small. These findings suggest a relatively minor influence of kin-discriminatory segregation on relatedness in D. discoideum. We discuss our results comparing with the results of previous studies, including those of wild clones and laboratory mutants. We ask why wild clones of D. discoideum exhibit a low degree of kin-discriminatory segregation, and what alternative factors might account for high relatedness in D. discoideum.

  9. Establishment of Legal Paternity for Children of Unmarried American Women : Trade-Offs in Male Commitment to Paternal Investment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kermyt G

    2017-02-15

    The establishment of a legal father for children of unmarried parents reflects both high paternity confidence and male willingness to commit to paternal investment. Whether an unmarried man voluntarily acknowledges paternity after a child is born has important consequences for both the mother and child. This paper brings to bear a life history perspective on paternity establishment, noting that men face trade-offs between mating and parental effort and that women will adjust their investment in children based on expected male investment. I predict that paternity establishment will be more likely when the mother has high socioeconomic status, when maternal health is good, and when the child is male, low parity, or a singleton (versus multiple) birth. I further predict that establishment of paternity will be associated with increased maternal investment in offspring, resulting in healthier babies with higher birthweights who are more likely to be breastfed. These predictions are tested using data on 5.4 million births in the United States from 2009 through 2013. Overall the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the trade-offs men face between reproductive and parental investment influence whether men voluntarily acknowledge paternity when a child is born.

  10. Paternalism and partial autonomy.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, O

    1984-01-01

    A contrast is often drawn between standard adult capacities for autonomy, which allow informed consent to be given or withheld, and patients' reduced capacities, which demand paternalistic treatment. But patients may not be radically different from the rest of us, in that all human capacities for autonomous action are limited. An adequate account of paternalism and the role that consent and respect for persons can play in medical and other practice has to be developed within an ethical theory that does not impose an idealised picture of unlimited autonomy but allows for the variable and partial character of actual human autonomy. PMID:6520849

  11. Genetic evidence of extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the monk parakeet.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José; de Aranzamendi, María Carla; Masello, Juan F; Bucher, Enrique H

    2013-11-09

    The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a widespread invasive species native to southern South America that has become established in many regions of the world. Monk parakeets breed in a large, fully enclosed structure built from twigs, which consist of one to many individual brooding chambers. The species has been considered to be socially and genetically monogamous. However, genetic relatedness of adults to juveniles in the native area was found to be lower than expected for monogamy. To assess the significance of this discrepancy, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at two sites in Córdoba province, Argentina. We sampled 154 nestlings and 42 adults in Córdoba, Argentina. Mean value of pairwise relatedness of nestlings within chambers was about 0.40. Contrarily, relatedness of nestlings between chambers was close to zero. We found a considerable degree of variation in nestling pairwise relatedness and parentage within chambers, including chambers with combinations of unrelated, half-sib, and full-sib nestlings. The proportion of sibling relatedness indicated monogamy in 47% and extra pair-paternity in 40% of the chambers. We also found intra-brood parasitism in 3% of the chambers. Our results indicate that the monk parakeet is sexually polygamous in its native range in Argentina, which is consistent with the observed mean value of relatedness of adults to juveniles of about 0.4. We also confirm the existence of intra-brood parasitism. High density of monk parakeets may favor occurrence of extra-pair paternity and intra-brood parasitism in the native sites.

  12. Genetic evidence of extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the monk parakeet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a widespread invasive species native to southern South America that has become established in many regions of the world. Monk parakeets breed in a large, fully enclosed structure built from twigs, which consist of one to many individual brooding chambers. The species has been considered to be socially and genetically monogamous. However, genetic relatedness of adults to juveniles in the native area was found to be lower than expected for monogamy. To assess the significance of this discrepancy, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at two sites in Córdoba province, Argentina. Results We sampled 154 nestlings and 42 adults in Córdoba, Argentina. Mean value of pairwise relatedness of nestlings within chambers was about 0.40. Contrarily, relatedness of nestlings between chambers was close to zero. We found a considerable degree of variation in nestling pairwise relatedness and parentage within chambers, including chambers with combinations of unrelated, half-sib, and full-sib nestlings. The proportion of sibling relatedness indicated monogamy in 47% and extra pair-paternity in 40% of the chambers. We also found intra-brood parasitism in 3% of the chambers. Conclusions Our results indicate that the monk parakeet is sexually polygamous in its native range in Argentina, which is consistent with the observed mean value of relatedness of adults to juveniles of about 0.4. We also confirm the existence of intra-brood parasitism. High density of monk parakeets may favor occurrence of extra-pair paternity and intra-brood parasitism in the native sites. PMID:24209709

  13. Causal and Semantic Relatedness in Discourse Understanding and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Larsen, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Processing time and memory for sentences were examined as a function of the degree of semantic and causal relatedness between sentences in short narratives. In Experiments 1-2B, semantic and causal relatedness between sentence pairs was independently manipulated. Causal relatedness was assessed through pretesting and semantic relatedness was…

  14. Causal and Semantic Relatedness in Discourse Understanding and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Larsen, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Processing time and memory for sentences were examined as a function of the degree of semantic and causal relatedness between sentences in short narratives. In Experiments 1-2B, semantic and causal relatedness between sentence pairs was independently manipulated. Causal relatedness was assessed through pretesting and semantic relatedness was…

  15. A maximum-likelihood estimation of pairwise relatedness for autopolyploids

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K; Guo, S T; Shattuck, M R; Chen, S T; Qi, X G; Zhang, P; Li, B G

    2015-01-01

    Relatedness between individuals is central to ecological genetics. Multiple methods are available to quantify relatedness from molecular data, including method-of-moment and maximum-likelihood estimators. We describe a maximum-likelihood estimator for autopolyploids, and quantify its statistical performance under a range of biologically relevant conditions. The statistical performances of five additional polyploid estimators of relatedness were also quantified under identical conditions. When comparing truncated estimators, the maximum-likelihood estimator exhibited lower root mean square error under some conditions and was more biased for non-relatives, especially when the number of alleles per loci was low. However, even under these conditions, this bias was reduced to be statistically insignificant with more robust genetic sampling. We also considered ambiguity in polyploid heterozygote genotyping and developed a weighting methodology for candidate genotypes. The statistical performances of three polyploid estimators under both ideal and actual conditions (including inbreeding and double reduction) were compared. The software package POLYRELATEDNESS is available to perform this estimation and supports a maximum ploidy of eight. PMID:25370210

  16. [Responsible paternity against abortion].

    PubMed

    Vasquez, J A

    1979-03-02

    Family planning programs were implemented in Mexico in 1973; since then the number of family planning acceptors has grown considerably; however, the number of illegal abortions has also been on the increase. Such phenomenon has been noticed in other countries under the same circumstances, notably Korea, India, and Chile. Women in large urban areas tend to abandon family planning programs for lack of specific information and of adequate and specialized attention. In 1977 in the state of Puebla 32.6% of the total number of pregnancies were terminated in abortion, often induced with primitive and unsanitary methods. It is essential to educate young and very young people on the idea of responsible paternity, and to offer them adequate sex education in schools and outside schools. The general physician can play a very important role in advising these people and in spreading the principle of family planning.

  17. Parentage and relatedness in polyandrous comb-crested jacanas using ISSRs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Mace, Terrence R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the first analysis of parentage and relatedness in a natural vertebrate population, using Intersimple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Thus, 28 ISSR markers were used in a study of a sex-role reversed, simultaneously polyandrous shorebird from northeastern Australia, the comb-crested jacana (Irediparra gallinacea). Assessment of parentage was based on comparison of field observations, novel bands, individual-specific bands found in 7/9 males and 4/6 females, and a 99% CI exclusion criteria. Integrating results from these approaches resulted in confirmation of paternity in all 36 chicks. In only one case (2.8% of chicks) was a co-mate assigned paternity. Thus, comb-crested jacanas appear to be genetically monogamous. These results showed resemblance to sequentially polyandrous birds but differed from the simultaneously polyandrous wattled jacana ( Jacana jacana; Emlen et al. 1998). A significant relationship between relatedness and ISSR similarity resulted in recognition that 14/15 adults sampled may be related to at least one other adult by 0.25 or more. Lack of dispersal may be explained by physical limitations and adequate regional habitat. ISSRs proved to be simple and helpful in resolving these issues.

  18. Paternal nicotine exposure alters hepatic xenobiotic metabolism in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Vallaster, Markus P; Kukreja, Shweta; Bing, Xin Y; Ngolab, Jennifer; Zhao-Shea, Rubing; Gardner, Paul D; Tapper, Andrew R; Rando, Oliver J

    2017-01-01

    Paternal environmental conditions can influence phenotypes in future generations, but it is unclear whether offspring phenotypes represent specific responses to particular aspects of the paternal exposure history, or a generic response to paternal ‘quality of life’. Here, we establish a paternal effect model based on nicotine exposure in mice, enabling pharmacological interrogation of the specificity of the offspring response. Paternal exposure to nicotine prior to reproduction induced a broad protective response to multiple xenobiotics in male offspring. This effect manifested as increased survival following injection of toxic levels of either nicotine or cocaine, accompanied by hepatic upregulation of xenobiotic processing genes, and enhanced drug clearance. Surprisingly, this protective effect could also be induced by a nicotinic receptor antagonist, suggesting that xenobiotic exposure, rather than nicotinic receptor signaling, is responsible for programming offspring drug resistance. Thus, paternal drug exposure induces a protective phenotype in offspring by enhancing metabolic tolerance to xenobiotics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24771.001 PMID:28196335

  19. Religion as a means to assure paternity.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-19

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy.

  20. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  1. Effects of among-offspring relatedness on the origins and evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Bonsall, M B; Klug, H

    2011-06-01

    Parental care is expected to increase the likelihood of offspring survival at the cost of investment in future reproductive success. However, alternative parental behaviours, such as filial cannibalism, can decrease current reproductive success and consequently individual fitness. We evaluate the role of among-offspring relatedness on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Building on our previous work, we show how the evolution of care is influenced by the effect of among-offspring relatedness on both the strength of competition and filial cannibalism. When there is a positive relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness, parental care will be favoured when among-offspring relatedness is relatively low, and the maintenance of both care and no-care strategies is expected. If the relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness is negative, parental care is most strongly favoured when broods contain highly related offspring. Further, we highlight the range of conditions over which the level of this among-offspring relatedness can affect the co-occurrence of different care/no care and cannibalism/no cannibalism strategies. Coexistence of multiple strategies is independent of the effects of among-offspring relatedness on cannibalism but more likely when among-offspring relatedness and competition are positively associated.

  2. [Basic concepts about paternity testing].

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Mellado, Cecilia

    2011-04-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profile of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.

  3. Grandma plays favourites: X-chromosome relatedness and sex-specific childhood mortality †

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Molly; Sear, Rebecca; Beise, Jan; Ragsdale, Gillian; Voland, Eckart; Knapp, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists use genetic relatedness between family members to explain the evolution of many behavioural and developmental traits in humans, including altruism, kin investment and longevity. Women's post-menopausal longevity in particular is linked to genetic relatedness between family members. According to the ‘grandmother hypothesis’, post-menopausal women can increase their genetic contribution to future generations by increasing the survivorship of their grandchildren. While some demographic studies have found evidence for this, others have found little support for it. Here, we re-model the predictions of the grandmother hypothesis by examining the genetic relatedness between grandmothers and grandchildren. We use this new model to re-evaluate the grandmother effect in seven previously studied human populations. Boys and girls differ in the per cent of genes they share with maternal versus paternal grandmothers because of differences in X-chromosome inheritance. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between X-chromosome inheritance and grandchild mortality in the presence of a grandmother. With this sex-specific and X-chromosome approach to interpreting mortality rates, we provide a new perspective on the prevailing theory for the evolution of human female longevity. This approach yields more consistent support for the grandmother hypothesis, and has implications for the study of human evolution. PMID:19864288

  4. Advancing paternal age and autism.

    PubMed

    Reichenberg, Abraham; Gross, Raz; Weiser, Mark; Bresnahan, Michealine; Silverman, Jeremy; Harlap, Susan; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Shulman, Cory; Malaspina, Dolores; Lubin, Gad; Knobler, Haim Y; Davidson, Michael; Susser, Ezra

    2006-09-01

    Maternal and paternal ages are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To examine the relationship between advancing paternal age at birth of offspring and their risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Historical population-based cohort study. Identification of ASD cases from the Israeli draft board medical registry. We conducted a study of Jewish persons born in Israel during 6 consecutive years. Virtually all men and about three quarters of women in this cohort underwent draft board assessment at age 17 years. Paternal age at birth was obtained for most of the cohort; maternal age was obtained for a smaller subset. We used the smaller subset (n = 132 271) with data on both paternal and maternal age for the primary analysis and the larger subset (n = 318 506) with data on paternal but not maternal age for sensitivity analyses. Information on persons coded as having International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision ASD was obtained from the registry. The registry identified 110 cases of ASD (incidence, 8.3 cases per 10 000 persons), mainly autism, in the smaller subset with complete parental age data. There was a significant monotonic association between advancing paternal age and risk of ASD. Offspring of men 40 years or older were 5.75 times (95% confidence interval, 2.65-12.46; P<.001) more likely to have ASD compared with offspring of men younger than 30 years, after controlling for year of birth, socioeconomic status, and maternal age. Advancing maternal age showed no association with ASD after adjusting for paternal age. Sensitivity analyses indicated that these findings were not the result of bias due to missing data on maternal age. Advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk of ASD. Possible biological mechanisms include de novo mutations associated with advancing age or alterations in genetic imprinting.

  5. Obesity, paternalism and fairness.

    PubMed

    Kniess, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Many liberal theories are committed to the promotion of population health, and the principle of non-interference in individual life plans. Public health interventions often bring out a tension between these two values. In this paper, I examine this tension by assessing the justifiability of liberty-restricting policies in the field of obesity prevention. As I want to show, a 'soft' form of paternalism, which interferes with people's choices to safeguard their true interests, goes some way in justifying such policies, but it leaves unaddressed the problem of limiting the liberty of those whose true interest is in pursuing an unhealthy lifestyle. I argue that in this latter case, the key to reconcile the promotion of population health with the respect for individual liberty is distributive justice: when we cannot help those who care about their health without doing the same for those who do not, fairness will often require us to do so. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. [POST MORTEM PATERNITY].

    PubMed

    Marguénaud, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Post mortem paternity, namely the procreation after the death of the man whom is part of the couple, is one of the questions which raised the most hesitations since the first bioethics laws of 1994. The National Assembly, encouraged by several opinions of the CCNE (National advisory committee of ethics) had let itself convince that the transfer had, at least, to be authorized in utero embryos preserved at the regard of which no one could not claim to have rights equal or higher than those of the woman concerned. However, the Senate always ended up obtaining the maintenance of an absolute prohibition of posthumous procreation (starting) from the spermatozoids or frozen embryos. This indifference with the cruelty of the application of the law to the women plunged into mourning--based on a paradoxical appreciation of the interest of the child not to be born orphan, and on a not very glorious taking into account of the interest of the Body of notaries not to change its practices--is particularly debatable. One can, nevertheless, try to understand it according to the obsession of the legalization of surrogate motherhood by application of the principle of nondiscrimination which could justify the requests of the men who, thanks to a surrogate mother, would wish to become fathers starting from gametes or embryos taken or created before the death of their wife or partner.

  7. A method for exploring implicit concept relatedness in biomedical knowledge network.

    PubMed

    Bai, Tian; Gong, Leiguang; Wang, Ye; Wang, Yan; Kulikowski, Casimir A; Huang, Lan

    2016-07-19

    Biomedical information and knowledge, structural and non-structural, stored in different repositories can be semantically connected to form a hybrid knowledge network. How to compute relatedness between concepts and discover valuable but implicit information or knowledge from it effectively and efficiently is of paramount importance for precision medicine, and a major challenge facing the biomedical research community. In this study, a hybrid biomedical knowledge network is constructed by linking concepts across multiple biomedical ontologies as well as non-structural biomedical knowledge sources. To discover implicit relatedness between concepts in ontologies for which potentially valuable relationships (implicit knowledge) may exist, we developed a Multi-Ontology Relatedness Model (MORM) within the knowledge network, for which a relatedness network (RN) is defined and computed across multiple ontologies using a formal inference mechanism of set-theoretic operations. Semantic constraints are designed and implemented to prune the search space of the relatedness network. Experiments to test examples of several biomedical applications have been carried out, and the evaluation of the results showed an encouraging potential of the proposed approach to biomedical knowledge discovery.

  8. Siring Success and Paternal Effects in Heterodichogamous Acer opalus

    PubMed Central

    Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdú, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible

  9. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  10. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  11. Changes in Differentiation-Relatedness During Psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Calamaras, Martha R; Reviere, Susan L; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine (a) if the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale of Self and Object Representations (D-RS), a coding model used with the Object Relations Inventory (Blatt, Wein, Chevron, & Quinlan, 1979 ) could be reliably applied to transcripts of psychoanalyses, and (b) if levels of differentiation-relatedness improve over the course of psychoanalysis. Participants were 4 creative writers who underwent psychoanalysis as part of a longitudinal research project focused on the processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis. Transcripts from the beginning and termination phases of psychoanalysis were coded by 2 independent raters for global, low, and high levels of self and other differentiation-relatedness and compared. There was good interrater agreement, suggesting that, like other forms of narrative material, psychoanalysis transcripts can be reliably rated for levels of object relations. Analysands showed an increase in global levels of differentiation-relatedness from a predominance of emergent ambivalent constancy (M = 6.2) at the beginning of analysis to consolidated, constant representations of self and other (M = 7.5) at the end of analysis. These preliminary findings contribute significantly to the empirical literature with regard to the measurement of self and object representations and change in these representations over the course of psychoanalysis.

  12. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    PubMed Central

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males – ’mother's curse’. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. ’reverse dominance’) are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why ’mother's curse’ is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025

  13. Increasing paternal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Cutright, P

    1985-01-01

    Increasing numbers of fathers of children born out of wedlock are not contributing to these children's economic support. In 1981, a tiny minority (14%) of the 1.7 million never-married mothers living with a child with an absent father had a child-support award, and of these, just 112,000 actually received some payment in 1981. The high rates of noncompliance, and the low level of legal efforts to enforce child support, are the result of attempts to collect payments through inefficient traditional methods, not the inability of fathers to pay, a Wisconsin study has shown. A basic problem with collecting child support under the present system is that it relies on fathers to control their expenditures and voluntarily to send the payment on a weekly, biweekly or monthly basis, year after year. As a Wisconsin study shows, full compliance with court-ordered payments dropped from 38% in the 1st year to below 20% by the 5th year among 163 ex-husbands tracked. A proposal by researchers at the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Research on Poverty calls for an "absent-parent tax." The Wisconsin Plan, as it is known, is simply a withholding tax based on the father's gross income and the number of his absent children. If his income falls below a certain level, payments will stop automatically, but will resume if and when it rises above the cutoff point. The Wisconsin plan removes all judicial discretion and lawyer's skill as factors in child-support awards, thus eliminating erratic awards. It also insures that support payments will be maintained during periods of conflict between the father and mother. However, before the Wisconsin Plan can effectively protect children both out of wedlock, a feature needs to be added that will establish paternity at birth. Imposing a real child-support obligation on fathers of children born outside of marriage will introduce a potentially powerful economic incentive for responsible male reproductive and parental behavior.

  14. Social Relatedness and Autism: Current Research, Issues, Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Anne S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This literature review focuses on recent studies devoted to hypothesized aspects of social relatedness in autism, discussing attachment and social interest, recognition of and communication of emotions, social cognition, social communication, symbolic play, neuroanatomy of social relatedness, and neurochemistry of social relatedness. (JDD)

  15. Developing Autonomy and Transitional Paternalism.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Faye

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents, in many jurisdictions, have the power to consent to life saving treatment but not necessarily the power to refuse it. A recent defence of this asymmetry is Neil Manson's theory of 'transitional paternalism'. Transitional paternalism holds that such asymmetries are by-products of sharing normative powers. However, sharing normative powers by itself does not entail an asymmetry because transitional paternalism can be implemented in two ways. Manson defends the asymmetry-generating version of transitional paternalism in the clinical context, arguing that it maximizes respect for adolescent autonomy. This article offers an alternative argument in favour of the asymmetry-generating form of transitional paternalism, one that makes appeal to obligations that individuals have to develop self-governance in others. We should share normative powers asymmetrically in the clinical context for three reasons. First, the asymmetric version of transitional paternalism takes seriously duties to support adolescents' developing autonomy, alongside other duties that adults have to young people. It does so by enabling young people to be involved in important decisions that they would otherwise be excluded from. This is of value because participation of this sort is central to the cultivation of their self-governance. Second, only the asymmetric version gives young people a voice in respect of all clinical actions, and only the asymmetric version leaves open the possibility that the coarse lines of legislation might be 'fine-tuned' in individual cases. Third, the asymmetric sharing of normative powers is consistent with the kind of social arrangements that best support autonomy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obery, Amanda; Bangert, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267). Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational…

  17. Quantitative indices in paternity cases.

    PubMed

    Lenhartová, E; Lenhart, K; Bártová, A

    1992-01-01

    The study discusses the basic quantitative indices used as a standard method in foreign professional literature dealing with paternity cases. They are as follows: 1. mean probability of exclusion (PE) which characterizes the informative value of the experts opinions and is the same in all the disputes evaluated by this expert. 2. relative frequency of men chosen at random from the population and excluded at given phenotype of mother and child (RME). 3. probability of paternity (PP) for particular trio: mother-child-the accused man. Hereinafter the results of our studies in the HLA laboratory in Olomouc from 1976-1991 are introduced.

  18. Genetic structure of the paternal lineage of the Roma people.

    PubMed

    Pamjav, Horolma; Zalán, Andrea; Béres, Judit; Nagy, Melinda; Chang, Yuet Meng

    2011-05-01

    According to written sources, Roma (Romanies, Gypsies) arrived in the Balkans around 1,000 years ago from India and have subsequently spread through several parts of Europe. Genetic data, particularly from the Y chromosome, have supported this model, and can potentially refine it. We now provide an analysis of Y-chromosomal markers from five Roma and two non-Roma populations (N = 787) in order to investigate the genetic relatedness of the Roma population groups to one another, and to gain further understanding of their likely Indian origins, the genetic contribution of non-Roma males to the Roma populations, and the early history of their splits and migrations in Europe. The two main sources of the Roma paternal gene pool were identified as South Asian and European. The reduced diversity and expansion of H1a-M82 lineages in all Roma groups imply shared descent from a single paternal ancestor in the Indian subcontinent. The Roma paternal gene pool also contains a specific subset of E1b1b1a-M78 and J2a2-M67 lineages, implying admixture during early settlement in the Balkans and the subsequent influx into the Carpathian Basin. Additional admixture, evident in the low and moderate frequencies of typical European haplogroups I1-M253, I2a-P37.2, I2b-M223, R1b1-P25, and R1a1-M198, has occurred in a more population-specific manner. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The impact of paternity on male-infant association in a primate with low paternity certainty

    PubMed Central

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In multi-male groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father’s presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future mating success with the infant’s mother. Hence, infant care might provide fitness gain for males. Here we investigate male-infant associations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a primate with low paternity certainty as females mate with multiple partners and males ensure paternity less efficiently through mate-guarding. We combined behavioral data with genetic paternity analyses of one cohort of the semifree-ranging population of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) and recorded affiliative and aggressive interactions between focal subjects and adult males from birth to sexual maturation (0–4 years) of focal subjects. Our results revealed, that 9.6% of all interactions of focal subjects involved an adult male and 94% of all male-infant interactions were affiliative, indicating the rareness of male-infant aggression. Second and most interestingly, sires were more likely to affiliate with their offspring than non-sires with unrelated infants. This preference was independent of mother’s proximity and emphasized during early infancy. Male-infant affiliation rose with infant age and was pronounced between adult males and male rather than female focal subjects. Overall our results suggest that male-infant affiliation are also an important component in structuring primate societies and affiliation directed towards own offspring presumably represent low cost paternal care. PMID:23682587

  20. Paternal Effectiveness in a Selected Cognitive Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuff, Nancy Hamblen

    The immediate effectiveness of paternal instruction in a selected cognitive task was investigated. The sub-problems were (1) to compare paternal and maternal instruction, and (2) to analyze paternal instructional effectiveness with the son or the daughter. The cognitive task selected was the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test. Subjects were 42…

  1. [Extrapair paternity in Parus major].

    PubMed

    Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule.

  2. Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on the involvement of residential fathers in one-on-one activities, dinner with their families, and youth activities and found religious effects for each of these three measures. The study indicates that religion is related to paternal involvement in all three areas that were examined.…

  3. Paternal Age and Sporadic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Corcoran, Cheryl; Fahim, Cherine; Berman, Ariela; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Yale, Scott; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond; Harlap, Susan; Gorman, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is an etiologically heterogeneous syndrome. It has a strong genetic component and exists in clinically indistinguishable familial and nonfamilial (sporadic) forms. A significant role for de novo genetic mutations in genetic schizophrenia vulnerability is suggested by a strong monotonic increase in schizophrenia risk with advancing paternal age. However, an alternative explanation for the paternal age effect in schizophrenia is that childbearing is delayed in fathers who themselves have genetic schizophrenia vulnerability. In this study, we compared paternal birth ages between patient groups with familial (n = 35) and sporadic (n = 68) patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia from an inpatient schizophrenia research unit. If later age of fathering children is related to having some genetic schizophrenia vulnerability, then paternal birth age should be later in familial schizophrenia cases than in sporadic cases, and any association of father’s age and schizophrenia risk in offspring would be a spurious finding, unrelated to etiology. However, if de novo mutations cause sporadic schizophrenia, then patients without a family history of schizophrenia would have older fathers than familial patients. We found that patients without a family history of schizophrenia had significantly older fathers (4.7 years) than familial patients; so later childbirth was not attributable to parental psychiatric illness. These findings support the hypothesis that de novo mutations contribute to the risk for sporadic schizophrenia. PMID:11920852

  4. Object-oriented Bayesian networks for paternity cases with allelic dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Amanda B.; Weir, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends the current use of Bayesian networks by incorporating the effects of allelic dependencies in paternity calculations. The use of object-oriented networks greatly simplify the process of building and interpreting forensic identification models, allowing researchers to solve new, more complex problems. We explore two paternity examples: the most common scenario where DNA evidence is available from the alleged father, the mother and the child; a more complex casewhere DNA is not available from the alleged father, but is available from the alleged father’s brother. Object-oriented networks are built, using HUGIN, for each example which incorporate the effects of allelic dependence caused by evolutionary relatedness. PMID:19079769

  5. Why Do Cuckolded Males Provide Paternal Care?

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Ashleigh S.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Cornwallis, Charlie K.

    2013-01-01

    In most species, males do not abandon offspring or reduce paternal care when they are cuckolded by other males. This apparent lack of adjustment of paternal investment with the likelihood of paternity presents a potential challenge to our understanding of what drives selection for paternal care. In a comparative analysis across birds, fish, mammals, and insects we identify key factors that explain why cuckolded males in many species do not reduce paternal care. Specifically, we show that cuckolded males only reduce paternal investment if both the costs of caring are relatively high and there is a high risk of cuckoldry. Under these circumstances, selection is expected to favour males that reduce paternal effort in response to cuckoldry. In many species, however, these conditions are not satisfied and tolerant males have outcompeted males that abandon young. PMID:23555193

  6. Dominance, body size and internal relatedness influence male reproductive success in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence.

  7. Motherless case in paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Lee, J W; Han, G R; Hwang, J J

    2000-11-13

    In paternity test using the DNA evidence, the analysis of the deficient case that the DNA profiles of mother or alleged father are not available is different from that of the trio case analyzed routinely. However, the motherless case that the genotypes of mother is not available has been requested and analyzed like the trio case. In this paper, we compared the motherless case and the trio case through the mean exclusion chance describing the probability of exclusion for a genetic marker system and the distribution of the probability of paternity calculated using the three current methods. We have also shown a case which can be falsely discriminated if it were requested in the analysis of the motherless case, and conclude that the analysis of the motherless case should be carefully conducted and the level for the discrimination should be different from that of the trio case.

  8. Wilms' tumor and paternal occupation

    SciTech Connect

    Olshan, A.F.; Breslow, N.E.; Daling, J.R.; Falletta, J.M.; Grufferman, S.; Robison, L.L.; Waskerwitz, M.; Hammond, G.D. )

    1990-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relationship between Wilms' tumor and paternal occupational exposures. The case group consisted of 200 children diagnosed as having Wilms' tumor who were registered at selected National Wilms' Tumor Study institutions during the period June 1, 1984, to May 31, 1986. Disease-free controls were matched to each case using a random digit dialing procedure. The parents of cases and controls completed a self-administered questionnaire. There was no consistent pattern of increased risk for paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons or lead found in this study. However, certain paternal occupations were found to have an elevated odds ratio (OR) of Wilms' tumor, including vehicle mechanics, auto body repairmen, and welders. Offspring of fathers who were auto mechanics had a 4- to 7-fold increased risk of Wilms' tumor for all 3 time periods. The largest increased odds ratio for auto mechanics was in the preconception period (OR = 7.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.90-63.9). Welders had a 4- to 8-fold increased odds ratio, with the strongest association during pregnancy (OR = 8.22; CI = 0.95-71.3). Although chance cannot be excluded as a possible explanation, association of Wilms' tumor with these occupations has been reported in previous studies. Further study is needed to provide data on the specific occupational exposures involved.

  9. Intragroup genetic relatedness in two howler monkey species (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata): Implications for understanding social systems and dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Nidiffer, Marcella D.; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The degree of genetic relatedness among group members is influenced by dispersal, group formation and composition, mating systems, and other socioecological factors. Making inferences about differences between species in their socio-genetic structure is difficult because studies rarely compare multiple species. In this study, we use multilocus microsatellite genotype data to analyze intragroup genetic relatedness in two howler monkey species (Alouatta palliata and A. pigra). We test the prediction that their patterns of intragroup genetic relatedness will be distinct based on expectations derived from their distinct social systems. Alouatta palliata is expected to have low levels of intragroup relatedness, given that both males and females are reported to disperse from their natal groups, and to join groups with no close kin. Levels of relatedness among A. pigra group members are expected to be variable according to the history of group formation, with new groups formed by unrelated individuals and well-established groups having close kin due to female nepotism and sometimes by takeovers by coalitions of related males. Our results indicate that in both species, most groups contain closely related same-sex and/or inter-sex dyads. This suggests that philopatry in A. palliata may be more common than reported or that individuals are using alternative strategies to reside with close kin. We found greater variation among groups in female-female relatedness in A. palliata than in A. pigra, implying that these species have distinct socio-genetic structures. Further studies including both long-term observational and genetic data are necessary to understand the mechanisms that determine the degree of variation in intragroup genetic relatedness within and among populations for both species. Ecological and demographic data are also necessary to determine the importance of other factors, especially habitat loss and fragmentation, in determining the degree of relatedness in

  10. Intragroup genetic relatedness in two howler monkey species (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata): Implications for understanding social systems and dispersal.

    PubMed

    Nidiffer, Marcella D; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana

    2015-12-01

    The degree of genetic relatedness among group members is influenced by dispersal, group formation and composition, mating systems, and other socioecological factors. Making inferences about differences between species in their socio-genetic structure is difficult because studies rarely compare multiple species. In this study, we use multilocus microsatellite genotype data to analyze intragroup genetic relatedness in two howler monkey species (Alouatta palliata and A. pigra). We test the prediction that their patterns of intragroup genetic relatedness will be distinct based on expectations derived from their distinct social systems. Alouatta palliata is expected to have low levels of intragroup relatedness, given that both males and females are reported to disperse from their natal groups, and to join groups with no close kin. Levels of relatedness among A. pigra group members are expected to be variable according to the history of group formation, with new groups formed by unrelated individuals and well-established groups having close kin due to female nepotism and sometimes by takeovers by coalitions of related males. Our results indicate that in both species, most groups contain closely related same-sex and/or inter-sex dyads. This suggests that philopatry in A. palliata may be more common than reported or that individuals are using alternative strategies to reside with close kin. We found greater variation among groups in female-female relatedness in A. palliata than in A. pigra, implying that these species have distinct socio-genetic structures. Further studies including both long-term observational and genetic data are necessary to understand the mechanisms that determine the degree of variation in intragroup genetic relatedness within and among populations for both species. Ecological and demographic data are also necessary to determine the importance of other factors, especially habitat loss and fragmentation, in determining the degree of relatedness in

  11. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N; Marlowe, Frank W; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T

    2009-01-22

    The 'challenge hypothesis' posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male-male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men.

  12. Adjusting for Familial Relatedness in the Analysis of GWAS Data.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Russell; McWhirter, Rebekah

    2017-01-01

    Relatedness within a sample can be of ancient (population stratification) or recent (familial structure) origin, and can either be known (pedigree data) or unknown (cryptic relatedness). All of these forms of familial relatedness have the potential to confound the results of genome-wide association studies. This chapter reviews the major methods available to researchers to adjust for the biases introduced by relatedness and maximize power to detect associations. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods are presented with reference to elements of study design, population characteristics, and computational requirements.

  13. DNA fingerprinting in relation to male dominance and paternity in a captive colony of tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Ewen, K R; Temple-Smith, P D; Bowden, D K; Marinopoulos, J; Renfree, M B; Yan, H

    1993-09-01

    The tammar wallaby has a polygynous mating system in which the dominant male usually controls initial access to oestrous females by mating first and then guarding the female from the advances of other subordinate males. In this study we used DNA fingerprinting with a human 3' hypervariable region (HVR) alpha globin probe to examine the paternity of pouch young progeny from 13 female tammars that were given continual access during the breeding season to a group of four sexually mature males. Constant individual-specific DNA profiles were observed for each animal. Paternity for 22 pouch young was successfully assigned using visual and computer-based analyses. However, no statistical difference was observed between the number of young sired by any of the four males (chi 2 = 2, d.f. = 3, P > 0.1). Mate guarding by the dominant male in our captive breeding group was not, therefore, sufficient to prevent successful subsequent matings by subordinates nor to enhance the genetic contribution of this male to the next generation. In each analysis, visual and computer assignments of paternity coincided, and these concurred with the results of a relatedness test which found that a large number of DNA bands were shared by sires and their progeny. The results from this paternity study show that first mating and subsequent mate guarding by the dominant male tammar wallaby in our captive group do not significantly skew the outcome of paternity towards this male and away from other males that subsequently mate with each female.

  14. Germ-line chimerism and paternal care in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    PubMed

    Ross, C N; French, J A; Ortí, G

    2007-04-10

    The formation of viable genetic chimeras in mammals through the transfer of cells between siblings in utero is rare. Using microsatellite DNA markers, we show here that chimerism in marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii) twins is not limited to blood-derived hematopoietic tissues as was previously described. All somatic tissue types sampled were found to be chimeric. Notably, chimerism was demonstrated to be present in germ-line tissues, an event never before documented as naturally occurring in a primate. In fact, we found that chimeric marmosets often transmit sibling alleles acquired in utero to their own offspring. Thus, an individual that contributes gametes to an offspring is not necessarily the genetic parent of that offspring. The presence of somatic and germ-line chimerism may have influenced the evolution of the extensive paternal and alloparental care system of this taxon. Although the exact mechanisms of sociobiological change associated with chimerism have not been fully explored, we show here that chimerism alters relatedness between twins and may alter the perceived relatedness between family members, thus influencing the allocation of parental care. Consistent with this prediction, we found a significant correlation between paternal care effort and the presence of epithelial chimerism, with males carrying chimeric infants more often than nonchimeric infants. Therefore, we propose that the presence of placental chorionic fusion and the exchange of cell lines between embryos may represent a unique adaptation affecting the evolution of cooperative care in this group of primates.

  15. The contrasting role of male relatedness in different mechanisms of sexual selection in red junglefowl

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cedric Kai Wei; Doyle, Philippa; Bagshaw, Emma; Richardson, David S.; Wigby, Stuart; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within‐group male relatedness across pre‐ and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated to all the males. We confirm theoretical expectations that, after controlling for male social status, competition over mating was reduced among related males. However, this effect was contrasted by other sexual selection mechanisms. First, females biased male mating in favor of the unrelated male, and might also favor his inseminations after mating. Second, males invested more—rather than fewer—sperm in postcopulatory competition with relatives. A number of factors may contribute to explain this counterintuitive pattern of sperm allocation, including trade‐offs between male investment in pre‐ versus postcopulatory competition, differences in the relative relatedness of pre‐ versus postcopulatory competitors, and female bias in sperm utilization in response to male relatedness. Collectively, these results reveal that within‐group male relatedness may have contrasting effects in different mechanisms of sexual selection. PMID:27925168

  16. Mosaic paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21[19]/46,XX[4], and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 28 CFR 301.202 - Determination of work-relatedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of work-relatedness. 301... INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.202 Determination of work-relatedness. (a) When the institution safety manager receives notice, or has reason to believe, a work-related injury may result in time...

  18. A Graphical Approach to Relatedness Inference

    PubMed Central

    Almudevar, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The estimation of relatedness structure in natural populations using molecular marker data has become an important tool in population biology, resulting in a variety of estimation procedures for specific sampling scenarios. In this article a general approach is proposed, in which the detailed relationship structure, typically a pedigree graph or partition, is considered to be the object of inference. This makes available tools used in complex model selection theory which have demonstrated effectiveness. An important advantage of this approach is that it permits a fully Bayesian approach to the problem, providing a principled and accessible way to measure statistical error. The approach is demonstrated by applying the minimum description length principle. This technique is used in model selection to provide a rational way of comparing models of varying complexity. We show how the resulting score may be interpreted and applied as a Bayesian posterior density. PMID:17169391

  19. The Effect of Paternal Age on Relapse in First-Episode Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Christy L M; Chiu, Cindy P Y; Li, Yuet-Keung; Law, Chi-Wing; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K W; Lee, Edwin H M; Sham, Pak; Chen, Eric Y H

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Multiple etiological and prognostic factors have been implied in schizophrenia and its outcome. Advanced paternal age has been reported as a risk factor in schizophrenia. Whether this may affect schizophrenia outcome was not previously studied. We hypothesized that advanced paternal age may have a negative effect on the outcome of relapse in schizophrenia. Method: We interviewed 191 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their relatives for parental ages, sociodemographic factors at birth, birth rank, family history of psychotic disorders, and obstetric complications. The outcome measure was the presence of relapse at the end of the first year of treatment. Results: In the 1-year follow-up period, 42 (22%) patients experienced 1 or more relapses. The mean paternal age was 34.62 years (SD 7.69). Patients who relapsed had significantly higher paternal age, poorer medication adherence, were female, and were hospitalized at onset, compared with patients who did not relapse. A multivariate regression analysis showed that advanced paternal age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10), medication nonadherence (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.99), and female sex (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.14 to 5.24) independently contributed to a higher risk of relapse. Analysis between different paternal age groups found a significantly higher relapse rate with paternal age over 40. Conclusions: Advanced paternal age is found to be modestly but significantly related to more relapses, and such an effect is the strongest at a cut-off of paternal age of 40 years or older. The effect is less likely to be mediated through less effective parental supervision or nonadherence to medication. Other possible biological mechanisms need further explorations. PMID:26454556

  20. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species

    PubMed Central

    Nora, Sofia; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albaladejo, Rafael G.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity) has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth. PMID:27835658

  1. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  2. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2015-06-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic differences. To test this possibility we measured IQ, adaptive behavior, and autistic symptoms in 830 probands from simplex families. We conducted multiple linear regression analysis to estimate the predictive value of paternal age, maternal age, and gender on behavioral measures and IQ. We found a differential effect of parental age and sex on repetitive and restricted behaviors. Findings suggest effects of paternal age on phenotypic differences in simplex families with ASD.

  3. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  4. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  5. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  6. 32 CFR 584.3 - Paternity claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (iv) Advise the soldier that a court order against him on the paternity claim, followed by a refusal... taken on the claim of paternity in the absence of a court order. The court order must identify the soldier in question as the father of the child. Also, the court order must direct that the soldier provide...

  7. 32 CFR 584.3 - Paternity claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (iv) Advise the soldier that a court order against him on the paternity claim, followed by a refusal... taken on the claim of paternity in the absence of a court order. The court order must identify the soldier in question as the father of the child. Also, the court order must direct that the soldier provide...

  8. Estimating mutation rates from paternity casework.

    PubMed

    Vicard, P; Dawid, A P; Mortera, J; Lauritzen, S L

    2008-01-01

    We present a statistical methodology for making inferences about mutation rates from paternity casework. This takes account of a number of sources of potential bias, including hidden mutation, incomplete family triplets, uncertain paternity status and differing maternal and paternal mutation rates, while allowing a wide variety of mutation models. An object-oriented Bayesian network is used to facilitate computation of the likelihood function for the mutation parameters. This can process either full or summary genotypic information, both from complete putative father-mother-child triplets and from defective cases where only the child and one of its parents are observed. We use a dataset from paternity casework to illustrate the effects on inferences about mutation parameters of various types of biases and the mutation model assumed. In particular, we show that there can be relevant information in cases of unconfirmed paternity, and that excluding these, as has generally been done, can lead to biased conclusions.

  9. Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in Savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2013-03-01

    Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated with paternal care. These associations have primarily been demonstrated in species where investment in paternal care begins well after mating activity is complete, when offspring are hatched or born. Different patterns may emerge in studies of species where investment in mating and paternal care overlap temporally, for instance in non-seasonal breeders in which males mate with multiple females sequentially and may simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons, fecal concentrations of T (fT) were positively associated with both mate guarding ("consortship") - a measure of current reproductive activity - and with the number of immature offspring a male had in his social group - a measure of past reproductive activity and an indicator of likely paternal behavior. To further examine the relationship between T and potential paternal behavior, we next drew on an intensive 8-month study of male behavior, and found that fathers were more likely to be in close proximity to their offspring than expected by chance. Because male baboons are known to provide paternal care, and because time in proximity to offspring would facilitate such care, this suggests that T concentrations in wild male baboons may be associated with both current reproductive activity and with current paternal behavior. These results are consistent with the predicted positive association between T and mating effort but not with a negative association between T and paternal care; in male baboons, high levels of T occur in males that are differentially associating with their offspring.

  10. Towards a framework for developing semantic relatedness reference standards.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G

    2011-04-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the "moderate" range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development.

  11. Comparison of a genetic group and unknown paternity models for growth traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Shiotsuki, L; Cardoso, F F; Silva, J A V; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare a model assuming unknown paternity and a model using genetic grouping to indicate the most adequate statistical procedure for the estimation of breeding values for animals with uncertain paternity. After data consistency, 62,212 Nellore animals, offspring of 581 bulls and 27,743 cows, were used in the analyses. The pedigree file contained 75,088 animals, including 22,810 (30.18%) offspring of multiple sires and 12,876 animals belonging to the base population with unknown parents. Three different approaches were adopted to deal with uncertain paternity of multiple-sire (MS) offspring. In the model of unknown paternity, the MS groups were ignored, and the sires of MS offspring were considered to be unknown and to belong to a single base population. In the genetic group approach, 2 definitions were used. In the first definition (GGa), "phantom parents" for animals with uncertain paternity were attributed, defining the genetic group as the MS group. In the other approach, GGb, phantom parents for animals with uncertain paternity were also attributed; however, MS offspring were clustered in genetic groups according to their year of birth, every 3 yr, on the basis of the average of male generation interval. Univariate analyses were performed under the Bayesian approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Models were compared by deviance information criteria and the conditional predictive ordinate. According to the choice criteria results, the genetic group model defined by the generation interval of males was more appropriate for predicting the genetic merit of animals with uncertain paternity. Therefore, the use of this model is recommended for the prediction of genetic merit and classification of offspring of multiple sires.

  12. Testosterone response to courtship predicts future paternal behavior in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Erin D.; Marler, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    In the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care is critical for maximal offspring survival. Animals form pair bonds and do not engage in extrapair matings, and thus female evaluation of paternal quality during courtship is likely to be advantageous. We hypothesized that male endocrine or behavioral response to courtship interactions would be predictive of future paternal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we formed 20 pairs of California mice, and evaluated their behavior during the first hour of courtship interactions and again following the birth of young. We also collected blood from males at baseline, 1-hr after pairing, 3-weeks paired, and when young were four days old to measure testosterone (T). We found that male T-response to courtship interactions predicted future paternal behavior, specifically the amount of time he huddled over young when challenged by the temporary removal of his mate. Males that mounted T increases at courtship also approached pups more quickly during this challenge than males who had a significant decrease in T at courtship. Proximity of the male and female during courtship predicted paternal huddling during a 1-hr observation, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that courtship behavior was also predictive of birth latency. We speculate that male T-response to a female in P. californicus is an honest indicator of paternal quality, and if detectable by females could provide a basis for evaluation during mate choice. PMID:19833131

  13. Implications of Advancing Paternal Age: Does It Affect Offspring School Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Anna C.; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI −3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30–34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers. PMID:21957460

  14. Testosterone response to courtship predicts future paternal behavior in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Erin D; Marler, Catherine A

    2010-02-01

    In the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care is critical for maximal offspring survival. Animals form pair bonds and do not engage in extrapair matings, and thus female evaluation of paternal quality during courtship is likely to be advantageous. We hypothesized that male endocrine or behavioral response to courtship interactions would be predictive of future paternal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we formed 20 pairs of California mice, and evaluated their behavior during the first hour of courtship interactions and again following the birth of young. We also collected blood from males at baseline, 1 hr after pairing, 3 weeks paired, and when young were 4 days old to measure testosterone (T). We found that male T-response to courtship interactions predicted future paternal behavior, specifically the amount of time he huddled over young when challenged by the temporary removal of his mate. Males that mounted T increases at courtship also approached pups more quickly during this challenge than males who had a significant decrease in T at courtship. Proximity of the male and female during courtship predicted paternal huddling during a 1-hr observation, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that courtship behavior was also predictive of birth latency. We speculate that male T-response to a female in P. californicus is an honest indicator of paternal quality, and if detectable by females could provide a basis for evaluation during mate choice.

  15. A spatial genetic structure and effects of relatedness on mate choice in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Foerster, K; Valcu, M; Johnsen, A; Kempenaers, B

    2006-12-01

    Inbreeding depression, as commonly found in natural populations, should favour the evolution of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. If natal dispersal, the first and probably most effective mechanism, does not lead to a complete separation of males and females from a common origin, a small-scale genetic population structure may result and other mechanisms to avoid inbreeding may exist. We studied the genetic population structure and individual mating patterns in blue tits (Parus caeruleus). The population showed a local genetic structure in two out of four years: genetic relatedness between individuals (estimated from microsatellite markers) decreased with distance. This pattern was mainly caused by immigrants to the study area; these, if paired with fellow immigrants, were more related than expected by chance. Since blue tits did not avoid inbreeding with their social partner, we examined if individuals preferred less related partners at later stages of the mate choice process. We found no evidence that females or males avoided inbreeding through extra-pair copulations or through mate desertion and postbreeding dispersal. Although the small-scale genetic population structure suggests that blue tits could use a simple rule of thumb to select less related mates, females did not generally prefer more distantly breeding extra-pair partners. However, the proportion of young fathered by an extra-pair male in mixed paternity broods depended on the genetic relatedness with the female. This suggests that there is a fertilization bias towards less related copulation partners and that blue tits are able to reduce the costs of inbreeding through a postcopulatory process.

  16. A molecular analysis of African lion (Panthera leo) mating structure and extra-group paternity in Etosha National Park.

    PubMed

    Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B

    2013-05-01

    The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P < 0.05), indicating that variation in pride-level social structure may explain intergroup variation in EGP. Prides with a lower male-to-female ratio were significantly more likely to experience EGP in this population. The results of this study challenge the current models of African lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals.

  17. Paternal Stimulation and Early Child Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joshua; McCoy, Dana Charles; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Salhi, Carmel; Fink, Günther

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between paternal stimulation and children's growth and development, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of paternal stimulation and to assess whether paternal stimulation was associated with early child growth and development. Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys rounds 4 and 5 were combined across 38 LMICs. The sample comprised 87 286 children aged 3 and 4 years. Paternal stimulation was measured by the number of play and learning activities (up to 6) a father engaged in with his child over the past 3 days. Linear regression models were used to estimate standardized mean differences in height-for-age z-scores and Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) z-scores across 3 levels of paternal stimulation, after controlling for other caregivers' stimulation and demographic covariates. A total of 47.8% of fathers did not engage in any stimulation activities, whereas 6.4% of fathers engaged in 5 or 6 stimulation activities. Children whose fathers were moderately engaged in stimulation (1-4 activities) showed ECDI scores that were 0.09 SD (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.12 to -0.06) lower than children whose fathers were highly engaged; children whose fathers were unengaged showed ECDI scores that were 0.14 SD lower (95% CI: -0.17 to -0.12). Neither moderate paternal stimulation nor lack of paternal stimulation was associated with height-for-age z-scores, relative to high stimulation. Increasing paternal engagement in stimulation is likely to improve early child development in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Male courtship attractiveness and paternity success in Photinus greeni fireflies.

    PubMed

    Demary, Kristian C; Lewis, Sara M

    2007-02-01

    Although female mate choice and male sperm competition have separately attracted much attention, few studies have addressed how precopulatory and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection might interact to drive the evolution of male traits. In Photinus fireflies, females preferentially respond to males based on their bioluminescent courtship signals, and females gain direct benefits through male nuptial gifts acquired during multiple matings over several nights. We experimentally manipulated matings of P. greeni fireflies to test the hypothesis that postcopulatory paternity success might be biased toward males that are more attractive during courtship interactions. We first measured male courtship attractiveness to individual females using field behavioral assays. Females were then assigned to two double-mating treatments: (1) least attractive second male-females were first mated with their most attractive male, followed by their least attractive male, or (2) most attractive second male-females mated with males in reverse order. Larval offspring produced by each female following these double matings were genotyped using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, and male paternity was determined. Contrary to prediction, firefly males that were more attractive to females based on their bioluminescent courtship displays subsequently showed significantly lower paternity, reflecting possible male trade-offs or sexual conflict. Differences in male paternity were not related to male body condition, testes or accessory gland mass, or to variation in female spermathecal size. Additionally, this study suggests that changes in phenotypic selection gradients may occur during different reproductive stages. These results indicate that it is crucial for future studies on sexual selection in polyandrous species to integrate both precopulatory and postcopulatory episodes to fully understand the evolution of male traits.

  19. Estimating Relatedness in the Presence of Null Alleles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang; Ritland, Kermit; Dunn, Derek W; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of genetics and ecology often require estimates of relatedness coefficients based on genetic marker data. However, with the presence of null alleles, an observed genotype can represent one of several possible true genotypes. This results in biased estimates of relatedness. As the numbers of marker loci are often limited, loci with null alleles cannot be abandoned without substantial loss of statistical power. Here, we show how loci with null alleles can be incorporated into six estimators of relatedness (two novel). We evaluate the performance of various estimators before and after correction for null alleles. If the frequency of a null allele is <0.1, some estimators can be used directly without adjustment; if it is >0.5, the potency of estimation is too low and such a locus should be excluded. We make available a software package entitled PolyRelatedness v1.6, which enables researchers to optimize these estimators to best fit a particular data set.

  20. A self-consistent approach to paternity and parental effort.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2002-01-01

    We review the relationship between optimal parental effort and paternity, and emphasize the need for a self-consistent approach. A fundamental consistency condition is what we refer to as the conservation of paternity. Every offspring has exactly one father. If a male has a paternity of less than unity, then another male or other males must have gained the lost paternity. Our approach also emphasizes that paternity emerges as the result of interactions between males and females. From this viewpoint, if paternity changes it is because some aspect of the interaction changes, and the correlation between effort and paternity depends on the aspect that has changed. This has implications for comparative analyses of paternity. The conclusions that are drawn about the correlation between effort and paternity within a population depend on, for example, the types of male in the population and how their abilities are correlated. It is easy to construct models that predict negative correlations between effort and paternity. PMID:11958703

  1. Outcrossing rates and relatedness estimates in pecan (Carya illinoinensis) populations.

    PubMed

    Rüter, B; Hamrick, J L; Wood, B W

    2000-01-01

    Estimates of single and multilocus outcrossing rates as well as relatedness among progeny of individual seed trees were obtained for 14 populations of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Mean outcrossing estimates were not significantly different from 1.0 and relatedness values indicate that most progeny within families are half sibs. Biparental inbreeding was insignificant in all study sites, and inbreeding coefficients indicated that populations were close to inbreeding equilibrium.

  2. The Relation of Attachment Security to Adolescents' Paternal and Peer Relationships, Depression, and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Marsh, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with…

  3. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  4. Avian paternal care had dinosaur origin.

    PubMed

    Varricchio, David J; Moore, Jason R; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A; Jackson, Frankie D; Borkowski, John J

    2008-12-19

    The repeated discovery of adult dinosaurs in close association with egg clutches leads to speculation over the type and extent of care exhibited by these extinct animals for their eggs and young. To assess parental care in Cretaceous troodontid and oviraptorid dinosaurs, we examined clutch volume and the bone histology of brooding adults. In comparison to four archosaur care regressions, the relatively large clutch volumes of Troodon, Oviraptor, and Citipati scale most closely with a bird-paternal care model. Clutch-associated adults lack the maternal and reproductively associated histologic features common to extant archosaurs. Large clutch volumes and a suite of reproductive features shared only with birds favor paternal care, possibly within a polygamous mating system. Paternal care in both troodontids and oviraptorids indicates that this care system evolved before the emergence of birds and represents birds' ancestral condition. In extant birds and over most adult sizes, paternal and biparental care correspond to the largest and smallest relative clutch volumes, respectively.

  5. Pectoral fins and paternal quality in sticklebacks.

    PubMed Central

    Künzler, R; Bakker, T C

    2000-01-01

    Sexual selection through female mate choice exerts a strong selection pressure on males' sexual traits, particularly when direct benefits are involved. In species with male parental care, one would expect sexual selection to favour paternal quality, for instance through selection on morphological structures which promote quality. We experimentally studied the influence of pectoral fins on paternal quality in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). After reductions of fin area to different degrees, similar-sized males had to perform a complete reproductive cycle in enclosures in the field. The collected data on fanning behaviour and egg development showed that a reduction in pectoral fin size affected paternal quality probably through an increased beat frequency of the pectorals. Thus, pectoral fins can potentially signal paternal quality to choosy females. PMID:10874749

  6. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  7. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. PMID:26644589

  8. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Social structure of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu): does relatedness matter?

    PubMed

    Biondo, Cibele; Izar, Patrícia; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Bussab, Vera S R

    2014-11-01

    Relatedness is considered an important factor in shaping social structure as the association among kin might facilitate cooperation via inclusive fitness benefits. We addressed here the influence of relatedness on the social structure of a Neotropical ungulate, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). As peccaries are highly social and cooperative, live in stable cohesive herds and show certain degree of female philopatry and high mean relatedness within herds, we hypothesized that kin would be spatially closer and display more amicable and less agonistic interactions than non-kin. We recorded spatial association patterns and rates of interactions of two captive groups. Pairwise relatedness was calculated based on microsatellite data. As predicted, we found that kin were spatially closer than non-kin, which suggests that relatedness is a good predictor of spatial association in peccaries. However, relatedness did not predict the rates of social interactions. Although our results indirectly indicate some role of sex, age and familiarity, further studies are needed to clarify the factors that shape the rates of interactions in collared peccaries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  10. Female choice and the relatedness of mates in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): mate choice and inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Trevor E; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2008-09-01

    Several studies suggest that females may offset the costs of genetic incompatibility by exercising pre-copulatory or post-copulatory mate choice to bias paternity toward more compatible males. One source of genetic incompatibility is the degree of relatedness among mates; unrelated males are expected to be genetically more compatible with a female than her relatives. To address this idea, we investigated the potential for inbreeding depression and paternity biasing mechanisms (pre- and post-copulatory) of inbreeding avoidance in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Inbreeding resulted in a reduction in offspring number and quality. Females mated to siblings gave birth to significantly fewer offspring compared to females mated to non-siblings and inbred male offspring took longer to reach sexual maturity. There was no evidence of inbreeding avoidance in pre-copulatory behaviors of females or males. Sexual responsiveness of females to courting males and the number of sexual behaviors males directed at females did not decrease as a function of the relatedness of the two individuals. We also tested whether female guppies can use post-copulatory mechanisms to bias sperm usage toward unrelated males by comparing the number of offspring produced by females mated to two of their siblings (SS), two males unrelated to the female (NN), or to one unrelated male and a sibling male (NS). We found that NS females produced a number of offspring not significantly different than what would be expected if fertilization success were halfway between completely outbreeding (NN) and completely inbreeding (SS) females. This suggests that there is no significant improvement in the number of offspring produced by females mating to both related and unrelated males, relative to that which would be expected if sperm from both males were used equally. Our results suggest that female guppies do not discriminate against closely related males or their sperm.

  11. Paternity in wild ring‐tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): Implications for male mating strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sauther, Michelle L.; Cuozzo, Frank P.; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho; Lawler, Richard R.; Sussman, Robert W.; Gould, Lisa; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    1 In group‐living species with male dominance hierarchies where receptive periods of females do not overlap, high male reproductive skew would be predicted. However, the existence of female multiple mating and alternative male mating strategies can call into question single‐male monopolization of paternity in groups. Ring‐tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are seasonally breeding primates that live in multi‐male, multi‐female groups. Although established groups show male dominance hierarchies, male dominance relationships can break down during mating periods. In addition, females are the dominant sex and mate with multiple males during estrus, including group residents, and extra‐group males—posing the question of whether there is high or low male paternity skew in groups. In this study, we analyzed paternity in a population of wild L. catta from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Paternity was determined with 80–95% confidence for 39 offspring born to nine different groups. We calculated male reproductive skew indices for six groups, and our results showed a range of values corresponding to both high and low reproductive skew. Between 21% and 33% of offspring (3 of 14 or three of nine, counting paternity assignments at the 80% or 95% confidence levels, respectively) were sired by extra‐troop males. Males siring offspring within the same group during the same year appear to be unrelated. Our study provides evidence of varying male reproductive skew in different L. catta groups. A single male may monopolize paternity across one or more years, while in other groups, >1 male can sire offspring within the same group, even within a single year. Extra‐group mating is a viable strategy that can result in extra‐group paternity for L. catta males. PMID:27391113

  12. Paternity in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): Implications for male mating strategies.

    PubMed

    Parga, Joyce A; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho; Lawler, Richard R; Sussman, Robert W; Gould, Lisa; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    In group-living species with male dominance hierarchies where receptive periods of females do not overlap, high male reproductive skew would be predicted. However, the existence of female multiple mating and alternative male mating strategies can call into question single-male monopolization of paternity in groups. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are seasonally breeding primates that live in multi-male, multi-female groups. Although established groups show male dominance hierarchies, male dominance relationships can break down during mating periods. In addition, females are the dominant sex and mate with multiple males during estrus, including group residents, and extra-group males-posing the question of whether there is high or low male paternity skew in groups. In this study, we analyzed paternity in a population of wild L. catta from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Paternity was determined with 80-95% confidence for 39 offspring born to nine different groups. We calculated male reproductive skew indices for six groups, and our results showed a range of values corresponding to both high and low reproductive skew. Between 21% and 33% of offspring (3 of 14 or three of nine, counting paternity assignments at the 80% or 95% confidence levels, respectively) were sired by extra-troop males. Males siring offspring within the same group during the same year appear to be unrelated. Our study provides evidence of varying male reproductive skew in different L. catta groups. A single male may monopolize paternity across one or more years, while in other groups, >1 male can sire offspring within the same group, even within a single year. Extra-group mating is a viable strategy that can result in extra-group paternity for L. catta males. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Queen execution increases relatedness among workers of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Maki N; Ito, Fuminori; Goka, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Polygyny in social insects can greatly reduce within-nest genetic relatedness. In polygynous ant species, potential rival queens in colonies with multiple queens are often executed by other queens, workers, or both. The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, native to South America, forms a "supercolony" that is composed of a large number of nests and is considered to contribute to the ant's invasion success. Currently, four mutually antagonistic supercolonies are contiguously distributed within a small area of Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic structure and relatedness within and among the four supercolonies using microsatellite markers to clarify how L. humile maintains its supercoloniality. The results of AMOVA and BASP, the F ST values, and the existence of several private alleles indicated that the L. humile population in the Kobe area had a characteristic genetic structure. Within a given supercolony, there was significant genetic differentiation (F ST) among workers collected in May and those collected in September. The significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium increased, and the relatedness among workers significantly increased from May to September in all supercolonies. This result suggested that the supercolonies replaced old queens with new ones during the reproductive season, thus supporting the plausibility of queen execution. From the perspective of kin selection, workers collectively eliminate queens, thereby increasing their own inclusive fitness. Restricted gene flow among supercolonies, together with mating with sib and queen execution, could help to maintain the unique social structure of L. humile, the distribution of which is expanding worldwide.

  14. Living on the wedge: female control of paternity in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid

    PubMed Central

    Kohda, Masanori; Heg, Dik; Makino, Yoshimi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Shibata, Jun-ya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Munehara, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio; Awata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shaped sites allowed females to manipulate the siring success of the group member males by spawning the clutch at the spot where the large males were just able to enter and fertilize the outer part of the clutch. Small males fertilized the inner part of the clutch, protected from the large aggressive males, leading to low male reproductive skew. Small males provided more brood care than large males. Multiple paternity induced both males to provide brood care and reduced female brood care accordingly. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case in a species with external fertilization showing female mating behaviour leading to multiple male paternity and increased male brood care as a result. PMID:19726479

  15. Living on the wedge: female control of paternity in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Masanori; Heg, Dik; Makino, Yoshimi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Shibata, Jun-ya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Munehara, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio; Awata, Satoshi

    2009-12-07

    Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shaped sites allowed females to manipulate the siring success of the group member males by spawning the clutch at the spot where the large males were just able to enter and fertilize the outer part of the clutch. Small males fertilized the inner part of the clutch, protected from the large aggressive males, leading to low male reproductive skew. Small males provided more brood care than large males. Multiple paternity induced both males to provide brood care and reduced female brood care accordingly. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case in a species with external fertilization showing female mating behaviour leading to multiple male paternity and increased male brood care as a result.

  16. Towards a Framework for Developing Semantic Relatedness Reference Standards

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B.; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the “moderate” range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development. PMID:21044697

  17. Paternal Psychiatric Symptoms and Maladaptive Paternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between paternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Paternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed among 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Paternal…

  18. Preconception Maternal and Paternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Birth Size: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. Objective: We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Methods: Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Results: Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84–195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98–170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Conclusions: Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. Citation: Robledo CA, Yeung E

  19. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  20. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  1. Examining Evidence for Autonomy and Relatedness in Urban Inuit Parenting

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.; Smylie, Janet K.; Prince, Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy–relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:23946698

  2. Examining Evidence for Autonomy and Relatedness in Urban Inuit Parenting.

    PubMed

    McShane, Kelly E; Hastings, Paul D; Smylie, Janet K; Prince, Conrad

    2009-12-01

    Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy-relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed.

  3. Human-modified habitats change patterns of population genetic structure and group relatedness in Peter's tent-roosting bats.

    PubMed

    Sagot, Maria; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Although coloniality is widespread among mammals, it is still not clear what factors influence composition of social groups. As animals need to adapt to multiple habitat and environmental conditions throughout their range, variation in group composition should be influenced by adaptive adjustment to different ecological factors. Relevant to anthropogenic disturbance, increased habitat modification by humans can alter species' presence, density, and population structure. Therefore, it is important to understand the consequences of changes to landscape composition, in particular how habitat modification affects social structure of group-forming organisms. Here, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different habitat characteristics at different scales affect structure of social groups. By dividing analyses by age and sex, we determined that genetic structure was greater for adult females than adult males or offspring. Habitat variables explained 80% of the variation in group relatedness (mainly influenced by female relatedness) with roost characteristics contributing the most explained variation. This suggests that females using roosts of specific characteristics exhibit higher relatedness and seem to be philopatric. These females mate with more males than do more labile female groups. Results describe ecological and microevolutionary processes, which affect relatedness and social structure; findings are highly relevant to species distributions in both natural and human-modified environments.

  4. Extensive paternal mtDNA leakage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Maria D S; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strict maternal inheritance is considered a hallmark of animal mtDNA. Although recent reports suggest that paternal leakage occurs in a broad range of species, it is still considered an exceptionally rare event. To evaluate the impact of paternal leakage on the evolution of mtDNA, it is essential to reliably estimate the frequency of paternal leakage in natural populations. Using allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we show that heteroplasmy is common in natural populations with at least 14% of the individuals carrying multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. However, the average frequency of the minor mtDNA haplotype is low (0.8%), which suggests that this pervasive heteroplasmy has not been noticed before due to a lack of power in sequencing surveys. Based on the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the offspring of heteroplasmic mothers, we found no evidence for strong selection against one of the haplotypes. We estimated that the rate of paternal leakage is 6% and that at least 100 generations are required for complete sorting of mtDNA haplotypes. Despite the high proportion of heteroplasmic individuals in natural populations, we found no evidence for recombination between mtDNA molecules, suggesting that either recombination is rare or recombinant haplotypes are counter-selected. Our results indicate that evolutionary studies using mtDNA as a marker might be biased by paternal leakage in this species. PMID:23452233

  5. Model-free Estimation of Recent Genetic Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Conomos, Matthew P.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Weir, Bruce S.; Thornton, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Genealogical inference from genetic data is essential for a variety of applications in human genetics. In genome-wide and sequencing association studies, for example, accurate inference on both recent genetic relatedness, such as family structure, and more distant genetic relatedness, such as population structure, is necessary for protection against spurious associations. Distinguishing familial relatedness from population structure with genotype data, however, is difficult because both manifest as genetic similarity through the sharing of alleles. Existing approaches for inference on recent genetic relatedness have limitations in the presence of population structure, where they either (1) make strong and simplifying assumptions about population structure, which are often untenable, or (2) require correct specification of and appropriate reference population panels for the ancestries in the sample, which might be unknown or not well defined. Here, we propose PC-Relate, a model-free approach for estimating commonly used measures of recent genetic relatedness, such as kinship coefficients and IBD sharing probabilities, in the presence of unspecified structure. PC-Relate uses principal components calculated from genome-screen data to partition genetic correlations among sampled individuals due to the sharing of recent ancestors and more distant common ancestry into two separate components, without requiring specification of the ancestral populations or reference population panels. In simulation studies with population structure, including admixture, we demonstrate that PC-Relate provides accurate estimates of genetic relatedness and improved relationship classification over widely used approaches. We further demonstrate the utility of PC-Relate in applications to three ancestrally diverse samples that vary in both size and genealogical complexity. PMID:26748516

  6. Medical paternalism in House M.D.

    PubMed

    Wicclair, M R

    2008-12-01

    The popular television series House M.D. is drawn upon to provide a critical examination of medical paternalism and how it is presented in the show. Dr Gregory House, the character named in the title of the series, is a paradigm of a paternalistic physician. He believes that he knows what is best for his patients, and he repeatedly disregards their wishes in order to diagnose and treat their illnesses. This paper examines several examples of medical paternalism and the means used to portray it favourably in the series. It is argued that the positive depiction of medical paternalism in the fictional world of the series does not apply in the real world. The paper also considers why a show that features a paternalistic physician who so blatantly flouts mainstream medical ethics might appeal to health professionals and members of the general public.

  7. Inferred Paternity and Male Reproductive Success in a Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Population.

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Hanson, M Bradley; Hempelmann, Jennifer A; Ayres, Katherine L; Emmons, Candice K; Schorr, Gregory S; Baird, Robin W; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Wasser, Samuel K; Parsons, Kim M; Balcomb-Bartok, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We used data from 78 individuals at 26 microsatellite loci to infer parental and sibling relationships within a community of fish-eating ("resident") eastern North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca). Paternity analysis involving 15 mother/calf pairs and 8 potential fathers and whole-pedigree analysis of the entire sample produced consistent results. The variance in male reproductive success was greater than expected by chance and similar to that of other aquatic mammals. Although the number of confirmed paternities was small, reproductive success appeared to increase with male age and size. We found no evidence that males from outside this small population sired any of the sampled individuals. In contrast to previous results in a different population, many offspring were the result of matings within the same "pod" (long-term social group). Despite this pattern of breeding within social groups, we found no evidence of offspring produced by matings between close relatives, and the average internal relatedness of individuals was significantly less than expected if mating were random. The population's estimated effective size was <30 or about 1/3 of the current census size. Patterns of allele frequency variation were consistent with a population bottleneck.

  8. The influence of nonrandom extra‐pair paternity on heritability estimates derived from wild pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Josh A.; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Santure, Anna W.; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness among individuals through observation. However, extra‐pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with EPP and the accuracy of heritability estimates for such traits remains unexplored. We show analytically how nonrandom pedigree errors can influence heritability estimates. Then, combining empirical data from a large great tit (Parus major) pedigree with simulations, we assess how heritability estimates derived from social pedigrees change depending on the mode of the relationship between EPP and the focal trait. We show that the magnitude of the underestimation is typically small (<15%). Hence, our analyses suggest that quantitative genetic inference from pedigrees derived from observations of social relationships is relatively robust; our approach also provides a widely applicable method for assessing the consequences of nonrandom EPP. PMID:25800997

  9. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for... determination of good cause for refusal to cooperate under section 454(29) of the Act. (2) A contested paternity...

  10. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for... determination of good cause for refusal to cooperate under section 454(29) of the Act. (2) A contested paternity...

  11. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for... determination of good cause for refusal to cooperate under section 454(29) of the Act. (2) A contested paternity...

  12. Paternal influences on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Cleghorn de Rohrmoser, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected characteristics of the paternal work environment and occupational history to the incidence of complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and anomalies in birth outcomes. The literature suggested that male exposure to teratogenic hazards in the form of radiation and chemical compounds, primarily in the form of solvents, has been implicated in reproductive disorders and malformed offspring in animals. Similarly, some recent research suggests that the exposure of male workers to such hazards on their job may have consequences for their spouses and children. Based on these experimental research studies and analyses of persons working in high risk occupations, a broader study of the potential contribution of paternal work environment variables to the success of pregnancy and birth outcomes seemed warranted. Based upon the literature review, a model was proposed for predicting complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and birth outcome (normal birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations and fetal death). From the 1980 National Natality Survey and the 1980 National Fetal Mortality Survey, four sub-samples of married couples, with both husband and wife employed, were selected on the basis of one of the four birth outcomes. The model called for controlling a range of maternal intrinsic and extrinsic health and behavioral variables known to be related to birth outcomes. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to analyze the effects of father's exposure to radiation and solvents on the job, to complications in pregnancy and labor, and to birth outcome, while controlling for maternal variables. The results indicated that none of the paternal variables were predictors of complications in labor. Further, there was no clear pattern of results, though father's degree of exposure to solvents, and exposures to radiation did reach significance in some analyses.

  13. Temporally dynamic habitat suitability predicts genetic relatedness among caribou

    PubMed Central

    Yannic, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Le Corre, Maël; Dussault, Christian; Bernatchez, Louis; Côté, Steeve D.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity plays a central role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. While species utilization of the landscape is usually viewed as constant within a year, the spatial distribution of individuals is likely to vary in time in relation to particular seasonal needs. Understanding temporal variation in landscape use and genetic connectivity has direct conservation implications. Here, we modelled the daily use of the landscape by caribou in Quebec and Labrador, Canada and tested its ability to explain the genetic relatedness among individuals. We assessed habitat selection using locations of collared individuals in migratory herds and static occurrences from sedentary groups. Connectivity models based on habitat use outperformed a baseline isolation-by-distance model in explaining genetic relatedness, suggesting that variations in landscape features such as snow, vegetation productivity and land use modulate connectivity among populations. Connectivity surfaces derived from habitat use were the best predictors of genetic relatedness. The relationship between connectivity surface and genetic relatedness varied in time and peaked during the rutting period. Landscape permeability in the period of mate searching is especially important to allow gene flow among populations. Our study highlights the importance of considering temporal variations in habitat selection for optimizing connectivity across heterogeneous landscape and counter habitat fragmentation. PMID:25122223

  14. Social evolution in the shadow of asymmetrical relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, D. B.; Taylor, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of altruism and spite remains an enduring problem of social evolution. It is well known that selection for these actions depends on the structure of the population—that is, on actors' genetic relationships to recipients and to the ‘neighbourhood’ upon which the effects of their actions redound. Less appreciated, however, is that population structure can cause genetic asymmetries between partners whereby the relatedness (defined relative to the neighbourhood) of an individual i to a partner j will differ from the relatedness of j to i. Here, we introduce a widespread mechanism of kin recognition to a model of dispersal in subdivided populations. In so doing, we uncover three remarkable consequences of asymmetrical relatedness. First, altruism directed at phenotypically similar partners evolves more easily among migrant than native actors. Second, spite directed at dissimilar partners evolves more easily among native than migrant actors. Third, unlike migrants, natives can evolve to pay costs that far outstrip those they spitefully impose on others. We find that the frequency of natives relative to migrants amplifies the asymmetries between them. Taken together, our results reveal differentiated patterns of ‘phenocentrism’ that readily arise from asymmetries of relatedness. PMID:25925099

  15. The Measurement of Job Relatedness for Vocational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David N.

    Evaluation of vocational programs is complicated by the entry of graduates into many occupations other than the ones for which they were trained. To provide a reliable criterion for evaluating programs, the methodology for determining job relatedness both horizontally and vertically is developed, making it possible to compare two jobs or a given…

  16. Policing effectiveness depends on relatedness and group size.

    PubMed

    Walter, Bartosz; Brunner, Elisabeth; Heinze, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Cohesion of social groups requires the suppression of individual selfishness. Indeed, worker egg laying in insect societies is usually suppressed or punished through aggression and egg removal. The effectiveness of such "policing" is expected to increase with decreasing relatedness, as inclusive fitness of group members is more strongly affected by selfish worker reproduction when group members are less closely related to each other. As inclusive fitness is also influenced by the costs and benefits of helping, the effectiveness of policing should decrease with increasing colony size, because the costs for the whole colony from selfish worker reproduction are proportionally reduced in large groups. Here, we show that policing effectiveness in colonies of the ant Temnothorax unifasciatus is low in large groups and high in small groups when relatedness is high. When we experimentally decreased the relatedness in groups, the policing effectiveness reached the same high level as in small, highly related groups, irrespective of group size. Therefore, our results indicate that policing effectiveness is simultaneously shaped by relatedness and group size, that is, an ecological factor. This may have major implications for testing policing across species of animals.

  17. Temporally dynamic habitat suitability predicts genetic relatedness among caribou.

    PubMed

    Yannic, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Le Corre, Maël; Dussault, Christian; Bernatchez, Louis; Côté, Steeve D

    2014-10-07

    Landscape heterogeneity plays a central role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. While species utilization of the landscape is usually viewed as constant within a year, the spatial distribution of individuals is likely to vary in time in relation to particular seasonal needs. Understanding temporal variation in landscape use and genetic connectivity has direct conservation implications. Here, we modelled the daily use of the landscape by caribou in Quebec and Labrador, Canada and tested its ability to explain the genetic relatedness among individuals. We assessed habitat selection using locations of collared individuals in migratory herds and static occurrences from sedentary groups. Connectivity models based on habitat use outperformed a baseline isolation-by-distance model in explaining genetic relatedness, suggesting that variations in landscape features such as snow, vegetation productivity and land use modulate connectivity among populations. Connectivity surfaces derived from habitat use were the best predictors of genetic relatedness. The relationship between connectivity surface and genetic relatedness varied in time and peaked during the rutting period. Landscape permeability in the period of mate searching is especially important to allow gene flow among populations. Our study highlights the importance of considering temporal variations in habitat selection for optimizing connectivity across heterogeneous landscape and counter habitat fragmentation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  19. Estimating Relatedness in the Presence of Null Alleles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kang; Ritland, Kermit; Dunn, Derek W.; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of genetics and ecology often require estimates of relatedness coefficients based on genetic marker data. However, with the presence of null alleles, an observed genotype can represent one of several possible true genotypes. This results in biased estimates of relatedness. As the numbers of marker loci are often limited, loci with null alleles cannot be abandoned without substantial loss of statistical power. Here, we show how loci with null alleles can be incorporated into six estimators of relatedness (two novel). We evaluate the performance of various estimators before and after correction for null alleles. If the frequency of a null allele is <0.1, some estimators can be used directly without adjustment; if it is >0.5, the potency of estimation is too low and such a locus should be excluded. We make available a software package entitled PolyRelatedness v1.6, which enables researchers to optimize these estimators to best fit a particular data set. PMID:26500259

  20. The Influence of Sourcing and Relatedness on Event Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong Joyce; Millis, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of sourcing and relatedness on the integration of events embedded in simple stories. Participants read pairs of "breaking news stories" from either 1 or 2 news agencies that were believed to be from the Internet. The stories within each pair were either related by virtue of shared situational dimensions (e.g.,…

  1. Effect Logical Relatedness and Semantic Overlap on Argument Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandotkar, Srikanth; Magliano, Joseph P.; Britt, M. Anne

    2016-01-01

    In two studies we examined the extent to which skilled and less-skilled reasoners of arguments relied on relevance relations (semantic and logical relatedness) between claims and reasons when evaluating arguments. College students, selected as having high or low analytical reasoning skill, evaluated the quality of a set of two sentence arguments…

  2. The Influence of Sourcing and Relatedness on Event Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong Joyce; Millis, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of sourcing and relatedness on the integration of events embedded in simple stories. Participants read pairs of "breaking news stories" from either 1 or 2 news agencies that were believed to be from the Internet. The stories within each pair were either related by virtue of shared situational dimensions (e.g.,…

  3. THE EFFECTS OF WORD-RELATEDNESS ON LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOPLIN, JAMES H.; NUNNALLY, JUM C.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO EXAMINE THE EFFECTS OF SEVERAL MEASURES OF WORD-RELATEDNESS ON SEVERAL VERBAL LEARNING TASKS--PRIMARILY PAIRED-ASSOCIATES LEARNING AND VERBAL DISCRIMINATION LEARNING, WITH INCIDENTAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO FREE RECALL AND SEMANTIC GENERALIZATION. THE STRATEGY WAS TO SELECT A SAMPLE OF WORD PAIRS (240 COMMON NOUNS…

  4. Social evolution in the shadow of asymmetrical relatedness.

    PubMed

    Krupp, D B; Taylor, Peter D

    2015-05-22

    The persistence of altruism and spite remains an enduring problem of social evolution. It is well known that selection for these actions depends on the structure of the population-that is, on actors' genetic relationships to recipients and to the 'neighbourhood' upon which the effects of their actions redound. Less appreciated, however, is that population structure can cause genetic asymmetries between partners whereby the relatedness (defined relative to the neighbourhood) of an individual i to a partner j will differ from the relatedness of j to i. Here, we introduce a widespread mechanism of kin recognition to a model of dispersal in subdivided populations. In so doing, we uncover three remarkable consequences of asymmetrical relatedness. First, altruism directed at phenotypically similar partners evolves more easily among migrant than native actors. Second, spite directed at dissimilar partners evolves more easily among native than migrant actors. Third, unlike migrants, natives can evolve to pay costs that far outstrip those they spitefully impose on others. We find that the frequency of natives relative to migrants amplifies the asymmetries between them. Taken together, our results reveal differentiated patterns of 'phenocentrism' that readily arise from asymmetries of relatedness. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect Logical Relatedness and Semantic Overlap on Argument Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandotkar, Srikanth; Magliano, Joseph P.; Britt, M. Anne

    2016-01-01

    In two studies we examined the extent to which skilled and less-skilled reasoners of arguments relied on relevance relations (semantic and logical relatedness) between claims and reasons when evaluating arguments. College students, selected as having high or low analytical reasoning skill, evaluated the quality of a set of two sentence arguments…

  6. Estimating relatedness and relationships using microsatellite loci with null alleles.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A P; Creel, S; Kalinowski, S T

    2006-11-01

    Relatedness is often estimated from microsatellite genotypes that include null alleles. When null alleles are present, observed genotypes represent one of several possible true genotypes. If null alleles are detected, but analyses do not adjust for their presence (ie, observed genotypes are treated as true genotypes), then estimates of relatedness and relationship can be incorrect. The number of loci available in many wildlife studies is limited, and loci with null alleles are commonly a large proportion of data that cannot be discarded without substantial loss of power. To resolve this problem, we present a new approach for estimating relatedness and relationships from data sets that include null alleles. Once it is recognized that the probability of the observed genotypes is dependent on the probabilities of a limited number of possible true genotypes, the required adjustments are straightforward. The concept can be applied to any existing estimators of relatedness and relationships. We review established maximum likelihood estimators and apply the correction in that setting. In an application of the corrected method to data from striped hyenas, we demonstrate that correcting for the presence of null alleles affect results substantially. Finally, we use simulated data to confirm that this method works better than two common approaches, namely ignoring the presence of null alleles or discarding affected loci.

  7. Paternally expressed genes predominate in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C; Harman, Rebecca; Antczak, Douglas F; Clark, Andrew G

    2013-06-25

    The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes, of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate imprinted genes identified by RNA sequencing also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), a gene involved in chromatin modification, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C, a newly identified imprinted gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This variability results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting.

  8. Paternal inheritance of mitochondria in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Soichi

    2010-03-01

    To analyze mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)inheritance, differences in mtDNA between Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas smithii, respiration deficiency and antibiotic resistance were used to distinguish mtDNA origins. The analyses indicated paternal inheritance. However, these experiments raised questions regarding whether paternal inheritance occurred normally.Mitochondrial nucleoids were observed in living zygotes from mating until 3 days after mating and then until progeny formation. However, selective disappearance of nucleoids was not observed. Subsequently, experimental serial backcrosses between the two strains demonstrated strict paternal inheritance. The fate of mt+ and mt- mtDNA was followed using the differences in mtDNA between the two strains. The slow elimination of mt+ mtDNA through zygote maturation in darkness was observed, and later the disappearance of mt+ mtDNA was observed at the beginning of meiosis. To explain the different fates of mtDNA, methylation status was investigated; however, no methylation was detected. Variously constructed diploid cells showed biparental inheritance. Thus, when the mating process occurs normally, paternal inheritance occurs. Mutations disrupting mtDNA inheritance have not yet been isolated. Mutations that disrupt maternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) do not disrupt inheritance of mtDNA. The genes responsible for mtDNA inheritance are different from those of chloroplasts.

  9. Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rando, Oliver J

    2012-11-09

    The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects.

  10. Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

  11. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  12. Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

  13. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  14. Blood Group ABO Genotyping in Paternity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Bugert, Peter; Rink, Gabriele; Kemp, Katharina; Klüter, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Background The ABO blood groups result from DNA sequence variations, predominantly single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), in the ABO gene encoding a glycosyltransferase. The ABO blood groups A1, A2, B and O predominantly result from the wild type allele A1 and the major gene variants that are characterized by four diallelic markers (261G>del, 802G>A, 803G>C, 1061C>del). Here, we were interested to evaluate the impact of ABO genotyping compared to ABO phenotyping in paternity testing. Methods The major ABO alleles were determined by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in a representative sample of 1,335 blood donors. The genotypes were compared to the ABO blood groups registered in the blood donor files. Then, the ABO phenotypes and genotypes were determined in 95 paternity trio cases that have been investigated by 12 short tandem repeat (STR) markers before. We compared statistical parameters (PL, paternity likelihood; PE, power of exclusion) of both blood grouping approaches. Results The prevalence of the major ABO alleles and genotypes corresponded to the expected occurrence of ABO blood groups in a Caucasian population. The low resolution genotyping of 4 diallelic markers revealed a correct genotype-phenotype correlation in 1,331 of 1,335 samples (99.7%). In 60 paternity trios with confirmed paternity of the alleged father based on STR analysis both PL and PE of the ABO genotype was significantly higher than of the ABO phenotype. In 12 of 35 exclusion cases (34.3%) the ABO genotype also excluded the alleged father, whereas the ABO phenotype excluded the alleged father only in 7 cases (20%). Conclusion In paternity testing ABO genotyping is superior to ABO phenotyping with regard to PL and PE, however, ABO genotyping is not sufficient for valid paternity testing. Due to the much lower mutation rate compared to STR markers, blood group SNPs in addition to anonymous SNPs could be considered for future

  15. Job-Relatedness of a Posttraining Job Knowledge Criterion Used to Assess Validity and Test Fairness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distefano, M. K., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Significant job-relatedness was found for a posttraining job knowledge test criterion. Content validity methods may be able to help solve the problem of criterion relevance in validation research by providing quantitative evidence of job-relatedness. (Author)

  16. Habitat selection predicts genetic relatedness in an alpine ungulate.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Aaron B A; Northrup, Joseph M; White, Kevin S; Boyce, Mark S; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W

    2012-06-01

    Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, whereas population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables. We combined ecological and genetic approaches by using RSFs to predict genetic relatedness across a heterogeneous landscape. We constructed sex- and season-specific resistance surfaces based on RSFs estimated using data from 102 GPS (global positioning system) radio-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in southeast Alaska, USA. Based on mountain goat ecology, we hypothesized that summer and male surfaces would be the best predictors of relatedness. All individuals were genotyped at 22 microsatellite loci, which we used to estimate genetic relatedness. Summer resistance surfaces derived from RSFs were the best predictors of genetic relatedness, and winter models the poorest. Mountain goats generally selected for areas close to escape terrain and with a high heat load (a metric related to vegetative productivity and snow depth), while avoiding valleys. Male- and female-specific surfaces were similar, except for winter, for which male habitat selection better predicted genetic relatedness. The null models of isolation-by-distance and barrier only outperformed the winter models. This study merges high-resolution individual locations through GPS telemetry and genetic data, that can be used to validate and parameterize landscape genetics models, and further elucidates the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and genetic differentiation.

  17. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  18. Epigenetic inheritance and evolution: A paternal perspective on dietary influences.

    PubMed

    Soubry, Adelheid

    2015-07-01

    The earliest indications for paternally induced transgenerational effects from the environment to future generations were based on a small number of long-term epidemiological studies and some empirical observations. Only recently have experimental animal models and a few analyses on human data explored the transgenerational nature of phenotypic changes observed in offspring. Changes include multiple metabolic disorders, cancer and other chronic diseases. These phenotypes cannot always be explained by Mendelian inheritance, DNA mutations or genetic damage. Hence, a new compelling theory on epigenetic inheritance is gaining interest, providing new concepts that extend Darwin's evolutionary theory. Epigenetic alterations or "epimutations" are being considered to explain transgenerational inheritance of parentally acquired traits. The responsible mechanisms for these epimutations include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA-mediated effects. This review explores the literature on a number of time-dependent environmentally induced epigenetic alterations, specifically those from dietary exposures. We suggest a role for the male germ line as one of nature's tools to capture messages from our continuously changing environment and to transfer this information to subsequent generations. Further, we open the discussion that the paternally inherited epigenetic information may contribute to evolutionary adaptation.

  19. The Genetic Relatedness in Groups of Joint-Nesting Taiwan Yuhinas: Low Genetic Relatedness with Preferences for Male Kin

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Ru; Li, Shou-Hsien; Fang, Shu; Pu, Chang-En; Yuan, Hsiao-Wei; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relative importance of direct and indirect fitness and, thus, the role of kinship in the evolution of social behavior is much debated. Studying the genetic relatedness of interacting individuals is crucial to improving our understanding of these issues. Here, we used a seven-year data set to study the genetic structure of the Taiwan yuhina (Yuhina brunneciceps), a joint-nesting passerine. Ten microsatellite loci were used to investigate the pair-wised relatedness among yuhina breeding group members. We found that the average genetic relatedness between same-sex group members was very low (0.069 for male dyads and 0.016 for female dyads). There was also a low ratio of closely-related kin (r>0.25) in the cooperative breeding groups of yuhinas (21.59% and 9.68% for male and female dyads, respectively). However, the relatedness of male dyads within breeding groups was significantly higher than female dyads. Our results suggest that yuhina cooperation is maintained primarily by direct fitness benefits to individuals; however, kin selection might play a role in partner choice for male yuhinas. Our study also highlights an important, but often neglected, question: Why do animals form non-kin groups, if kin are available? We use biological market theory to propose an explanation for group formation of unrelated Taiwan yuhinas. PMID:26086267

  20. Mitochondrial endonuclease G mediates breakdown of paternal mitochondria upon fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Li, Hanzeng; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Lin, Jason L J; Lee, Eui-Seung; Harry, Brian L; Skeen-Gaar, Riley Robert; Suehiro, Yuji; William, Donna; Mitani, Shohei; Yuan, Hanna S; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-07-22

    Mitochondria are inherited maternally in most animals, but the mechanisms of selective paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) are unknown. While examining fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans, we observed that paternal mitochondria rapidly lose their inner membrane integrity. CPS-6, a mitochondrial endonuclease G, serves as a paternal mitochondrial factor that is critical for PME. We found that CPS-6 relocates from the intermembrane space of paternal mitochondria to the matrix after fertilization to degrade mitochondrial DNA. It acts with maternal autophagy and proteasome machineries to promote PME. Loss of cps-6 delays breakdown of mitochondrial inner membranes, autophagosome enclosure of paternal mitochondria, and PME. Delayed removal of paternal mitochondria causes increased embryonic lethality, demonstrating that PME is important for normal animal development. Thus, CPS-6 functions as a paternal mitochondrial degradation factor during animal development.

  1. How female reed buntings benefit from extra-pair mating behaviour: testing hypotheses through patterns of paternity in sequential broods.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Karen M; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2006-08-01

    Extra-pair paternity is an important aspect of reproductive strategies in many species of birds. Given that in most species females control whether fertilization occurs, they are expected to benefit in some way from the extra-pair matings. In this study we use patterns of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in broods of individual reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus), both within and between seasons, to test four hypothesized female benefits: (1) assessing potential future partners and seeking (2) genetic diversity (3) good genes, or (4) compatible genes. Reed buntings are socially monogamous, multibrooded passerines with extremely high levels of extra-pair paternity. We studied a population of reed buntings in the Netherlands in 2002 and 2003; 51% of offspring in 74% of nests were extra-pair. We showed that patterns of EPP did not support the first and second hypotheses, since females did not form a pair with previous extra-pair partners, EPP was not evenly distributed among broods and more broods than expected were sired by a single male. Furthermore, there was no relation between a male's within- and extra-pair fertilization success, no consistency in EPP between breeding attempts, no effect of parental relatedness on EPP and several cases of reciprocal paternity. These patterns do not support the good genes hypothesis and are most consistent with the genetic compatibility hypothesis. However, our previous finding that older males are more successful in gaining EPP, suggests some effect of good genes. These hypotheses need not be mutually exclusive, as females may select compatible males above a certain quality threshold (e.g. old males).

  2. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Qing; Liu, Jianqiao

    2016-01-01

    The impact of paternal age on reproduction, especially using assisted reproductive technologies, has not been well studied to date. To investigate the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes, here we performed a retrospective analysis of 2,627 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and May 2015. Effect of paternal age on embryo quality [number of fertilized oocytes, 2 pronucleus zygotes (2PNs), viable embryos, and high-quality embryos] was analyzed by multiple linear regression. Relationships between paternal age and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed by binary logistic regression. After adjusting for female age, no association between paternal age and the following parameters of embryo quality was observed: number of fertilized oocytes (B = -0.032; 95% CI -0.069–0.005; P = 0.088), number of 2PNs (B = -0.005; 95% CI -0.044–0.034; P = 0.806), and number of viable embryos (B = -0.025; 95% CI -0.052–0.001; P = 0.062). However, paternal age negatively influenced the number of high-quality embryos (B = -0.020; 95% CI -0.040–0.000; P = 0.045). Moreover, paternal age had no effect on pregnancy outcomes (OR for a 5-year interval), including the rates of clinical pregnancy (OR 0.919; 95% CI 0.839–1.006; P = 0.067), ongoing pregnancy (OR 0.914; 95% CI 0.833–1.003; P = 0.058), early pregnancy loss (OR 1.019; 95% CI 0.823–1.263; P = 0.861), live births (OR 0.916; 95% CI 0.833–1.007; P = 0.070), and preterm births (OR 1.061; 95% CI 0.898–1.254; P = 0.485). Therefore, increased paternal age negatively influences the number of high-quality embryos, but has no effect on pregnancy outcomes in couples undergoing ICSI cycles. However, more studies including men aged over 60 years with a longer-term follow-up are needed. PMID:26901529

  3. The study of relatedness and genetic diversity in cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Dessauer, H.C.; Longmire, J.; Briles, W.E.; Simon, R.C.; Wood, Don A.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) is responsible for recovery of endangered species in the wild and, when necessary, maintenance in captivity. These programs provide an immediate measure of insurance against extinction. A prerequisite inherent in all of these programs is the preservation of enough genetic diversity to maintain a viable population and to maintain the capacity of the population to respond to change. Measures of genetic diversity examine polymorphic genes that are not influenced by selection pressures. Examples of these techniques and those used to determine relatedness are discussed. Studies of genetic diversity, electrophoresis of blood proteins, relatedness, blood typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms which are being used by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center are discussed in detail.

  4. Thematic relatedness production norms for 100 object concepts.

    PubMed

    Jouravlev, Olessia; McRae, Ken

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of thematic relations is an area of increased interest in semantic memory research because it is crucial to many cognitive processes. One methodological issue that researchers face is how to identify pairs of thematically related concepts that are well-established in semantic memory for most people. In this article, we review existing methods of assessing thematic relatedness and provide thematic relatedness production norming data for 100 object concepts. In addition, 1,174 related concept pairs obtained from the production norms were classified as reflecting one of the five subtypes of relations: attributive, argument, coordinate, locative, and temporal. The database and methodology will be useful for researchers interested in the effects of thematic knowledge on language processing, analogical reasoning, similarity judgments, and memory. These data will also benefit researchers interested in investigating potential processing differences among the five types of semantic relations.

  5. Inbreeding and relatedness in Scandinavian grey wolves Canis lupus.

    PubMed

    Ellegren, H

    1999-01-01

    Management of small and threatened populations may require detailed knowledge about the genetic status of individuals and the genetic relatedness between individuals. I show here that individual heterozygosity at a set of 29 microsatellite loci correlates closely to the degree of inbreeding in a captive grey wolf population. Microsatellite allele sharing similarly correlates closely to known relatedness between pairs of individuals. Genotyping the same markers in a small (60-70 individuals) natural population of grey wolves in Sweden, low individual heterozygosities and high values of allele sharing between some animals were found. Since inbreeding depression has been documented in a captive grey wolf population of Scandinavian origin, the results point out an additional risk for the small Swedish wild population.

  6. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  7. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis).

    PubMed

    Parrott, Marissa L; Ward, Simon J; Temple-Smith, Peter D; Selwood, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus.

  8. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis)

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Marissa L.; Ward, Simon J.; Temple-Smith, Peter D.; Selwood, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus. PMID:25923325

  9. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Kempenaers; Lanctot; Robertson

    1998-04-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males' confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  10. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Robertson, Raleigh J.

    1998-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males’ confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment.

  11. Shared decision making, paternalism and patient choice.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In patient centred care, shared decision making is a central feature and widely referred to as a norm for patient centred medical consultation. However, it is far from clear how to distinguish SDM from standard models and ideals for medical decision making, such as paternalism and patient choice, and e.g., whether paternalism and patient choice can involve a greater degree of the sort of sharing involved in SDM and still retain their essential features. In the article, different versions of SDM are explored, versions compatible with paternalism and patient choice as well as versions that go beyond these traditional decision making models. Whenever SDM is discussed or introduced it is of importance to be clear over which of these different versions are being pursued, since they connect to basic values and ideals of health care in different ways. It is further argued that we have reason to pursue versions of SDM involving, what is called, a high level dynamics in medical decision-making. This leaves four alternative models to choose between depending on how we balance between the values of patient best interest, patient autonomy, and an effective decision in terms of patient compliance or adherence: Shared Rational Deliberative Patient Choice, Shared Rational Deliberative Paternalism, Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision, and Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise. In relation to these models it is argued that we ideally should use the Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision model. However, when the patient and professional fail to reach consensus we will have reason to pursue the Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise model since this will best harmonise between the different values at stake: patient best interest, patient autonomy, patient adherence and a continued care relationship.

  12. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    PubMed

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  13. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations

    PubMed Central

    Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28–45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0–69.1% common alleles and 45.6–48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8–77.0% common alleles and 51.7–60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection. PMID:27494031

  14. Making pathogens sociable: The emergence of high relatedness through limited host invasibility

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Edwin; O'Neill, Sarah; Matthews, Andrew; Raymond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation depends upon high relatedness, the high genetic similarity of interacting partners relative to the wider population. For pathogenic bacteria, which show diverse cooperative traits, the population processes that determine relatedness are poorly understood. Here, we explore whether within-host dynamics can produce high relatedness in the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. We study the effects of host/pathogen interactions on relatedness via a model of host invasion and fit parameters to competition experiments with marked strains. We show that invasibility is a key parameter for determining relatedness and experimentally demonstrate the emergence of high relatedness from well-mixed inocula. We find that a single infection cycle results in a bottleneck with a similar level of relatedness to those previously reported in the field. The bottlenecks that are a product of widespread barriers to infection can therefore produce the population structure required for the evolution of cooperative virulence. PMID:26125685

  15. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

  16. Genomic Relatedness Strengthens Genetic Connectedness Across Management Units.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haipeng; Spangler, Matthew L; Lewis, Ronald M; Morota, Gota

    2017-08-31

    Genetic connectedness refers to a measure of genetic relatedness across management units (e.g., herds and flocks). With the presence of high genetic connectedness in management units, best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) is known to provide reliable comparisons between genetic values. Genetic connectedness has been studied for pedigree-based BLUP; however, relatively little attention has been paid to using genomic information to measure connectedness. In this study, we assessed genome-based connectedness across management units by applying prediction error variance of difference (PEVD), coefficient of determination (CD), and prediction error correlation (r) to a combination of computer simulation and real data (mice and cattle). We found that genomic information (G) increased the estimate of connectedness among individuals from different management units compared to that based on pedigree (A). A disconnected design benefited the most. In both datasets, PEVD and CD statistics inferred increased connectedness across units when using G- rather than A-based relatedness suggesting stronger connectedness. With r once using allele frequencies equal to one-half or scaling G to values between 0 and 2, which is intrinsic to A, connectedness also increased with genomic information. However, PEVD occasionally increased, and r decreased when obtained using the alternative form of G, instead suggesting less connectedness. Such inconsistencies were not found with CD. We contend that genomic relatedness strengthens measures of genetic connectedness across units and has the potential to aid genomic evaluation of livestock species. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  17. Diversity and Relatedness Enhance Survival in Colour Polymorphic Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Caesar, Sofia; Karlsson, Magnus; Forsman, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals. PMID:20526364

  18. Kin selection and polygyny: can relatedness lower the polygyny threshold?

    PubMed Central

    Grønstøl, Gaute; Blomqvist, Donald; Pauliny, Angela; Wagner, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Resource polygyny incurs costs of having to share breeding resources for female breeders. When breeding with a relative, however, such costs may be lessened by indirect fitness benefits through kin selection, while benefits from mutualistic behaviour, such as communal defence, may increase. If so, females should be less resistant to sharing a territory with a related female than with a non-related one. We investigated whether kin selection may lower the threshold of breeding polygynously, predicting a closer relatedness between polygynous females breeding on the same territory than between females breeding on different territories. Northern lapwings, Vanellus vanellus, are suitable for testing this hypothesis as they are commonly polygynous, both sexes take part in nest defence, and the efficiency of nest defence increases with the number of defenders. Using an index of relatedness derived from DNA fingerprinting, we found that female lapwings that shared polygynous dyads were on average twice as closely related as were random females. Furthermore, relatedness did not correlate with distance between breeders, indicating that our findings cannot be explained by natal philopatry alone. Our results suggest that the polygyny threshold in lapwings may be lowered by inclusive fitness advantages of kin selection. PMID:26543568

  19. Kin selection and polygyny: can relatedness lower the polygyny threshold?

    PubMed

    Grønstøl, Gaute; Blomqvist, Donald; Pauliny, Angela; Wagner, Richard H

    2015-06-01

    Resource polygyny incurs costs of having to share breeding resources for female breeders. When breeding with a relative, however, such costs may be lessened by indirect fitness benefits through kin selection, while benefits from mutualistic behaviour, such as communal defence, may increase. If so, females should be less resistant to sharing a territory with a related female than with a non-related one. We investigated whether kin selection may lower the threshold of breeding polygynously, predicting a closer relatedness between polygynous females breeding on the same territory than between females breeding on different territories. Northern lapwings, Vanellus vanellus, are suitable for testing this hypothesis as they are commonly polygynous, both sexes take part in nest defence, and the efficiency of nest defence increases with the number of defenders. Using an index of relatedness derived from DNA fingerprinting, we found that female lapwings that shared polygynous dyads were on average twice as closely related as were random females. Furthermore, relatedness did not correlate with distance between breeders, indicating that our findings cannot be explained by natal philopatry alone. Our results suggest that the polygyny threshold in lapwings may be lowered by inclusive fitness advantages of kin selection.

  20. Chemical diversity approach for evaluating mechanistic relatedness among toxicological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Pollack, N; Cunningham, A R; Klopman, G; Rosenkranz, H S

    1999-12-01

    The CASE/MULTICASE structure-activity relationship (SAR) system was used to assess a new procedure to investigate the mechanistic relatedness of various toxicological endpoints. The method consisted of predicting the activity of 10,000 randomly selected chemicals using validated and characterized SAR models from a variety of biological and toxicological endpoints. The prevalence of chemicals predicted to possess the ability to induce two or more toxicological effects simultaneously should provide a measure of the mechanistic relatedness of these phenomena. Eight toxicological endpoints were predicted and the results were compared to predictions based on an eye irritation SAR model. Allergic contact dermatitis demonstrated a 29.6% greater than expected overlap between expected and observed results (p < 0.001). Similar results were seen for respiratory hypersensitivity (33.1%), sensory irritation (28.9%), cell toxicity (25.9%), and Ah receptor binding (19.8%). A lesser degree of overlap was seen between eye irritation and Salmonella mutagenicity (11.5%) and the inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (6.7%). Moreover, a negative overlap, suggesting possibly an antagonistic phenomena, was observed between eye irritation and alpha 2 mu-induced nephropathy. These results indicate that this method can provide a useful tool to investigate mechanistic relatedness between diverse toxicological endpoints.

  1. Diversity and relatedness enhance survival in colour polymorphic grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Caesar, Sofia; Karlsson, Magnus; Forsman, Anders

    2010-05-28

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals.

  2. Father Involvement, Paternal Sensitivity, and Father-Child Attachment Security in the First Three Years

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    To reach a greater understanding of the early father-child attachment relationship, this study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among father involvement, paternal sensitivity, and father-child attachment security at 13 months and 3 years of age. Analyses revealed few associations among these variables at 13 months of age, but involvement and sensitivity independently predicted father-child attachment security at age 3. Moreover, sensitivity moderated the association between involvement and attachment security at 3 years. Specifically, involvement was unrelated to attachment security when fathers were highly sensitive, but positively related to attachment security when fathers were relatively less sensitive. Father involvement was also moderately stable across the two timepoints, but paternal sensitivity was not. Furthermore, there was significant stability in father-child attachment security from 13 months to 3 years. Secure attachment at 13 months also predicted greater levels of paternal sensitivity at 3 years, with sensitivity at age 3 mediating the association between 13 month and 3 year attachment security. In sum, a secure father-child attachment relationship a) was related to both quantity and quality of fathering behavior, b) remained relatively stable across early childhood, and c) predicted increased paternal sensitivity over time. These findings further our understanding of the correlates of early father-child attachment, and underscore the need to consider multiple domains of fathers’ parenting and reciprocal relations between fathering behavior and father-child attachment security. PMID:22468691

  3. Love the one you're with: proximity determines paternity success in the barnacle Tetraclita rubescens.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Morgan W; Grosberg, Richard K; Sanford, Eric

    2012-10-01

    A species' mating system sets limits on the strength of sexual selection. Sexual selection is widespread in dioecious species, but is less well documented in hermaphrodites, and may be less important. We used four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to broods of the hermaphroditic eastern Pacific volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens. These data were used to describe the species' mating system and to examine factors affecting male reproductive success. Tetraclita can sire broods over distances of 11.2 cm, but proximity to the sperm recipient had a highly significant effect on the probability of siring success. There was no effect of body size or the mass of male reproductive tissues on siring success. Broods showed relatively low frequencies of multiple paternity; even at high densities, 75% of broods had only one father. High frequencies of single-paternity broods imply either that this species does not compete via sperm displacement, or that sperm displacement is extremely effective, potentially explaining the lack of a positive relationship between male investment and paternity. In addition, there was low variance in siring success among individuals, suggesting a lack of strong sexual selection on male traits. Low variance among sires and the strong effect of proximity are probably driven by the unusual biology of a sessile copulating species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Paternal Low Protein Diet Programs Preimplantation Embryo Gene Expression, Fetal Growth and Skeletal Development in Mice.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Adam J; Sirovica, Slobodan; Stokes, Ben; Isaacs, Mark; Addison, Owen; Martin, Richard A

    2017-02-08

    Defining the mechanisms underlying the programming of early life growth is fundamental for improving adult health and wellbeing. While the association between maternal diet, offspring growth and adult disease risk is well-established, the effect of father's diet on offspring development are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed male mice an imbalanced low protein diet (LPD) to determine the impact on post-fertilisation development and fetal growth. We observed that in preimplantation embryos derived from LPD fed males, expression of multiple genes within the central metabolic AMPK pathway was reduced. In late gestation, paternal LPD programmed increased fetal weight, however, placental weight was reduced, resulting in an elevated fetal:placental weight ratio. Analysis of gene expression patterns revealed increased levels of transporters for calcium, amino acids and glucose within LPD placentas. Furthermore, placental expression of the epigenetic regulators Dnmt1 and Dnmt3L were increased also, coinciding with altered patterns of maternal and paternal imprinted genes. More strikingly, we observed fetal skeletal development was perturbed in response to paternal LPD. Here, while offspring of LPD fed males possessed larger skeletons, their bones comprised lower volumes of high mineral density in combination with reduced maturity of bone apatite. These data offer new insight in the underlying programming mechanisms linking poor paternal diet at the time of conception with the development and growth of his offspring.

  5. How Children's Educational Outcomes and Criminality Vary by Duration and Frequency of Paternal Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars H

    2016-05-01

    Existing studies of the consequences of paternal incarceration for children treat paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event (a child either experiences paternal incarceration or does not), although effects could accumulate with both the frequency and duration of paternal incarcerations. In this article I use register data on Danish children from birth cohort 1991, some of whom experienced paternal incarceration before age 15, to show how educational outcomes and criminality up to age 20 vary by frequency and total duration of paternal incarceration. The high quality of Danish register data also allows me to distinguish between paternal arrest and paternal incarceration and to show results for the total duration of paternal incarcerations conditioned on frequency of paternal incarceration. Results show that educational outcomes and criminality indeed correlate with duration and frequency of paternal incarceration, indicating that treating paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event blurs important heterogeneity in the consequences of paternal incarceration.

  6. How Children’s Educational Outcomes and Criminality Vary by Duration and Frequency of Paternal Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies of the consequences of paternal incarceration for children treat paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event (a child either experiences paternal incarceration or does not), although effects could accumulate with both the frequency and duration of paternal incarcerations. In this article I use register data on Danish children from birth cohort 1991, some of whom experienced paternal incarceration before age 15, to show how educational outcomes and criminality up to age 20 vary by frequency and total duration of paternal incarceration. The high quality of Danish register data also allows me to distinguish between paternal arrest and paternal incarceration and to show results for the total duration of paternal incarcerations conditioned on frequency of paternal incarceration. Results show that educational outcomes and criminality indeed correlate with duration and frequency of paternal incarceration, indicating that treating paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event blurs important heterogeneity in the consequences of paternal incarceration. PMID:27471324

  7. Advanced paternal age effects in neurodevelopmental disorders—review of potential underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, M; Mill, J; Basson, M A; Goriely, A; Spiers, H; Reichenberg, A; Schalkwyk, L; Fernandes, C

    2017-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between advanced paternal age (APA) at conception and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, particularly with regard to increased risk for autism and schizophrenia. Conclusive evidence about how age-related changes in paternal gametes, or age-independent behavioral traits affect neural development is still lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the origins of APA effects are likely to be multidimensional, involving both inherited predisposition and de novo events. Here we provide a review of the epidemiological and molecular findings to date. Focusing on the latter, we present the evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning the association between late fatherhood and disorder in offspring. We also discuss the limitations of the APA literature. We propose that different hypotheses relating to the origins of the APA effects are not mutually exclusive. Instead, multiple mechanisms likely contribute, reflecting the etiological complexity of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28140401

  8. Evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment.

    PubMed

    Geary, D C

    2000-01-01

    In more than 95% of mammalian species, males provide little direct investment in the well-being of their offspring. Humans are one notable exception to this pattern and, to date, the factors that contributed to the evolution and the proximate expression of human paternal care are unexplained (T. H. Clutton-Brock, 1989). The nature, extent, and influence of human paternal investment on the physical and social well-being of children are reviewed in light of the social and ecological factors that are associated with paternal investment in other species. On the basis of this review, discussion of the evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment is provided.

  9. Paternal Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Other Phenols in Relation to Reproductive Outcomes among Couples from a Fertility Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Laura E.; Williams, Paige L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Toth, Thomas L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human exposure to phenols, including bisphenol A and parabens, is widespread. Evidence suggests that paternal exposure to environmental chemicals may adversely affect reproductive outcomes. Objectives We evaluated associations of paternal phenol urinary concentrations with fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth. Methods Male–female couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in a prospective study of environmental determinants of fertility and pregnancy outcomes were included. The geometric mean of males’ specific gravity–adjusted urinary phenol concentrations measured before females’ cycle was quantified. Associations between male urinary phenol concentrations and fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth were investigated using generalized linear mixed models to account for multiple cycles per couple. Results Couples (n = 218) underwent 195 IUI and 211 IVF cycles. Paternal phenol concentrations were not associated with fertilization or live birth following IVF. In adjusted models, compared with the lowest quartile of methyl paraben, paternal concentrations in the second quartile were associated with decreased odds of live birth following IUI (adjusted odds ratio = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.82). Conclusions To our knowledge, these are some of the first data on the association of paternal urinary phenol concentrations with reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. Although these results do not preclude possible adverse effects of paternal paraben exposures on such outcomes, given the modest sample size, further understanding could result from confirmation using a larger and more diverse population. Citation Dodge LE, Williams PL, Williams MA, Missmer SA, Toth TL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2015. Paternal urinary concentrations of parabens and other phenols in relation to reproductive outcomes among couples from a fertility clinic. Environ Health Perspect 123

  10. Pre-Hispanic Mortuary Practices in Quebrada de Humahuaca (North-Western Argentina): Genetic Relatedness among Individuals Buried in the Same Grave.

    PubMed

    Russo, M Gabriela; Mendisco, Fanny; Avena, Sergio A; Dejean, Cristina B; Seldes, Verónica

    2016-07-01

    Almost all pre-Hispanic societies from Quebrada de Humahuaca (north-western Argentina) buried their defuncts in domestic areas, demonstrating the importance of death and its daily presence among the living. Presumably, the collective graves contained related individuals, a hypothesis that can be tested through the study of ancient DNA. This study analyzes autosomal and uniparental genetic markers in individuals from two archaeological sites in Quebrada de Humahuaca occupied during the Late Formative (1450-1050 BP) and Regional Developments I (1050-700 BP) periods. Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplotypes were compared in order to establish possible maternal and paternal relatedness. Genotypes for 15 autosomal STRs were used to calculate pairwise relatedness coefficients and pedigree probabilities. High kinship levels among individuals buried in the same graves were found in both sites. Although only two particular cases were analyzed, these results represent an important contribution to the study of mortuary practices in the region by means of ancient DNA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  11. Antibiotic resistance and R-plasmids in food chain Salmonella: evidence of plasmid relatedness.

    PubMed Central

    Bezanson, G S; Pauzé, M; Lior, H

    1981-01-01

    A large number of strains (1,783) belonging to 15 Salmonella serovars isolated, in Canada, from the three major links of the human food chain were screened for multiple antibiotic resistance and the presence of R-plasmids. Multiresistant strains occurred among animal feed, livestock, and human isolates at frequencies of 4, 22, and 14%, respectively. Conjugation analysis revealed that 58% of the isolates from feeds, 87% of those from livestock, and 89% of the human strains carried all or part of their resistance determinants extrachromosomally on R-plasmids. Conjugative plasmids representing nine different incompatibility groups were detected, with the Inc I alpha group being predominant. Within the limits of the parameters measured, certain of these plasmids show a degree of relatedness suggestive of a common ancestry. PMID:7013704

  12. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  13. Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

  14. Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism

    PubMed Central

    Birks, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133

  15. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  16. Transposed Paternò-Büchi Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kumarasamy, Elango; Raghunathan, Ramya; Kandappa, Sunil Kumar; Sreenithya, A; Jockusch, Steffen; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Sivaguru, J

    2017-01-18

    A complementary strategy of utilizing ππ* excited state of alkene instead of nπ* excited state of the carbonyl chromophore in a "transposed Paternò-Büchi" reaction is evaluated with atropisomeric enamides as the model system. Based on photophysical investigations, the nature of excited states and the reactive pathway was deciphered leading to atropselective reaction. This new concept of switching of excited-state configuration should pave the way to control the stereochemical course of photoreaction due to the orbital approaches required for photochemical reactivity.

  17. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    PubMed Central

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  18. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    PubMed

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  19. Genetic relatedness analysis: modern data and new challenges.

    PubMed

    Weir, Bruce S; Anderson, Amy D; Hepler, Amanda B

    2006-10-01

    Individuals who belong to the same family or the same population are related because of their shared ancestry. Population and quantitative genetics theory is built with parameters that describe relatedness, and the estimation of these parameters from genetic markers enables progress in fields as disparate as plant breeding, human disease gene mapping and forensic science. The large number of multiallelic microsatellite loci and biallelic SNPs that are now available have markedly increased the precision with which relationships can be estimated, although they have also revealed unexpected levels of genomic heterogeneity of relationship measures.

  20. Memory for details about people: familiarity, relatedness, and gender congruency.

    PubMed

    Kole, James A; Healy, Alice F

    2011-05-01

    This study examines factors that influence memory for details about people. In two experiments, subjects learned fictitious details about familiar (friends, relatives) and/or unfamiliar individuals, and were tested both immediately and after a 1-week delay. To control for a confounding between familiarity and genetic relatedness in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 specific relationships (identical twin, first cousin, acquaintance) were assigned to unfamiliar individuals. Across experiments, retention was enhanced for familiar compared to unfamiliar individuals, for friends/acquaintances compared to relatives, for more closely than distantly related individuals, and for individuals of the opposite gender as the subject.

  1. The Cascading Development of Autonomy and Relatedness From Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Molloy, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    We tested a developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21. Participants included 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and lower levels of autonomy and relatedness with partners at age 18. These cascade effects extended into adult friendships and romantic relationships, with autonomy and relatedness with romantic partners at age 18 being a strong predictor of autonomy and relatedness with both friends and partners at age 21. PMID:25345623

  2. Paternal and sibling incest: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celbis, Osman; Ozcan, M Erkan; Ozdemir, Bora

    2006-01-01

    A case is reported of a female victim of paternal incest, who had also been raped repeatedly by her elder brother for two years. A survey of the literature showed no other report of such a case from Turkey. This does not necessarily mean that the incidence of paternal and sibling incest does not happen, but may indicate that incestuous abuse is not reported or handled without making it known to legal authorities. The victim was first raped by her 16 year-old brother when she was 9 years old. He raped her repeatedly over a period of two years, until he left home. Her father began raping the victim when she was 13 year-old, leaving her pregnant at age 15. He took her to a doctor for a termination of pregnancy. The father continued abuse after the termination. The victim left home to marry a man. The father filed a lawsuit against the man for taking the victim away from home. More openness and awareness of incest in Turkey may encourage the victims to seek help from medical and legal authorities.

  3. Untreated perinatal paternal depression: Effects on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Salvatore; Fusco, Maria Luigia

    2017-03-02

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event which increases vulnerability to psychological disorders. Aim of this article is to analyze all studies which investigated the effects of untreated perinatal paternal depression in offspring. We searched pertinent, peer-reviewed articles published in English (January 1980 to April 2016) on MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Science.gov. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of the reviewed studies suffer from methodological limitations, including the small sample, the lack of a structured psychiatric diagnosis, and inclusion bias. Despite such limitations, paternal depression seems to be associated with an increased risk of developmental and behavioural problems and even psychiatric disorders in offspring. In particular, in infants and toddlers such problems vary from increased crying to hyperactivity and conduct problems to psychological and developmental impairment, and poor social outcomes. School-age children of depressed fathers have a doubled risk for suffering from specific psychiatric disorders. Hence, facilitating access to vigorous and evidence based treatments is a public health opportunity for improving the quality of life of depressed parents and their children. Evidences emerging from this review actually suggest that the traditional gender-focused approach to perinatal mood disorders should be completed by a family-centred approach, in order to improve the effectiveness of perinatal mental health programs.

  4. Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

    2006-01-01

    We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

  5. Postdivorce Paternal Disengagement: Failed Mourning and Role Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I suggest that postdivorce paternal disengagement may be rooted in the father's tendency to link his children and ex-wife as a single entity in consequence of his failure to adequately mourn the loss of his ex-wife and to redefine his paternal role and identity in distinction from his spousal role and identity. I also suggest that…

  6. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  7. Fathers in Turkey: Paternity Characteristics, Gender Role, Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ünüvar, Perihan

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…

  8. Intergenerational Comparisons of Paternal Korean Child Rearing Practices and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…

  9. Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

    2006-01-01

    We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

  10. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

  11. Relatedness, Group Work, and Outcome in Long-Term Inpatient Psychotherapy Groups

    PubMed Central

    MACKENZIE, K. ROY; TSCHUSCHKE, VOLKER

    1993-01-01

    Process and outcome measures were compared in two long-term groups. The measure "Relatedness" reflected an individual’s attachment to and comfort with the group, and "Group Work" indicated perception of the group as having a positive working climate. High Relatedness scores predicted better outcome at 18-month follow-up. Group Work scores were not related to outcome. Relatedness and Group Work scores were not correlated. Results replicate in a group psychotherapy population the importance, reported in individual therapy literature, of an early and sustained positive therapeutic alliance (Relatedness). However, a measure that is closely related to the concept of "working alliance" (Group Work) did not predict outcome. PMID:22700138

  12. Learning new meanings for old words: effects of semantic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Jennifer M; Berriman, Richard; Landau, Matt; Lee, Theresa; Ho, Carol; Gaskell, M Gareth; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-10-01

    Changes to our everyday activities mean that adult language users need to learn new meanings for previously unambiguous words. For example, we need to learn that a "tweet" is not only the sound a bird makes, but also a short message on a social networking site. In these experiments, adult participants learned new fictional meanings for words with a single dominant meaning (e.g., "ant") by reading paragraphs that described these novel meanings. Explicit recall of these meanings was significantly better when there was a strong semantic relationship between the novel meaning and the existing meaning. This relatedness effect emerged after relatively brief exposure to the meanings (experiment 1), but it persisted when training was extended across 7 days (experiment 2) and when semantically demanding tasks were used during this extended training (experiment 3). A lexical decision task was used to assess the impact of learning on online recognition. In Experiment 3, participants responded more quickly to words whose new meaning was semantically related than to those with an unrelated meaning. This result is consistent with earlier studies showing an effect of meaning relatedness on lexical decision, and it indicates that these newly acquired meanings become integrated with participants' preexisting knowledge about the meanings of words.

  13. Relatedness among honeybees (Apis mellifera) of a drone congregation

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, E.; Solignac, M.; Garnery, L.; Gries, M.; Cornuet, J.-M.; Koeniger, N.

    1998-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) queen mates during nuptial flights, in the so-called drone congregation area where many males from surrounding colonies gather. Using 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we studied a sample of 142 drones captured in a congregation close to Oberursel (Germany). A parentage test based on lod score showed that this sample contained one group of four brothers, six groups of three brothers, 20 groups of two brothers and 80 singletons. These values are very close to a Poisson distribution. Therefore, colonies were apparently equally represented in the drone congregation, and calculations showed that the congregation comprised males that originated from about 240 different colonies. This figure is surprisingly high. Considering the density of colonies around the congregation area and the average flight range of males, it suggests that most colonies within the recruitment perimeter delegated drones to the congregation with an equal probability, resulting in an almost perfect panmixis. Consequently, the relatedness between a queen and her mates, and hence the inbreeding coefficient of the progeny, should be minimized. The relatedness among the drones mated to the same queen is also very low, maximizing the genetic diversity among the different patrilines of a colony.

  14. Molecular analysis of the relatedness of five domesticated turkey strains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward J; Geng, Thoyu; Long, Elizabeth; Pierson, F William; Sponenberg, D Phillip; Larson, Cal; Gogal, Robert

    2005-02-01

    Our knowledge of the genetic relatedness among the eight existing domesticated turkey strains is limited. To begin to address this paucity, genetic relatedness among five turkey strains (Blue Slate, Bourbon Red, Narragansett, Royal Palm, and Spanish Black) was investigated using three molecular marker systems: randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), microsatellite, and SNPs derived from a sequence tagged site and a cloned RAPD fragment. The RAPD analyses were based on five primers that revealed a total of 14 informative DNA fragments in all five populations. The microsatellite analyses involved two informative alleles from three primer-pairs. A total of nine SNPs were detected, one of which appeared to be strain specific. This SNP formed the basis of a PCR-RFLP genotyping procedure developed to distinguish one of the strains from the other four. Evidence from these analyses including the SNP-based RFLP-PCR suggests that Royal Palm is distinct from the other four strains, though more closely related to Narragansett. These data provide, for the first time, molecular evidence of the potential relationships among noncommercial domesticated turkey strains.

  15. Cross-language influences: translation status affects intraword sense relatedness.

    PubMed

    Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-10-01

    Many words have more than one meaning, and these meanings vary in their degree of relatedness. In the present experiment, we examined whether this degree of relatedness is influenced by whether or not the two meanings share a translation in a bilingual's other language. Native English speakers with Spanish as a second language (i.e., English-Spanish bilinguals) and native Spanish speakers with English as a second language (i.e., Spanish-English bilinguals) were presented with pairs of phrases instantiating different senses of ambiguous English words (e.g., dinner date-expiration date) and were asked to decide whether the two senses were related in meaning. Critically, for some pairs of phrases, a single Spanish translation encompassed both meanings of the ambiguous word (joint-translation condition; e.g., mercado in Spanish refers to both a flea market and the housing market), but for others, each sense corresponded to a different Spanish translation (split-translation condition; e.g., cita in Spanish refers to a dinner date, but fecha refers to an expiration date). The proportions of "yes" (related) responses revealed that, relative to monolingual English speakers, Spanish-English bilinguals consider joint-translation senses to be less related than split-translation senses. These findings exemplify semantic cross-language influences from a first to a second language and reveal the semantic structure of the bilingual lexicon.

  16. Detective mice assess relatedness in baboons using olfactory cues.

    PubMed

    Célérier, Aurélie; Huchard, Elise; Alvergne, Alexandra; Féjan, Delphine; Plard, Floriane; Cowlishaw, Guy; Raymond, Michel; Knapp, Leslie A; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The assessment of relatedness may be crucial in the evolution of socio-sexual behaviour, because it can be associated with fitness benefits mediated by both nepotism and inbreeding avoidance. In this context, one proposed mechanism for kin recognition is 'phenotype matching'; animals might compare phenotypic similarities between themselves and others in order to assess the probability that they are related. Among cues potentially used for kin discrimination, body odours constitute interesting candidates that have been poorly investigated in anthropoid primates so far, because of a mixture of theoretical considerations and methodological/experimental constraints. In this study, we used an indirect approach to examine the similarity in odour signals emitted by related individuals from a natural population of chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). For that purpose, we designed an innovative behavioural tool using mice olfactory abilities in a habituation-discrimination paradigm. We show that: (i) mice can detect odour differences between individuals of same sex and age class in another mammal species, and (ii) mice perceive a higher odour similarity between related baboons than between unrelated baboons. These results suggest that odours may play a role in both the signalling of individual characteristics and of relatedness among individuals in an anthropoid primate. The 'biological olfactometer' developed in this study offers new perspectives to the exploration of olfactory signals from a range of species.

  17. Kinetics and specificity of paternal mitochondrial elimination in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME. PMID:27581092

  18. Kinetics and specificity of paternal mitochondrial elimination in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-09-01

    In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME.

  19. Skewed paternity and sex allocation in hermaphroditic plants and animals.

    PubMed Central

    Greeff, J. M.; Nason, J. D.; Compton, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    Models predict a reduced allocation to sperm when females preferentially use one of two males' sperm and the males do not know who is favoured. An analogous discounting occurs in plants when their paternity success is skewed by random, non-heritable factors such as location in the population and pollinator behaviour. We present a model that shows that skewed paternity can affect the sex allocation of hermaphrodites, that is it leads to a female-biased investment. The model highlights the close links between local mate competition and sperm competition. We use paternity data from Ficus in order to illustrate that skews in paternity success can lead to a high degree of sibling gamete competition in an apparently open breeding system. Since skews in paternity are ubiquitous in hermaphroditic plants and animals these findings should apply broadly. PMID:11600078

  20. Coadaptation in mother and infant regulated by a paternally expressed imprinted gene.

    PubMed Central

    Curley, James P.; Barton, Sheila; Surani, Azim; Keverne, Eric B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how a targeted mutation of a paternally expressed imprinted gene regulates multiple aspects of foetal and post-natal development including placental size, foetal growth, suckling and post-natal growth, weaning age and puberty onset. This same mutation in a mother impairs maternal reproductive success with reduced maternal care, reduced maternal food intake during pregnancy, and impaired milk let-down, which in turn reduces infant growth and delays weaning and onset of puberty. The significance of these coadaptive traits being synchronized in mother and offspring by the same paternally expressed imprinted gene ensures that offspring that have extracted 'good' maternal nurturing will themselves be both well provisioned and genetically predisposed towards 'good' mothering. PMID:15306355

  1. Male rhesus macaques use vocalizations to distinguish female maternal, but not paternal, kin from non-kin.

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, Dana; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Widdig, Anja

    Recognizing close kin and adjusting one's behavior accordingly (i.e., favor kin in social interactions, but avoid mating with them) would be an important skill that can increase an animals' inclusive fitness. Previous studies showed that philopatric female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) bias their social behavior toward maternal and paternal kin. Benefits gained from selecting kin should, however, not only apply to the philopatric sex, for which the enduring spatial proximity facilitates kin discrimination. Given that dispersal is costly, the dispersing sex may benefit from migrating together with their kin or into groups containing kin. In male rhesus macaques, natal migrants bias their spatial proximity toward familiar male kin rather than familiar non-kin. Here, we set up playback experiments to test if males use the acoustic modality to discriminate familiar female kin from non-kin in a non-sexual context. Males responded differently to the presentation of "coo" calls of related and unrelated females, with their reaction depending on the interaction between kin-line (maternal vs paternal kin) and degree of relatedness (r = 0.5, 0.25). Specifically, males were more likely to respond to close kin compared to more distant kin or unrelated females, with this effect being significant in the maternal, but not paternal kin-line. The present study adds to our knowledge of kin recognition abilities of the dispersing sex, suggesting that male rhesus macaques are also able to identify kin using the acoustic modality. We discuss that the probability of response might be affected by the potential benefit of the social partner.

  2. Maternal and paternal age and risk of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Croen, Lisa A; Najjar, Daniel V; Fireman, Bruce; Grether, Judith K

    2007-04-01

    To explore the association between maternal and paternal age and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in offspring. Historical birth cohort study. Kaiser Permanente (KP) in Northern California. All singleton children born at KP from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1999, were included in the study. We identified 593 children who had ASD diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, code 299.0 or 299.8) recorded 2 or more times in KP outpatient databases before May 2005. These children were compared with all 132,251 remaining singleton KP births. Main Exposures Maternal and paternal age at birth of offspring. Relative risks (RRs) estimated from proportional hazards regression models. Risk of ASDs evaluated in relation to maternal and paternal age, adjusted for each other and for the sex, birth date, and birth order of the child, maternal and paternal educational level, and maternal and paternal race/ethnicity. Risk of ASDs increased significantly with each 10-year increase in maternal age (adjusted RR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.62) and paternal age (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.51). Adjusted RRs for both maternal and paternal age were elevated for children with autistic disorder (maternal age: RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.87-1.60; paternal age: RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.69) and children with Asperger disorder or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (maternal age: RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.93; paternal age: RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.99-1.55). Associations with parental age were somewhat stronger for girls than for boys, although sex differences were not statistically significant. Advanced maternal and paternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk.

  3. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  4. Medical paternalism serves the patient best.

    PubMed

    Lim, L S

    2002-03-01

    It seems obvious that in a post-modern, constructivist world where meaning and value systems are often subjective and relative, any absolutist view is likely to be questionable. This is more so if it relates to ethics, the foundations, interpretation and application of which have been and continue to be much debated. So, in addressing the proposition, my efforts were directed at identifying a position that would mediate polarity. I examined the contention that the doctor, because he is better informed, may claim greater acuity and powers of judgment, and its defences against the charge of interfering with individual liberty and autonomy through various arguments such as the harm principle, the welfare, the principle of legal moralism and the appeal to uncertainty. While there is some validity to the arguments proposed, absolute paternalism would seem incompatible with respect for individual rights. How satisfactory, then, is the paradigm shift from paternalism to the independent choice model where the doctor presents neutral statistics as little biased as possible by his own views and judgments and leaves the decision making entirely to the patient or his/her relatives. This clearly had its limitations too. As with much of human experience, the answer would seem to rest in mediating the happy mean. Recognising a distinction between autonomy (self-determination) and independence (total freedom of choice without any interference) allows for a model of qualified independence or "enhanced autonomy" (Quill & Brody, 1996). This is predicated on doctor-patient dialogue, exchange of ideas/views, negotiation of differences, and sharing power and influence for the common purpose of serving the patient's best interest. This model would seem to be a responsible and effective approach to management of clinical dilemmas, as well as one that in its pluralistic approach is consistent with fundamental moral and philosophic propositions. It is by no means flawless, but in an

  5. Adolescents' paternal attachment and Internet use.

    PubMed

    Lei, Li; Wu, Yana

    2007-10-01

    As children approach middle childhood and adolescence, the influence of fathers on children's behavior and development becomes more equivalent to that of mothers. The quality of father-child attachment operates as a stronger predictor of adolescents' cognitive and emotional development. During adolescence, symbolic communication by means of the Internet becomes increasingly more important than physical approximate-seeking behavior in infancy and childhood. Adolescents might regard the Internet as their new attachment figure or may seek new attachment figures through the Internet. This study was designed to address the impacts of father-adolescent attachment on adolescents' Internet use. Seven hundred twelve adolescent participants completed questionnaires to assess the associations among their paternal attachment, intensity of Internet use, and Internet services preference. The result revealed that alienation positively predicted pathological Internet use (PIU) directly and also indirectly mediated by leisure services preference. Trust predicted PIU negatively. These results help to provide parents and educators with guidance in adolescents' more appropriate Internet use.

  6. [Microsatellite DNA analysis as a tool for forensic paternity testing (DNA paternity testing)].

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Igor

    2006-01-01

    MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS: By using serological or HLA-testing, the alleged father can be excluded as the biological father, but, regardless of the degree of probability, positive paternity results cannot be obtained without DNA testing. According to the results of the National Human Genome Project, human genome consists of approximately 30.000 genes. The vast majority of human DNA is not organized in genes and has no genetic expression or visible function. Non-coding DNA contains genetic markers important for human identification. Short tandem repeats, or STRs, are a class of microsatellites consisting of tandemly repeated sequences of 2 to 6 base pair length monomers. Most of the microsatellites show a high degree of polymorphism, which can be evaluated by PCR technique, and used in criminalistics, forensic identification and parentage testing. A source of DNA in parentage testing are blood samples or buccal swabs which are routinelly used. Amplification of isolated DNA can be performed in 25-30 cycles by PCR, and fragments are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The probability of paternity of 99.99% or higher corresponds to the paternity "practically proven", indicating that the alleged father is the biological father. Such results can be obtained only by DNA testing. DNA-testing laboratories are required to conduct validation of laboratory facilities, equipment and staff and are subject to permanent control by the society.

  7. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Kyle M; Head, Megan L; Williams, Camellia A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2013-08-07

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity-parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity.

  8. Coordination, Competition, and Neutrality: Autonomy and Relatedness Patterns in Girls' Interactions with Mentors and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Christine L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Das, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Healthy development necessitates that adolescents maintain connections with others while developing an autonomous identity. In the extant literature, however, autonomy and relatedness are often placed at odds, particularly in discussions of girls. We explore how autonomy and relatedness co-occur in girls' interactions with peers and mentors in the…

  9. Urban High-School Girls' Sense of Relatedness and Their Engagement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane; Garn, Alex C.

    2012-01-01

    A sense of relatedness is individuals' views about themselves as connected to others and worthy of love and respect from others. Using the Self-System Model of Motivational Development as the framework, this study was designed to examine associations of urban high-school girls' relatedness toward teachers and peers with their behavioral and…

  10. Patterns of Private-Public Relatedness: Five Institutional Histories and an Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeefery, William; And Others

    Perspectives on shifts in private-public relatedness experienced by five higher education institutions are presented. The five histories illustrate a variety of individual differences in private-public relatedness and represent a cross-section of 80 institutions that have encountered important adjustments. In each of the following institutions,…

  11. Student Perceptions and Motivation in the Classroom: Exploring Relatedness and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette; Dodge, Tonya

    2009-01-01

    According to Self-Determination Theory, feelings of relatedness and value of a behavior are critical factors that affect internalization and integration. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors that influence relatedness and value in an academic setting. Specifically, the study investigated the effects of autonomy, mastery goals,…

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Beliefs-of-Relatedness Source of Halo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, W. Newton; Roberts, William L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined halo in raters' beliefs of item (attribute) relatedness. College students' prior beliefs of the co-occurrence of teaching attributes were correlated with actual correlation of teaching attributes of fictional college professors. Results showed some support for beliefs-of-relatedness source of halo. (LMO)

  13. An Experimental Investigation of the Beliefs-of-Relatedness Source of Halo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, W. Newton; Roberts, William L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined halo in raters' beliefs of item (attribute) relatedness. College students' prior beliefs of the co-occurrence of teaching attributes were correlated with actual correlation of teaching attributes of fictional college professors. Results showed some support for beliefs-of-relatedness source of halo. (LMO)

  14. Autonomy and Relatedness with Parents and Romantic Development in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Gettman, Denise C.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of adolescents' autonomy and relatedness to parents on romantic relationships was examined longitudinally over 5 years in 76 middle-class African American late adolescents (mean age = 18.43 years). Relatedness to parents in early adolescence led to longer duration and more supportive romantic relationships in late adolescence, but…

  15. Applying the nursing theory of human relatedness to alcoholism and recovery in alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.

  16. Coordination, Competition, and Neutrality: Autonomy and Relatedness Patterns in Girls' Interactions with Mentors and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Christine L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Das, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Healthy development necessitates that adolescents maintain connections with others while developing an autonomous identity. In the extant literature, however, autonomy and relatedness are often placed at odds, particularly in discussions of girls. We explore how autonomy and relatedness co-occur in girls' interactions with peers and mentors in the…

  17. The Interplay of Autonomy and Relatedness in Hong Kong Chinese Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Winnie C. W.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2002-01-01

    The mediating effects of autonomy and relatedness on the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction were investigated among 49 single mothers. Among all tested variables in the dimension of relatedness, only network orientation (propensity to utilize one's available social support) was a mediator of the positive relationship between…

  18. The Interplay of Autonomy and Relatedness in Hong Kong Chinese Single Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Winnie C. W.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2002-01-01

    The mediating effects of autonomy and relatedness on the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction were investigated among 49 single mothers. Among all tested variables in the dimension of relatedness, only network orientation (propensity to utilize one's available social support) was a mediator of the positive relationship between…

  19. Multiplicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    practice as a "[descent] into that inner circle of the Inferno where the damned endlessly degate multiplicity for sentencing." United States v. Barnard...select the charges to be brought in a particular case"). 19 Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. 161, 165 (1977). 20 Whalen v. United States, 445 U.S. at 689. 21...parte Lange, 8-5 U.S. (19 Wall.) 163 (1874). Cf. Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. at 165 ("once the legislature has acted courts may not impose more than one

  20. Genetic Relatedness Studies with Adenovirus-associated Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rose, James A.; Hoggan, M. David; Koczot, Frank; Shatkin, Aaron J.

    1968-01-01

    Adenovirus-associated viruses (AAV) contain double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA from each of the four AAV serotypes was used as template for the in vitro synthesis of complementary 3H-ribonucleic acids(RNA). An estimation of genetic interrelatedness was made on the basis of hybridization reactions between synthetic AAV RNA and AAV DNA. Heterologous reactions were 27 to 37% of homologous reactions, suggesting that the AAV serotypes are related to about the same extent. AAV-1 synthetic RNA was also reacted with DNA from helper adenovirus types 2, 7, and SV15. Very low levels of RNA binding were observed, but it is not likely that these reactions represent AAV-adenovirus genetic relatedness. PMID:5739847

  1. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  2. Dental relatedness corresponding to mortuary patterning at Huaca Loro, Peru.

    PubMed

    Corruccini, Robert S; Shimada, Izumi

    2002-02-01

    Within and between tombs at the 1,000-year-old site of Huaca Loro on north coastal Peru, interment characteristics vary to an intriguing degree. Following and elaborating upon prior intracemetery studies, biological relatedness among associated burial groupings was assessed using 23 dental characters (assuming familial allele segregation) for 29 individuals. Biological patterning was based on multivariate distance between individuals using all traits, rather than the previously widespread reliance upon univariate comparison of each trait separately within samples. This multivariate approach did seem more informative. Statistically significant variation of biological similarities and dissimilarities corresponded to spatial groupings and also to various specific archaeological indications of the cohesiveness, or lack thereof, of interment pattern. The partition of biological distances among tombs at Huaca Loro supports the archaeological evidence that the tombs represent a planned elite cemetery.

  3. Relatedness and helping in fish: examining the theoretical predictions

    PubMed Central

    Stiver, Kelly A; Dierkes, Petra; Taborsky, Michael; Lisle Gibbs, H; Balshine, Sigal

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to explain the evolution of cooperation, yet little attention has been paid to what factors control the amount or kind of cooperation performed. Kin selection theory suggests that more cooperation, or help, should be given by relatives. However, recent theory suggests that under specific ecological and demographic conditions, unrelated individuals must ‘pay to stay’ in the group and therefore may help more. We tested these contrasting predictions using the cooperatively breeding fish, Neolamprologus pulcher, and found that the degree of work effort by helpers depended on which helping behaviours were considered and on their level of relatedness to the breeding male or female. In the field, helpers unrelated to the breeding male performed more territory defence, while helpers unrelated to the breeding female contributed less to territory defence. In the laboratory, unrelated group members helped more. Our work demonstrates that a number of factors in addition to kinship shape cooperative investment patterns. PMID:16048775

  4. Genomic relatedness of Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates of different origins.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Emeli; Hellmark, Bengt; Stegger, Marc; Skytt Andersen, Paal; Sundqvist, Martin; Söderquist, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize clinical and environmental Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates with regard to genomic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR and core genome phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data verified the presence of distinct clades comprising closely related S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins. Phylogenetic relationships between 25 S. pettenkoferi isolates collected from blood cultures and intra-operative air sampling were determined by repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing and analysis of ~157 000 SNPs identified in the core genome after WGS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and tests for biofilm production (microtitre plate assay) were performed. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR as well as WGS data demonstrated the close relatedness of clinically significant blood culture isolates to probable contaminants, as well as to environmental isolates. Antibiotic-susceptibility testing demonstrated a low level of antimicrobial resistance. The mecA gene was present in two cefoxitin-resistant isolates. No isolates were found to produce biofilm. Close genomic relatedness of S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins were found within clades, but with substantial genomic difference between the two major clades. The ecological niche of S. pettenkoferi remains unconfirmed, but the presence of S. pettenkoferi in the air of the operating field favours the suggestion of a role in skin flora. Identification of S. pettenkoferi in clinical samples should, in a majority of cases, most likely be regarded as a probable contamination, and its role as a possible pathogen in immunocompromised hosts remains to be clarified.

  5. Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.

    PubMed

    Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

    2013-03-27

    With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear

  6. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    PubMed

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  7. Consecutive five-year analysis of paternal and maternal gene flow and contributions of gametic heterogeneities to overall genetic composition of dispersed seeds of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto; Isoda, Keiya; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    Genetic variability in monoecious woody plant populations results from the assemblage of individuals issued from asymmetrical male and female reproductive functions, produced during spatially and temporarily heterogeneous reproductive and dispersal events. Here we investigated the dispersal patterns and levels of genetic diversity and differentiation of both paternal and maternal gametes in a natural population of Pinus densiflora at the multiple-year scale as long as five consecutive years. • We analyzed the paternity and maternity for 1576 seeds and 454 candidate adult trees using nuclear DNA polymorphisms of diploid biparental embryos and haploid maternal megagametophytes at eight microsatellite loci. • Despite the low levels of genetic differentiation among gamete groups, a two-way AMOVA analysis showed that the parental origin (paternal vs. maternal gametes), the year of gamete production and their interaction had significant effects on the genetic composition of the seeds. While maternal gamete groups showed a significant FST value across the 5 years, this was not true for their paternal counterparts. Within the population, we found that the relative reproductive contributions of the paternal vs. the maternal parent differed among adult trees, the maternal contributions showing a larger year-to-year fluctuation. • The overall genetic variability of dispersed seeds appeared to result from two sources of heterogeneity: the difference between paternal and maternal patterns of reproduction and gamete dispersal and year-to-year heterogeneity of reproduction of adult trees, especially in their maternal reproduction.

  8. Paternal Mitochondrial Transmission in Intra-Species Caenorhabditis briggsae Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph A.; Howe, Dana K.; Coleman-Hulbert, Anna; Denver, Dee R.; Estes, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    To study mitochondrial–nuclear genetic interactions in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, our three laboratories independently created 38 intra-species cytoplasmic–nuclear hybrid (cybrid) lines. Although the cross design combines maternal mitotypes with paternal nuclear genotypes, eight lines (21%) unexpectedly contained paternal mitotypes. All eight share in common ancestry of one of two genetically related strains. This unexpected parallel observation of paternal mitochondrial transmission, undesirable given our intent of creating cybrids, provides a serendipitous experimental model and framework to study the molecular and evolutionary basis of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:27613821

  9. Paternal behavior in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus).

    PubMed

    Makin, J W; Porter, R H

    1984-07-01

    The responsiveness of adult male spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) to both their own and alien precocial young was investigated. Paternal behavior was manifested primarily by the males huddling with their offspring and the coordination of pup attendance between adult males and females. With less than 2 days exposure to their own neonates, males were found to discriminate between their own and alien young. Experience plays an important role in the development of paternal behavior in spiny mice. Males who have never had pups of their own sniff and attack unfamiliar neonates more than males who have fathered pups. The adaptive significance of paternal investment in this uniquely precocial murid rodent was discussed.

  10. [Paternity in the perspective of a group of fathers].

    PubMed

    Schneider, J F; Trindade, E; Mello, A M; Barreto, M L

    1997-07-01

    Looking upon occidental silence which involves the paternity, we performed this research with the intention to conceive some associated aspects: the family role, birth of son expectation and father social role. For that, 7 fathers have been interviewed with ages between 21 and 45 years. This study allowed us observed that the paternity of the interviewed fathers is experienced by the father-son relationship preoccupation, kids education and the constant search of ways to experience the paternity as a form to be near of the kids and the wife.

  11. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  12. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: A sibling-comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly due to increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Since severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers’ age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born 1958–1979 (n=2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course-persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending. PMID:22781852

  13. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Assari, Shervin

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed.

  14. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  15. Paternal age effect: Replication in schizophrenia with intriguing dissociation between bipolar with and without psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Douglas S; Pato, Michele T; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Miller, Brian R; Malaspina, Dolores; Buckley, Peter F; Sobell, Janet L; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Genomic Psychiatry Cohort Consortium; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is a risk factor for schizophrenia (Sz) and bipolar disorder (BP). Putative mechanisms include heritable genetic factors, de novo mutations, and epigenetic mechanisms. Few studies have explored phenotypic features associated with APA. The Genomic Psychiatry Cohort established a clinically characterized repository of genomic samples from subjects with a Sz-BP diagnosis or unaffected controls, 12,975 with parental age information. We estimated relative risk ratios for Sz, schizoaffective depressed and bipolar types (SA-D, SA-B), and BP with and without history of psychotic features (PF) relative to the control group, comparing each paternal age group to the reference group 20-24 years. All tests were two-sided with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Subjects with fathers age 45+ had significantly higher risk for all diagnoses except for BP w/o PF. APA also bore no significant relation to family psychiatric history. In conclusion, we replicated APA as a risk factor for Sz. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of APA in a BP sample stratified by psychosis history, extending this association only in BP w/PF. This suggests that phenotypic expression of the APA effect in Sz-BP spectrum is psychosis, per se, rather than other aspects of these complex disorders. The lack of a significant relationship between paternal age and familial disease patterns suggests that underlying mechanisms of the paternal age effect may involve a complex interaction of heritable and non-heritable factors. The authors discuss implications and testable hypotheses, starting with a focus on genetic mechanisms and endophenotypic expressions of dopaminergic function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIRTHPLACE OF PATERNAL AND MATERNAL GRANDFATHER IN THE JERUSALEM PERINATAL COHORT PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D

    2009-01-01

    Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifest in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964–76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3–2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0–2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3–0.8 and 0.4, 0.2–0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc “hypothesis-generating” findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome. PMID:19361958

  17. Paternity testing using microsatellite DNA markers in captive Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Sakaoka, Ken; Suzuki, Isao; Kasugai, Naeko; Fukumoto, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the paternity of 39 Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) hatched at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium between 1995 and 2005 breeding seasons using microsatellite DNA markers. Among the 13 microsatellite marker loci tested in this study, eight markers amplified and were found to be polymorphic in the colony's founders of the captive population (n = 26). Multiple marker analysis confirmed that all the hatchlings shared alleles with their social fathers and that none of them were sired by any male (all males ≥4 years old in the exhibit tank during each reproductive season; n = 9-15) other than the one carrying out parental duties, except in the case of two inbred hatchlings whose half-sibling parents shared the same father. These results demonstrated that extra-pair paternity (EPP) did not occur in this captive population and that even if EPP has been detected among them, the probability of excluding all other possible fathers in the exhibit tank is extremely high based on paternity exclusion probabilities across the investigated loci. The paternity exclusion probabilities were almost the same between 1994 and 2005. The probability of identity across the investigated loci declined between the two time points, but was still high. These results are reflected in a very short history of breeding in this captive population. In other words, the parentage analyses using a suite of microsatellite markers will be less effective as generations change in small closed populations, such as zoo and aquarium populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis

    PubMed Central

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  19. Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rascati, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

  20. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  1. Paternal Age: How Does It Affect a Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with a slightly higher risk of miscarriage. Autism. Research shows a link between advanced paternal age and an increased frequency of autism. Birth defects. Although the overall risk is exceedingly ...

  2. Paternal postpartum depression: what health care providers should know.

    PubMed

    Musser, Anna K; Ahmed, Azza H; Foli, Karen J; Coddington, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched. In comparison, PPD in fathers and its potential effects on the family are not widely recognized. Studies have shown the importance of optimal mental health in fathers during the postpartum period. Negative effects of paternal PPD affect marital/partner relationships, infant bonding, and child development. To promote optimal health for parents and children, pediatric nurse practitioners must stay up to date on this topic. This article discusses the relationship of paternal PPD to maternal PPD; the consequences, signs, and symptoms; and the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in assessing and managing paternal PPD.

  3. A defence of medical paternalism: maximising patients' autonomy.

    PubMed Central

    Komrad, M S

    1983-01-01

    All illness represents a state of diminished autonomy and therefore the doctor-patient relationship necessarily and justifiably involves a degree of medical paternalism argues the author, an American medical student. In a broad-ranging paper he discusses the concepts of autonomy and paternalism in the context of the doctor-patient relationship. Given the necessary diminution of autonomy which illness inflicts, a limited form of medical paternalism, aimed at restoring or maximising the patient's autonomy is entirely acceptable, and indeed fundamental to the relationship he argues. However, the exercise of this paternalism should be flexible and related to the current 'level of autonomy' of the patient himself. An editorial in this issue comments briefly on this paper. PMID:6834402

  4. Paternal RNA contributions in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckius, Marlon; Grün, Dominic; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Development of the early embryo is thought to be mainly driven by maternal gene products and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Here, we used metabolic labeling to show that RNA can be transferred by sperm into the oocyte upon fertilization. To identify genes with paternal expression in the embryo, we performed crosses of males and females from divergent Caenorhabditis elegans strains. RNA sequencing of mRNAs and small RNAs in the 1-cell hybrid embryo revealed that about one hundred sixty paternal mRNAs are reproducibly expressed in the embryo and that about half of all assayed endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs are also of paternal origin. Together, our results suggest an unexplored paternal contribution to early development. PMID:24894551

  5. Paternal RNA contributions in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote.

    PubMed

    Stoeckius, Marlon; Grün, Dominic; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2014-08-18

    Development of the early embryo is thought to be mainly driven by maternal gene products and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Here, we used metabolic labeling to show that RNA can be transferred by sperm into the oocyte upon fertilization. To identify genes with paternal expression in the embryo, we performed crosses of males and females from divergent Caenorhabditis elegans strains. RNA sequencing of mRNAs and small RNAs in the 1-cell hybrid embryo revealed that about one hundred sixty paternal mRNAs are reproducibly expressed in the embryo and that about half of all assayed endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs are also of paternal origin. Together, our results suggest an unexplored paternal contribution to early development. © 2014 The Authors.

  6. Paternal exposure and counselling: experience of a Teratology Information Service.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Visconti, Daniela; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    We describe paternal exposure and counselling in a selected population calling to an Italian Teratology Information Service (TIS). The majority of callers asked for paternal drug exposure (76%, drugs except chemotherapy) and treatment for cancer (17%, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). Others asked for exposure to diagnostic radiations (4%), recreational drugs (2%) and occupational chemicals (1%). Among paternal drugs neurological compounds, immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral agents were the main reasons for calling. In humans, there are no evidences of birth defects after paternal exposures, but to minimize any possible risk, counselling in men exposed to radio and chemotherapy should recommend delaying conception for at least 3 months after the end of the therapy. Male patients treated with drugs, whose teratogenic potential has been well assessed or suspected for maternal exposure, should be advised to practice effective birth control during therapy and up to one or two cycles of spermatogenesis and to avoid semen contact with vaginal walls during first trimester of pregnancy.

  7. Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rascati, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

  8. Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Cordier, S; Deplan, F; Mandereau, L; Hemon, D

    1991-01-01

    The potential reproductive toxicity of mercury vapour was investigated by comparing the rate of spontaneous abortions among the wives of 152 workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour with the rate among the wives of 374 controls in the same plant. The results indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers' urine before pregnancy. At concentrations above 50 micrograms/l the risk of spontaneous abortion doubles (odds ratio (OR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.99-5.23). Special care was taken to avoid bias in reporting abortions and known risk factors of spontaneous abortions do not seem to explain the results. Several biological mechanisms might account for them including, in particular, direct action of mercury on the paternal reproductive system and indirect toxicity to the mother or embryo through transport of mercury from the father. These indications could be of practical importance and should therefore be further documented. PMID:2064975

  9. AFLP fingerprinting for paternity testing in ducks.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C

    2007-06-01

    1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing.

  10. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Natasha B.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2009-01-01

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness. PMID:19520802

  11. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  12. Castration reduces male testosterone, estradiol, and territorial aggression, but not paternal behavior in biparental dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli).

    PubMed

    Hume, Johanna M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E

    2005-09-01

    Biparental male hamsters, Phodopus campbelli, act as midwives during the birth of their litter and are highly responsive to an experimentally displaced pup. They also have high peripheral concentrations of estradiol, a hormone with known roles in maternal behavior. Surgical castration during the gestation of their first litter was used to investigate the source of that estradiol and the functional role of testicular sex steroids in paternal responsiveness. In Experiment I, castration reduced both testosterone and estradiol concentrations, confirming that the testes were the primary source of estradiol. However, neither paternal responsiveness nor multiple measures of reproductive success were altered by the castration. Aggression directed towards an intruder, however, was reduced by castration. In Experiment II, removal of prior experience with birth or pups also failed to alter paternal responsiveness in castrated males. Although the present results do not preclude a role for local estradiol synthesis in the brain, results do not support an association between high circulating estradiol in males and their paternal behavior.

  13. A Semantic Relatedness Approach for Traceability Link Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Anas M.; Niu, Nan; Xu, Songhua

    2012-01-01

    Human analysts working with automated tracing tools need to directly vet candidate traceability links in order to determine the true traceability information. Currently, human intervention happens at the end of the traceability process, after candidate traceability links have already been generated. This often leads to a decline in the results accuracy. In this paper, we propose an approach, based on semantic relatedness (SR), which brings human judgment to an earlier stage of the tracing process by integrating it into the underlying retrieval mechanism. SR tries to mimic human mental model of relevance by considering a broad range of semantic relations, hence producing more semantically meaningful results. We evaluated our approach using three datasets from different application domains, and assessed the tracing results via six different performance measures concerning both result quality and browsability. The empirical evaluation results show that our SR approach achieves a significantly better performance in recovering true links than a standard Vector Space Model (VSM) in all datasets. Our approach also achieves a significantly better precision than Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) in two of our datasets.

  14. [Relatedness of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci].

    PubMed

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Mikucka, Agnieszka; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Many identification and relatedness studies methods had been commonly used for epidemiological studies in microbiological laboratories. Apart from phenotypic methods, genotypic are also often used. The aim of this study was to compare, obtained by PFGE chromosomal DNA patterns of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains isolated from clinical material. 46 methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains were included in this study. Most of them were isolated from wound swabs (65.2%) and catheters (19.6%) from different surgical clinics (76.1%). To identify strains and receive biochemical profiles, ID 32 Staph tests and GPI cards of Vitek 1 system were used. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Tenover et al. interpretation were used to compare chromosomal DNA patterns of examined strains. 44 and 42 PFGE patterns of chromosomal DNA were received, using visual interpretation classifying two pairs of strains as the same, two pairs as closely related and three pairs as probably related. Strains classified as identical and similar in visual evaluation were indistinguishable in Molecular Analyst DST interpretation, probably due to tolerance in bands location pattern. Strains probably related in visual interpretation represent at least 96% similarity in Molecular Analyst DST but different susceptibility and biochemical profiles obtained by ID 32 Staph and Vitek 1. PFGE analysis had foremost capacity to distinguish methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains using visual interpretation and Molecular Analyst DST (Bio-Rad) program and seems to be useful method in epidemiological studies. Strains with the same PFGE pattern, had different susceptibility and biochemical profiles.

  15. Mother-child incest, psychosis, and the dynamics of relatedness.

    PubMed

    Haliburn, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Sexual abuse perpetrated by a parent particularly the mother creates turmoil in the child who has to depend on the very person who betrays their trust. A review of the literature confirms that there are only a few case studies of mother-child incest reported in the psychoanalytic literature; the incidence of such incest, however, is unknown. Considerably, more information is available in the forensic and child abuse literatures along with an increase in research; yet, there is a paucity of data. Child sexual abuse by women as highly prevalent is described in early societies, and that there is a bias in peoples' minds about the capacity of females to sexually abuse children is raised by many writers. The fact of being abused by one's mother brings up specific issues for survivors of maternal incest. Shame and the fear of not being believed, which was the experience of my female patient and a sense of specialness and failure of recognition of incest by the males, created particular difficulties which had to be dealt with in psychotherapy. This paper describes three teenagers, one female and two males who were sexually abused by their mothers. I have condensed several years of treatment to provide an account of the female patient and a summary of each of the males, and I attempt to explore the dynamics of relatedness in the abused and the abuser.

  16. Accounting for Relatedness in Family Based Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, P.F.; O’Connell, J.R.; Pollin, T.I.; Baumgarten, M.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Peyser, P.A.; Mitchell, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Assess the differences in point estimates, power and type 1 error rates when accounting for and ignoring family structure in genetic tests of association. Methods We compare by simulation the performance of analytic models using variance components to account for family structure and regression models that ignore relatedness for a range of possible family based study designs (i.e., sib pairs vs. large sibships vs. nuclear families vs. extended families). Results Our analyses indicate that effect size estimates and power are not significantly affected by ignoring family structure. Type 1 error rates increase when family structure is ignored, as density of family structures increases, and as trait heritability increases. For discrete traits with moderate levels of heritability and across many common sampling designs, type 1 error rates rise from a nominal 0.05 to 0.11. Conclusion Ignoring family structure may be useful in screening although it comes at a cost of a increased type 1 error rate, the magnitude of which depends on trait heritability and pedigree configuration. PMID:17570925

  17. Phylogenetic relatedness predicts priority effects in nectar yeast communities

    PubMed Central

    Peay, Kabir G.; Belisle, Melinda; Fukami, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Priority effects, in which the outcome of species interactions depends on the order of their arrival, are a key component of many models of community assembly. Yet, much remains unknown about how priority effects vary in strength among species in a community and what factors explain this variation. We experimented with a model natural community in laboratory microcosms that allowed us to quantify the strength of priority effects for most of the yeast species found in the floral nectar of a hummingbird-pollinated shrub at a biological preserve in northern California. We found that priority effects were widespread, with late-arriving species experiencing strong negative effects from early-arriving species. However, the magnitude of priority effects varied across species pairs. This variation was phylogenetically non-random, with priority effects stronger between closer relatives. Analysis of carbon and amino acid consumption profiles indicated that competition between closer relatives was more intense owing to higher ecological similarity, consistent with Darwin's naturalization hypothesis. These results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness between potential colonists may explain the strength of priority effects and, as a consequence, the degree to which community assembly is historically contingent. PMID:21775330

  18. Landscape, Population Structure and Genetic Relatedness in two Contrasting Caddisflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildrew, A. G.; Wilcock, H. R.; Nichols, R. R.; Bruford, M. W.

    2005-05-01

    We used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic relatedness of populations of two polycentropodid caddisflies over substantial areas of Great Britain. One (the small-bodied Polycentropus flavomaculatus) is found in large, continuous populations in larger streams and rivers, while the other (the large-bodied Plectrocnemia conspersa) is found in small, fragmented larval habitats in the extreme headwaters. In P. flavomaculatus, populations were genetically distinct between almost all pairs of sites, suggesting limited dispersal by adults between rivers. In P. conspersa, on the other hand, populations were homogenous in lowland England over distances approaching 100km, inferring widespread adult dispersal. In upland north-western England, however, P conspersa populations were more distinct in a landscape where streams are separated by land of higher altitude. This infers that high relief may act as a barrier to adult dispersal. Other evidence suggests that there may be other barriers to adult dispersal through the landscape, beyond the effect of high ground alone, that could disrupt dispersal by the adults of species living in patchily distributed larval habitats

  19. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  20. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  1. Neither testosterone levels nor aggression decrease when the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) displays paternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Juana, Luis; Bárbara, Vázquez-Gaytán; Martín, Martínez-Torres; Agustín, Carmona; Guillermo, Ramos-Blancas; Guadalupe, Ortíz

    2010-03-01

    The first studies that correlated mammalian paternal behavior and testosterone levels indicated that the concentration of this steroid hormone decreases when males exhibit paternal care. However, recent studies have also shown that testosterone levels do not decrease when males display paternal behavior. In this study, we measured testosterone levels in plasma throughout the reproductive cycle of the Mongolian gerbil. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with paternal care as well as aggression. We also examined whether there is a trade-off between paternal behavior and aggression in this mammal. Our results show that Mongolian gerbil testosterone levels do not decrease when the males give paternal care. Likewise, male Mongolian gerbils exhibit high levels of aggression while displaying paternal behavior, indicating that there is no trade-off between aggression and paternal behavior. More studies are needed to determine whether testosterone is involved in the regulation of paternal behavior in this rodent.

  2. Demerelate: calculating inter-individual relatedness for kinship analysis based on co-dominant diploid genetic markers using R.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Philipp; Gerlach, Gabriele

    2017-03-09

    The Demerelate package offers algorithms to calculate different inter-individual relatedness measurements. Three different allele sharing indices, five pairwise weighted estimates of relatedness and four pairwise weighted estimates with sample size correction are implemented to analyze kinship structures within populations. Statistics are based on randomization tests; modeling relatedness coefficients by logistic regression, modeling relatedness with geographic distance by mantel correlation and comparing mean relatedness between populations using pairwise t-tests. Demerelate provides an advance on previous software packages by including some estimators not available in R to date, along with FIS , as well as combining analysis of relatedness and spatial structuring. An UPGMA tree visualizes genetic relatedness among individuals. Additionally, Demerelate summarizes information on datasets (allele vs. genotype frequencies; heterozygosity; FIS -values). Demerelate is - to our knowledge - the first R-package implementing basic allele sharing indices such as Blouin's Mxy relatedness, the estimator of Wang corrected for sample size (wangxy ), estimators based on Morans I adapted to genetic relatedness as well as combining all estimators with geographic information. The R environment enables users to better understand relatedness within populations due to the flexibility of Demerelate of accepting different datasets as empirical data, reference data, geographical data and by providing intermediate results. Each statistic and tool can be used separately, which helps to understand the suitability of the data for relatedness analysis, and can be easily implemented in custom pipelines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship Between Autonomy and Relatedness and Adolescents' Adrenocortical and Cardiovascular Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Cook, Emily C; Chaplin, Tara M; Stroud, Laura R

    2015-11-01

    Developing autonomy and maintaining relatedness within the parent-adolescent relationship marks a realignment process that shifts adolescents' decision making and regulation from parents to youth. This process may be stressful for some adolescents, particularly those who perceive their daily lives as stressful. This study examined the associations of autonomy, relatedness and perceived stress with adolescents' cortisol and blood pressure response to conflict in a mother-adolescent interaction task among 100 adolescents (M age = 15.09; 68 % girls, 78 % Caucasian). Few direct associations were found, but results indicated that perceived stress moderated the effect of autonomy and relatedness such that youth who reported more perceived stress and whose mothers' restricted their autonomy and undermined their relatedness evidenced increased cortisol and systolic blood pressure when compared to youth lower in perceived stress. The results highlight the importance of examining individual differences in the association between normative developmental transitions and adolescents' neurobiological response to stress.

  4. Autonomy and Relatedness in Inner-City Families of Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Samuolis, Jessica; Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Liddle, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined parent-adolescent autonomous-relatedness functioning in inner-city, ethnic minority families of adolescents exhibiting drug abuse and related problem behaviors. Seventy-four parent-adolescent dyads completed a structured interaction task prior to the start of treatment that was coded using an established autonomous-relatedness measure. Adolescent drug use, externalizing, and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Parents and adolescents completed assessment instruments measuring parenting style and family conflict. Confirmatory factor analysis found significant differences in the underlying dimensions of parent and adolescent autonomous-relatedness in this sample versus previous samples. It was also found that autonomous-relatedness was associated with worse adolescent symptomatology and family impairment. Results based on both self-report and observational measures contribute to the understanding of key family constructs in this population and provide insight for both researchers and the treatment community. PMID:20376203

  5. Assortative mating for relatedness in a large naturally occurring population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stephen P; Kennington, W J; Simmons, L W

    2012-04-01

    New theoretical work on kin selection and inclusive fitness benefits predicts that individuals will sometimes choose close or intermediate relatives as mates to maximize their fitness. However, empirical examples supporting such predictions are rare. In this study, we look for such evidence in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. We compared mating and nonmating individuals to test whether mating was nonrandom with respect to relatedness. Consistent with optimal inbreeding, males were more closely related to their mate than to randomly sampled females. However, all individuals collected mating showed higher relatedness and males were not significantly more related to their mate than to other mating females. We also found a negative relationship between relatedness and fecundity. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that inclusive fitness benefits may drive inbreeding tolerance despite direct costs to fitness; however, an experimental approach is needed to investigate the link between mate preference and relatedness.

  6. Space-time relatedness and Hamilton's rule for long-lasting behaviors in viscous populations.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Genes affect not only the behavior and fitness of their carriers but also that of other individuals. According to Hamilton's rule, whether a mutant gene will spread in the gene pool depends on the effects of its carrier on the fitness of all individuals in the population, each weighted by its relatedness to the carrier. However, social behaviors may affect not only recipients living in the generation of the actor but also individuals living in subsequent generations. In this note, I evaluate space-time relatedness coefficients for localized dispersal. These relatedness coefficients weight the selection pressures on long-lasting behaviors, which stem from a multigenerational gap between phenotypic expression by actors and the resulting environmental feedback on the fitness of recipients. Explicit values of space-time relatedness coefficients reveal that they can be surprisingly large for typical dispersal rates, even for hundreds of generations in the future.

  7. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical and environmental non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Aydanian, Antonina; Tang, Li; Chen, Yuansha; Morris, J Glenn; Olsen, Peter; Johnson, Judith A; Nair, G Balakrish; Stine, O Colin

    2015-08-01

    In an attempt to better understand the non-O1/O139 isolates of Vibrio cholerae, a systematic study of clinical and environmental isolates collected from various geographical locations between the years 1932 and 1998 was conducted. Ninety-nine V. cholerae isolates collected from clinical and environmental sources from various geographical regions between 1932 and 1998 were studied by sequencing seven housekeeping genes. Genetic relatedness was defined by multiple methods that allow for the observed high levels of recombination. Four V. cholerae subpopulations were determined. One subpopulation contained mostly environmental isolates, a second contained the cholera toxin-positive serogroup O1/O139 isolates, and the other two subpopulations were enriched for non-O1/O139 clinical isolates that were frequently clonally related to each other. The data suggest that many of these non-O1/O139 clinical isolates were phylogenetically related to common ancestors, even though the isolates had been collected up to 36 years apart and from different countries or continents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Paternal mental health following perceived traumatic childbirth.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Christian; Sharman, Rachael; Reed, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    the objective behind the current study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of fathers after childbirth trauma, an area of minimal research. This is part two of a two-part series conducted in 2014 researching the mental health of fathers after experiencing a perceived traumatic childbirth. qualitative methodology using semi-structured interviews and reporting of qualitative questions administered in part one's online survey (Inglis, 2014). interviews conducted face-to-face at an Australian University or on Skype. sixty-nine responded to the online qualitative questions and of these seven were interviewed. thematic analysis of verbal and written qualitative responses. thematic analysis of qualitative survey data and interviews found a global theme 'standing on the sideline' which encompassed two major themes of witnessing trauma: unknown territory, and the aftermath: dealing with it, and respective subthemes. according to the perceptions and experiences of the fathers, there was a significant lack of communication between birthing teams and fathers, and fathers experienced a sense of marginalisation before, during, and after the traumatic childbirth. The findings of this study suggest that these factors contributed to the perception of trauma in the current sample. Whilst many fathers reported the negative impact of the traumatic birth on themselves and their relationships, some reported post-traumatic growth from the experience and others identified friends and family as a valuable source of support. improved communication between midwifery staff and fathers before, during and after childbirth may reduce the rates of paternal postpartum mental health difficulties and experiences of trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relatedness, national boarders, perceptions of firms and the value of their innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castor, Adam R.

    The main goal of this dissertation is to better understand how external corporate stakeholder perceptions of relatedness affect important outcomes for companies. In pursuit of this goal, I apply the lens of category studies. Categories not only help audiences to distinguish between members of different categories, they also convey patterns of relatedness. In turn, this may have implications for understanding how audiences search, what they attend to, and how the members are ultimately valued. In the first chapter, I apply incites from social psychology to show how the nationality of audience members affects the way that they cognitively group objects into similar categories. I find that the geographic location of stock market analysts affect the degree to which they will revise their earnings estimates for a given company in the wake of an earnings miss by another firm in the same industry. Foreign analysts revise their earnings estimates downward more so than do local analysts, suggesting that foreign analysts ascribe the earnings miss more broadly and tend to lump companies located in the same country into larger groups than do local analysts. In the second chapter, I demonstrate that the structure of inter-category relationships can have consequential effects for the members of a focal category. Leveraging an experimental-like design, I study the outcomes of nanotechnology patents and the pattern of forward citations across multiple patent jurisdictions. I find that members of technology categories with many close category 'neighbors' are more broadly cited than members of categories with few category 'neighbors.' My findings highlight how category embeddedness and category system structure affect the outcomes of category members as well as the role that classification plays in the valuation of innovation. In the third chapter, I propose a novel and dynamic measure of corporate similarity that is constructed from the two-mode analyst and company coverage network

  10. Dynamic paternity allocation as a function of male plumage color in barn swallows.

    PubMed

    Safran, R J; Neuman, C R; McGraw, K J; Lovette, I J

    2005-09-30

    Paternity in male animals can be influenced by their phenotypic signals of quality. Accordingly, the behavior underlying patterns of paternity should be flexible as signals of quality change. To evaluate the dynamics of paternity allocation, we analyzed paternity before and after manipulating plumage coloration, a known signal of quality, in male barn swallows Hirundo rustica. We found that, in successive breeding bouts, only males whose plumage color was experimentally enhanced received greater paternity from their social mates, demonstrating evidence for flexible and dynamic paternity allocation and the importance for males of maintaining signals of quality well after pair bond formation.

  11. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Stockley, Paula; Hobson, Liane

    2016-04-27

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours.

  12. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure modifies memory retention in female offspring.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Shlomo; Rogers, Jake; Short, Annabel K; Renoir, Thibault; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring. Paternal CORT treatment was associated with decreased body weights of female offspring and a marked reduction of the male offspring. There were no differences in social behavior of adult F1 offspring in the three-chamber social interaction test. Despite male offspring of CORT-treated fathers displaying hyperactivity in the Y-maze, there was no observable difference in short-term spatial working memory. Spatial learning and memory testing in the Morris water maze revealed that female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers had impaired memory retention. We used our recently developed methodology to analyze the spatial search strategy of the mice during the learning trials and determined that the impairment could not be attributed to underlying differences in search strategy. These results provide evidence for the impact of paternal corticosterone administration on offspring cognition and complement the cumulative knowledge of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal and paternal imprisonment in the stress process.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John

    2013-05-01

    Parental incarceration is now prevalent in community samples (e.g., with 11% of children reporting paternal imprisonment and 3% reporting maternal imprisonment in a national sample), pointing to a potentially important childhood trauma that should be included in work on contemporary childhood stressors in this era of mass incarceration. This paper investigates the influences of maternal and paternal imprisonment on changes in young adult mental health using a nationally representative sample. We assess four perspectives-gendered loss, same-sex role model, intergenerational stress, and maternal salience - on the joint influences of maternal and paternal incarceration within the broader stress process paradigm. The results generalize support for a gendered loss perspective developed in work on parental death and an early small study of parental incarceration. This pattern reveals maternal incarceration increases depressive symptoms while paternal incarceration increases substance role problems. Chronicity of parental imprisonment and its timing are also influential. Analyses further specify a vulnerability of male and minority young adults to high levels of mental health problems following maternal and paternal incarceration in adolescence.

  14. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Liane

    2016-01-01

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. PMID:27097924

  15. Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008–2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1–7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901

  16. A Diagnostic HIV-1 Tropism System Based on Sequence Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Suzanne; Stucki, Heinz; Bader, Joëlle; Vidal, Vincent; Kaiser, Rolf; Battegay, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Key clinical studies for HIV coreceptor antagonists have used the phenotyping-based Trofile test. Meanwhile various simpler-to-do genotypic tests have become available that are compatible with standard laboratory equipment and Web-based interpretation tools. However, these systems typically analyze only the most prominent virus sequence in a specimen. We present a new diagnostic HIV tropism test not needing DNA sequencing. The system, XTrack, uses physical properties of DNA duplexes after hybridization of single-stranded HIV-1 env V3 loop probes to the clinical specimen. Resulting “heteroduplexes” possess unique properties driven by sequence relatedness to the reference and resulting in a discrete electrophoretic mobility. A detailed optimization process identified diagnostic probe candidates relating best to a large number of HIV-1 sequences with known tropism. From over 500 V3 sequences representing all main HIV-1 subtypes (Los Alamos database), we obtained a small set of probes to determine the tropism in clinical samples. We found a high concordance with the commercial TrofileES test (84.9%) and the Web-based tool Geno2Pheno (83.0%). Moreover, the new system reveals mixed virus populations, and it was successful on specimens with low virus loads or on provirus from leukocytes. A replicative phenotyping system was used for validation. Our data show that the XTrack test is favorably suitable for routine diagnostics. It detects and dissects mixed virus populations and viral minorities; samples with viral loads (VL) of <200 copies/ml are successfully analyzed. We further expect that the principles of the platform can be adapted also to other sequence-divergent pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C viruses. PMID:25502529

  17. Genetic relatedness between Ardi, Black Bedouin and Damascus goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-06-18

    The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer. Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats exhibited high average allele number and expected heterozygosity of 8.25, 9, and 7.25, and 0.750, 0.804, and 0.779, respectively. F-statistics for population differentiation showed 6.0% of total genetic variation, whereas 94.0% as differentiation between individuals within all populations. The least varied within populations was Ardi goats, then Damascus goats and finally Black Bedouin goats. Furthermore, the Damascus goat population was more differentiated from Black Bedouin goats than from Ardi goats. On the other hand, there was strong evidence of admixture between the majority of Ardi and Black Bedouin goat individuals but little with those of Damascus goats. Genetic distance between Ardi and Black Bedouin goats was the shortest, whereas it was the longest between Ardi and Damascus goats. The phylogenetic tree clearly revealed the expected degree of differentiation in the three populations. From a genetic conservation point of view, it is recommended to maintain the biodiversity of these distinct populations in case genetic migration of genetic resources and genetic conservation are absent.

  18. Atlas of Cryptic Genetic Relatedness Among 1000 Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Larisa; Qiu, Shuhao; Dutta, Rajib; Fedorov, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    A novel computational method for detecting identical-by-descent (IBD) chromosomal segments between sequenced genomes is presented. It utilizes the distribution patterns of very rare genetic variants (vrGVs), which have minor allele frequencies <0.2%. Contrary to the existing probabilistic approaches our method is rather deterministic, because it considers a group of very rare events which cannot happen together only by chance. This method has been applied for exhaustive computational search of shared IBD segments among 1,092 sequenced individuals from 14 populations. It demonstrated that clusters of vrGVs are unique and powerful markers of genetic relatedness, that uncover IBD chromosomal segments between and within populations, irrespective of whether divergence was recent or occurred hundreds-to-thousands of years ago. We found that several IBD segments are shared by practically any possible pair of individuals belonging to the same population. Moreover, shared short IBD segments (median size 183 kb) were found in 10% of inter-continental human pairs, each comprising of a person from sub-Saharan Africa and a person from Southern Europe. The shortest shared IBD segments (median size 54 kb) were found in 0.42% of inter-continental pairs composed of individuals from Chinese/Japanese populations and Africans from Kenya and Nigeria. Knowledge of inheritance of IBD segments is important in clinical case–control and cohort studies, since unknown distant familial relationships could compromise interpretation of collected data. Clusters of vrGVs should be useful markers for familial relationship and common multifactorial disorders. PMID:26907499

  19. Low reproductive skew despite high male-biased operational sex ratio in a glass frog with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Alexandra; Trenkwalder, Katharina; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter; Ringler, Eva

    2015-09-03

    Reproductive skew, the uneven distribution of reproductive success among individuals, is a common feature of many animal populations. Several scenarios have been proposed to favour either high or low levels of reproductive skew. Particularly a male-biased operational sex ratio and the asynchronous arrival of females is expected to cause high variation in reproductive success among males. Recently it has been suggested that the type of benefits provided by males (fixed vs. dilutable) could also strongly impact individual mating patterns, and thereby affecting reproductive skew. We tested this hypothesis in Hyalinobatrachium valerioi, a Neotropical glass frog with prolonged breeding and paternal care. We monitored and genetically sampled a natural population in southwestern Costa Rica during the breeding season in 2012 and performed parentage analysis of adult frogs and tadpoles to investigate individual mating frequencies, possible mating preferences, and estimate reproductive skew in males and females. We identified a polygamous mating system, where high proportions of males (69 %) and females (94 %) reproduced successfully. The variance in male mating success could largely be attributed to differences in time spent calling at the reproductive site, but not to body size or relatedness. Female H. valerioi were not choosy and mated indiscriminately with available males. Our findings support the hypothesis that dilutable male benefits - such as parental care - can favour female polyandry and maintain low levels of reproductive skew among males within a population, even in the presence of direct male-male competition and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio. We hypothesize that low male reproductive skew might be a general characteristic in prolonged breeders with paternal care.

  20. Paternity assignment in the polyploid Acipenser dabryanus based on a novel microsatellite marker system

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Quan; Lai, Jiansheng; Du, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Acipenser dabryanus is listed as a Critical Endangered species in the IUCN Red List and the first class protected animals in China. Fortunately, A. dabryanus specimens are being successfully bred in captivity for conservation. However, for effective ex situ conservation, we should be aware of the genetic diversity and the degree of relatedness of the individuals selected for breeding. In this study, we aimed at the development of novel and reliable microsatellites used for the genetic study of A. dabryanus. A total of 14,321 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected by transcriptome sequencing and screening. We selected 20 novel and polymorphic microsatellites (non-dinucleotide) with good repeatability from the 100 tested loci for a subsequent genetic and paternity study. A set of captive broodstock (F1 stock, n = 43) and their offspring (F2 stock, n = 96) were used to examine the efficiency of the 20 SSRs for assigning parentage to offspring, with an allocation success of 91.7%. We also found that only a few families predominantly contributed to the progeny produced by the 43 breeders. In addition, mitochondrial DNA data showed that the captive broodstock (F1 individuals) had an excellent probability of the same lineage, implying that a high level of inbreeding may have occurred in these individuals. Our research provides useful information on genetic diversity and reproductive pattern of A. dabryanus, and the 20 SSRs developed in this study can be applied to the future breeding program to avoid inbreeding for this stock or other related species of Acipenseriformes. PMID:28953941

  1. Paternal genetic history of the Vlax Roma.

    PubMed

    Zalán, Andrea; Béres, Judit; Pamjav, Horolma

    2011-03-01

    Romanies constitute the largest minority group belonging to different subgroups in Hungary. Vlax Romanies are one of these Romani subgroups. The Gypsies came to Hungary from the Balkans in two large migrations. The Carpathian Romanies arrived in the 15th century and the Vlax Romanies came in the 19th century. The Carpathian Gypsies speak Hungarian and the Vlax Romanies speak Hungarian and Romani languages. Only a limited number of genetic studies of Y-chromosomal haplotypes/haplogroups have been done before, moreover most studies did not contain information regarding the investigated Roma populations which subgroups belong to. In the present study, we analyzed a wide set of Y-chromosomal markers to do comparable studies of the Vlax Roma in eastern Hungarian regions. The results can be compared in the context of previously published data on other Romani groups, Indian and Hungarian reference populations. Haplogroups H1a-M82 and J2a2-M67 were most common in the investigated population groups. A median-joining network of haplogroup H1a-M82 has demonstrated the sharing of identical Indian specific Y-chromosomal lineages between all Romani populations including Malaysian Indians as well as the Vlax Romanies. This common lineage of haplogroup H1a-M82 represents a common descent from a single ancestor provides a strong genetic link to the ancestral geographical origin of the proto-Gypsies. The detected haplogroups in the Vlax Romani population groups can be classified into two different Y-chromosomal lineages based on their putative origin. These lineages include ancestral Indian (H1a-M82), present-day Eurasian (J2a2-M67, J2*-M172, E1b1b1a-M78, I1-M253, R1a1-M198 and R1b1-P25) Y-chromosome lineages. Presence of these lineages in the paternal gene pool of the Roma people is illustrative of the Gypsy migration route from India through the Balkan to the Carpathian Basin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-01-01

    Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

  3. Establishing paternity in Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) by DNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longmire, Jonathan L.; Gee, George F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population "bottleneck," these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

  4. Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

  5. Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726

  6. Experimental parasite infection reveals costs and benefits of paternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056

  7. Cheating does not explain selective differences at high and low relatedness in a social amoeba.

    PubMed

    Saxer, Gerda; Brock, Debra A; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2010-03-12

    Altruism can be favored by high relatedness among interactants. We tested the effect of relatedness in experimental populations of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, where altruism occurs in a starvation-induced social stage when some amoebae die to form a stalk that lifts the fertile spores above the soil facilitating dispersal. The single cells that aggregate during the social stage can be genetically diverse, which can lead to conflict over spore and stalk allocation. We mixed eight genetically distinct wild isolates and maintained twelve replicated populations at a high and a low relatedness treatment. After one and ten social generations we assessed the strain composition of the populations. We expected that some strains would be out-competed in both treatments. In addition, we expected that low relatedness might allow the persistence of social cheaters as it provides opportunity to exploit other strains. We found that at high relatedness a single clone prevailed in all twelve populations. At low relatedness three clones predominated in all twelve populations. Interestingly, exploitation of some clones by others in the social stage did not explain the results. When we mixed each winner against the pool of five losers, the winner did not prevail in the spores because all contributed fairly to the stalk and spores. Furthermore, the dominant clone at high-relatedness was not cheated by the other two that persisted at low relatedness. A combination of high spore production and short unicellular stage most successfully explained the three successful clones at low relatedness, but not why one of them fared better at high relatedness. Differences in density did not account for the results, as the clones did not differ in vegetative growth rates nor did they change the growth rates over relevant densities. These results suggest that social competition and something beyond solitary growth differences occurs during the vegetative stage when amoebae eat bacteria

  8. Cheating does not explain selective differences at high and low relatedness in a social amoeba

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altruism can be favored by high relatedness among interactants. We tested the effect of relatedness in experimental populations of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, where altruism occurs in a starvation-induced social stage when some amoebae die to form a stalk that lifts the fertile spores above the soil facilitating dispersal. The single cells that aggregate during the social stage can be genetically diverse, which can lead to conflict over spore and stalk allocation. We mixed eight genetically distinct wild isolates and maintained twelve replicated populations at a high and a low relatedness treatment. After one and ten social generations we assessed the strain composition of the populations. We expected that some strains would be out-competed in both treatments. In addition, we expected that low relatedness might allow the persistence of social cheaters as it provides opportunity to exploit other strains. Results We found that at high relatedness a single clone prevailed in all twelve populations. At low relatedness three clones predominated in all twelve populations. Interestingly, exploitation of some clones by others in the social stage did not explain the results. When we mixed each winner against the pool of five losers, the winner did not prevail in the spores because all contributed fairly to the stalk and spores. Furthermore, the dominant clone at high-relatedness was not cheated by the other two that persisted at low relatedness. A combination of high spore production and short unicellular stage most successfully explained the three successful clones at low relatedness, but not why one of them fared better at high relatedness. Differences in density did not account for the results, as the clones did not differ in vegetative growth rates nor did they change the growth rates over relevant densities. Conclusions These results suggest that social competition and something beyond solitary growth differences occurs during the vegetative

  9. Biological relevance of CNV calling methods using familial relatedness including monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Christina A; Melka, Melkaye G; Wishart, Andrea E; Locke, M Elizabeth O; Awamleh, Zain; O'Reilly, Richard L; Singh, Shiva M

    2014-04-21

    Studies involving the analysis of structural variation including Copy Number Variation (CNV) have recently exploded in the literature. Furthermore, CNVs have been associated with a number of complex diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. Common methods for CNV detection use SNP, CNV, or CGH arrays, where the signal intensities of consecutive probes are used to define the number of copies associated with a given genomic region. These practices pose a number of challenges that interfere with the ability of available methods to accurately call CNVs. It has, therefore, become necessary to develop experimental protocols to test the reliability of CNV calling methods from microarray data so that researchers can properly discriminate biologically relevant data from noise. We have developed a workflow for the integration of data from multiple CNV calling algorithms using the same array results. It uses four CNV calling programs: PennCNV (PC), Affymetrix® Genotyping Console™ (AGC), Partek® Genomics Suite™ (PGS) and Golden Helix SVS™ (GH) to analyze CEL files from the Affymetrix® Human SNP 6.0 Array™. To assess the relative suitability of each program, we used individuals of known genetic relationships. We found significant differences in CNV calls obtained by different CNV calling programs. Although the programs showed variable patterns of CNVs in the same individuals, their distribution in individuals of different degrees of genetic relatedness has allowed us to offer two suggestions. The first involves the use of multiple algorithms for the detection of the largest possible number of CNVs, and the second suggests the use of PennCNV over all other methods when the use of only one software program is desirable.

  10. Characteristic neurobiological patterns differentiate paternal responsiveness in two Peromyscus species.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Kelly G; Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Hampton, Joseph E; Hainley, Leslie; Karsner, Stephanie; Tu, Eddie B; Hyer, Molly M; Crockett, Ashly; Baranova, Anya; Ferguson, Tajh; Ferguson, Tenaj; Kinsley, Craig H

    2011-01-01

    Rodent paternal models provide unique opportunities to investigate the emergence of affiliative social behavior in mammals. Using biparental and uniparental Peromyscus species (californicus and maniculatus, respectively) we assessed paternal responsiveness by exposing males to biological offspring, unrelated conspecific pups, or familiar brothers following a 24-hour separation. The putative paternal circuit we investigated included brain areas involved in fear/anxiety [cingulate cortex (Cg), medial amygdala (MeA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and lateral septum (LS)], parental motivation [medial preoptic area (MPOA)], learning/behavioral plasticity (hippocampus), olfaction [pyriform cortex (PC)], and social rewards (nucleus accumbens). Paternal experience in californicus males reduced fos immunoreactivity (ir) in several fear/anxiety areas; additionally, all californicus groups exhibited decreased fos-ir in the PC. Enhanced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT)-ir cell bodies and fibers, as well as increased neuronal restructuring in the hippocampus, were also observed in californicus mice. Multidimensional scaling analyses revealed distinct brain activation profiles differentiating californicus biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins. Specifically, associations among MPOA fos, CA1 fos, dentate gyrus GFAP, CA2 nestin-, and PVN OT-ir characterized biological fathers; LS fos-, Cg fos-, and AVP-ir characterized pup-exposed virgins, and PC-, PVN-, and MeA fos-ir characterized pup-naïve virgins. Thus, whereas fear/anxiety areas characterized pup-naïve males, neurobiological factors involved in more diverse functions such as learning, motivation, and nurturing responses characterized fatherhood in biparental californicus mice. Less distinct paternal-dependent activation patterns were observed in uniparental maniculatus mice. These data suggest that dual neurobiological circuits, leading to the inhibition of social

  11. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies.

    PubMed

    De Souza, E; Morris, J K

    2010-11-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome. Case-control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the same congenital anomaly register and with maternal age within 6 months. Data from 22 EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in 12 European countries. Diagnoses with observed or (for terminations) predicted year of birth from 1980 to 2005, comprising live births, fetal deaths with gestational age ≥ 20 weeks and terminations after prenatal diagnosis of the anomaly. Data include 374 cases of Patau syndrome, 929 of Edwards syndrome, 295 of Klinefelter syndrome, 28 of XYY syndrome and 5627 controls with Down syndrome. Odds ratio (OR) associated with a 10-year increase in paternal age for each anomaly was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results were adjusted to take account of the estimated association of paternal age with Down syndrome (1.11; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23). The OR for Patau syndrome was 1.10 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.45); for Edwards syndrome, 1.15 (0.96 to 1.38); for Klinefelter syndrome, 1.35 (1.02 to 1.79); and for XYY syndrome, 1.99 (0.75 to 5.26). There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of Klinefelter syndrome with increasing paternal age. The larger positive associations of Klinefelter and XYY syndromes with paternal age compared with Patau and Edwards syndromes are consistent with the greater percentage of these sex chromosome anomalies being of paternal origin.

  12. [Evaluation of 9 STR loci in paternity identification].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y

    2000-11-01

    9 STR loci obtained by four-dye fluorescent labeling technique in paternity identification provides much information at one test and the cumulative chance of exclusion gets up to 0.9999. Our result of 268 paternity test cases shows that there are at least two incompatible loci in all Mother-Child-Alleged Father (M-C-AF) exclusive cases. To those unexclusive cases, The RCP all reaches international standard. It is suggested that more STR loci be used for accurate test in Child-Alleged Father(C-AF) case.

  13. The architecture of madness and the good of paternalism.

    PubMed

    Sine, David M

    2008-09-01

    From the era of the asylum to the present day, the architectural design of inpatient facilities has long been considered a contributing factor in the treatment of patients with mental and substance use disorders. The author examines the ethical basis for decisions about the design of psychiatric hospitals--architectural paternalism. The ethic of paternalism in the design of asylums and in contemporary thinking about psychiatric hospital design is described. The author argues that limitation of patients' autonomy and rights by the purpose-built architectural environment is legitimate and ethical.

  14. Evidence for paternal imprinting in familial Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, D; Ramesar, R

    1992-01-01

    A previously unreported family in which seven members in two generations have Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is documented. Paternal imprinting of the gene responsible for BWS is involved as the mechanism responsible for the aberrant inheritance pattern in this kindred. A review of published reports showed 27 previously published pedigrees with two or more affected subjects with BWS. Paternal imprinting would explain the non-mendelian inheritance of BWS in all but four kindreds. The latter families are examined in more detail and in only one example is the evidence against imprinting totally unexplained. Images PMID:1583639

  15. Postdivorce paternal disengagement: failed mourning and role fusion.

    PubMed

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-04-01

    In this article, I suggest that postdivorce paternal disengagement may be rooted in the father's tendency to link his children and ex-wife as a single entity in consequence of his failure to adequately mourn the loss of his ex-wife and to redefine his paternal role and identity in distinction from his spousal role and identity. I also suggest that the ex-spousal conflict that disengaged fathers often blame for their disengagement is the product of these failures and shows the progress from conflict through disengagement. These claims are developed on the basis of findings of other authors and illustrated though a case analysis of an absent father.

  16. Paternal kin recognition and infant care in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Elizabeth J; Wikberg, Eva C; Kawamura, Shoji; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. We investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. We used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Our analyses suggest that the best predictor of adult and subadult male interactions with an infant is the male's dominance status, not his paternity status. We found that maternal siblings but not paternal siblings handled infants more than did unrelated individuals. We conclude that maternal but not paternal kinship influence patterns of infant handling in white-faced capuchins, regardless of whether or not they can recognize paternal kin. Am. J. Primatol. 78:659-668, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetic covariance between components of male reproductive success: within-pair vs. extra-pair paternity in song sparrows.

    PubMed

    Reid, J M; Arcese, P; Losdat, S

    2014-10-01

    The evolutionary trajectories of reproductive systems, including both male and female multiple mating and hence polygyny and polyandry, are expected to depend on the additive genetic variances and covariances in and among components of male reproductive success achieved through different reproductive tactics. However, genetic covariances among key components of male reproductive success have not been estimated in wild populations. We used comprehensive paternity data from socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to estimate additive genetic variance and covariance in the total number of offspring a male sired per year outside his social pairings (i.e. his total extra-pair reproductive success achieved through multiple mating) and his liability to sire offspring produced by his socially paired female (i.e. his success in defending within-pair paternity). Both components of male fitness showed nonzero additive genetic variance, and the estimated genetic covariance was positive, implying that males with high additive genetic value for extra-pair reproduction also have high additive genetic propensity to sire their socially paired female's offspring. There was consequently no evidence of a genetic or phenotypic trade-off between male within-pair paternity success and extra-pair reproductive success. Such positive genetic covariance might be expected to facilitate ongoing evolution of polygyny and could also shape the ongoing evolution of polyandry through indirect selection. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Genetic covariance between components of male reproductive success: within-pair vs. extra-pair paternity in song sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Reid, J M; Arcese, P; Losdat, S

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary trajectories of reproductive systems, including both male and female multiple mating and hence polygyny and polyandry, are expected to depend on the additive genetic variances and covariances in and among components of male reproductive success achieved through different reproductive tactics. However, genetic covariances among key components of male reproductive success have not been estimated in wild populations. We used comprehensive paternity data from socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to estimate additive genetic variance and covariance in the total number of offspring a male sired per year outside his social pairings (i.e. his total extra-pair reproductive success achieved through multiple mating) and his liability to sire offspring produced by his socially paired female (i.e. his success in defending within-pair paternity). Both components of male fitness showed nonzero additive genetic variance, and the estimated genetic covariance was positive, implying that males with high additive genetic value for extra-pair reproduction also have high additive genetic propensity to sire their socially paired female's offspring. There was consequently no evidence of a genetic or phenotypic trade-off between male within-pair paternity success and extra-pair reproductive success. Such positive genetic covariance might be expected to facilitate ongoing evolution of polygyny and could also shape the ongoing evolution of polyandry through indirect selection. PMID:25186454

  19. Effect of maternal autonomy and relatedness and borderline personality disorder on adolescent symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Frankel-Waldheter, Miriam; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M; Watkins, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Several theories propose a relationship between deficits in autonomy and relatedness and the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Empirical work supports relationships between maternal BPD and adolescent symptomatology, as well as between maternal autonomy and relatedness and adolescent symptomatology. However, no study has examined how individuals with BPD differ from normative comparisons on autonomy and relatedness, or whether mothers' BPD mediates the relationship between their autonomy and relatedness and their adolescents' symptomatology. We sampled 28 mothers with BPD and their adolescents aged 14-17 years, as well as 28 normative comparisons matched on demographic variables. We assessed BPD as a categorical diagnosis and along a continuum of self-reported borderline features. In a videotaped problem-solving interaction, controlling for current major depressive disorder, mothers with BPD were less likely to promote and more likely to inhibit relatedness, and they were marginally more likely to inhibit but equally likely to promote autonomy with their adolescents. Mothers' total borderline features mediated the relationship between mothers' promotion of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, rule breaking, and aggression) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). Mothers' total borderline features also mediated the relationship between mothers' inhibition of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, and aggression but not rule breaking) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). We discuss findings in terms of light shed on BPD and the effect of maternal BPD on adolescent development.

  20. The emergence of regional immigrant concentrations in USA and Australia: a spatial relatedness approach.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Josef; Hasman, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of the US and Australian immigration geography and the process of regional population diversification and the emergence of new immigrant concentrations at the regional level. It presents a new approach in the context of human migration studies, focusing on spatial relatedness between individual foreign-born groups as revealed from the analysis of their joint spatial concentrations. The approach employs a simple assumption that the more frequently the members of two population groups concentrate in the same locations the higher is the probability that these two groups can be related. Based on detailed data on the spatial distribution of foreign-born groups in US counties (2000-2010) and Australian postal areas (2006-2011) we firstly quantify the spatial relatedness between all pairs of foreign-born groups and model the aggregate patterns of US and Australian immigration systems conceptualized as the undirected networks of foreign-born groups linked by their spatial relatedness. Secondly, adopting a more dynamic perspective, we assume that immigrant groups with higher spatial relatedness to those groups already concentrated in a region are also more likely to settle in this region in future. As the ultimate goal of the paper, we examine the power of spatial relatedness measures in projecting the emergence of new immigrant concentrations in the US and Australian regions. The results corroborate that the spatial relatedness measures can serve as useful instruments in the analysis of the patterns of population structure and prediction of regional population change. More generally, this paper demonstrates that information contained in spatial patterns (relatedness in space) of population composition has yet to be fully utilized in population forecasting.

  1. The Emergence of Regional Immigrant Concentrations in USA and Australia: A Spatial Relatedness Approach

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Josef; Hasman, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of the US and Australian immigration geography and the process of regional population diversification and the emergence of new immigrant concentrations at the regional level. It presents a new approach in the context of human migration studies, focusing on spatial relatedness between individual foreign-born groups as revealed from the analysis of their joint spatial concentrations. The approach employs a simple assumption that the more frequently the members of two population groups concentrate in the same locations the higher is the probability that these two groups can be related. Based on detailed data on the spatial distribution of foreign-born groups in US counties (2000–2010) and Australian postal areas (2006–2011) we firstly quantify the spatial relatedness between all pairs of foreign-born groups and model the aggregate patterns of US and Australian immigration systems conceptualized as the undirected networks of foreign-born groups linked by their spatial relatedness. Secondly, adopting a more dynamic perspective, we assume that immigrant groups with higher spatial relatedness to those groups already concentrated in a region are also more likely to settle in this region in future. As the ultimate goal of the paper, we examine the power of spatial relatedness measures in projecting the emergence of new immigrant concentrations in the US and Australian regions. The results corroborate that the spatial relatedness measures can serve as useful instruments in the analysis of the patterns of population structure and prediction of regional population change. More generally, this paper demonstrates that information contained in spatial patterns (relatedness in space) of population composition has yet to be fully utilized in population forecasting. PMID:25966371

  2. [The phenomenon of gene linkage and recombination in the paternity test].

    PubMed

    Cheng, D L; Yan, P H; Liu, Y; Chen, J

    1999-02-01

    The phenomenon of gene linkage and recombination may nearly be overlooked in paternity test of one single child, but it is likely encountered in paternity test of twin or more. In a case of paternity test, the results of 17 items including eight DNA loci were analyzed and the phenomenon of gene linkage and recombination was discussed in detail. This phenomenon should be brought into necessary attention in the paternity test.

  3. From here to paternity: neural correlates of the onset of paternal behavior in California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    de Jong, Trynke R; Chauke, Miyetani; Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2009-08-01

    In a minority of mammalian species, including humans, fathers play a significant role in infant care. Compared to maternal behavior, the neural and hormonal bases of paternal care are poorly understood. We analyzed behavioral, neuronal and neuropeptide responses towards unfamiliar pups in biparental California mice, comparing males housed with another male ("virgin males") or with a female before ("paired males") or after ("new fathers") the birth of their first litter. New fathers approached pups more rapidly and spent more time engaging in paternal behavior than virgin males. In each cage housing two virgin males, one was spontaneously paternal and one was not. New fathers and paired males spent more time sniffing and touching a wire mesh ball containing a newborn pup than virgin males. Only new fathers showed significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) following exposure to a pup-containing ball, as compared to an empty ball. Moreover, Fos-LIR in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STMV and STMPM) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) was increased in new fathers, independent of test condition. No differences were found among the groups in Fos-LIR in oxytocinergic or vasopressinergic neurons. These results suggest that sexual and paternal experiences facilitate paternal behavior, but other cues play a role as well. Paternal experience increases Fos-LIR induced by distal pup cues in the MPO, but not in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. Fatherhood also appears to alter neurotransmission in the BNST and DRC, regions implicated in emotionality and stress-responsiveness.

  4. The Association of Paternal Mood and Infant Temperament: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Shreya; Nazareth, Irwin; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Maternal depression is associated with adverse child development, but little is known about the effects of paternal depression. This pilot study estimated the prevalence of paternal depression and mood state, and assessed the relationship between paternal mood and infant temperament. The participants in the study were 98 fathers of newborn babies.…

  5. The Doctor's Dilemma: Paternalisms in the Medicolegal History of Assisted Reproduction and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kara W

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the comparative history of the law and practice of abortion and assisted reproduction in the United States to consider the interplay between medical paternalism and legal paternalism. It supplements existing critiques of paternalism as harmful to women's equality with the medical perspective, as revealed through the writings of Alan F. Guttmacher, to consider when legal regulation might be warranted.

  6. Transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA in cyprinid fish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806

  7. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers’ experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective behaviors and linguistic stimulation measured during two father-infant interactions. Multinomial logistic regression analyses suggested that a less-supportive work environment was associated with fathers’ membership in multiple lower-quality parenting classes. Greater work pressure and a nonstandard work schedule also predicted fathers’ membership in the latent parenting classes, although these associations differed depending on the number of hours fathers spent in the workplace. PMID:23152644

  8. Ant larvae as players in social conflict: relatedness and individual identity mediate cannibalism intensity.

    PubMed

    Schultner, Eva; Gardner, Andy; Karhunen, Markku; Helanterä, Heikki

    2014-12-01

    Conflict arises among social organisms when individuals differ in their inclusive-fitness interests. Ant societies are excellent models for understanding how genetic relatedness mediates conflict intensity. However, although conflicts within colonies typically arise over offspring production, the role of larvae as actors in social conflict has received little attention. We develop and empirically test kin-selection theory of larval egg cannibalism in ant societies. Specifically, we investigate how selection for cannibalism is mediated by nestmate relatedness and larval sex in a mathematical model and then test the model's predictions by measuring cannibalism levels in eight ant species with varying nestmate relatedness. In line with our theoretical predictions, cannibalism levels in larvae were significantly influenced by relatedness and sex. Increased relatedness was associated with reduced levels of cannibalism, indicating that larval behavior is mediated by inclusive-fitness considerations. Levels of cannibalism were significantly higher in male larvae, and our model suggests that this is due to sex differences in the benefits of cannibalism. By examining the selfish interests of larvae and the constraints they face in a social environment, our study presents a novel perspective on conflict in ants and on the evolution of selfish elements in social systems in general.

  9. Determination of genetic relatedness from low-coverage human genome sequences using pedigree simulations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael D; Jay, Flora; Castellano, Sergi; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2017-08-01

    We develop and evaluate methods for inferring relatedness among individuals from low-coverage DNA sequences of their genomes, with particular emphasis on sequences obtained from fossil remains. We suggest the major factors complicating the determination of relatedness among ancient individuals are sequencing depth, the number of overlapping sites, the sequencing error rate and the presence of contamination from present-day genetic sources. We develop a theoretical model that facilitates the exploration of these factors and their relative effects, via measurement of pairwise genetic distances, without calling genotypes, and determine the power to infer relatedness under various scenarios of varying sequencing depth, present-day contamination and sequencing error. The model is validated by a simulation study as well as the analysis of aligned sequences from present-day human genomes. We then apply the method to the recently published genome sequences of ancient Europeans, developing a statistical treatment to determine confidence in assigned relatedness that is, in some cases, more precise than previously reported. As the majority of ancient specimens are from animals, this method would be applicable to investigate kinship in nonhuman remains. The developed software grups (Genetic Relatedness Using Pedigree Simulations) is implemented in Python and freely available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genetic Relatedness of Low Solitary Nests of Apis dorsata from Marang, Terengganu, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Soon Guan; Adam, Nur Azura; Lau, Wei Hong

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of Apis dorsata from Peninsular Malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. The analysis of 15 single locus DNA microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of A. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. Furthermore, in general, slightly negative values of intercolony relatedness (R) among the nests of A. dorsata were found. However, positive values of mean intercolony relatedness were observed between 54 pairs of nests out of 190 possible combinations. The R values among nest pairs 3–4 and 3–5 was higher than 0.50 showing that their queens were half siblings, whereas nest pair 19–20 showed relatedness of 0.95 indicating that the same queen was sampled. The results that we obtained could not conclusively support the hypothesis of this study that the honey hunters in Marang district of Malaysia repeatedly harvest the same nest located at a different site and at a different time during the same honey harvesting season. However, our finding of an appreciable level of intercolonial relatedness between several pairs of nests in this pioneer study indicated that a comprehensive study with a larger sample size of solitary nests found throughout the region would be necessary to provide concrete proof for this novel idea. PMID:22911733

  11. Genetic relatedness of low solitary nests of Apis dorsata from Marang, Terengganu, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sahebzadeh, Najmeh; Mardan, Makhdzir; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Soon Guan; Adam, Nur Azura; Lau, Wei Hong

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of Apis dorsata from Peninsular Malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. The analysis of 15 single locus DNA microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of A. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. Furthermore, in general, slightly negative values of intercolony relatedness (R) among the nests of A. dorsata were found. However, positive values of mean intercolony relatedness were observed between 54 pairs of nests out of 190 possible combinations. The R values among nest pairs 3-4 and 3-5 was higher than 0.50 showing that their queens were half siblings, whereas nest pair 19-20 showed relatedness of 0.95 indicating that the same queen was sampled. The results that we obtained could not conclusively support the hypothesis of this study that the honey hunters in Marang district of Malaysia repeatedly harvest the same nest located at a different site and at a different time during the same honey harvesting season. However, our finding of an appreciable level of intercolonial relatedness between several pairs of nests in this pioneer study indicated that a comprehensive study with a larger sample size of solitary nests found throughout the region would be necessary to provide concrete proof for this novel idea.

  12. Biased escorts: offspring sex, not relatedness explains alloparental care patterns in a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Jenni L.; Bell, Matthew B. V.; Gilchrist, Jason S.; Hodge, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that animals should direct costly care where inclusive fitness gains are highest. Individuals may achieve this by directing care at closer relatives, yet evidence for such discrimination in vertebrates is equivocal. We investigated patterns of cooperative care in banded mongooses, where communal litters are raised by adult ‘escorts’ who form exclusive caring relationships with individual pups. We found no evidence that escorts and pups assort by parentage or relatedness. However, the time males spent escorting increased with increasing relatedness to the other group members, and to the pup they had paired with. Thus, we found no effect of relatedness in partner choice, but (in males) increasing helping effort with relatedness once partner choices had been made. Unexpectedly, the results showed clear assortment by sex, with female carers being more likely to tend to female pups, and male carers to male pups. This sex-specific assortment in helping behaviour has potential lifelong impacts on individual development and may impact the future size and composition of natal groups and dispersing cohorts. Where relatedness between helpers and recipients is already high, individuals may be better off choosing partners using other predictors of the costs and benefits of cooperation, without the need for possibly costly within-group kin discrimination. PMID:28469015

  13. Molecular and pedigree measures of relatedness provide similar estimates of inbreeding depression in a bottlenecked population.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S M; Jamieson, I G

    2013-04-01

    Individual-based estimates of the degree of inbreeding or parental relatedness from pedigrees provide a critical starting point for studies of inbreeding depression, but in practice wild pedigrees are difficult to obtain. Because inbreeding increases the proportion of genomewide loci that are identical by descent, inbreeding variation within populations has the potential to generate observable correlations between heterozygosity measured using molecular markers and a variety of fitness related traits. Termed heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs), these correlations have been observed in a wide variety of taxa. The difficulty of obtaining wild pedigree data, however, means that empirical investigations of how pedigree inbreeding influences HFCs are rare. Here, we assess evidence for inbreeding depression in three life-history traits (hatching and fledging success and juvenile survival) in an isolated population of Stewart Island robins using both pedigree- and molecular-derived measures of relatedness. We found results from the two measures were highly correlated and supported evidence for significant but weak inbreeding depression. However, standardized effect sizes for inbreeding depression based on the pedigree-based kin coefficients (k) were greater and had smaller standard errors than those based on molecular genetic measures of relatedness (RI), particularly for hatching and fledging success. Nevertheless, the results presented here support the use of molecular-based measures of relatedness in bottlenecked populations when information regarding inbreeding depression is desired but pedigree data on relatedness are unavailable. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Relatedness and nesting dispersion within breeding populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Eadie, J.M.; Ely, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    We studied patterns of relatedness and nesting dispersion in female Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in Alaska. Female Greater White-fronted Geese are thought to be strongly philopatric and are often observed nesting in close association with other females. Analysis of the distribution of nests on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in 1998 indicated that nests were significantly clumped. We tested the hypothesis that females in the same nest cluster would be closely related using estimates of genetic relatedness based on six microsatellite DNA loci. There was no difference in the mean relatedness of females in the same cluster compared to females found in different clusters. However, relatedness among females was negatively correlated with distance between their nests, and geese nesting within 50 m of one another tended to be more closely related than those nesting farther apart. Randomization tests revealed that pairs of related individuals (R > 0.45) were more likely to occur in the same cluster when analyzed at the scale of the entire study site. However, the pattern did not hold when restricted to pairs found within 500 m of each other. Our results indicate that nest clusters are not composed primarily of closely related females, but Greater White-fronted Geese appear to be sufficiently philopatric to promote nonrandom patterns of relatedness at a local scale.

  15. Paternal Involvement with Children: The Influence of Gender Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulanda, Ronald E.

    2004-01-01

    Although prior social science research has established the ability of gender ideologies to influence the domestic division of labor, it has neglected to disentangle their potentially unique influence on paternal involvement with children. Past research examining the influence of gender ideology on parenting behaviors does not acknowledge potential…

  16. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., State birth record agencies, and other entities designated by the State and participating in the State's... services focusing on the period immediately before and after the birth of a child born out-of-wedlock. (ii) The voluntary paternity establishment services program must also be available at the State birth...

  17. Falling Behind? Children's Early Grade Retention after Paternal Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin; Haskins, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature documents the myriad penalties for children of incarcerated fathers, but relatively little is known about how paternal incarceration contributes to educational outcomes in early and middle childhood. In this article, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to provide the first estimates of the…

  18. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., State birth record agencies, and other entities designated by the State and participating in the State's... services focusing on the period immediately before and after the birth of a child born out-of-wedlock. (ii) The voluntary paternity establishment services program must also be available at the State birth...

  19. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  20. Paternalism & Deaf People: An Open Letter to Mme. Umuvyeyi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan

    1988-01-01

    By describing the paternalism inherent in the parallels between the history of Burundi and that of deaf people, a letter to a woman in Burundi with five deaf children attempts to persuade her to allow her youngest to further her education in the United States. (LMO)

  1. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  2. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

  3. Paternity: social responsibility of man's role as provider.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Waglânia de Mendonça Faustino e; Silva, Ana Tereza Medeiros Cavalcante da; Coelho, Edméia de Almeida Cardoso; Guedes, Rebeca Nunes; Lucena, Kerle Dayana Tavares de; Costa, Ana Paula Teixeira

    2009-02-01

    To analyze meanings attributed to paternity by men who are fathers. Study with a qualitative approach and gender-theory focus, performed in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil, in 2003. A total of ten men, whose children had been cared for in the pediatric outpatient clinic of a university hospital, participated in the study. Information analyzed was obtained with semi-structured interviews. Critical discourse analysis technique was employed to analyze participants' speech. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: Participants in the study viewed paternity as a new social role, more closely associated with material support for the family than the dimension of affective involvement with the child. However, participants experienced a transition process where the traditional father lived with those whose affective dimension of paternity was found to be the main concern of being a father. The meaning and concrete exercise of paternity were found in an area of responsibilities that predominantly reproduces the traditional father, but also recreates the father's role, including the affective dimension.

  4. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

  5. No fallacies in the formulation of the paternity index

    PubMed Central

    Baur, M. P.; Elston, R. C.; Gürtler, H.; Henningsen, K.; Hummel, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Mayr, W.; Moris, J. W.; Niejenhuis, L.; Polesky, H.; Salmon, D.; Valentin, J.; Walkers, R.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent publication, Li and Chakravarti claim to have shown that the paternity index is not a likelihood ratio. They present a method of estimating the prior probability of paternity from a sample of previous court cases on the basis of exclusions and nonexclusions. They propose calculating the posterior probability on the basis of this estimated prior and the test result expressed as exclusion/nonexclusion. Their claim is wrong—the paternity index is a likelihood-ratio, that is, the ratio of the likelihood of the observation conditional on the two mutually exclusive hypotheses. Their proposed method of estimating the prior has been long known, has been applied to several samples, and is inferior (in terms of variance of the estimate) to maximum likelihood estimation based on all the phenotypic information available. Their proposed “new method” of calculating a posterior probability is based on the use of a less informative likelihood ratio 1/(1 – PE) instead of Gürtler's fully informative paternity index X/Y (Acta Med Leg Soc Liege 9:83–93, 1956), but is otherwise indentical to the Bayesian approach originally introduced by Essen-Möller in 1938. PMID:3766545

  6. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  7. Fathers and Asthma Care: Paternal Involvement, Beliefs, and Management Skills

    PubMed Central

    Masek, Bruce; Barreto, Esteban; Baer, Lee; Lapey, Allen; Budge, Eduardo; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare asthma care roles of maternal and paternal caregivers, and examine associations between caregiver involvement and the outcomes of adherence, morbidity, and parental quality of life (QoL). Methods Mothers and fathers in 63 families of children, ages 5–9 years, with persistent asthma completed semistructured interviews and questionnaires. Adherence was measured via electronic monitoring. Paired t tests compared parental asthma care roles, and analysis of covariance, controlling for socioeconomic status, evaluated associations of asthma outcomes with caregiver involvement scores. Results Mothers had higher scores on measures of involvement, beliefs in medication necessity, and on four subscales of the Family Asthma Management System Scale interview (Asthma Knowledge, Relationship with Provider, Symptom Assessment, and Response to Symptoms). Maternal QoL was lowest when both maternal and paternal involvement was high. Paternal involvement was associated with increased morbidity. Conclusions There is room for enhancement of fathers’ asthma care roles. Higher levels of paternal involvement may be driven by family need. PMID:25922295

  8. Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

  9. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  10. Fathers and Asthma Care: Paternal Involvement, Beliefs, and Management Skills.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Deborah; Masek, Bruce; Barreto, Esteban; Baer, Lee; Lapey, Allen; Budge, Eduardo; McQuaid, Elizabeth L

    2015-09-01

    To compare asthma care roles of maternal and paternal caregivers, and examine associations between caregiver involvement and the outcomes of adherence, morbidity, and parental quality of life (QoL). Mothers and fathers in 63 families of children, ages 5-9 years, with persistent asthma completed semistructured interviews and questionnaires. Adherence was measured via electronic monitoring. Paired t tests compared parental asthma care roles, and analysis of covariance, controlling for socioeconomic status, evaluated associations of asthma outcomes with caregiver involvement scores. Mothers had higher scores on measures of involvement, beliefs in medication necessity, and on four subscales of the Family Asthma Management System Scale interview (Asthma Knowledge, Relationship with Provider, Symptom Assessment, and Response to Symptoms). Maternal QoL was lowest when both maternal and paternal involvement was high. Paternal involvement was associated with increased morbidity. There is room for enhancement of fathers' asthma care roles. Higher levels of paternal involvement may be driven by family need. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Paternal age and twinning in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhaus, Karine; Perrin, Mary C.; Manor, O; Friedlander, Yehiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Harlap, Susan; Malaspina, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether incidence of twin deliveries is related to father's age, independently of mother's age, and whether it differs for same-sex or opposite-sex twin sets. Study Design In a program of research on effects of paternal age, this study used data from a prospective cohort of 92,408 offspring born in Jerusalem from 1964-1976. Of the 91,253 deliveries in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study, 1,115 were twin deliveries. The data were analyzed with General Estimate Equations to inform unconditional logistic regression. Results After controlling for maternal age, Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) associated with father's ages 25-34 and 35+ were 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) and 1.5 (1.2, 2.1) respectively, compared with fathers <25 years old. The effect of maternal age was partly explained by paternal age. The ORs for opposite-sex twin sets and male-male twin sets increased slightly with paternal age, while the OR for same-sex and female-female twin decreased. Conclusion Studies of twins are used to estimate effects of genes and environment in a variety of diseases. Our findings highlight the need to consider paternal as well as maternal age when analyzing data on twins to explore etiology of diseases. PMID:18771839

  12. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  13. Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Toddler Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ingerski, Lisa; Moreau, Stacey Coffey

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal…

  14. Paternal Factors and Schizophrenia Risk: De Novo Mutations and Imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong genetic component for schizophrenia risk, but it is unclear how the illness is maintained in the population given the significantly reduced fertility of those with the disorder. One possibility is that new mutations occur in schizophrenia vulnerability genes. If so, then those with schizophrenia may have older fathers, because advancing paternal age is the major source of new mutations in humans. This review describes several neurodevelopmental disorders that have been associated with de novo mutations in the paternal germ line and reviews data linking increased schizophrenia risk with older fathers. Several genetic mechanisms that could explain this association are proposed, including paternal germ line mutations, trinucleotide repeat expansions, and alterations in genetic imprinting in one or several genes involved in neurodevelopment. Animal models may be useful in exploring these and other explanations for the paternal age effect and they may provide a novel approach for gene identification. Finally, it is proposed that environmental exposures of the father, as well as those of the mother and developing fetus, may be relevant to the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:11596842

  15. Genetic Analyses of Sorting of Paternally Transmitted Mitochondrial DNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The organelles are maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. However paternal transmission of plastids and mitochondria occurs rarely in plants. Cucumber is a unique model plant for organellar genetics because its three genomes show differential transmission: maternal for chlorop...

  16. Paternal inheritance of the primary sex ratio in a copepod.

    PubMed

    Voordouw, M J; Robinson, H E; Anholt, B R

    2005-09-01

    Uniparentally inherited genetic elements are under strong selection to manipulate sex determination in their host and shift the host sex ratio towards the transmitting sex. For any sex-ratio trait, lineage analysis and quantitative genetics are important tools for characterizing the mode of inheritance (biparental vs. maternal vs. paternal) thereby narrowing the field of possible sex-determining mechanisms (e.g. polygenic, sex chromosomes with meiotic drive, cytoplasmic microorganisms). The primary sex ratio of the harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus is often male-biased and is highly variable among full sib families. We found that this extra-binomial variation for the primary sex ratio is paternally but not maternally transmitted in T. californicus. Paternal transmission of the primary sex ratio has been well documented in the haplo-diploid hymenoptera but is relatively rare in diplo-diploid organisms. If the sex-ratio trait is paternally transmitted in other closely related harpacticoid copepods it would explain why male biased primary sex ratios are so common in this group.

  17. Role-Playing for Inhibited Students in Paternal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saadat, Abdullah I.; Afifi, Elhami A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights classroom role playing in Saudi Arabian classrooms as a psychological aid that fosters self-confidence in inhibited, timid, hesitant, and passive students and relieves them of their paternal communicative limitations. Proposes an overall strategy for role-playing as an effective communicative activity that teachers can exploit to help…

  18. Management and counseling of the male with advanced paternal age.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Michael O; Owen, Ryan C; Keefe, David; Kim, Edward D

    2017-02-01

    Increasing percentages of children are being born to older fathers. This has resulted in concerns about the potential adverse effects of advanced paternal age. To help clinicians counsel couples, a systemic review was performed to attempt to address questions that these couples may ask: Should routine sperm testing be performed in older males? Should preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) be performed? How do providers counsel patients about risk? Should young males freeze sperm if they plan to delay paternity? Using the terms "advanced paternal age", "semen testing", "preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening", and "cryopreservation", a comprehensive search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library, and numerous international societal guidelines were reviewed. In total, 42 articles or guidelines were reviewed. There were no limits placed on the timing of the articles. Thirty articles were found to be relevant and beneficial to answering the above questions. Each question was answered separately by the supporting literature. While primary research exists to support the role of semen testing, PGD/preimplantation genetic screening, and sperm banking in males who may be affected by advancing age, comprehensive studies on the possible clinical benefit of these interventions have yet to be performed. As a result, societal guidelines have yet to incorporate distinct best-practice guidelines on advanced paternal age.

  19. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  20. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior. ...

  1. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior. ...

  2. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior. ...

  3. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior. ...

  4. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....609 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... inheritance by the Court of Indian Offenses or by the Department of the Interior. ...

  5. DNA relatedness among strains of the sweet potato pathogen Streptomyces ipomoea (Person and Martin 1940) Waksman and Henrici 1948.

    PubMed Central

    Labeda, D P; Lyons, A J

    1992-01-01

    DNA relatedness among 28 putative strains of Streptomyces ipomoea from geographically diverse locations and the type strain, NRRL B-12321, was determined spectrophotometrically. The data confirm that these 28 strains are not closely related genetically to the plant-pathogenic species Streptomyces scabies (39% DNA relatedness) or Streptomyces acidiscabies (17% DNA relatedness) or any other major blue-spored Streptomyces species (less than 30% DNA relatedness). Of the 29 strains examined, 4 could be clearly distinguished from S. ipomoea on the basis of morphological criteria, i.e., they had gray rather than blue spores and produced melanin pigment, and their low DNA relatedness to authentic S. ipomoea strains confirmed their original misidentification. The remaining 25 S. ipomoea strains exhibited high DNA relatedness among themselves (76 to 100% homology), even though they had been isolated in different locations throughout the United States and Japan. The avirulent type strain, NRRL B-12321, exhibited slightly lower DNA relatedness with the virulent strains of S. ipomoea (85% average DNA relatedness) than was observed among the virulent strains (average of 96% DNA relatedness). PMID:1610178

  6. DNA relatedness among strains of the sweet potato pathogen Streptomyces ipomoea (Person and Martin 1940) Waksman and Henrici 1948.

    PubMed

    Labeda, D P; Lyons, A J

    1992-02-01

    DNA relatedness among 28 putative strains of Streptomyces ipomoea from geographically diverse locations and the type strain, NRRL B-12321, was determined spectrophotometrically. The data confirm that these 28 strains are not closely related genetically to the plant-pathogenic species Streptomyces scabies (39% DNA relatedness) or Streptomyces acidiscabies (17% DNA relatedness) or any other major blue-spored Streptomyces species (less than 30% DNA relatedness). Of the 29 strains examined, 4 could be clearly distinguished from S. ipomoea on the basis of morphological criteria, i.e., they had gray rather than blue spores and produced melanin pigment, and their low DNA relatedness to authentic S. ipomoea strains confirmed their original misidentification. The remaining 25 S. ipomoea strains exhibited high DNA relatedness among themselves (76 to 100% homology), even though they had been isolated in different locations throughout the United States and Japan. The avirulent type strain, NRRL B-12321, exhibited slightly lower DNA relatedness with the virulent strains of S. ipomoea (85% average DNA relatedness) than was observed among the virulent strains (average of 96% DNA relatedness).

  7. Genomic prediction of complex human traits: relatedness, trait architecture and predictive meta-models.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S

    2015-07-15

    We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge.

  8. Genomic prediction of complex human traits: relatedness, trait architecture and predictive meta-models

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge. PMID:25918167

  9. Paternity testing under the cloak of recreational genetics.

    PubMed

    Moray, Nathalie; Pink, Katherina E; Borry, Pascal; Larmuseau, Maarten Hd

    2017-03-08

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) internet companies are selling widely advertised and highly popular genetic ancestry tests to the broad public. These tests are often classified as falling within the scope of so-called 'recreational genetics', but little is known about the impact of using these services. In this study, a particular focus is whether minors (and under what conditions) should be able to participate in the use of these DTC tests. Current ancestry tests are easily able to reveal whether participants are related and can, therefore, also reveal misattributed paternity, with implications for the minors and adults involved in the testing. We analysed the publicly available privacy policies and terms of services of 43 DTC genetic ancestry companies to assess whether minors are able to participate in testing DTC genetic ancestry, and also whether and how companies ethically account for the potential of paternity inference. Our results indicated that the majority of DTC genetic ancestry testing companies do not specifically address whether minors are able to participate in testing. Furthermore, the majority of the policies and terms of services fail to mention the vulnerability of minors and family members in receiving unexpected information, in particular, in relation to (misattributed) paternity. Therefore, recreational genetics carries both the risk of unintentionally revealing misidentified paternity, and also the risk that fathers will deliberately use these services to test their children's paternity without revealing their intentions to the mother or any other third party.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.31.

  10. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting.

  11. Can Multiple "Spatial" Virtual Timelines Convey the Relatedness of Chronological Knowledge across Parallel Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korallo, Liliya; Foreman, Nigel; Boyd-Davis, Stephen; Moar, Magnus; Coulson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Single linear virtual timelines have been used effectively with undergraduates and primary school children to convey the chronological ordering of historical items, improving on PowerPoint and paper/textual displays. In the present study, a virtual environment (VE) consisting of three parallel related timelines (world history and the histories of…

  12. Can Multiple "Spatial" Virtual Timelines Convey the Relatedness of Chronological Knowledge across Parallel Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korallo, Liliya; Foreman, Nigel; Boyd-Davis, Stephen; Moar, Magnus; Coulson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Single linear virtual timelines have been used effectively with undergraduates and primary school children to convey the chronological ordering of historical items, improving on PowerPoint and paper/textual displays. In the present study, a virtual environment (VE) consisting of three parallel related timelines (world history and the histories of…

  13. Semantic relatedness among objects promotes the activation of multiple phonological codes during object naming.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D; Schriefers, Herbert; Gorges, Frauke

    2010-02-01

    In a picture-word interference experiment the authors demonstrate that a semantic-categorical relation between a to-be-named target picture and a context picture promotes the phonological activation of the to-be-ignored context picture. No such phonological activation is observed if the objects are semantically unrelated. This finding gives further insight into the mechanisms that modulate the activation flow in the conceptual-lexical system during speech planning. In contrast to recent picture-picture interference studies, the results provide direct evidence that the phonological activation of a context object is dependent on its semantic processing.

  14. Reciprocal effects of student-teacher and student-peer relatedness: Effects on academic self efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Chen, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocal effects between teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) and two dimensions of classroom peer relatedness, peer liking and peer academic reputation (PAR), across three years in elementary school and the effect of both TSRQ and the peer relatedness dimensions on academic self efficacy. Participants were 695 relatively low achieving, ethnically diverse students recruited into the longitudinal study when they were in first grade. Measures of TSRQ and peer relatedness were assessed in years/grades 2-4. Peer liking and PAR were moderately correlated with each other at each time period. As expected, peer liking and TSRQ exhibited bidirectional effects across the three years. Year 3 TSRQ had an effect on Year 4 PAR, but PAR did not have an effect on TSRQ at either time interval. In an additional analysis, Year 4 PAR mediated the effect of Year 3 TSRQ on Year 5 academic self efficacy. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. PMID:21927528

  15. [Influence of autonomy support, social goals and relatedness on amotivation in physical education classes].

    PubMed

    Moreno Murcia, Juan A; Parra Rojas, Nicolás; González-Cutre Coll, David

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze some factors that influence amotivation in physical education classes. A sample of 399 students, of ages 14 to 16 years, was used. They completed the Perceived Autonomy Support Scale in Exercise Settings (PASSES), the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE), the <relatedness> factor of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES) adapted to physical education and the factor of the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (PLOC). The psychometric properties of the PASSES were analyzed, as this scale had not been validated to the Spanish context. In this analysis, the scale showed appropriate validity and reliability. The results of the structural equation model indicated that social responsibility and social relationship goals positively predicted perception of relatedness, whereas the context of autonomy support did not significantly predict it. In turn, perception of relatedness negatively predicted amotivation. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing students' positive motivation.

  16. High-level relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense strains from widely separated outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Tettelin, Hervé; Davidson, Rebecca M; Agrawal, Sonia; Aitken, Moira L; Shallom, Shamira; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Strong, Michael; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; De Groote, Mary Ann; Duarte, Rafael S; Hine, Erin; Parankush, Sushma; Su, Qi; Daugherty, Sean C; Fraser, Claire M; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Holland, Steven M; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Olivier, Kenneth N; Jackson, Mary; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2014-03-01

    Three recently sequenced strains isolated from patients during an outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense infections at a cystic fibrosis center in the United States were compared with 6 strains from an outbreak at a cystic fibrosis center in the United Kingdom and worldwide strains. Strains from the 2 cystic fibrosis outbreaks showed high-level relatedness with each other and major-level relatedness with strains that caused soft tissue infections during an epidemic in Brazil. We identified unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis and soft tissue outbreak strains, separate single-nucleotide polymorphisms only in cystic fibrosis outbreak strains, and unique genomic traits for each subset of isolates. Our findings highlight the necessity of identifying M. abscessus to the subspecies level and screening all cystic fibrosis isolates for relatedness to these outbreak strains. We propose 2 diagnostic strategies that use partial sequencing of rpoB and secA1 genes and a multilocus sequence typing protocol.

  17. Reciprocal effects of student-teacher and student-peer relatedness: Effects on academic self efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Chen, Qi

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the reciprocal effects between teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) and two dimensions of classroom peer relatedness, peer liking and peer academic reputation (PAR), across three years in elementary school and the effect of both TSRQ and the peer relatedness dimensions on academic self efficacy. Participants were 695 relatively low achieving, ethnically diverse students recruited into the longitudinal study when they were in first grade. Measures of TSRQ and peer relatedness were assessed in years/grades 2-4. Peer liking and PAR were moderately correlated with each other at each time period. As expected, peer liking and TSRQ exhibited bidirectional effects across the three years. Year 3 TSRQ had an effect on Year 4 PAR, but PAR did not have an effect on TSRQ at either time interval. In an additional analysis, Year 4 PAR mediated the effect of Year 3 TSRQ on Year 5 academic self efficacy. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed.

  18. Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a population-based study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Hultman, C M; Sandin, S; Levine, S Z; Lichtenstein, P; Reichenberg, A

    2011-12-01

    Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the autism phenotype, or confounding by parity; and (3) is consistent across epidemiological studies. Multiple study methods were adopted. First, a Swedish 10-year birth cohort (N=1 075 588) was established. Linkage to the National Patient Register ascertained all autism cases (N=883). Second, 660 families identified within the birth cohort had siblings discordant for autism. Finally, meta-analysis included population-based epidemiological studies. In the birth cohort, autism risk increased monotonically with increasing paternal age. Offspring of men aged ≥50 years were 2.2 times (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.88: P=0.006) more likely to have autism than offspring of men aged ≤29 years, after controlling for maternal age and documented risk factors for autism. Within-family analysis of discordant siblings showed that affected siblings had older paternal age, adjusting for maternal age and parity (P<0.0001). Meta-analysis demonstrated advancing paternal age association with increased risk of autism across studies. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that advanced paternal age is a risk factor for autism in the offspring. Possible biological mechanisms include de novo aberration and mutations or epigenetic alterations associated with aging.

  19. Genetic relatedness and disrupted social structure in a poached population of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, Kathleen; Kerr, Ben; Wasser, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    We use genetic measures of relatedness and observations of female bonding to examine the demographic signature of historically heavy poaching of a population of free-ranging African elephants. We collected dung samples to obtain DNA and observed behaviour from 102 elephant families over a 25-month period in 2003-2005 in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Poaching reduced the population by 75% in the decade prior to the 1989 ivory trade ban; park records indicate that poaching dropped significantly in Mikumi following the ban. Using 10 microsatellite loci, DNA was genotyped in 203 elephants and pair-wise relatedness was calculated among adult females within and between groups. The Mikumi population is characterized by small group size, considerable variation in group relatedness, females with no first-order adult relatives and females that form only weak social bonds. We used gene-drop analysis and a model of a genetically intact pedigree to compare our observed Mikumi group relatedness to a simulated genetically intact unpoached expectation. The majority of groups in Mikumi contain 2 to 3 adults; of these, 45% were classified as genetically disrupted. Bonding, quantified with a pair-wise association index, was significantly correlated with relatedness; however only half of the females formed strong bonds with other females, and relatedness was substantially lower for a given bond strength as compared to an unpoached population. Female African elephants without kin demonstrated considerable behavioural plasticity in this disturbed environment, grouping with other females lacking kin, with established groups, or remaining alone, unable to form any stable adult female-bonds. We interpret these findings as the remaining effect of poaching disturbance in Mikumi, despite a drop in the level of poaching since the commercial trade in ivory was banned 15 years ago.

  20. Variable approaches to genetic counseling for microarray regions of homozygosity associated with parental relatedness.

    PubMed

    Grote, Lauren; Myers, Melanie; Lovell, Anne; Saal, Howard; Sund, Kristen Lipscomb

    2014-01-01

    SNP microarrays are capable of detecting regions of homozygosity (ROH) which can suggest parental relatedness. This study was designed to describe pre- and post-test counseling practices of genetics professionals regarding ROH, explore perceived comfort and ethical concerns in the follow-up of such results, demonstrate awareness of laws surrounding duty to report consanguinity and incest, and allow respondents to share their personal experiences with results suggesting a parental relationship. A 35 question survey was administered to 240 genetic counselors and geneticists who had ordered or counseled for SNP microarray. The results are presented using descriptive statistics. There was variation in both pre- and post-test counseling practices of genetics professionals. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported pre-test counseling that ROH can indicate parental relatedness. The most commonly reported ethical concern was disclosure of findings suggesting parental relatedness to parents of the patient; only 48.4% reported disclosing parental relatedness when indicated. Fifty-seven percent felt comfortable receiving results suggesting parental consanguinity while 17% felt comfortable receiving results suggesting parental incest. Twenty percent of respondents were extremely/moderately familiar with the laws about duty to report incest. Personal experiences in post-test counseling included both parental acknowledgement and denial of relatedness. This study highlights the differences in genetics professionals' pre- and post-test counseling practices, comfort, and experiences surrounding parental relatedness suggested by SNP microarray results. It identifies a need for professional organizations to offer guidance to genetics professionals about how to respond to and counsel for molecular results suggesting parental consanguinity or incest. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The socio-genetics of a complex society: female gelada relatedness patterns mirror association patterns in a multilevel society.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Alberts, Susan C; Bergman, Thore J

    2014-12-01

    Multilevel societies with fission-fusion dynamics--arguably the most complex animal societies--are defined by two or more nested levels of organization. The core of these societies are modular social units that regularly fission and fuse with one another. Despite convergent evolution in disparate taxa, we know strikingly little about how such societies form and how fitness benefits operate. Understanding the kinship structure of complex societies could inform us about the origins of the social structure as well as about the potential for individuals in these societies to accrue indirect fitness benefits. Here, we combined genetic and behavioural data on geladas (Theropithecus gelada), an Old World Monkey, to complete the most comprehensive socio-genetic analysis of a multilevel society to date. In geladas, individuals in the core social 'units', associate at different frequencies to form 'teams', 'bands' and, the largest aggregations, 'communities'. Units were composed of closely related females, and females remained with their close kin during permanent fissions of units. Interestingly, female-female relatedness also significantly predicted between-unit, between-team and between-band association patterns, while male-male relatedness did not. Thus, it is likely that the socio-genetic structure of gelada society results from females maintaining associations with their female relatives during successive unit fissions--possibly in an attempt to balance the direct and indirect fitness benefits of group living. Overall, the persistence of associations among related females across generations appears to drive the formation of higher levels of gelada society, suggesting that females seek kin for inclusive fitness benefits at multiple levels of gelada society.

  2. [Paternity exclusion tests in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan].

    PubMed

    Koralewska-Kordel, Małgorzata; Kordel, Krzysztof; Przybylski, Zygmunt; Wiśniewski, Sławomir A

    2006-01-01

    The study comprises the analysis of expert's hemogenetic reports carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, in the years 1980-2004 and associated with paternity determination or exclusion. In the analyzed period, the authors established 1064 cases of paternity exclusion in serological tests, 97 paternity exclusions in the HLA examinations, and 129 cases of paternity exclusions processed in DNA testing. On the base of gene frequencies, the theoretical chance of paternity exclusion was determined for every test. The significant usefulness of DNA testing in legal processes did not cause an increase in the percentage of paternity exclusions. Moreover, the authors observed a significant decrease in the number of paternity exclusions in comparison with results of serological tests (from 24.25% to 19.43%). With the drop in the number of births, the number of expert's reports significantly decreased.

  3. Paternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Functioning: The Moderating Effect of Gender and Father Hostility

    PubMed Central

    Reeb, Ben T.; Conger, Katherine J.; Wu, Ed Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship between paternal depressive symptoms, paternal hostility, and adolescent functioning in a community sample of 451 families. Paternal depressive symptoms were a strong predictor of adolescent outcome, even after controlling for family demographic variables, maternal depressive symptoms, and previous adolescent symptoms. Adolescent gender and perception of paternal hostility moderated this association such that females reporting high paternal hostility were particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of paternal depressive symptoms. Maternal and paternal depressive symptoms had an additive, rather than interactive, effect on adolescent functioning. These results contribute to our knowledge of the interpersonal processes by which depression runs in families and highlight the importance of including fathers in developmental research on adolescent internalizing problems. PMID:20671810

  4. Technological paternalism: on how medicine has reformed ethics and how technology can refine moral theory.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate ethical aspects of technology through the moral term "paternalism". The field of investigation is medicine. The reason for this is twofold. Firstly, "paternalism" has gained moral relevance through modern medicine, where physicians have been accused of behaving paternalistic and threatening patients' autonomy. Secondly, medicine is a brilliant area to scrutinise the evaluative aspects of technology. It is argued that paternalism is a morally relevant term for the ethics of technology, but that its traditional conception is not adequate to address the challenges of modern technology. A modification towards a "technological paternalism" is necessary. That is, "technological paternalism" is a fruitful term in the ethics of technology. Moreover, it is suited to point out the deficiencies of the traditional concept of paternalism and to reform and vitalise the conception of paternalism in ethics in order to handle the challenges of technology.

  5. The Familial and the Familiar: Locating Relatedness in Colombian Donor Conception.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Malissa Kay

    2017-09-20

    In this article, I explore how women undergoing in vitro fertilization with familial or anonymous egg donors located relatedness with a donor-conceived child through familial and social identities. Recognizing gametes as substances that contain biological and sociocultural/behavioral traits shaped women's narratives around interconnected notions of the familial and familiar, or the social understanding of biological and social inheritance, and knowledge of the genetic materials involved. Women's narratives of relatedness reflect their relationships with family and society and their desire to reproduce these relationships in their child(ren), a process that reproduces prevailing Colombian social values and notions of ideal citizens.

  6. Gregariousness and protandry promote reproductive insurance in the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata: evidence from assignment of larval paternity.

    PubMed

    Dupont, L; Richard, J; Paulet, Y-M; Thouzeau, G; Viard, F

    2006-09-01

    According to the size-advantage hypothesis, protandric sequential hermaphroditism is expected when the increase in reproductive success with age or size is small for males but large for females. Interestingly, some protandrous molluscs have developed gregarious strategies that might enhance male reproductive success but at the cost of intraspecific competition. The gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a European invading species, is ideal for investigating mating patterns in a sequential hermaphrodite in relation to grouping behaviour because individuals of different size (age) live in perennial stacks, fertilization is internal and embryos are brooded. Paternity analyses were undertaken in stacks sampled in three close and recently invaded sites in Brittany, France. Paternity assignment of 239 larvae, sampled from a set of 18 brooding females and carried out using five microsatellite loci, revealed that 92% of the crosses occurred between individuals located in the same stack. These stacks thus function as independent mating groups in which individuals may reproduce consecutively as male and female over a short time period, a pattern explained by sperm storage capacity. Gregariousness and sex reversal are promoting reproductive insurance in this species. In addition, females are usually fertilized by several males (78% of the broods were multiply sired) occupying any position within the stack, a result reinforcing the hypothesis of sperm competition. Our study pointed out that mating behaviours and patterns of gender allocation varied in concert across sites suggesting that multiple paternities might enhance sex reversal depending on sperm competition intensity.

  7. Paternity and gregariousness in the sex-changing sessile marine gastropod Crepidula convexa: comparison with other protandrous Crepidula species.

    PubMed

    Le Cam, Sabrina; Riquet, Florentine; Pechenik, Jan A; Viard, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    In sex-changing animals with internal fertilization, gregarious behavior may increase mating opportunities and the frequency of multiple paternity, thus increasing maternal reproductive success. Crepidula convexa is a direct-developing protandrous gastropod characterized by only modest gregarious behavior compared with previously studied members of the genus: females are frequently found isolated. Using 6 microsatellite markers, we analyzed paternity profiles in 10 broods (25 embryos per mother). The number of assigned fathers varied among families from 1 to 4 fathers per brood. Interestingly, polyandry was not detected in solitary females but only in females grouped with conspecific individuals. Overall, we found an average of 1.8 fathers per brood, but this increased to 2.6 fathers per brood when considering only the nonisolated females. Among 18 unambiguously identified fathers, only 5 were collected in our samples, suggesting substantial male mobility. Comparison with previous paternity analyses in Crepidula fornicata and Crepidula coquimbensis revealed that polyandry appears as a common trait of these sex-changing gastropods despite their different grouping behaviors and life histories. As expected, the level of polyandry was nevertheless lower in the modestly gregarious C. convexa.

  8. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries

  9. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert; Koo, Hyun; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 child

  10. Paternal Aging Affects Behavior in Pax6 Mutant Mice: A Gene/Environment Interaction in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Ryuichi; Tucci, Valter; Kaneda, Hideki; Wakana, Shigeharu; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes) born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT) mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies. PMID:27855195

  11. Paternal Aging Affects Behavior in Pax6 Mutant Mice: A Gene/Environment Interaction in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Kaichi; Furuse, Tamio; Kimura, Ryuichi; Tucci, Valter; Kaneda, Hideki; Wakana, Shigeharu; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes) born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT) mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies.

  12. Principals and Self-Determination Theory (SDT): What Trends Are Seen in Levels of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy-Harter, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study builds upon Deci and Ryan's (1985) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) which states that humans must meet three basic psychological needs for optimal well-being: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore trends in principals' experiences in the areas of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.…

  13. Principals and Self-Determination Theory (SDT): What Trends Are Seen in Levels of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy-Harter, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study builds upon Deci and Ryan's (1985) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) which states that humans must meet three basic psychological needs for optimal well-being: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore trends in principals' experiences in the areas of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.…

  14. The ethical debate on present day paternity testing practices.

    PubMed

    Mertens, G

    2006-01-01

    The last years, the number of paternity tests on buccal swabs sold over the internet as "test kits", has steeply increased. The commercial providers of these services facilitate controversial practices, including clandestine sampling at home, anonymous sending off for analysis, motherless testing and using "stolen" personal objects containing biological material (combs, cigarette butts). This has led to concern on the consequences on the family unit--especially the child--which may suffer emotionally, physically and financially. In reaction, legal initiatives are appearing throughout Europe. The UK Human Genetics Commission has advised that the non-consensual obtaining and analysis of personal genetic information should be a new criminal offence. The German Federal Court of Justice has ruled that paternity tests performed without the mother's knowledge are inadmissible as evidence in lawsuits. French law strictly forbids the application of DNA testing without the involvement of the court system. In Belgium, a proposal for law has been laid down where the offering to

  15. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers’ Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers’ lives and/or or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their toddlers, 51 had never experienced an episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 50 had experienced an episode of MDD during the first 18 months of their toddlers’ lives. Maternal depression at Time 1 was significantly associated with toddlers’ externalizing and internalizing behavior problems only when paternal psychopathology was present. As predicted, maternal negativity at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between maternal depression at Time 1 and toddlers’ externalizing behavior problems at Time 3. PMID:19130357

  16. Patient Care and Paternalism: Dilemmas of Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wilbush, Joel

    1990-01-01

    From the clinical records of a country doctor, this vignette concerns a teenaged girl who, having refused treatment, is persuaded, under near duress, to accept a regimen that her family physician considers best for her. Although apparently arrogant paternalism, the practitioner's approach proves, on reflection, to possess considerable merit. The author discusses the ethical principles that have led to rejection of paternalism in the West. Formulated as absolute maxims, they soon require, like all absolutes, a multitude of explanations and additions. Some logical, social, and other “exceptions” are briefly mentioned, because the old doctor's intuitive actions seem to have oddly coincided with a number of them. Yet the questions remain: Should this medical practitioner have become so deeply involved? Should he have interfered with his patient's autonomy to the extent he did? Was he justified? PMID:11659246

  17. Genetic relatedness and spatial associations of dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes)

    Treesearch

    Robin J. Innes; Mary Brooke McEachern; Dirk H. Van Vuren; John M. Eadie; Douglas A. Kelt; Michael L. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    We studied the association between space sharing and kinship in a solitary rodent, the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes). Genetic relatedness was inversely correlated with geographic distance for female woodrats but not for males, a pattern consistent with female philopatry and male dispersal. However, some female neighbors were unrelated, suggesting the...

  18. The Role of Maternal Support of Competence, Autonomy and Relatedness in Children's Interests and Mastery Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunola, Kaisa; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lehtinen, Erno; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which mothers' support for their children's sense of competence, autonomy and relatedness predicts their children's interest in math and reading, and also their mastery orientation, during the transition to primary school. One hundred fifty-two children were examined twice during their first grade year…

  19. The Effect of Adolescent Perceptions of Relatedness to Parents and Peers on Perceived Academic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The relationships that students have with their parents and peers permeate their lives both inside and outside of the classroom. The purpose of the present exploratory study is to assess (a) the psychometric quality of measures gauging the latent variables of adolescents' perceptions of their relatedness to both parents and peers and (b) the…

  20. The Family-Relatedness of Work Decisions: A Framework and Agenda for Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to global trends such as the increased labor force participation of women, the growing presence of dual-earner couples and single parents in the labor force, and changing values regarding the importance of life balance, individuals' work decisions are being increasingly influenced by family considerations. However, the "family-relatedness" of…