Baxter, B. Dnate’; Mendez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bradley, Robert D.
Two hundred twenty-two individuals of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) were captured from 198 excavated middens at 10 discrete collecting sites from a single population in south-central Texas. Field data, mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, and polymorphic microsatellite loci (5–7) were used to determine genetic patterns in parentage, relatedness, and mating strategy. Microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (average observed heterozygosity = 0.859) and were used to construct genotypes that were unique for each individual (probability of identical genotypes: 1 in 2,104,567). Results indicated a high frequency of multiple paternity (6 of 9 litters), evidence of repeat mating between the same 2 individuals, and no indication of male dominance at any collection site. Examination of these data suggested a promiscuous mating system. Within a site, average relatedness between adult females was similar to that between adult males. A higher level of cohabitation from that previously documented was recorded and finer-scale analyses revealed high levels of relatedness between most cohabiting individuals. Taken with results from other studies of mating behaviors of N. micropus, our results suggest that mating and social behavior of this species are likely influenced by population density. PMID:20011670
Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it
Ortega, Jorge; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Arita, Héctor T; Fleischer, Robert C
We analysed variation at 14 nuclear microsatellite loci to assess the genetic structure, relatedness, and paternity of polygynous Jamaican fruit-eating bats. A total of 84 adults captured in two caves exhibited little genetic differentiation between caves (FST = 0.008). Average relatedness among adult females in 10 harem groups was very low (R = 0.014 +/- 0.011), providing no evidence of harem structure. Dominant and subordinate males shared paternity in large groups, while dominant and satellite males shared paternity in smaller groups. However, our results suggest that male rank influences paternity. Dominant males fathered 69% of 40 offspring, followed by satellite (22%) and subordinate males (9%). Overall adult male bats are not closely related, however, in large harem groups we found that subordinate and dominant males exhibited relatedness values consistent with a father-offspring relationship. Because dominant and subordinate males also sired all the pups in large groups, we propose that their association provides inclusive fitness to them.
Huo, Ying-jun; Wan, Xin-rong; Wolff, Jerry O; Wang, Guiming; Thomas, Shawn; Iglay, Raymond B; Leopold, Bruce D; Liu, Wei
Mating system and philopatry influence the genetic structure of a social group in mammals. Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) lives in social groups year-round and has male biased dispersal, which makes the vole a model system for studies of genetic consequences of mating system and philopatry. This study aimed to test the hypotheses that: (1) multiple paternity (MP) would exist in Brandt's voles, enhance offspring genetic diversity and reduce genetic relatedness between littermates; (2) promiscuity would occur in this species in that males and females mate with multiple partners; and (3) plural breeders of a social group would be genetically related because of philopatry of female juveniles in Brandt's voles. Paternity analysis indicated that MP occurred in 11 (46%) of 24 social groups examined and that promiscuity existed in this species. Multiple paternity litters had twice the offspring genetic diversity and half the average within-litter genetic relatedness of single paternity litters. We also found plural breeding females in six social groups. Average pairwise genetic relatedness of plural breeders ranged from 0.41 to 0.72 in four social groups, suggesting first-order kinship. Future studies need to investigate effects of reproductive skew and MP on population genetic structure of Brandt's voles.
Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H
Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations.
Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M
Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182
Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M
Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring.
Sugg, D. W.; Chesser, R. K.
While the concept of effective population size is of obvious applicability to many questions in population genetics and conservation biology, its utility has suffered due to a lack of agreement among its various formulations. Often, mathematical formulations for effective sizes apply restrictive assumptions that limit their applicability. Herein, expressions for effective sizes of populations that account for mating tactics, biases in sex ratios, and differential dispersal rates (among other parameters) are developed. Of primary interest is the influence of multiple paternity on the maintenance of genetic variation in a population. In addition to the standard inbreeding and variance effective sizes, intragroup (coancestral) and intergroup effective sizes also are developed. Expressions for effective sizes are developed for the beginning of nonrandom gene exchanges (initial effective sizes), the transition of gene correlations (instantaneous effective sizes), and the steady-state (asymptotic effective size). Results indicate that systems of mating that incorporate more than one male mate per female increase all effective sizes above those expected from polygyny and monogamy. Instantaneous and asymptotic sizes can be expressed relative to the fixation indices. The parameters presented herein can be utilized in models of effective sizes for the study of evolutionary biology and conservation genetics. PMID:7982568
Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa
The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful.
Marino, Ilaria A M; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta
Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations.
Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B.; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta
Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations. PMID:26257113
Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J
Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis.
Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R
There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain these insights, six Flemish communities were selected in this study based on the differences in geography and historical development. After rigorous selection of appropriate DNA donors, low relatedness between Y chromosomes of different surnames was found within each community, although there is co-occurrence of these surnames in each community since the start of the surname adoption between the 14th and 15th century. Next, the high communal diversity in Y-chromosomal lineages was comparable with the regional diversity across Flanders at that time. Moreover, clinal distributions of particular Y-chromosomal lineages between the communities were observed according to the clinal distributions earlier observed across the Flemish regions and Western Europe. No significant indication for genetic differences between communities with distinct historical development was found in the analysis. These genetic results provide relevant information for studies in historical sciences, archaeology, forensic genetics and genealogy. PMID:25873146
Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver
Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.
Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver
Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.
Breed, Martin F.; Christmas, Matthew J.; Lowe, Andrew J.
Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding – named here as the ‘constrained inbreeding hypothesis’. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373
Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J
Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.
Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W
Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies.
Annavi, G; Newman, C; Dugdale, H L; Buesching, C D; Sin, Y W; Burke, T; Macdonald, D W
Extra-group paternity (EGP) occurs commonly among group-living mammals and plays an important role in mating systems and the dynamics of sexual selection; however, socio-ecological and genetic correlates of EGP have been underexplored. We use 23 years of demographic and genetic data from a high-density European badger (Meles meles) population, to investigate the relationship between the rate of EGP in litters and mate availability, mate incompatibility and mate quality (heterozygosity). Relatedness between within-group assigned mothers and candidate fathers had a negative quadratic effect on EGP, whereas the number of neighbouring-group candidate fathers had a linear positive effect. We detected no effect of mean or maximum heterozygosity of within-group candidate fathers on EGP. Consequently, EGP was associated primarily with mate availability, subject to within-group genetic effects, potentially to mitigate mate incompatibility and inbreeding. In badgers, cryptic female choice, facilitated by superfecundation, superfoetation and delayed implantation, prevents males from monopolizing within-group females. This resonates with a meta-analysis in group-living mammals, which proposed that higher rates of EGP occur when within-group males cannot monopolize within-group females. In contrast to the positive meta-analytic association, however, we found that EGP associated negatively with the number of within-group assigned mothers and the number of within-group candidate fathers; potentially a strategy to counter within-group males committing infanticide. The relationship between the rate of EGP and socio-ecological or genetic factors can therefore be intricate, and the potential for cryptic female choice must be accounted for in comparative studies. PMID:25234113
Rhodes, Matthew K; Fant, Jeremie B; Skogen, Krissa A
The occurrence and extent of multiple paternity is an important component of variation in plant mating dynamics. However, links between pollinator activity and multiple paternity are generally lacking, especially for plant species that attract functionally diverse floral visitors. In this study, we separated the influence of two functionally distinct floral visitors (hawkmoths and solitary bees) and characterized their impacts on multiple paternity in a self-incompatible, annual forb, Oenothera harringtonii (Onagraceae). We also situated pollinator-mediated effects in a spatial context by linking variation in multiple paternity to variation in plant spatial isolation. We documented pronounced differences in the number of paternal sires as function of pollinator identity: on average, the primary pollinator (hawkmoths) facilitated mating with nearly twice as many pollen donors relative to the secondary pollinator (solitary bees). This effect was consistent for both isolated and non-isolated individuals, but spatial isolation imposed pronounced reductions on multiple paternity regardless of pollinator identity. Considering that pollinator abundance and pollen dispersal distance did not vary significantly with pollinator identity, we attribute variation in realized mating dynamics primarily to differences in pollinator morphology and behavior as opposed to pollinator abundance or mating incompatibility arising from underlying spatial genetic structure. Our findings demonstrate that functionally distinct pollinators can have strongly divergent effects on polyandry in plants and further suggest that both pollinator identity and spatial heterogeneity have important roles in plant mating dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Liu, Jin-Xian; Tatarenkov, Andrey; O'Rear, Teejay A; Moyle, Peter B; Avise, John C
Population density might be an important variable in determining the degree of multiple paternity. In a previous study, a high level of multiple paternity was detected in the shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata, a species with high population density and a high mate encounter rate. The tule perch Hysterocarpus traski is phylogenetically closely related to C. aggregata, but it has relatively lower population density, which may result in distinct patterns of multiple paternity in these 2 species. To test the hypothesis that mate encounter rate may affect the rate of successful mating, we used polymorphic microsatellite markers to identify multiple paternity in the progeny arrays of 12 pregnant females from a natural population of tule perch. Multiple paternity was detected in 11 (92%) of the 12 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 4 (mean 2.5) but with no correlation between sire number and brood size. Although the brood size of tule perch is considerably larger than that of shiner perch (40.7 vs. 12.9, respectively), the average number of sires per brood in tule perch is much lower than that in shiner perch (2.5 vs. 4.6, respectively). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mate encounter rate is an important factor affecting multiple mating.
Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre
In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual.
Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry
The costs and benefits of natal philopatry are central to the formation and maintenance of social groups. Badger groups, thought to form passively according to the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), are maintained through natal philopatry and delayed dispersal; however, there is minimal evidence for the functional benefits of such grouping. We assigned parentage to 630 badger cubs from a high-density population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, born between 1988 and 2005. Our methodological approach was different to previous studies; we used 22 microsatellite loci to assign parent pairs, which in combination with sibship inference provided a high parentage assignment rate. We assigned both parents to 331 cubs at > or = 95% confidence, revealing a polygynandrous mating system with up to five mothers and five fathers within a social group. We estimated that only 27% of adult males and 31% of adult females bred each year, suggesting a cost to group living for both sexes. Any strong motivation or selection to disperse, however, may be reduced because just under half of the paternities were gained by extra-group males, mainly from neighbouring groups, with males displaying a mixture of paternity strategies. We provide the strongest evidence to date for multiple-paternity litters, and for the first time show that within-group and extra-group males can sire cubs in the same litter. We investigate the factors that may play a role in determining the degree of delayed dispersal and conclude that the ecological constraints hypothesis, benefits of philopatry hypothesis, and life history hypothesis may all play a part, as proposed by the broad constraints hypothesis.
Szövényi, P; Ricca, M; Shaw, A J
Multiple paternity (polyandry) frequently occurs in flowering plants and animals and is assumed to have an important function in the evolution of reproductive traits. Polyandry in bryophytes may occur among multiple sporophytes of a female gametophyte; however, its occurrence and extent is unknown. In this study we investigate the occurrence and extent of multiple paternity, spatial genetic structure, and sporophytic inbreeding depression in natural populations of a dioicous bryophyte species, Sphagnum lescurii, using microsatellite markers. Multiple paternity is prevalent among sporophytes of a female gametophyte and male genotypes exhibit significant skew in paternity. Despite significant spatial genetic structure in the population, suggesting frequent inbreeding, the number of inbred and outbred sporophytes was balanced, resulting in an average fixation coefficient and population level selfing rate of zero. In line with the prediction of sporophytic inbreeding depression sporophyte size was significantly correlated with the level of heterozygosity. Furthermore, female gametophytes preferentially supported sporophytes with higher heterozygosity. These results indicate that polyandry provides the opportunity for postfertilization selection in bryophytes having short fertilization distances and spatially structured populations facilitating inbreeding. Preferential maternal support of the more heterozygous sporophytes suggests active inbreeding avoidance that may have significant implications for mating system evolution in bryophytes.
McVay, John D; Rodriguez, David; Rainwater, Thomas R; Dever, Jennifer A; Platt, Steven G; McMurry, Scott T; Forstner, Michael R J; Densmore, Llewellyn D
Microsatellite data were generated from hatchlings collected from ten nests of Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from New River Lagoon and Gold Button Lagoon in Belize to test for evidence of multiple paternity. Nine microsatellite loci were genotyped for 188 individuals from the 10 nests, alongside 42 nonhatchlings from Gold Button Lagoon. Then mitochondrial control region sequences were generated for the nonhatchlings and for one individual from each nest to test for presence of C. acutus-like haplotypes. Analyses of five of the nine microsatellite loci revealed evidence that progeny from five of the ten nests were sired by at least two males. These data suggest the presence of multiple paternity as a mating strategy in the true crocodiles. This information may be useful in the application of conservation and management techniques to the 12 species in this genus, most of which are threatened or endangered.
Yue, Gen Hua; Li, Jia Le; Wang, Chun Ming; Xia, Jun Hong; Wang, Gen Lin; Feng, Jian Bing
Reproductive strategy is a central feature of the ecology of invasive species as it determines the potential for population increase and range expansion. The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, has invaded many countries and caused serious problems in freshwater ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of environmental conditions on crayfish paternity and offspring traits in the wild. We studied these reproductive characteristics of P. clarkii in wild populations from two different habitats (ponds and ditches) in three locations with different environmental conditions in China. Genotyping of 1,436 offspring and 30 mothers of 30 broods was conducted by using four microsatellites. An analysis of genotyping results revealed that gravid females were the exclusive mother of the progeny they tended. Twenty-nine of 30 mothers had mated with multiple (2-4) males, each of which contributed differently to the number of offspring in a brood. The average number of fathers per brood and the number of offspring per brood were similar (P>0.05) among six sampling sites, indicating that in P. clarkii multiple paternity and offspring number per brood are independent of environmental conditions studied. Indirect benefits from increasing the genetic diversity of broods, male and sperm competition, and cryptic female choice are a possible explanation for the high level multiple paternity and different contribution of fathers to offspring in this species.
Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H H; McKeown, Niall J; Shaw, Paul W
Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.
Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H. H.; McKeown, Niall J.; Shaw, Paul W.
Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection. PMID:26872354
Mäkinen, Tuuli; Panova, Marina; André, Carl
The mating system of a species can have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. We studied the extent of multiple paternity in a gastropod with internal fertilization, the intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis. Paternal genotype reconstruction based on microsatellite markers was performed on the offspring of wild, naturally fertilized females from 2 populations. The numbers of males contributing to the offspring per female were among the highest detected in invertebrates so far, with the exception of social insects. No reproductive skew in favor of males that were genetically more distant from the females was detected, and the pattern of fertilization appeared random. The result fits a hypothesis of indiscriminate mating, with genetic bet hedging as the most likely explanation. Bet hedging may have evolved as a form of inbreeding avoidance, if the snails are not able to recognize relatives. However, nutritional benefits from sperm or sexual conflict with males are additional possibilities that remain to be assessed in this species. Whatever the causes, such high levels of multiple paternity are remarkable and are likely to have a large impact on population structure and dynamics in a species in which migration between populations is spurious.
Wagner, Aaron P; Creel, Scott; Frank, Laurence G; Kalinowski, Steven T
We investigated patterns of relatedness and reproduction in a population of striped hyenas in which individuals are behaviourally solitary but form polyandrous spatial groups consisting of one adult female and multiple adult males. Group-mate males were often close relatives, but were unrelated or distantly related in some cases, indicating that male coalitions are not strictly a result of philopatry or dispersal with cohorts of relatives. Most male-female pairs within spatial groups were unrelated or only distantly related. Considering patterns of relatedness between groups, relatedness was significantly higher among adult males living in non-neighbouring ranges than among neighbouring males. Mean relatedness among male-female dyads was highest for group-mates, but relatedness among non-neighbouring males and females was also significantly higher than among dyads of opposite-sex neighbours. Female-female relatedness also increased significantly with increasing geographic separation. These unusual and unexpected patterns may reflect selection to settle in a nonadjacent manner to reduce inbreeding and/or competition among relatives for resources (both sexes), or mates (males). Finally, resident males fathered the majority of the resident female's cubs, but extra-group paternity was likely in 31% of the cases examined, and multiple paternity was likely in half of the sampled litters.
Leighton, Gavin M.; Echeverri, Sebastian; Heinrich, Dirk; Kolberg, Holger
Although communal goods are often critical to society, they are simultaneously susceptible to exploitation and are evolutionarily stable only if mechanisms exist to curtail exploitation. Mechanisms such as punishment and kin selection have been offered as general explanations for how communal resources can be maintained. Evidence for these mechanisms comes largely from humans and social insects, leaving their generality in question. To assess how communal resources are maintained, we observed cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers (Philetairus socius). The communal nest of sociable weavers provides thermal benefits for all individuals but requires continual maintenance. We observed cooperative nest construction and also recorded basic morphological characteristics. We also collected blood samples, performed next-generation sequencing, and isolated 2358 variable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate relatedness. We find that relatedness predicts investment in cooperative nest construction, while no other morphological characters significantly explain cooperative output. We argue that indirect benefits are a critical fitness component for maintaining the cooperative behavior that maintains the communal good. PMID:26726282
Leighton, Gavin M; Echeverri, Sebastian; Heinrich, Dirk; Kolberg, Holger
Although communal goods are often critical to society, they are simultaneously susceptible to exploitation and are evolutionarily stable only if mechanisms exist to curtail exploitation. Mechanisms such as punishment and kin selection have been offered as general explanations for how communal resources can be maintained. Evidence for these mechanisms comes largely from humans and social insects, leaving their generality in question. To assess how communal resources are maintained, we observed cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers (Philetairus socius). The communal nest of sociable weavers provides thermal benefits for all individuals but requires continual maintenance. We observed cooperative nest construction and also recorded basic morphological characteristics. We also collected blood samples, performed next-generation sequencing, and isolated 2358 variable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate relatedness. We find that relatedness predicts investment in cooperative nest construction, while no other morphological characters significantly explain cooperative output. We argue that indirect benefits are a critical fitness component for maintaining the cooperative behavior that maintains the communal good.
Holleley, C E; Dickman, C R; Crowther, M S; Oldroyd, B P
Mating in the marsupial genus Antechinus is a synchronous annual event that is characterized by monoestry in females and abrupt postmating mortality in males. Male semelparity (multiple copulations during a single breeding season per lifetime) is often assumed to occur as a consequence of the intense mating effort expended by males in the rut, but the forces selecting for this remain elusive. Here, we investigate selection in male brown antechinus, Antechinus stuartii, and test two hypotheses for the evolution of semelparity: intermale competition and sperm competition. If intermale competition drives semelparity, we predicted that males would be under strong selection for large body size. If sperm competition is important, we predicted that selection would be strongest on scrotal size, a surrogate for testes volume. Using microsatellite markers, we found that 92% of females in free-living conditions mated with multiple males, producing litters of eight that had up to four fathers. These observations confirm the potential for sperm competition. Using selection analysis, we then found paternity success in 119 males to be related most strongly to body mass and scrotal size, thus providing support for both hypotheses. Large males presumably experience increased paternity success by gaining more matings or prolonged copulations via mate guarding, while large testes may allow increased sperm investment per copulation. Increased levels of free corticosteroid hormones in males facilitate the extreme mating effort during the short period of rut, but lead to immune suppression and consequently to the phenomenon of postmating mortality.
Amavet, Patricia; Rosso, Esteban; Markariani, Rosa; Piña, Carlos Ignacio
Detecting multiple paternity in wild populations of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) has important implications for conservation efforts. We have applied microsatellite markers to examine genetic variation in C. latirostris and also have provided the first data concerning detection of multiple paternity in wild populations of this species. Blood samples from four nest-guarding C. latirostris females and their hatchlings were obtained from Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Amplified products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 10% polyacrylamide gels and visualized with silver staining. Four out of the eight markers tested reliably amplified and yielded useful data. Using polyacrylamide gels with silver staining provides high enough resolution to obtain individual genotypes. In order to assess the presence or absence of more than two parents in each nest, we used the single locus Minimum Method, and applied Cervus 3.0 and Gerud 2.0 software in parentage analyses. Our results indicate more than one father in at least two families. This behavior could be the consequence of high habitat variability in the area where our population was sampled. The ability to understand mating systems is important for maintaining viable populations of exploited taxa like C. latirostris.
Rossouw, C; Wintner, S P; Bester-Van Der Merwe, A E
In this study, multiple paternity (MP) was investigated in three commercially important shark species, common smoothhound Mustelus mustelus, dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus and scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini occurring in southern Africa. Reduced marker panels of between five and six microsatellite loci were constructed for each species and used to genotype and assess the presence of MP in a total of 60 M. mustelus individuals from six litters, 90 C. obscurus individuals from 14 litters and 54 S. lewini individuals from 13 litters. Analysis in GERUD and COLONY revealed the presence of MP in all three species. Multiple paternities were observed in 67, 35 and 46% of the litters of M. mustelus, C. obscurus and S. lewini, with corresponding average sire size of 1·6, 1·4 and 2·0, respectively. The variation in the rate of MP among the three species is in accordance with previous studies whilst the comparatively high frequency of MP observed for M. mustelus, matches what has previously been reported for shark species demonstrating aggregation behaviour.
Mitchell, Randall J.; Wilson, William G.; Holmquist, Karsten G.; Karron, Jeffrey D.
In many flowering plants individual fruits contain a mixture of half- and full- siblings, reflecting pollination by several fathers. To better understand the mechanisms generating multiple paternity within fruits we present a theoretical framework linking pollen carryover with patterns of pollinator movement. This ‘sire profile’ model predicts that species with more extensive pollen carryover will have a greater number of mates. It also predicts that flowers on large displays, which are often probed consecutively during a single pollinator visitation sequence, will have a lower effective number of mates. We compared these predictions with observed values for bumble bee-pollinated Mimulus ringens, which has restricted carryover, and hummingbird-pollinated Ipomopsis aggregata, which has extensive carryover. The model correctly predicted that the effective number of mates is much higher in the species with more extensive carryover. This work extends our knowledge of plant mating systems by highlighting mechanisms influencing the genetic composition of sibships. PMID:24098473
Mitchell, Randall J; Wilson, William G; Holmquist, Karsten G; Karron, Jeffrey D
In many flowering plants individual fruits contain a mixture of half- and full- siblings, reflecting pollination by several fathers. To better understand the mechanisms generating multiple paternity within fruits we present a theoretical framework linking pollen carryover with patterns of pollinator movement. This 'sire profile' model predicts that species with more extensive pollen carryover will have a greater number of mates. It also predicts that flowers on large displays, which are often probed consecutively during a single pollinator visitation sequence, will have a lower effective number of mates. We compared these predictions with observed values for bumble bee-pollinated Mimulus ringens, which has restricted carryover, and hummingbird-pollinated Ipomopsis aggregata, which has extensive carryover. The model correctly predicted that the effective number of mates is much higher in the species with more extensive carryover. This work extends our knowledge of plant mating systems by highlighting mechanisms influencing the genetic composition of sibships.
Ochando, M D; Reyes, A; Ayala, F J
Male mating success is an important fitness component in Drosophila. The seminal fluid conveyed with the sperm inhibits the proclivity of the female to remate and reduces her fitness. Nevertheless, females may remate before they have exhausted the sperm from the first male and consequently use sperm from both males. We have studied concurrent multiple paternity (CMP) in two Drosophila melanogaster populations, from an apple orchard and a vineyard just after harvest. CMP is high in both populations, somewhat greater than 50%; but it is not significantly higher in the vineyard, where the population density is much greater than in the orchard. Population density had been thought to be an important determinant of CMP incidence. We have used four gene loci coding for enzymes as independent markers for detecting CMP. PMID:8876212
Freda, F P; Bernardes, V C D; Eisemberg, C C; Fantin, C; Vogt, R C
Genetic studies of multiple paternity are a valuable tool to gain information on the reproductive biology of turtles. We analyzed paternity type in Podocnemis sextuberculata and related number of fathers per nest to nesting period (beginning, middle, or end of nesting season); clutch size (number of eggs); female size; and hatchling success. Females were captured and maximum linear carapace lengths measured during the 60 days that encompass the nesting season at Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve (Pará, Brazil). Nests were marked and blood samples collected from hatchlings. Six heterologous loci were used: five from Podocnemis unifilis and one from Podocnemis expansa. Hatchlings were analyzed from 23 nests, and the rate of multiple paternity was 100%. The mean number of fathers per nest was six (± 0.9), and no significant difference between number of fathers in a nest and nesting period. Similarly there was no significant relationship between number of fathers in a nest and female size or hatchling success rate. Number of fathers was, however, positively correlated with clutch size (Spearman correlation rho = 0.47; P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the relationship between multiple paternity and ecological aspects of the reproductive ecology of turtles in the genus Podocnemis.
Gayet, Thibault; Devillard, Sébastien; Gamelon, Marlène; Brandt, Serge; Say, Ludovic; Baubet, Eric
Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation, and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter at one reproductive event, may be associated with the retention of high genetic diversity and an increase of litter size. We tested these hypotheses by estimating the number of sires per litter based on a six-year long monitoring of a wild boar population subject to particularly high harvesting pressure. Our results show a high and stable genetic diversity and high rates of multiple paternity compared to other populations, thus depicting a promiscuous/polyandrous mating system in this population. We also show that litter size is positively linked to the number of sires, suggesting that multiple paternity increases fecundity. We finally discuss that multiple paternity may be one of the factors allowing rapid evolution of this population by maintaining both genetic and phenotypic diversity.
Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W; Oldroyd, B P
Understanding the evolution of multiple mating by females (polyandry) is an important question in behavioural ecology. Most leading explanations for polyandry by social insect queens are based upon a postulated fitness benefit from increased intracolonial genetic diversity, which also arises when colonies are headed by multiple queens (polygyny). An indirect test of the genetic diversity hypotheses is therefore provided by the relationship between polyandry and polygyny across species, which should be negative if the genetic diversity hypotheses are correct. Here, we conduct a powerful comparative investigation of the relationship between polyandry and polygyny for 241 species of eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). We find a clear and significant negative relationship between polyandry and polygyny after controlling for phylogeny. These results strongly suggest that fitness benefits resulting from increased intracolonial genetic diversity have played an important role in the evolution of polyandry, and possibly polygyny, in social insects.
Gorospe, Kelvin D; Karl, Stephen A
Patterns of isolation by distance are uncommon in coral populations. Here, we depart from historical trends of large-scale, geographical genetic analyses by scaling down to a single patch reef in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i, USA, and map and genotype all colonies of the coral, Pocillopora damicornis. Six polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to assess population genetic and clonal structure and to calculate individual colony pairwise relatedness values. Our results point to an inbred, highly clonal reef (between 53 and 116 clonal lineages of 2352 genotyped colonies) with a much skewed genet frequency distribution (over 70% of the reef was composed of just seven genotypes). Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed that corals found close together on the reef were more genetically related than corals further apart. Spatial genetic structure disappears, however, as spatial scale increases and then becomes negative at the largest distances. Stratified, random sampling of three neighbouring reefs confirms that reefs are demographically open and inter-reef genetic structuring was not detected. Attributing process to pattern in corals is complicated by their mixed reproductive strategies. Separate autocorrelation analyses, however, show that the spatial distribution of both clones and nonclones contributes to spatial genetic structure. Overall, we demonstrate genetic structure on an intrareef scale and genetic panmixia on an inter-reef scale indicating that, for P. damicornis, the effect of small- and large-scale dispersal processes on genetic diversity are not the same. By starting from an interindividual, intrareef level before scaling up to an inter-reef level, this study demonstrates that isolation-by-distance patterns for the coral P. damicornis are limited to small scales and highlights the importance of investigating genetic patterns and ecological processes at multiple scales.
Evanno, Guillaume; Madec, Luc; Arnaud, Jean-François
Sperm competition has been studied in many gonochoric animals but little is known about its occurrence in simultaneous hermaphrodites, especially in land snails. The reproductive behaviour of the land snail Helix aspersa involves several features, like multiple mating, long-term sperm storage and dart-shooting behaviour, which may promote sperm competition. Cryptic female choice may also occur through a spermatheca subdivided into tubules, which potentially allows compartmentalized sperm storage of successive mates. In order to determine the outcome of postcopulatory sexual selection in this species, we designed a cross-breeding experiment where a recipient ('female') mated with two sperm donors ('males'). Mates came from either the same population as the recipient or from a distinct one. To test for the influence a recipient can have on the paternity of its offspring, we excluded the effects of dart shooting by using only virgin snails as sperm donors because they do not shoot any dart before their first copulation. We measured the effects of size of mates as well as time to first and second mating on second mate sperm precedence (P2; established using microsatellite markers). Multiple paternity was detected in 62.5% of clutches and overall there was first-mate sperm precedence with a mean P2 of 0.24. Generalized linear modelling revealed that the best predictors of paternity were the time between matings and the time before first mating. Overall, both first and second mates that copulated quickly got greater parentage, which may suggest that postcopulatory events influence patterns of sperm precedence in the garden snail.
Sefc, Kristina M; Mattersdorfer, Karin; Sturmbauer, Christian; Koblmüller, Stephan
In several animal taxa, genetic analyses have demonstrated that social monogamy and biparental brood care do not preclude polygamous reproduction. Few studies have been conducted in fish, but in fish species without alternative reproductive phenotypes, social monogamy was largely congruent with genetic parentage. In contrast to these findings, we report an exceptionally high level of multiple paternity in a socially monogamous cichlid fish with biparental nest defence (Variabilichromis moorii), inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial data of 10 broods. Whereas all offspring in a nest shared a common mother, each brood was sired by 2 to > 10 males. None of the inferred sires was assigned a large proportion of the brood. Paternity was estimated as the minimum number of sires required to explain multilocus offspring genotypes, and as the maximum-likelihood number of sires given population allele frequencies. Analysis of simulated brood genotypes suggested that, although these two methods tend to under- and overestimate, respectively, the true number of sires, primary sires with many offspring in a brood would have been detected. Hence, the genetic data indicate that the nest tending males suffer substantial cuckoldry and provide alloparental care for a large number of unrelated fry. We have no data on the social status of the cuckolding males, but due to synchronous spawning of pairs and commitment to brood care of paired males, it is possible that most of the parasitic spawners are solitary males.
Le Cam, Sabrina; Pechenik, Jan A; Cagnon, Mathilde; Viard, Frédérique
Reproductive strategies and parental effects play a major role in shaping early life-history traits. Although polyandry is a common reproductive strategy, its role is still poorly documented in relation to paternal effects. Here, we used as a case study the invasive sessile marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a mollusc with polyandry and extreme larval growth variation among sibling larvae. Based on paternity analyses, the relationships between paternal identity and the variations in a major early life-history trait in marine organisms, that is, larval growth, were investigated. Using microsatellite markers, paternities of 437 fast- and slow-growing larvae from 6 broods were reliably assigned to a set of 20 fathers. No particular fathers were found responsible for the specific growth performances of their offspring. However, the range of larval growth rates within a brood was significantly correlated to 1) an index of sire diversity and 2) the degree of larvae relatedness within broods. Multiple paternity could thus play an important role in determining the extent of pelagic larval duration and consequently the range of dispersal distances achieved during larval life. This study also highlighted the usefulness of using indices based on fathers' relative contribution to the progeny in paternity studies.
Studying the mating system of obligate aquatic organisms that inhabit river ecosystems is important for understanding its evolution as well as the role of biological and environmental factors in modulating population dynamics and species distributional patterns. Here, we studied the reproductive strategy of the Chilean endemic freshwater snail, Chilina dombeiana, in the Biobío River, one of the largest rivers in Chile. This species has a low potential for dispersal given the absence of a free-swimming larval stage (benthic larval development) and given that adults have a low capacity for mobility. We hypothesized that: 1. Females would mate with different males (polyandry) resulting in intrabrood multiple paternity, 2. Individuals from closer sites would be more related than individuals from distant sites, and 3. Male parental contributions would be unevenly distributed within broods. Individuals from three different sites were sampled along the river: upper, mid, and river mouth. In the laboratory, hatching juveniles from a total of 15 broods were collected for paternity analyses. We used microsatellite markers and the programs GERUD and COLONY to determine whether multiple paternity exists and to estimate the contribution of different males to the brood. We found that multiple paternity was very common at all of the sites analyzed with as many as 8 males fertilizing a single female and a mean of 4.2 fathers per brood estimated by COLONY. Sire contribution was skewed to particular males in several broods. In addition, overall relatedness among broods for the three sites ranged from 0.17 to 0.45 with evidence of many half-siblings. Relatedness differed among the three sites. Particularly in upstream sites or in anthropogenically disturbed populations, the high levels of multiple paternity observed in C. dombeiana may be an efficient strategy to avoid inbreeding and prevent the loss of genetic diversity within populations. PMID:28068418
Brockmann; Nguyen; Potts
Unpaired or satellite male horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, are attracted to and often form a group around a pair (a female with an attached male) that is nesting in the high intertidal zone. These males are engaged in sperm competition. We observed nesting pairs and their associated satellites in the wild, collected and reared their eggs and used genetic markers to examine paternity. We found that the unpaired, satellite males are highly successful at fertilizing eggs; two satellites can leave the attached male with few fertilizations. Two satellites together are each as successful as one spawning with a pair. A satellite's location around the female greatly affects his success, and males compete for access to a position over the dorsal canal between the prosoma and opisthosoma of the female and under the front margin of the paired male where they are most likely to fertilize eggs. Although eggs and sperm retain their viability for some time after spawning, nearly all eggs are fertilized by the satellites that are around the nesting pair at the time of egg laying and by the attached male. A number of factors including beach current, female size and male behaviour affect the outcome of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Griffiths, Andrew M; Jacoby, David M P; Casane, Didier; McHugh, Matthew; Croft, Darren P; Genner, Martin J; Sims, David W
Multiple paternity (MP) has been demonstrated in a variety of sharks, although its prevalence and the number of sires per litter vary considerably among species. To date, such analyses have focused on viviparous species that possess only part of the wide spectrum of reproductive strategies developed in elasmobranchs. We analyzed MP in an oviparous species, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). In total, 150 neonates originating from 13 different mothers were genotyped using 12 microsatellite loci. MP was commonplace, with progeny from 92% of females sired by multiple males. This result is consistent with the reproductive biology of the species, particularly its protracted breeding season and potential for long-term sperm storage. The significance of these findings is discussed in light of small-spotted catshark behavior, which suggests that the cost of avoiding mating attempts initiated by males may be high and is therefore supportive of convenience polyandry as an explanation for MP. Eggs were followed from the time they were laid to when they hatched, offering a rare opportunity to investigate juvenile development in more detail.
Anderson, Caleb; Werdenig, Alexandra; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M
Mating system variability is known to exist between and within species, often due to environmental influences. An open question is whether, vice versa, similar environmental conditions entail congruent mating behavior, for example in terms of multiple paternity, in species or populations sharing largely comparable breeding modes. This study employed microsatellite markers to investigate the incidence of multiple paternity in Cyprichromis coloratus and Cyprichromis leptosoma, two sympatric, closely related, mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with similar ecological and behavioral characteristics including the formation of open-water schools. Mouthbrooding females of both species were collected from the same mixed-species breeding school at the same time, minimizing environmental variation during courtship and mating. In C. coloratus, four of 12 broods had more than one sire, with a mean of 1.33 reconstructed sires per brood. C. leptosoma exhibited multiple paternity in 18 of 22 broods, with a mean of 2.59 or 2.86 reconstructed sires per brood according to the programs gerud and colony, respectively. In addition, two broods were found to contain offspring transplanted from another brood. There was no significant difference in brood size between species, but mean sire number did differ significantly. Hence, substantial similarity in reproductive behavior along with shared environmental conditions during courtship and spawning did not lead to equal rates of polyandry or sneaking in the two species.
Liu, Jin-Xian; Avise, John C
The Shiner Perch (Cymatogaster aggregata Gibbons) exhibits a viviparous reproductive mode and long-term female sperm storage, two biological features that may predispose this fish species for both intense sperm competition and frequent multiple paternity within broods. To test these hypotheses, we used polymorphic microsatellite markers to identify sires and quantify paternal contributions to the progeny arrays of 27 pregnant females from a natural population of C. aggregata. The number of sires per brood ranged from one to eight (mean 4.6), typically with skewed distributions of fertilization success by the fathers but no correlation between sire number and brood size. The extraordinarily high incidences of multiple paternity in this species probably are due in part to high rates of mate encounter, but selection pressures related to the avoidance of maternal-fetal incompatibility may further have promoted the evolution of polyandrous mating behaviors in this female-pregnant species. Our genetic data are consistent with the hypothesis that viviparity, long-term sperm storage, and extreme polyandry are interrelated reproductive phenomena that should promote the evolution of post-copulatory sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice in these fishes.
Background Most of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients undergo disease modifying drug (DMD) therapy at childbearing age. The objective of this prospective, collaborative study, was to assess outcomes of pregnancies fathered by MS patients undergoing DMD. Methods Structured interviews on pregnancies fathered by MS patients gathered in the Italian Pregnancy Dataset were collected; pregnancies were divided according to father exposure or unexposure to DMD at time of procreation. Treatment were compared with multivariable logistic and linear models. Results Seventy-eight pregnancies fathered by MS patients were tracked. Forty-five patients were taking DMD at time of conception (39 beta-interferons, 6 glatiramer acetate), while 33 pregnancies were unexposed to DMD. Seventy-five pregnancies ended in live-births, 44 in the exposed and 31 in the unexposed group. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the risk of spontaneous abortion or malformations (p > 0.454), mean gestational age (p = 0.513), frequency of cesarean delivery (p = 0.644), birth weight (p = 0.821) and birth length (p = 0.649). In comparison with data of the Italian general population, the proportion of spontaneous abortion and caesarean delivery in exposed pregnancies fell within the estimates, while the proportion of pre-term delivery in the exposed group was higher than expected. Conclusions Our data indicate no association between paternal DMD exposure at time of conception and risk of spontaneous abortion, adverse fetal outcomes and congenital malformations. Further studies clarifying the role of DMD fathers intake prior and during pregnancy are desirable, to supply guidelines for clinical practice. PMID:24884599
LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D
According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including samples from a broader range of reproductive size classes, we found evidence of a Bateman gradient in two surfperch species from distinct embiotocid clades. Using microsatellite analyses, we found that 100% of the spotfin surfperch families sampled exhibit multiple paternity (Hyperprosopon anale, the basal taxon from the only clade that has not previously been investigated) indicating that this tactic is a shared reproductive strategy among surfperches. Further, we detected evidence for a Bateman gradient in H. anale; however, this result was not significant after correction for biases. Similarly, we found evidence for multiple paternity in 83% of the shiner surfperch families (Cymatogaster aggregata) sampled. When we combine these data with a previous study on the same species, representing a larger range of reproductive size classes and associated brood sizes, we detect a Bateman gradient in shiner surfperch for the first time that remains significant after several conservative tests for bias correction. These results indicate that sexual selection is likely complex in this system, with the potential for conflicting optima between sexes, and imply a positive shift in fertility (i.e., increasing number) and reproductive tactic with respect to the mating system and number of sires throughout the reproductive life history of females. We argue that the complex reproductive natural history of surfperches is characterized by several traits that may be associated with cryptic female
Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy S.; Davies, Patrick T.
Background: Research has focused on maternal dysphoria and child adjustment. However, family process models indicate gaps in the study of paternal dysphoria, broader family functioning, and diverse child outcomes. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers and fathers of kindergarten children completed measures of depressive symptoms, family…
Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George
The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.
Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ginsberg, Joshua R.; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George
The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578
Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.
We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb's broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related…
Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R
We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb's broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related potentials on post-verbal Agent arguments as participants read and made plausibility judgments about passive English sentences. The N400 evoked by incoming animate Agent arguments that violated expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, was strongly attenuated when they were semantically related to the context. In contrast, semantic relatedness did not modulate the N400 evoked by inanimate Agent arguments that violated the preceding verb's animacy selection restrictions. These findings suggest that, under these task and experimental conditions, semantic relatedness can facilitate processing of post-verbal animate arguments that violate specific expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, but only when the semantic features of these arguments match the coarser-grained animacy restrictions of the verb. Animacy selection restriction violations also evoked a P600 effect, which was not modulated by semantic relatedness, suggesting that it was triggered by propositional impossibility. Together, these data indicate that the brain distinguishes between real-world event/state knowledge and animacy-based selection restrictions during online processing.
Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.
We aimed to determine whether semantic relatedness between an incoming word and its preceding context can override expectations based on two types of stored knowledge: real-world knowledge about the specific events and states conveyed by a verb, and the verb’s broader selection restrictions on the animacy of its argument. We recorded event-related potentials on post-verbal Agent arguments as participants read and made plausibility judgments about passive English sentences. The N400 evoked by incoming animate Agent arguments that violated expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, was strongly attenuated when they were semantically related to the context. In contrast, semantic relatedness did not modulate the N400 evoked by inanimate Agent arguments that violated the preceding verb’s animacy selection restrictions. These findings suggest that, under these task and experimental conditions, semantic relatedness can facilitate processing of post-verbal animate arguments that violate specific expectations based on real-world event/state knowledge, but only when the semantic features of these arguments match the coarser-grained animacy restrictions of the verb. Animacy selection restriction violations also evoked a P600 effect, which was not modulated by semantic relatedness, suggesting that it was triggered by propositional impossibility. Together, these data indicate that the brain distinguishes between real-world event/state knowledge and animacy-based selection restrictions during online processing. PMID:23284226
Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J
Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911
Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Wildt, David E; Hull, Vanessa
The effectiveness of ex situ breeding programs for endangered species can be limited by challenges in mimicking mating competitions that naturally occur among multiple mates in the wild. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of timed natural matings and/or artificial inseminations in the context of the urinary estrogen surge on cub production in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We used a large cohort of giant pandas, including 12 females and 17 males. DNA paternity exclusion was used to pinpoint accurately the interval during the estrogen surge that coincided with the ideal sperm deposition time to produce offspring. Of the 31 cubs (in 19 pregnancies), 22 (71.0%; 15 pregnancies) were produced from matings occurring on the day of or the day after the maximal urinary estrogen peak. Sixteen of the 19 pregnancies (84.2%) produced at least one offspring sired by the first male mating with the dam. There was a preponderance of twins (12 of 19; 63.2%), and dual paternities were discovered in 3 of 12 twin sets (25%). These findings indicate a strong relationship between the excreted estrogen surge and sperm deposition to achieve pregnancy in the giant panda. To ensure the production of the most genetically diverse young, it is imperative that the most appropriate male mate first and on the day of or the day after the highest detected estrogen value. There is no advantage to increasing the number of copulations or mating partners within 1 day of the estrogen peak on the incidence of twinning, although this practice may increase the prevalence of dual paternity in cases of multiple births.
Warin, Megan J
Anthropological concepts of relatedness have not been addressed in any of the writings on anorexia, despite the literature being replete with negative connotations of sociality such as withdrawal, regression, and toxic families (in the form of 'obsessive mothers' or 'absent fathers'). As a departure to the vast literature on this topic, this multi-sited ethnographic project draws on the recent critiques and broadening of the concept of kinship to examine the ways in which a group of people with a diagnosis of anorexia understood and experienced relatedness in their everyday lives, that is, how they continually transformed connections by truncating, creating, sustaining and abandoning them. Those practices that are taken for granted as creating and sustaining relatedness-from the everyday practices of commensality to the capacity to have children-were consistently negated. Negating consensual avenues of relatedness did not leave these people in a void. On the contrary, new and productive meanings and experiences of being related were created and people entered into a relationship with anorexia that, in turn, tempered their relationships with their everyday worlds. In examining the 'relational matrix' of anorexia, new spaces of agency, ambiguity and power are illuminated.
Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J
Extant research suggests there is considerable overlap between so-called 2-polarities models of personality development; that is, models that propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between 2 key developmental tasks across the life span-the development of self-definition on the one hand and of relatedness on the other. These models have attracted considerable research attention and play a central role in DSM planning. This article provides a researcher- and clinician-friendly guide to the assessment of these personality theories. We argue that current theoretical models focus on issues of relatedness and self-definition at different hierarchically organized levels of analysis; that is (a) at the level of broad personality features, (b) at the motivational level (i.e., the motivational processes underlying the development of these dimensions), and (c) at the level of underlying internal working models or cognitive affective schemas, and the specific interpersonal features and problems in which they are expressed. Implications for further research and DSM planning are outlined.
Beasley, James C; Beatty, William S; Olson, Zachary H; Rhodes, Olin E
Using molecular techniques, we examined patterns of paternity in Virginia opossums occupying a highly fragmented agricultural landscape in northern Indiana. During 2008, we collected tissue from 64 females and their pouch young in 34 forest patches distributed over a 1100-km(2) region. Using genotypes from 10 microsatellite loci, we determined the minimum number of fathers contributing to each litter using GERUD 1.0. Genotyped offspring with known mothers were then analyzed using CERVUS 3.0, incorporating genotypes from 317 males sampled from 2007-2008 to identify potential fathers. Our analyses revealed that promiscuity was common among females, with 26 (41%) litters having > or = 2 sires. Despite the fact that we intensively sampled forest patches for potential fathers, we only were able to identify 13 fathers contributing to 14 litters, with an average Euclidean distance of 18.7 km between father-offspring pairs found in disparate patches (N = 6). Our inability to identify most (85%) fathers of sampled litters, coupled with the extensive distances observed between putative father-offspring pairs, suggests that opossums may not maintain explicit home ranges in highly fragmented landscapes.
Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.
Fraser, C I; Brahy, O; Mardulyn, P; Dohet, L; Mayer, F; Grégoire, J-C
There is an evolutionary trade-off between the resources that a species invests in dispersal versus those invested in reproduction. For many insects, reproductive success in patchily-distributed species can be improved by sibling-mating. In many cases, such strategies correspond to sexual dimorphism, with males-whose reproductive activities can take place without dispersal-investing less energy in development of dispersive resources such as large body size and wings. This dimorphism is particularly likely when males have little or no chance of mating outside their place of birth, such as when sperm competition precludes successful fertilisation in females that have already mated. The economically important bark beetle pest species Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) has been considered to be exclusively sibling-mating, with 90% of females having already mated with their brothers by emergence. The species does not, however, show strong sexual dimorphism; males closely resemble females, and have been observed flying through forests. We hypothesised that this lack of sexual dimorphism indicates that male D. micans are able to mate with unrelated females, and to sire some or all of their offspring, permitting extrafamilial reproduction. Using novel microsatellite markers, we carried out cross-breeding laboratory experiments and conducted paternity analyses of resulting offspring. Our results demonstrate that a second mating with a less-related male can indeed lead to some offspring being sired by the latecomer, but that most are sired by the first, sibling male. We discuss these findings in the context of sperm competition versus possible outbreeding depression.
Fraser, C I; Brahy, O; Mardulyn, P; Dohet, L; Mayer, F; Grégoire, J-C
There is an evolutionary trade-off between the resources that a species invests in dispersal versus those invested in reproduction. For many insects, reproductive success in patchily-distributed species can be improved by sibling-mating. In many cases, such strategies correspond to sexual dimorphism, with males–whose reproductive activities can take place without dispersal–investing less energy in development of dispersive resources such as large body size and wings. This dimorphism is particularly likely when males have little or no chance of mating outside their place of birth, such as when sperm competition precludes successful fertilisation in females that have already mated. The economically important bark beetle pest species Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) has been considered to be exclusively sibling-mating, with 90% of females having already mated with their brothers by emergence. The species does not, however, show strong sexual dimorphism; males closely resemble females, and have been observed flying through forests. We hypothesised that this lack of sexual dimorphism indicates that male D. micans are able to mate with unrelated females, and to sire some or all of their offspring, permitting extrafamilial reproduction. Using novel microsatellite markers, we carried out cross-breeding laboratory experiments and conducted paternity analyses of resulting offspring. Our results demonstrate that a second mating with a less-related male can indeed lead to some offspring being sired by the latecomer, but that most are sired by the first, sibling male. We discuss these findings in the context of sperm competition versus possible outbreeding depression. PMID:24736784
Neff, B D; Gross, M R
Theories of parental care evolution predict that genetic relatedness will be an important variable in the amount of care a parent provides. However, current inferences of relatedness-based parental investment from studies in humans and birds remain challenged. No study has yet demonstrated parental care adjustment in a manner uncomplicated by life-history correlates or experimental design. We now present a unique test that controls for individual life histories and demonstrates paternity-related dynamic adjustments in parental care. Brood-rearing male bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) that are cuckolded to a varying degree will either increase or decrease their parental investment in response to changing information on paternity during brood development. Specifically, as parental males detect paternity lost to cuckolders and, hence, a reduction in the value of their brood, they adaptively lower their level of parental care. Conversely, if they detect that their paternity is higher than previously assessed, they adaptively raise their level of parental care. This dynamic adjustment during brood rearing indicates the importance of genetic relatedness in parental investment decisions and provides needed empirical support for theoretical predictions.
Curley, James P; Mashoodh, Rahia; Champagne, Frances A
Though there are multiple routes through which parents can influence their offspring, recent studies of environmentally induced epigenetic variation have highlighted the role of non-genomic pathways. In addition to the experience-dependent modification of DNA methylation that can be achieved via mother-infant interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which paternal influences on offspring development can be achieved. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that paternal nutritional and toxicological exposures as well as paternal age and phenotypic variation can lead to variations in offspring and, in some cases, grand-offspring development. These findings suggest a potential epigenetic germline inheritance of paternal effects. However, it may be important to consider the interplay between maternal and paternal influences as well as the experimental dissociation between experience-dependent and germline transmission when exploring the role of epigenetic variation within the germline as a mediator of these effects. In this review, we will explore these issues, with a particular focus on the potential role of paternally induced maternal investment, highlight the literature illustrating the transgenerational impact of paternal experiences, and discuss the evidence supporting the role of epigenetic mechanisms in maintaining paternal effects both within and across generations.
Phillips, Karl P; Jorgensen, Tove H; Jolliffe, Kevin G; Jolliffe, San-Marie; Henwood, Jock; Richardson, David S
Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses of genetic biases to paternity in one such species, the critically endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. In the majority of females (90.7%, N = 43), all offspring were sired by a single male. In the few cases of multiple paternity (9.3%), two males fertilized each female. Importantly, the identity and proportional fertilization success of males were consistent across all sequential nests laid by individual females over the breeding season (up to five nests over 75 days). No males were identified as having fertilized more than one female, suggesting that a large number of males are available to females. No evidence for biases to paternity based on heterozygosity or relatedness was found. These results indicate that female hawksbill turtles are predominantly monogamous within a season, store sperm for the duration of the nesting season and do not re-mate between nests. Furthermore, females do not appear to be using sperm storage to facilitate sexual selection. Consequently, the primary value of storing sperm in marine turtles may be to uncouple mating and fertilization in time and avoid costly re-mating.
Liao, Xiaoyun; Rong, Stephen; Queller, David C
The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise.
Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc
This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…
Tunez, J.I.; Guichon, M.L.; Centron, D.; Henderson, A.P.; Callahan, C.; Cassini, M.H.
Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (J??uregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At J??uregui, a dominant male monopolized most paternities, leading to a high variance in reproductive success between males and a high level of polygyny. At Villa Ruiz, variance in reproductive success was low among resident males and males were the fathers of zero to four offspring each. For females, no significant differences were found. Two different social groups in each study site were used to assess genetic relatedness within and between groups. These groups were neighbouring at J??uregui but not at Villa Ruiz. At Villa Ruiz, coypus were significantly more related within than between groups, suggesting that behavioural groups were also genetic ones, and adult females were more related within than between groups, as should be expected for kin groups. This relationship was not found at J??uregui. Our results provide support to previous studies based on behavioural and trapping data, which indicate that coypus form social groups and have a polygynous mating system. However, we found differences in social organization between the two populations. This is the first study to determine parentage and/or relatedness in coypus. ?? 2008 The Authors.
Mundry, Roger; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Fischer, Julia; Widdig, Anja
In social animals, kin relations strongly shape the social structure of a group. In female-bonded species, maternal relatedness is likely to be mediated via familiarity, but evidence is accumulating that non-human primates are able to recognize kin that they are not familiar with and adjust their behavior accordingly. In playback experiments, female rhesus macaques showed increased interest in ‘coo’ calls produced by unfamiliar paternal half-sisters compared to ‘coo’ calls produced by unfamiliar unrelated females, suggesting that these calls should have some common structural characteristics that facilitate the discrimination of kin from non-kin. Here we analyzed ‘coo’ calls of 67 adult female rhesus macaques from four groups and seven matrilines living on the island of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico). We tested whether the call structure of closely maternal and/or paternal related females, as determined from extensive pedigree data, differed from the call structure of unrelated females, while controlling for familiarity (i.e., group-matrilineal membership and age difference) of subjects. In contrast to our expectation, kinship did not predict similarities in ‘coo’ call structure, whereas ‘coo’ structure was more similar when produced by females of similar age as well as by females with higher familiarity, suggesting that experience is more decisive than genetic background. The high number of individuals in the analysis and the high accuracy of the assignment of calls to individuals render a lack of power as an unlikely explanation. Thus, based on the results of this study, kin recognition in rhesus monkeys does neither appear to be based on the assessment of self-similarity, nor on the comparison among related subjects (i.e., acoustic phenotype matching), but appears to be mediated by different or multiple cues. Furthermore, the results support the notion that frequent social interactions result in increasing acoustic similarity within largely
One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.
Claims for reimbursement of child support, the reversal of property settlements and compensation can arise when misattributed paternity is discovered. The ethical justifications for such claims seem to be related to the financial cost of bringing up children, the absence of choice about taking on these expenses, the hard work involved in child rearing, the emotional attachments that are formed with children, the obligation of women to make truthful claims about paternity, and the deception involved in infidelity. In this paper it is argued that there should not be compensation for infidelity and that reimbursement is appropriate where the claimant has made child support payments but has not taken on the social role of father. Where the claimant's behaviour suggests a social view of fatherhood, on the other hand, claims for compensation are less coherent. Where the genetic model of fatherhood dominates, the "other" man (the woman's lover and progenitor of the children) might also have a claim for the loss of the benefits of fatherhood. It is concluded that claims for reimbursement and compensation in cases of misattributed paternity produce the same distorted and thin view of what it means to be a father that paternity testing assumes, and underscores a trend that is not in the interests of children.
Morelli, Toni Lyn; Hayes, R. Andrew; Nahrung, Helen F.; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Harelimana, Innocent H.; MacDonald, Laura J.; Wright, Patricia C.
Lemurs are the most olfactory-oriented of primates, yet there is still only a basic level of understanding of what their scent marks communicate. We analyzed scent secretions from Milne-Edwards' sifakas ( Propithecus edwardsi) collected in their natural habitat of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We sought to test whether the scent mark could signal genetic relatedness in addition to species, sex, season, and individuality. We not only found correlations ( r 2 = 0.38, P = 0.017) between the total olfactory fingerprint and genetic relatedness but also between relatedness and specific components of the odor, despite the complex environmental signals from differences in diet and behavior in a natural setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an association between genetic relatedness and chemical communication in a wild primate population. Furthermore, we found a variety of compounds that were specific to each sex and each sampling period. This research shows that scent marks could act as a remote signal to avoid inbreeding, optimize mating opportunities, and potentially aid kin selection.
Morelli, Toni Lyn; Hayes, R Andrew; Nahrung, Helen F; Goodwin, Thomas E; Harelimana, Innocent H; Macdonald, Laura J; Wright, Patricia C
Lemurs are the most olfactory-oriented of primates, yet there is still only a basic level of understanding of what their scent marks communicate. We analyzed scent secretions from Milne-Edwards' sifakas (Propithecus edwardsi) collected in their natural habitat of Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. We sought to test whether the scent mark could signal genetic relatedness in addition to species, sex, season, and individuality. We not only found correlations (r (2) = 0.38, P = 0.017) between the total olfactory fingerprint and genetic relatedness but also between relatedness and specific components of the odor, despite the complex environmental signals from differences in diet and behavior in a natural setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an association between genetic relatedness and chemical communication in a wild primate population. Furthermore, we found a variety of compounds that were specific to each sex and each sampling period. This research shows that scent marks could act as a remote signal to avoid inbreeding, optimize mating opportunities, and potentially aid kin selection.
Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.
The construct of (dis)connection with nature or “nature relatedness” has become increasingly useful in the study of environmental behavior as well as psychological health and well-being. Strong nature relatedness is associated with greater happiness and ecologically sustainable behavior. A number of scales reliably assess individual differences in nature relatedness, but some circumstances may necessitate a brief measure. We developed a short-form version of the nature relatedness scale (NR-6), comprised of 6 items from the “self” and “experience” dimensions, and tested the new scale's predictive ability across multiple samples and with longitudinal data in students, community members, and business people. The new NR-6 scale demonstrated good internal consistency, temporal stability, and predicted happiness, environmental concern, and nature contact. This new brief measure of connectedness may have advantages where time and space are limited and the research context requires an assessment of connectedness elements rather than environmental attitudes. PMID:24198806
Hur, Suzy S J; Cropley, Jennifer E; Suter, Catherine M
Parental health or exposures can affect the lifetime health outcomes of offspring, independently of inherited genotypes. Such 'epigenetic' effects occur over a broad range of environmental stressors, including defects in parental metabolism. Although maternal metabolic effects are well documented, it has only recently been established that that there is also an independent paternal contribution to long-term metabolic health. Both paternal undernutrition and overnutrition can induce metabolic phenotypes in immediate offspring, and in some cases, the induced phenotype can affect multiple generations, implying inheritance of an acquired trait. The male lineage transmission of metabolic disease risk in these cases implicates a heritable factor carried by sperm. Sperm-based transmission provides a tractable system to interrogate heritable epigenetic factors influencing metabolism, and as detailed here, animal models of paternal programming have already provided some significant insights. Here, we review the evidence for paternal programming of metabolism in humans and animal models, and the available evidence on potential underlying mechanisms. Programming by paternal metabolism can be observed in multiple species across animal phyla, suggesting that this phenomenon may have a unique evolutionary significance.
Ellis, Charlie D.; Hodgson, David J.; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K.; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G. F.
Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271
Pastizzo, Matthew John; Feldman, Laurie Beth
Words can be similar with respect to form (viz., spelling, pronunciation), meaning, or both form and meaning. In three lexical decision experiments (48 ms forward masked, 116 ms, and 250 ms SOAs), targets (e.g., FLOAT) followed prime words related by form only (e.g., COAT), meaning only (e.g., SWIM), or form and meaning (e.g., BOAT). BOAT–FLOAT and SWIM–FLOAT type pairs showed reduced target decision latencies relative to unrelated controls when primes were unmasked, but not when they were masked, and the magnitude of facilitation increased with increasing prime duration. By contrast, COAT–FLOAT type pairs produced significant inhibition at the shorter two prime durations. In all three experiments, including at the shortest SOA, (BOAT–FLOAT) pairs that shared form and meaning differed from COAT–FLOAT type pairs that shared only form. We discuss the similarity of the BOAT–FLOAT pattern to that of morphological facilitation and argue that if the same mechanism underlies both outcomes then activation of a shared morphemic representation need not underlie morphological facilitation. PMID:20523760
Neff, Bryan D
Evolutionary ecologists are attempting to explain how parents make behavioural decisions about how much care to provide to their young. Theory predicts that when genetic relatedness to young is decreased by cuckoldry, for example, parents should reduce their care in favour of alternative broods that provide greater reproductive success. Experimental manipulation of perceived paternity has been used to test the theory, but such studies have generated mixed results. Some manipulations can fail to alter a parent's perceived paternity, whereas others may directly affect parental behaviour when, for instance, the manipulation involves capturing the parent. No study has demonstrated parental care adjustment in a manner uncomplicated by experimental design or life history correlates. Here I test the theory using the fact that nest-tending parental male bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) can assess their paternity using both the visual presence of parasitic cuckolder males during spawning, and olfactory cues released by newly hatched eggs. By manipulating both types of cues I show that parental males dynamically adjust their parental care, favouring broods that are apparently most closely related. These results confirm the importance of genetic relatedness in parental care decision-making.
Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Johnson, Paul J; Burke, Terry
Reproductive skew is a measure of the proportion of individuals of each sex that breed in a group and is a valuable measure for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sociality. Here, we provide the first quantification of reproductive skew within social groups of European badgers Meles meles, throughout an 18-year study in a high-density population. We used 22 microsatellite loci to analyse within-group relatedness and demonstrated that badger groups contained relatives. The average within-group relatedness was high (R = 0.20) and approximately one-third of within-group dyads were more likely to represent first-order kin than unrelated pairs. Adult females within groups had higher pairwise relatedness than adult males, due to the high frequency of extra-group paternities, rather than permanent physical dispersal. Spatial clustering of relatives occurred among neighbouring groups, which we suggest was due to the majority of extra-group paternities being attributable to neighbouring males. Reproductive skew was found among within-group candidate fathers (B = 0.26) and candidate mothers (B = 0.07), but not among breeding individuals; our power to detect skew in the latter was low. We use these results to evaluate reproductive skew models. Although badger society best fits the assumptions of the incomplete-control models, our results were not consistent with their predictions. We suggest that this may be due to female control of paternity, female-female reproductive suppression occurring only in years with high food availability resulting in competition over access to breeding sites, extra-group paternity masking the benefits of natal philopatry, and/or the inconsistent occurrence of hierarchies that are linear when established.
Ziel, H.; McAuley, D.G.; Rhymer, J.M.
Based on behavioral observations, the mating system of American Woodcock has been variously described as monogamous, a dispersed lek, or resource defense polygyny. Males perform elaborate mating displays that attract females to their display sites where copulations occur. We used microsatellite markers, developed for Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax), to assess paternity in American Woodcock. In 3 yr, we collected blood samples from 21 females and broods and 90 males. We found no evidence of multiple paternity within broods; paternity in all broods could be explained by 1 father. For 8 broods, we were able to infer probable fathers from males we sampled in the field. All 8 broods were found close to the singing site of the male or males that matched as possible fathers. Two males may have fathered 2 broods each, suggesting that polygyny may be a component of the woodcock mating system.
Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M
Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR).
Gressier, Florence; Tabat-Bouher, Myriam; Cazas, Odile; Hardy, Patrick
Postpartum depression affects 1 in 10 fathers worldwide. Paternal PPD tends to develop gradually during the first year. Maternal depression is one of the most important risk factors for depression in fathers. Changes in hormones during the postpartum period in fathers are biological risk factors for PPD. Paternal PPD has negative impacts on family. Paternal PPD has negative effects on the infant's development, independently of maternal PPD. It is essential to identify paternal PPD at early stage.
Sherman, Craig D H; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats
In a recent paper, we demonstrated that male-female genetic relatedness determines male probability of paternity in experimental sperm competition in the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), with a more closely related male outcompeting his rival. Here, we test the hypothesis that a male-male difference in siring success with one female significantly predicts the corresponding difference in siring success with another female. With male sperm concentration held constant, and the proportion of viable sperm controlled statistically, the male-male difference in siring success with one female strongly predicted the corresponding difference in siring success with another female, and alone explained more than 62 per cent of the variance in male-male siring differences. This study demonstrates that male siring success is primarily dictated by among-male differences in innate siring success with less influence of male-female relatedness.
Genetic relatedness of gray-tailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This work is the first reported use of the RAPD method for pedigree analysis of M. canicaudus and demonstrates the feasibility of RAPD for assessing paternity...
Davies, N G; Gardner, A
W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect group. However, haplodiploidy might still explain the sex of workers if this mode of inheritance has itself been responsible for the rarity of paternal care in this group. Here, we perform a theoretical kin selection analysis to investigate the evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. We find that haplodiploidy may either inhibit or promote paternal care depending on model assumptions, but that under the most plausible scenarios it promotes - rather than inhibits - paternal care. Our analysis casts further doubt upon there being a causal link between haplodiploidy and eusociality.
Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai
The current study examined the development of two effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication errors: relatedness and distance. Typically achieving (TA) second, fourth, and sixth graders and adults, and sixth and eighth graders with a mathematics learning disability (MLD) performed a verification task. Relatedness was defined by a…
Stein, Laura R.; Bell, Alison M.
In a wide range of organisms, including humans, mothers can influence offspring via the care they provide. Comparatively little is known about the effects of fathering on offspring. Here, we test the hypothesis that fathers are capable of programming their offspring for the type of environment they are likely to encounter. Male threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, were either exposed to predation risk while fathering or not. Fathers altered their paternal behaviour when exposed to predation risk, and consequently produced adult offspring with phenotypes associated with strong predation pressure (smaller size, reduced body condition, reduced behavioural activity). Moreover, more attentive fathers produced offspring that showed stronger antipredator responses. These results are consistent with behaviourally mediated paternal programming: fathers can alter offspring phenotypes to match their future environment and influence offspring traits well into adulthood. PMID:27011391
Gilbert, Owen M; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C
A major challenge for social theory is to explain the importance of kin discrimination for the evolution of altruism. One way to assess the importance of kin discrimination is to test its effects on increasing relatedness within groups. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates to form a fruiting body composed of dead stalk and live spores. Previous studies of a natural population showed that where D. discoideum occurs in the soil, multiple clones are often found in the same small soil samples. However, actual fruiting bodies usually contain only one clone. We here performed experiments to gauge the effect of kin-discriminatory segregation on increasing relatedness. We mixed co-occurring clones from this population using a relatedness level found in small soil samples. We found a lower proportion of uniclonal fruiting bodies and a lower level of relatedness compared with natural fruiting bodies. We found that the amount of relatedness increase attributable to kin-discriminatory segregation was small. These findings suggest a relatively minor influence of kin-discriminatory segregation on relatedness in D. discoideum. We discuss our results comparing with the results of previous studies, including those of wild clones and laboratory mutants. We ask why wild clones of D. discoideum exhibit a low degree of kin-discriminatory segregation, and what alternative factors might account for high relatedness in D. discoideum.
Anderson, Kermyt G
The establishment of a legal father for children of unmarried parents reflects both high paternity confidence and male willingness to commit to paternal investment. Whether an unmarried man voluntarily acknowledges paternity after a child is born has important consequences for both the mother and child. This paper brings to bear a life history perspective on paternity establishment, noting that men face trade-offs between mating and parental effort and that women will adjust their investment in children based on expected male investment. I predict that paternity establishment will be more likely when the mother has high socioeconomic status, when maternal health is good, and when the child is male, low parity, or a singleton (versus multiple) birth. I further predict that establishment of paternity will be associated with increased maternal investment in offspring, resulting in healthier babies with higher birthweights who are more likely to be breastfed. These predictions are tested using data on 5.4 million births in the United States from 2009 through 2013. Overall the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the trade-offs men face between reproductive and parental investment influence whether men voluntarily acknowledge paternity when a child is born.
A contrast is often drawn between standard adult capacities for autonomy, which allow informed consent to be given or withheld, and patients' reduced capacities, which demand paternalistic treatment. But patients may not be radically different from the rest of us, in that all human capacities for autonomous action are limited. An adequate account of paternalism and the role that consent and respect for persons can play in medical and other practice has to be developed within an ethical theory that does not impose an idealised picture of unlimited autonomy but allows for the variable and partial character of actual human autonomy. PMID:6520849
Introduction The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a widespread invasive species native to southern South America that has become established in many regions of the world. Monk parakeets breed in a large, fully enclosed structure built from twigs, which consist of one to many individual brooding chambers. The species has been considered to be socially and genetically monogamous. However, genetic relatedness of adults to juveniles in the native area was found to be lower than expected for monogamy. To assess the significance of this discrepancy, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at two sites in Córdoba province, Argentina. Results We sampled 154 nestlings and 42 adults in Córdoba, Argentina. Mean value of pairwise relatedness of nestlings within chambers was about 0.40. Contrarily, relatedness of nestlings between chambers was close to zero. We found a considerable degree of variation in nestling pairwise relatedness and parentage within chambers, including chambers with combinations of unrelated, half-sib, and full-sib nestlings. The proportion of sibling relatedness indicated monogamy in 47% and extra pair-paternity in 40% of the chambers. We also found intra-brood parasitism in 3% of the chambers. Conclusions Our results indicate that the monk parakeet is sexually polygamous in its native range in Argentina, which is consistent with the observed mean value of relatedness of adults to juveniles of about 0.4. We also confirm the existence of intra-brood parasitism. High density of monk parakeets may favor occurrence of extra-pair paternity and intra-brood parasitism in the native sites. PMID:24209709
Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Larsen, Benjamin
Processing time and memory for sentences were examined as a function of the degree of semantic and causal relatedness between sentences in short narratives. In Experiments 1-2B, semantic and causal relatedness between sentence pairs was independently manipulated. Causal relatedness was assessed through pretesting and semantic relatedness was…
Huang, K; Guo, S T; Shattuck, M R; Chen, S T; Qi, X G; Zhang, P; Li, B G
Relatedness between individuals is central to ecological genetics. Multiple methods are available to quantify relatedness from molecular data, including method-of-moment and maximum-likelihood estimators. We describe a maximum-likelihood estimator for autopolyploids, and quantify its statistical performance under a range of biologically relevant conditions. The statistical performances of five additional polyploid estimators of relatedness were also quantified under identical conditions. When comparing truncated estimators, the maximum-likelihood estimator exhibited lower root mean square error under some conditions and was more biased for non-relatives, especially when the number of alleles per loci was low. However, even under these conditions, this bias was reduced to be statistically insignificant with more robust genetic sampling. We also considered ambiguity in polyploid heterozygote genotyping and developed a weighting methodology for candidate genotypes. The statistical performances of three polyploid estimators under both ideal and actual conditions (including inbreeding and double reduction) were compared. The software package POLYRELATEDNESS is available to perform this estimation and supports a maximum ploidy of eight. PMID:25370210
Haig, Susan M.; Mace, Terrence R.; Mullins, Thomas D.
In this article we present the first analysis of parentage and relatedness in a natural vertebrate population, using Intersimple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Thus, 28 ISSR markers were used in a study of a sex-role reversed, simultaneously polyandrous shorebird from northeastern Australia, the comb-crested jacana (Irediparra gallinacea). Assessment of parentage was based on comparison of field observations, novel bands, individual-specific bands found in 7/9 males and 4/6 females, and a 99% CI exclusion criteria. Integrating results from these approaches resulted in confirmation of paternity in all 36 chicks. In only one case (2.8% of chicks) was a co-mate assigned paternity. Thus, comb-crested jacanas appear to be genetically monogamous. These results showed resemblance to sequentially polyandrous birds but differed from the simultaneously polyandrous wattled jacana ( Jacana jacana; Emlen et al. 1998). A significant relationship between relatedness and ISSR similarity resulted in recognition that 14/15 adults sampled may be related to at least one other adult by 0.25 or more. Lack of dispersal may be explained by physical limitations and adequate regional habitat. ISSRs proved to be simple and helpful in resolving these issues.
Vallaster, Markus P; Kukreja, Shweta; Bing, Xin Y; Ngolab, Jennifer; Zhao-Shea, Rubing; Gardner, Paul D; Tapper, Andrew R; Rando, Oliver J
Paternal environmental conditions can influence phenotypes in future generations, but it is unclear whether offspring phenotypes represent specific responses to particular aspects of the paternal exposure history, or a generic response to paternal ‘quality of life’. Here, we establish a paternal effect model based on nicotine exposure in mice, enabling pharmacological interrogation of the specificity of the offspring response. Paternal exposure to nicotine prior to reproduction induced a broad protective response to multiple xenobiotics in male offspring. This effect manifested as increased survival following injection of toxic levels of either nicotine or cocaine, accompanied by hepatic upregulation of xenobiotic processing genes, and enhanced drug clearance. Surprisingly, this protective effect could also be induced by a nicotinic receptor antagonist, suggesting that xenobiotic exposure, rather than nicotinic receptor signaling, is responsible for programming offspring drug resistance. Thus, paternal drug exposure induces a protective phenotype in offspring by enhancing metabolic tolerance to xenobiotics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24771.001 PMID:28196335
Bonsall, M B; Klug, H
Parental care is expected to increase the likelihood of offspring survival at the cost of investment in future reproductive success. However, alternative parental behaviours, such as filial cannibalism, can decrease current reproductive success and consequently individual fitness. We evaluate the role of among-offspring relatedness on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Building on our previous work, we show how the evolution of care is influenced by the effect of among-offspring relatedness on both the strength of competition and filial cannibalism. When there is a positive relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness, parental care will be favoured when among-offspring relatedness is relatively low, and the maintenance of both care and no-care strategies is expected. If the relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness is negative, parental care is most strongly favoured when broods contain highly related offspring. Further, we highlight the range of conditions over which the level of this among-offspring relatedness can affect the co-occurrence of different care/no care and cannibalism/no cannibalism strategies. Coexistence of multiple strategies is independent of the effects of among-offspring relatedness on cannibalism but more likely when among-offspring relatedness and competition are positively associated.
Many liberal theories are committed to the promotion of population health, and the principle of non-interference in individual life plans. Public health interventions often bring out a tension between these two values. In this paper, I examine this tension by assessing the justifiability of liberty-restricting policies in the field of obesity prevention. As I want to show, a 'soft' form of paternalism, which interferes with people's choices to safeguard their true interests, goes some way in justifying such policies, but it leaves unaddressed the problem of limiting the liberty of those whose true interest is in pursuing an unhealthy lifestyle. I argue that in this latter case, the key to reconcile the promotion of population health with the respect for individual liberty is distributive justice: when we cannot help those who care about their health without doing the same for those who do not, fairness will often require us to do so.
Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Mellado, Cecilia
Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profile of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.
Post mortem paternity, namely the procreation after the death of the man whom is part of the couple, is one of the questions which raised the most hesitations since the first bioethics laws of 1994. The National Assembly, encouraged by several opinions of the CCNE (National advisory committee of ethics) had let itself convince that the transfer had, at least, to be authorized in utero embryos preserved at the regard of which no one could not claim to have rights equal or higher than those of the woman concerned. However, the Senate always ended up obtaining the maintenance of an absolute prohibition of posthumous procreation (starting) from the spermatozoids or frozen embryos. This indifference with the cruelty of the application of the law to the women plunged into mourning--based on a paradoxical appreciation of the interest of the child not to be born orphan, and on a not very glorious taking into account of the interest of the Body of notaries not to change its practices--is particularly debatable. One can, nevertheless, try to understand it according to the obsession of the legalization of surrogate motherhood by application of the principle of nondiscrimination which could justify the requests of the men who, thanks to a surrogate mother, would wish to become fathers starting from gametes or embryos taken or created before the death of their wife or partner.
Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…
Calamaras, Martha R; Reviere, Susan L; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Kaslow, Nadine J
This study sought to determine (a) if the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale of Self and Object Representations (D-RS), a coding model used with the Object Relations Inventory (Blatt, Wein, Chevron, & Quinlan, 1979 ) could be reliably applied to transcripts of psychoanalyses, and (b) if levels of differentiation-relatedness improve over the course of psychoanalysis. Participants were 4 creative writers who underwent psychoanalysis as part of a longitudinal research project focused on the processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis. Transcripts from the beginning and termination phases of psychoanalysis were coded by 2 independent raters for global, low, and high levels of self and other differentiation-relatedness and compared. There was good interrater agreement, suggesting that, like other forms of narrative material, psychoanalysis transcripts can be reliably rated for levels of object relations. Analysands showed an increase in global levels of differentiation-relatedness from a predominance of emergent ambivalent constancy (M = 6.2) at the beginning of analysis to consolidated, constant representations of self and other (M = 7.5) at the end of analysis. These preliminary findings contribute significantly to the empirical literature with regard to the measurement of self and object representations and change in these representations over the course of psychoanalysis.
Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdú, Miguel
Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible
Walters, Anne S.; And Others
This literature review focuses on recent studies devoted to hypothesized aspects of social relatedness in autism, discussing attachment and social interest, recognition of and communication of emotions, social cognition, social communication, symbolic play, neuroanatomy of social relatedness, and neurochemistry of social relatedness. (JDD)
Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A
A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males – ’mother's curse’. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. ’reverse dominance’) are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why ’mother's curse’ is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025
Lenhartová, E; Lenhart, K; Bártová, A
The study discusses the basic quantitative indices used as a standard method in foreign professional literature dealing with paternity cases. They are as follows: 1. mean probability of exclusion (PE) which characterizes the informative value of the experts opinions and is the same in all the disputes evaluated by this expert. 2. relative frequency of men chosen at random from the population and excluded at given phenotype of mother and child (RME). 3. probability of paternity (PP) for particular trio: mother-child-the accused man. Hereinafter the results of our studies in the HLA laboratory in Olomouc from 1976-1991 are introduced.
Pamjav, Horolma; Zalán, Andrea; Béres, Judit; Nagy, Melinda; Chang, Yuet Meng
According to written sources, Roma (Romanies, Gypsies) arrived in the Balkans around 1,000 years ago from India and have subsequently spread through several parts of Europe. Genetic data, particularly from the Y chromosome, have supported this model, and can potentially refine it. We now provide an analysis of Y-chromosomal markers from five Roma and two non-Roma populations (N = 787) in order to investigate the genetic relatedness of the Roma population groups to one another, and to gain further understanding of their likely Indian origins, the genetic contribution of non-Roma males to the Roma populations, and the early history of their splits and migrations in Europe. The two main sources of the Roma paternal gene pool were identified as South Asian and European. The reduced diversity and expansion of H1a-M82 lineages in all Roma groups imply shared descent from a single paternal ancestor in the Indian subcontinent. The Roma paternal gene pool also contains a specific subset of E1b1b1a-M78 and J2a2-M67 lineages, implying admixture during early settlement in the Balkans and the subsequent influx into the Carpathian Basin. Additional admixture, evident in the low and moderate frequencies of typical European haplogroups I1-M253, I2a-P37.2, I2b-M223, R1b1-P25, and R1a1-M198, has occurred in a more population-specific manner.
Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja
In multi-male groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father’s presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future mating success with the infant’s mother. Hence, infant care might provide fitness gain for males. Here we investigate male-infant associations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a primate with low paternity certainty as females mate with multiple partners and males ensure paternity less efficiently through mate-guarding. We combined behavioral data with genetic paternity analyses of one cohort of the semifree-ranging population of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) and recorded affiliative and aggressive interactions between focal subjects and adult males from birth to sexual maturation (0–4 years) of focal subjects. Our results revealed, that 9.6% of all interactions of focal subjects involved an adult male and 94% of all male-infant interactions were affiliative, indicating the rareness of male-infant aggression. Second and most interestingly, sires were more likely to affiliate with their offspring than non-sires with unrelated infants. This preference was independent of mother’s proximity and emphasized during early infancy. Male-infant affiliation rose with infant age and was pronounced between adult males and male rather than female focal subjects. Overall our results suggest that male-infant affiliation are also an important component in structuring primate societies and affiliation directed towards own offspring presumably represent low cost paternal care. PMID:23682587
Acuff, Nancy Hamblen
The immediate effectiveness of paternal instruction in a selected cognitive task was investigated. The sub-problems were (1) to compare paternal and maternal instruction, and (2) to analyze paternal instructional effectiveness with the son or the daughter. The cognitive task selected was the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test. Subjects were 42…
Hepler, Amanda B.; Weir, Bruce S.
This study extends the current use of Bayesian networks by incorporating the effects of allelic dependencies in paternity calculations. The use of object-oriented networks greatly simplify the process of building and interpreting forensic identification models, allowing researchers to solve new, more complex problems. We explore two paternity examples: the most common scenario where DNA evidence is available from the alleged father, the mother and the child; a more complex casewhere DNA is not available from the alleged father, but is available from the alleged father’s brother. Object-oriented networks are built, using HUGIN, for each example which incorporate the effects of allelic dependence caused by evolutionary relatedness. PMID:19079769
Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei
Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule.
Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A
Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence.
Nidiffer, Marcella D; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana
The degree of genetic relatedness among group members is influenced by dispersal, group formation and composition, mating systems, and other socioecological factors. Making inferences about differences between species in their socio-genetic structure is difficult because studies rarely compare multiple species. In this study, we use multilocus microsatellite genotype data to analyze intragroup genetic relatedness in two howler monkey species (Alouatta palliata and A. pigra). We test the prediction that their patterns of intragroup genetic relatedness will be distinct based on expectations derived from their distinct social systems. Alouatta palliata is expected to have low levels of intragroup relatedness, given that both males and females are reported to disperse from their natal groups, and to join groups with no close kin. Levels of relatedness among A. pigra group members are expected to be variable according to the history of group formation, with new groups formed by unrelated individuals and well-established groups having close kin due to female nepotism and sometimes by takeovers by coalitions of related males. Our results indicate that in both species, most groups contain closely related same-sex and/or inter-sex dyads. This suggests that philopatry in A. palliata may be more common than reported or that individuals are using alternative strategies to reside with close kin. We found greater variation among groups in female-female relatedness in A. palliata than in A. pigra, implying that these species have distinct socio-genetic structures. Further studies including both long-term observational and genetic data are necessary to understand the mechanisms that determine the degree of variation in intragroup genetic relatedness within and among populations for both species. Ecological and demographic data are also necessary to determine the importance of other factors, especially habitat loss and fragmentation, in determining the degree of relatedness in
Nidiffer, Marcella D.; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana
The degree of genetic relatedness among group members is influenced by dispersal, group formation and composition, mating systems, and other socioecological factors. Making inferences about differences between species in their socio-genetic structure is difficult because studies rarely compare multiple species. In this study, we use multilocus microsatellite genotype data to analyze intragroup genetic relatedness in two howler monkey species (Alouatta palliata and A. pigra). We test the prediction that their patterns of intragroup genetic relatedness will be distinct based on expectations derived from their distinct social systems. Alouatta palliata is expected to have low levels of intragroup relatedness, given that both males and females are reported to disperse from their natal groups, and to join groups with no close kin. Levels of relatedness among A. pigra group members are expected to be variable according to the history of group formation, with new groups formed by unrelated individuals and well-established groups having close kin due to female nepotism and sometimes by takeovers by coalitions of related males. Our results indicate that in both species, most groups contain closely related same-sex and/or inter-sex dyads. This suggests that philopatry in A. palliata may be more common than reported or that individuals are using alternative strategies to reside with close kin. We found greater variation among groups in female-female relatedness in A. palliata than in A. pigra, implying that these species have distinct socio-genetic structures. Further studies including both long-term observational and genetic data are necessary to understand the mechanisms that determine the degree of variation in intragroup genetic relatedness within and among populations for both species. Ecological and demographic data are also necessary to determine the importance of other factors, especially habitat loss and fragmentation, in determining the degree of relatedness in
Lee, H S; Lee, J W; Han, G R; Hwang, J J
In paternity test using the DNA evidence, the analysis of the deficient case that the DNA profiles of mother or alleged father are not available is different from that of the trio case analyzed routinely. However, the motherless case that the genotypes of mother is not available has been requested and analyzed like the trio case. In this paper, we compared the motherless case and the trio case through the mean exclusion chance describing the probability of exclusion for a genetic marker system and the distribution of the probability of paternity calculated using the three current methods. We have also shown a case which can be falsely discriminated if it were requested in the analysis of the motherless case, and conclude that the analysis of the motherless case should be carefully conducted and the level for the discrimination should be different from that of the trio case.
Olshan, A.F.; Breslow, N.E.; Daling, J.R.; Falletta, J.M.; Grufferman, S.; Robison, L.L.; Waskerwitz, M.; Hammond, G.D. )
A case-control study was conducted to examine the relationship between Wilms' tumor and paternal occupational exposures. The case group consisted of 200 children diagnosed as having Wilms' tumor who were registered at selected National Wilms' Tumor Study institutions during the period June 1, 1984, to May 31, 1986. Disease-free controls were matched to each case using a random digit dialing procedure. The parents of cases and controls completed a self-administered questionnaire. There was no consistent pattern of increased risk for paternal occupational exposure to hydrocarbons or lead found in this study. However, certain paternal occupations were found to have an elevated odds ratio (OR) of Wilms' tumor, including vehicle mechanics, auto body repairmen, and welders. Offspring of fathers who were auto mechanics had a 4- to 7-fold increased risk of Wilms' tumor for all 3 time periods. The largest increased odds ratio for auto mechanics was in the preconception period (OR = 7.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.90-63.9). Welders had a 4- to 8-fold increased odds ratio, with the strongest association during pregnancy (OR = 8.22; CI = 0.95-71.3). Although chance cannot be excluded as a possible explanation, association of Wilms' tumor with these occupations has been reported in previous studies. Further study is needed to provide data on the specific occupational exposures involved.
Ewen, K R; Temple-Smith, P D; Bowden, D K; Marinopoulos, J; Renfree, M B; Yan, H
The tammar wallaby has a polygynous mating system in which the dominant male usually controls initial access to oestrous females by mating first and then guarding the female from the advances of other subordinate males. In this study we used DNA fingerprinting with a human 3' hypervariable region (HVR) alpha globin probe to examine the paternity of pouch young progeny from 13 female tammars that were given continual access during the breeding season to a group of four sexually mature males. Constant individual-specific DNA profiles were observed for each animal. Paternity for 22 pouch young was successfully assigned using visual and computer-based analyses. However, no statistical difference was observed between the number of young sired by any of the four males (chi 2 = 2, d.f. = 3, P > 0.1). Mate guarding by the dominant male in our captive breeding group was not, therefore, sufficient to prevent successful subsequent matings by subordinates nor to enhance the genetic contribution of this male to the next generation. In each analysis, visual and computer assignments of paternity coincided, and these concurred with the results of a relatedness test which found that a large number of DNA bands were shared by sires and their progeny. The results from this paternity study show that first mating and subsequent mate guarding by the dominant male tammar wallaby in our captive group do not significantly skew the outcome of paternity towards this male and away from other males that subsequently mate with each female.
Tan, Cedric Kai Wei; Doyle, Philippa; Bagshaw, Emma; Richardson, David S.; Wigby, Stuart; Pizzari, Tommaso
In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within‐group male relatedness across pre‐ and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated to all the males. We confirm theoretical expectations that, after controlling for male social status, competition over mating was reduced among related males. However, this effect was contrasted by other sexual selection mechanisms. First, females biased male mating in favor of the unrelated male, and might also favor his inseminations after mating. Second, males invested more—rather than fewer—sperm in postcopulatory competition with relatives. A number of factors may contribute to explain this counterintuitive pattern of sperm allocation, including trade‐offs between male investment in pre‐ versus postcopulatory competition, differences in the relative relatedness of pre‐ versus postcopulatory competitors, and female bias in sperm utilization in response to male relatedness. Collectively, these results reveal that within‐group male relatedness may have contrasting effects in different mechanisms of sexual selection. PMID:27925168
Ross, C N; French, J A; Ortí, G
The formation of viable genetic chimeras in mammals through the transfer of cells between siblings in utero is rare. Using microsatellite DNA markers, we show here that chimerism in marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii) twins is not limited to blood-derived hematopoietic tissues as was previously described. All somatic tissue types sampled were found to be chimeric. Notably, chimerism was demonstrated to be present in germ-line tissues, an event never before documented as naturally occurring in a primate. In fact, we found that chimeric marmosets often transmit sibling alleles acquired in utero to their own offspring. Thus, an individual that contributes gametes to an offspring is not necessarily the genetic parent of that offspring. The presence of somatic and germ-line chimerism may have influenced the evolution of the extensive paternal and alloparental care system of this taxon. Although the exact mechanisms of sociobiological change associated with chimerism have not been fully explored, we show here that chimerism alters relatedness between twins and may alter the perceived relatedness between family members, thus influencing the allocation of parental care. Consistent with this prediction, we found a significant correlation between paternal care effort and the presence of epithelial chimerism, with males carrying chimeric infants more often than nonchimeric infants. Therefore, we propose that the presence of placental chorionic fusion and the exchange of cell lines between embryos may represent a unique adaptation affecting the evolution of cooperative care in this group of primates.
Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert
We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21/46,XX, and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient.
The estimation of relatedness structure in natural populations using molecular marker data has become an important tool in population biology, resulting in a variety of estimation procedures for specific sampling scenarios. In this article a general approach is proposed, in which the detailed relationship structure, typically a pedigree graph or partition, is considered to be the object of inference. This makes available tools used in complex model selection theory which have demonstrated effectiveness. An important advantage of this approach is that it permits a fully Bayesian approach to the problem, providing a principled and accessible way to measure statistical error. The approach is demonstrated by applying the minimum description length principle. This technique is used in model selection to provide a rational way of comparing models of varying complexity. We show how the resulting score may be interpreted and applied as a Bayesian posterior density. PMID:17169391
Nora, Sofia; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albaladejo, Rafael G.
Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity) has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth. PMID:27835658
Hui, Christy L M; Chiu, Cindy P Y; Li, Yuet-Keung; Law, Chi-Wing; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K W; Lee, Edwin H M; Sham, Pak; Chen, Eric Y H
Objective: Multiple etiological and prognostic factors have been implied in schizophrenia and its outcome. Advanced paternal age has been reported as a risk factor in schizophrenia. Whether this may affect schizophrenia outcome was not previously studied. We hypothesized that advanced paternal age may have a negative effect on the outcome of relapse in schizophrenia. Method: We interviewed 191 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their relatives for parental ages, sociodemographic factors at birth, birth rank, family history of psychotic disorders, and obstetric complications. The outcome measure was the presence of relapse at the end of the first year of treatment. Results: In the 1-year follow-up period, 42 (22%) patients experienced 1 or more relapses. The mean paternal age was 34.62 years (SD 7.69). Patients who relapsed had significantly higher paternal age, poorer medication adherence, were female, and were hospitalized at onset, compared with patients who did not relapse. A multivariate regression analysis showed that advanced paternal age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10), medication nonadherence (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.99), and female sex (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.14 to 5.24) independently contributed to a higher risk of relapse. Analysis between different paternal age groups found a significantly higher relapse rate with paternal age over 40. Conclusions: Advanced paternal age is found to be modestly but significantly related to more relapses, and such an effect is the strongest at a cut-off of paternal age of 40 years or older. The effect is less likely to be mediated through less effective parental supervision or nonadherence to medication. Other possible biological mechanisms need further explorations. PMID:26454556
Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M
Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic differences. To test this possibility we measured IQ, adaptive behavior, and autistic symptoms in 830 probands from simplex families. We conducted multiple linear regression analysis to estimate the predictive value of paternal age, maternal age, and gender on behavioral measures and IQ. We found a differential effect of parental age and sex on repetitive and restricted behaviors. Findings suggest effects of paternal age on phenotypic differences in simplex families with ASD.
Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C
Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated with paternal care. These associations have primarily been demonstrated in species where investment in paternal care begins well after mating activity is complete, when offspring are hatched or born. Different patterns may emerge in studies of species where investment in mating and paternal care overlap temporally, for instance in non-seasonal breeders in which males mate with multiple females sequentially and may simultaneously have multiple offspring of different ages. In a 9-year data set on levels of T in male baboons, fecal concentrations of T (fT) were positively associated with both mate guarding ("consortship") - a measure of current reproductive activity - and with the number of immature offspring a male had in his social group - a measure of past reproductive activity and an indicator of likely paternal behavior. To further examine the relationship between T and potential paternal behavior, we next drew on an intensive 8-month study of male behavior, and found that fathers were more likely to be in close proximity to their offspring than expected by chance. Because male baboons are known to provide paternal care, and because time in proximity to offspring would facilitate such care, this suggests that T concentrations in wild male baboons may be associated with both current reproductive activity and with current paternal behavior. These results are consistent with the predicted positive association between T and mating effort but not with a negative association between T and paternal care; in male baboons, high levels of T occur in males that are differentially associating with their offspring.
Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad
Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.
Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong
Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…
Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad
Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.
Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G
Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the "moderate" range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development.
Foerster, K; Valcu, M; Johnsen, A; Kempenaers, B
Inbreeding depression, as commonly found in natural populations, should favour the evolution of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. If natal dispersal, the first and probably most effective mechanism, does not lead to a complete separation of males and females from a common origin, a small-scale genetic population structure may result and other mechanisms to avoid inbreeding may exist. We studied the genetic population structure and individual mating patterns in blue tits (Parus caeruleus). The population showed a local genetic structure in two out of four years: genetic relatedness between individuals (estimated from microsatellite markers) decreased with distance. This pattern was mainly caused by immigrants to the study area; these, if paired with fellow immigrants, were more related than expected by chance. Since blue tits did not avoid inbreeding with their social partner, we examined if individuals preferred less related partners at later stages of the mate choice process. We found no evidence that females or males avoided inbreeding through extra-pair copulations or through mate desertion and postbreeding dispersal. Although the small-scale genetic population structure suggests that blue tits could use a simple rule of thumb to select less related mates, females did not generally prefer more distantly breeding extra-pair partners. However, the proportion of young fathered by an extra-pair male in mixed paternity broods depended on the genetic relatedness with the female. This suggests that there is a fertilization bias towards less related copulation partners and that blue tits are able to reduce the costs of inbreeding through a postcopulatory process.
Shiotsuki, L; Cardoso, F F; Silva, J A V; Albuquerque, L G
The aim of the present study was to compare a model assuming unknown paternity and a model using genetic grouping to indicate the most adequate statistical procedure for the estimation of breeding values for animals with uncertain paternity. After data consistency, 62,212 Nellore animals, offspring of 581 bulls and 27,743 cows, were used in the analyses. The pedigree file contained 75,088 animals, including 22,810 (30.18%) offspring of multiple sires and 12,876 animals belonging to the base population with unknown parents. Three different approaches were adopted to deal with uncertain paternity of multiple-sire (MS) offspring. In the model of unknown paternity, the MS groups were ignored, and the sires of MS offspring were considered to be unknown and to belong to a single base population. In the genetic group approach, 2 definitions were used. In the first definition (GGa), "phantom parents" for animals with uncertain paternity were attributed, defining the genetic group as the MS group. In the other approach, GGb, phantom parents for animals with uncertain paternity were also attributed; however, MS offspring were clustered in genetic groups according to their year of birth, every 3 yr, on the basis of the average of male generation interval. Univariate analyses were performed under the Bayesian approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Models were compared by deviance information criteria and the conditional predictive ordinate. According to the choice criteria results, the genetic group model defined by the generation interval of males was more appropriate for predicting the genetic merit of animals with uncertain paternity. Therefore, the use of this model is recommended for the prediction of genetic merit and classification of offspring of multiple sires.
Gleason, Erin D; Marler, Catherine A
In the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care is critical for maximal offspring survival. Animals form pair bonds and do not engage in extrapair matings, and thus female evaluation of paternal quality during courtship is likely to be advantageous. We hypothesized that male endocrine or behavioral response to courtship interactions would be predictive of future paternal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we formed 20 pairs of California mice, and evaluated their behavior during the first hour of courtship interactions and again following the birth of young. We also collected blood from males at baseline, 1 hr after pairing, 3 weeks paired, and when young were 4 days old to measure testosterone (T). We found that male T-response to courtship interactions predicted future paternal behavior, specifically the amount of time he huddled over young when challenged by the temporary removal of his mate. Males that mounted T increases at courtship also approached pups more quickly during this challenge than males who had a significant decrease in T at courtship. Proximity of the male and female during courtship predicted paternal huddling during a 1-hr observation, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that courtship behavior was also predictive of birth latency. We speculate that male T-response to a female in P. californicus is an honest indicator of paternal quality, and if detectable by females could provide a basis for evaluation during mate choice.
Svensson, Anna C.; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia
Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI −3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30–34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers. PMID:21957460
Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B
The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P < 0.05), indicating that variation in pride-level social structure may explain intergroup variation in EGP. Prides with a lower male-to-female ratio were significantly more likely to experience EGP in this population. The results of this study challenge the current models of African lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals.
Huang, Kang; Ritland, Kermit; Dunn, Derek W; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Li, Baoguo
Studies of genetics and ecology often require estimates of relatedness coefficients based on genetic marker data. However, with the presence of null alleles, an observed genotype can represent one of several possible true genotypes. This results in biased estimates of relatedness. As the numbers of marker loci are often limited, loci with null alleles cannot be abandoned without substantial loss of statistical power. Here, we show how loci with null alleles can be incorporated into six estimators of relatedness (two novel). We evaluate the performance of various estimators before and after correction for null alleles. If the frequency of a null allele is <0.1, some estimators can be used directly without adjustment; if it is >0.5, the potency of estimation is too low and such a locus should be excluded. We make available a software package entitled PolyRelatedness v1.6, which enables researchers to optimize these estimators to best fit a particular data set.
Liker, A; Bókony, V; Kulcsár, A; Tóth, Z; Szabó, K; Kaholek, B; Pénzes, Z
Social behaviour of group-living animals is often influenced by the relatedness of individuals, thus understanding the genetic structure of groups is important for the interpretation of costs and benefits of social interactions. In this study, we investigated genetic relatedness in feeding aggregations of free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus) during the nonbreeding season. This species is a frequent model system for studies of social behaviour (e.g. aggression, social foraging), but we lack adequate information on the kin structure of sparrow flocks. During two winters, we ringed and observed sparrows at feeding stations, and used resightings to identify stable flock-members and to calculate association indices between birds. We genotyped the birds using seven highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, and estimated pairwise relatedness coefficients and relatedness categories (close kin vs. unrelated) by maximum likelihood method. We found that most birds were unrelated to each other in the flocks (mean +/- SE relatedness coefficient: 0.06 +/- 0.002), although most individuals had at least a few close relatives in their home flock (14.3 +/- 0.6% of flock-mates). Pairwise association between individuals was not significantly related to their genetic relatedness. Furthermore, there was no difference between within-flock vs. between-flock relatedness, and birds had similar proportions of close kin within and outside their home flock. Finally, relatedness among members of different flocks was unrelated to the distance between their flocks. Thus, sparrow flocks were not characterized by association of relatives, nevertheless the presence of some close kin may provide opportunity for kin-biased behaviours to evolve.
Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.
Biondo, Cibele; Izar, Patrícia; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Bussab, Vera S R
Relatedness is considered an important factor in shaping social structure as the association among kin might facilitate cooperation via inclusive fitness benefits. We addressed here the influence of relatedness on the social structure of a Neotropical ungulate, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). As peccaries are highly social and cooperative, live in stable cohesive herds and show certain degree of female philopatry and high mean relatedness within herds, we hypothesized that kin would be spatially closer and display more amicable and less agonistic interactions than non-kin. We recorded spatial association patterns and rates of interactions of two captive groups. Pairwise relatedness was calculated based on microsatellite data. As predicted, we found that kin were spatially closer than non-kin, which suggests that relatedness is a good predictor of spatial association in peccaries. However, relatedness did not predict the rates of social interactions. Although our results indirectly indicate some role of sex, age and familiarity, further studies are needed to clarify the factors that shape the rates of interactions in collared peccaries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.
The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. PMID:26644589
The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective.
Demary, Kristian C; Lewis, Sara M
Although female mate choice and male sperm competition have separately attracted much attention, few studies have addressed how precopulatory and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection might interact to drive the evolution of male traits. In Photinus fireflies, females preferentially respond to males based on their bioluminescent courtship signals, and females gain direct benefits through male nuptial gifts acquired during multiple matings over several nights. We experimentally manipulated matings of P. greeni fireflies to test the hypothesis that postcopulatory paternity success might be biased toward males that are more attractive during courtship interactions. We first measured male courtship attractiveness to individual females using field behavioral assays. Females were then assigned to two double-mating treatments: (1) least attractive second male-females were first mated with their most attractive male, followed by their least attractive male, or (2) most attractive second male-females mated with males in reverse order. Larval offspring produced by each female following these double matings were genotyped using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, and male paternity was determined. Contrary to prediction, firefly males that were more attractive to females based on their bioluminescent courtship displays subsequently showed significantly lower paternity, reflecting possible male trade-offs or sexual conflict. Differences in male paternity were not related to male body condition, testes or accessory gland mass, or to variation in female spermathecal size. Additionally, this study suggests that changes in phenotypic selection gradients may occur during different reproductive stages. These results indicate that it is crucial for future studies on sexual selection in polyandrous species to integrate both precopulatory and postcopulatory episodes to fully understand the evolution of male traits.
Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances; McFarland, Christy; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Marsh, Penny
The relation of attachment security to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a community sample of 167 early adolescents. Security of attachment organization, assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, was linked to success in establishing autonomy while maintaining a sense of relatedness both with fathers and with…
Sauther, Michelle L.; Cuozzo, Frank P.; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho; Lawler, Richard R.; Sussman, Robert W.; Gould, Lisa; Pastorini, Jennifer
1 In group‐living species with male dominance hierarchies where receptive periods of females do not overlap, high male reproductive skew would be predicted. However, the existence of female multiple mating and alternative male mating strategies can call into question single‐male monopolization of paternity in groups. Ring‐tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are seasonally breeding primates that live in multi‐male, multi‐female groups. Although established groups show male dominance hierarchies, male dominance relationships can break down during mating periods. In addition, females are the dominant sex and mate with multiple males during estrus, including group residents, and extra‐group males—posing the question of whether there is high or low male paternity skew in groups. In this study, we analyzed paternity in a population of wild L. catta from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Paternity was determined with 80–95% confidence for 39 offspring born to nine different groups. We calculated male reproductive skew indices for six groups, and our results showed a range of values corresponding to both high and low reproductive skew. Between 21% and 33% of offspring (3 of 14 or three of nine, counting paternity assignments at the 80% or 95% confidence levels, respectively) were sired by extra‐troop males. Males siring offspring within the same group during the same year appear to be unrelated. Our study provides evidence of varying male reproductive skew in different L. catta groups. A single male may monopolize paternity across one or more years, while in other groups, >1 male can sire offspring within the same group, even within a single year. Extra‐group mating is a viable strategy that can result in extra‐group paternity for L. catta males. PMID:27391113
Varricchio, David J; Moore, Jason R; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A; Jackson, Frankie D; Borkowski, John J
The repeated discovery of adult dinosaurs in close association with egg clutches leads to speculation over the type and extent of care exhibited by these extinct animals for their eggs and young. To assess parental care in Cretaceous troodontid and oviraptorid dinosaurs, we examined clutch volume and the bone histology of brooding adults. In comparison to four archosaur care regressions, the relatively large clutch volumes of Troodon, Oviraptor, and Citipati scale most closely with a bird-paternal care model. Clutch-associated adults lack the maternal and reproductively associated histologic features common to extant archosaurs. Large clutch volumes and a suite of reproductive features shared only with birds favor paternal care, possibly within a polygamous mating system. Paternal care in both troodontids and oviraptorids indicates that this care system evolved before the emergence of birds and represents birds' ancestral condition. In extant birds and over most adult sizes, paternal and biparental care correspond to the largest and smallest relative clutch volumes, respectively.
Künzler, R; Bakker, T C
Sexual selection through female mate choice exerts a strong selection pressure on males' sexual traits, particularly when direct benefits are involved. In species with male parental care, one would expect sexual selection to favour paternal quality, for instance through selection on morphological structures which promote quality. We experimentally studied the influence of pectoral fins on paternal quality in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). After reductions of fin area to different degrees, similar-sized males had to perform a complete reproductive cycle in enclosures in the field. The collected data on fanning behaviour and egg development showed that a reduction in pectoral fin size affected paternal quality probably through an increased beat frequency of the pectorals. Thus, pectoral fins can potentially signal paternal quality to choosy females. PMID:10874749
Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred
The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369
Kohda, Masanori; Heg, Dik; Makino, Yoshimi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Shibata, Jun-ya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Munehara, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio; Awata, Satoshi
Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shaped sites allowed females to manipulate the siring success of the group member males by spawning the clutch at the spot where the large males were just able to enter and fertilize the outer part of the clutch. Small males fertilized the inner part of the clutch, protected from the large aggressive males, leading to low male reproductive skew. Small males provided more brood care than large males. Multiple paternity induced both males to provide brood care and reduced female brood care accordingly. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case in a species with external fertilization showing female mating behaviour leading to multiple male paternity and increased male brood care as a result.
Kohda, Masanori; Heg, Dik; Makino, Yoshimi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Shibata, Jun-ya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Munehara, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio; Awata, Satoshi
Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shaped sites allowed females to manipulate the siring success of the group member males by spawning the clutch at the spot where the large males were just able to enter and fertilize the outer part of the clutch. Small males fertilized the inner part of the clutch, protected from the large aggressive males, leading to low male reproductive skew. Small males provided more brood care than large males. Multiple paternity induced both males to provide brood care and reduced female brood care accordingly. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case in a species with external fertilization showing female mating behaviour leading to multiple male paternity and increased male brood care as a result. PMID:19726479
Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B.; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G.
Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the “moderate” range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development. PMID:21044697
Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M. Buck
Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. Objective: We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Methods: Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Results: Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84–195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98–170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Conclusions: Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. Citation: Robledo CA, Yeung E
Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…
McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.; Smylie, Janet K.; Prince, Conrad
Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy–relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:23946698
Sagot, Maria; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D
Although coloniality is widespread among mammals, it is still not clear what factors influence composition of social groups. As animals need to adapt to multiple habitat and environmental conditions throughout their range, variation in group composition should be influenced by adaptive adjustment to different ecological factors. Relevant to anthropogenic disturbance, increased habitat modification by humans can alter species' presence, density, and population structure. Therefore, it is important to understand the consequences of changes to landscape composition, in particular how habitat modification affects social structure of group-forming organisms. Here, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different habitat characteristics at different scales affect structure of social groups. By dividing analyses by age and sex, we determined that genetic structure was greater for adult females than adult males or offspring. Habitat variables explained 80% of the variation in group relatedness (mainly influenced by female relatedness) with roost characteristics contributing the most explained variation. This suggests that females using roosts of specific characteristics exhibit higher relatedness and seem to be philopatric. These females mate with more males than do more labile female groups. Results describe ecological and microevolutionary processes, which affect relatedness and social structure; findings are highly relevant to species distributions in both natural and human-modified environments.
Conomos, Matthew P.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Weir, Bruce S.; Thornton, Timothy A.
Genealogical inference from genetic data is essential for a variety of applications in human genetics. In genome-wide and sequencing association studies, for example, accurate inference on both recent genetic relatedness, such as family structure, and more distant genetic relatedness, such as population structure, is necessary for protection against spurious associations. Distinguishing familial relatedness from population structure with genotype data, however, is difficult because both manifest as genetic similarity through the sharing of alleles. Existing approaches for inference on recent genetic relatedness have limitations in the presence of population structure, where they either (1) make strong and simplifying assumptions about population structure, which are often untenable, or (2) require correct specification of and appropriate reference population panels for the ancestries in the sample, which might be unknown or not well defined. Here, we propose PC-Relate, a model-free approach for estimating commonly used measures of recent genetic relatedness, such as kinship coefficients and IBD sharing probabilities, in the presence of unspecified structure. PC-Relate uses principal components calculated from genome-screen data to partition genetic correlations among sampled individuals due to the sharing of recent ancestors and more distant common ancestry into two separate components, without requiring specification of the ancestral populations or reference population panels. In simulation studies with population structure, including admixture, we demonstrate that PC-Relate provides accurate estimates of genetic relatedness and improved relationship classification over widely used approaches. We further demonstrate the utility of PC-Relate in applications to three ancestrally diverse samples that vary in both size and genealogical complexity. PMID:26748516
Nunes, Maria D S; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian
Strict maternal inheritance is considered a hallmark of animal mtDNA. Although recent reports suggest that paternal leakage occurs in a broad range of species, it is still considered an exceptionally rare event. To evaluate the impact of paternal leakage on the evolution of mtDNA, it is essential to reliably estimate the frequency of paternal leakage in natural populations. Using allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we show that heteroplasmy is common in natural populations with at least 14% of the individuals carrying multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. However, the average frequency of the minor mtDNA haplotype is low (0.8%), which suggests that this pervasive heteroplasmy has not been noticed before due to a lack of power in sequencing surveys. Based on the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the offspring of heteroplasmic mothers, we found no evidence for strong selection against one of the haplotypes. We estimated that the rate of paternal leakage is 6% and that at least 100 generations are required for complete sorting of mtDNA haplotypes. Despite the high proportion of heteroplasmic individuals in natural populations, we found no evidence for recombination between mtDNA molecules, suggesting that either recombination is rare or recombinant haplotypes are counter-selected. Our results indicate that evolutionary studies using mtDNA as a marker might be biased by paternal leakage in this species. PMID:23452233
Firth, Josh A.; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Santure, Anna W.; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C.
Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness among individuals through observation. However, extra‐pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with EPP and the accuracy of heritability estimates for such traits remains unexplored. We show analytically how nonrandom pedigree errors can influence heritability estimates. Then, combining empirical data from a large great tit (Parus major) pedigree with simulations, we assess how heritability estimates derived from social pedigrees change depending on the mode of the relationship between EPP and the focal trait. We show that the magnitude of the underestimation is typically small (<15%). Hence, our analyses suggest that quantitative genetic inference from pedigrees derived from observations of social relationships is relatively robust; our approach also provides a widely applicable method for assessing the consequences of nonrandom EPP. PMID:25800997
Cleghorn de Rohrmoser, D.C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected characteristics of the paternal work environment and occupational history to the incidence of complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and anomalies in birth outcomes. The literature suggested that male exposure to teratogenic hazards in the form of radiation and chemical compounds, primarily in the form of solvents, has been implicated in reproductive disorders and malformed offspring in animals. Similarly, some recent research suggests that the exposure of male workers to such hazards on their job may have consequences for their spouses and children. Based on these experimental research studies and analyses of persons working in high risk occupations, a broader study of the potential contribution of paternal work environment variables to the success of pregnancy and birth outcomes seemed warranted. Based upon the literature review, a model was proposed for predicting complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and birth outcome (normal birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations and fetal death). From the 1980 National Natality Survey and the 1980 National Fetal Mortality Survey, four sub-samples of married couples, with both husband and wife employed, were selected on the basis of one of the four birth outcomes. The model called for controlling a range of maternal intrinsic and extrinsic health and behavioral variables known to be related to birth outcomes. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to analyze the effects of father's exposure to radiation and solvents on the job, to complications in pregnancy and labor, and to birth outcome, while controlling for maternal variables. The results indicated that none of the paternal variables were predictors of complications in labor. Further, there was no clear pattern of results, though father's degree of exposure to solvents, and exposures to radiation did reach significance in some analyses.
KOPLIN, JAMES H.; NUNNALLY, JUM C.
THE PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO EXAMINE THE EFFECTS OF SEVERAL MEASURES OF WORD-RELATEDNESS ON SEVERAL VERBAL LEARNING TASKS--PRIMARILY PAIRED-ASSOCIATES LEARNING AND VERBAL DISCRIMINATION LEARNING, WITH INCIDENTAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO FREE RECALL AND SEMANTIC GENERALIZATION. THE STRATEGY WAS TO SELECT A SAMPLE OF WORD PAIRS (240 COMMON NOUNS…
Huang, Kang; Ritland, Kermit; Dunn, Derek W.; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Li, Baoguo
Studies of genetics and ecology often require estimates of relatedness coefficients based on genetic marker data. However, with the presence of null alleles, an observed genotype can represent one of several possible true genotypes. This results in biased estimates of relatedness. As the numbers of marker loci are often limited, loci with null alleles cannot be abandoned without substantial loss of statistical power. Here, we show how loci with null alleles can be incorporated into six estimators of relatedness (two novel). We evaluate the performance of various estimators before and after correction for null alleles. If the frequency of a null allele is <0.1, some estimators can be used directly without adjustment; if it is >0.5, the potency of estimation is too low and such a locus should be excluded. We make available a software package entitled PolyRelatedness v1.6, which enables researchers to optimize these estimators to best fit a particular data set. PMID:26500259
Wheeler, David N.
Evaluation of vocational programs is complicated by the entry of graduates into many occupations other than the ones for which they were trained. To provide a reliable criterion for evaluating programs, the methodology for determining job relatedness both horizontally and vertically is developed, making it possible to compare two jobs or a given…
Kim, Hyun-Jeong Joyce; Millis, Keith
This study investigated the influence of sourcing and relatedness on the integration of events embedded in simple stories. Participants read pairs of "breaking news stories" from either 1 or 2 news agencies that were believed to be from the Internet. The stories within each pair were either related by virtue of shared situational dimensions (e.g.,…
Yannic, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Le Corre, Maël; Dussault, Christian; Bernatchez, Louis; Côté, Steeve D
Landscape heterogeneity plays a central role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. While species utilization of the landscape is usually viewed as constant within a year, the spatial distribution of individuals is likely to vary in time in relation to particular seasonal needs. Understanding temporal variation in landscape use and genetic connectivity has direct conservation implications. Here, we modelled the daily use of the landscape by caribou in Quebec and Labrador, Canada and tested its ability to explain the genetic relatedness among individuals. We assessed habitat selection using locations of collared individuals in migratory herds and static occurrences from sedentary groups. Connectivity models based on habitat use outperformed a baseline isolation-by-distance model in explaining genetic relatedness, suggesting that variations in landscape features such as snow, vegetation productivity and land use modulate connectivity among populations. Connectivity surfaces derived from habitat use were the best predictors of genetic relatedness. The relationship between connectivity surface and genetic relatedness varied in time and peaked during the rutting period. Landscape permeability in the period of mate searching is especially important to allow gene flow among populations. Our study highlights the importance of considering temporal variations in habitat selection for optimizing connectivity across heterogeneous landscape and counter habitat fragmentation.
Dandotkar, Srikanth; Magliano, Joseph P.; Britt, M. Anne
In two studies we examined the extent to which skilled and less-skilled reasoners of arguments relied on relevance relations (semantic and logical relatedness) between claims and reasons when evaluating arguments. College students, selected as having high or low analytical reasoning skill, evaluated the quality of a set of two sentence arguments…
Wagner, A P; Creel, S; Kalinowski, S T
Relatedness is often estimated from microsatellite genotypes that include null alleles. When null alleles are present, observed genotypes represent one of several possible true genotypes. If null alleles are detected, but analyses do not adjust for their presence (ie, observed genotypes are treated as true genotypes), then estimates of relatedness and relationship can be incorrect. The number of loci available in many wildlife studies is limited, and loci with null alleles are commonly a large proportion of data that cannot be discarded without substantial loss of power. To resolve this problem, we present a new approach for estimating relatedness and relationships from data sets that include null alleles. Once it is recognized that the probability of the observed genotypes is dependent on the probabilities of a limited number of possible true genotypes, the required adjustments are straightforward. The concept can be applied to any existing estimators of relatedness and relationships. We review established maximum likelihood estimators and apply the correction in that setting. In an application of the corrected method to data from striped hyenas, we demonstrate that correcting for the presence of null alleles affect results substantially. Finally, we use simulated data to confirm that this method works better than two common approaches, namely ignoring the presence of null alleles or discarding affected loci.
Distefano, M. K., Jr.; And Others
Significant job-relatedness was found for a posttraining job knowledge test criterion. Content validity methods may be able to help solve the problem of criterion relevance in validation research by providing quantitative evidence of job-relatedness. (Author)
Shafer, Aaron B A; Northrup, Joseph M; White, Kevin S; Boyce, Mark S; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W
Landscape heterogeneity plays an integral role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite links between the two disciplines, ecologists and population geneticists have taken different approaches to evaluating habitat selection, animal movement, and gene flow across the landscape. Ecologists commonly use statistical models such as resource selection functions (RSFs) to identify habitat features disproportionately selected by animals, whereas population genetic approaches model genetic differentiation according to the distribution of habitat variables. We combined ecological and genetic approaches by using RSFs to predict genetic relatedness across a heterogeneous landscape. We constructed sex- and season-specific resistance surfaces based on RSFs estimated using data from 102 GPS (global positioning system) radio-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in southeast Alaska, USA. Based on mountain goat ecology, we hypothesized that summer and male surfaces would be the best predictors of relatedness. All individuals were genotyped at 22 microsatellite loci, which we used to estimate genetic relatedness. Summer resistance surfaces derived from RSFs were the best predictors of genetic relatedness, and winter models the poorest. Mountain goats generally selected for areas close to escape terrain and with a high heat load (a metric related to vegetative productivity and snow depth), while avoiding valleys. Male- and female-specific surfaces were similar, except for winter, for which male habitat selection better predicted genetic relatedness. The null models of isolation-by-distance and barrier only outperformed the winter models. This study merges high-resolution individual locations through GPS telemetry and genetic data, that can be used to validate and parameterize landscape genetics models, and further elucidates the relationship between landscape heterogeneity and genetic differentiation.
Cheng, Yi-Ru; Li, Shou-Hsien; Fang, Shu; Pu, Chang-En; Yuan, Hsiao-Wei; Shen, Sheng-Feng
The relative importance of direct and indirect fitness and, thus, the role of kinship in the evolution of social behavior is much debated. Studying the genetic relatedness of interacting individuals is crucial to improving our understanding of these issues. Here, we used a seven-year data set to study the genetic structure of the Taiwan yuhina (Yuhina brunneciceps), a joint-nesting passerine. Ten microsatellite loci were used to investigate the pair-wised relatedness among yuhina breeding group members. We found that the average genetic relatedness between same-sex group members was very low (0.069 for male dyads and 0.016 for female dyads). There was also a low ratio of closely-related kin (r>0.25) in the cooperative breeding groups of yuhinas (21.59% and 9.68% for male and female dyads, respectively). However, the relatedness of male dyads within breeding groups was significantly higher than female dyads. Our results suggest that yuhina cooperation is maintained primarily by direct fitness benefits to individuals; however, kin selection might play a role in partner choice for male yuhinas. Our study also highlights an important, but often neglected, question: Why do animals form non-kin groups, if kin are available? We use biological market theory to propose an explanation for group formation of unrelated Taiwan yuhinas. PMID:26086267
Rando, Oliver J
The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects.
Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C; Harman, Rebecca; Antczak, Douglas F; Clark, Andrew G
The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes, of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate imprinted genes identified by RNA sequencing also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), a gene involved in chromatin modification, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C, a newly identified imprinted gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This variability results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting.
Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith
Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…
To analyze mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)inheritance, differences in mtDNA between Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas smithii, respiration deficiency and antibiotic resistance were used to distinguish mtDNA origins. The analyses indicated paternal inheritance. However, these experiments raised questions regarding whether paternal inheritance occurred normally.Mitochondrial nucleoids were observed in living zygotes from mating until 3 days after mating and then until progeny formation. However, selective disappearance of nucleoids was not observed. Subsequently, experimental serial backcrosses between the two strains demonstrated strict paternal inheritance. The fate of mt+ and mt- mtDNA was followed using the differences in mtDNA between the two strains. The slow elimination of mt+ mtDNA through zygote maturation in darkness was observed, and later the disappearance of mt+ mtDNA was observed at the beginning of meiosis. To explain the different fates of mtDNA, methylation status was investigated; however, no methylation was detected. Variously constructed diploid cells showed biparental inheritance. Thus, when the mating process occurs normally, paternal inheritance occurs. Mutations disrupting mtDNA inheritance have not yet been isolated. Mutations that disrupt maternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) do not disrupt inheritance of mtDNA. The genes responsible for mtDNA inheritance are different from those of chloroplasts.
Howard, Kimberly S.
Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…
The earliest indications for paternally induced transgenerational effects from the environment to future generations were based on a small number of long-term epidemiological studies and some empirical observations. Only recently have experimental animal models and a few analyses on human data explored the transgenerational nature of phenotypic changes observed in offspring. Changes include multiple metabolic disorders, cancer and other chronic diseases. These phenotypes cannot always be explained by Mendelian inheritance, DNA mutations or genetic damage. Hence, a new compelling theory on epigenetic inheritance is gaining interest, providing new concepts that extend Darwin's evolutionary theory. Epigenetic alterations or "epimutations" are being considered to explain transgenerational inheritance of parentally acquired traits. The responsible mechanisms for these epimutations include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA-mediated effects. This review explores the literature on a number of time-dependent environmentally induced epigenetic alterations, specifically those from dietary exposures. We suggest a role for the male germ line as one of nature's tools to capture messages from our continuously changing environment and to transfer this information to subsequent generations. Further, we open the discussion that the paternally inherited epigenetic information may contribute to evolutionary adaptation.
Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.
Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haimin; Li, Hanzeng; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Lin, Jason L J; Lee, Eui-Seung; Harry, Brian L; Skeen-Gaar, Riley Robert; Suehiro, Yuji; William, Donna; Mitani, Shohei; Yuan, Hanna S; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding
Mitochondria are inherited maternally in most animals, but the mechanisms of selective paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) are unknown. While examining fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans, we observed that paternal mitochondria rapidly lose their inner membrane integrity. CPS-6, a mitochondrial endonuclease G, serves as a paternal mitochondrial factor that is critical for PME. We found that CPS-6 relocates from the intermembrane space of paternal mitochondria to the matrix after fertilization to degrade mitochondrial DNA. It acts with maternal autophagy and proteasome machineries to promote PME. Loss of cps-6 delays breakdown of mitochondrial inner membranes, autophagosome enclosure of paternal mitochondria, and PME. Delayed removal of paternal mitochondria causes increased embryonic lethality, demonstrating that PME is important for normal animal development. Thus, CPS-6 functions as a paternal mitochondrial degradation factor during animal development.
Bouwman, Karen M; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan
Extra-pair paternity is an important aspect of reproductive strategies in many species of birds. Given that in most species females control whether fertilization occurs, they are expected to benefit in some way from the extra-pair matings. In this study we use patterns of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in broods of individual reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus), both within and between seasons, to test four hypothesized female benefits: (1) assessing potential future partners and seeking (2) genetic diversity (3) good genes, or (4) compatible genes. Reed buntings are socially monogamous, multibrooded passerines with extremely high levels of extra-pair paternity. We studied a population of reed buntings in the Netherlands in 2002 and 2003; 51% of offspring in 74% of nests were extra-pair. We showed that patterns of EPP did not support the first and second hypotheses, since females did not form a pair with previous extra-pair partners, EPP was not evenly distributed among broods and more broods than expected were sired by a single male. Furthermore, there was no relation between a male's within- and extra-pair fertilization success, no consistency in EPP between breeding attempts, no effect of parental relatedness on EPP and several cases of reciprocal paternity. These patterns do not support the good genes hypothesis and are most consistent with the genetic compatibility hypothesis. However, our previous finding that older males are more successful in gaining EPP, suggests some effect of good genes. These hypotheses need not be mutually exclusive, as females may select compatible males above a certain quality threshold (e.g. old males).
Parrott, Marissa L; Ward, Simon J; Temple-Smith, Peter D; Selwood, Lynne
Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus.
Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Qing; Liu, Jianqiao
The impact of paternal age on reproduction, especially using assisted reproductive technologies, has not been well studied to date. To investigate the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes, here we performed a retrospective analysis of 2,627 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and May 2015. Effect of paternal age on embryo quality [number of fertilized oocytes, 2 pronucleus zygotes (2PNs), viable embryos, and high-quality embryos] was analyzed by multiple linear regression. Relationships between paternal age and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed by binary logistic regression. After adjusting for female age, no association between paternal age and the following parameters of embryo quality was observed: number of fertilized oocytes (B = -0.032; 95% CI -0.069–0.005; P = 0.088), number of 2PNs (B = -0.005; 95% CI -0.044–0.034; P = 0.806), and number of viable embryos (B = -0.025; 95% CI -0.052–0.001; P = 0.062). However, paternal age negatively influenced the number of high-quality embryos (B = -0.020; 95% CI -0.040–0.000; P = 0.045). Moreover, paternal age had no effect on pregnancy outcomes (OR for a 5-year interval), including the rates of clinical pregnancy (OR 0.919; 95% CI 0.839–1.006; P = 0.067), ongoing pregnancy (OR 0.914; 95% CI 0.833–1.003; P = 0.058), early pregnancy loss (OR 1.019; 95% CI 0.823–1.263; P = 0.861), live births (OR 0.916; 95% CI 0.833–1.007; P = 0.070), and preterm births (OR 1.061; 95% CI 0.898–1.254; P = 0.485). Therefore, increased paternal age negatively influences the number of high-quality embryos, but has no effect on pregnancy outcomes in couples undergoing ICSI cycles. However, more studies including men aged over 60 years with a longer-term follow-up are needed. PMID:26901529
Jouravlev, Olessia; McRae, Ken
Knowledge of thematic relations is an area of increased interest in semantic memory research because it is crucial to many cognitive processes. One methodological issue that researchers face is how to identify pairs of thematically related concepts that are well-established in semantic memory for most people. In this article, we review existing methods of assessing thematic relatedness and provide thematic relatedness production norming data for 100 object concepts. In addition, 1,174 related concept pairs obtained from the production norms were classified as reflecting one of the five subtypes of relations: attributive, argument, coordinate, locative, and temporal. The database and methodology will be useful for researchers interested in the effects of thematic knowledge on language processing, analogical reasoning, similarity judgments, and memory. These data will also benefit researchers interested in investigating potential processing differences among the five types of semantic relations.
Gee, G.F.; Dessauer, H.C.; Longmire, J.; Briles, W.E.; Simon, R.C.; Wood, Don A.
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) is responsible for recovery of endangered species in the wild and, when necessary, maintenance in captivity. These programs provide an immediate measure of insurance against extinction. A prerequisite inherent in all of these programs is the preservation of enough genetic diversity to maintain a viable population and to maintain the capacity of the population to respond to change. Measures of genetic diversity examine polymorphic genes that are not influenced by selection pressures. Examples of these techniques and those used to determine relatedness are discussed. Studies of genetic diversity, electrophoresis of blood proteins, relatedness, blood typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms which are being used by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center are discussed in detail.
Management of small and threatened populations may require detailed knowledge about the genetic status of individuals and the genetic relatedness between individuals. I show here that individual heterozygosity at a set of 29 microsatellite loci correlates closely to the degree of inbreeding in a captive grey wolf population. Microsatellite allele sharing similarly correlates closely to known relatedness between pairs of individuals. Genotyping the same markers in a small (60-70 individuals) natural population of grey wolves in Sweden, low individual heterozygosities and high values of allele sharing between some animals were found. Since inbreeding depression has been documented in a captive grey wolf population of Scandinavian origin, the results point out an additional risk for the small Swedish wild population.
Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang
Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.
Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28–45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0–69.1% common alleles and 45.6–48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8–77.0% common alleles and 51.7–60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection. PMID:27494031
van Leeuwen, Edwin; O'Neill, Sarah; Matthews, Andrew; Raymond, Ben
Cooperation depends upon high relatedness, the high genetic similarity of interacting partners relative to the wider population. For pathogenic bacteria, which show diverse cooperative traits, the population processes that determine relatedness are poorly understood. Here, we explore whether within-host dynamics can produce high relatedness in the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. We study the effects of host/pathogen interactions on relatedness via a model of host invasion and fit parameters to competition experiments with marked strains. We show that invasibility is a key parameter for determining relatedness and experimentally demonstrate the emergence of high relatedness from well-mixed inocula. We find that a single infection cycle results in a bottleneck with a similar level of relatedness to those previously reported in the field. The bottlenecks that are a product of widespread barriers to infection can therefore produce the population structure required for the evolution of cooperative virulence. PMID:26125685
Grønstøl, Gaute; Blomqvist, Donald; Pauliny, Angela; Wagner, Richard H
Resource polygyny incurs costs of having to share breeding resources for female breeders. When breeding with a relative, however, such costs may be lessened by indirect fitness benefits through kin selection, while benefits from mutualistic behaviour, such as communal defence, may increase. If so, females should be less resistant to sharing a territory with a related female than with a non-related one. We investigated whether kin selection may lower the threshold of breeding polygynously, predicting a closer relatedness between polygynous females breeding on the same territory than between females breeding on different territories. Northern lapwings, Vanellus vanellus, are suitable for testing this hypothesis as they are commonly polygynous, both sexes take part in nest defence, and the efficiency of nest defence increases with the number of defenders. Using an index of relatedness derived from DNA fingerprinting, we found that female lapwings that shared polygynous dyads were on average twice as closely related as were random females. Furthermore, relatedness did not correlate with distance between breeders, indicating that our findings cannot be explained by natal philopatry alone. Our results suggest that the polygyny threshold in lapwings may be lowered by inclusive fitness advantages of kin selection.
Grønstøl, Gaute; Blomqvist, Donald; Pauliny, Angela; Wagner, Richard H.
Resource polygyny incurs costs of having to share breeding resources for female breeders. When breeding with a relative, however, such costs may be lessened by indirect fitness benefits through kin selection, while benefits from mutualistic behaviour, such as communal defence, may increase. If so, females should be less resistant to sharing a territory with a related female than with a non-related one. We investigated whether kin selection may lower the threshold of breeding polygynously, predicting a closer relatedness between polygynous females breeding on the same territory than between females breeding on different territories. Northern lapwings, Vanellus vanellus, are suitable for testing this hypothesis as they are commonly polygynous, both sexes take part in nest defence, and the efficiency of nest defence increases with the number of defenders. Using an index of relatedness derived from DNA fingerprinting, we found that female lapwings that shared polygynous dyads were on average twice as closely related as were random females. Furthermore, relatedness did not correlate with distance between breeders, indicating that our findings cannot be explained by natal philopatry alone. Our results suggest that the polygyny threshold in lapwings may be lowered by inclusive fitness advantages of kin selection. PMID:26543568
Caesar, Sofia; Karlsson, Magnus; Forsman, Anders
Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals. PMID:20526364
Caesar, Sofia; Karlsson, Magnus; Forsman, Anders
Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals.
Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J
Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.
Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Robertson, Raleigh J.
Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males’ confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment.
Watkins, Adam J; Sirovica, Slobodan; Stokes, Ben; Isaacs, Mark; Addison, Owen; Martin, Richard A
Defining the mechanisms underlying the programming of early life growth is fundamental for improving adult health and wellbeing. While the association between maternal diet, offspring growth and adult disease risk is well-established, the effect of father's diet on offspring development are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed male mice an imbalanced low protein diet (LPD) to determine the impact on post-fertilisation development and fetal growth. We observed that in preimplantation embryos derived from LPD fed males, expression of multiple genes within the central metabolic AMPK pathway was reduced. In late gestation, paternal LPD programmed increased fetal weight, however, placental weight was reduced, resulting in an elevated fetal:placental weight ratio. Analysis of gene expression patterns revealed increased levels of transporters for calcium, amino acids and glucose within LPD placentas. Furthermore, placental expression of the epigenetic regulators Dnmt1 and Dnmt3L were increased also, coinciding with altered patterns of maternal and paternal imprinted genes. More strikingly, we observed fetal skeletal development was perturbed in response to paternal LPD. Here, while offspring of LPD fed males possessed larger skeletons, their bones comprised lower volumes of high mineral density in combination with reduced maturity of bone apatite. These data offer new insight in the underlying programming mechanisms linking poor paternal diet at the time of conception with the development and growth of his offspring.
Kelly, Morgan W; Grosberg, Richard K; Sanford, Eric
A species' mating system sets limits on the strength of sexual selection. Sexual selection is widespread in dioecious species, but is less well documented in hermaphrodites, and may be less important. We used four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to broods of the hermaphroditic eastern Pacific volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens. These data were used to describe the species' mating system and to examine factors affecting male reproductive success. Tetraclita can sire broods over distances of 11.2 cm, but proximity to the sperm recipient had a highly significant effect on the probability of siring success. There was no effect of body size or the mass of male reproductive tissues on siring success. Broods showed relatively low frequencies of multiple paternity; even at high densities, 75% of broods had only one father. High frequencies of single-paternity broods imply either that this species does not compete via sperm displacement, or that sperm displacement is extremely effective, potentially explaining the lack of a positive relationship between male investment and paternity. In addition, there was low variance in siring success among individuals, suggesting a lack of strong sexual selection on male traits. Low variance among sires and the strong effect of proximity are probably driven by the unusual biology of a sessile copulating species.
Sakaoka, Ken; Suzuki, Isao; Kasugai, Naeko; Fukumoto, Yohei
We investigated the paternity of 39 Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) hatched at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium between 1995 and 2005 breeding seasons using microsatellite DNA markers. Among the 13 microsatellite marker loci tested in this study, eight markers amplified and were found to be polymorphic in the colony's founders of the captive population (n = 26). Multiple marker analysis confirmed that all the hatchlings shared alleles with their social fathers and that none of them were sired by any male (all males ≥4 years old in the exhibit tank during each reproductive season; n = 9-15) other than the one carrying out parental duties, except in the case of two inbred hatchlings whose half-sibling parents shared the same father. These results demonstrated that extra-pair paternity (EPP) did not occur in this captive population and that even if EPP has been detected among them, the probability of excluding all other possible fathers in the exhibit tank is extremely high based on paternity exclusion probabilities across the investigated loci. The paternity exclusion probabilities were almost the same between 1994 and 2005. The probability of identity across the investigated loci declined between the two time points, but was still high. These results are reflected in a very short history of breeding in this captive population. In other words, the parentage analyses using a suite of microsatellite markers will be less effective as generations change in small closed populations, such as zoo and aquarium populations.
Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian
In patient centred care, shared decision making is a central feature and widely referred to as a norm for patient centred medical consultation. However, it is far from clear how to distinguish SDM from standard models and ideals for medical decision making, such as paternalism and patient choice, and e.g., whether paternalism and patient choice can involve a greater degree of the sort of sharing involved in SDM and still retain their essential features. In the article, different versions of SDM are explored, versions compatible with paternalism and patient choice as well as versions that go beyond these traditional decision making models. Whenever SDM is discussed or introduced it is of importance to be clear over which of these different versions are being pursued, since they connect to basic values and ideals of health care in different ways. It is further argued that we have reason to pursue versions of SDM involving, what is called, a high level dynamics in medical decision-making. This leaves four alternative models to choose between depending on how we balance between the values of patient best interest, patient autonomy, and an effective decision in terms of patient compliance or adherence: Shared Rational Deliberative Patient Choice, Shared Rational Deliberative Paternalism, Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision, and Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise. In relation to these models it is argued that we ideally should use the Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision model. However, when the patient and professional fail to reach consensus we will have reason to pursue the Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise model since this will best harmonise between the different values at stake: patient best interest, patient autonomy, patient adherence and a continued care relationship.
Andersen, Lars H.
Existing studies of the consequences of paternal incarceration for children treat paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event (a child either experiences paternal incarceration or does not), although effects could accumulate with both the frequency and duration of paternal incarcerations. In this article I use register data on Danish children from birth cohort 1991, some of whom experienced paternal incarceration before age 15, to show how educational outcomes and criminality up to age 20 vary by frequency and total duration of paternal incarceration. The high quality of Danish register data also allows me to distinguish between paternal arrest and paternal incarceration and to show results for the total duration of paternal incarcerations conditioned on frequency of paternal incarceration. Results show that educational outcomes and criminality indeed correlate with duration and frequency of paternal incarceration, indicating that treating paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event blurs important heterogeneity in the consequences of paternal incarceration. PMID:27471324
Andersen, Lars H
Existing studies of the consequences of paternal incarceration for children treat paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event (a child either experiences paternal incarceration or does not), although effects could accumulate with both the frequency and duration of paternal incarcerations. In this article I use register data on Danish children from birth cohort 1991, some of whom experienced paternal incarceration before age 15, to show how educational outcomes and criminality up to age 20 vary by frequency and total duration of paternal incarceration. The high quality of Danish register data also allows me to distinguish between paternal arrest and paternal incarceration and to show results for the total duration of paternal incarcerations conditioned on frequency of paternal incarceration. Results show that educational outcomes and criminality indeed correlate with duration and frequency of paternal incarceration, indicating that treating paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event blurs important heterogeneity in the consequences of paternal incarceration.
Janecka, M; Mill, J; Basson, M A; Goriely, A; Spiers, H; Reichenberg, A; Schalkwyk, L; Fernandes, C
Multiple epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between advanced paternal age (APA) at conception and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, particularly with regard to increased risk for autism and schizophrenia. Conclusive evidence about how age-related changes in paternal gametes, or age-independent behavioral traits affect neural development is still lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the origins of APA effects are likely to be multidimensional, involving both inherited predisposition and de novo events. Here we provide a review of the epidemiological and molecular findings to date. Focusing on the latter, we present the evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning the association between late fatherhood and disorder in offspring. We also discuss the limitations of the APA literature. We propose that different hypotheses relating to the origins of the APA effects are not mutually exclusive. Instead, multiple mechanisms likely contribute, reflecting the etiological complexity of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28140401
Bezanson, G S; Pauzé, M; Lior, H
A large number of strains (1,783) belonging to 15 Salmonella serovars isolated, in Canada, from the three major links of the human food chain were screened for multiple antibiotic resistance and the presence of R-plasmids. Multiresistant strains occurred among animal feed, livestock, and human isolates at frequencies of 4, 22, and 14%, respectively. Conjugation analysis revealed that 58% of the isolates from feeds, 87% of those from livestock, and 89% of the human strains carried all or part of their resistance determinants extrachromosomally on R-plasmids. Conjugative plasmids representing nine different incompatibility groups were detected, with the Inc I alpha group being predominant. Within the limits of the parameters measured, certain of these plasmids show a degree of relatedness suggestive of a common ancestry. PMID:7013704
Dodge, Laura E.; Williams, Paige L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Toth, Thomas L.; Calafat, Antonia M.
Background Human exposure to phenols, including bisphenol A and parabens, is widespread. Evidence suggests that paternal exposure to environmental chemicals may adversely affect reproductive outcomes. Objectives We evaluated associations of paternal phenol urinary concentrations with fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth. Methods Male–female couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in a prospective study of environmental determinants of fertility and pregnancy outcomes were included. The geometric mean of males’ specific gravity–adjusted urinary phenol concentrations measured before females’ cycle was quantified. Associations between male urinary phenol concentrations and fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth were investigated using generalized linear mixed models to account for multiple cycles per couple. Results Couples (n = 218) underwent 195 IUI and 211 IVF cycles. Paternal phenol concentrations were not associated with fertilization or live birth following IVF. In adjusted models, compared with the lowest quartile of methyl paraben, paternal concentrations in the second quartile were associated with decreased odds of live birth following IUI (adjusted odds ratio = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.82). Conclusions To our knowledge, these are some of the first data on the association of paternal urinary phenol concentrations with reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. Although these results do not preclude possible adverse effects of paternal paraben exposures on such outcomes, given the modest sample size, further understanding could result from confirmation using a larger and more diverse population. Citation Dodge LE, Williams PL, Williams MA, Missmer SA, Toth TL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2015. Paternal urinary concentrations of parabens and other phenols in relation to reproductive outcomes among couples from a fertility clinic. Environ Health Perspect 123
Geary, D C
In more than 95% of mammalian species, males provide little direct investment in the well-being of their offspring. Humans are one notable exception to this pattern and, to date, the factors that contributed to the evolution and the proximate expression of human paternal care are unexplained (T. H. Clutton-Brock, 1989). The nature, extent, and influence of human paternal investment on the physical and social well-being of children are reviewed in light of the social and ecological factors that are associated with paternal investment in other species. On the basis of this review, discussion of the evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment is provided.
Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E
The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.
Weir, Bruce S; Anderson, Amy D; Hepler, Amanda B
Individuals who belong to the same family or the same population are related because of their shared ancestry. Population and quantitative genetics theory is built with parameters that describe relatedness, and the estimation of these parameters from genetic markers enables progress in fields as disparate as plant breeding, human disease gene mapping and forensic science. The large number of multiallelic microsatellite loci and biallelic SNPs that are now available have markedly increased the precision with which relationships can be estimated, although they have also revealed unexpected levels of genomic heterogeneity of relationship measures.
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Molloy, Lauren E.
We tested a developmental cascade model of autonomy and relatedness in the progression from parent to friend to romantic relationships across ages 13, 18, and 21. Participants included 184 adolescents (53% female, 58% Caucasian, 29% African American) recruited from a public middle school in Virginia. Parental psychological control at age 13 undermined the development of autonomy and relatedness, predicting relative decreases in autonomy and relatedness with friends between ages 13 and 18 and lower levels of autonomy and relatedness with partners at age 18. These cascade effects extended into adult friendships and romantic relationships, with autonomy and relatedness with romantic partners at age 18 being a strong predictor of autonomy and relatedness with both friends and partners at age 21. PMID:25345623
Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. )
Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.
Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D
Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating.
MACKENZIE, K. ROY; TSCHUSCHKE, VOLKER
Process and outcome measures were compared in two long-term groups. The measure "Relatedness" reflected an individual’s attachment to and comfort with the group, and "Group Work" indicated perception of the group as having a positive working climate. High Relatedness scores predicted better outcome at 18-month follow-up. Group Work scores were not related to outcome. Relatedness and Group Work scores were not correlated. Results replicate in a group psychotherapy population the importance, reported in individual therapy literature, of an early and sustained positive therapeutic alliance (Relatedness). However, a measure that is closely related to the concept of "working alliance" (Group Work) did not predict outcome. PMID:22700138
Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha
Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982
Kumarasamy, Elango; Raghunathan, Ramya; Kandappa, Sunil Kumar; Sreenithya, A; Jockusch, Steffen; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Sivaguru, J
A complementary strategy of utilizing ππ* excited state of alkene instead of nπ* excited state of the carbonyl chromophore in a "transposed Paternò-Büchi" reaction is evaluated with atropisomeric enamides as the model system. Based on photophysical investigations, the nature of excited states and the reactive pathway was deciphered leading to atropselective reaction. This new concept of switching of excited-state configuration should pave the way to control the stereochemical course of photoreaction due to the orbital approaches required for photochemical reactivity.
In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133
Rodd, Jennifer M; Berriman, Richard; Landau, Matt; Lee, Theresa; Ho, Carol; Gaskell, M Gareth; Davis, Matthew H
Changes to our everyday activities mean that adult language users need to learn new meanings for previously unambiguous words. For example, we need to learn that a "tweet" is not only the sound a bird makes, but also a short message on a social networking site. In these experiments, adult participants learned new fictional meanings for words with a single dominant meaning (e.g., "ant") by reading paragraphs that described these novel meanings. Explicit recall of these meanings was significantly better when there was a strong semantic relationship between the novel meaning and the existing meaning. This relatedness effect emerged after relatively brief exposure to the meanings (experiment 1), but it persisted when training was extended across 7 days (experiment 2) and when semantically demanding tasks were used during this extended training (experiment 3). A lexical decision task was used to assess the impact of learning on online recognition. In Experiment 3, participants responded more quickly to words whose new meaning was semantically related than to those with an unrelated meaning. This result is consistent with earlier studies showing an effect of meaning relatedness on lexical decision, and it indicates that these newly acquired meanings become integrated with participants' preexisting knowledge about the meanings of words.
Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha
Many words have more than one meaning, and these meanings vary in their degree of relatedness. In the present experiment, we examined whether this degree of relatedness is influenced by whether or not the two meanings share a translation in a bilingual's other language. Native English speakers with Spanish as a second language (i.e., English-Spanish bilinguals) and native Spanish speakers with English as a second language (i.e., Spanish-English bilinguals) were presented with pairs of phrases instantiating different senses of ambiguous English words (e.g., dinner date-expiration date) and were asked to decide whether the two senses were related in meaning. Critically, for some pairs of phrases, a single Spanish translation encompassed both meanings of the ambiguous word (joint-translation condition; e.g., mercado in Spanish refers to both a flea market and the housing market), but for others, each sense corresponded to a different Spanish translation (split-translation condition; e.g., cita in Spanish refers to a dinner date, but fecha refers to an expiration date). The proportions of "yes" (related) responses revealed that, relative to monolingual English speakers, Spanish-English bilinguals consider joint-translation senses to be less related than split-translation senses. These findings exemplify semantic cross-language influences from a first to a second language and reveal the semantic structure of the bilingual lexicon.
Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling
Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…
Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.
Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878
Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh
We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…
Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver
Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288
Curley, James P.; Barton, Sheila; Surani, Azim; Keverne, Eric B.
This study investigates how a targeted mutation of a paternally expressed imprinted gene regulates multiple aspects of foetal and post-natal development including placental size, foetal growth, suckling and post-natal growth, weaning age and puberty onset. This same mutation in a mother impairs maternal reproductive success with reduced maternal care, reduced maternal food intake during pregnancy, and impaired milk let-down, which in turn reduces infant growth and delays weaning and onset of puberty. The significance of these coadaptive traits being synchronized in mother and offspring by the same paternally expressed imprinted gene ensures that offspring that have extracted 'good' maternal nurturing will themselves be both well provisioned and genetically predisposed towards 'good' mothering. PMID:15306355
Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.
The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.
Pfefferle, Dana; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Widdig, Anja
Recognizing close kin and adjusting one's behavior accordingly (i.e., favor kin in social interactions, but avoid mating with them) would be an important skill that can increase an animals' inclusive fitness. Previous studies showed that philopatric female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) bias their social behavior toward maternal and paternal kin. Benefits gained from selecting kin should, however, not only apply to the philopatric sex, for which the enduring spatial proximity facilitates kin discrimination. Given that dispersal is costly, the dispersing sex may benefit from migrating together with their kin or into groups containing kin. In male rhesus macaques, natal migrants bias their spatial proximity toward familiar male kin rather than familiar non-kin. Here, we set up playback experiments to test if males use the acoustic modality to discriminate familiar female kin from non-kin in a non-sexual context. Males responded differently to the presentation of "coo" calls of related and unrelated females, with their reaction depending on the interaction between kin-line (maternal vs paternal kin) and degree of relatedness (r = 0.5, 0.25). Specifically, males were more likely to respond to close kin compared to more distant kin or unrelated females, with this effect being significant in the maternal, but not paternal kin-line. The present study adds to our knowledge of kin recognition abilities of the dispersing sex, suggesting that male rhesus macaques are also able to identify kin using the acoustic modality. We discuss that the probability of response might be affected by the potential benefit of the social partner.
Gentile, Salvatore; Fusco, Maria Luigia
Transition to parenthood represents an important life event which increases vulnerability to psychological disorders. Aim of this article is to analyze all studies which investigated the effects of untreated perinatal paternal depression in offspring. We searched pertinent, peer-reviewed articles published in English (January 1980 to April 2016) on MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Science.gov. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of the reviewed studies suffer from methodological limitations, including the small sample, the lack of a structured psychiatric diagnosis, and inclusion bias. Despite such limitations, paternal depression seems to be associated with an increased risk of developmental and behavioural problems and even psychiatric disorders in offspring. In particular, in infants and toddlers such problems vary from increased crying to hyperactivity and conduct problems to psychological and developmental impairment, and poor social outcomes. School-age children of depressed fathers have a doubled risk for suffering from specific psychiatric disorders. Hence, facilitating access to vigorous and evidence based treatments is a public health opportunity for improving the quality of life of depressed parents and their children. Evidences emerging from this review actually suggest that the traditional gender-focused approach to perinatal mood disorders should be completed by a family-centred approach, in order to improve the effectiveness of perinatal mental health programs.
Greeff, J. M.; Nason, J. D.; Compton, S. G.
Models predict a reduced allocation to sperm when females preferentially use one of two males' sperm and the males do not know who is favoured. An analogous discounting occurs in plants when their paternity success is skewed by random, non-heritable factors such as location in the population and pollinator behaviour. We present a model that shows that skewed paternity can affect the sex allocation of hermaphrodites, that is it leads to a female-biased investment. The model highlights the close links between local mate competition and sperm competition. We use paternity data from Ficus in order to illustrate that skews in paternity success can lead to a high degree of sibling gamete competition in an apparently open breeding system. Since skews in paternity are ubiquitous in hermaphroditic plants and animals these findings should apply broadly. PMID:11600078
Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding
In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME.
Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding
In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME. PMID:27581092
Patton, Christine L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Das, Anindita
Healthy development necessitates that adolescents maintain connections with others while developing an autonomous identity. In the extant literature, however, autonomy and relatedness are often placed at odds, particularly in discussions of girls. We explore how autonomy and relatedness co-occur in girls' interactions with peers and mentors in the…
Suter, W. Newton; Roberts, William L.
This study examined halo in raters' beliefs of item (attribute) relatedness. College students' prior beliefs of the co-occurrence of teaching attributes were correlated with actual correlation of teaching attributes of fictional college professors. Results showed some support for beliefs-of-relatedness source of halo. (LMO)
Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol
Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.
Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley
Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality)…
Kaufman, Annette; Dodge, Tonya
According to Self-Determination Theory, feelings of relatedness and value of a behavior are critical factors that affect internalization and integration. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors that influence relatedness and value in an academic setting. Specifically, the study investigated the effects of autonomy, mastery goals,…
Choy, Winnie C. W.; Moneta, Giovanni B.
The mediating effects of autonomy and relatedness on the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction were investigated among 49 single mothers. Among all tested variables in the dimension of relatedness, only network orientation (propensity to utilize one's available social support) was a mediator of the positive relationship between…
Corruccini, Robert S; Shimada, Izumi
Within and between tombs at the 1,000-year-old site of Huaca Loro on north coastal Peru, interment characteristics vary to an intriguing degree. Following and elaborating upon prior intracemetery studies, biological relatedness among associated burial groupings was assessed using 23 dental characters (assuming familial allele segregation) for 29 individuals. Biological patterning was based on multivariate distance between individuals using all traits, rather than the previously widespread reliance upon univariate comparison of each trait separately within samples. This multivariate approach did seem more informative. Statistically significant variation of biological similarities and dissimilarities corresponded to spatial groupings and also to various specific archaeological indications of the cohesiveness, or lack thereof, of interment pattern. The partition of biological distances among tombs at Huaca Loro supports the archaeological evidence that the tombs represent a planned elite cemetery.
Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.
Rose, James A.; Hoggan, M. David; Koczot, Frank; Shatkin, Aaron J.
Adenovirus-associated viruses (AAV) contain double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA from each of the four AAV serotypes was used as template for the in vitro synthesis of complementary 3H-ribonucleic acids(RNA). An estimation of genetic interrelatedness was made on the basis of hybridization reactions between synthetic AAV RNA and AAV DNA. Heterologous reactions were 27 to 37% of homologous reactions, suggesting that the AAV serotypes are related to about the same extent. AAV-1 synthetic RNA was also reacted with DNA from helper adenovirus types 2, 7, and SV15. Very low levels of RNA binding were observed, but it is not likely that these reactions represent AAV-adenovirus genetic relatedness. PMID:5739847
Stiver, Kelly A; Dierkes, Petra; Taborsky, Michael; Lisle Gibbs, H; Balshine, Sigal
Many studies have attempted to explain the evolution of cooperation, yet little attention has been paid to what factors control the amount or kind of cooperation performed. Kin selection theory suggests that more cooperation, or help, should be given by relatives. However, recent theory suggests that under specific ecological and demographic conditions, unrelated individuals must ‘pay to stay’ in the group and therefore may help more. We tested these contrasting predictions using the cooperatively breeding fish, Neolamprologus pulcher, and found that the degree of work effort by helpers depended on which helping behaviours were considered and on their level of relatedness to the breeding male or female. In the field, helpers unrelated to the breeding male performed more territory defence, while helpers unrelated to the breeding female contributed less to territory defence. In the laboratory, unrelated group members helped more. Our work demonstrates that a number of factors in addition to kinship shape cooperative investment patterns. PMID:16048775
Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley
Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.
Benowitz, Kyle M; Head, Megan L; Williams, Camellia A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J
Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity-parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity.
Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul
Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly due to increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Since severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers’ age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born 1958–1979 (n=2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course-persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending. PMID:22781852
Hunt, Tenah K A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Assari, Shervin
This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed.
Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin
This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454
Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul
Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.
Makin, J W; Porter, R H
The responsiveness of adult male spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) to both their own and alien precocial young was investigated. Paternal behavior was manifested primarily by the males huddling with their offspring and the coordination of pup attendance between adult males and females. With less than 2 days exposure to their own neonates, males were found to discriminate between their own and alien young. Experience plays an important role in the development of paternal behavior in spiny mice. Males who have never had pups of their own sniff and attack unfamiliar neonates more than males who have fathered pups. The adaptive significance of paternal investment in this uniquely precocial murid rodent was discussed.
Schneider, J F; Trindade, E; Mello, A M; Barreto, M L
Looking upon occidental silence which involves the paternity, we performed this research with the intention to conceive some associated aspects: the family role, birth of son expectation and father social role. For that, 7 fathers have been interviewed with ages between 21 and 45 years. This study allowed us observed that the paternity of the interviewed fathers is experienced by the father-son relationship preoccupation, kids education and the constant search of ways to experience the paternity as a form to be near of the kids and the wife.
Ross, Joseph A.; Howe, Dana K.; Coleman-Hulbert, Anna; Denver, Dee R.; Estes, Suzanne
To study mitochondrial–nuclear genetic interactions in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, our three laboratories independently created 38 intra-species cytoplasmic–nuclear hybrid (cybrid) lines. Although the cross design combines maternal mitotypes with paternal nuclear genotypes, eight lines (21%) unexpectedly contained paternal mitotypes. All eight share in common ancestry of one of two genetically related strains. This unexpected parallel observation of paternal mitochondrial transmission, undesirable given our intent of creating cybrids, provides a serendipitous experimental model and framework to study the molecular and evolutionary basis of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:27613821
Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787
... associated with a slightly higher risk of miscarriage. Autism. Research shows a link between advanced paternal age and an increased frequency of autism. Birth defects. Although the overall risk is exceedingly ...
Musser, Anna K; Ahmed, Azza H; Foli, Karen J; Coddington, Jennifer A
Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched. In comparison, PPD in fathers and its potential effects on the family are not widely recognized. Studies have shown the importance of optimal mental health in fathers during the postpartum period. Negative effects of paternal PPD affect marital/partner relationships, infant bonding, and child development. To promote optimal health for parents and children, pediatric nurse practitioners must stay up to date on this topic. This article discusses the relationship of paternal PPD to maternal PPD; the consequences, signs, and symptoms; and the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in assessing and managing paternal PPD.
Rascati, Ralph J.
Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)
Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold
Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668
... paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for... through video or audio equipment, and in writing, of the alternatives to, the legal consequences of,...
... paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for... through video or audio equipment, and in writing, of the alternatives to, the legal consequences of,...
... paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for... through video or audio equipment, and in writing, of the alternatives to, the legal consequences of,...
Komrad, M S
All illness represents a state of diminished autonomy and therefore the doctor-patient relationship necessarily and justifiably involves a degree of medical paternalism argues the author, an American medical student. In a broad-ranging paper he discusses the concepts of autonomy and paternalism in the context of the doctor-patient relationship. Given the necessary diminution of autonomy which illness inflicts, a limited form of medical paternalism, aimed at restoring or maximising the patient's autonomy is entirely acceptable, and indeed fundamental to the relationship he argues. However, the exercise of this paternalism should be flexible and related to the current 'level of autonomy' of the patient himself. An editorial in this issue comments briefly on this paper. PMID:6834402
Hume, Johanna M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E
Biparental male hamsters, Phodopus campbelli, act as midwives during the birth of their litter and are highly responsive to an experimentally displaced pup. They also have high peripheral concentrations of estradiol, a hormone with known roles in maternal behavior. Surgical castration during the gestation of their first litter was used to investigate the source of that estradiol and the functional role of testicular sex steroids in paternal responsiveness. In Experiment I, castration reduced both testosterone and estradiol concentrations, confirming that the testes were the primary source of estradiol. However, neither paternal responsiveness nor multiple measures of reproductive success were altered by the castration. Aggression directed towards an intruder, however, was reduced by castration. In Experiment II, removal of prior experience with birth or pups also failed to alter paternal responsiveness in castrated males. Although the present results do not preclude a role for local estradiol synthesis in the brain, results do not support an association between high circulating estradiol in males and their paternal behavior.
Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H
Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.
Peay, Kabir G.; Belisle, Melinda; Fukami, Tadashi
Priority effects, in which the outcome of species interactions depends on the order of their arrival, are a key component of many models of community assembly. Yet, much remains unknown about how priority effects vary in strength among species in a community and what factors explain this variation. We experimented with a model natural community in laboratory microcosms that allowed us to quantify the strength of priority effects for most of the yeast species found in the floral nectar of a hummingbird-pollinated shrub at a biological preserve in northern California. We found that priority effects were widespread, with late-arriving species experiencing strong negative effects from early-arriving species. However, the magnitude of priority effects varied across species pairs. This variation was phylogenetically non-random, with priority effects stronger between closer relatives. Analysis of carbon and amino acid consumption profiles indicated that competition between closer relatives was more intense owing to higher ecological similarity, consistent with Darwin's naturalization hypothesis. These results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness between potential colonists may explain the strength of priority effects and, as a consequence, the degree to which community assembly is historically contingent. PMID:21775330
Mahmoud, Anas M.; Niu, Nan; Xu, Songhua
Human analysts working with automated tracing tools need to directly vet candidate traceability links in order to determine the true traceability information. Currently, human intervention happens at the end of the traceability process, after candidate traceability links have already been generated. This often leads to a decline in the results accuracy. In this paper, we propose an approach, based on semantic relatedness (SR), which brings human judgment to an earlier stage of the tracing process by integrating it into the underlying retrieval mechanism. SR tries to mimic human mental model of relevance by considering a broad range of semantic relations, hence producing more semantically meaningful results. We evaluated our approach using three datasets from different application domains, and assessed the tracing results via six different performance measures concerning both result quality and browsability. The empirical evaluation results show that our SR approach achieves a significantly better performance in recovering true links than a standard Vector Space Model (VSM) in all datasets. Our approach also achieves a significantly better precision than Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) in two of our datasets.
Bogiel, Tomasz; Mikucka, Agnieszka; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia
Many identification and relatedness studies methods had been commonly used for epidemiological studies in microbiological laboratories. Apart from phenotypic methods, genotypic are also often used. The aim of this study was to compare, obtained by PFGE chromosomal DNA patterns of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains isolated from clinical material. 46 methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains were included in this study. Most of them were isolated from wound swabs (65.2%) and catheters (19.6%) from different surgical clinics (76.1%). To identify strains and receive biochemical profiles, ID 32 Staph tests and GPI cards of Vitek 1 system were used. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Tenover et al. interpretation were used to compare chromosomal DNA patterns of examined strains. 44 and 42 PFGE patterns of chromosomal DNA were received, using visual interpretation classifying two pairs of strains as the same, two pairs as closely related and three pairs as probably related. Strains classified as identical and similar in visual evaluation were indistinguishable in Molecular Analyst DST interpretation, probably due to tolerance in bands location pattern. Strains probably related in visual interpretation represent at least 96% similarity in Molecular Analyst DST but different susceptibility and biochemical profiles obtained by ID 32 Staph and Vitek 1. PFGE analysis had foremost capacity to distinguish methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis strains using visual interpretation and Molecular Analyst DST (Bio-Rad) program and seems to be useful method in epidemiological studies. Strains with the same PFGE pattern, had different susceptibility and biochemical profiles.
Kraemer, Philipp; Gerlach, Gabriele
The Demerelate package offers algorithms to calculate different inter-individual relatedness measurements. Three different allele sharing indices, five pairwise weighted estimates of relatedness and four pairwise weighted estimates with sample size correction are implemented to analyze kinship structures within populations. Statistics are based on randomization tests; modeling relatedness coefficients by logistic regression, modeling relatedness with geographic distance by mantel correlation and comparing mean relatedness between populations using pairwise t-tests. Demerelate provides an advance on previous software packages by including some estimators not available in R to date, along with FIS , as well as combining analysis of relatedness and spatial structuring. An UPGMA tree visualizes genetic relatedness among individuals. Additionally, Demerelate summarizes information on datasets (allele vs. genotype frequencies; heterozygosity; FIS -values). Demerelate is - to our knowledge - the first R-package implementing basic allele sharing indices such as Blouin's Mxy relatedness, the estimator of Wang corrected for sample size (wangxy ), estimators based on Morans I adapted to genetic relatedness as well as combining all estimators with geographic information. The R environment enables users to better understand relatedness within populations due to the flexibility of Demerelate of accepting different datasets as empirical data, reference data, geographical data and by providing intermediate results. Each statistic and tool can be used separately, which helps to understand the suitability of the data for relatedness analysis, and can be easily implemented in custom pipelines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C
1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing.
Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael
Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…
Castor, Adam R.
The main goal of this dissertation is to better understand how external corporate stakeholder perceptions of relatedness affect important outcomes for companies. In pursuit of this goal, I apply the lens of category studies. Categories not only help audiences to distinguish between members of different categories, they also convey patterns of relatedness. In turn, this may have implications for understanding how audiences search, what they attend to, and how the members are ultimately valued. In the first chapter, I apply incites from social psychology to show how the nationality of audience members affects the way that they cognitively group objects into similar categories. I find that the geographic location of stock market analysts affect the degree to which they will revise their earnings estimates for a given company in the wake of an earnings miss by another firm in the same industry. Foreign analysts revise their earnings estimates downward more so than do local analysts, suggesting that foreign analysts ascribe the earnings miss more broadly and tend to lump companies located in the same country into larger groups than do local analysts. In the second chapter, I demonstrate that the structure of inter-category relationships can have consequential effects for the members of a focal category. Leveraging an experimental-like design, I study the outcomes of nanotechnology patents and the pattern of forward citations across multiple patent jurisdictions. I find that members of technology categories with many close category 'neighbors' are more broadly cited than members of categories with few category 'neighbors.' My findings highlight how category embeddedness and category system structure affect the outcomes of category members as well as the role that classification plays in the valuation of innovation. In the third chapter, I propose a novel and dynamic measure of corporate similarity that is constructed from the two-mode analyst and company coverage network
Robinson, Stephen P; Kennington, W J; Simmons, L W
New theoretical work on kin selection and inclusive fitness benefits predicts that individuals will sometimes choose close or intermediate relatives as mates to maximize their fitness. However, empirical examples supporting such predictions are rare. In this study, we look for such evidence in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. We compared mating and nonmating individuals to test whether mating was nonrandom with respect to relatedness. Consistent with optimal inbreeding, males were more closely related to their mate than to randomly sampled females. However, all individuals collected mating showed higher relatedness and males were not significantly more related to their mate than to other mating females. We also found a negative relationship between relatedness and fecundity. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that inclusive fitness benefits may drive inbreeding tolerance despite direct costs to fitness; however, an experimental approach is needed to investigate the link between mate preference and relatedness.
Juana, Luis; Bárbara, Vázquez-Gaytán; Martín, Martínez-Torres; Agustín, Carmona; Guillermo, Ramos-Blancas; Guadalupe, Ortíz
The first studies that correlated mammalian paternal behavior and testosterone levels indicated that the concentration of this steroid hormone decreases when males exhibit paternal care. However, recent studies have also shown that testosterone levels do not decrease when males display paternal behavior. In this study, we measured testosterone levels in plasma throughout the reproductive cycle of the Mongolian gerbil. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with paternal care as well as aggression. We also examined whether there is a trade-off between paternal behavior and aggression in this mammal. Our results show that Mongolian gerbil testosterone levels do not decrease when the males give paternal care. Likewise, male Mongolian gerbils exhibit high levels of aggression while displaying paternal behavior, indicating that there is no trade-off between aggression and paternal behavior. More studies are needed to determine whether testosterone is involved in the regulation of paternal behavior in this rodent.
Fedorova, Larisa; Qiu, Shuhao; Dutta, Rajib; Fedorov, Alexei
A novel computational method for detecting identical-by-descent (IBD) chromosomal segments between sequenced genomes is presented. It utilizes the distribution patterns of very rare genetic variants (vrGVs), which have minor allele frequencies <0.2%. Contrary to the existing probabilistic approaches our method is rather deterministic, because it considers a group of very rare events which cannot happen together only by chance. This method has been applied for exhaustive computational search of shared IBD segments among 1,092 sequenced individuals from 14 populations. It demonstrated that clusters of vrGVs are unique and powerful markers of genetic relatedness, that uncover IBD chromosomal segments between and within populations, irrespective of whether divergence was recent or occurred hundreds-to-thousands of years ago. We found that several IBD segments are shared by practically any possible pair of individuals belonging to the same population. Moreover, shared short IBD segments (median size 183 kb) were found in 10% of inter-continental human pairs, each comprising of a person from sub-Saharan Africa and a person from Southern Europe. The shortest shared IBD segments (median size 54 kb) were found in 0.42% of inter-continental pairs composed of individuals from Chinese/Japanese populations and Africans from Kenya and Nigeria. Knowledge of inheritance of IBD segments is important in clinical case–control and cohort studies, since unknown distant familial relationships could compromise interpretation of collected data. Clusters of vrGVs should be useful markers for familial relationship and common multifactorial disorders. PMID:26907499
Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S
The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer. Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats exhibited high average allele number and expected heterozygosity of 8.25, 9, and 7.25, and 0.750, 0.804, and 0.779, respectively. F-statistics for population differentiation showed 6.0% of total genetic variation, whereas 94.0% as differentiation between individuals within all populations. The least varied within populations was Ardi goats, then Damascus goats and finally Black Bedouin goats. Furthermore, the Damascus goat population was more differentiated from Black Bedouin goats than from Ardi goats. On the other hand, there was strong evidence of admixture between the majority of Ardi and Black Bedouin goat individuals but little with those of Damascus goats. Genetic distance between Ardi and Black Bedouin goats was the shortest, whereas it was the longest between Ardi and Damascus goats. The phylogenetic tree clearly revealed the expected degree of differentiation in the three populations. From a genetic conservation point of view, it is recommended to maintain the biodiversity of these distinct populations in case genetic migration of genetic resources and genetic conservation are absent.
Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C
Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008–2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1–7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901
Safran, R J; Neuman, C R; McGraw, K J; Lovette, I J
Paternity in male animals can be influenced by their phenotypic signals of quality. Accordingly, the behavior underlying patterns of paternity should be flexible as signals of quality change. To evaluate the dynamics of paternity allocation, we analyzed paternity before and after manipulating plumage coloration, a known signal of quality, in male barn swallows Hirundo rustica. We found that, in successive breeding bouts, only males whose plumage color was experimentally enhanced received greater paternity from their social mates, demonstrating evidence for flexible and dynamic paternity allocation and the importance for males of maintaining signals of quality well after pair bond formation.
Foster, Holly; Hagan, John
Parental incarceration is now prevalent in community samples (e.g., with 11% of children reporting paternal imprisonment and 3% reporting maternal imprisonment in a national sample), pointing to a potentially important childhood trauma that should be included in work on contemporary childhood stressors in this era of mass incarceration. This paper investigates the influences of maternal and paternal imprisonment on changes in young adult mental health using a nationally representative sample. We assess four perspectives-gendered loss, same-sex role model, intergenerational stress, and maternal salience - on the joint influences of maternal and paternal incarceration within the broader stress process paradigm. The results generalize support for a gendered loss perspective developed in work on parental death and an early small study of parental incarceration. This pattern reveals maternal incarceration increases depressive symptoms while paternal incarceration increases substance role problems. Chronicity of parental imprisonment and its timing are also influential. Analyses further specify a vulnerability of male and minority young adults to high levels of mental health problems following maternal and paternal incarceration in adolescence.
Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. PMID:27097924
Stockley, Paula; Hobson, Liane
Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours.
Novotny, Josef; Hasman, Jiri
This paper examines the patterns of the US and Australian immigration geography and the process of regional population diversification and the emergence of new immigrant concentrations at the regional level. It presents a new approach in the context of human migration studies, focusing on spatial relatedness between individual foreign-born groups as revealed from the analysis of their joint spatial concentrations. The approach employs a simple assumption that the more frequently the members of two population groups concentrate in the same locations the higher is the probability that these two groups can be related. Based on detailed data on the spatial distribution of foreign-born groups in US counties (2000–2010) and Australian postal areas (2006–2011) we firstly quantify the spatial relatedness between all pairs of foreign-born groups and model the aggregate patterns of US and Australian immigration systems conceptualized as the undirected networks of foreign-born groups linked by their spatial relatedness. Secondly, adopting a more dynamic perspective, we assume that immigrant groups with higher spatial relatedness to those groups already concentrated in a region are also more likely to settle in this region in future. As the ultimate goal of the paper, we examine the power of spatial relatedness measures in projecting the emergence of new immigrant concentrations in the US and Australian regions. The results corroborate that the spatial relatedness measures can serve as useful instruments in the analysis of the patterns of population structure and prediction of regional population change. More generally, this paper demonstrates that information contained in spatial patterns (relatedness in space) of population composition has yet to be fully utilized in population forecasting. PMID:25966371
Frankel-Waldheter, Miriam; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M; Watkins, Christopher D
Several theories propose a relationship between deficits in autonomy and relatedness and the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Empirical work supports relationships between maternal BPD and adolescent symptomatology, as well as between maternal autonomy and relatedness and adolescent symptomatology. However, no study has examined how individuals with BPD differ from normative comparisons on autonomy and relatedness, or whether mothers' BPD mediates the relationship between their autonomy and relatedness and their adolescents' symptomatology. We sampled 28 mothers with BPD and their adolescents aged 14-17 years, as well as 28 normative comparisons matched on demographic variables. We assessed BPD as a categorical diagnosis and along a continuum of self-reported borderline features. In a videotaped problem-solving interaction, controlling for current major depressive disorder, mothers with BPD were less likely to promote and more likely to inhibit relatedness, and they were marginally more likely to inhibit but equally likely to promote autonomy with their adolescents. Mothers' total borderline features mediated the relationship between mothers' promotion of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, rule breaking, and aggression) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). Mothers' total borderline features also mediated the relationship between mothers' inhibition of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, and aggression but not rule breaking) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). We discuss findings in terms of light shed on BPD and the effect of maternal BPD on adolescent development.
Novotny, Josef; Hasman, Jiri
This paper examines the patterns of the US and Australian immigration geography and the process of regional population diversification and the emergence of new immigrant concentrations at the regional level. It presents a new approach in the context of human migration studies, focusing on spatial relatedness between individual foreign-born groups as revealed from the analysis of their joint spatial concentrations. The approach employs a simple assumption that the more frequently the members of two population groups concentrate in the same locations the higher is the probability that these two groups can be related. Based on detailed data on the spatial distribution of foreign-born groups in US counties (2000-2010) and Australian postal areas (2006-2011) we firstly quantify the spatial relatedness between all pairs of foreign-born groups and model the aggregate patterns of US and Australian immigration systems conceptualized as the undirected networks of foreign-born groups linked by their spatial relatedness. Secondly, adopting a more dynamic perspective, we assume that immigrant groups with higher spatial relatedness to those groups already concentrated in a region are also more likely to settle in this region in future. As the ultimate goal of the paper, we examine the power of spatial relatedness measures in projecting the emergence of new immigrant concentrations in the US and Australian regions. The results corroborate that the spatial relatedness measures can serve as useful instruments in the analysis of the patterns of population structure and prediction of regional population change. More generally, this paper demonstrates that information contained in spatial patterns (relatedness in space) of population composition has yet to be fully utilized in population forecasting.
Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.
We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726
Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.
DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.
Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe
Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056
Sargeant, Elizabeth J; Wikberg, Eva C; Kawamura, Shoji; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M
Evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. We investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. We used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Our analyses suggest that the best predictor of adult and subadult male interactions with an infant is the male's dominance status, not his paternity status. We found that maternal siblings but not paternal siblings handled infants more than did unrelated individuals. We conclude that maternal but not paternal kinship influence patterns of infant handling in white-faced capuchins, regardless of whether or not they can recognize paternal kin. Am. J. Primatol. 78:659-668, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
9 STR loci obtained by four-dye fluorescent labeling technique in paternity identification provides much information at one test and the cumulative chance of exclusion gets up to 0.9999. Our result of 268 paternity test cases shows that there are at least two incompatible loci in all Mother-Child-Alleged Father (M-C-AF) exclusive cases. To those unexclusive cases, The RCP all reaches international standard. It is suggested that more STR loci be used for accurate test in Child-Alleged Father(C-AF) case.
Viljoen, D; Ramesar, R
A previously unreported family in which seven members in two generations have Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is documented. Paternal imprinting of the gene responsible for BWS is involved as the mechanism responsible for the aberrant inheritance pattern in this kindred. A review of published reports showed 27 previously published pedigrees with two or more affected subjects with BWS. Paternal imprinting would explain the non-mendelian inheritance of BWS in all but four kindreds. The latter families are examined in more detail and in only one example is the evidence against imprinting totally unexplained. Images PMID:1583639
Sine, David M
From the era of the asylum to the present day, the architectural design of inpatient facilities has long been considered a contributing factor in the treatment of patients with mental and substance use disorders. The author examines the ethical basis for decisions about the design of psychiatric hospitals--architectural paternalism. The ethic of paternalism in the design of asylums and in contemporary thinking about psychiatric hospital design is described. The author argues that limitation of patients' autonomy and rights by the purpose-built architectural environment is legitimate and ethical.
In this article, I suggest that postdivorce paternal disengagement may be rooted in the father's tendency to link his children and ex-wife as a single entity in consequence of his failure to adequately mourn the loss of his ex-wife and to redefine his paternal role and identity in distinction from his spousal role and identity. I also suggest that the ex-spousal conflict that disengaged fathers often blame for their disengagement is the product of these failures and shows the progress from conflict through disengagement. These claims are developed on the basis of findings of other authors and illustrated though a case analysis of an absent father.
Cheng, D L; Yan, P H; Liu, Y; Chen, J
The phenomenon of gene linkage and recombination may nearly be overlooked in paternity test of one single child, but it is likely encountered in paternity test of twin or more. In a case of paternity test, the results of 17 items including eight DNA loci were analyzed and the phenomenon of gene linkage and recombination was discussed in detail. This phenomenon should be brought into necessary attention in the paternity test.
Sahebzadeh, Najmeh; Mardan, Makhdzir; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Soon Guan; Adam, Nur Azura; Lau, Wei Hong
Knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of Apis dorsata from Peninsular Malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. The analysis of 15 single locus DNA microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of A. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. Furthermore, in general, slightly negative values of intercolony relatedness (R) among the nests of A. dorsata were found. However, positive values of mean intercolony relatedness were observed between 54 pairs of nests out of 190 possible combinations. The R values among nest pairs 3-4 and 3-5 was higher than 0.50 showing that their queens were half siblings, whereas nest pair 19-20 showed relatedness of 0.95 indicating that the same queen was sampled. The results that we obtained could not conclusively support the hypothesis of this study that the honey hunters in Marang district of Malaysia repeatedly harvest the same nest located at a different site and at a different time during the same honey harvesting season. However, our finding of an appreciable level of intercolonial relatedness between several pairs of nests in this pioneer study indicated that a comprehensive study with a larger sample size of solitary nests found throughout the region would be necessary to provide concrete proof for this novel idea.
Townsend, S M; Jamieson, I G
Individual-based estimates of the degree of inbreeding or parental relatedness from pedigrees provide a critical starting point for studies of inbreeding depression, but in practice wild pedigrees are difficult to obtain. Because inbreeding increases the proportion of genomewide loci that are identical by descent, inbreeding variation within populations has the potential to generate observable correlations between heterozygosity measured using molecular markers and a variety of fitness related traits. Termed heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs), these correlations have been observed in a wide variety of taxa. The difficulty of obtaining wild pedigree data, however, means that empirical investigations of how pedigree inbreeding influences HFCs are rare. Here, we assess evidence for inbreeding depression in three life-history traits (hatching and fledging success and juvenile survival) in an isolated population of Stewart Island robins using both pedigree- and molecular-derived measures of relatedness. We found results from the two measures were highly correlated and supported evidence for significant but weak inbreeding depression. However, standardized effect sizes for inbreeding depression based on the pedigree-based kin coefficients (k) were greater and had smaller standard errors than those based on molecular genetic measures of relatedness (RI), particularly for hatching and fledging success. Nevertheless, the results presented here support the use of molecular-based measures of relatedness in bottlenecked populations when information regarding inbreeding depression is desired but pedigree data on relatedness are unavailable.
Fowler, A.C.; Eadie, J.M.; Ely, C.R.
We studied patterns of relatedness and nesting dispersion in female Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in Alaska. Female Greater White-fronted Geese are thought to be strongly philopatric and are often observed nesting in close association with other females. Analysis of the distribution of nests on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in 1998 indicated that nests were significantly clumped. We tested the hypothesis that females in the same nest cluster would be closely related using estimates of genetic relatedness based on six microsatellite DNA loci. There was no difference in the mean relatedness of females in the same cluster compared to females found in different clusters. However, relatedness among females was negatively correlated with distance between their nests, and geese nesting within 50 m of one another tended to be more closely related than those nesting farther apart. Randomization tests revealed that pairs of related individuals (R > 0.45) were more likely to occur in the same cluster when analyzed at the scale of the entire study site. However, the pattern did not hold when restricted to pairs found within 500 m of each other. Our results indicate that nest clusters are not composed primarily of closely related females, but Greater White-fronted Geese appear to be sufficiently philopatric to promote nonrandom patterns of relatedness at a local scale.
Schultner, Eva; Gardner, Andy; Karhunen, Markku; Helanterä, Heikki
Conflict arises among social organisms when individuals differ in their inclusive-fitness interests. Ant societies are excellent models for understanding how genetic relatedness mediates conflict intensity. However, although conflicts within colonies typically arise over offspring production, the role of larvae as actors in social conflict has received little attention. We develop and empirically test kin-selection theory of larval egg cannibalism in ant societies. Specifically, we investigate how selection for cannibalism is mediated by nestmate relatedness and larval sex in a mathematical model and then test the model's predictions by measuring cannibalism levels in eight ant species with varying nestmate relatedness. In line with our theoretical predictions, cannibalism levels in larvae were significantly influenced by relatedness and sex. Increased relatedness was associated with reduced levels of cannibalism, indicating that larval behavior is mediated by inclusive-fitness considerations. Levels of cannibalism were significantly higher in male larvae, and our model suggests that this is due to sex differences in the benefits of cannibalism. By examining the selfish interests of larvae and the constraints they face in a social environment, our study presents a novel perspective on conflict in ants and on the evolution of selfish elements in social systems in general.
de Jong, Trynke R; Chauke, Miyetani; Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy
In a minority of mammalian species, including humans, fathers play a significant role in infant care. Compared to maternal behavior, the neural and hormonal bases of paternal care are poorly understood. We analyzed behavioral, neuronal and neuropeptide responses towards unfamiliar pups in biparental California mice, comparing males housed with another male ("virgin males") or with a female before ("paired males") or after ("new fathers") the birth of their first litter. New fathers approached pups more rapidly and spent more time engaging in paternal behavior than virgin males. In each cage housing two virgin males, one was spontaneously paternal and one was not. New fathers and paired males spent more time sniffing and touching a wire mesh ball containing a newborn pup than virgin males. Only new fathers showed significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) following exposure to a pup-containing ball, as compared to an empty ball. Moreover, Fos-LIR in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STMV and STMPM) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) was increased in new fathers, independent of test condition. No differences were found among the groups in Fos-LIR in oxytocinergic or vasopressinergic neurons. These results suggest that sexual and paternal experiences facilitate paternal behavior, but other cues play a role as well. Paternal experience increases Fos-LIR induced by distal pup cues in the MPO, but not in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. Fatherhood also appears to alter neurotransmission in the BNST and DRC, regions implicated in emotionality and stress-responsiveness.
Wen, Ming; Peng, Liangyue; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhao, Yuling; Liu, Shaojun; Hong, Yunhan
Mitochondrial homoplasmy signifies the existence of identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and is essential for normal development, as heteroplasmy causes abnormal development and diseases in human. Homoplasmy in many organisms is ensured by maternal mtDNA inheritance through either absence of paternal mtDNA delivery or early elimination of paternal mtDNA. However, whether paternal mtDNA is transcribed has remained unknown. Here we report that paternal mtDNA shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence in cyprinid fishes. Paternal mtDNA was present in zygotes but absent in larvae and adult organs of goldfish and blunt-snout bream, demonstrating paternal mtDNA delivery and elimination for maternal mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, paternal mtDNA remained detectable up to the heartbeat stage, suggesting its late elimination leading to embryonic heteroplasmy up to advanced embryogenesis. Most importantly, we never detected the cytb RNA of paternal mtDNA at all stages when paternal mtDNA was easily detectable, which reveals that paternal mtDNA is transcriptionally quiescent and thus excludes its effect on the development of heteroplasmic embryos. Therefore, paternal mtDNA in cyprinids shows late elimination and transcriptional quiescence. Clearly, transcriptional quiescence of paternal mtDNA represents a new mechanism for maternal mtDNA inheritance and provides implications for treating mitochondrion-associated diseases by mitochondrial transfer or replacement. PMID:27334806
Swanson, Kara W
This article analyzes the comparative history of the law and practice of abortion and assisted reproduction in the United States to consider the interplay between medical paternalism and legal paternalism. It supplements existing critiques of paternalism as harmful to women's equality with the medical perspective, as revealed through the writings of Alan F. Guttmacher, to consider when legal regulation might be warranted.
Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S
We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge.
Korallo, Liliya; Foreman, Nigel; Boyd-Davis, Stephen; Moar, Magnus; Coulson, Mark
Single linear virtual timelines have been used effectively with undergraduates and primary school children to convey the chronological ordering of historical items, improving on PowerPoint and paper/textual displays. In the present study, a virtual environment (VE) consisting of three parallel related timelines (world history and the histories of…
Hughes, Jan N.; Chen, Qi
This study investigated the reciprocal effects between teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) and two dimensions of classroom peer relatedness, peer liking and peer academic reputation (PAR), across three years in elementary school and the effect of both TSRQ and the peer relatedness dimensions on academic self efficacy. Participants were 695 relatively low achieving, ethnically diverse students recruited into the longitudinal study when they were in first grade. Measures of TSRQ and peer relatedness were assessed in years/grades 2-4. Peer liking and PAR were moderately correlated with each other at each time period. As expected, peer liking and TSRQ exhibited bidirectional effects across the three years. Year 3 TSRQ had an effect on Year 4 PAR, but PAR did not have an effect on TSRQ at either time interval. In an additional analysis, Year 4 PAR mediated the effect of Year 3 TSRQ on Year 5 academic self efficacy. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. PMID:21927528
Moreno Murcia, Juan A; Parra Rojas, Nicolás; González-Cutre Coll, David
The purpose of this study was to analyze some factors that influence amotivation in physical education classes. A sample of 399 students, of ages 14 to 16 years, was used. They completed the Perceived Autonomy Support Scale in Exercise Settings (PASSES), the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE), the <relatedness> factor of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES) adapted to physical education and the
Hughes, Jan N; Chen, Qi
This study investigated the reciprocal effects between teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) and two dimensions of classroom peer relatedness, peer liking and peer academic reputation (PAR), across three years in elementary school and the effect of both TSRQ and the peer relatedness dimensions on academic self efficacy. Participants were 695 relatively low achieving, ethnically diverse students recruited into the longitudinal study when they were in first grade. Measures of TSRQ and peer relatedness were assessed in years/grades 2-4. Peer liking and PAR were moderately correlated with each other at each time period. As expected, peer liking and TSRQ exhibited bidirectional effects across the three years. Year 3 TSRQ had an effect on Year 4 PAR, but PAR did not have an effect on TSRQ at either time interval. In an additional analysis, Year 4 PAR mediated the effect of Year 3 TSRQ on Year 5 academic self efficacy. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed.
Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...
Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...
Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...
Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher
As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…
Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ingerski, Lisa; Moreau, Stacey Coffey
In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal…
Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J
Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.
Turney, Kristin; Haskins, Anna R.
A growing literature documents the myriad penalties for children of incarcerated fathers, but relatively little is known about how paternal incarceration contributes to educational outcomes in early and middle childhood. In this article, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to provide the first estimates of the…
Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael
This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…
Jennings, Michael O; Owen, Ryan C; Keefe, David; Kim, Edward D
Increasing percentages of children are being born to older fathers. This has resulted in concerns about the potential adverse effects of advanced paternal age. To help clinicians counsel couples, a systemic review was performed to attempt to address questions that these couples may ask: Should routine sperm testing be performed in older males? Should preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) be performed? How do providers counsel patients about risk? Should young males freeze sperm if they plan to delay paternity? Using the terms "advanced paternal age", "semen testing", "preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening", and "cryopreservation", a comprehensive search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library, and numerous international societal guidelines were reviewed. In total, 42 articles or guidelines were reviewed. There were no limits placed on the timing of the articles. Thirty articles were found to be relevant and beneficial to answering the above questions. Each question was answered separately by the supporting literature. While primary research exists to support the role of semen testing, PGD/preimplantation genetic screening, and sperm banking in males who may be affected by advancing age, comprehensive studies on the possible clinical benefit of these interventions have yet to be performed. As a result, societal guidelines have yet to incorporate distinct best-practice guidelines on advanced paternal age.
Al-Saadat, Abdullah I.; Afifi, Elhami A.
Highlights classroom role playing in Saudi Arabian classrooms as a psychological aid that fosters self-confidence in inhibited, timid, hesitant, and passive students and relieves them of their paternal communicative limitations. Proposes an overall strategy for role-playing as an effective communicative activity that teachers can exploit to help…
Gobush, Kathleen; Kerr, Ben; Wasser, Samuel
We use genetic measures of relatedness and observations of female bonding to examine the demographic signature of historically heavy poaching of a population of free-ranging African elephants. We collected dung samples to obtain DNA and observed behaviour from 102 elephant families over a 25-month period in 2003-2005 in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Poaching reduced the population by 75% in the decade prior to the 1989 ivory trade ban; park records indicate that poaching dropped significantly in Mikumi following the ban. Using 10 microsatellite loci, DNA was genotyped in 203 elephants and pair-wise relatedness was calculated among adult females within and between groups. The Mikumi population is characterized by small group size, considerable variation in group relatedness, females with no first-order adult relatives and females that form only weak social bonds. We used gene-drop analysis and a model of a genetically intact pedigree to compare our observed Mikumi group relatedness to a simulated genetically intact unpoached expectation. The majority of groups in Mikumi contain 2 to 3 adults; of these, 45% were classified as genetically disrupted. Bonding, quantified with a pair-wise association index, was significantly correlated with relatedness; however only half of the females formed strong bonds with other females, and relatedness was substantially lower for a given bond strength as compared to an unpoached population. Female African elephants without kin demonstrated considerable behavioural plasticity in this disturbed environment, grouping with other females lacking kin, with established groups, or remaining alone, unable to form any stable adult female-bonds. We interpret these findings as the remaining effect of poaching disturbance in Mikumi, despite a drop in the level of poaching since the commercial trade in ivory was banned 15 years ago.
Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Alberts, Susan C; Bergman, Thore J
Multilevel societies with fission-fusion dynamics--arguably the most complex animal societies--are defined by two or more nested levels of organization. The core of these societies are modular social units that regularly fission and fuse with one another. Despite convergent evolution in disparate taxa, we know strikingly little about how such societies form and how fitness benefits operate. Understanding the kinship structure of complex societies could inform us about the origins of the social structure as well as about the potential for individuals in these societies to accrue indirect fitness benefits. Here, we combined genetic and behavioural data on geladas (Theropithecus gelada), an Old World Monkey, to complete the most comprehensive socio-genetic analysis of a multilevel society to date. In geladas, individuals in the core social 'units', associate at different frequencies to form 'teams', 'bands' and, the largest aggregations, 'communities'. Units were composed of closely related females, and females remained with their close kin during permanent fissions of units. Interestingly, female-female relatedness also significantly predicted between-unit, between-team and between-band association patterns, while male-male relatedness did not. Thus, it is likely that the socio-genetic structure of gelada society results from females maintaining associations with their female relatives during successive unit fissions--possibly in an attempt to balance the direct and indirect fitness benefits of group living. Overall, the persistence of associations among related females across generations appears to drive the formation of higher levels of gelada society, suggesting that females seek kin for inclusive fitness benefits at multiple levels of gelada society.
Moray, Nathalie; Pink, Katherina E; Borry, Pascal; Larmuseau, Maarten Hd
Direct-to-consumer (DTC) internet companies are selling widely advertised and highly popular genetic ancestry tests to the broad public. These tests are often classified as falling within the scope of so-called 'recreational genetics', but little is known about the impact of using these services. In this study, a particular focus is whether minors (and under what conditions) should be able to participate in the use of these DTC tests. Current ancestry tests are easily able to reveal whether participants are related and can, therefore, also reveal misattributed paternity, with implications for the minors and adults involved in the testing. We analysed the publicly available privacy policies and terms of services of 43 DTC genetic ancestry companies to assess whether minors are able to participate in testing DTC genetic ancestry, and also whether and how companies ethically account for the potential of paternity inference. Our results indicated that the majority of DTC genetic ancestry testing companies do not specifically address whether minors are able to participate in testing. Furthermore, the majority of the policies and terms of services fail to mention the vulnerability of minors and family members in receiving unexpected information, in particular, in relation to (misattributed) paternity. Therefore, recreational genetics carries both the risk of unintentionally revealing misidentified paternity, and also the risk that fathers will deliberately use these services to test their children's paternity without revealing their intentions to the mother or any other third party.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.31.
Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J
Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting.
Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert
Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries
The objective of this article is to investigate ethical aspects of technology through the moral term "paternalism". The field of investigation is medicine. The reason for this is twofold. Firstly, "paternalism" has gained moral relevance through modern medicine, where physicians have been accused of behaving paternalistic and threatening patients' autonomy. Secondly, medicine is a brilliant area to scrutinise the evaluative aspects of technology. It is argued that paternalism is a morally relevant term for the ethics of technology, but that its traditional conception is not adequate to address the challenges of modern technology. A modification towards a "technological paternalism" is necessary. That is, "technological paternalism" is a fruitful term in the ethics of technology. Moreover, it is suited to point out the deficiencies of the traditional concept of paternalism and to reform and vitalise the conception of paternalism in ethics in order to handle the challenges of technology.
Koralewska-Kordel, Małgorzata; Kordel, Krzysztof; Przybylski, Zygmunt; Wiśniewski, Sławomir A
The study comprises the analysis of expert's hemogenetic reports carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, in the years 1980-2004 and associated with paternity determination or exclusion. In the analyzed period, the authors established 1064 cases of paternity exclusion in serological tests, 97 paternity exclusions in the HLA examinations, and 129 cases of paternity exclusions processed in DNA testing. On the base of gene frequencies, the theoretical chance of paternity exclusion was determined for every test. The significant usefulness of DNA testing in legal processes did not cause an increase in the percentage of paternity exclusions. Moreover, the authors observed a significant decrease in the number of paternity exclusions in comparison with results of serological tests (from 24.25% to 19.43%). With the drop in the number of births, the number of expert's reports significantly decreased.
Dupont, L; Richard, J; Paulet, Y-M; Thouzeau, G; Viard, F
According to the size-advantage hypothesis, protandric sequential hermaphroditism is expected when the increase in reproductive success with age or size is small for males but large for females. Interestingly, some protandrous molluscs have developed gregarious strategies that might enhance male reproductive success but at the cost of intraspecific competition. The gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a European invading species, is ideal for investigating mating patterns in a sequential hermaphrodite in relation to grouping behaviour because individuals of different size (age) live in perennial stacks, fertilization is internal and embryos are brooded. Paternity analyses were undertaken in stacks sampled in three close and recently invaded sites in Brittany, France. Paternity assignment of 239 larvae, sampled from a set of 18 brooding females and carried out using five microsatellite loci, revealed that 92% of the crosses occurred between individuals located in the same stack. These stacks thus function as independent mating groups in which individuals may reproduce consecutively as male and female over a short time period, a pattern explained by sperm storage capacity. Gregariousness and sex reversal are promoting reproductive insurance in this species. In addition, females are usually fertilized by several males (78% of the broods were multiply sired) occupying any position within the stack, a result reinforcing the hypothesis of sperm competition. Our study pointed out that mating behaviours and patterns of gender allocation varied in concert across sites suggesting that multiple paternities might enhance sex reversal depending on sperm competition intensity.
Le Cam, Sabrina; Riquet, Florentine; Pechenik, Jan A; Viard, Frédérique
In sex-changing animals with internal fertilization, gregarious behavior may increase mating opportunities and the frequency of multiple paternity, thus increasing maternal reproductive success. Crepidula convexa is a direct-developing protandrous gastropod characterized by only modest gregarious behavior compared with previously studied members of the genus: females are frequently found isolated. Using 6 microsatellite markers, we analyzed paternity profiles in 10 broods (25 embryos per mother). The number of assigned fathers varied among families from 1 to 4 fathers per brood. Interestingly, polyandry was not detected in solitary females but only in females grouped with conspecific individuals. Overall, we found an average of 1.8 fathers per brood, but this increased to 2.6 fathers per brood when considering only the nonisolated females. Among 18 unambiguously identified fathers, only 5 were collected in our samples, suggesting substantial male mobility. Comparison with previous paternity analyses in Crepidula fornicata and Crepidula coquimbensis revealed that polyandry appears as a common trait of these sex-changing gastropods despite their different grouping behaviors and life histories. As expected, the level of polyandry was nevertheless lower in the modestly gregarious C. convexa.
Kimura, Ryuichi; Tucci, Valter; Kaneda, Hideki; Wakana, Shigeharu; Osumi, Noriko
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes) born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT) mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies. PMID:27855195
Yoshizaki, Kaichi; Furuse, Tamio; Kimura, Ryuichi; Tucci, Valter; Kaneda, Hideki; Wakana, Shigeharu; Osumi, Noriko
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes) born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT) mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies.
This study builds upon Deci and Ryan's (1985) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) which states that humans must meet three basic psychological needs for optimal well-being: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore trends in principals' experiences in the areas of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.…
Heck, DeAnn M.
This mixed methods action study examines the relationship of students' three psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness and competence as presented in the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to the level of achievement of high school seniors at Litchfield High School. In the quantitative phase of the study, the quantitative…
Apostal, Robert A.
Estimated the relatedness of category placements of the Occupational Scales of the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory for 87 college women. Results showed the Campbell and Hansen placements of 44 Occupational Scales were classified as related; 19 were discrepant by one criteria and 12 were discripant by both study criteria. (JAC)
Hino, Yasushi; Pexman, Penny M.; Lupker, Stephen J.
According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic…
Bao, Xue-Hua; Lam, Shui-Fong
The importance of autonomy for children's motivation in collectivistic cultures has been debated hotly. With the understanding that autonomy is not equivalent to freedom of choice, 4 studies addressed this debate by investigating how socioemotional relatedness, choice, and autonomy were related to Chinese children's motivation. Study 1 (N = 56,…
Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.; Murphy, Steven A.
Disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. The authors propose a new construct, Nature Relatedness (NR), and a scale that assesses the affective, cognitive, and experiential aspects of individuals' connection to nature. In Study 1, the authors explored the internal structure of the NR item responses in a…
Phinney, Jean S.; Kim-Jo, Tina; Osorio, Saloniki; Vilhjalmsdottir, Perla
This study examines the way in which young people from diverse American ethnic backgrounds express autonomy and relatedness in their responses to disagreements with parents and the factors that influence their responses. Adolescents and emerging adults (N = 240) aged 14 to 22 years from four ethnic groups (European American, Mexican American,…
Murphy, Guillermo P; Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J
Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield.
Xu, Zheng; Luo, Xiangfeng; Liu, Yunhuai; Mei, Lin; Hu, Chuanping
Relatedness measurement between multimedia such as images and videos plays an important role in computer vision, which is a base for many multimedia related applications including clustering, searching, recommendation, and annotation. Recently, with the explosion of social media, users can upload media data and annotate content with descriptive tags. In this paper, we aim at measuring the semantic relatedness of Flickr images. Firstly, four information theory based functions are used to measure the semantic relatedness of tags. Secondly, the integration of tags pair based on bipartite graph is proposed to remove the noise and redundancy. Thirdly, the order information of tags is added to measure the semantic relatedness, which emphasizes the tags with high positions. The data sets including 1000 images from Flickr are used to evaluate the proposed method. Two data mining tasks including clustering and searching are performed by the proposed method, which shows the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Moreover, some applications such as searching and faceted exploration are introduced using the proposed method, which shows that the proposed method has broad prospects on web based tasks.
Moss-Lourenco, Patricia; Fields, Lanny
Three experiments used postclass formation within-class preference test performances to evaluate the effects of nodal distance on the relatedness of stimuli in equivalence classes. In Experiment 1, two 2-node four-member equivalence classes were established using the simultaneous protocol in which all of the baseline relations were trained…
Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J.
Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span--the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of…
Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.
Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587
This review examines self-family-culture links from a cultural and global perspective utilizing Kagitcibasi's Family Change Theory and Self Theory as general frameworks. These theories have the "autonomous-related self" at their point of intersection. Autonomy and relatedness dynamics is the key to understanding the self, and family…
Escoda, Lídia; González-Esteban, Jorge; Gómez, Asunción; Castresana, Jose
Information about the degree of contemporary dispersal is important when trying to understand how populations interchange individuals and identify the specific barriers that prevent these movements. In the case of endangered species, this can represent crucial information when designing appropriate conservation strategies. Here we analyze relatedness between individuals from different localities and use these data to infer whether dispersal occurred in recent generations. We applied this approach to the Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus), a semiaquatic and endangered species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. We studied this species in four primary rivers in the Iberian Range, where two ancient mitochondrial lineages are separated by a strict contact zone, suggesting the existence of complex dispersal patterns. Using next generation sequencing, we obtained 912 SNPs from each specimen and estimated relatedness values between them. While relatedness networks were dense within each river, we found surprisingly few relationships between individuals from different rivers despite their close proximity in some cases, indicating much lower dispersal between rivers compared to dispersal within a single river. In agreement with this result, the degree of inbreeding was exceedingly high in most individuals. These data show that relatedness information can be crucial to understand the contemporary dispersal patterns and conservation status of specific populations of endangered species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Lemon, S M; Binn, L N
Cell culture-adapted HM-175 (Australia) and PA-21 (Panama) strains of hepatitis A virus were compared in a cross-neutralization radioimmunofocus inhibition assay. The ratio of antibody titers achieved with two sera against the two viruses differed by less than twofold, indicating a high degree of antigenic relatedness between epidemiologically disparate strains of virus. PMID:6194118
Bürgermeister, Anika; Ringeisen, Tobias; Raufelder, Diana
Using a longitudinal design, the present study examined whether two teaching concepts that varied in their capacity to foster students' self-determination affected students' sense of social relatedness and their perceived moderation competence, as well as the interplay between these two components and the students' performance during a moderation…
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Powell, Gary N.
Due to global trends such as the increased labor force participation of women, the growing presence of dual-earner couples and single parents in the labor force, and changing values regarding the importance of life balance, individuals' work decisions are being increasingly influenced by family considerations. However, the "family-relatedness" of…
Aunola, Kaisa; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lehtinen, Erno; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study investigated the extent to which mothers' support for their children's sense of competence, autonomy and relatedness predicts their children's interest in math and reading, and also their mastery orientation, during the transition to primary school. One hundred fifty-two children were examined twice during their first grade year…
The relationships that students have with their parents and peers permeate their lives both inside and outside of the classroom. The purpose of the present exploratory study is to assess (a) the psychometric quality of measures gauging the latent variables of adolescents' perceptions of their relatedness to both parents and peers and (b) the…
Cooke, Anna N.; Fielding, Kelly S.; Louis, Winnifred R.
To identify pathways to lower environmental impacts, this research examined the motivation and antecedents of motivation (autonomy, relatedness, competence), of environmentally active people. Previous research suggests that people with more self-determined motivation for pro-environmental behavior (PEB) should carry out more PEBs, and have lower…
Vandepitte, Katrien; De Meyer, Tim; Jacquemyn, Hans; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Honnay, Olivier
Background and Aims The combination of clonality and a mating system promoting outcrossing is considered advantageous because outcrossing avoids the fitness costs of selfing within clones (geitonogamy) while clonality assures local persistence and increases floral display. The spatial spread of genetically identical plants (ramets) may, however, also decrease paternal diversity (the number of sires fertilizing a given dam) and fertility, particularly towards the centre of large clumped clones. This study aimed to quantify the impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale paternity patterns in a population of the allogamous Convallaria majalis. Methods A full analysis of paternity was performed by genotyping all flowering individuals and all viable seeds produced during a single season using AFLP. Mating patterns were examined and the spatial position of ramets was related to the extent of multiple paternity, fruiting success and seed production. Key Results The overall outcrossing rate was high (91 %) and pollen flow into the population was considerable (27 %). Despite extensive clonal growth, multiple paternity was relatively common (the fraction of siblings sharing the same father was 0·53 within ramets). The diversity of offspring collected from reproductive ramets surrounded by genetically identical inflorescences was as high as among offspring collected from ramets surrounded by distinct genets. There was no significant relationship between the similarity of the pollen load received by two ramets and the distance between them. Neither the distance of ramets with respect to distinct genets nor the distance to the genet centre significantly affected fruiting success or seed production. Conclusions Random mating and considerable pollen inflow most probably implied that pollen dispersal distances were sufficiently high to mitigate local mate scarcity despite extensive clonal spread. The data provide no evidence for the intrusion of clonal growth on fine
Mainguy, Julien; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W
Matings between relatives lead to a decrease in offspring genetic diversity which can reduce fitness, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. Because alpine ungulates generally live in small structured populations and often exhibit a polygynous mating system, they are susceptible to inbreeding. Here, we used marker-based measures of pairwise genetic relatedness and inbreeding to investigate the fitness consequences of matings between relatives in a long-term study population of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) at Caw Ridge, Alberta, Canada. We first assessed whether individuals avoided mating with kin by comparing actual and random mating pairs according to their estimated genetic relatedness, which was derived from 25 unlinked polymorphic microsatellite markers and reflected pedigree relatedness. We then examined whether individual multilocus heterozygosity H, used as a measure of inbreeding, was predicted by parental relatedness and associated with yearling survival and the annual probability of giving birth to a kid in adult females. Breeding pairs identified by genetic parentage analyses of offspring that survived to 1 year of age were less genetically related than expected under random matings. Parental relatedness was negatively correlated with offspring H, and more heterozygous yearlings had higher survival to 2 years of age. The probability of giving birth was not affected by H in adult females. Because kids that survived to yearling age were mainly produced by less genetically related parents, our results suggest that some individuals experienced inbreeding depression in early life. Future research will be required to quantify the levels of gene flow between different herds, and evaluate their effects on population genetic diversity and dynamics.
Sugie, Naomi F
The United States criminal justice and welfare systems are two important government institutions in the lives of the poor. Despite many theoretical discussions about their relationship, their operation at the level of offenders and families remains poorly understood. This paper utilizes Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data to examine how recent paternal incarceration is associated with families' receipt of TANF, food stamps, and Medicaid/SCHIP. Results robust to multiple tests find that incarceration is not related to subsequent TANF receipt but is significantly associated with increased receipt of food stamps and Medicaid/SCHIP. The findings suggest that greater government involvement among poor families is an unexpected consequence of mass imprisonment; however, increased participation does not include TANF-the cash assistance program of most concern to theorists.
DeAngelis, Ross; Gogola, Joseph; Dodd, Logan; Rhodes, Justin S
The nonapeptides isotocin (IT) and arginine vasotocin (AVT), along with their mammalian homologs oxytocin and arginine vasopressin, are well known regulators of social behaviors across vertebrate taxa. However, little is known about their involvement in paternal care. Here, we measured the effect of an IT and an AVT V1a receptor antagonist on paternal behaviors in the primarily paternal teleost Amphiprion ocellaris. We also measured the effect of the IT receptor antagonist on aggression in dyadic contests between two non-reproductive fish to assess specificity of the effect on paternal behaviors. Individual differences in levels of paternal behaviors (nips, fanning the eggs, and proportion of the time in the nest) were consistent across spawning cycles when no treatments were administered. The IT receptor antagonist severely reduced paternal behaviors but had no effect on aggression, whereas the AVT V1a receptor antagonist increased paternal behaviors. These results support the idea that IT signaling is crucial for the expression of paternal behavior in A. ocellaris. Based on a previous study showing that the AVT V1a antagonist decreases aggression in dyadic contests, we hypothesize that the antagonist enhances paternal behavior indirectly by reducing vigilance and aggression, thereby alleviating effort directed towards other competing behaviors and allowing for the increased expression of paternal behaviors.
The last years, the number of paternity tests on buccal swabs sold over the internet as "test kits", has steeply increased. The commercial providers of these services facilitate controversial practices, including clandestine sampling at home, anonymous sending off for analysis, motherless testing and using "stolen" personal objects containing biological material (combs, cigarette butts). This has led to concern on the consequences on the family unit--especially the child--which may suffer emotionally, physically and financially. In reaction, legal initiatives are appearing throughout Europe. The UK Human Genetics Commission has advised that the non-consensual obtaining and analysis of personal genetic information should be a new criminal offence. The German Federal Court of Justice has ruled that paternity tests performed without the mother's knowledge are inadmissible as evidence in lawsuits. French law strictly forbids the application of DNA testing without the involvement of the court system. In Belgium, a proposal for law has been laid down where the offering to
D'Auria, Maurizio; Racioppi, Rocco
The Paternò-Büchi reaction is a photochemical reaction between a carbonyl compound and an alkene to give the corresponding oxetane. In this review the mechanism of the reaction is discussed. On this basis the described use in the reaction with electron rich alkenes (enolethers, enol esters, enol silyl ethers, enanines, heterocyclic compounds has been reported. The stereochemical behavior of the reaction is particularly stressed. We pointed out the reported applications of this reaction to the synthesis of naturally occuring compounds.
Yeshurun, Shlomo; Short, Annabel K; Bredy, Timothy W; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J
Recent studies have demonstrated that paternal stress in rodents can result in modification of offspring behavior. Environmental enrichment, which enhances cognitive stimulation and physical activity, modifies various behaviors and reduces stress responses in adult rodents. We investigated the transgenerational influence of paternal environmental enrichment on offspring behavior and physiological stress response. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (F0) were exposed to either environmental enrichment or standard housing for four weeks and then pair-mated with naïve females. The F2 generation was generated using F1 male offspring. Male and female F1 and F2 offspring were tested for anxiety using the elevated-plus maze and large open field at 8 weeks of age. Depression-related behavior was assessed using the forced-swim test. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function was determined by quantification of serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels at baseline and after forced-swim stress. Paternal environmental enrichment was associated with increased body weights of male F1 and F2 offspring. There was no significant effect on F1 offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. There were no changes in anxiety-related behaviors in the F2 offspring, however these mice displayed a reduced latency to immobility in the forced-swim test. Furthermore, F2 females had significantly higher serum corticosterone levels post-stress, but not ACTH. These results show that paternal environmental enrichment exerts a sex-specific transgenerational impact on the behavioral and physiological response to stress. Our findings have implications for the modelling of psychiatric disorders in rodents.
Olshan, A F; Baird, P A; Teschke, K
An exploratory case-control study of paternal occupation as a risk factor for Down syndrome was conducted. With the use of the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry, 1,008 cases of live-born Down syndrome were identified for the period 1952-73. Two controls were matched to each case by using the birth files of British Columbia. Paternal occupation was obtained from the birth notice. Elevated maternal age-adjusted relative risks of Down syndrome were found for fathers employed as janitors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.02-10.44); mechanics (OR = 3.27; C.I. = 1.57-6.80); farm managers/workers (OR = 2.03; C.I. = 1.25-3.03); material-moving equipment operators (OR = 1.88; C.I. = 0.93-3.82); food processors (OR = 1.79; C.I. = 0.96-3.31); sheet-metal workers, iron workers, and other metalworkers (OR = 1.57; C.I. = 0.92-2.69); and sawmill workers (OR = 1.43; C.I. = 0.90-2.66). This large study provides new leads for further evaluation of the role of paternal exposures in the etiology of Down syndrome. PMID:2523192
Braun, K; Champagne, F A
Although mammalian parent-offspring interactions during early life are primarily through the mother, there is increasing evidence for the impact of fathers on offspring development. A critical issue concerns the pathways through which this paternal influence is achieved. In the present review, we highlight the literature suggesting several of these routes of paternal effects in mammals. First, similar to mothers, fathers can influence offspring development through the direct care of offspring, as has been observed in biparental species. Second, there is growing evidence that, even in the absence of contact with offspring, fathers can transmit environmentally-induced effects (i.e. behavioural, neurobiological and metabolic phenotypes induced by stress, nutrition and toxins) to offspring and it has been speculated that these effects are achieved through inherited epigenetic variation within the patriline. Third, fathers may also impact the quality of mother-infant interactions and thus achieve an indirect influence on offspring. Importantly, these pathways of paternal influence are not mutually exclusive but rather serve as an illustration of the complex mechanisms through which parental influence is achieved. These influences may serve to transmit traits across generations, thus leading to a transgenerational transmission of neurobiological and behavioural phenotypes.
Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Cyrenne, Diane
This study examined the impact of a 10-hour teacher-student mentoring relationship on the academic adjustment of at-risk college students. A quasi-experimental design involving a comparison group (NM: students with No Mentor), a High Relatedness/Autonomy group (HR/HA: students who perceived high levels of relatedness and autonomy during the mentoring process) and a Low Relatedness/Autonomy group (LR/LA: students who perceived low levels of relatedness and autonomy during the mentoring process) was used for that purpose. Academic adjustment and performance were assessed before (Time 1) and five months after involvement in mentoring (Time 3) for all students. Perceived relatedness and autonomy were assessed after the last mentoring meeting (Time 2) for students involved in mentoring relationships only. Results indicated better social adjustment and institutional attachment in college for the HR students than for the LR and NM students, even after controlling for initial adjustment, performance and social network dispositions. In addition, the LR and LA students presented lower academic and emotional adjustment in college and lower academic performance than NM, HR, and HA students. The potential positive and negative impacts of mentoring relationships are discussed in light of autonomy and relatedness processes. Editors' Strategic Implications: Especially valuable is the articulation of why mentoring might be expected to affect social and academic adjustment outcomes via its effects on the development of autonomy and relatedness. Application of attachment theory and measurement to the study of mentoring is a strategy that shows promise.
Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken
Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally observed in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this clearance of paternal mitochondria has remained largely unknown. Recently, we showed that autophagy is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Shortly after fertilization, autophagosomes are induced locally around the penetrated sperm components. These autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genomes remain even in the larval stage. Therefore, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is accomplished by autophagic degradation of paternal mitochondria. We also found that another kind of sperm-derived structure, called the membranous organelle, is degraded by zygotic autophagy as well. We thus propose to term this allogeneic (nonself) organelle autophagy as allophagy.
Schlicht, Lotte; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart
Most studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) focus either on a specific male's extra-pair gains or his extra-pair losses. For an individual bird however, mate choice or mate availability may underlie strong spatial restrictions. Disregarding this spatial aspect may underestimate or mask effects of parameters influencing observed EPP patterns. Here, we propose a spatially explicit model for investigating the probability of having extra-pair offspring (EPO) within local networks of breeding pairs. The data set includes all realized and unrealized potential extra-pair matings. This method is biologically meaningful because it allows (a) considering both members of an extra-pair mating and their social mates, and (b) direct modelling of the spatial context in which extra-pair behaviour occurs. The method has the advantage that it can provide inference about the relative contribution of spatial and non-spatial parameters, and about the relative importance of male and female neighbourhoods. We apply this method to parentage data from 1025 broods collected over 12 breeding seasons in two independent study populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We investigate a set of predictions based on the EPP literature, namely that EPP depends on male age and body size, breeding density and breeding synchrony. In all analyses, we control for breeding distance, a parameter that is expected to influence EPP even under random mating. The results show that older and larger males were more likely to sire EPO, but both effects decreased with increasing breeding distance. Local breeding density but not synchrony predicted whether a particular male-female combination had EPO, at least in one of the study areas. Apart from breeding distance, male age had the strongest effect on EPP, followed by a measure of breeding density. The method thus allows a comprehensive assessment of the relative importance of different types of spatial and non-spatial parameters to explain variation in the
Russell, L B; Bangham, J W
The two parental genomes lie separate within the zygote and may be differentially affected by environmental influences. We have shown earlier (Russell et al., 1988) that the maternal genome within the mouse zygote is exquisitely sensitive to the induction of point mutations by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), and that the initial lesion probably occurs in one strand of the DNA. The present experiment measured specific-locus mutation induction in the paternal genome. Zygotes containing a multiple-recessive maternal genome (a; b; p cch; d se; s) and the corresponding wild-type alleles in the paternal one were exposed to 50 mg ENU/kg in vivo at one of two stages: the presumed times of sperm entry and early pronuclear stage. At weaning age, the resulting mice were examined for mutations at the marked loci as well as for other mutations producing externally visible phenotypes. At the marked loci, one possible mosaic (for b) was observed among 2113 classified offspring that had been treated with ENU as zygotes; this animal failed to transmit a mutation. By contrast, in the reciprocal cross (which tests the maternal genome) we had observed 8 specific-locus mutations (6 of them mosaics) among 1555 offspring that had received the same dose of ENU during sperm entry (and completion of oocyte meiosis II). In the present experiment, we also found one mutation at other loci (two at other loci in the reciprocal cross). The frequency of offspring with small white belly spots was significantly greater in the treated groups (3.5 and 1.9% at the earlier and later stage, respectively) than in the control (1.0%), the excess being almost entirely due to daughters. Genetic tests of a large number of such offspring failed to find a genetic cause. Instead, it appears that this phenotype may be influenced by factors in the intrauterine environment. It is concluded that shortly after sperm entry, the paternal genome of the zygote is less sensitive than the maternal one to the induction of
Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok; Rohra, Vikram K; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Turki, Rola F
Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in average paternal age when the first child is conceived, either due to increased life expectancy, widespread use of contraception, late marriages and other factors. While the effect of maternal ageing on fertilization and reproduction is well known and several studies have shown that women over 35 years have a higher risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, and perinatal complications. The effect of paternal age on semen quality and reproductive function is controversial for several reasons. First, there is no universal definition for advanced paternal ageing. Secondly, the literature is full of studies with conflicting results, especially for the most common parameters tested. Advancing paternal age also has been associated with increased risk of genetic disease. Our exhaustive literature review has demonstrated negative effects on sperm quality and testicular functions with increasing paternal age. Epigenetics changes, DNA mutations along with chromosomal aneuploidies have been associated with increasing paternal age. In addition to increased risk of male infertility, paternal age has also been demonstrated to impact reproductive and fertility outcomes including a decrease in IVF/ICSI success rate and increasing rate of preterm birth. Increasing paternal age has shown to increase the incidence of different types of disorders like autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and childhood leukemia in the progeny. It is thereby essential to educate the infertile couples on the disturbing links between increased paternal age and rising disorders in their offspring, to better counsel them during their reproductive years.
Sabet, Julia A.; Park, Lara K.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Tai, Albert K.; Koh, Gar Yee; Pfalzer, Anna C.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Mason, Joel B.; Liu, Zhenhua; Byun, Alexander J.; Crott, Jimmy W.
Background The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well. Objective In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content. Methods Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation) were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL), mildly deficient (DEF), or supplemental (SUPP) quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden. Results No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring. Conclusions In this animal model, modulation of
Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moltke, Ida
Motivation: Pairwise relatedness estimation is important in many contexts such as disease mapping and population genetics. However, all existing estimation methods are based on called genotypes, which is not ideal for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data of low depth from which genotypes cannot be called with high certainty. Results: We present a software tool, NgsRelate, for estimating pairwise relatedness from NGS data. It provides maximum likelihood estimates that are based on genotype likelihoods instead of genotypes and thereby takes the inherent uncertainty of the genotypes into account. Using both simulated and real data, we show that NgsRelate provides markedly better estimates for low-depth NGS data than two state-of-the-art genotype-based methods. Availability: NgsRelate is implemented in C++ and is available under the GNU license at www.popgen.dk/software. Contact: email@example.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26323718
Wolf, Jochen B W; Traulsen, Arne; James, Richard
Our understanding of how cooperation can arise in a population of selfish individuals has been greatly advanced by theory. More than one approach has been used to explore the effect of population structure. Inclusive fitness theory uses genetic relatedness r to express the role of population structure. Evolutionary graph theory models the evolution of cooperation on network structures and focuses on the number of interacting partners k as a quantity of interest. Here we use empirical data from a hierarchically structured animal contact network to examine the interplay between independent, measurable proxies for these key parameters. We find strong inverse correlations between estimates of r and k over three levels of social organization, suggesting that genetic relatedness and social contact structure capture similar structural information in a real population.
Cant, Michael A.; Sanderson, Jennifer L.
Females of many animal species seek mating opportunities with multiple males, despite being able to obtain sufficient sperm to father their offspring from a single male. In animals that live in stable social groups, females often choose to mate outside their group resulting in extra-group paternity (EGP). One reason proposed to explain female choice for extra-group males is to obtain compatible genes, for example, in order to avoid inbreeding depression in offspring. The benefits of such extra-group paternities could be substantial if they result in fitter, outbred offspring. However, avoiding inbreeding in this way could be costly for females, for example, through retaliation by cuckolded males or through receiving aggression while prospecting for extra-group mating opportunities. We investigate the costs and benefits of EGP in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo, a cooperatively breeding mammal in which within-group mates are sometimes close relatives. We find that pups born to females that mate with extra-group males are more genetically heterozygous are heavier and are more likely to survive to independence than pups born to females that mate within their group. However, extra-group matings also involve substantial costs as they occur during violent encounters that sometimes result in injury and death. This appears to lead femalebanded mongooses to adaptively adjust EGP levels according to the current risk of inbreeding associated with mating within the group. For group-living animals, the costs of intergroup interactions may help to explain variation in both inbreeding rates and EGP within and between species. PMID:26609201
Altintas, Emin; De Benedetto, Giorgio; Gallouj, Karim
Based on the motivational sequence described in Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the relationship between relatedness, motivation, adaptation and leisure in nursing homes. We formulated the hypothesis that the variables of the study would be found in an integrative mediational sequence: Participation in leisure activities→Relatedness→Self-determined motivation→Adaptation to nursing homes. Participants (N=112, mean age=84.17) were invited to complete questionnaires assessing these variables. Results of the path analysis found an unsatisfactory fit for this model but revealed another model (Model 2) with a good fit index: Relatedness→Participation in leisure activities→Self-determined motivation→Adaptation to nursing homes→Relatedness. Model 2 fitted better than model 1: the Chi-square values were not significant, Chi(2) (df=2)=5.1, p=0.078 and other indices were satisfactory (CFI=0.930, RMSEA=0.049 and NFI=0.918). These results suggest that feeling connected and secure in the relationships with others, and integrated as an individual to the group contribute to enhance leisure practice, self-determined motivation, and finally adaptation to life environment. Consequently, the relatedness promotes leisure activities practice which represents a central adaptive behavior in nursing homes.
Refardt, Dominik; Bergmiller, Tobias; Kümmerli, Rolf
High relatedness among interacting individuals has generally been considered a precondition for the evolution of altruism. However, kin-selection theory also predicts the evolution of altruism when relatedness is low, as long as the cost of the altruistic act is minor compared with its benefit. Here, we demonstrate evidence for a low-cost altruistic act in bacteria. We investigated Escherichia coli responding to the attack of an obligately lytic phage by committing suicide in order to prevent parasite transmission to nearby relatives. We found that bacterial suicide provides large benefits to survivors at marginal costs to committers. The cost of suicide was low, because infected cells are moribund, rapidly dying upon phage infection, such that no more opportunity for reproduction remains. As a consequence of its marginal cost, host suicide was selectively favoured even when relatedness between committers and survivors approached zero. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that low-cost suicide can evolve with ease, represents an effective host-defence strategy, and seems to be widespread among microbes. Moreover, low-cost suicide might also occur in higher organisms as exemplified by infected social insect workers leaving the colony to die in isolation.
Zeyl, E; Aars, J; Ehrich, D; Wiig, O
The kin structure and dispersal pattern of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Barents Sea was investigated during the spring mating season using two complementary approaches. First, individual genotypes based on the analyses of 27 microsatellite loci of 583 polar bears were related to field information gathered from 1146 bears in order to reconstruct the animals' pedigrees and to infer geographical distances between adult bears of different relatedness categories. According to the data, the median natal dispersal distance of the male animals was 52 km while that of the females was 93 km. Second, the relatedness of pairs of adult bears was estimated and correlated to the geographical distance between them. The female dyads had a much stronger kin structure than the male dyads. The 'pedigree approach' revealed a male kin structure which could not be detected using the 'relatedness approach'. This suggests that, on a broader scale, effective dispersal is slightly male biased. Despite fidelity to natal areas, male-mediated gene flow may nevertheless prevent genetic differentiation. Males might occasionally shift their home range which could therefore lead to a male-biased breeding dispersal. Our results showed that a nonterritorial species such as the polar bear that has a high dispersal potential, lives in a highly unstable environment and migrates seasonally is still able to exhibit a distinct kin structure during the mating season.
Fleskes, Joseph P.; Fowler, Ada C.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.
Female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) were sampled in California's three main Central Valley wintering regions (Sacramento Valley, Suisun Marsh, San Joaquin Valley) during September–October before most regional movements occur and microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were analyzed to examine population structure and relatedness. Despite reportedly high rates of early-fall pairing and regional fidelity, both sets of markers indicated that there was little overall genetic structuring by region. Pintails from Suisun Marsh did exhibit higher relatedness among individuals and capture groups than in the Sacramento or San Joaquin Valleys, likely reflecting a sample comprised of a greater proportion of local breeders. The lack of genetic structuring among regions indicates that a high degree of movement and interchange occurs among pintails wintering in the Central Valley. Thus, although maintaining the existing distribution of pintails among Central Valley regions is important for other reasons, it does not appear to be critical to retain current patterns of population genetic variation. Because of potential lack of independence among highly related study individuals, researchers should consider regional differences in relatedness when designing sampling schemes and interpreting research findings.
Lewis, Jennifer S; Wartzok, Douglas; Heithaus, Michael; Krützen, Michael
In many species, particular individuals consistently lead group travel. While benefits to followers often are relatively obvious, including access to resources, benefits to leaders are often less obvious. This is especially true for species that feed on patchy mobile resources where all group members may locate prey simultaneously and food intake likely decreases with increasing group size. Leaders in highly complex habitats, however, could provide access to foraging resources for less informed relatives, thereby gaining indirect benefits by helping kin. Recently, leadership has been documented in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) where direct benefits to leaders appear unlikely. To test whether leaders could benefit indirectly we examined relatedness between leader-follower pairs and compared these levels to pairs who associated but did not have leader-follower relationship (neither ever led the other). We found the average relatedness value for leader-follower pairs was greater than expected based on chance. The same was not found when examining non leader-follower pairs. Additionally, relatedness for leader-follower pairs was positively correlated with association index values, but no correlation was found for this measure in non leader-follower pairs. Interestingly, haplotypes were not frequently shared between leader-follower pairs (25%). Together, these results suggest that bottlenose dolphin leaders have the opportunity to gain indirect benefits by leading relatives. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the maintenance of leadership in a highly dynamic fission-fusion population with few obvious direct benefits to leaders.
Lewis, Jennifer S.; Wartzok, Douglas; Heithaus, Michael; Krützen, Michael
In many species, particular individuals consistently lead group travel. While benefits to followers often are relatively obvious, including access to resources, benefits to leaders are often less obvious. This is especially true for species that feed on patchy mobile resources where all group members may locate prey simultaneously and food intake likely decreases with increasing group size. Leaders in highly complex habitats, however, could provide access to foraging resources for less informed relatives, thereby gaining indirect benefits by helping kin. Recently, leadership has been documented in a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) where direct benefits to leaders appear unlikely. To test whether leaders could benefit indirectly we examined relatedness between leader-follower pairs and compared these levels to pairs who associated but did not have leader-follower relationship (neither ever led the other). We found the average relatedness value for leader-follower pairs was greater than expected based on chance. The same was not found when examining non leader-follower pairs. Additionally, relatedness for leader-follower pairs was positively correlated with association index values, but no correlation was found for this measure in non leader-follower pairs. Interestingly, haplotypes were not frequently shared between leader-follower pairs (25%). Together, these results suggest that bottlenose dolphin leaders have the opportunity to gain indirect benefits by leading relatives. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the maintenance of leadership in a highly dynamic fission-fusion population with few obvious direct benefits to leaders. PMID:23516445
Wright, Jonathan; McDonald, Paul G.; te Marvelde, Luc; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Bishop, Charles M.
Indirect fitness benefits from kin selection can explain why non-breeding individuals help raise the young of relatives. However, the evolution of helping by non-relatives requires direct fitness benefits, for example via group augmentation. Here, we examine nest visit rates, load sizes and prey types delivered by breeding pairs and their helpers in the cooperatively breeding bell miner (Manorina melanophrys). In this system, males remain in their natal colony while young females typically disperse, and helpers of both sexes often assist at multiple nests concurrently. We found extremely clear evidence for the expected effect of genetic relatedness on individual helping effort per nest within colonies. This positive incremental effect of kinship was facultative—i.e. largely the result of within-individual variation in helping effort. Surprisingly, no sex differences were detectable in any aspect of helping, and even non-relatives provided substantial aid. Helpers and breeders of both sexes regulated their provisioning effort by responding visit-by-visit to changes in nestling begging. Helping behaviour in bell miners therefore appears consistent with adaptive cooperative investment in the brood, and kin-selected care by relatives. Similar investment by ‘unrelated’ helpers of both sexes argues against direct fitness benefits, but is perhaps explained by kin selection at the colony level. PMID:19846458
Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger
Considering the effect of implicit motives, the current study examined the link between well-being in important life domains, that is, job and relationship, and the satisfaction of needs as proposed by self-determination theory. Data on domain-specific well-being, satisfaction of needs for competence and relatedness, and the implicit achievement and affiliation motives were assessed from 259 German and Cameroonian participants. The achievement motive moderated the relation between competence and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the affiliation motive moderated the association between relatedness and relationship satisfaction. Satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness is linked to higher levels of job and relationship satisfaction, respectively, among individuals with strong implicit motives. Effects were found regardless of participants' culture of origin. Findings indicate that implicit motives can be understood as weighting dispositions that affect how far experiences of competence and relatedness are linked with satisfaction in relevant life domains.
Aims: In this study, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among resistant enterococci from dogs and cats in the United States were determined. Methods and Results: Enterococci resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin,...
Vieira, T C; Gigonzac, M A D; Silva, D M; Rodovalho, R G; Santos, G S; da Cruz, A D
The central region of Brazil was colonized by internal migration of individuals of different origins, who contributed to the genetic diversity existing in this population. This study determined the allele frequencies and haplotype diversity of Y-STRs in Goiás State, Central Brazil, and compared the data obtained with a sample of the Brazilian population, consisting of individuals from the five geographical regions of Brazil. A total of 353 males were typed for 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers. We selected males who had no degree of relatedness, from the five mesoregions of Goiás State. DNA was extracted from blood samples followed by the amplification of the 12 Y-chromosome loci. The products were analyzed to obtain the allele profiles on an ABI3500 automated sequencer using the Gene Mapper software. Allele frequencies and haplotype diversity were estimated by direct counting, and gene diversity for each locus was computed using the Arlequin software. The results are consistent with the history of miscegenation of the population of Central Brazil, in which we observed 321 different haplotypes. The average gene diversity at the 12 loci was 0.645. DYS385b and DYS389I showed the highest (0.704) and lowest (0.520) genetic diversity values, respectively. The FST value between the Brazilian and Goiás populations was 0.00951, showing no statistical significance. The results of this study allowed the establishment of haplotypes found in the forensic samples of Goiás State serving as a reference in the elucidation of criminal cases and paternity tests, as well as population and evolutionary inferences.
Background Austronesian is a linguistic family spread in most areas of the Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean. Based on their linguistic similarity, this linguistic family included Malayo-Polynesians and Taiwan aborigines. The linguistic similarity also led to the controversial hypothesis that Taiwan is the homeland of all the Malayo-Polynesians, a hypothesis that has been debated by ethnologists, linguists, archaeologists, and geneticists. It is well accepted that the Eastern Austronesians (Micronesians and Polynesians) derived from the Western Austronesians (Island Southeast Asians and Taiwanese), and that the Daic populations on the mainland are supposed to be the headstream of all the Austronesian populations. Results In this report, we studied 20 SNPs and 7 STRs in the non-recombining region of the 1,509 Y chromosomes from 30 China Daic populations, 23 Indonesian and Vietnam Malayo-Polynesian populations, and 11 Taiwan aboriginal populations. These three groups show many resemblances in paternal lineages. Admixture analyses demonstrated that the Daic populations are hardly influenced by Han Chinese genetically, and that they make up the largest proportion of Indonesians. Most of the population samples contain a high frequency of haplogroup O1a-M119, which is nearly absent in other ethnic families. The STR network of haplogroup O1a* illustrated that Indonesian lineages did not derive from Taiwan aborigines as linguistic studies suggest, but from Daic populations. Conclusion We show that, in contrast to the Taiwan homeland hypothesis, the Island Southeast Asians do not have a Taiwan origin based on their paternal lineages. Furthermore, we show that both Taiwan aborigines and Indonesians likely derived from the Daic populations based on their paternal lineages. These two populations seem to have evolved independently of each other. Our results indicate that a super-phylum, which includes Taiwan aborigines, Daic, and Malayo-Polynesians, is
Short, A K; Fennell, K A; Perreau, V M; Fox, A; O'Bryan, M K; Kim, J H; Bredy, T W; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J
Recent studies have suggested that physiological and behavioral traits may be transgenerationally inherited through the paternal lineage, possibly via non-genomic signals derived from the sperm. To investigate how paternal stress might influence offspring behavioral phenotypes, a model of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation was used. Male breeders were administered water supplemented with corticosterone (CORT) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated female mice. Female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers displayed altered fear extinction at 2 weeks of age. Only male F1 offspring exhibited altered patterns of ultrasonic vocalization at postnatal day 3 and, as adults, showed decreased time in open on the elevated-plus maze and time in light on the light–dark apparatus, suggesting a hyperanxiety-like behavioral phenotype due to paternal CORT treatment. Interestingly, expression of the paternally imprinted gene Igf2 was increased in the hippocampus of F1 male offspring but downregulated in female offspring. Male and female F2 offspring displayed increased time spent in the open arm of the elevated-plus maze, suggesting lower levels of anxiety compared with control animals. Only male F2 offspring showed increased immobility time on the forced-swim test and increased latency to feed on the novelty-supressed feeding test, suggesting a depression-like phenotype in these animals. Collectively, these data provide evidence that paternal CORT treatment alters anxiety and depression-related behaviors across multiple generations. Analysis of the small RNA profile in sperm from CORT-treated males revealed marked effects on the expression of small noncoding RNAs. Sperm from CORT-treated males contained elevated levels of three microRNAs, miR-98, miR-144 and miR-190b, which are predicted to interact with multiple growth factors, including Igf2 and Bdnf. Sustained elevation of glucocorticoids is therefore involved in the transmission of
Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E
In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents’ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans. PMID:27424551
Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M.
Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic…
Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli
Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.
Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli
Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict. PMID:26811909
Hardesty, Constance; And Others
Data from a longitudinal study of 2,000 children concerning paternal involvement, the father-child relationship, and effects on gender role expectations of sons and daughters suggest that the development of egalitarian views about work and parenthood depend less on paternal involvement than on the nature of that involvement. (SLD)
Hashemian, F; Shafigh, F; Roohi, E
In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents' libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.
This study extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the causes of children's behavioral problems by considering the effects of paternal incarceration on children's physical aggression at age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that paternal incarceration is associated with…
Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.
Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.
The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…
An overview of some major current issues in maternal and paternal deprivation is presented. Parts I and II focus on (1) single parents and issues in paternal deprivation and (2) sex stereotyping and issues in maternal deprivation, respectively. More particularly, Part I discusses the effects of divorce and death on children and the problem of…
Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J
The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p < .01) and mothers' control (p < .001) were significantly associated with child weight status. Fathers' reinforcement (p < .01) was significantly associated with child physical activity. For screen-time, mothers' monitoring (p < .001) and child characteristics [age (p = .01), sex (p = .01), BMI z-score (p = .03)] were significant predictors. Mothers' parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors.
Macan, Marijana; Uvodić, Petra; Botica, Vladimir
We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and sister. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-sister incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci.
Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark
The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society.
Olshan, A F; Breslow, N E; Daling, J R; Weiss, N S; Leviton, A
Data from a case-control study of childhood brain tumors were analyzed to examine the possibility that paternal occupation in the aerospace industry is related to the development of a brain tumor in offspring. Parents of 51 children with brain tumors diagnosed in western Washington State during 1978-81 were interviewed, and their responses were compared to those of parents of 142 children selected at random from this population. Among all children, proportions of case and control fathers who had ever been employed in the aerospace industry were nearly identical [relative risk (RR) = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-2.19]. Employment in the aerospace industry during the period from 1 year prior to birth to the time of diagnosis and any employment in the manufacturing part of the industry were not associated with increased risk. However, stratification by age at diagnosis revealed an increased risk associated with father's ever-employment in the industry (RR = 2.10; 95% CI = 0.79-5.60) for children under 10 years old. A corresponding decreased risk (RR = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.01-1.08) was found for children over 10 years old. Because of the relatively small number of cases with a positive paternal occupational history, interpretations of the difference in the direction of the association according to age at diagnosis must remain tentative ones.
Blouin, J.L.; Avramopoulos, D. ); Pangalos, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.
Uniparental disomy (UPD) involving several different chromosomes has been described in several cases of human pathologies. In order to investigate whether UPD for chromosome 21 is associated with abnormal phenotypes, the authors analyzed DNA polymorphisms in DNA from a family with de novo Robertsonian translocation t(21q;21q). The proband was a healthy male with 45 dup(21q) who was ascertained through his trisomy 21 offspring. No phenotypic abnormalities were noted in the physical exam, and his past medical history was unremarkable. The authors obtained genotypes for the proband and his parents' leukocyte DNAs from 17 highly informative short sequence repeat polymorphisms that map in the pericentromeric region and along the entire length of 21q. The order of the markers has been previously determined through the linkage and physical maps of this chromosome. For the nine informative markers there was no maternal allele contribution to the genotype of the proband; in addition, there was always reduction to homozygosity of a paternal allele. These data indicated that there was paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 21 (pUPiD21). The authors conclude that pUPiD21 is not associated with abnormal phenotypes and that there are probably no imprinted genes on chromosome 21. 36 refs., 3 figs.
Hadrys, H; Schierwater, B; Dellaporta, S L; DeSalle, R; Buss, L W
We used Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting to address issues of paternity in two odonate species. Amplification artifacts of RAPD markers were controlled by assessing paternity patterns relative to the banding patterns generated by quantitative mixtures of DNA from putative parents ('synthetic offspring'). In the aeshnid dragonfly Anax parthenope, for which the mating histories of both males and females were unknown, we found strong evidence for complete paternity success for the contact guarding male. In the highly polygamous libellulid dragonfly Orthetrum coerulescens, we detected and quantified mixed paternity in sequentially produced offspring clutches and demonstrated that fertilization success is correlated with the duration of copulation. Our results suggest that RAPD fingerprinting is suitable to address issues of paternity in systems which are genetically uncharacterized and produce large offspring clutches.
Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Chan, Priscilla T; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S
Intrusive parenting, primarily examined among middle to upper-middle class mothers, has been positively associated with the presence and severity of anxiety in children. This study employed cross-sectional linear regression and longitudinal latent growth curve analyses to evaluate the main and interactive effects of early childhood paternal autonomy restriction (AR) and neighborhood safety (NS) on the trajectory of child anxiety in a sample of 596 community children and fathers from the NICHD SECYD. Longitudinal analyses revealed that greater paternal AR at age 6 was actually associated with greater decreases in child anxiety in later childhood. Cross-sectional analyses revealed main effects for NS across childhood, and interactive effects of paternal AR and NS that were present only in early childhood, whereby children living in safer neighborhoods demonstrated increased anxiety when experiencing lower levels of paternal AR. Findings further clarify for whom and when paternal AR impacts child anxiety in community youth.
Liu, Chang; Wu, Xinchun; Zou, Shengqi
This study examined the mediating role of coparenting in the association between differences/similarities in paternal and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and paternal involvement in Chinese families. The sample included 244 couples with children aged 3–7 years. Fathers and mothers reported their individual incomes, educational levels, occupations, and coparenting behavior (measured using the Coparenting Scale), and fathers completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the associations between SES and paternal involvement. Results suggested that SES indicator measures were outcome specific. Occupational differences/similarities were associated with paternal involvement indirectly, via fathers’ family integrity practices. Income and educational differences/similarities did not affect paternal involvement. The results suggested that the traditional Chinese view that “men are chiefly responsible for activity in society, while women are responsible for the home” has faded. PMID:27445908
Collet, J M; Blows, M W
After choosing a first mate, polyandrous females have access to a range of opportunities to bias paternity, such as repeating matings with the preferred male, facilitating fertilization from the best sperm or differentially investing in offspring according to their sire. Female ability to bias paternity after a first mating has been demonstrated in a few species, but unambiguous evidence remains limited by the access to complex behaviours, sperm storage organs and fertilization processes within females. Even when found at the phenotypic level, the potential evolution of any mechanism allowing females to bias paternity other than mate choice remains little explored. Using a large population of pedigreed females, we developed a simple test to determine whether there is additive genetic variation in female ability to bias paternity after a first, chosen, mating. We applied this method in the highly polyandrous Drosophila serrata, giving females the opportunity to successively mate with two males ad libitum. We found that despite high levels of polyandry (females mated more than once per day), the first mate choice was a significant predictor of male total reproductive success. Importantly, there was no detectable genetic variance in female ability to bias paternity beyond mate choice. Therefore, whether or not females can bias paternity before or after copulation, their role on the evolution of sexual male traits is likely to be limited to their first mate choice in D. serrata.
Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain
Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically.
Lundstrom, Sebastian; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Carlstrom, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Mill, Jonathan; Rastam, Maria; Hultman, Christina M.; Ronald, Angelica; Anckarsater, Henrik; Plomin, Robert; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reichenberg, Abraham
Background: Despite extensive efforts, the causes of autism remain unknown. Advancing paternal age has been associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders. We aim to investigate three unresolved questions: (a) What is the association between paternal age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)?; (b) Does paternal age moderate the genetic and…
Chary, Mamatha C; Cruz, Jayson P; Bardi, Massimo; Becker, Elizabeth A
The importance of maternal care on offspring development has received considerable attention, although more recently, researchers have begun to focus on the significance of paternal contributions. In the monogamous and bi-parental California mouse, fathers provide high levels of care, and therefore serve as a model system for studying paternal effects on behavior and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. Paternal retrievals in this species influence long term changes in brain (expression of arginine vasopressin-AVP) and behavior (aggression and parenting) in adult male offspring. Further, paternal retrievals induce a transient increase in testosterone (T) in male offspring, which is thought to mediate the relationship between paternal retrievals and AVP expression. Although the father-son relationship has been well characterized, few studies have examined father-daughter interactions. In California mice, paternal retrievals increase aggression in female offspring. Although T has been implicated in the regulation of female aggression, it remains unclear whether T may underlie long-term changes in female offspring aggression in response to paternal retrievals. In the current study, we examined the influence of paternal retrievals on T in both male and female offspring. Retrievals were manipulated experimentally by displacement of the pup and trunk blood was collected from retrieved, non-retrieved, and non-manipulated (baseline) pups. We found that fathers expressed similar levels of retrievals towards sons and daughters, and that T levels were elevated in retrieved, as compared to non-retrieved offspring. Similar to what has been previously described in male offspring and replicated here, female offspring that were retrieved had higher T levels than non-retrieved females. Neither females nor males experienced a change in corticosterone levels in response to retrievals suggesting offspring do not mount a stress response to paternal care. Therefore, our data suggest
Becker, Elizabeth A; Moore, Brett M; Auger, Catherine; Marler, Catherine A
Paternal care during early development influences pup survivorship in the monogamous and biparental California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. Moreover, paternal pup retrievals impact development of adult offspring aggression and the neuropeptide vasopressin, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms of these developmental changes. Because testosterone can increase arginine vasopressin and aggression, we hypothesized that paternal pup retrievals increase testosterone levels in prepubertal male P. californicus pups. Male pups were assigned to one of three groups: hormonal baseline, nonretrieval control, or retrieval. On postnatal days 18-21, all pups and the mother were removed from the cage, and the focal male pup was placed either outside of the nest to elicit paternal retrievals (retrieval group) or in the nest to discourage paternal retrievals (nonretrieval group). Testosterone was elevated at 45-min, but not 90-min, post-manipulation in retrieved compared to nonretrieved pups. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between pup retrievals and testosterone in the 45-min group. This rapid testosterone rise in response to paternal retrievals may facilitate an increase in aggression and vasopressin in adult offspring. Therefore, this period of development previously viewed as hormonally quiescent may be more active in response to paternal behavior than previously thought.
Fontaine, Kathryn M.; Cooley, John R.; Simon, Chris
Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so “paternal leakage” of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated. PMID:17849021
Martínez, Ana; Ramos, Guillermo; Martínez-Torres, Martín; Nicolás, Leticia; Carmona, Agustín; Cárdenas, Mario; Luis, Juana
Here, we analyzed the effects of testosterone (T) and its metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), on the onset of paternal behavior in virgin male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We hypothesized that T and E2, but not DHT, would facilitate the onset of paternal behavior. Seventy males displaying aggression toward pups were selected through a paternal behavior screening test. Forty males were bilaterally castrated. Of them, 10 were implanted with T, 10 with E2, and 10 with DHT, and 10 received no treatment. Another 30 males underwent a sham procedure. In these gerbils, T, E2 and DHT were measured to obtain the basal levels of these hormones. After treatment, the paternal behavior test was conducted again. Blood samples were obtained immediately after the administration of the test for the quantification of T, E2 and DHT by radioimmunoassay. Surprisingly, 100% of the males that received T, E2 and DHT implants stopped being aggressive and became paternal. Castrated and sham-operated males displayed no changes in their aggressive behaviors. This is the first report that T and its metabolites are involved in neuroendocrine mechanisms that inhibit aggression toward pups and facilitate paternal behavior in virgin male Mongolian gerbils. In addition, this is the first report of regulation of paternal behavior in a rodent by estrogenic and androgenic pathways.
Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E
Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring.
Linschooten, Joost O; Verhofstad, Nicole; Gutzkow, Kristine; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Yauk, Carole; Oligschläger, Yvonne; Brunborg, Gunnar; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L
Paternal exposure to high levels of radioactivity causes heritable germline minisatellite mutations. However, the effect of more general paternal exposures, such as cigarette smoking, on germline mutations remains unexplored. We analyzed two of the most commonly used minisatellite loci (CEB1 and B6.7) to identify germline mutations in blood samples of complete mother-father-child triads from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The presence of mutations was subsequently related to general lifestyle factors, including paternal smoking before the partner became pregnant. Paternally derived mutations at the B6.7 locus (mutation frequency 0.07) were not affected by lifestyle. In contrast, high gross yearly income as a general measure of a healthy lifestyle coincided with low-mutation frequencies at the CEB1 locus (P=0.047). Income was inversely related to smoking behavior, and paternally derived CEB1 mutations were dose dependently increased when the father smoked in the 6 mo before pregnancy, 0.21 vs. 0.05 in smoking and nonsmoking fathers, respectively (P=0.061). These results suggest that paternal lifestyle can affect the chance of heritable mutations in unstable repetitive DNA sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting an effect of lifestyle on germline minisatellite mutation frequencies in a human population with moderate paternal exposures.
Swisher, Raymond R.; Shaw-Smith, Unique R.
Parental incarceration has been found to be associated with a wide range of negative outcomes in both childhood and adolescence. This Article uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to focus on the conditions under which associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent delinquency and depression are strongest. Paternal incarceration is most consistently and positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent depression are weaker and more contingent on gender and other moderating factors. One important moderator is the respondent's retrospective reports that he or she was physically or sexually abused by a parent or other adult caregiver during childhood. For example, in the absence of sexual abuse, paternal incarceration is associated with higher depression among girls. When coupled with reports of sexual abuse, in contrast, paternal incarceration is not associated with girls' depression, suggesting a potential protective effect. The child having ever coresided with his or her father is also found to moderate associations, with paternal incarceration most strongly associated with delinquency and depression among girls who had ever coresided with their fathers. Examination of the duration and timing of paternal incarceration also pointed to gender differences. PMID:27239076
Swisher, Raymond R; Shaw-Smith, Unique R
Parental incarceration has been found to be associated with a wide range of negative outcomes in both childhood and adolescence. This Article uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to focus on the conditions under which associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent delinquency and depression are strongest. Paternal incarceration is most consistently and positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Associations of paternal incarceration with adolescent depression are weaker and more contingent on gender and other moderating factors. One important moderator is the respondent's retrospective reports that he or she was physically or sexually abused by a parent or other adult caregiver during childhood. For example, in the absence of sexual abuse, paternal incarceration is associated with higher depression among girls. When coupled with reports of sexual abuse, in contrast, paternal incarceration is not associated with girls' depression, suggesting a potential protective effect. The child having ever coresided with his or her father is also found to moderate associations, with paternal incarceration most strongly associated with delinquency and depression among girls who had ever coresided with their fathers. Examination of the duration and timing of paternal incarceration also pointed to gender differences.
Fontaine, Kathryn M; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris
Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.
Pfefferle, Dana; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja
Widespread evidence exists that when relatives live together, kinship plays a central role in shaping the evolution of social behaviour. Previous studies showed that female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) recognize familiar maternal kin using vocal cues. Recognizing paternal kin might, however, be more difficult as rhesus females mate promiscuously during the possible conception period, most probably concealing paternity. Behavioural observations indicate that semi free-ranging female rhesus macaques prefer to associate with their paternal half-sisters in comparison to unrelated females within the same group, particularly when born within the same age cohort. However, the cues and mechanism/s used in paternal kin discrimination remain under debate. Here, we investigated whether female rhesus macaques use the acoustic modality to discriminate between paternal half-sisters and non-kin, and tested familiarity and phenotype matching as the underlying mechanisms. We found that test females responded more often to calls of paternal half-sisters compared with calls of unrelated females, and that this discrimination ability was independent of the level of familiarity between callers and test females, which provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence for acoustic phenotype matching. Our study strengthens the evidence that female rhesus macaques can recognize their paternal kin, and that vocalizations are used as a cue. PMID:24225452
Buchanan, David R.
With attention to the field of public health ethics growing, significant time has been devoted to identifying a sound ethical justification for paternalistic interventions that override individual autonomy to prevent people from adopting unhealthy behaviors. Efforts focused on specifying the conditions that warrant paternalism, however, are largely misplaced. On empirical and ethical grounds, public health should seek instead to expand individual autonomy to improve population health. To promote autonomy, the field should redirect current efforts toward clarifying principles of justice. Although public health’s most highly visible stance is associated with an egalitarian conception of “social justice,” it is imperative that public health professionals address gaping divisions in public understandings of justice. I present recommendations for initiating this process. PMID:18048780
Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H
This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats.
Fry, Anthony; Gergel, Tania L
The primary aims are to consider whether a range of paternalistic medical interventions can be justified in the treatment of factitious disorder (FD) and to show that the particularities of FD and its management make it an ideal phenomenon to highlight the difficulties of balancing respect for self-determination, responsibility and duty of care in psychiatry. FD is usually classified as a mental disorder involving deliberate and hidden feigning or inducement of illness, in order to achieve patient status. Both the nature of the disorder and the approach to treatment are controversial and under-researched. It is argued that FD should be classified as a mental disorder; may well expose the patient to extreme risk; can warrant paternalistic interventions, in order to fulfil duty of care. Moreover, treatment of FD is inherently paternalistic and therefore raises interesting questions about justifications and type of paternalistic interventions in psychiatry both for FD and in general. A brief account of key questions concerning psychiatry and paternalism is followed by some case histories of FD, the clinical dilemmas posed and the question of how this disorder might warrant paternalistic interventions. In order to answer this question, two things are considered: the legitimacy and character of FD as a mental disorder; possible frameworks for and types of paternalistic interventions. To conclude, it is argued that there are no compelling reasons for rejecting the use of paternalistic interventions for FD, but that further investigation of FD and type and frameworks for psychiatric paternalism, in relation to FD and other mental disorders, are urgently needed.
Males of many species invest resources in their offspring. For paternal investment to evolve, it must exhibit heritable variation. Using a standard half-sibling quantitative genetic design, we investigated whether genetic variation in male ejaculate size, a trait that affects female fecundity and copulation duration, are present in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ejaculate size was estimated as the amount of weight lost by males during mating. Dams, but not sires, had significant effects on their sons' absolute ejaculate size (both replicates) and relative ejaculate size (proportion of body weight; one replicate only), explaining 21-25% of the variance in absolute ejaculate size and 8-16% of the variance in relative ejaculate size. These results suggest either a large maternal effect on ejaculate size or sex-linkage of loci that affect the variation in ejaculate size. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by sex- linkage (assuming no maternal effects) was 42 and 49% (ejaculate size) and 17 and 31% (relative ejaculate size) in the two replicates. These results indicate that male paternal investment can respond to selection, and that it may be able to do so especially rapidly because sex-linked traits have the potential to evolve much more quickly than autosomal traits. There were only weak negative correlations between ejaculate size and mating duration, contrary to what we predicted. There was additive genetic variation in female copulation duration, but not in male copulation duration, suggesting that copulation duration is under female control. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Schneider, Anja; Stelljes, Christian; Adams, Caroline; Kirchner, Stefan; Burkhard, Gabi; Jarzombski, Sabine; Broer, Inge; Horn, Patricia; Elsayed, Ashraf; Hagl, Peter; Leister, Dario; Koop, Hans-Ulrich
Plastid-encoded genes are maternally inherited in most plant species. Transgenes located on the plastid genome are thus within a natural confinement system, preventing their distribution via pollen. However, a low-frequency leakage of plastids via pollen seems to be universal in plants. Here we report that a very low-level paternal inheritance in Arabidopsis thaliana occurs under field conditions. As pollen donor an Arabidopsis accession (Ler-Ely) was used, which carried a plastid-localized atrazine resistance due to a point mutation in the psbA gene. The frequency of pollen transmission into F1 plants, based on their ability to express the atrazine resistance was 1.9 × 10(-5). We extended our analysis to another cruciferous species, the world-wide cultivated crop Brassica napus. First, we isolated a fertile and stable plastid transformant (T36) in a commercial cultivar of B. napus (cv Drakkar). In T36 the aadA and the bar genes were integrated in the inverted repeat region of the B. napus plastid DNA following particle bombardment of hypocotyl segments. Southern blot analysis confirmed transgene integration and homoplasmy of plastid DNA. Line T36 expressed Basta resistance from the inserted bar gene and this trait was used to estimate the frequency of pollen transmission into F1 plants. A frequency of <2.6 × 10(-5) was determined in the greenhouse. Taken together, our data show a very low rate of paternal plastid transmission in Brassicacea. Moreover, the establishment of plastid transformation in B. napus facilitates a safe use of this important crop plant for plant biotechnology.
Tanentzap, Andrew J; Lee, William G
Abiotic filters have been found either to increase or reduce evolutionary relatedness in plant communities, making it difficult to generalize responses of this major feature of biodiversity to future environmental change. Here, we hypothesized that the responses of phylogenetic structure to environmental change ultimately depend on how species have evolved traits for tolerating the resulting abiotic changes. Working within ephemeral wetlands, we tested whether species were increasingly related as flooding duration intensified. We also identified the mechanisms underlying increased relatedness by measuring root aerenchyma volume (RAV), a trait which promotes waterlogging tolerance. We found that species-specific responses to flooding explained most of the variation in occurrence for 63 vascular plant species across 5170 plots. For a subset of 22 species, we attributed these responses to variation in RAV. Large RAV specifically increased occurrence when flooding lasted for longer time periods, because large RAV reduced above-ground biomass loss. As large RAV was evolutionarily conserved within obligate wetland species, communities were more phylogenetically related as flooding increased. Our study shows how reconstructing the evolutionary history of traits that influence the responses of species to environmental change can help to predict future patterns in phylogenetic structure.
Kivlin, Stephanie N; Treseder, Kathleen K
Ecosystem-level consequences of biodiversity loss of macroorganisms are well understood, while the repercussions of species extirpation in microbial systems are not. We manipulated species richness and phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungi in situ in a boreal forest to address this issue. Litter decomposition rates (as total mass loss) after 2 months were significantly higher in the least phylogenetically related fungal assemblages. Likewise, cellulose loss was also highest in the most distantly related treatments after 1 year. There were marginal effects of species richness on mass loss that only affected decomposition after 2 months. At the end of 1 year of decomposition, most fungal communities had collapsed from their original diversity to two species, mainly in the Penicillium or Hypocrea clades. Two concurrent processes may explain these results: competition between closely related fungal taxa and phylogenetic conservation in cellulose decomposition. Our results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness of fungal communities may be a more appropriate metric than species richness or community composition to predict functional responses of fungal communities to global change.
Dall, Sasha R. X.; Hammerstein, Peter; McNamara, John M.
There are many situations where relatives interact while at the same time there is genetic polymorphism in traits influencing survival and reproduction. Examples include cheater-cooperator polymorphism and polymorphic microbial pathogens. Environmental heterogeneity, favoring different traits in nearby habitats, with dispersal between them, is one general reason to expect polymorphism. Currently, there is no formal framework of social evolution that encompasses genetic polymorphism. We develop such a framework, thus integrating theories of social evolution into the evolutionary ecology of heterogeneous environments. We allow for adaptively maintained genetic polymorphism by applying the concept of genetic cues. We analyze a model of social evolution in a two-habitat situation with limited dispersal between habitats, in which the average relatedness at the time of helping and other benefits of helping can differ between habitats. An important result from the analysis is that alleles at a polymorphic locus play the role of genetic cues, in the sense that the presence of a cue allele contains statistical information for an organism about its current environment, including information about relatedness. We show that epistatic modifiers of the cue polymorphism can evolve to make optimal use of the information in the genetic cue, in analogy with a Bayesian decision maker. Another important result is that the genetic linkage between a cue locus and modifier loci influences the evolutionary interest of modifiers, with tighter linkage leading to greater divergence between social traits induced by different cue alleles, and this can be understood in terms of genetic conflict. PMID:27341199
Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J
Two-polarities models of personality propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between two fundamental developmental psychological processes across the life span-the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand and of self-definition on the other. This article offers a broad review of extant research concerning these models, discusses their implications for psychology and psychiatry, and addresses future research perspectives deriving from these models. We first consider the implications of findings in this area for clinical research and practice. This is followed by a discussion of emerging research findings concerning the role of developmental, cross-cultural, evolutionary, and neurobiological factors influencing the development of these two fundamental personality dimensions. Taken together, this body of research suggests that theoretical formulations that focus on interpersonal relatedness and self-definition as central coordinates in personality development and psychopathology provide a comprehensive conceptual paradigm for future research in psychology and psychiatry exploring the interactions among neurobiological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in adaptive and disrupted personality development across the life span.
Background Several genotyping protocols have been described to study Candida albicans strains with different sensitivity values. In this study we have analyzed the genetic relatedness and the antifungal susceptibility of several Candida albicans strains isolated from a patient who from suffered recurrent candiduria for a period of five years. Strains were genotyped using Microsatellite Length Polymorphism (MLP) with three microsatellite markers (HIS 3, EF 3 and CDC 3), and a new method based on high resolution melting (HRM) was developed to analyze the microsatellite region. This method was compared with the conventional technique that uses capillary electrophoresis. Results MICs of the isolates showed the existence of fluconazole susceptible and resistant strains. An inter-colony test using single concentration (8 and 16 mg/l) of fluconazole revealed the coexistence of both fluconazole susceptible and resistant strains. Both genotyping analysis methods showed that all the patient’s isolates had a clonal origin. HRM analysis method developed was able to accurately establish strain relatedness and presented a discriminatory power of 0.77. Conclusions Although HRM analysis method presented a lower discriminatory power compared to methods based on capillary electrophoresis, it provided a more cost-effective and suitable alternative for genotyping C. albicans in a clinical laboratory. PMID:23343107
Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A
Previous memory research has exploited the perceptual similarities between lures and targets in order to evoke false memories. Nevertheless, while some studies have attempted to use lures that are objectively more similar than others, no study has systematically controlled for perceptual overlap between target and lure items and its role in accounting for false alarm rates or the neural processes underlying such perceptual false memories. The current study looked to fill this gap in the literature by using a face-morphing program to systematically control for the amount of perceptual overlap between lures and targets. Our results converge with previous studies in finding a pattern of differences between true and false memories. Most importantly, expanding upon this work, parametric analyses showed false memory activity increases with respect to the similarity between lures and targets within bilateral middle temporal gyri and right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Moreover, this pattern of activation was unique to false memories and could not be accounted for by relatedness alone. Connectivity analyses further find that activity in the mPFC and left middle temporal gyrus co-vary, suggestive of gist-based monitoring within the context of false memories. Interestingly, neither the MTL nor the fusiform face area exhibited modulation as a function of target-lure relatedness. Overall, these results provide insight into the processes underlying false memories and further enhance our understanding of the role perceptual similarity plays in supporting false memories.
Carvalho, A C; Barbosa, A V; Arais, L R; Ribeiro, P F; Carneiro, V C; Cerqueira, A M F
Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n=134), their owners (n=134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n=44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains.
Tuni, C; Beveridge, M; Simmons, L W
Recent evidence shows that females exert a post-copulatory fertilization bias in favour of unrelated males to avoid the genetic incompatibilities derived from inbreeding. One of the mechanisms suggested for fertilization biases in insects is female control over transport of sperm to the sperm-storage organs. We investigated post-copulatory inbreeding-avoidance mechanisms in females of the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We assessed the relative contribution of related and unrelated males to the sperm stores of double-mated females. To demonstrate unequivocally that biased sperm storage results from female control rather than cryptic male choice, we manipulated the relatedness of mated males and of males performing post-copulatory mate guarding. Our results show that when guarded by a related male, females store less sperm from their actual mate, irrespective of the relatedness of the mating male. Our data support the notion that inhibition of sperm storage by female crickets can act as a form of cryptic female choice to avoid the severe negative effects of inbreeding.
Carvalho, A.C.; Barbosa, A.V.; Arais, L.R.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Carneiro, V.C.; Cerqueira, A.M.F.
Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n = 134), their owners (n = 134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n = 44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains. PMID:26887238
Coall, David A.; Hilbrand, Sonja; Hertwig, Ralph
Across human cultures, grandparents make a valued contribution to the health of their families and communities. Moreover, evidence is gathering that grandparents have a positive impact on the development of grandchildren in contemporary industrialized societies. A broad range of factors that influence the likelihood grandparents will invest in their grandchildren has been explored by disciplines as diverse as sociology, economics, psychology and evolutionary biology. To progress toward an encompassing framework, this study will include biological relatedness between grandparents and grandchildren, a factor central to some discipline's theoretical frameworks (e.g., evolutionary biology), next to a wide range of other factors in an analysis of grandparental investment in contemporary Europe. This study draws on data collected in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe from 11 European countries that included 22,967 grandparent–child dyads. Grandparents reported biological relatedness, and grandparental investment was measured as the frequency of informal childcare. Biological and non-biological grandparents differed significantly in a variety of individual, familial and area-level characteristics. Furthermore, many other economic, sociological, and psychological factors also influenced grandparental investment. When they were controlled, biological grandparents, relative to non-biological grandparents, were more likely to invest heavily, looking after their grandchildren almost daily or weekly. Paradoxically, however, they were also more likely to invest nothing at all. We discuss the methodological and theoretical implications of these findings across disciplines. PMID:24416193
Coall, David A; Hilbrand, Sonja; Hertwig, Ralph
Across human cultures, grandparents make a valued contribution to the health of their families and communities. Moreover, evidence is gathering that grandparents have a positive impact on the development of grandchildren in contemporary industrialized societies. A broad range of factors that influence the likelihood grandparents will invest in their grandchildren has been explored by disciplines as diverse as sociology, economics, psychology and evolutionary biology. To progress toward an encompassing framework, this study will include biological relatedness between grandparents and grandchildren, a factor central to some discipline's theoretical frameworks (e.g., evolutionary biology), next to a wide range of other factors in an analysis of grandparental investment in contemporary Europe. This study draws on data collected in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe from 11 European countries that included 22,967 grandparent-child dyads. Grandparents reported biological relatedness, and grandparental investment was measured as the frequency of informal childcare. Biological and non-biological grandparents differed significantly in a variety of individual, familial and area-level characteristics. Furthermore, many other economic, sociological, and psychological factors also influenced grandparental investment. When they were controlled, biological grandparents, relative to non-biological grandparents, were more likely to invest heavily, looking after their grandchildren almost daily or weekly. Paradoxically, however, they were also more likely to invest nothing at all. We discuss the methodological and theoretical implications of these findings across disciplines.
Carta, Angelino; Hanson, Sarah; Müller, Jonas V
Seed germination is the most important transitional event between early stages in the life cycle of spermatophytes and understanding it is crucial to understand plant adaptation and evolution. However, so far seed germination of phylogenetically closely related species has been poorly investigated. To test the hypothises that phylogenetically related plant species have similar seed ecophysiological traits thereby reflecting certain habitat conditions as a result of local adaptation, we studied seed dormancy and germination in seven Mediterranean species in the genus Romulea (Iridaceae). Both the across-species model and the model accounting for shared evolutionary history showed that cool temperatures (≤ 15°C) were the main factor that promoted seed germination. The absence of embryo growth before radicle emergence is consistent with a prompt germination response at cool temperatures. The range of temperature conditions for germination became wider after a period of warm stratification, denoting a weak primary dormancy. Altogether these results indicate that the studied species exhibit a Mediterranean germination syndrome, but with species-specific germination requirements clustered in a way that follows the phylogenetic relatedness among those species. In addition, species with heavier seeds from humid habitats showed a wider range of conditions for germination at dispersal time than species from dry habitats possessing lighter seeds. We conclude that while phylogenetically related species showed very similar germination requirements, there are subtle ecologically meaningful differences, confirming the onset of adaptation to local ecological factors mediated by species relatedness.
Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Xia, Ming; Tan, Ming; Quigley, Christina; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Lee, Bonita; Pang, Xiaoli; Nie, Jun; Jiang, Xi
The GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a single genotype that is responsible for over 50% of NoV gastroenteritis epidemics worldwide. However, GII.4 NoVs have been found to undergo antigenic drifts, likely selected by host herd immunity, which raises an issue for vaccine strategies against NoVs. We previously characterized GII.4 NoV antigenic variations and found significant levels of antigenic relatedness among different GII.4 variants. Further characterization of the genetic and antigenic relatedness of recent GII.4 variants (2008b and 2010 cluster) was performed in this study. The amino acid sequences of the receptor binding interfaces were highly conserved among all GII.4 variants from the past two decades. Using serum samples from patients enrolled in a GII.4 virus challenge study, significant cross-reactivity between major GII.4 variants from 1998 to 2012 was observed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and HBGA receptor blocking assays. The overall abilities of GII.4 NoVs to bind to the A/B/H HBGAs were maintained while their binding affinities to individual ABH antigens varied. These results highlight the importance of human HBGAs in NoV evolution and how conserved antigenic types impact vaccine development against GII.4 variants. PMID:25915764
Carter, Gerald G; Wilkinson, Gerald S
Common vampire bats often regurgitate food to roost-mates that fail to feed. The original explanation for this costly helping behaviour invoked both direct and indirect fitness benefits. Several authors have since suggested that food sharing is maintained solely by indirect fitness because non-kin food sharing could have resulted from kin recognition errors, indiscriminate altruism within groups, or harassment. To test these alternatives, we examined predictors of food-sharing decisions under controlled conditions of mixed relatedness and equal familiarity. Over a 2 year period, we individually fasted 20 vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and induced food sharing on 48 days. Surprisingly, donors initiated food sharing more often than recipients, which is inconsistent with harassment. Food received was the best predictor of food given across dyads, and 8.5 times more important than relatedness. Sixty-four per cent of sharing dyads were unrelated, approaching the 67 per cent expected if nepotism was absent. Consistent with social bonding, the food-sharing network was consistent and correlated with mutual allogrooming. Together with past work, these findings support the hypothesis that food sharing in vampire bats provides mutual direct fitness benefits, and is not explained solely by kin selection or harassment.
Parental environment can widely influence offspring phenotype, but paternal effects in the absence of parental care remain poorly understood. We asked if protein content in the larval diet of fathers affected paternity success and gene expression in their sons. We found that males reared on high-protein diet had sons that fared better during sperm competition, suggesting that postcopulatory sexual selection is subject to transgenerational paternal effects. Moreover, immune response genes were downregulated in sons of low-protein fathers, while genes involved in metabolic and reproductive processes were upregulated. PMID:28202685
Smith, Kerri; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne
Adult female cercopithecines have long been known to bias their social behaviour towards close maternal kin. However, much less is understood about the behaviour of paternal kin, especially in wild populations. Here, we show that wild adult female baboons bias their affiliative behaviour towards their adult paternal half-sisters in the same manner and to the same extent that they bias their behaviour towards adult maternal half-sisters. Females appear to rely heavily on social familiarity as a means of biasing their behaviour towards paternal half-sisters, but may use phenotype matching as well. PMID:12641905
Sheldon, Kennon M; Abad, Neetu; Hinsch, Christian
Does using Facebook help people to meet their relatedness needs? Study 1 shows that more frequent Facebook usage paradoxically correlates with more relatedness satisfaction (connection) and more relatedness dissatisfaction (disconnection). Study 2 supports a 2-process explanation of this finding, showing that disconnection motivates greater usage as a coping strategy, whereas connection results from greater usage. Study 3 examines the effects of depriving participants of Facebook use for 48 hr. Further supporting the 2-process view, connection decreased, but disconnection was unaffected during the deprivation period; however, those who became more disconnected during the deprivation period engaged in more Facebook use during a 2nd, unconstrained 48-hr period, whereas changes in connection did not predict later use. In Study 4, participants set a Facebook reduction goal; initial disconnection interfered with and predicted worse performance in this goal. Implications for theories of psychological needs, behavioral motives, and adaptive coping are considered.
Chatterjee, Monischa B; Baumann, Nicola; Osborne, Danny
A low ability to self-regulate emotions (state orientation) is associated with reduced well-being--especially under stress. Until now, research has approached this topic from an asocial perspective that views the self as devoid from relatedness concerns. However, people are social creatures who benefit from their relationships with others. As such, we expected that personally valuing (Study 1) and experimentally priming (Study 2) a sense of relatedness with others would act as a buffer against stress-related impairments in state-oriented individuals. In Study 1, high (vs. low) benevolence values removed the adverse effect of state orientation on well-being found under stressful life circumstances. In Study 2, focusing on similarities (vs. differences) while comparing oneself with a friend removed the adverse effect of state orientation on recovery from a negative mood induction. Our findings suggest that individuals with low self-regulatory competencies may profit from valuing and directing their attention toward their relatedness with others.
Grandjean, Valérie; Fourré, Sandra; De Abreu, Diana Andrea Fernandes; Derieppe, Marie-Alix; Remy, Jean-Jacques; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo
The paternal heredity of obesity and diabetes induced by a high-fat and/or high-sugar diet (Western-like diet) has been demonstrated through epidemiological analysis of human cohorts and experimental analysis, but the nature of the hereditary vector inducing this newly acquired phenotype is not yet well defined. Here, we show that microinjection of either testis or sperm RNA of male mice fed a Western-like diet into naive one-cell embryos leads to the establishment of the Western-like diet-induced metabolic phenotype in the resulting progenies, whereas RNAs prepared from healthy controls did not. Among multiple sequence differences between the testis transcriptomes of the sick and healthy fathers, we noted that several microRNAs had increased expression, which was of interest because this class of noncoding RNA is known to be involved in epigenetic control of gene expression. When microinjected into naive one-cell embryos, one of these small RNA, i.e., the microRNA miR19b, induced metabolic alterations that are similar to the diet-induced phenotype. Furthermore, this pathological phenotype was inherited by the offspring after crosses with healthy partners. Our results indicate that acquired food-induced trait inheritance might be enacted by RNA signalling.
Titenko-Holland, N.; Shang, N.; Smith, M.T.
Treatment of male mice with acrylamide (AA, 50 mg/kg, 5 days) at postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis was used to assess paternally mediated developmental and genetic toxicity in preimplantation embryos. There was a significant increase in the proportion of morphologically abnormal embryos (88.7 v 14.8%). The proliferation of morphologically normal embryos was significantly delayed, size of nuclei and number of cells were decreased, and fragmented nuclei were found in the majority of abnormal embryos (P<0.001). Cytogenetic damage was determined by the presence of micronuclei (MN) stained with DAPI or FISH with a pancentromeric probe. AA caused 10- and 20-fold increases in cells with MN in morphologically normal and abnormal embryos, respectively (41 and 93 MN per 1000 cells). There were no detectable effects of AA on size or ratio of centromere-positive MN. The presence of MN was not associated with the number or size of cells in the embryos. These findings suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in male-mediated developmental and genetic toxicity of AA on preimplantation stages of embryogenesis. Future studies are needed to establish how preimplantation defects contribute to postimplantation and postnatal abnormalities.
... service. When the blood parents of an illegitimate child marry, the child is considered to be legitimized... determination of paternity. Either type of order or decree falls within the scope of this paragraph. If...
Soubry, Adelheid; Hoyo, Cathrine; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K
Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components. In this essay we suggest the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during sperm development. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs are viable mechanistic candidates for a non-genetic transfer of paternal environmental information, from maturing germ cell to zygote. Inclusion of paternal factors in future research will ultimately improve the understanding of transgenerational epigenetic plasticity and health-related effects in future generations.
The evolution of parental care is a complex process, and many evolutionary pathways have been hypothesized. Maternal care is common, but paternal care is not. High confidence of paternity should favor the evolution of paternal attendance in caring for young; biparental care is rare because paternity assurance is typically low compared to maternity. Biparental care in insects has evolved several times and has high diversity. To evaluate the conditions for the evolution of biparental care, a comparison across taxa is suitable. In this review, common traits of biparental species are discussed in order to evaluate previous models of biparental care and the life history of insects. It will be shown that nesting is a common feature in biparental insects. Nest structure limits extra-pair copulations, contributing to the evolution of biparental care. PMID:24766389
Soubry, Adelheid; Hoyo, Cathrine; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K
Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components. In this essay we suggest the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during sperm development. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs are viable mechanistic candidates for a non-genetic transfer of paternal environmental information, from maturing germ cell to zygote. Inclusion of paternal factors in future research will ultimately improve the understanding of transgenerational epigenetic plasticity and health-related effects in future generations. PMID:24431278
Elgar, M A; Schneider, J M; Herberstein, M E
Sexual conflict theory predicts an antagonistic coevolution, with each sex evolving adaptations and counter-adaptations to overcome a temporary dominance of the other sex over the control of paternity. Polyandry allows sexual selection to operate after mating has commenced, with male and female interests competing for control of fertilization. There are numerous examples of male control of paternity, but few studies have unambiguously revealed female control. Attributing variance in paternity to females is often difficult since male and female influences cannot be separated unambiguously. However, we show that polyandrous female orb-web spiders Argiope keserlingi (Arancidae) control the paternity of their offspring by adjusting the timing of sexual cannibalism. Our experiments reveal that females copulating with relatively smaller males delay sexual cannibalism, thereby prolonging the duration of copulation, and that these males consequently fertilize relatively more eggs. PMID:11133035
Takama, Yuichi; Kubota, Akio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Higashimoto, Ken; Jozaki, Kosuke; Soejima, Hidenobu
Herein is described a case of breast fibroadenomas in a 16-year-old girl with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 11p15.5. She was clinically diagnosed with BWS and direct closure was performed for an omphalocele at birth. Subtotal and 90% pancreatectomy were performed for nesidioblastosis at the ages 2 months and 8 years, respectively. Bilateral multiple breast fibroadenomas were noted at the age of 16 and 17 years. In this case, paternal UPD of chromosome 11p15.5 was identified on microsatellite marker analysis. The relevant imprinted chromosomal region in BWS is 11p15.5, and UPD of chromosome 11p15 is a risk factor for BWS-associated tumorigenicity. Chromosome 11p15.5 consists of imprinting domains of IGF2, the expression of which is associated with the tumorigenesis of various breast cancers. This case suggests that fibroadenomas occurred in association with BWS.
Pauwels, S; Truijen, I; Ghosh, M; Duca, R C; Langie, S A S; Bekaert, B; Freson, K; Huybrechts, I; Koppen, G; Devlieger, R; Godderis, L
Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother-infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained. A total of 51 cord blood samples were collected and birth weight was obtained. DNA methylation status was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (global DNA (hydroxy)methylation) and pyrosequencing (IGF2 DMR methylation). Paternal betaine intake was positively associated with paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation (0.028% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.053, P=0.03) and cord blood global DNA methylation (0.679% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.057, 1.302, P=0.03). Paternal methionine intake was positively associated with CpG1 (0.336% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.103, 0.569, P=0.006), and mean CpG (0.201% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.402, P=0.049) methylation of the IGF2 DMR in cord blood. Further, a negative association between birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score and paternal betaine/methionine intake was found. In addition, a positive association between choline and birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was also observed. Our data indicate a potential impact of paternal methyl-group donor intake on paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation, offspring global and IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and prenatal growth.
Wu, Yixuan; Kang, Xiangjin; Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao
Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30-34 (4,587 cycles), and 35-38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30-32, 33-35, 36-38, 39-41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35-38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31-34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30-34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30-32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36-38 y and 39-41 y groups.
Liu, Ruiling; Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Hammond, S. Katharine
Objective. To investigate the association between paternal smoking and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method. We identified 18 published epidemiologic studies that reported data on both paternal smoking and childhood ALL risk. We performed a meta-analysis and analyzed dose-response relationships on ALL risk for smoking during preconception, during pregnancy, after birth, and ever smoking. Results. The summary odds ratio (OR) of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking was 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05–1.18, I2 = 18%) during any time period, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08–1.46, I2 = 53%) preconception; 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.43, I2 = 54%) during pregnancy, and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.96–1.60, I2 = 64%) after birth, with a dose-response relationship between childhood ALL and paternal smoking preconception or after birth. Conclusion. The evidence supports a positive association between childhood ALL and paternal ever smoking and at each exposure time period examined. Future epidemiologic studies should assess paternal smoking during well-defined exposure windows and should include biomarkers to assess smoking exposure and toxicological mechanisms. PMID:21765828
Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue
Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future. PMID:27631491
Ma, X S; Wang, X G; Qin, L; Song, C L; Lin, F; Song, J M; Zhu, C C; Liu, H L
The developmental dynamics of DNA methylation events have been well studied. Active demethylation of the paternal genome occurs in the zygote, passive demethylation occurs during cleavage stages, and de novo methylation occurs by the blastocyst stage. It is believed that the paternal genome has lower levels of methylation during early development than the maternal genome. However, in this study, we provide direct and indirect evidence of genome-wide de novo DNA methylation of the paternal genome after the first cell cycle in mouse embryos. Although very little methylation was detected within the male pronucleus in zygotes, an intense methylation signal was clearly visible within the androgenetic 2-cell embryos. Moreover, the DNA methylation level of the paternal genome in the post-zygotic metaphase embryos was similar to that of the maternal genome. Using indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody to methylated lysine 9 in histone H3, we provided new evidence to support the concept of spatial compartmentalization of parental genomes in 2-cell mouse embryos. Nevertheless, the transient segregation of parental genomes was not observed by determining the DNA methylation distribution in the 2-cell embryos even though DNA methylation asymmetry between the maternal and paternal pronucleus existed in the 1-cell stage. The disappearance of separate immunofluorescence signals of 5-methyl cytosine in the 2-cell embryos might be attributed to the de novo methylation of the paternal genome during the first mitotic cycle.
Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken
The mitochondrion is an organelle that has its own DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria play essential roles in energy production and in various cellular processes such as metabolism and signal transduction. In most animals, including humans, although the sperm-derived paternal mitochondria enter the oocyte cytoplasm after fertilization, their mtDNA is never transmitted to the offspring. This pattern of mtDNA inheritance is well known as "maternal inheritance." However, how the paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are eliminated from the cytoplasm of gametes or zygotes remains an enigma. Recently, a variety of mechanisms, including specific nuclease-dependent systems, ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy have been shown to degrade the paternal mtDNA or the paternal mitochondria themselves in order to prevent paternal mtDNA transmission. In this review, we will address the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the elimination of paternal mtDNA or mitochondrial structures for ensuring the maternal transmission of mtDNA.
Werner, Benedikt; von Ramin, Elisabeth; Spruyt, Adriaan; Rothermund, Klaus
After 30 years of research, the mechanisms underlying the evaluative priming effect are still a topic of debate. In this study, we tested whether the evaluative priming effect can result from (uncontrolled) associative relatedness rather than evaluative congruency. Stimuli that share the same evaluative connotation are more likely to show some degree of non-evaluative associative relatedness than stimuli that have a different evaluative connotation. Therefore, unless associative relatedness is explicitly controlled for, evaluative priming effects reported in earlier research may be driven by associative relatedness instead of evaluative relatedness. To address this possibility, we performed an evaluative priming study in which evaluative congruency and associative relatedness were manipulated independently from each other. The valent/neutral categorisation task was used to ensure evaluative stimulus processing in the absence of response priming effects. Results showed an effect of associative relatedness but no (overall) effect of evaluative congruency. Our findings highlight the importance of controlling for associative relatedness when testing for evaluative priming effects.
Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat
A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect—the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words. PMID:25695759
Minnaert, Alexander; Boekaerts, Monique; de Brabander, Cornelis
To prepare students for instructive collaboration, it is necessary to have insight into students' psychological needs and interest development. The framework of self-determination theory was used to conduct a field experiment involving 114 students in vocational education. These students followed a practical business course which required they work in small learning groups. During the course, students were asked to complete the Quality of Working in Groups Instrument, an online measure of how strong autonomy, competence, social relatedness, and task interest are fulfilled. SEM showed that students' psychological needs were jointly and uniquely related to task interest over time. The significance of this on-line test for the assessment of interest within project-based education is discussed.
Zheng, Xiuwen; Levine, David; Shen, Jess; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Laurie, Cathy; Weir, Bruce S
Genome-wide association studies are widely used to investigate the genetic basis of diseases and traits, but they pose many computational challenges. We developed gdsfmt and SNPRelate (R packages for multi-core symmetric multiprocessing computer architectures) to accelerate two key computations on SNP data: principal component analysis (PCA) and relatedness analysis using identity-by-descent measures. The kernels of our algorithms are written in C/C++ and highly optimized. Benchmarks show the uniprocessor implementations of PCA and identity-by-descent are ∼8-50 times faster than the implementations provided in the popular EIGENSTRAT (v3.0) and PLINK (v1.07) programs, respectively, and can be sped up to 30-300-fold by using eight cores. SNPRelate can analyse tens of thousands of samples with millions of SNPs. For example, our package was used to perform PCA on 55 324 subjects from the 'Gene-Environment Association Studies' consortium studies.
Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.
Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311
Mehrabi, Zia; Tuck, Sean L
Understanding the mechanisms underlying negative plant–soil feedbacks remains a critical challenge in plant ecology. If closely related species are more similar, then phylogeny could be used as a predictor for plant species interactions, simplifying our understanding of how plant–soil feedbacks structure plant communities, underlie invasive species dynamics, or reduce agricultural productivity. Here, we test the utility of phylogeny for predicting plant–soil feedbacks by undertaking a hierarchical Bayesian meta-analysis on all available pairwise plant–soil feedback experiments conducted over the last two decades, including 133 plant species in 329 pairwise interactions. We found that the sign and magnitude of plant–soil feedback effects were not explained by the phylogenetic distance separating interacting species. This result was consistent across different life forms, life cycles, provenances, and phylogenetic scales. Our analysis shows that, contrary to widespread assumption, relatedness is a poor predictor of plant–soil feedback effects. PMID:25557183
Keil, Frank C.; Kominsky, Jonathan F.
In the “digital native” generation, internet search engines are a commonly used source of information. However, adolescents may fail to recognize relevant search results when they are related in discipline to the search topic but lack other cues. Middle school students, high school students, and adults rated simulated search results for relevance to the search topic. The search results were designed to contrast deep discipline-based relationships with lexical similarity to the search topic. Results suggest that the ability to recognize disciplinary relatedness without supporting cues may continue to develop into high school. Despite frequent search engine usage, younger adolescents may require additional support to make the most of the information available to them. PMID:23840774
Taylor, Helen R
Genetic marker-based estimators remain a popular tool for measuring relatedness (rxy) and inbreeding (F) coefficients at both the population and individual level. The performance of these estimators fluctuates with the number and variability of markers available, and the relatedness composition and demographic history of a population. Several methods are available to evaluate the reliability of the estimates of rxy and F, some of which are implemented in the program COANCESTRY. I used the simulation module in COANCESTRY since assess the performance of marker-based estimators of rxy and F in a species with very low genetic diversity, New Zealand’s little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii). I also conducted a review of published papers that have used COANCESTRY as its release to assess whether and how the reliability of the estimates of rxy and F produced by genetic markers are being measured and reported in published studies. My simulation results show that even when the correlation between true (simulated) and estimated rxy or F is relatively high (Pearson’s r = 0.66–0.72 and 0.81–0.85, respectively) the imprecision of the estimates renders them highly unreliable on an individual basis. The literature review demonstrates that the majority of studies do not report the reliability of marker-based estimates of rxy and F. There is currently no standard practice for selecting the best estimator for a given data set or reporting an estimator’s performance. This could lead to experimental results being interpreted out of context and render the robustness of conclusions based on measures of rxy and F debatable. PMID:26357542
Delaneau, Olivier; Pirastu, Nicola; Ulivi, Sheila; Cocca, Massimiliano; Traglia, Michela; Huang, Jie; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Rudan, Igor; McQuillan, Ruth; Fraser, Ross M.; Campbell, Harry; Polasek, Ozren; Asiki, Gershim; Ekoru, Kenneth; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Vitart, Veronique; Navarro, Pau; Zagury, Jean-Francois; Wilson, James F.; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo; Soranzo, Nicole; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Marchini, Jonathan
Many existing cohorts contain a range of relatedness between genotyped individuals, either by design or by chance. Haplotype estimation in such cohorts is a central step in many downstream analyses. Using genotypes from six cohorts from isolated populations and two cohorts from non-isolated populations, we have investigated the performance of different phasing methods designed for nominally ‘unrelated’ individuals. We find that SHAPEIT2 produces much lower switch error rates in all cohorts compared to other methods, including those designed specifically for isolated populations. In particular, when large amounts of IBD sharing is present, SHAPEIT2 infers close to perfect haplotypes. Based on these results we have developed a general strategy for phasing cohorts with any level of implicit or explicit relatedness between individuals. First SHAPEIT2 is run ignoring all explicit family information. We then apply a novel HMM method (duoHMM) to combine the SHAPEIT2 haplotypes with any family information to infer the inheritance pattern of each meiosis at all sites across each chromosome. This allows the correction of switch errors, detection of recombination events and genotyping errors. We show that the method detects numbers of recombination events that align very well with expectations based on genetic maps, and that it infers far fewer spurious recombination events than Merlin. The method can also detect genotyping errors and infer recombination events in otherwise uninformative families, such as trios and duos. The detected recombination events can be used in association scans for recombination phenotypes. The method provides a simple and unified approach to haplotype estimation, that will be of interest to researchers in the fields of human, animal and plant genetics. PMID:24743097
Taylor, Helen R
Genetic marker-based estimators remain a popular tool for measuring relatedness (r xy ) and inbreeding (F) coefficients at both the population and individual level. The performance of these estimators fluctuates with the number and variability of markers available, and the relatedness composition and demographic history of a population. Several methods are available to evaluate the reliability of the estimates of r xy and F, some of which are implemented in the program COANCESTRY. I used the simulation module in COANCESTRY since assess the performance of marker-based estimators of r xy and F in a species with very low genetic diversity, New Zealand's little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii). I also conducted a review of published papers that have used COANCESTRY as its release to assess whether and how the reliability of the estimates of r xy and F produced by genetic markers are being measured and reported in published studies. My simulation results show that even when the correlation between true (simulated) and estimated r xy or F is relatively high (Pearson's r = 0.66-0.72 and 0.81-0.85, respectively) the imprecision of the estimates renders them highly unreliable on an individual basis. The literature review demonstrates that the majority of studies do not report the reliability of marker-based estimates of r xy and F. There is currently no standard practice for selecting the best estimator for a given data set or reporting an estimator's performance. This could lead to experimental results being interpreted out of context and render the robustness of conclusions based on measures of r xy and F debatable.
This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die.
Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul
Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood.
Isvaran, Kavita; Clutton-Brock, Tim
Extra-group paternity (EGP) can form an important part of the mating system in birds and mammals. However, our present understanding of its extent and ecology comes primarily from birds. Here, we use data from 26 species and phylogenetic comparative methods to explore interspecific variation in EGP in mammals and test prominent ecological hypotheses for this variation. We found extensive EGP (46% of species showed more than 20% EGP), indicating that EGP is likely to play an important role in the mating system and the dynamics of sexual selection in mammals. Variation in EGP was most closely correlated with the length of the mating season. As the length of the mating season increased, EGP declined, suggesting that it is increasingly difficult for males to monopolize their social mates when mating seasons are short and overlap among females in oestrus is likely to be high. EGP was secondarily correlated with the number of females in a breeding group, consistent with the idea that as female clustering increases, males are less able to monopolize individual females. Finally, EGP was not related to social mating system, suggesting that the opportunities for the extra-group fertilizations and the payoffs involved do not consistently vary with social mating system.
Martinez-Gonzalez, Luis J; Lorente, Jose A; Martinez-Espin, Esther; Alvarez, J Carlos; Lorente, Miguel; Villanueva, Enrique; Budowle, Bruce
We report a case where an alleged father (AF) attempted to substitute someone else's saliva sample for his reference sample in a paternity analysis. Buccal cells were collected from the AF and the child, and DNA analysis was performed using an autosomal STR loci (Identifiler). The profile from the AF showed extra peaks in some loci, as well as a much higher "X" allele peak relative to the "Y" allele peak at the amelogenin locus. After conducting reanalysis by another technician with another set of positive and negative controls, it was concluded that the only source of the mixed profile was by intentional introduction by the AF, at the time of sampling, of some foreign human biological material, most likely saliva from a woman. Owing to the inconclusive results, when the AF was called back to the lab and the peculiar results were explained to him, he admitted that he had introduced into his mouth saliva from another person in an attempt to be excluded as the father of the child. Although tampering with DNA reference samples is not common, some individuals may attempt to contaminate or otherwise adulterate specimens before DNA tests. Personnel responsible for sampling should be aware of this possibility and should try to establish procedures to avoid the problem.
Ten Eyck, Gary R; Ronan, Patrick J; Renner, Kenneth J; Summers, Cliff H
Central serotonin (5-HT) metabolism during embryogenesis and a 3-day post-hatching period was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography in the directly developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. This anuran bypasses the free-swimming larval stage and embryos hatch as miniature frogs in the adult phenotype. During embryogenesis and for a short time immediately after hatching, male E. coqui provide paternal care by brooding and guarding eggs/embryos to prevent desiccation and predation. Serotonin and its catabolite, 5-HIAA, were measured from whole brain during embryogenesis and at 3 days post-hatch to identify critical periods in 5-HT development and to determine the relationship between 5-HT and life history events such as hatching and frog dispersal from the nest site. Serotonergic activity was highest during the early-mid embryonic stages as indicated by the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT, a general indicator of turnover and metabolism. There were significant increases in tissue concentrations of 5-HT during the latest or terminal embryonic stage, just prior to hatching, and also at 3 days post-hatch, shortly before neonates disperse into the rainforest. These two increases probably represent different functional requirements during development. The first may occur as a result of the surge of development in the 5-HT system during late embryogenesis that occurs in E. coqui and the second may be from the increase demand in sensory and motor neural development required before dispersal from the nest site.
Edwards, Sarah J L; Wilson, James
Jansen and Wall suggest a new way of defending hard paternalism in clinical research. They argue that non-therapeutic research exposing people to more than minimal risk should be banned on egalitarian grounds: in preventing poor decision-makers from making bad decisions, we will promote equality of welfare. We argue that their proposal is flawed for four reasons. First, the idea of poor decision-makers is much more problematic than Jansen and Wall allow. Second, pace Jansen and Wall, it may be practicable for regulators to uncover the values that a potential research participant holds when agreeing to enter a research project, so their claim that we must ban such research projects for all if we are to ban them for poor decision-makers looks to be unmotivated. Third, there seem to be cases where the liberty to enter the sort of research project Jansen and Wall discuss is morally weighty, and arguably should outweigh concerns of egalitarian distribution. Fourth, banning certain types of research, which seem on the face of it to offer an unfavourable risk-benefit ratio, would have unwelcome consequences for all clinical research, which Jansen and Wall do not recognize.
Mendoza, Roger Lee
One of the overriding interests of the literature on health care economics is to discover where personal choice in market economies end and corrective government intervention should begin. Our study addresses this question in the context of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian principle of harm. Our primary objective is to determine whether public policy interventions concerning more than 35,000 online pharmacies worldwide are necessary and efficient compared to traditional market-oriented approaches. Secondly, we seek to determine whether government interference could enhance personal utility maximization, despite its direct and indirect (unintended) costs on medical e-commerce. This study finds that containing the negative externalities of medical e-commerce provides the most compelling raison d'etre of government interference. It asserts that autonomy and paternalism need not be mutually exclusive, despite their direct and indirect consequences on individual choice and decision-making processes. Valuable insights derived from Mill's principle should enrich theory-building in health care economics and policy.
Resnik, David B
In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account.
Wirtz-Ocaňa, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael
In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree.
Mandell, F; McAnulty, E; Reece, R M
Support provided to families experiencing the loss of an infant to sudden infant death syndrome has focused on the description of maternal bonding and the consequences to the mother. However fathers also develop significant relationships with their infants, and their responses to the unanticipated loss of their children may be different than those of mothers. In this study 28 fathers who lost infants to SIDS appeared to have identifiable patterns of behavior which were more peculiar to men: (1) the necessity to "keep busy" with increased work; (2) feelings of diminished self-worth; (3) self-blame because of lack of "care" involvement; and (4) a limited ability to ask for help. That men should be stoic and less emotional and that one need not be concerned with the reactions of fathers appears to be a reflection of societal attitudes. However, these paternal behaviors, which emerge at a time of crisis and which obstruct full expression of grief, may unwittingly be promoted by medical and health care providers who are anxious to help fathers fulfill societal expectations of masculine strength.
My first aim has been to identify the implicit assumptions underlying Winnicott's detailed notes on a fragment of an analysis dating from 1955 and published after his death. The importance given by Winnicott to the father figure as early as 1955 is one of my discoveries; another is the deep Freudian roots of his thinking. In this essay I propose a new way of linking together the concepts of 'paternal function' and the 'psychoanalytical frame'. Developing my hypothesis, I compare my reading of Winnicott and my way of reading José Bleger's study on the frame. Like Winnicott, I explore in detail a process of discovery, focusing on what the analyst and the patient are nor fully aware of …'as yet'. I am not proposing to unify Winnicott's and Bleger's thinking. My aim is to avoid the pitfall of eclecticism and, in so doing, to recognize both the related depths they sound in their thinking and their otherness. I want to share with the readers their 'meeting' in my mind.
Saftlas, Audrey F; Levine, Richard J; Klebanoff, Mark A; Martz, Karen L; Ewell, Marian G; Morris, Cynthia D; Sibai, Baha M
A prior birth confers a strong protective effect against preeclampsia, whereas a prior abortion confers a weaker protective effect. Parous women who change partners in a subsequent pregnancy appear to lose the protective effect of a prior birth. This study (Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention Trial, 1992-1995) examines whether nulliparous women with a prior abortion who change partners also lose the protective effect of the prior pregnancy. A cohort analysis was conducted among participants in this large clinical trial of calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. Subjects were nulliparous, had one prior pregnancy or less, delivered after 20 weeks' gestation, and were interviewed at 5-21 weeks about prior pregnancies and paternity. Women without a history of abortion served as the reference group in logistic regression analyses. Women with a history of abortion who conceived again with the same partner had nearly half the risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio = 0.54, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.31, 0.97). In contrast, women with an abortion history who conceived with a new partner had the same risk of preeclampsia as women without a history of abortion (adjusted odds ratio = 1.03, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.72, 1.47). Thus, the protective effect of a prior abortion operated only among women who conceived again with the same partner. An immune-based etiologic mechanism is proposed, whereby prolonged exposure to fetal antigens from a previous pregnancy protects against preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy with the same father.
Resnik, David B.
In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account. PMID:23076346
Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul
Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326
Wirtz-Ocaňa, Sabine; Schütz, Dolores; Pachler, Gudrun; Taborsky, Michael
In species with indeterminate growth, age-related size variation of reproductive competitors within each sex is often high. This selects for divergence in reproductive tactics of same-sex competitors, particularly in males. Where alternative tactics are fixed for life, the causality of tactic choice is often unclear. In the African cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, large nest males collect and present empty snail shells to females that use these shells for egg deposition and brood care. Small dwarf males attempt to fertilize eggs by entering shells in which females are spawning. The bourgeois nest males exceed parasitic dwarf males in size by nearly two orders of magnitude, which is likely to result from greatly diverging growth patterns. Here, we ask whether growth patterns are heritable in this species, or whether and to which extent they are determined by environmental factors. Standardized breeding experiments using unrelated offspring and maternal half-sibs revealed highly divergent growth patterns of male young sired by nest or dwarf males, whereas the growth of female offspring of both male types did not differ. As expected, food had a significant modifying effect on growth, but neither the quantity of breeding substrate in the environment nor ambient temperature affected growth. None of the environmental factors tested influenced the choice of male life histories. We conclude that in L. callipterus growth rates of bourgeois and parasitic males are paternally inherited, and that male and female growth is phenotypically plastic to only a small degree. PMID:23789072
Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.
Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.
Riley, David G.; Gill, Clare A.; Herring, Andy D.; Riggs, Penny K.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Sanders, James O.
Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737) with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1) none, 2) random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3) random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses. PMID:25249774
Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical…
Mead, Michael A.
The report describes the characteristics and usage of a computer program, the Relatedness Coefficient Matrix Program (RCMAT), designed to summarize associative responses given to verbal stimuli by individual respondents and by groups of respondents. The computer program uses the response distributions for individuals, and the pooled response…
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Hermanto, Nicola; Joyal-Desmarais, Keven
According to Blatt (2004; Blatt & Luyten, 2009) and others (e.g., Beck, Epstein, Harrison, & Emery, 1983), establishing positive self-definition and mature relatedness to others represent core lifespan developmental tasks. In a sample of emerging adults, this study examined the effects of the quality of one close friendship and changes in…
Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.
This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…
Riley, David G; Gill, Clare A; Herring, Andy D; Riggs, Penny K; Sawyer, Jason E; Sanders, James O
Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737) with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1) none, 2) random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3) random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses.
McKnight, Anthony; Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy
In this study, a group (N=15) of final year non-Aboriginal preservice teachers participated in an elective subject that aimed to raise their awareness about Aboriginal ways of knowing. A vital aspect of the course was developing the preservice teachers' awareness of "relatedness to country" which is a key belief for Aboriginal people.…
Ruzek, Erik A.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pianta, Robert C.
Multilevel mediation analyses test whether students' mid-year reports of classroom experiences of autonomy, relatedness with peers, and competence mediate associations between early in the school year emotionally-supportive teacher-student interactions (independently observed) and student-reported academic year changes in mastery motivation and…
Guillaume, Fabrice; Baier, Sophia; Bourgeois, Mélanie; Tinard, Sophie
In this event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the effects of format change and semantic relatedness in a recognition task using pairs composed of a word and a line drawing. The semantic relatedness of the pairs (related: rabbit-carrot; unrelated: duck-artichoke) influenced their associative properties and corresponding distinctiveness, while format change refers to the switching of an item from the verbal form to the line drawing form between study and recognition (e.g., the word "egg" is associated with a drawing of a hen at study, and a line drawing of an egg is associated with the word "hen" at test). Study-test format change thus prevents visual matching while maintaining conceptual matching. While the N300 potential was only modulated by the semantic relatedness of the pair, both factors modulated recognition performance and corresponding ERP old/new effects with larger mid-frontal N400 old/new effect (300-500 ms) and larger parietal old/new effect (500-800 ms) in the same compared to the different-format condition, as well as for related compared to unrelated pairs. Furthermore, the semantic relatedness of correctly recognized old pairs modulated the anterior N400 while it modulated the posterior N400 for correctly rejected pairs. These results suggest that semantic relatedness and familiarity related to the amount of change between study and test present distinct ERP signatures in the N400 window. They suggest also that the distinctiveness and the ease of the retrieval of the pair could be determining for the parietal old/new effect.
Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Attard, Catherine R M; Marri, Shashikanth; Brauer, Chris J; Möller, Luciana M; Beheregaray, Luciano B
Captive breeding programmes are often a necessity for the continued persistence of a population or species. They typically have the goal of maintaining genetic diversity and minimizing inbreeding. However, most captive breeding programmes have been based on the assumption that the founding breeders are unrelated and outbred, even though in situ anthropogenic impacts often mean these founders may have high relatedness and substantial inbreeding. In addition, polygamous group-breeding species in captivity often have uncertain pedigrees, making it difficult to select the group composition for subsequent breeding. Molecular-based estimates of relatedness and inbreeding may instead be used to select breeding groups (≥two individuals) that minimize relatedness and filter out inbred individuals. swinger constructs breeding groups based on molecular estimates of relatedness and inbreeding. The number of possible combinations of breeding groups quickly becomes intractable by hand. swinger was designed to overcome this major issue in ex situ conservation biology. The user can specify parameters within swinger to reach breeding solutions that suit the mating system of the target species and available resources. We provide evidence of the efficiency of the software with an empirical example and using simulations. The only data required are a typical molecular marker data set, such as a microsatellite or SNP data set, from which estimates of inbreeding and pairwise relatedness may be obtained. Such molecular data sets are becoming easier to gather from non-model organisms with next-generation sequencing technology. swinger is an open-source software with a user-friendly interface and is available at http://www.molecularecology.flinders.edu.au/molecular-ecology-lab/software/swinger/swinger/ and https://github.com/Yuma248/Swinger.
Alexandrou, Markos A.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Hall, John D.; Delwiche, Charles F.; Fritschie, Keith; Narwani, Anita; Venail, Patrick A.; Bentlage, Bastian; Pankey, M. Sabrina; Oakley, Todd H.
The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed to support the CRH, critics have pointed out at least three limitations: (i) the use of data poor phylogenies that provide inaccurate estimates of species relatedness, (ii) the use of inappropriate statistical models that fail to detect relationships between relatedness and species interactions amidst nonlinearities and heteroskedastic variances, and (iii) overly simplified laboratory conditions that fail to allow eco-evolutionary relationships to emerge. Here, we address these limitations and find they do not explain why evolutionary relatedness fails to predict the strength of species interactions or probabilities of coexistence among freshwater green algae. First, we construct a new data-rich, transcriptome-based phylogeny of common freshwater green algae that are commonly cultured and used for laboratory experiments. Using this new phylogeny, we re-analyse ecological data from three previously published laboratory experiments. After accounting for the possibility of nonlinearities and heterogeneity of variances across levels of relatedness, we find no relationship between phylogenetic distance and ecological traits. In addition, we show that communities of North American green algae are randomly composed with respect to their evolutionary relationships in 99% of 1077 lakes spanning the continental United States. Together, these analyses result in one of the most comprehensive case studies of how evolutionary history influences
Rangel-Villalobos, H; Muñoz-Valle, J F; González-Martín, A; Gorostiza, A; Magaña, M T; Páez-Riberos, L A
Y-linked markers are suitable loci to analyze genetic diversity of human populations, offering knowledge of medical, forensic, and anthropological interest. In a population sample of 206 Mestizo males from western Mexico, we analyzed two binary loci (M3 and YAP) and six Y-STRs, adding to the analysis data of Mexican Mestizos and Amerindians, and relevant worldwide populations. The paternal ancestry estimated in western Mexican-Mestizos was mainly European (60-64%), followed by Amerindian (25-21%), and African ( approximately 15%). Significant genetic heterogeneity was established between Mestizos from western (Jalisco State) and northern Mexico (Chihuahua State) compared with Mexicans from the center of the Mexican Republic (Mexico City), this attributable to higher European ancestry in western and northern than in central and southeast populations, where higher Amerindian ancestry was inferred. This genetic structure has important implications for medical and forensic purposes. Two different Pre-Hispanic evolutionary processes were evident. In Mesoamerican region, populations presented higher migration rate (N(m) = 24.76), promoting genetic homogeneity. Conversely, isolated groups from the mountains and canyons of the Western and Northern Sierra Madre (Huichols and Tarahumaras, respectively) presented a lower migration rate (N(m) = 10.27) and stronger genetic differentiation processes (founder effect and/or genetic drift), constituting a Pre-Hispanic population substructure. Additionally, Tarahumaras presented a higher frequency of Y-chromosomes without Q3 that was explained by paternal European admixture (15%) and, more interestingly, by a distinctive Native-American ancestry. In Purepechas, a special admixture process involving preferential integration of non-Purepecha women in their communities could explain contrary genetic evidences (autosomal vs. Y-chromosome) for this tribe.
Kendall, Emily A.; Chowdhury, Fahima; Begum, Yasmin; Khan, Ashraful I.; Li, Shan; Thierer, James H.; Bailey, Jason; Kreisel, Kristen; Tacket, Carol O.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Stine, O. Colin
The genetic relatedness of Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 isolates obtained from 100 patients and 146 of their household contacts in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 2002 and 2005 was assessed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. Isolate genotypes were analyzed at five loci containing tandem repeats. Across the population, as well as within households, isolates with identical genotypes were clustered in time. Isolates from individuals within the same household were more likely to have similar or identical genotypes than were isolates from different households, but even within a household, isolates from different individuals often had different genotypes. When household contacts were sampled regularly for 3 weeks after the illness of the household index patient, isolates with genotypes related to the index patient appeared in contacts, on average, ∼3 days after the index patient, while isolates with unrelated genotypes appeared in contacts ∼6 days after. Limited data revealed that multiple isolates from the same individual collected within days of each other or even from a single stool sample may have identical, similar, or unrelated genotypes as well. Our results demonstrate that genetically related V. cholerae strains cluster in local outbreaks but also suggest that multiple distinct strains of V. cholerae O1 may circulate simultaneously within a household. PMID:20585059
Urhoj, Stine Kjaer; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie
Cancer initiation is presumed to occur in utero for many childhood cancers and it has been hypothesized that advanced paternal age may have an impact due to the increasing number of mutations in the sperm DNA with increasing paternal age. We examined the association between paternal age and specific types of childhood cancer in offspring in a large nationwide cohort of 1,904,363 children born in Denmark from 1978 through 2010. The children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry and were linked to information from other national registers, including the Danish Cancer Registry. In total, 3,492 children were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 15 years. The adjusted hazard ratio of childhood cancer according to paternal age was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regressions. We found a 13% (95% confidence interval: 4-23%) higher hazard rate for every 5 years advantage in paternal age for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while no clear association was found for acute myeloid leukemia (hazard ratio pr. 5 years = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.30). The estimates for neoplasms in the central nervous system suggested a lower hazard rate with higher paternal age (hazard ratio pr. 5 years = 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.01). No clear associations were found for the remaining childhood cancer types. The findings suggest that paternal age is moderately associated with a higher rate of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but not acute myeloid leukemia, in offspring, while no firm conclusions could be made for other specific cancer types.
Morrow, J.F.; Rapaport, J.M.; Dryia, T.P.
New germline mutations in the human retinoblastoma gene preferentially arise on a paternally derived allele. In nonhereditary retinoblastoma, the initial somatic mutation seems to have no such bias. The few previous reports of these phenomena included relatively few cases (less than a dozen new germline or initial somatic mutations), so that the magnitude of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations is not known. Knowledge of the magnitude of the bias is valuable for genetic counseling, since, for example, patients with new germline mutations who reproduce transmit risk for retinoblastoma according to the risk that the transmitted allele has a germline mutation. We sought to quantitate the paternal allele bias and to determine whether paternal age is a factor possibly accounting for it. We studied 311 families with retinoblastoma (261 simplex, 50 multiplex) that underwent clinical genetic testing and 5 informative families recruited from earlier research. Using RFLPs and polymorphic microsatellites in the retinoblastoma gene, we could determine the parental origin of 45 new germline mutations and 44 probable initial somatic mutations. Thirty-seven of the 45 new germline mutations, or 82%, arose on a paternal allele while only 24 of the 44 initial somatic mutations (55%) did so. Increased paternal age does not appear to account for the excess of new paternal germline mutations, since the average age of fathers of children with new germline mutations (29.4 years, n=26, incomplete records on 11) was not significantly different from the average age of fathers of children with maternal germline mutations or somatic initial mutations (29.8 years, n=35, incomplete records on 17).
Krueger-Hadfield, S A; Roze, D; Correa, J A; Destombe, C; Valero, M
The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid–diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from the same sporophyte. This is likely a common occurrence when spores from the same parent are dispersed in clumps and recruit together. This pattern of clumped spore dispersal has been hypothesized to explain significant heterozygote deficiency in the dioecious haploid–diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus. Fronds and cystocarps (structures in which zygotes are mitotically amplified) were sampled in two 25 m2 plots located within a high and a low intertidal zone and genotyped at 5 polymorphic microsatellite loci in order to explore the mating system directly using paternity analyses. Multiple males sired cystocarps on each female, but only one of the 423 paternal genotypes corresponded to a field-sampled gametophyte. Nevertheless, larger kinship coefficients were detected between males siring cystocarps on the same female in comparison with males in the entire population, confirming restricted spermatial and clumped spore dispersal. Such dispersal mechanisms may be a mode of reproductive assurance due to nonmotile gametes associated with putatively reduced effects of inbreeding depression because of the free-living haploid stage in C. crispus. PMID:25227258
Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H
Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other
Zhang, Jing; Slesnick, Natasha
Parents' and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors are associated with a wide range of child outcomes. Yet, little is known about how parents and children's autonomy and relatedness behaviors jointly influence child outcomes. The current study captured this joint influence by exploring the longitudinal trajectory of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors and its association with child problem behaviors. The effects of a family systems intervention on the trajectory of mother-child discrepancies were also examined. The sample included 183 substance using mothers and their children (M age = 11.54 years, SD = 2.55, range 8-16; 48 % females). Both the mother and child completed an assessment at baseline, 6- and 18-month post-baseline. A person-centered analysis identified subgroups varying in mother-child discrepancy patterns in their autonomy and relatedness behaviors. The results also showed that participation in the family systems therapy was associated with decreased mother-child discrepancies, and also a synchronous increase in mother's and child's autonomy and relatedness. Additionally, increased mother-child discrepancies and mother-child dyads showing no change in autonomy and relatedness was associated with higher levels of children's problem behaviors. The findings reveal a dynamic process of mother-child discrepancies in autonomy and relatedness behaviors related to child outcomes. The findings also support the effectiveness of the family systems therapy, and highlight the importance of understanding the complexities in family interactions when explaining children's problem behaviors.
von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Simeoni, Eva; Poetsch, Micaela; Banaschak, Sibylle; Mályusz, Victoria; Schwark, Thorsten
This investigation presents the retrospective evaluation of paternity testing done as a "second opinion" in the last four years at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Jena, Greifswald, and Kiel (Germany). All analyses were court-ordered and were preceded by paternity tests of "private" labs. The cases were selected in chronological order without any further exclusion criteria. A total of 59 cases, in which "private" laboratories from all regions of Germany had already performed paternity tests, were evaluated. In all cases, analyses were mainly done by PCR-based STR-typing (8 - 20 STRs). 18 % of the investigated "private" expert opinions showed a false determination of alleles. In two cases, paternity was wrongly confirmed or excluded. The reasons for the mistakes of private laboratories were hard to analyse, since most labs did not provide sufficient information (e.g. alleles, kits and chemicals used) in the written test results. In several cases, not even the typing results were revealed. Furthermore, in paternity testing of "private" labs the identity of the persons examined was usually not assured (e. g. by photo documentation or fingerprints) adding to the problem of insufficient test result reliability.
Ceacăreanu, A C; Ceacăreanu, B
At present, DNA fingerprinting for human identification and paternity testing is a necessary and usual procedure. D1S80 is one of the best known polymorphic loci showing a VNTR, and exhibiting a high heterozygosity. This genetic locus, with a Tsp 509 I polymorphism of its 5' flanking sequence (1, 9), have been successfully amplified from human genomic DNA isolated from blood. The Tsp 509 I polymorphism was detected by restriction after PCR amplification. We tested the relevance of paternity analysis using the D1S80 locus considering the allele frequency distribution characteristic for our country. Paternal and maternal bands were compared with the children's DNA patterns. Our data include a comparison between D1S80 alleles amplified from mother, child and the supposed father for three tested families. This study was the first of this type made in Romania. We concluded a good power of discrimination and exclusion for this locus. It can be used successfully in the case of subtypes with low frequencies, and this is frequent for our population because of the high heterozygosity of D1S80 subtypes in Romanian population. We recommend the D1S80 use for exclusion paternity tests in Romanian population, as a very useful molecular tool, but we also recommend a complete set of molecular markers for confirmation paternity test in the same population.
Wetzel, Daniel P; Westneat, David F
Recent studies of extra-pair paternity have found support for the idea that heterozygous males have an advantage in siring offspring. Most studies use DNA microsatellite loci to determine paternity and then use the same loci to estimate individual heterozygosity. However, because the likelihood of detecting extra-pair offspring depends on the combinations of parental alleles, it is possible that biases arise from particular allele combinations. This might produce false support for the influence of heterozygosity on mating behaviour. We used a simulation model to assess how large this bias might be. We found two sources of bias. First, we found a bias in the null hypothesis of a simple statistical test commonly used to test several predictions of the heterozygosity hypothesis. The use of randomization tests could eliminate this bias. Second, we found that using the same loci for both paternity and heterozygosity can cause an increase in results supporting the heterozygosity hypothesis when no effect of heterozygosity actually exists. This bias is reduced through the use of more markers with higher levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, but can be eliminated entirely by using a separate set of markers to determine paternity and assess heterozygosity. The two sources of bias reduce evidence favouring the heterozygosity hypothesis, but do not negate all of the studies that support it. We suggest that further studies of heterozygosity and extra-pair paternity are important and likely to be informative, but our recommendations should be incorporated by researchers to improve the reliability of their conclusions.
Wohlfeiler, Melissa M; Macias, Michelle M; Saylor, Conway F
This study examined paternal correlates of the cognitive and behavioral functioning of children with myelomeningocele, when controlling for maternal and biological/child correlates as possible sources of variance. Participants were 48 parent dyads of children with myelomeningocele (21 males, 27 females) between the ages of 4 and 12 years (mean 8y, 2mo, SD 2y 3mo). Lesion levels of participants ranged from the thoracic to sacral (thoracic-L3: n=15; L4-L5: n=15; sacral or lipomeningocele: n=18), of whom 38 had been shunted for hydrocephalus. Half of the participants (n=24) were community ambulators. Potential predictors of cognitive and behavioral functioning included paternal and maternal parenting stress, as assessed by the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form paternal, and maternal perceptions of support and resources, as assessed by the Family Resource Scale and the Family Support Scale, and child medical severity. Paternal variables significantly correlated with behavioral functioning but not with cognitive functioning. Regression analyses revealed that paternal personal distress and maternal perceived adequacy of social support accounted for significant variance in overall child behavioral functioning. Only child medical severity and annual household income explained significant variance in overall child cognitive functioning. These findings add to the growing body of theory and research documenting that fathers make unique and significant contributions to child adjustment in children with myelomeningocele. Both fathers and mothers need to be considered in interventions supporting development and adjustment of children with myelomeningocele and their families.
Luis, Juana; Ramírez, Lorena; Carmona, Agustín; Ortiz, Guadalupe; Delgado, Jesús; Cárdenas, René
Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae). Although initially it was thought that testosterone inhibited the display of paternal behavior in males of rodents, it has been shown that in some species high testosterone levels are needed for exhibition of paternal care. In captivity, males of Volcano Mouse (Neotomodon alstoni) provide pups the same care provided by the mother, with the exception of suckling. Here we measured plasmatic testosterone concentrations 10 days after mating, five and 20 days postpartum, and 10 days after males were isolated from their families in order to determine possible changes in this hormone, associated to the presence and age of pups. Males of Volcano Mouse exhibited paternal behavior when their testosterone levels were relatively high. Although levels of this hormone did not change with the presence or pups age, males that invested more time in huddling showed higher testosterone levels. It is possible that in the Volcano Mouse testosterone modulates paternal behavior indirectly, as in the California mouse.
Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Schroeder, J; Girndt, A; Winney, I S; Burke, T; Nakagawa, S
Reproductive success is associated with age in many taxa, increasing in early life followed by reproductive senescence. In socially monogamous but genetically polygamous species, this generates the interesting possibility of differential trajectories of within-pair and extra-pair siring success with age in males. We investigate these relationships simultaneously using within-individual analyses with 13 years of data from an insular house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population. As expected, we found that both within- and extra-pair paternity success increased with age, followed by a senescence-like decline. However, the age trajectories of within- and extra-pair paternity successes differed significantly, with the extra-pair paternity success increasing faster, although not significantly, in early life, and showing a delayed decline by 1.5 years on average later in life compared to within-pair paternity success. These different trajectories indicate that the two alternative mating tactics should have age-dependent pay-offs. Males may partition their reproductive effort between within- and extra-pair matings depending on their current age to reap the maximal combined benefit from both strategies. The interplay between these mating strategies and age-specific mortality may explain the variation in rates of extra-pair paternity observed within and between species.
Saftlas, Audrey F; Rubenstein, Linda; Prater, Kaitlin; Harland, Karisa K; Field, Elizabeth; Triche, Elizabeth W
A growing body of literature suggests that prior and prolonged exposure to paternal antigens in seminal fluid induces maternal tolerance to the allogeneic fetus, protecting it from rejection and facilitating successful implantation and placentation. In this case-control study of nulliparous women, we test the hypothesis that increased exposure to paternal seminal fluid via the vaginal or oral route will confer a reduced risk of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia cases (n=258) and normotensive controls (n=182) were selected from live births to Iowa women over the period August 2002 to April 2005. Disease status was verified by medical chart review. Seminal fluid exposure indexes incorporated information on type and frequency of sexual practices, contraceptive use, and ingestion practices prior to conception with the baby's father. Preeclampsia risk decreased significantly with increasing vaginal exposure to paternal semen (test for trend p<0.05). Women in the highest 10th percentile of vaginal exposure had a 70% reduced odds of preeclampsia relative to women in the lowest 25th percentile of exposure (aOR=0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). Oral seminal fluid exposure was not associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia. These findings are congruent with the immune maladaptation hypothesis of preeclampsia causation and indicate that paternal antigen exposure via the vaginal mucosa may facilitate immune tolerance to paternal HLA. Thus, advising nulliparous women to decrease their use of barrier contraceptive methods and to increase vaginal sexual intercourse prior to conceiving may reduce their risk of preeclampsia.
Gelb, B D; Willner, J P; Dunn, T M; Kardon, N B; Verloes, A; Poncin, J; Desnick, R J
Molecular analysis of a patient affected by the autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, pycnodysostosis (cathepsin K deficiency; MIM 265800), revealed homozygosity for a novel missense mutation (A277V). Since the A277V mutation was carried by the patient's father but not by his mother, who had two normal cathepsin K alleles, paternal uniparental disomy was suspected. Karyotyping of the patient and of both parents was normal, and high-resolution cytogenetic analyses of chromosome 1, to which cathepsin K is mapped, revealed no abnormalities. Evaluation of polymorphic DNA markers spanning chromosome 1 demonstrated that the patient had inherited two paternal chromosome 1 homologues, whereas alleles for markers from other chromosomes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. The patient was homoallelic for informative markers mapping near the chromosome 1 centromere, but he was heteroallelic for markers near both telomeres, establishing that the paternal uniparental disomy with partial isodisomy was caused by a meiosis II nondisjunction event. Phenotypically, the patient had normal birth height and weight, had normal psychomotor development at age 7 years, and had only the usual features of pycnodysostosis. This patient represents the first case of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 1 and provides conclusive evidence that paternally derived genes on human chromosome 1 are not imprinted. PMID:9529353
Eilertsen, Eirik Mack; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Liljedal, Ståle; Rudolfsen, Geir; Folstad, Ivar
Sexual selection theory predicts that females should choose males that signal viability and quality. However, few studies have found fitness benefits among females mating with highly ornamented males. Here, we use Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a teleost fish with no parental care, to investigate whether females could gain fitness benefits by mating with highly ornamented and large-sized males. Carotenoid-based coloration signalled by males during spawning is believed to be an indicator of good genes for this species. Paternal effects on offspring size (body length and dry body mass) were examined experimentally by crossing eggs and sperm in vitro from 12 females and 24 males in a split-brood design and raising larvae to 30 days past hatching. We clearly demonstrated that there was a relationship between offspring size and paternal coloration. However, a negative interaction between paternal length and coloration was evident for offspring length, indicating that positive effects of paternal coloration were only present for smaller males. Thus, the red spawning coloration of the male Arctic charr seems to be an indicator of good genes, but the effect of paternal coloration on offspring length, an indicator of 'offspring quality', is size dependent.
Havey, M J; Park, Y H; Bartoszewski, G
The mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission and there are no reports of variation for mitochondrial transmission in cucumber. We used a mitochondrially encoded mosaic (MSC) phenotype to reveal phenotypic variation for mitochondrial-genome transmission in cucumber. At least 10 random plants from each of 71 cucumber plant introductions (PIs) were crossed as the female with an inbred line (MSC16) possessing the MSC phenotype. Nonmosaic F1 progenies were observed at high frequencies (greater than 50%) in F1 families from 10 PIs, with the greatest proportions being from PI 401734. Polymorphisms near the mitochondrial cox1 gene and JLV5 region revealed that nonmosaic hybrid progenies from crosses of PI 401734 with MSC16 as the male possessed the nonmosaic-inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the paternal parent. F2) F3, and backcross progenies from nonmosaic F1 plants from PI 401734 x MSC16 were testcrossed with MSC16 as the male parent to reveal segregation of a nuclear locus (Psm for Paternal sorting of mitochondria) controlling sorting of mtDNA from the paternal parent. Psm is a unique locus at which the maternal genotype affects sorting of paternally transmitted mtDNA.
Evolutionary models of paternal care predict that when female reproductive effort is higher than male reproductive effort, selection might favour the emergence of unconditional male cooperation towards females, even when the latter group does not reciprocate. However, previous models have assumed constant population sizes, so the ecology of interacting individuals and its effects on population dynamics have been neglected. This paper reports an agent-based model that incorporates ecological dynamics into evolutionary game dynamics by allowing populations to vary. As previous models demonstrate, paternal care only evolves when female reproductive effort is higher than that of males, and the optimal strategy for females is to exploit male unconditional cooperation. The model also shows that evolution of this behaviour drives some simulations towards regimes of population growth. Thanks to the evolution of paternal care, females׳ inter-birth intervals are shortened and causing them to reproduce faster. Thus, it is suggested that the evolution of paternal care in species with differential reproductive effort between sexes could be associated to population growth. Nevertheless, the modelled evolutionary dynamics are stochastic, so differences in reproductive effort are necessary but not sufficient conditions for the evolution of paternal care.
Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A
Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.
Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship) call and alarm call. Results Multi-parametric analyses of the calls’ acoustic parameters and discriminant function analyses showed that advertisement calls, but not alarm calls, contain patrilineal signatures. Playback experiments controlling for familiarity showed that females paid more attention to advertisement calls from unrelated males than from their fathers. Reactions to alarm calls from unrelated males and fathers did not differ. Conclusions 1) Findings provide the first evidence of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitarily foraging mammal. 2) High predation, small body size, and dispersed social systems may select for acoustic paternal kin recognition in the high frequency/ultrasonic ranges, thus limiting risks of inbreeding and eavesdropping by predators or conspecific competitors. 3) Paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in mammals is not dependent upon a large brain and high social complexity, but may already have been an integral part of the dispersed social networks from which more complex, kin-based sociality emerged. PMID:23198727
Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J
Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate.
Feuk, Lars; Kalervo, Aino; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Skaug, Jennifer; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Finucane, Brenda; Hartung, Danielle; Innes, Micheil; Kerem, Batsheva; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J; Rivlin, Joseph; Roberts, Wendy; Senman, Lili; Summers, Anne; Szatmari, Peter; Wong, Virginia; Vincent, John B; Zeesman, Susan; Osborne, Lucy R; Cardy, Janis Oram; Kere, Juha; Scherer, Stephen W; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina
Mutations in FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), but only a few cases have been described. We characterize 13 patients with DVD--5 with hemizygous paternal deletions spanning the FOXP2 gene, 1 with a translocation interrupting FOXP2, and the remaining 7 with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (UPD7), who were also given a diagnosis of Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS). Of these individuals with DVD, all 12 for whom parental DNA was available showed absence of a paternal copy of FOXP2. Five other individuals with deletions of paternally inherited FOXP2 but with incomplete clinical information or phenotypes too complex to properly assess are also described. Four of the patients with DVD also meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Individuals with paternal UPD7 or with partial maternal UPD7 or deletion starting downstream of FOXP2 do not have DVD. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we show the maternally inherited FOXP2 to be comparatively underexpressed. Our results indicate that absence of paternal FOXP2 is the cause of DVD in patients with SRS with maternal UPD7. The data also point to a role for differential parent-of-origin expression of FOXP2 in human speech development.
Wang, Meifang; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Li
The goal of this research was to examine the unique relationships between paternal and maternal psychological aggression (PA) and physical aggression (corporal punishment [CP] and severe physical abuse [SPA]) and children's anxiety in China. A total of 1,971 father-mother dyads completed the Chinese version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) and the Chinese version of Spence Children's Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P). Results indicated that when paternal and maternal PA, CP, and SPA were considered simultaneously, parental PA and maternal CP were both significantly predictive of children's anxiety, whereas SPA had no significant effects on children's anxiety. Specifically, both paternal and maternal PA were the most unique predictors of children's anxiety among parental psychological and physical aggression, whereas the effects of maternal CP and paternal CP were different, with maternal CP having a stronger effect on children's anxiety compared with paternal CP. The findings indicated that appropriate prevention and intervention efforts are needed to target parental PA and maternal CP.
Individual inbreeding coefficient (F) and pairwise relatedness (r) are fundamental parameters in population genetics and have important applications in diverse fields such as human medicine, forensics, plant and animal breeding, conservation and evolutionary biology. Traditionally, both parameters are calculated from pedigrees, but are now increasingly estimated from genetic marker data. Conceptually, a pedigree gives the expected F and r values, FP and rP, with the expectations being taken (hypothetically) over an infinite number of individuals with the same pedigree. In contrast, markers give the realised (actual) F and r values at the particular marker loci of the particular individuals, FM and rM. Both pedigree (FP, rP) and marker (FM, rM) estimates can be used as inferences of genomic inbreeding coefficients FG and genomic relatedness rG, which are the underlying quantities relevant to most applications (such as estimating inbreeding depression and heritability) of F and r. In the pre-genomic era, it was widely accepted that pedigrees are much better than markers in delineating FG and rG, and markers should better be used to validate, amend and construct pedigrees rather than to replace them. Is this still true in the genomic era when genome-wide dense SNPs are available? In this simulation study, I showed that genomic markers can yield much better estimates of FG and rG than pedigrees when they are numerous (say, 10(4) SNPs) under realistic situations (e.g. genome and population sizes). Pedigree estimates are especially poor for species with a small genome, where FG and rG are determined to a large extent by Mendelian segregations and may thus deviate substantially from their expectations (FP and rP). Simulations also confirmed that FM, when estimated from many SNPs, can be much more powerful than FP for detecting inbreeding depression in viability. However, I argue that pedigrees cannot be replaced completely by genomic SNPs, because the former allows for
Background Computing semantic relatedness between textual labels representing biological and medical concepts is a crucial task in many automated knowledge extraction and processing applications relevant to the biomedical domain, specifically due to the huge amount of new findings being published each year. Most methods benefit from making use of highly specific resources, thus reducing their usability in many real world scenarios that differ from the original assumptions. In this paper we present a simple resource-efficient method for calculating semantic relatedness in a knowledge-poor environment. The method obtains results comparable to state-of-the-art methods, while being more generic and flexible. The solution being presented here was designed to use only a relatively generic and small document corpus and its statistics, without referring to a previously defined knowledge base, thus it does not assume a 'closed' problem. Results We propose a method in which computation for two input texts is based on the idea of comparing the vocabulary associated with the best-fit documents related to those texts. As keyterm extraction is a costly process, it is done in a preprocessing step on a 'per-document' basis in order to limit the on-line processing. The actual computations are executed in a compact vector space, limited by the most informative extraction results. The method has been evaluated on five direct benchmarks by calculating correlation coefficients w.r.t. average human answers. It also has been used on Gene - Disease and Disease- Disease data pairs to highlight its potential use as a data analysis tool. Apart from comparisons with reported results, some interesting features of the method have been studied, i.e. the relationship between result quality, efficiency and applicable trimming threshold for size reduction. Experimental evaluation shows that the presented method obtains results that are comparable with current state of the art methods, even
Lopes, Iara F; Miño, Carolina I; Rocha, Cristiano D; Oliveira, Dalci M M; Del Lama, Silvia N
The present study inferred the genetic mating system in a natural breeding population of the Jabiru Stork (Jabiru mycteria), a Neotropical wading bird considered endangered in part of its distribution range. Based on data from eight microsatellite loci, maximum-likelihood kinship reconstruction techniques, parentage assignment analyses and effective population size (Ne) estimates were applied to samples collected in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland (N = 45 nestlings from 20 nests; N = 17 shed adult feathers from 11 nests). The relationship diagnosis was determined for most of the complete clutches (86.66 %): 92.31 % were full siblings and 7.69 % were half siblings. Shed feathers collected from the nests matched the genetic parents of the offspring in 80 % of cases. Feathers collected from the ground below the nests were compatible with the putative parents in 41.67 % of cases. A mean Ne of 35 reproductive individuals was inferred, corresponding to an Ne/Nc ratio of 0.09, which is similar to the ratio found in populations of a number of different wild animals. The higher proportion of full siblings identified in the broods suggests that genetic monogamy is the prevalent mating system in the Jabiru Stork, while the detection of half siblings suggests some degree of extra-pair paternity. The present findings are in agreement with previous ecological observations of social monogamy in this species, despite the isolated evidence of extra-pair copulation events. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of a noninvasive approach to sampling adults and performing parentage and relatedness analyses in an elusive, threatened species.
Azman, B Z; Akhir, S M; Zilfalil, B A; Ankathil, R
We report two cases of deletion 5p or cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) with different presentations and risks of transmission: one case with paternal chromosome 5 involvement and another, a de novo case with atypical clinical presentation. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on the two cases and their parents. GTG-banded karyotype analysis of Cases 1 and 2 revealed abnormal 46,XY,del(5)(p13-15) male karyotypes. For Case 1, the mother showed normal female karyotype while the father showed an abnormal karyotype involving a balanced translocation 46,XY,t(5;10)(p13;p15). For Case 2, however, both parents showed a normal karyotype pattern. In Case 1, the clinical features, particularly the distinct facial phenotype in combination with a characteristic cat-like cry and hypotonia, aided in the diagnosis at birth and the karyotype analysis was resolutive. The boy in Case 2 presented with atypical clinical features. Even though this patient had multiple syndromic features, the typical high pitched cat-like cry was not prominent. Instead, the patient manifested persistent stridor (from day three of life), which might have prevented the clinician from suspecting CdCS at birth. However, when this patient was presented at seven months of age for cytogenetic analysis, a confirmatory diagnosis of CdCS was established. For children with congenital abnormalities, an early clinical diagnosis confirmed through cytogenetic and molecular investigations, is important for providing personalised diagnostic and prognostic evaluation, and also for genetic counselling on the reproductive risk, particularly for patients with parental chromosome translocation involvement.