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Sample records for relatif aux prescriptions

  1. Prescription Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, especially in brain areas involved in the perception of pain and pleasure. Prescription stimulants , such as ... of drug that causes changes in your mood, perceptions, and behavior can affect judgment and willingness to ...

  2. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Prescriptions and Insurance Plans Prescriptions and Insurance Plans Getting a prescription filled is usually easy. But because of the high cost of prescription medicines, most insurance ...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  4. Treating Prescription Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  5. Prescription Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents current statistics on nonmedical use of both categories of prescription medications by high school and college students. The incidence of nonmedical use of prescription medications continues to increase among high school and college students. Two categories of drugs that are commonly used for reasons other than those for…

  6. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What is Prescription Drug Abuse: ... treatment of addiction. Read more Safe Disposal of Medicines Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know ( ...

  7. Prescription diets for rabbits.

    PubMed

    Proença, Laila Maftoum; Mayer, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Dietary management can be used with drug therapy for the successful treatment of many diseases. Therapeutic nutrition is well-recognized in dogs and cats and is beginning to increase among other pet species, including rabbits. The nutritional component of some rabbit diseases (eg, urolithiasis) is not completely understood, and the clinician should evaluate the use of prescription diets based on the scientific literature and individual needs. Long-term feeding trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of prescription diets in rabbits. Prescription diets are available for selected diseases in rabbits, including diets for immediate-term, short-term, and long-term management. PMID:25155667

  8. Getting a prescription filled

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get prescription filled; Pharmacy - mail order; Pharmacy - internet; Types of pharmacies ... stored at certain temperatures at a local pharmacy. INTERNET (ONLINE) PHARMACIES Internet pharmacies can be used for ...

  9. Prescriptions for ACME's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felch, William Campbell

    1991-01-01

    Five prescriptions for the future agenda of the Alliance for Continuing Medical Education are (1) a core curriculum; (2) informatics; (3) remedial continuing medical education (CME); (4) focus on the individual learner; and (5) practice-oriented CME. (SK)

  10. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  11. Exercise by prescription.

    PubMed

    Browne, D

    1997-02-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) see over 90% of their practice population in three years. Over 50% of the adult population is below the perceived level of physical activity as recognised by the Allied Dunbar Physical Activity score (Allied Dunbar, Health Education Authority and Sports Council, 1992). Physical fitness levels in adolescents and children are declining, while the incidence of obesity is increasing. GPs, with their Primary Health Care Team, are in a unique position to be able to discuss the health benefits of regular physical activity with their patients during the consultation and offer, if appropriate, a prescription for a course of physical activity to a local leisure centre or community activity centre. Many communities have facilities for physical activity. These include leisure centres, schools, village and church halls, the home and the general practice surgery. A directory of resources for physical activity for all age groups should be available in the surgery waiting room area. A community co-ordinator can network community facilities and resources to meet individual need. The co-ordinator can be funded by the general practice surgery, Health Authority, Local Authority, Parish or District Council. An agreed protocol for exercise prescription referrals to suitable community facilities can benefit patient health care for a variety of medical, surgical, social and mental conditions. Auditing exercise prescriptions shows a health benefit, with improved quality of living and reduced prescription medicines.

  12. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  13. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... people also have to pay an additional monthly cost. Private companies provide Medicare prescription drug coverage. You choose the drug plan you like best. Whether or not you should sign up depends on how good your current coverage is. You need to sign up as ...

  14. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... brand names ConZip®, Ryzolt®, Ultram®) The street drug heroin also is an opioid. What problems can opioids ... to buy them illegally. People often start using heroin after becoming addicted to prescription opioids. Sometimes opioids ...

  15. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process.

  16. Pharmacy experience with facsimile prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Paul E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process. PMID:21121504

  17. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  18. [Drugs prescription for osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Erviti, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the evolution of the global and relative use of medicines recommended for osteoporosis during the period between 1998 and 2002 in Navarra, and their adaptation to present evidence, making reference to the differences in the prescription profile in primary and specialised care. To this end, information is used from all the prescriptions made within the National Health System where one of these medicines is recommended, issued in pharmacies of Navarra, and billed to the Navarra Health Service-Osasunbidea. The profile of the use of medicines in osteoporosis differs significantly depending on the type of specialist who prescribes them. It would be useful to homogenise the approach to the prevention of bone fractures. In the period under study the use of medicines in Navarra rose by some 85.6% in number of dose/1,000 inhabitants/day. The relative use of hormone replacement therapy fell constantly, the employment of calcitonins remained steady, undergoing a cyclical profile of peaks in winter and valleys in summer, while the relative use of biphosphonates and raloxifen tended to increase. There is a need to evaluate the results on health of the use of these medicines in clinical practice given the discreet efficacy results obtained in clinical trials. Use of calcium should be encouraged because of its potential in the prevention of hip fractures against the rest of the medicinal alternatives. The relative use of raloxifen and calcitonins seems excessive.

  19. Deprescription: The prescription metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy

    2016-01-01

    Deprescribing is a structured approach to drug discontinuation. An alternative suggested term is “prescription metabolism.” The major aim of deprescription is to purge the drug(s) considered unwanted in a given patient, especially in the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities or in those suffering from chronic disease. Like drug metabolism, prescription metabolism is a way of eliminating unwanted, troublesome, or cost-ineffective medications. The removal of such drugs has been found to decrease the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improves the rate of medication adherence, thereby reducing the economic burden on the patient as well as on the health care providers. Certain categories of drugs are to be tapered rather than abruptly stopped. Despite the availability of many tools to minimize drug therapy-related problems, there is little guidance for the process of deprescribing in general clinical practice. Various methods to reduce the risks of polypharmacy include patient education, physician education, and regulatory intervention. The suggested S and S approach (seek and screen, save and severe, sensitize and supervise) may be tried for deprescribing in general practice. More research on deprescribing is the need of the hour in almost all branches of clinical medicine which may pave the way for the betterment of health care. PMID:27651709

  20. Deprescription: The prescription metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy

    2016-01-01

    Deprescribing is a structured approach to drug discontinuation. An alternative suggested term is "prescription metabolism." The major aim of deprescription is to purge the drug(s) considered unwanted in a given patient, especially in the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities or in those suffering from chronic disease. Like drug metabolism, prescription metabolism is a way of eliminating unwanted, troublesome, or cost-ineffective medications. The removal of such drugs has been found to decrease the incidence of adverse drug reactions and improves the rate of medication adherence, thereby reducing the economic burden on the patient as well as on the health care providers. Certain categories of drugs are to be tapered rather than abruptly stopped. Despite the availability of many tools to minimize drug therapy-related problems, there is little guidance for the process of deprescribing in general clinical practice. Various methods to reduce the risks of polypharmacy include patient education, physician education, and regulatory intervention. The suggested S and S approach (seek and screen, save and severe, sensitize and supervise) may be tried for deprescribing in general practice. More research on deprescribing is the need of the hour in almost all branches of clinical medicine which may pave the way for the betterment of health care. PMID:27651709

  1. Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science > Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions By ... to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  2. A prescription fraud detection model.

    PubMed

    Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan

    2012-04-01

    Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  4. Adolescent Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.

    2012-01-01

    For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…

  5. Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research…

  6. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  7. 21 CFR 201.120 - Prescription chemicals and other prescription components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription chemicals and other prescription... Prescription chemicals and other prescription components. A drug prepared, packaged, and primarily sold as a prescription chemical or other component for use by registered pharmacists in compounding prescriptions or...

  8. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  9. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  11. Research Reports: Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine. NIDA hopes to change this situation ...

  12. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  13. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  14. Prescriptive Teaching Workshop Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mildred E.; And Others

    The resource manual describes procedures for replication of a 1 year Prescriptive Teaching Workshop project, a Title III educational program designed to maintain the learning disabled elementary school child in the regular classroom with additional special workshop help in order to raise his academic achievement. Evaluation of the student is by a…

  15. Learning Disabilities: Diagnosis and Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappelman, Murray M.

    The author advocates an interdisciplinary team approach to diagnosis and prescription for the elementary school learning disabled (LD) child. Described is a 5-year project, funded under Title VI, operating within 11-18 elementary schools surrounding the University of Maryland Hospital. Biweekly services are offered to participating schools by a…

  16. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  17. Prescriptive Exercise for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscopo, John

    1985-01-01

    In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)

  18. Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feet » Foot Health Information Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics What are Shoe Inserts? You've seen ... hold on to your receipt.) What are Prescription Custom Orthotics? Custom orthotics are specially-made devices designed ...

  19. What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  20. Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Law Enforcement Resources Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals ... in your brain or body. Common opioids include heroin and prescription drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and ...

  1. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities. PMID:26798885

  2. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities.

  3. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic prescriptions. 1306.08 Section 1306.08... § 1306.08 Electronic prescriptions. (a) An individual practitioner may sign and transmit electronic... an electronic prescription, a pharmacist must include all of the information that this part...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  5. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple... multiple prescriptions. (a) The refilling of a prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule II is prohibited. (b)(1) An individual practitioner may issue multiple prescriptions authorizing...

  6. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoyong; Xu, Xiaoyang; Fang, David D; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2012-07-15

    Members of the Aux/IAA gene family encode proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-regulated gene expression and regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. Here, we provide the first identification and characterization of nine cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame (ORF) of the Aux/IAA family in cotton. These were designated GhAux1 to GhAux9 (Gossypiumhirsutum Aux/IAA). The proteins encoded by these nine genes had either whole or partially conserved domains of the Aux/IAA superfamily, with sequence identity ranging from 14% to 69%. A pair of homeologs exists for each Aux/IAA in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 with high identity both in ORF sequences and amino acid level. Tissue- and organ-specific analysis showed that transcripts of GhAux1, GhAux2, and GhAux3 were abundant in vegetative organs, whereas GhAux4, GhAux5, GhAux6, and GhAux7 were preferentially expressed in ovules on the day of anthesis. GhAux8 and GhIAA16 (previously reported) were also preferentially expressed during fiber developmental stages, especially GhAux8 in fiber early elongation stages, and GhIAA16 in fiber initiation and secondary cell wall thickening stage. GhAux9 was specifically expressed in developing fibers. During the fiber initiation stage, except for GhAux3 and GhAux6, the expression of the other eight GhAuxs in various lintless-fuzzless and linted-fuzzless mutants demonstrated that they were significantly up-regulated compared with linted-fuzzy TM-1. PMID:22575728

  7. Accuracy in prescriptions compounded by pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, R P; Deloatch, K H

    1998-01-01

    Most compounded prescriptions are not analyzed to determine the accuracy of the employed instruments and procedures. The assumption is that the compounded prescription will be +/- 5% the labeled claim. Two classes of School of Pharmcacy students who received repeated instruction and supervision on proper compounding techniques and procedures were assessed to determine their accuracy of compounding a diphenhydramine hydrochloride prescription. After two attempts, only 62% to 68% of the students could compound the prescription within +/- 5% the labeled claim; but 84% to 96% could attain an accuracy of +/- 10%. The results suggest that an accuracy of +/- 10% labeled claim is the least variation a pharmacist can expect when extemporaneously compounding prescriptions.

  8. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  9. Rational Prescription for a Dermatologist

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Bhanu; Nadig, Prathiba; Nayak, Amitha

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal in dermatological therapy is to use the safest and least number of drugs in order to obtain the best possible effect in the shortest period and at reasonable cost. Rational drug use (RDU) is conventionally defined as the use of an appropriate, efficacious, safe and cost-effective drug given for the right indications in the right dose and formulation, at right time intervals. WHO estimates that more than half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them correctly as prescribed by the doctor. The process of Rational prescription for a Dermatologist (RPD) involves a series of steps such as defining the patient's illness, specifying the treatment objectives, using the principle of P-treatment, starting the treatment, providing appropriate information and monitoring the treatment. Reasons for irrational prescription could be physician related, patient related, industry related, regulations related. Practicing medicine irrationally can lead to disastrous events like increased morbidity and mortality, drain of resources, drug resistance etc. Principles to enhance the RDU in our practice and minimize errors of prescription are discussed in detail in this article. PMID:26955092

  10. Rational Prescription for a Dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Nadig, Prathiba; Nayak, Amitha

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal in dermatological therapy is to use the safest and least number of drugs in order to obtain the best possible effect in the shortest period and at reasonable cost. Rational drug use (RDU) is conventionally defined as the use of an appropriate, efficacious, safe and cost-effective drug given for the right indications in the right dose and formulation, at right time intervals. WHO estimates that more than half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them correctly as prescribed by the doctor. The process of Rational prescription for a Dermatologist (RPD) involves a series of steps such as defining the patient's illness, specifying the treatment objectives, using the principle of P-treatment, starting the treatment, providing appropriate information and monitoring the treatment. Reasons for irrational prescription could be physician related, patient related, industry related, regulations related. Practicing medicine irrationally can lead to disastrous events like increased morbidity and mortality, drain of resources, drug resistance etc. Principles to enhance the RDU in our practice and minimize errors of prescription are discussed in detail in this article. PMID:26955092

  11. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  12. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements... REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.120 Electronic prescription application requirements. (a) A practitioner may only use an electronic prescription...

  13. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  14. [Summary of Hui prescriptions for treating cough].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jin; Xue, Ting; Fu, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    By using the method of philology, 65 Hui prescriptions for treating cough were been collected to compare Arabic and Chinese names of pennisetum, anemarrhenae, honey, pease, white mustard, perilla and towel gourd stem. The Countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 was used to count frequency of drugs in the prescriptions and summarize eight common Hui medicine for treating cough, namely sugar, honey, almond, fritillaria, liquorice, orange peel, white mulberry root-bark and lily. According to the commonly used drugs, philological studies and theories of Hui medicines, pathology and therapy of Hui medicines for treating cough were preliminarily inferred. In this study, 35 practical prescriptions and 30 simple and convenient Halal dietary prescriptions were summarized from collected prescriptions according to relevant literatures. On the basis of the long-lasting unique dietary therapy culture developed for Hui people, the simple and practical dietary prescriptions were defined according indications, therapy, prescription name and composition, and eight types of drug-admixed foods were summarized to relieve pains and improve health awareness and quality of life. Meanwhile, this study could also enrich and perfect the prescriptions, provide new ideas for improving health of patients, and lay a certain realistic foundation for further study of Hui medicines. PMID:25993806

  15. 21 CFR 801.109 - Prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription devices. 801.109 Section 801.109 Food... DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.109 Prescription devices. A device... direct the use of such device, and hence for which “adequate directions for use” cannot be...

  16. 76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal... issuing temporary regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care... preliminary fee calculation is valid and justifies an adjustment to the preliminary fee calculation....

  17. Prescriptive Authority and Psychology: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ronald E.; DeLeon, Patrick H.; Newman, Russ; Sammons, Morgan T.; Dunivin, Debra L.; Baker, Deborah C.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of psychology toward the acquisition of prescriptive authority is critically reviewed. Advances made by other nonphysician health care professions toward expanding their scopes of practice to include prescriptive authority are compared with gains made by professional psychology. Societal trends affecting attitudes toward the use of…

  18. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  19. Revisiting "the origins of compulsory drug prescriptions".

    PubMed Central

    Marks, H M

    1995-01-01

    It has been argued that today's prescription drug market originated in the arbitrary acts of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which in 1938 issued regulations creating a class of drugs that could be sold by prescription only. On the basis of the FDA's administrative records, I argue that the 1938 regulations on prescription drug labeling were initiated by industry and then agreed to by the FDA; that contemporaries understood and accepted the reasons for restricting the use of certain drugs; and that the subsequent evolution of these regulations is best understood as an FDA effort to limit industry abuses of the prescription labeling system. This decade-long war of position ended when drug manufacturers persuaded the US Congress to enshrine their version of prescription labeling in law in a highly politicized struggle over government's role in the economy. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7832245

  20. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  1. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the pharmacy or pursuant to an oral prescription made by an individual practitioner and promptly... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the pharmacy, an electronic prescription that meets...

  2. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain.

  3. Impact of a Mandatory Prescription Drug Monitoring Program on Prescription of Opioid Analgesics by Dentists.

    PubMed

    Rasubala, Linda; Pernapati, Lavanya; Velasquez, Ximena; Burk, James; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMP) are statewide databases that collect data on prescription of controlled substances. New York State mandates prescribers to consult the PDMP registry before prescribing a controlled substance such as opioid analgesics. The effect of mandatory PDMP on opioid drug prescriptions by dentists is not known. This study investigates the impact of mandatory PDMP on frequency and quantity of opioid prescriptions by dentists in a dental urgent care center. Based on the sample size estimate, we collected patient records of a 3-month period before and two consecutive 3-month periods after the mandatory PDMP implementation and analyzed the data on number of visits, treatment types and drug prescriptions using Chi-square tests. For patients who were prescribed pain medications, 452 (30.6%), 190 (14.1%), and 140 (9.6%) received opioid analgesics in the three study periods respectively, signifying a statistically significant reduction in the number of opioid prescriptions after implementation of the mandatory PDMP (p<0.05). Total numbers of prescribed opioid pills in a 3-month period decreased from 5096 to 1120, signifying a 78% reduction in absolute quantity. Prescriptions for non-opioid analgesics acetaminophen increased during the same periods (p<0.05). We conclude that the mandatory PDMP significantly affected the prescription pattern for pain medications by dentists. Such change in prescription pattern represents a shift towards the evidence-based prescription practices for acute postoperative pain. PMID:26274819

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... including screening and monitoring for substance abuse and mental health problems. Use prescription drug monitoring programs to identify ... effective pain treatment. Working to improve access to mental health and substance abuse treatment through implementation of the ...

  5. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    MedlinePlus

    ... name drugs when you buy them at a pharmacy or order them through the mail. • Some coverage ... savings if you buy your prescriptions at a pharmacy or order them through the mail. The discount ...

  6. Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called a drug-drug interaction. Vitamins and herbal supplements can affect the way your body processes drugs, ... over-the-counter and prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements that you are taking. Also, talk to your ...

  7. Towards creating the perfect electronic prescription.

    PubMed

    Dhavle, Ajit A; Rupp, Michael T

    2015-04-01

    Significant strides have been made in electronic (e)-prescribing standards and software applications that have further fueled the adoption and use of e-prescribing. However, for e-prescribing to realize its full potential for improving the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of prescription drug delivery, important work remains to be carried out. This perspective describes the ultimate goal of all e-prescribing stakeholders including prescribers and dispensing pharmacists: a clear, complete, and unambiguous e-prescription order that can be seamlessly received, processed, and fulfilled at the dispensing pharmacy without the need for additional clarification from the prescriber. We discuss the challenges to creating the perfect e-prescription by focusing on selected data segments and data fields that are available in the new e-prescription transaction as defined in the NCPDP SCRIPT Standard and suggest steps that could be taken to move the industry closer to achieving this vision. PMID:25038197

  8. Prescription Pain Medicines - An Addictive Path?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for addiction to these drugs, which include codeine, morphine, oxycodone (OxyContin), hydrocodone (Vicodin), and meperidine (Demerol). The ... the receptors in the brain affected by heroin, morphine, and prescription painkillers. The tablets relieve drug cravings ...

  9. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim’s paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim’s findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  10. Safe exercise prescription for children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, Julia MK

    1998-01-01

    This article provides practical advice on healthy exercise prescription for children. There is growing scientific evidence about the abilities and limits of child athletes in both recreational and competitive environments. As exercise becomes essential for the prevention of illness and maintenance of health, the counselling for an exercise prescription requires enhanced knowledge. The latest recommendations on safe strength, resistance and weight training are presented in a concise format for office use. PMID:20401276

  11. [FIRST CONSULTATION IN TEENAGERS FOR CONTRACEPTION PRESCRIPTION].

    PubMed

    Béliard, A

    2016-01-01

    Adequate contraception prescription is mandatory for teenagers to avoid any unwanted pregnancy. Counselling and description of side effect improve compliance. Use of condom is important to avoid sexually transmitted infections. Combined estroprogestin contraception has multiple non-contraceptive benefits, e.g. dysmenorrhea improvement. Familial and personal history is needed before contraception prescription. Further consultation 3 months later has to be planned to evaluate compliance, side effects and to adapt contraception if needed.

  12. 21 CFR 1306.12 - Refilling prescriptions; issuance of multiple prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an individual practitioner acting in the usual course of professional practice; (ii) The individual... on which a pharmacy may fill each prescription; (iii) The individual practitioner concludes...

  13. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refilling of prescriptions. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.22 Refilling of prescriptions. (a) No prescription for a controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  14. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.05 Manner of issuance of prescriptions. (a) All prescriptions for controlled substances shall be dated as of, and signed on,...

  15. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling of prescriptions. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... prescription it shall be deemed that the full face amount of the prescription has been dispensed....

  16. 21 CFR 1306.04 - Purpose of issue of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of issue of prescription. 1306.04 Section 1306.04 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.04 Purpose of issue of prescription. (a) A prescription for a controlled substance to...

  17. 21 CFR 1306.03 - Persons entitled to issue prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons entitled to issue prescriptions. 1306.03 Section 1306.03 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.03 Persons entitled to issue prescriptions. (a) A prescription for a...

  18. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  19. Errors and omissions in hospital prescriptions: a survey of prescription writing in a hospital

    PubMed Central

    Calligaris, Laura; Panzera, Angela; Arnoldo, Luca; Londero, Carla; Quattrin, Rosanna; Troncon, Maria G; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    Background The frequency of drug prescription errors is high. Excluding errors in decision making, the remaining are mainly due to order ambiguity, non standard nomenclature and writing illegibility. The aim of this study is to analyse, as a part of a continuous quality improvement program, the quality of prescriptions writing for antibiotics, in an Italian University Hospital as a risk factor for prescription errors. Methods The point prevalence survey, carried out in May 26–30 2008, involved 41 inpatient Units. Every parenteral or oral antibiotic prescription was analysed for legibility (generic or brand drug name, dose, frequency of administration) and completeness (generic or brand name, dose, frequency of administration, route of administration, date of prescription and signature of the prescriber). Eight doctors (residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) and two pharmacists performed the survey by reviewing the clinical records of medical, surgical or intensive care section inpatients. The antibiotics drug category was chosen because its use is widespread in the setting considered. Results Out of 756 inpatients included in the study, 408 antibiotic prescriptions were found in 298 patients (mean prescriptions per patient 1.4; SD ± 0.6). Overall 92.7% (38/41) of the Units had at least one patient with antibiotic prescription. Legibility was in compliance with 78.9% of generic or brand names, 69.4% of doses, 80.1% of frequency of administration, whereas completeness was fulfilled for 95.6% of generic or brand names, 76.7% of doses, 83.6% of frequency of administration, 87% of routes of administration, 43.9% of dates of prescription and 33.3% of physician's signature. Overall 23.9% of prescriptions were illegible and 29.9% of prescriptions were incomplete. Legibility and completeness are higher in unusual drugs prescriptions. Conclusion The Intensive Care Section performed best as far as quality of prescription writing was concerned when compared with the

  20. Prescription Patterns of General Practitioners in Peshawar, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Usman Ahmad; Khursheed, Tayyeba; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas, Maryam; Irfan, Uma Maheswari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find out prescription patterns of general practitioners in Peshawar. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of drug prescriptions was done at six major hospitals and pharmacies of Peshawar between April and May 2011. A total of 1097 prescriptions that included 3640 drugs, were analyzed to assess completeness, average number of drugs, prescription frequency of various drug classes, and number of brands prescribed. Results: No prescription contained all essential components of a prescription. Legibility was poor in 58.5% prescriptions. Physician’s name and registration number were not mentioned in 89% and 98.2% prescriptions respectively. Over 78% prescriptions did not have diagnosis or indication mentioned. Dosage, duration of use, signature of physician and directions for taking drugs were not written in 63.8%, 55.4%, 18.5% and 10.9% of prescriptions respectively. On average each prescription included 3.32 drugs. Most frequently prescribed drug classes included analgesics (61.7%), anti-infective agents (57.2%), multi-vitamins (37.8%) and gastrointestinal drugs (34.4%). We found 206, 130, 105 and 101 different brands of anti-infective agents, gastrointestinal drugs, analgesics and multivitamins being prescribed. Conclusion: We observed a high number of average drugs per prescription mostly using brand names, and over-prescription of analgesics, antimicrobials, multivitamins and anti-ulcer drugs. Quality of written prescriptions was poor in terms of completeness. PMID:24948959

  1. Slim accretion discs with different viscosity prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    1990-05-01

    The variability of X-ray sources powered by accretion may be connected to thermal instabilities in the innermost parts of slim disks. The time-scales of variability predicted by the theory with the standard alpha-viscosity prescription agree with those observed in a wide range of sources. The amplitudes (3-4 orders of magnitude in luiminosity) are correctly predicted for X-ray transient sources, but in general are too big for quasars, Seyferts, galactic blackhole candidates and LMXBs. It is shown that a slight modification of the viscosity prescription can offer a much better agreement with observations.

  2. Sale of prescription drugs over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, K; Bloom, B S

    1999-01-01

    Online drugstores represent one of the hottest categories in electronic commerce. The Internet offers great promise in expanding access to prescription drugs for the disabled, the elderly, and people living in rural areas. But with this promise comes the danger of eliminating the safeguards that protect consumers from inappropriate use of medications and adverse drug events. This Issue Brief highlights two studies that investigate the availability of prescription drugs over the Internet, and focuses on the alarming ease with which consumers can obtain drugs without seeing a physician or a pharmacist. PMID:12523341

  3. Purchasing prescription medication in Mexico without a prescription. The experience at the border.

    PubMed Central

    Casner, P. R.; Guerra, L. G.

    1992-01-01

    Prescription medication can often be purchased in Mexico without a physician's prescription. United States residents living along the border may have access to dangerous medications by crossing the border and purchasing them in Mexican pharmacies. We sought to determine the extent and frequency of this behavior in a sample of our ambulatory clinic population. Patients from the Texas Tech University Internal Medicine Clinic were surveyed to collect information about their use of medications, use of alternative sources of health care in Mexico, and purchasing of prescription medication in Juarez, Mexico. More than 80% of patients stated they had purchased prescription-type medication at a pharmacy without a physician's prescription. The most common reasons for buying prescription medication in Mexico were because it was less expensive or because a prescription was not necessary. These data indicate a potential for US residents along the border to take medications in an unregulated manner, a practice that could pose problems for health care providers on both sides of the border. Images PMID:1595276

  4. Purchasing prescription medication in Mexico without a prescription. The experience at the border.

    PubMed

    Casner, P R; Guerra, L G

    1992-05-01

    Prescription medication can often be purchased in Mexico without a physician's prescription. United States residents living along the border may have access to dangerous medications by crossing the border and purchasing them in Mexican pharmacies. We sought to determine the extent and frequency of this behavior in a sample of our ambulatory clinic population. Patients from the Texas Tech University Internal Medicine Clinic were surveyed to collect information about their use of medications, use of alternative sources of health care in Mexico, and purchasing of prescription medication in Juarez, Mexico. More than 80% of patients stated they had purchased prescription-type medication at a pharmacy without a physician's prescription. The most common reasons for buying prescription medication in Mexico were because it was less expensive or because a prescription was not necessary. These data indicate a potential for US residents along the border to take medications in an unregulated manner, a practice that could pose problems for health care providers on both sides of the border. PMID:1595276

  5. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R B

    1988-10-01

    The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 is described, and its implications for hospitals and other health-care entities are discussed. The act, which became effective on July 21, 1988, is intended to reduce public health risks from adulterated, misbranded, and counterfeit drug products that enter the marketplace through drug diversion. The law provides that prescription drug products manufactured in the United States and exported can no longer be reimported, except by the product's manufacturer. It also establishes restrictions on sales of prescription drug products and samples. Samples of prescription drug products may be distributed only if a licensed prescriber requests them. Other distribution channels for samples specified in the law are permissible, provided records are maintained. Under the law, wholesale distributors must be licensed by the state and meet uniform standards. Penalties for violations of the law are also identified. According to FDA's advisory guidelines on the statute, the law will permit hospitals to return drug products, provided the return is made to the manufacturer or wholesaler and provided written notice is secured that the goods were received (for manufacturers) or the goods were destroyed or returned to the manufacturer (for wholesalers). The final chapter on drug diversion must await issuance of final FDA regulations. PMID:3228083

  6. 21 CFR 1306.08 - Electronic prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... part 1311 of this chapter. (b) A pharmacy may fill an electronically transmitted prescription for a controlled substance provided the pharmacy complies with all other requirements for filling controlled... to be invalid and the pharmacy may not dispense the controlled substance. Effective Date Note: At...

  7. 21 CFR 801.109 - Prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.109 Prescription devices. A device... direct the use of such device, and hence for which “adequate directions for use” cannot be...

  8. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  9. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French and distinguishes…

  10. A Systems Approach to Diagnostic Prescriptive Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Robert B.; And Others

    This five-part document presents three approaches to research on instructional improvement, with the final two sections concentrating on problems and implications for diagnostic prescriptive instruction. Part 1 reviews comparative instructional effectiveness studies. Part 2 discusses the Trait-Treatment Interaction Approach (TTI) which is…

  11. Psychological Evaluation and Prescription Development Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigo County School Corp., Terre Haute, IN.

    Developed to aid children with learning difficulties, from mental retardation or brain injury to maladjustment or physical or environmental handicaps, the joint school services program provides psychological evaluation and prescription development. The handbook reviews theories of child development and surveys behavior modification and…

  12. 76 FR 26232 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Acquisition Regulation (EPAAR) to update policy, procedures, and contract clauses. The proposed rule provides revised language to the prescription for the work assignment clause, incorporating prescriptive language... INFORMATION CONTACT: Donna S. Blanding, Policy, Training, and Oversight Division, Office of...

  13. Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heroin Use Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use Email Facebook Twitter NIDA recently challenged the ... References for Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use The authors conducted an independent analysis of ...

  14. Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use and Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Butner, Jenna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rise in the non-medical use of prescription opioids, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States. In some cases, this non-medical use progresses to prescription opioid use disorder, heroin use, injection, and inhalation drug use, all of which may have further devastating consequences. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the epidemiology of the non-medical use of prescription opioids; discuss the potential progression to subsequent prescription opioid use disorder; review the state and national efforts in development to address addiction and diversion in the United States; discuss treatment options; and, lastly, to evaluate the impact of the related stigma to the development of opioid use disorder. Many unanswered questions remain, and we will explore future possibilities in how the medical community can play a role in curbing this epidemic. PMID:26339205

  15. Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use and Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tetrault, Jeanette M; Butner, Jenna L

    2015-09-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rise in the non-medical use of prescription opioids, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States. In some cases, this non-medical use progresses to prescription opioid use disorder, heroin use, injection, and inhalation drug use, all of which may have further devastating consequences. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the epidemiology of the non-medical use of prescription opioids; discuss the potential progression to subsequent prescription opioid use disorder; review the state and national efforts in development to address addiction and diversion in the United States; discuss treatment options; and, lastly, to evaluate the impact of the related stigma to the development of opioid use disorder. Many unanswered questions remain, and we will explore future possibilities in how the medical community can play a role in curbing this epidemic. PMID:26339205

  16. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales - psychoactive and others - subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines. PMID:26039389

  17. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Edson; Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana, Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines. PMID:26039389

  18. Constructing a Real-Time Prescription Drug Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Tae; Jo, Emmanuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the possibility of the construction of a real-time prescription drug monitoring system (PDMOS) using data from the nationwide Drug Utilization Review (DUR) system in Korea. Methods The DUR system collects information on drug prescriptions issued by healthcare practitioners and on drugs dispensed by pharmacies. PDMOS was constructed using this data. The screen of PDMOS is designed to exhibit the number of drug prescriptions, the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, and the dispensed prescription drug costs on a daily and weekly basis. Data was sourced from the DUR system between June 1, 2016 and July 18, 2016. The TOGA solution developed by the EYEQMC Co. Ltd. of Seoul, Korea was used to produce the screen shots. Results Prescription numbers by medical facilities were more numerous than the number of prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies, as expected. The number of prescriptions per day was between 2 to 3 million. The prescriptions issued by primary care clinics were most numerous, at 75% of the total number of prescriptions. Daily prescription drug costs were found to be approximately US $50 million. The prescription drug costs were highest on Mondays and were reduced towards the end of the week. Prescriptions and dispensed prescriptions numbered approximately 1,200 and 1,000 million, respectively. Conclusions The construction of a real-time PDMOS has been successful to provide daily and weekly information. There was a lag time of only one day at the national level in terms of information extraction, and scarcely any time was required to load the data. Therefore, this study highlights the potential of constructing a PDMOS to monitor the estimate the number of prescriptions and the resulting expenditures from prescriptions. PMID:27525159

  19. [Analysis on composition principles of prescriptions for stranguria in dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescription].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing-Chang; Wang, Miao-Miao

    2014-03-01

    By using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system to analyze the dominant experience and recessive principles of the prescriptions for stranguria in the dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescription (DCMP), we aim to define the medication pattern and rule and to acquire new prescriptions. In dominant experience analysis, we were able to find 22 drugs used over 50 times, including drugs of clearing heat, diuresis and relieving stranguria which are the most used and drugs of clearing heat, cooling blood, benefiting Qi and nourishing Yin. In addition, drugs of activating Qi and Xue, eliminating phlegm and removing toxic are often used, including 34 herb pairs and 5 combinations of three-taste drugs are used more than 35 times. These results fully reflect the composition principles and compatibility characteristic of prescriptions for treating stranguria in DCMP. Thirteen new prescriptions by way of recessive principle excavating were acquired. These new prescriptions might be suitable to clinical treatments of variable syndromes. This article provides an useful clue to research and produce new drugs. PMID:24956864

  20. 76 FR 17137 - Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium AGENCY... announcing the following meeting: Pregnancy and Prescription Medication Use Symposium. The topic to be discussed is ``Prescription Drug Use in Pregnancy.'' Date and Time: The meeting will be held on May 17,...

  1. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  2. Resonant Messages to Prevent Prescription Drug Misuse by Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…

  3. Patterns of Prescription Medication Diversion among Drug Dealers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South…

  4. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS... is his Social Security identification number. Each paper prescription shall have the name of...

  5. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS... is his Social Security identification number. Each paper prescription shall have the name of...

  6. Do Motives Matter?: Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' motives for engaging in nonmedical prescription drug use is somewhat different than their reasons for using other drugs, such as marijuana. For some youth, nonmedical prescription drug use is an attempt to self-treat a medical condition, for others it is an effort to get high, and some youth misuse prescription drugs for both reasons.…

  7. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  8. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  9. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  10. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  11. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  12. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (a)(1)...

  13. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * *...

  14. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  15. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  16. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  17. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  18. 21 CFR 1306.09 - Prescription requirements for online pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription requirements for online pharmacies... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.09 Prescription requirements for online pharmacies. (a) No controlled... course of his professional practice and is acting on behalf of a pharmacy whose registration has...

  19. The Philosophical Foundations of Prescriptive Statements and Statistical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shuyan; Pan, Wei

    2011-01-01

    From the perspectives of the philosophy of science and statistical inference, we discuss the challenges of making prescriptive statements in quantitative research articles. We first consider the prescriptive nature of educational research and argue that prescriptive statements are a necessity in educational research. The logic of deduction,…

  20. 77 FR 8174 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA will amend the EPA Acquisition Regulation (EPAAR) prescription for the work assignment clause. This final rule provides revised language to the prescription for the work assignment clause, incorporating prescriptive language that provides further instructions on...

  1. 21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Prescription-exemption procedure of OTC drug review. A drug limited to prescription use under section 503(b)(1... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-exemption procedure. 310.200 Section 310.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  2. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirement of prescription. 1306.21 Section 1306.21 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.21 Requirement of prescription. (a) A pharmacist...

  3. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirement of prescription. 1306.21 Section 1306.21 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.21 Requirement of prescription. (a) A pharmacist...

  4. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirement of prescription. 1306.21 Section 1306.21 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.21 Requirement of prescription. (a) A pharmacist...

  5. 21 CFR 1306.21 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirement of prescription. 1306.21 Section 1306.21 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.21 Requirement of prescription. (a) A pharmacist...

  6. 21 CFR 1308.32 - Exempted prescription products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempted prescription products. 1308.32 Section 1308.32 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempted Prescription Products § 1308.32 Exempted prescription products. The compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain...

  7. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  8. Variable Torque Prescription: State of Art.

    PubMed Central

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R.; Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the “timeline changes” in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  9. A polycarbonate ophthalmic-prescription lens series.

    PubMed

    Davis, J K

    1978-08-01

    Improvements in polycarbonate material, production techniques, and scratch-resistant coatings, combined with a process-oriented design, have resulted in a precision lens series. Surface quality is comparable to that of untreated glass ophthalmic lenses. The repeatability of the process results in closely controlled axial power and off-axis performance. For most lens prescriptions, the ANSI Z80.1 optical-center specifications for prescription accuracy are maintained through a total field of view of 40 deg for an 8-mm range of center-of-rotation distances. Off-axis astigmatism is controlled for near-point seeing. The lenses are both lighter and thinner than those of crown glass. A scratch-resistant coating reduces the reflections normally associated with high-index (1.586) materials. Impact resistance exceeds that required by ANSI Z80.7 and is many times that required by ANSI Z80.1.

  10. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  11. Prescription Opioid Epidemic and Infant Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Judith; Martin, Peter R.; Harrell, Frank E.; Warren, Michael D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Ely, E. Wesley; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Cooper, William O.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although opioid pain relievers are commonly prescribed in pregnancy, their association with neonatal outcomes is poorly described. Our objectives were to identify neonatal complications associated with antenatal opioid pain reliever exposure and to establish predictors of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). METHODS: We used prescription and administrative data linked to vital statistics for mothers and infants enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program between 2009 and 2011. A random sample of NAS cases was validated by medical record review. The association of antenatal exposures with NAS was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for maternal and infant characteristics. RESULTS: Of 112 029 pregnant women, 31 354 (28%) filled ≥1 opioid prescription. Women prescribed opioid pain relievers were more likely than those not prescribed opioids (P < .001) to have depression (5.3% vs 2.7%), anxiety disorder (4.3% vs 1.6%) and to smoke tobacco (41.8% vs 25.8%). Infants with NAS and opioid-exposed infants were more likely than unexposed infants to be born at a low birth weight (21.2% vs 11.8% vs 9.9%; P < .001). In a multivariable model, higher cumulative opioid exposure for short-acting preparations (P < .001), opioid type (P < .001), number of daily cigarettes smoked (P < .001), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (odds ratio: 2.08 [95% confidence interval: 1.67–2.60]) were associated with greater risk of developing NAS. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription opioid use in pregnancy is common and strongly associated with neonatal complications. Antenatal cumulative prescription opioid exposure, opioid type, tobacco use, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use increase the risk of NAS. PMID:25869370

  12. The Diversion of Prescription Opioid Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Lugo, Yamilka; Cicero, Theodore J.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drug diversion involves the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace, and can occur along all points in the drug delivery process -- from the original manufacturing site, to the wholesale distributor, the physician's office, the retail pharmacy, or the patient. Although a number of recent scientific papers have discussed the problems associated with diversion, empirical data on the scope and magnitude of diversion are limited in the literature. This paper presents findings from a national diversion survey being conducted as part of risk management initiatives supported by Denver Health and Hospital Authority, designed to monitor the abuse and diversion of a variety of prescription opioid analgesics. On a quarterly basis, diversion investigators in 300 jurisdictions distributed throughout the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico are sent short questionnaires designed to elicit data on the extent of drug diversion in their areas. During the 20-quarter survey period reported in this paper, a total of 64,655 cases of prescription drug diversion were reported from all of the participating sites. The most widely diverted opioid was hydrocodone, in that it was mentioned in 38.2% of the cases, followed by oxycodone, mentioned in 24.3% of the cases. By contrast, the proportions of cases in which other opioids were mentioned were significantly smaller. The diversion of opioids appears in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, with especially high concentrations in rural areas. How all of these prescription opioids are being diverted to the street, however, is not altogether clear, and in many ways, diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:25267926

  13. Developing an effective generic prescription drug program.

    PubMed

    Jones, John D

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) use a variety of pricing strategies. When employers have a thorough knowledge of those strategies, they can use them to their advantage to help manage pharmacy benefits. This article discusses PBM strategies in terms of what employers need to know, the questions employers need to ask and goals employers must keep in mind in order to secure the affordable cost and quality prescription drug management programs that they and their employees need and deserve.

  14. Care management: agreement between nursing prescriptions and patients' care needs

    PubMed Central

    Faeda, Marília Silveira; Perroca, Márcia Galan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: analyze agreement between nursing prescriptions recorded in medical files and patients' care needs; investigate the correlation between the nurses' professional background and agreement of prescriptions. Method: descriptive study with quantitative and documentary approach conducted in the medical clinic, surgical, and specialized units of a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The new validated version of a Patient Classification Instrument was used and 380 nursing prescriptions written at the times of hospital admission and discharge were assessed. Results: 75% of the nursing prescriptions items were compatible with the patients' care needs. Only low correlation between nursing prescription agreement and professional background was found. Conclusion: the nursing prescriptions did not fully meet the care needs of patients. The care context and work process should be analyzed to enable more effective prescriptions, while strategies to assess the care needs of patients are recommended. PMID:27508902

  15. [Summary of Hui prescriptions for treating cough].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-jin; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, by using the method of literature research, 35 prescriptions related to asthma therapy has been screened out from Hui medicine through collecting the ancient and modern literature. A comparison of fragrant medicine between the name in Arab and Chinese herbal medicine is done. The countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 is used to get the prescriptions of the drug on the frequency statistics, summarizing the common drugs of Hui medicine for asthma are Pinellia, almond, white sugar, walnut. According to the commonly used drugs, the pathogeny and treatment principle about Hui medicine for asthma is preliminarily inferred combining literature research and the related Hui medical theory. In this study, those prescriptions have been classified into 21 cases which are effective and can be used in medical therapy according to the relevant literatures with the development of the Hui people in their long process of formation of the unique diet culture, 14 useful and convenient Halal diet therapies are made up according to the indications, therapies, party name and composition. Halal diet and "medicine and food" herbs are preliminarily analyzed and summarized, which can be convenient for the people to reduce pains through the diet and improve health awareness. PMID:26137703

  16. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice.

  17. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  18. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers-an overview.

    PubMed

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning.

  19. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  20. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  1. Crowdsourcing Black Market Prices For Prescription Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Freifeld, Clark; Brownstein, John S; Menone, Christopher Mark; Surratt, Hilary L; Poppish, Luke; Green, Jody L; Lavonas, Eric J; Dart, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription opioid diversion and abuse are major public health issues in the United States and internationally. Street prices of diverted prescription opioids can provide an indicator of drug availability, demand, and abuse potential, but these data can be difficult to collect. Crowdsourcing is a rapid and cost-effective way to gather information about sales transactions. We sought to determine whether crowdsourcing can provide accurate measurements of the street price of diverted prescription opioid medications. Objective To assess the possibility of crowdsourcing black market drug price data by cross-validation with law enforcement officer reports. Methods Using a crowdsourcing research website (StreetRx), we solicited data about the price that site visitors paid for diverted prescription opioid analgesics during the first half of 2012. These results were compared with a survey of law enforcement officers in the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System, and actual transaction prices on a “dark Internet” marketplace (Silk Road). Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for comparing prices per milligram of drug in US dollars. In a secondary analysis, we compared prices per milligram of morphine equivalent using standard equianalgesic dosing conversions. Results A total of 954 price reports were obtained from crowdsourcing, 737 from law enforcement, and 147 from the online marketplace. Correlations between the 3 data sources were highly linear, with Spearman rho of 0.93 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and law enforcement, and 0.98 (P<.001) between crowdsourced and online marketplace. On StreetRx, the mean prices per milligram were US$3.29 hydromorphone, US$2.13 buprenorphine, US$1.57 oxymorphone, US$0.97 oxycodone, US$0.96 methadone, US$0.81 hydrocodone, US$0.52 morphine, and US$0.05 tramadol. The only significant difference between data sources was morphine, with a Drug Diversion price of US

  2. Components of Exercise Prescription and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Michelle F

    2016-09-01

    Physicians should discuss decreasing sedentary time and behavior with their pregnant patients to assist sedentary women to become more active using light activities. Medical screening before engaging or continuing in a moderate aerobic exercise program is vital to ensure a low-risk pregnancy. The FITT principle is important to use in prescription that suggests: Frequency (3 to 4 times per week), Intensity (appropriate target heart rate zone, rating of perceived exertion scale, or the talk test), Time (start at 15 min progressing to 30 min), and Type (moving large muscles groups such as walking, swimming, and cycling) of physical activity. PMID:27135872

  3. Correlates of Prescription Drug Market Involvement among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background While a significant minority of prescription drug misusers report purchasing prescription drugs, little is known about prescription drug selling. We build upon past research on illicit drug markets, which increasingly recognizes networks and nightlife as influential, by examining prescription drug market involvement. Methods We use data from 404 young adult prescription drug misusers sampled from nightlife scenes. Using logistic regression, we examine recent selling of and being approached to sell prescription drugs, predicted using demographics, misuse, prescription access, and nightlife scene involvement. Results Those from the wealthiest parental class and heterosexuals had higher odds (OR=6.8) of selling. Higher sedative and stimulant misuse (ORs=1.03), having a stimulant prescription (OR=4.14), and having sold other illegal drugs (OR=6.73) increased the odds of selling. College bar scene involvement increased the odds of selling (OR=2.73) and being approached to sell (OR=2.09). Males (OR=1.93), stimulant users (OR=1.03), and sedative prescription holders (OR=2.11) had higher odds of being approached. Discussion College bar scene involvement was the only site associated with selling and being approached; such participation may provide a network for prescription drug markets. There were also differences between actual selling and being approached. Males were more likely to be approached, but not more likely to sell than females, while the opposite held for those in the wealthiest parental class relative to lower socioeconomic statuses. Given that misuse and prescriptions of sedatives and stimulants were associated with prescription drug market involvement, painkiller misusers may be less likely to sell their drugs given the associated physiological dependence. PMID:25175544

  4. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called "Dietary Advice on Prescription" (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish). It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and "Physical Activity on Prescription" (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish). The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  5. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  6. POPI (Pediatrics: Omission of Prescriptions and Inappropriate Prescriptions): Development of a Tool to Identify Inappropriate Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Weil, Thomas; Angoulvant, François; Boulkedid, Rym; Alberti, Corinne; Bourdon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rational prescribing for children is an issue for all countries and has been inadequately studied. Inappropriate prescriptions, including drug omissions, are one of the main causes of medication errors in this population. Our aim is to develop a screening tool to identify omissions and inappropriate prescriptions in pediatrics based on French and international guidelines. Methods A selection of diseases was included in the tool using data from social security and hospital statistics. A literature review was done to obtain criteria which could be included in the tool called POPI. A 2-round-Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of POPI; panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with each proposition on a 9-point Likert scale and add suggestions if necessary. Results 108 explicit criteria (80 inappropriate prescriptions and 28 omissions) were obtained and submitted to a 16-member expert panel (8 pharmacists, 8 pediatricians hospital-based −50%- or working in community −50%-). Criteria were categorized according to the main physiological systems (gastroenterology, respiratory infections, pain, neurology, dermatology and miscellaneous). Each criterion was accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the practice is potentially inappropriate in pediatrics (including references). Two round of Delphi process were completed via an online questionnaire. 104 out of the 108 criteria submitted to experts were selected after 2 Delphi rounds (79 inappropriate prescriptions and 25 omissions). Discussion Conclusion POPI is the first screening-tool develop to detect inappropriate prescriptions and omissions in pediatrics based on explicit criteria. Inter-user reliability study is necessary before using the tool, and prospective study to assess the effectiveness of POPI is also necessary. PMID:24978045

  7. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    PubMed

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories. PMID:27591550

  8. Prescriptive scientific narratives for communicating usable science.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S

    2014-09-16

    In this paper I describe how a narrative approach to science communication may help audiences to more fully understand how science is relevant to their own lives and behaviors. The use of prescriptive scientific narrative can help to overcome challenges specific to scientific concepts, especially the need to reconsider long-held beliefs in the face of new empirical findings. Narrative can captivate the audience, driving anticipation for plot resolution, thus becoming a self-motivating vehicle for information delivery. This quality gives narrative considerable power to explain complex phenomena and causal processes, and to create and reinforce memory traces for better recall and application over time. Because of the inherent properties of narrative communication, their creators have a special responsibility to ensure even-handedness in selection and presentation of the scientific evidence. The recent transformation in communication and information technology has brought about new platforms for delivering content, particularly through interactivity, which can use structured self-tailoring to help individuals most efficiently get exactly the content that they need. As with all educational efforts, prescriptive scientific narratives must be evaluated systematically to determine whether they have the desired effects in improving understanding and changing behavior.

  9. [Clinical practice guideline. Drug prescription in elderly].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Valdivia-Ibarra, Francisco Javier; Hernández-Manzano, Mario; Medina-Beltrán, Gustavo Rodrigo; Cordero-Guillén, Miguel Angel; Baca-Zúñiga, José; Cruz-Avelar, Agles; Aguilar-Salas, Ismael; Avalos-Mejía, Annia Marisol

    2013-01-01

    The process of prescribing a medication is complex and includes: deciding whether it is indicated, choosing the best option, determining the dose and the appropriate management scheme to the physiological condition of the patient, and monitoring effectiveness and toxicity. We have to inform patients about the expected side effects and indications for requesting a consultation. Specific clinical questions were designed based on the acronym PICOST. The search was made in the specific websites of clinical practice guidelines, was limited to the population of older adults, in English or Spanish. We used 10 related clinical practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews and five meta-analyses. Finally, we made a search of original articles or clinical reviews for specific topics. The development and validation of clinical practice guidelines for "rational drug prescriptions in the elderly" is intended to promote an improvement in the quality of prescription through the prevention and detection of inappropriate prescribing in the elderly and, as a result of this, a decrease in the adverse events by drugs, deterioration of health of patients and expenditure of resources.

  10. Prescriptive scientific narratives for communicating usable science

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Julie S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I describe how a narrative approach to science communication may help audiences to more fully understand how science is relevant to their own lives and behaviors. The use of prescriptive scientific narrative can help to overcome challenges specific to scientific concepts, especially the need to reconsider long-held beliefs in the face of new empirical findings. Narrative can captivate the audience, driving anticipation for plot resolution, thus becoming a self-motivating vehicle for information delivery. This quality gives narrative considerable power to explain complex phenomena and causal processes, and to create and reinforce memory traces for better recall and application over time. Because of the inherent properties of narrative communication, their creators have a special responsibility to ensure even-handedness in selection and presentation of the scientific evidence. The recent transformation in communication and information technology has brought about new platforms for delivering content, particularly through interactivity, which can use structured self-tailoring to help individuals most efficiently get exactly the content that they need. As with all educational efforts, prescriptive scientific narratives must be evaluated systematically to determine whether they have the desired effects in improving understanding and changing behavior. PMID:25225369

  11. Pharmaceutical promotion and GP prescription behaviour.

    PubMed

    Windmeijer, Frank; de Laat, Eric; Douven, Rudy; Mot, Esther

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically analyse the responses by general practitioners to promotional activities for ethical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. Promotion can be beneficial as a means of providing information, but it can also be harmful in the sense that it lowers price sensitivity of doctors and it merely is a means of maintaining market share, even when cheaper, therapeutically equivalent drugs are available. A model is estimated that includes interactions of promotion expenditures and prices and that explicitly exploits the panel structure of the data, allowing for drug specific effects and dynamic adjustments, or habit persistence. The data used are aggregate monthly GP prescriptions per drug together with monthly outlays on drug promotion for the period 1994-1999 for 11 therapeutic markets, covering more than half of the total prescription drug market in the Netherlands. Identification of price effects is aided by the introduction of the Pharmaceutical Prices Act, which established that Dutch drugs prices became a weighted average of the prices in surrounding countries after June 1996. We conclude that GP drug price sensitivity is small, but adversely affected by promotion. Ltd.

  12. Summary and recommendations for initial exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Harris, Bernard A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations summarized herein constitute a basis on which an initial exercise prescription can be formulated. It is noteworthy that any exercise program designed currently would be an approximation. Examination of the existing space-flight data reveals a scarcity of in-flight data on which to rigorously design an exercise program. The relevant experience within the U.S. space program (with regard to long-duration space flight) is limited to the Skylab Program. Lessons learned from Skylab are relevant to the design of a Space Station exercise program, especially with regard to the total length of exercise time required, cardiovascular (CV) deconditioning/reconditioning, and bone loss. Certain observations of the U.S.S.R. exercise activities can also contribute to the formulation of an exercise prescription of Space Station. Reportedly, the U.S.S.R. uses both a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill device on long-duration missions with some degree of success. Using the third crew of Salyut 6, which was a 175-day stay, as a representative mission, the typical time dedicated to exercise varies from 2 to 3 hours per day. In addition, the cosmonauts wear an elasticized suit, called a penquin suit, for time periods ranging from 12 to 16 hours per day. This device provides a load across the axial skeleton against which the wearer must exert himself. Despite these extensive countermeasures, the effects of adaptation are not totally prevented.

  13. Prescription Drug Abuse Information in D.A.R.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Melissa C.; Cline, Rebecca J. Welch; Weiler, Robert M.; Broadway, S. Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized…

  14. Do Physicians Change Prescription Practice in Response to Financial Incentives?

    PubMed

    Park, Sylvia; Han, Euna

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the impact on physician prescription behaviors of an outpatient prescription incentive program providing financial rewards to primary care physicians for saving prescription costs in South Korea. A 10% sample of clinics (N = 1,625) was randomly selected from all clinics in the National Health Insurance claims database for the years 2009-2012, and all claims with the primary diagnosis of peptic ulcer or gastro-esophageal reflux diseases were extracted from those clinics' data. A clinic-level random-effects model was used. After the program, clinics in general medicine showed a lower prescription rate (by 0.8 percentage points), lower number of medicines prescribed (by 0.02), lower prescription duration (by 0.15 days), and lower drug expenditure per claim (by 740 won). Small clinics on the <25th percentile of a regional sum of monthly drug expenditure had shorter prescription duration (by 0.76 days), while large clinics on the ≥75th percentile and clinics in group practice had a higher prescription rate (by 1.5 and 2.5 percentage points, respectively) and a higher number of medicines prescribed (by 0.03 for group practice only) after the program. The outpatient prescription incentive program worked as intended only in certain subgroup clinics for the target medicines. PMID:27193920

  15. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial filling of prescriptions. 1306.13 Section 1306.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... listed in Schedule II is permissible, if the pharmacist is unable to supply the full quantity called...

  16. Do Physicians Change Prescription Practice in Response to Financial Incentives?

    PubMed

    Park, Sylvia; Han, Euna

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the impact on physician prescription behaviors of an outpatient prescription incentive program providing financial rewards to primary care physicians for saving prescription costs in South Korea. A 10% sample of clinics (N = 1,625) was randomly selected from all clinics in the National Health Insurance claims database for the years 2009-2012, and all claims with the primary diagnosis of peptic ulcer or gastro-esophageal reflux diseases were extracted from those clinics' data. A clinic-level random-effects model was used. After the program, clinics in general medicine showed a lower prescription rate (by 0.8 percentage points), lower number of medicines prescribed (by 0.02), lower prescription duration (by 0.15 days), and lower drug expenditure per claim (by 740 won). Small clinics on the <25th percentile of a regional sum of monthly drug expenditure had shorter prescription duration (by 0.76 days), while large clinics on the ≥75th percentile and clinics in group practice had a higher prescription rate (by 1.5 and 2.5 percentage points, respectively) and a higher number of medicines prescribed (by 0.03 for group practice only) after the program. The outpatient prescription incentive program worked as intended only in certain subgroup clinics for the target medicines.

  17. Prescription drug abuse information in D.A.R.E.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa C; Cline, Rebecca J Welch; Weiler, Robert M; Broadway, S Camille

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was designed to examine prescription drug-related content and learning objectives in Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) for upper elementary and middle schools. Specific prescription-drug topics and context associated with content and objectives were coded. The coding system for topics included 126 topics organized within 14 categories. A two-dimensional coding system for context identified Use versus Abuse and Explicit versus Implicit references to prescription drugs. Results indicated that content and objectives found in D.A.R.E. represent a very narrow breadth of prescription drug topics. Moreover, all prescription-drug related content and objectives were presented in an Abuse-Implicit context. Although some educational material in D.A.R.E. modules potentially is related to prescription drugs, none of the content or objectives explicitly identify drugs discussed as prescription drugs. If elementary and middle schools rely on D.A.R.E. modules to teach students about drug abuse, students are likely to be underinformed about prescription drug risks. PMID:16981638

  18. Prescription Privileges, Psychopharmacology and School Psychology: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Cindy; Kubiszyn, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on psychopharmacology and prescription privileges for psychologists. Summarizes nine major findings from Task Force on Psychopharmacology in the Schools, created to review literature on prescription privileges for psychologists; identify specific issues attendant to use of psychoactive medications with children; and clarify implications…

  19. 77 FR 46653 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ..., August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51310). The rules of 26 CFR 601.601(a)(3) apply to the hearing. Persons who wish... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing AGENCY... proposed regulations relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care...

  20. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug ... conducted over the telephone. The Family component collects information on ... Questions about strategies to reduce prescription drug cost are from the ...

  1. Prescription Opioid Abuse and Dependence: Assessment Strategies for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Donovan, Kimberly A.; Krug, Kevin S.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the article "Prescription Drug Use and Abuse: Risk Factors, Red Flags, and Prevention Strategies" (J. H. Isaacson, J. A. Hopper, D. P. Alford, & T. Parran, 2005), which provides an overview of the recent increase in prescription opioid abuse and dependence from the physician's perspective. In the present article, the authors…

  2. Incidence of unlicensed and off-label prescription in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many common drugs have not been licensed for use in children. Methods This study evaluated the incidence of unlicensed and off-label prescriptions at the Department of Pediatrics during a period of six months. A total of 8,559 prescriptions for 4,282 children were processed. Results Off-label and unlicensed prescriptions were found in 9.01% and 1.26% of all prescriptions, respectively. Unlicensed prescriptions were significantly more common in boys (1.5%) than in girls (1.0%) (p = 0.037). There was no significant difference between off-label prescriptions in boys (9.0%) and in girls (9.1%) (p = 0.89). The prescription of unlicensed drugs was significantly more frequent in school age children (p < 0.0001). The most commonly prescribed unlicensed drugs were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; among off-label drugs, antihistamines and bronchodilators. Conclusions This study shows that the incidence of unlicensed and off-label drug prescriptions in our patients is not as high as in other studies. PMID:24495454

  3. 10 CFR 431.422 - Prescriptions of a rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prescriptions of a rule. 431.422 Section 431.422 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Petitions To Exempt State Regulation From Preemption; Petitions To Withdraw Exemption of State Regulation § 431.422 Prescriptions of...

  4. Prescriptive Profile Procedure for Children With Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Eleanor; Fineman, Carol

    The Prescriptive Profile Procedure (PPP) attempts to provide teachers of learning disabled elementary school children with a procedure of individualized diagnosis and educational prescription which encompasses strengths and weaknesses in prerequisite skills, basic school subjects, and behavioral factors. A competency statement and six to 12…

  5. When Are Prescriptive Statements in Educational Research Justified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.; Levin, Joel R.

    2011-01-01

    A prescriptive statement is a recommendation that, if a course of action is taken, then a desirable outcome will likely occur. For example, in reading research recommending that teachers apply an intervention targeted at a specific reading skill to improve children's reading performance is a prescriptive statement. In our view, these statements…

  6. Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Knopf, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-medical prescription drug use is an increasing problem among university students. Purpose: The present study investigated university students' involvement in non-medical prescription drug (NMPD) use and associations between use and other risky behaviors. Methods: A sample of 363 university students completed a four page survey…

  7. 21 CFR 310.200 - Prescription-exemption procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS New Drugs Exempted From Prescription-Dispensing Requirements § 310... paragraph (b) or (e) of this section. (b) Prescription-exemption procedure for drugs limited by a new drug... supplement to an approved new drug application. (c) New drug status of drugs......

  8. Recognizing Signs of Prescription Drug Abuse and Addiction, Part I.

    PubMed

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.

  9. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  10. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. 315.6 Section 315.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  11. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. 315.6 Section 315.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  12. Prescriptive Teaching: An Rx for the Writing Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Kathleen

    Students who visit writing labs are often inexperienced writers who need help and even prescriptive teaching. Although some compositionists are leery of including prescriptive help among possible teaching strategies, the writing lab tutor's position as advisor rather than judge helps students accept the suggestions as the options they are. As…

  13. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  14. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  15. 45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section 156... Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health plan does not provide... at least the greater of: (i) One drug in every United States Pharmacopeia (USP) category and...

  16. 45 CFR 156.122 - Prescription drug benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prescription drug benefits. 156.122 Section 156... Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.122 Prescription drug benefits. (a) A health plan does not provide... at least the greater of: (i) One drug in every United States Pharmacopeia (USP) category and...

  17. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...

  18. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... professional practice. Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost...

  19. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Electronic media has the same meaning given this term in 45 CFR 160.103. E-prescribing means the transmission... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and...

  20. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  1. Patterns of Psychoactive Drug Prescriptions by House Officers for Nonpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Allan W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that a source of psychoactive drugs for physician trainees is prescription writing by house officers was tested. A survey determined that, of the number of prescriptions written for nonpatients, the largest number was written for family members and friends, and the second largest for fellow house officers. (Author/MLW)

  2. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales.

  3. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales. PMID:27265843

  4. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commission, its employees, and its representatives. (3) No prescriber shall include an expiration date on a... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions... CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  5. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commission, its employees, and its representatives. (3) No prescriber shall include an expiration date on a... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions... CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  6. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commission, its employees, and its representatives. (3) No prescriber shall include an expiration date on a... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions... CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact...

  7. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements. 1311.120 Section 1311.120 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... application shall prevent modifications to the audit records. (27) The electronic prescription...

  8. Women Who Abuse Prescription Opioids: Findings from the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version® Connect Prescription Opioid Database

    PubMed Central

    Green, Traci C.; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Licari, Andrea; Budman, Simon H.; Butler, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests gender differences in abuse of prescription opioids. This study aimed to describe characteristics of women who abuse prescription opioids in a treatment-seeking sample and to contrast gender differences among prescription opioid abusers. Methods Data collected November 2005 to April 2008 derived from the Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version Connect (ASI-MV® Connect) database. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression examined correlates of prescription opioid abuse stratified by gender. Results 29,906 assessments from 220 treatment centers were included, of which 12.8% (N=3,821) reported past month prescription opioid abuse. Women were more likely than men to report use of any prescription opioid (29.8% females vs. 21.1% males, p< 0.001) and abuse of any prescription opioid (15.4% females vs. 11.1% males, p < 0.001) in the past month. Route of administration and source of prescription opioids displayed gender-specific tendencies. Women-specific correlates of recent prescription opioid abuse were problem drinking, age <54, inhalant use, residence outside of West US Census region, and history of drug overdose. Men-specific correlates were age <34, currently living with their children, residence in the South and Midwest, hallucinogen use, and recent depression. Women prescription opioid abusers were less likely to report a pain problem although they were more likely to report medical problems than women who abused other drugs. Conclusions Gender-specific factors should be taken into account in efforts to screen and identify those at highest risk of prescription opioid abuse. Prevention and intervention efforts with a gender-specific approach are warranted. PMID:19409735

  9. The appropriateness of a proton pump inhibitor prescription.

    PubMed

    Moran, N; Jones, E; O'Toole, A; Murray, F

    2014-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most commonly prescribed groups of drug in Ireland, at great expense to the Irish healthcare executive. This study aims to evaluate the appropriateness of PPI prescriptions on admission and discharge in a tertiary referral hospital. All non-elective admissions in the Emergency Department in one week were included in the study. 102 patients in total were included, with 36 (35.4%) treated with a PPI on admission. Of these, only 3 (8.3%) had a clear indication noted as per current NICE guidelines. 18 new in-hospital PPI prescriptions were documented. 11 (61%) of which were present on discharge prescriptions. Continuing PPI prescription on discharge into the community may be inappropriate, costly and potentially harmful. Brief interventions aimed at reducing inappropriate PPI prescriptions have been shown to be effective at reducing the cost and potential harm of unnecessary treatment. PMID:25551900

  10. Health Outcomes in Patients Using No-Prescription Online Pharmacies to Purchase Prescription Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many prescription drugs are freely available for purchase on the Internet without a legitimate prescription from a physician. Objective This study focused on the motivations for using no-prescription online pharmacies (NPOPs) to purchase prescription drugs rather than using the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model. We also studied whether users of NPOP-purchased drugs had poorer health outcomes than those who obtain the same drug through legitimate health care channels. Methods We selected tramadol as a representative drug to address our objective because it is widely prescribed as an unscheduled opioid analgesic and can easily be purchased from NPOPs. Using search engine marketing (SEM), we placed advertisements on search result pages stemming from the keyword “tramadol” and related terms and phrases. Participants, who either used the traditional doctor-patient-pharmacy model to obtain tramadol (traditional users, n=349) or purchased it on the Web without a prescription from their local doctor (ie, nontraditional users, n=96), were then asked to complete an online survey. Results Respondents in both groups were primarily white, female, and in their mid-forties (nontraditional users) to upper forties (traditional users). Nearly all nontraditional users indicated that their tramadol use was motivated by a need to treat pain (95%, 91/96) that they perceived was not managed appropriately through legitimate health care channels. A majority of nontraditional users (55%, 41/75) indicated they used NPOPs because they did not have access to sufficient doses of tramadol to relieve pain. In addition, 29% (22/75) of nontraditional users indicated that the NPOPs were a far cheaper alternative than seeing a physician, paying for an office visit, and filling a prescription at a local pharmacy, which is often at noninsured rates for those who lack medical insurance (37%, 35/96, of NPOP users). The remainder of participants (16%, 12/96) cited other motivations

  11. 21 CFR 1311.145 - Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... digital certificate. (b) The electronic prescription application must require the individual practitioner... key may be transmitted to a pharmacy without the digital signature. (f) If the electronic prescription is transmitted without the digital signature, the electronic prescription application must check...

  12. 21 CFR 1311.145 - Digitally signing the prescription with the individual practitioner's private key.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... be transmitted to a pharmacy without the digital signature. (f) If the electronic prescription is transmitted without the digital signature, the electronic prescription application must check the certificate... digital certificate is not valid, the electronic prescription application must not transmit...

  13. How Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Works with a Medicare Advantage Plan or Medicare Cost Plan Medicare offers prescription drug coverage for everyone ... t offer Medicare prescription drug coverage. • A Medicare Cost Plan if it doesn’t offer Medicare prescription ...

  14. 77 FR 74827 - Working Group on Access to Information on Prescription Drug Container Labels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... a stakeholder working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug... working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug container labels... to develop best practices for pharmacies on providing independent access to prescription...

  15. Chasing the Bean: Prescription Drug Smoking among Socially Active Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Vuolo, Mike; Pawson, Mark; Wells, Brooke E.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alternative consumption practices of prescription drug misuse have been less well monitored than general prevalence. We describe prescription drug smoking among socially active youth and highlight correlates of this practice. We also examine its association with drug problems, drug dependence, and mental health. Methods We surveyed 404 young adults recruited from nightlife venues in New York via time-space sampling. We use linear and logistic regression models to examine the probability of smoking prescription drugs and its association with drug problems, dependence, and mental health. Qualitative findings supplement the survey data. Results Males have higher odds than females (OR=3.4) and heterosexuals have higher odds than sexual minority youth (OR=2.3) of smoking prescription drugs. Those involved in Electronic Dance Music nightlife have higher odds (OR=2.1) compared to those who do not participate in that scene, while those in college bar scenes have lower odds (OR=0.4) of having smoked prescription drugs. Prescription drug smokers report more drug problems (β=0.322) and greater symptoms of dependence (β=0.298) net of the frequency of misuse and other characteristics. Prescription drug smokers do not report greater mental health problems. Qualitative interview data support these survey findings. Conclusions Prescription drug smoking is a significant drug trend among socially active youth. It is associated with drug problems and symptoms of dependence net of frequency of misuse. Prevention and intervention efforts for youth who misuse prescription drugs should address the issue of prescription drug smoking, and this may be an area for clinicians to address with their adolescent patients. PMID:26003578

  16. Arabidopsis aux1rcr1 mutation alters AUXIN RESISTANT1 targeting and prevents expression of the auxin reporter DR5:GUS in the root apex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Multilevel interactions of the plant hormones ethylene and auxin coordinately and synergistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. This study isolated the AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) allele aux1(rcr1) (RCR1 for REVERSING CTR1-10 ROOT1) that suppressed the root growth inhibition conferred by the constitutive ethylene-response constitutive triple response1-10 (ctr1-10) allele. The aux1(rcr1) mutation resulted from an L126F substitution at loop 2 of the plasma membrane-associated auxin influx carrier protein AUX1. aux1(rcr1) and the T-DNA insertion mutant aux1-T were both defective in auxin transport and many aspects of the auxin response. Unexpectedly, expression of the auxin-response reporter DR5:GUS in the root apex was substantially prevented by the aux1(rcr1) but not the aux1-T mutation, even in the presence of the wild-type AUX1 allele. Following treatment with the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), DR5:GUS expression in aux1(rcr1) and aux1-T occurred mainly in the root apex and mature zone. NAA-induced DR5:GUS expression in the root apex was markedly prevented by ethylene in genotypes with aux1(rcr1) but not in aux1-T genotypes and the wild type. The effect of aux1(rcr1) on DR5:GUS expression seemed to be associated with AUX1-expressing domains. Green fluorescence protein-fused aux1(rcr1) was localized in the cytoplasm and probably not to the plasma membrane, indicating important roles of the Lys(126) residue at loop 2 in AUX1 targeting. The possible effects of aux1(rcr1) on DR5:GUS expression are discussed.

  17. Focus on Teacher Education in Diagnostic and Prescriptive Mathematics: Diagnostic/Prescriptive Mathematics as Content for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Jon M.

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic/prescriptive mathematics was examined to ask whether a sufficient body of professional knowledge and practices exist to warrant its inclusion in teacher preparation. Argues that diagnostic/prescriptive mathematics does constitute an appropriate topic for consideration as content in revised teacher preparation programs. (PK)

  18. Prescription Stimulants Are "A Okay": Applying Neutralization Theory to College Students' Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National college health data indicate that prescription stimulants are the most widely misused prescription drugs among college students, with 9% admitting to nonmedical use within the past year. Although motivations for the nonmedical use of these drugs have been explored, scant attention has been paid to justifications for nonmedical…

  19. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  20. AUX1 regulates root gravitropism in Arabidopsis by facilitating auxin uptake within root apical tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, A; Kargul, J; May, S T; Muller, P; Delbarre, A; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    1999-01-01

    Plants employ a specialized transport system composed of separate influx and efflux carriers to mobilize the plant hormone auxin between its site(s) of synthesis and action. Mutations within the permease-like AUX1 protein significantly reduce the rate of carrier-mediated auxin uptake within Arabidopsis roots, conferring an agravitropic phenotype. We are able to bypass the defect within auxin uptake and restore the gravitropic root phenotype of aux1 by growing mutant seedlings in the presence of the membrane-permeable synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. We illustrate that AUX1 expression overlaps that previously described for the auxin efflux carrier, AtPIN2, using transgenic lines expressing an AUX1 promoter::uidA (GUS) gene. Finally, we demonstrate that AUX1 regulates gravitropic curvature by acting in unison with the auxin efflux carrier to co-ordinate the localized redistribution of auxin within the Arabidopsis root apex. Our results provide the first example of a developmental role for the auxin influx carrier within higher plants and supply new insight into the molecular basis of gravitropic signalling. PMID:10205161

  1. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  2. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes.

    PubMed

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  3. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  4. Influence of pharmaceutical marketing on prescription practices of physicians.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Roshni; Narendranathan, M

    2013-01-01

    In India same drug molecules are sold under different brand names by different pharmaceuticals. To persuade the physicians to prescribe their brands pharmaceuticals engage in marketing techniques like giving samples, gifts, sponsoring travel etc. Many countries are striving to reduce the impact of incentives on prescription behaviour. This study explores the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescription practices of doctors in India. There were 103 study subjects - 50 doctors and 53 sales personnel. Data collection was done by a self administered questionnaire. Data were collected on 36 variables which were supposed to influence prescription. The effectiveness of the promotional strategies on prescription behaviour was marked in a seven point Likert scale ranging from "not at all effective" (score=1) to "extremely effective" (score=7). Open ended questions were used to collect qualitative data. Good rapport with the doctor, launch meetings, reputation of the company, quality of the drug and brand names significantly influenced prescription behaviour, while direct mailers, advertisements in journals and giving letter pads and other brand reminders were less effective. Commonly used method of giving samples was not among the twenty most effective methods influencing prescription. Product quality and good company are still factors that influence prescription. Pharmaceutical marketing influences the choice of brands by a physician. The more expensive strategies involved in public relations are more effective. Sending mails and journal advertisements are less effective strategies. How expensive marketing strategies affect cost of the medicines has to be explored further.

  5. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes.

    PubMed

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data. PMID:21797314

  6. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing. PMID:25062521

  7. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  8. Patterns of prescription medication diversion among drug dealers

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the following questions: (1) how do drug dealers acquire their inventories of prescription medications? and (2) which types of prescription medications do dealers most commonly sell? Data are drawn from a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded research study that examined prescription drug diversion and abuse in South Florida. In-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 50) were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of prescription drug dealers from a variety of milieus to assess patterns of diversion. Audiotapes of the interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analysed using the NVivo 8 software program. Dealers relied on a wide array of diversion methods including visiting multiple pain clinics, working with pharmacy employees to steal medications from pharmacies, and purchasing medications from indigent patients. The type of medication most commonly sold by dealers was prescription opioid analgesics, and to a lesser extent benzodiazepines such as alprazolam. These findings inform public health policy makers, criminal justice officials, the pharmaceutical industry and government regulatory agencies in their efforts to reduce the availability of diverted prescription drugs in the illicit market. Specifically, these data support the need for statewide prescription drug monitoring programs and increased training for healthcare workers who have access to controlled medications. PMID:22665955

  9. [Inappropriate prescription in older patients: the STOPP/START criteria].

    PubMed

    Delgado Silveira, Eva; Muñoz García, María; Montero Errasquin, Beatriz; Sánchez Castellano, Carmen; Gallagher, Paul F; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2009-01-01

    Older people are a heterogeneous group of patients, often with multiple comorbidities for which they are prescribed a large number of drugs, leading to an increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and drug interactions. This risk is compounded by physiological age-related changes in physiology, changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as by disease-related, functional and social issues. Inappropriate prescription of drugs is common in the older individuals and contributes to the increased risk of ADR. Several tools have been developed to detect potentially inappropriate prescription, the most frequently used in Spain being Beers' criteria. However, the value of these criteria is limited, especially as they were developed in a different healthcare system. In this article, the Spanish version of a new tool to detect potentially inappropriate prescriptions-STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment) criteria-is presented. The creation, development, reliability, and use of these criteria in routine practice is described and discussed. These criteria have shown better sensitivity than Beers' criteria in detecting prescription problems and have the added value of being able to detect not only inappropriate prescription of some drugs, but also the omission of well indicated drugs. The STOPP/START criteria could become a useful screening tool to improve prescription in older people. PMID:19540624

  10. Influence of pharmaceutical marketing on prescription practices of physicians.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Roshni; Narendranathan, M

    2013-01-01

    In India same drug molecules are sold under different brand names by different pharmaceuticals. To persuade the physicians to prescribe their brands pharmaceuticals engage in marketing techniques like giving samples, gifts, sponsoring travel etc. Many countries are striving to reduce the impact of incentives on prescription behaviour. This study explores the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescription practices of doctors in India. There were 103 study subjects - 50 doctors and 53 sales personnel. Data collection was done by a self administered questionnaire. Data were collected on 36 variables which were supposed to influence prescription. The effectiveness of the promotional strategies on prescription behaviour was marked in a seven point Likert scale ranging from "not at all effective" (score=1) to "extremely effective" (score=7). Open ended questions were used to collect qualitative data. Good rapport with the doctor, launch meetings, reputation of the company, quality of the drug and brand names significantly influenced prescription behaviour, while direct mailers, advertisements in journals and giving letter pads and other brand reminders were less effective. Commonly used method of giving samples was not among the twenty most effective methods influencing prescription. Product quality and good company are still factors that influence prescription. Pharmaceutical marketing influences the choice of brands by a physician. The more expensive strategies involved in public relations are more effective. Sending mails and journal advertisements are less effective strategies. How expensive marketing strategies affect cost of the medicines has to be explored further. PMID:24000508

  11. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  12. Feedlot Pharmaceutical Documentation: Protocols, Prescriptions, and Veterinary Feed Directives.

    PubMed

    Apley, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The days of oral treatment instructions and loosely associated authorizations for the use of drugs in food animals are gone. Treatment protocols should include case definitions for treatment eligibility, detailed regimens, case definitions for treatment success and failure, directions for animal disposition, and mechanisms to prevent animals entering the food chain with violative residues. Prescriptions and veterinary feed directives (VFDs) will soon be necessary for almost all uses of antimicrobials in food animals. Although VFDs have a regulatory format, prescriptions may vary, but there are basic inclusions that should be present in any prescription. PMID:26139195

  13. Extended possibilities of pharmaceuticals delivery to patients using dematerialized prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Urbański, Andrzej P

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the requirement for e-commerce enabled delivery of pharmaceutical prescriptions. First, currently available solutions are critically reviewed and an ideal solution is specified and then the concept of the proposed solution--Dematerialized Prescription (DP), is outlined. Next, the information flows required to enable such a service are considered. The paper then considers a number of possible services which could be made available with DP to deliver medicals to patients. Finally, a proposed solution, which enables physician to fill dematerialized prescriptions online using inexpensive mobile Internet devices is presented in detail, the advantages of such a model are summarized and future research directions are suggested. PMID:15747902

  14. Purchasing Medicare prescription drug benefits: a new proposal.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L

    1999-01-01

    Medicare policymakers are considering using private-sector firms to offer and manage a prescription drug benefit. In such arrangements Medicare and its potential contractors will need to consider four major areas of risk: selection risk, cost management risk, risks of government as a business partner, and risks that new Medicare benefits will change competitive advantages. This paper considers these risk factors and suggests a model for Medicare prescription drug coverage. By adapting private-sector purchasing practices and using competitive markets, Medicare could offer prescription drug benefits--at affordable premiums for beneficiaries--without resorting to national price controls for pharmaceutical products.

  15. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  19. Usefulness of traditionally defined herbal properties for distinguishing prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine from non-prescription recipes.

    PubMed

    Ung, C Y; Li, H; Kong, C Y; Wang, J F; Chen, Y Z

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely practiced and is considered as an attractive to conventional medicine. Multi-herb recipes have been routinely used in TCM. These have been formulated by using TCM-defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs), the scientific basis of which is unclear. The usefulness of TCM-HPs was evaluated by analyzing the distribution pattern of TCM-HPs of the constituent herbs in 1161 classical TCM prescriptions, which shows patterns of multi-herb correlation. Two artificial intelligence (AI) methods were used to examine whether TCM-HPs are capable of distinguishing TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes. Two AI systems were trained and tested by using 1161 TCM prescriptions, 11,202 non-TCM recipes, and two separate evaluation methods. These systems correctly classified 83.1-97.3% of the TCM prescriptions, 90.8-92.3% of the non-TCM recipes. These results suggest that TCM-HPs are capable of separating TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes, which are useful for formulating TCM prescriptions and consistent with the expected correlation between TCM-HPs and the physicochemical properties of herbal ingredients responsible for producing the collective pharmacological and other effects of specific TCM prescriptions. PMID:16884871

  20. Prioritizing Environmental Risk of Prescription Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhao; Senn, David B.; Moran, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of pharmaceutical compounds have been detected in aquatic environments worldwide, but their human and ecological health risks associated with low dose environmental exposure is largely unknown due to the large number of these compounds and a lack of information. Therefore prioritization and ranking methods are needed for screening target compounds for research and risk assessment. Previous efforts to rank pharmaceutical compounds have often focused on occurrence data and have paid less attention to removal mechanisms such as human metabolism. This study proposes a simple prioritization approach based on number of prescriptions and toxicity information, accounting for metabolism and wastewater treatment removal, and can be applied to unmeasured compounds. The approach was performed on the 200 most-prescribed drugs in the U.S. in 2009. Our results showed that under-studied compounds such as levothyroxine and montelukast sodium received the highest scores, suggesting the importance of removal mechanisms in influencing the ranking, and the need for future environmental research to include other less-studied but potentially harmful pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:22813724

  1. Viscosity Prescription for Gravitationally Unstable Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2015-05-01

    Gravitationally unstable accretion disks emerge in a variety of astrophysical contexts—giant planet formation, FU Orioni outbursts, feeding of active galactic nuclei, and the origin of Pop III stars. When a gravitationally unstable disk is unable to cool rapidly, it settles into a quasi-stationary, fluctuating gravitoturbulent state, in which its Toomre Q remains close to a constant value {{Q}0}∼ 1. Here we develop an analytical formalism describing the evolution of such a disk, which is based on the assumptions of Q={{Q}0} and local thermal equilibrium. Our approach works in the presence of additional sources of angular momentum transport (e.g., MRI), as well as external irradiation. Thermal balance dictates a unique value of the gravitoturbulent stress {{α }gt} driving disk evolution, which is a function of the local surface density and angular frequency. We compare this approach with other commonly used gravitoturbulent viscosity prescriptions, which specify the explicit dependence of stress {{α }gt} on Toomre Q in an ad hoc fashion, and identify the ones that provide consistent results. We nevertheless argue that our Q={{Q}0} approach is more flexible, robust, and straightforward and should be given preference in applications. We illustrate this with a couple of analytical calculations—locations of the snow line and of the outer edge of the dead zone in a gravitoturbulent protoplanetary disk—which clearly show the simplicity and versatility of the Q={{Q}0} approach.

  2. Exercise prescription for the elderly: current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, R S; Tanaka, H

    2001-01-01

    The benefits for elderly individuals of regular participation in both cardiovascular and resistance-training programmes are great. Health benefits include a significant reduction in risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, hypertension and obesity as well as improvements in bone density, muscle mass, arterial compliance and energy metabolism. Additionally, increases in cardiovascular fitness (maximal oxygen consumption and endurance), muscle strength and overall functional capacity are forthcoming allowing elderly individuals to maintain their independence, increase levels of spontaneous physical activity and freely participate in activities associated with daily living. Taken together, these benefits associated with involvement in regular exercise can significantly improve the quality of life in elderly populations. It is noteworthy that the quality and quantity of exercise necessary to elicit important health benefits will differ from that needed to produce significant gains in fitness. This review describes the current recommendations for exercise prescriptions for the elderly for both cardiovascular and strength/resistance-training programmes. However, it must be noted that the benefits described are of little value if elderly individuals do not become involved in regular exercise regimens. Consequently, the major challenges facing healthcare professionals today concern: (i) the implementation of educational programmes designed to inform elderly individuals of the health and functional benefits associated with regular physical activity as well as how safe and effective such programmes can be; and (ii) design interventions that will both increase involvement in regular exercise as well as improve adherence and compliance to such programmes.

  3. Kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Welma; Gammon, Cheryl S; Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R; Kruger, Rozanne

    2013-06-01

    Kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. Research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' (green kiwifruit) and Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A', ZESPRI(®) (gold kiwifruit). Compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins C, E, K, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting in synergy to achieve multiple health benefits. Kiwifruit, as part of a healthy diet, may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease triglycerides, platelet aggregation, and elevated blood pressure. Consuming gold kiwifruit with iron-rich meals improves poor iron status, and green kiwifruit aids digestion and laxation. As a rich source of antioxidants, they may protect the body from endogenous oxidative damage. Kiwifruit may support immune function and reduce the incidence and severity of cold or flu-like illness in at-risk groups such as older adults and children. However, kiwifruit are allergenic, and although symptoms in most susceptible individuals are mild, severe reactions have been reported. While many research gaps remain, kiwifruit with their multiple health benefits have the potential to become part of our "daily prescription for health."

  4. Approach to the Pediatric Prescription in a Community Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Sandra; Huynh, Donna; Morgan, Jill; Briars, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric patients are more susceptible to medication errors for a variety of reasons including physical and social differences and the necessity for patient-specific dosing. As such, community pharmacists may feel uncomfortable in verifying or dispensing a prescription for a pediatric patient. However, the use of a systematic approach to the pediatric prescription can provide confidence to pharmacists and minimize the possibility of a medication error. The objective of this article is to provide the community pharmacist with an overview of the potential areas of medication errors in a prescription for a pediatric patient. Additionally, the article guides the community pharmacist through a pediatric prescription, highlighting common areas of medication errors. PMID:22768015

  5. Medicare program; Medicare prescription drug benefit. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-01-28

    This final rule implements the provisions of the Social Security Act (the Act) establishing and regulating the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit. The new voluntary prescription drug benefit program was enacted into law on December 8, 2003 in section 101 of Title I of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) (Pub. L. 108-173). Although this final rule specifies most of the requirements for implementing the new prescription drug program, readers should note that we are also issuing a closely related rule that concerns Medicare Advantage organizations, which, if they offer coordinated care plans, must offer at least one plan that combines medical coverage under Parts A and B with prescription drug coverage. Readers should also note that separate CMS guidance on many operational details appears or will soon appear on the CMS website, such as materials on formulary review criteria, risk plan and fallback plan solicitations, bid instructions, solvency standards and pricing tools, plan benefit packages. The addition of a prescription drug benefit to Medicare represents a landmark change to the Medicare program that will significantly improve the health care coverage available to millions of Medicare beneficiaries. The MMA specifies that the prescription drug benefit program will become available to beneficiaries beginning on January 1, 2006. Generally, coverage for the prescription drug benefit will be provided under private prescription drug plans (PDPs), which will offer only prescription drug coverage, or through Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans (MA PDs), which will offer prescription drug coverage that is integrated with the health care coverage they provide to Medicare beneficiaries under Part C of Medicare. PDPs must offer a basic prescription drug benefit. MA-PDs must offer either a basic benefit or broader coverage for no additional cost. If this required level of coverage is offered, MA-PDs or PDPs, but not

  6. The Language of Civil Engineering: Descriptive, Prescriptive, and Persuasive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machauf, Liora

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the language of civil engineering as manifested in the professional journal "Civil Engineering ASCE." Articles are analyzed, both syntactically and lexically, in terms of three major rhetorical functions: description, prescription, and persuasion. (17 references) (GLR)

  7. Buying Prescription Medicine Online: A Consumer Safety Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Buying Prescription Medicine Online: A Consumer Safety Guide Share Tweet Linkedin ... A Consumer Safety Guide (PDF - 53KB) Buying your medicine online can be easy. Just make sure you ...

  8. Toward Validation of the Diagnostic-Prescriptive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Sabatino, David A.

    1973-01-01

    Criticized are recent research efforts to validate the diagnostic prescriptive model of remediating learning disabilities, and proposed is a 6-step psychoeducational model designed to ascertain links between behavioral differences and instructional outcomes. (DB)

  9. [Erroneous prescriptions of aciclovir and valaciclovir in herpes zoster treatment].

    PubMed

    Fica C, Alberto; Jadue A, Carla; Donaire R, Luisa

    2007-04-01

    Medical prescription errors are frequent in community settings and information exploring its magnitude during antiviral treatment of herpes zoster is scarce. A questionnaire was applied to 31 physicians working in hospital- or community-based settings in Santiago, Chile in order to characterize their dosing and timing preferences for aciclovir or valaciclovir prescriptions. Aciclovir was more often prescribed than valaciclovir (71.9 and 28.1%, respectively), but less than a third of prescription (27.3%) fulfilled the minimal aciclovir dosing and timing criteria for clinical efficacy (4 gr per day and <72 hours since rash initiation). The limited size of the simple prevented exploring factors linked to a misleading prescription. Appropriate knowledge on dosing and timing of aciclovir/valaciclovir therapy for herpes zoster was infrequent in a sample of physicians working in various clinical settings in Chile.

  10. The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Martin, Steven S.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine if there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS® System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:20155603

  11. The Slow Learner in Mathematics: Diagnostic-Prescriptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Vincent J.; Wilson, John W.

    1973-01-01

    A content taxonomy for elementary school mathematics is presented. Some group and individualized procedures for diagnostic-prescriptive teaching are suggested. Sample lessons from a case study are presented based on the previously presented sections. (LS)

  12. Exercise Prescription and the Low Back--Kinesiological Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Gina L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article presents kinesiological factors pertaining to the lower back which should be considered in exercise prescription for youth. Three specific areas of concern are reviewed--abdominal muscular strength, trunk flexibility, and postural conditioning in jogging. (IAH)

  13. Prescription Medication Sharing: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Kebede A.; Sheridan, Janie; Aspden, Trudi

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on nonrecreational prescription medication sharing. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and a customized multidatabase for all relevant articles published through 2013; our final sample comprised 19 studies from 9 countries with 36 182 participants, ranging in age from children to older adults, and published between 1990 and 2011. The prevalence rate for borrowing someone’s prescription medication was 5% to 51.9% and for lending prescription medication to someone else was 6% to 22.9%. A wide range of medicines were shared between family members, friends, and acquaintances. Sharing of many classes of prescription medication was common. Further research should explore why people share, how they decide to lend or borrow, whether they are aware of the risks, and how they assess the relevance of those risks. PMID:24524496

  14. FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159779.html FDA OKs Non-Prescription Use of Acne Drug Differin Gel 0.1% is first retinoid ... July 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Good news for acne sufferers: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has ...

  15. The nonmedical use of prescription drugs by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Peter D; Copley, LaRae

    2009-04-01

    The abuse of prescription drugs such as opioids, stimulants, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills is the fastest-growing class of drugs being abused by adolescents. Among this class of drugs, prescription opioids are being abused the most, although the abuse of prescription stimulants has been studied the most. There is a paucity of information on the nonmedical use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills. In this article we will discuss the specific prescription drugs that are most commonly abused by adolescents and how physicians need to be cautious when prescribing these drugs. The issue of screening for the abuse of these drugs will be addressed, as will the importance of parents' monitoring the use of these drugs by their own children. PMID:19492687

  16. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... written with ink or indelible pencil, typewriter, or printed on a computer printer and shall be manually... not permitted, prescriptions shall be written with ink or indelible pencil or typewriter and shall...

  17. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... died from overdoses of any other drug, including heroin and cocaine combined—and many more needed emergency ...

  18. Resistance Training: Exercise Prescription (Part 4 of 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    1988-01-01

    Resistance training as an exercise prescription is discussed and a program design process is outlined. The importance of preliminary assessments; defining goals and expectations; and evaluating individual needs and goals are discussed. (Author/JL)

  19. Association Between Prescription Drug Benefit and Hospital Readmission Rates

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Christine; Gandhi, Bhumi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether primary care medicine clinic (PCMC) patients with a prescription drug benefit were associated with a lower rate of hospital readmissions. Methods: This study was a retrospective, single-center, cohort study of PCMC patients who had at least 1 hospital readmission in 2011. Eligible patients were divided into 2 groups: patients without prescription drug benefits and patients with prescription drug benefits. Results: Three hundred fifty-two patients met our inclusion criteria. The number of hospital readmissions for patients with a prescription drug benefit was higher than those with no prescription drug benefit (2.453 ± 2.49 vs 1.88 ± 1.91; P = .052). The length of index admission and the length of hospital readmission in days were higher in patients with no prescription drug benefits (index admission, 5.29 ± 6.38 vs 4.59 ± 4.50; P = .428) (readmission, 5.31 ± 5.90 vs 4.48 ± 4.33, P = .166). The number of days to readmission was higher in those with drug benefits (58.12 ± 63.54 vs 53.39 ± 53.47; P = .316). When patient data were separated by CCI scores, it was noted that patients with pharmacy benefits had significantly more hospital readmissions in each CCI score category except for patients with a CCI of 6. Conclusion: Although not statistically significant, patients with prescription drug benefits had more hospital readmissions but shorter hospital lengths of stay. Significant data linking hospital readmissions and prescription insurance benefits, if found in future studies, would provide helpful guidance to health care systems. PMID:24958957

  20. Dynamic aspects of prescription drug use in an elderly population.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B; Coulson, N E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores longitudinal patterns in outpatient prescription drug use in an elderly population. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Enrollment records and prescription drug claims were obtained for a sample of elderly Pennsylvanians (N = 27,301) who had enrolled in the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (PACE) program at any time between July 1984 and June 1987. Study Design. The study tracks monthly prescription fill rates for sampled PACE beneficiaries from their initial enrollment month through disenrollment, death, or the end of the study (whichever occurred first). We specify two-part multivariate models to assess the effect of calendar time, length of time in the PACE program, and progression to disenrollment or death both on the probability of any prescription use and on the level of use among those who filled at least one prescription claim per month. Control variables include age, gender, race, income, residence, and marital status. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. Data were extracted from administrative files maintained by the PACE program, checked for errors, and then formatted as person-month records. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS. We find a strong positive relationship between drug use and the length of time persons are PACE-enrolled. Persons whose death occurs within a year have much higher prescription utilization rates than do persons whose death is at least a year away, and the differential increases as death nears. Persons who fail to renew PACE coverage use significantly fewer prescription drugs in the year prior to disenrollment. Holding age and other factors constant, we find that average levels of prescription use actually declined over the study period. PMID:8514502

  1. The burden of the nonmedical use of prescription opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Aaron M; Kreis, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    An increase in the prescribing of opioids over the past several years often has been perceived as the primary reason for the increase in the nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Determining the prevalence of this illicit use has been difficult, because of varied methodologies and terminologies that are used to estimate the number of people directly contributing to or affected by this burden. Despite these discrepancies, the findings from several nationally recognized surveys have demonstrated that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use is indeed significant and has been increasing in recent years. The considerable burden on society imposed by misuse and abuse of these drugs is largely due to the monetary costs associated with nonmedical use (e.g., strategies implemented to prevent or deter abuse, treatment programs for misusers, etc.), decreased economic productivity, and the indirect effect on access to appropriate health care. However, using various nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to treat patients who use prescription opioids illicitly can decrease its overall prevalence and associated impact, with the development of novel opioid formulations designed to reduce nonmedical use providing valuable clinical tools as part of an overall risk management program. In addition, prescription monitoring programs are a prevalent drug control system designed to identify and address abuse and diversion of prescription medications, including opioids. Such resources, along with an accurate understanding of the problem, extend greater hope that the public health challenge of nonmedical prescription opioid use can be effectively mitigated. PMID:19691688

  2. Predicting prosthetic prescription after major lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We describe prosthetic limb prescription in the first year following lower-limb amputation and examine the relationship between amputation level, geographic region, and prosthetic prescription. We analyzed 2005 to 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Inpatient and Medical Encounters SAS data sets, Vital Status death data, and National Prosthetic Patient Database data for 9,994 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation at a VA hospital. Descriptive statistics and bivariates were examined. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with prosthetic prescription. Analyses showed that amputation level was associated with prosthetic prescription. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.41 for ankle amputation and 0.46 for transfemoral amputation compared with transtibial amputation. HRs for geographic region were Northeast = 1.49, Upper Midwest = 1.26, and West = 1.39 compared with the South (p < 0.001). African American race, longer length of hospital stay, older age, congestive heart failure, paralysis, other neurological disease, renal failure, and admission from a nursing facility were negatively associated with prosthetic prescription. Being married was positively associated. After adjusting for patient characteristics, people with ankle amputation were most likely to be prescribed a prosthesis and people with transfemoral amputation were least likely. Geographic variation in prosthetic prescription exists in the VA and further research is needed to explain why. PMID:26562228

  3. Predicting prosthetic prescription after major lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We describe prosthetic limb prescription in the first year following lower-limb amputation and examine the relationship between amputation level, geographic region, and prosthetic prescription. We analyzed 2005 to 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Inpatient and Medical Encounters SAS data sets, Vital Status death data, and National Prosthetic Patient Database data for 9,994 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation at a VA hospital. Descriptive statistics and bivariates were examined. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with prosthetic prescription. Analyses showed that amputation level was associated with prosthetic prescription. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.41 for ankle amputation and 0.46 for transfemoral amputation compared with transtibial amputation. HRs for geographic region were Northeast = 1.49, Upper Midwest = 1.26, and West = 1.39 compared with the South (p < 0.001). African American race, longer length of hospital stay, older age, congestive heart failure, paralysis, other neurological disease, renal failure, and admission from a nursing facility were negatively associated with prosthetic prescription. Being married was positively associated. After adjusting for patient characteristics, people with ankle amputation were most likely to be prescribed a prosthesis and people with transfemoral amputation were least likely. Geographic variation in prosthetic prescription exists in the VA and further research is needed to explain why.

  4. Patterns of opioid analgesic prescription among patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dominick, Kelli L; Bosworth, Hayden B; Dudley, Tara K; Waters, Sandra J; Campbell, Lisa C; Keefe, Francis J

    2004-01-01

    This study describes patterns of opioid analgesic prescription during a one-year period among a sample of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The study sample included 3,061 patients with prior ICD-9 codes indicating a diagnosis of OA who were treated at a federal Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Specific opioid variables included: any opioid prescription, number of specific opioid drugs prescribed, total number of opioid prescriptions, total number of days supply of opioids, and daily opioid doses. We also examined relationships of demographic characteristics to opioid variables. Results revealed that 41% of patients received at least one opioid prescription. Opioids were prescribed significantly less frequently among African-Americans than Caucasians and the number of opioid prescriptions declined with increasing age. The mean annual supply of opioids was 104 days. Days' supply of opioids was also lower for African Americans and older patients. Daily opioid doses were, on average, below recommended daily doses for the treatment of OA. Findings of this study suggest that opioids are frequently prescribed to individuals with OA and that these drugs may be gaining acceptability for the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Additional research is needed to examine reasons for racial differences in opioid prescribing, as well as the prescription of these medications at fairly low doses.

  5. Diagnosis-Based Risk Adjustment for Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Payments

    PubMed Central

    Robst, John; Levy, Jesse M.; Ingber, Melvin J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2003 Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) created Medicare Part D, a voluntary prescription drug benefit program. The benefit is a government subsidized prescription drug benefit within Medicare. This article focuses on the development of the prescription drug risk-adjustment model used to adjust payments to reflect the health status of plan enrollees. PMID:17722748

  6. How Medicare Prescription Drug Plans & Medicare Advantage Plans with Prescription Drug Coverage (MA-PDs) Use Pharmacies,...

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug. Example of step therapy Step 1 —Dr. Smith wants to prescribe a new sleeping pill to ... sleeping pill available. Some of the drugs Dr. Smith considers prescribing are brand-name only prescription drugs. ...

  7. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development.

  8. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  9. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H.; Jalili, Espanta; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Crosby, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB–Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  10. The Acquisition of Aux. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypriotaki, Lyn

    This report examines the question of whether grammatical rules are globally learned and applied. It also attempts to determine the underlying word order in English as well as the developmental sequence of the acquisition of Aux. A sentence-repetition test using positive statements, positive questions, and negative questions was administered to 30…

  11. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  12. Senior citizens and the burden of prescription drug outlays: what lessons for the Medicare prescription drug benefit?

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos; Gemmill, Marin

    2004-01-01

    This article uses data from a cohort of elderly and retired persons over the 1996-2001 period in the US to (i) determine the extent to which changes in socioeconomic or demographic characteristics, particularly age, income and education, impact the total amount that is spent on prescription drugs and (ii) to analyse the predictors of individual out-of-pocket (OOP) prescription drug outlays among the same cohort and determine whether age, race, sex, income, education, marital status and health status have an influence on these. The analysis considers the implications for elderly individuals who choose to participate in the new Medicare Part D drug benefit, labelled the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernisation Act of 2003. The results highlight the necessity for the Medicare prescription drug benefit to carefully target the eldest among the elderly, who are most in need and are in danger of becoming trapped in the so-called Medicare 'doughnut hole', i.e. incur high prescription drug outlays, without adequate coverage. The study also finds evidence that women, those who are not married, middle income elderly and those in poor health, who purchase drugs more intensively, are at risk of incurring significant prescription OOP drug outlays.

  13. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids: Motive and Ubiquity Issues

    PubMed Central

    Zacny, James P.; Lichtor, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Two issues relating to prescription opioid nonmedical use that to our knowledge have not been comprehensively addressed in the peer-reviewed literature are discussed: Motives for nonmedical use and the extent of nonmedical use of prescription opioids in other countries. The United States’ national annual survey on illicit drug use in the general population (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) asks respondents whether they have used prescription opioids for nonmedical purposes but does not assess motives for such use. By not assessing motives, nonmedical users who use only for pain relief and nonmedical users who have other motives for use are grouped together, but 2 recent epidemiological studies suggest that these 2 groups may differ in a propensity to have substance use–related problems. We suggest that the survey add a question that assesses motives for nonmedical use. Regarding whether countries besides the United States have problems associated with nonmedical use of prescription opioids, after searching for epidemiological surveys and other materials potentially relevant to this issue, we were unable to determine the extent of nonmedical use of prescription opioids in other countries or draw cross-national comparisons. We suggest that more countries include specific questions about nonmedical use of prescription opioids in their national epidemiological surveys. Perspective We believe that critical information surrounding the nonmedical use of prescription opioids is not being gathered. Such information would allow for a better understanding of the problem. We invite discussion and commentaries regarding the issues we raise to more effectively address this public health issue. PMID:18342577

  14. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  15. The benefits of prescription information leaflets (1).

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, S; Waters, W E; George, C F

    1989-01-01

    1. Prescription information leaflets (PILs) giving information about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and inhaled bronchodilators were evaluated in three small Hampshire towns, while a fourth, in which no leaflets were distributed, acted as a control. 2. Seven hundred and nineteen (82%) patients prescribed one of these medicines agreed to be interviewed in their homes, 1 to 2 weeks after the medicine had been prescribed. Four hundred and nineteen of them had received leaflets, while 300 received no written information. Two hundred and sixty patients received their leaflets from a pharmacist while 159 were given them by their general practitioner. 3. Patients who received leaflets were better informed about every item of knowledge tested, except for the name of the medicine. Awareness of the side effects showed the greatest improvement, but there was no evidence that these leaflets produced spurious side effects. 4. Much improved levels of satisfaction were recorded amongst patients who received leaflets, especially those for NSAIDs (P less than 0.001) and for beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (P less than 0.01). 5. Subsequently, three hundred and fifty-eight (77%) of the patients prescribed either a NSAID or a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist 1 year earlier responded to a postal questionnaire. The benefits in terms of knowledge and satisfaction were still apparent, although less marked than previously. Of the patients still taking beta-adrenoceptor antagonists 70% had retained their leaflets over the intervening 12 months. 6. Ninety-seven per cent of patients read their leaflet regardless of whether it was distributed by a general practitioner or pharmacist. However, those who obtained it from a pharmacist tended to be more knowledgeable and satisfied. 7. We conclude that patients welcome the idea of receiving PILs. They improve patients' knowledge of how to take their medicines correctly and their awareness of potential side

  16. Identification and Analyses of AUX-IAA target genes controlling multiple pathways in developing fiber cells of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Deepti; Sawant, Samir V

    2013-01-01

    Technological development led to an increased interest in systems biological approaches in plants to characterize developmental mechanism and candidate genes relevant to specific tissue or cell morphology. AUX-IAA proteins are important plant-specific putative transcription factors. There are several reports on physiological response of this family in Arabidopsis but in cotton fiber the transcriptional network through which AUX-IAA regulated its target genes is still unknown. in-silico modelling of cotton fiber development specific gene expression data (108 microarrays and 22,737 genes) using Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe) reveals 3690 putative AUX-IAA target genes of which 139 genes were known to be AUX-IAA co-regulated within Arabidopsis. Further AUX-IAA targeted gene regulatory network (GRN) had substantial impact on the transcriptional dynamics of cotton fiber, as showed by, altered TF networks, and Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and metabolic pathway associated with its target genes. Analysis of the AUX-IAA-correlated gene network reveals multiple functions for AUX-IAA target genes such as unidimensional cell growth, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, nucleosome organization, DNA-protein complex and process related to cell wall. These candidate networks/pathways have a variety of profound impacts on such cellular functions as stress response, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. While these functions are fairly broad, their underlying TF networks may provide a global view of AUX-IAA regulated gene expression and a GRN that guides future studies in understanding role of AUX-IAA box protein and its targets regulating fiber development.

  17. Automated Prescription of Oblique Brain 3D MRSI

    PubMed Central

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Two major difficulties encountered in implementing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) in a clinical setting are limited coverage and difficulty in prescription. The goal of this project was to completely automate the process of 3D PRESS MRSI prescription, including placement of the selection box, saturation bands and shim volume, while maximizing the coverage of the brain. The automated prescription technique included acquisition of an anatomical MRI image, optimization of the oblique selection box parameters, optimization of the placement of OVS saturation bands, and loading of the calculated parameters into a customized 3D MRSI pulse sequence. To validate the technique and compare its performance with existing protocols, 3D MRSI data were acquired from 6 exams from 3 healthy volunteers. To assess the performance of the automated 3D MRSI prescription for patients with brain tumors, the data were collected from 16 exams from 8 subjects with gliomas. This technique demonstrated robust coverage of the tumor, high consistency of prescription and very good data quality within the T2 lesion. PMID:22692829

  18. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  19. The Adequacy of Phosphorus Binder Prescriptions Among American Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Because hemodialysis treatment has a limited ability to remove phosphorus, dialysis patients must restrict dietary phosphorus intake and use phosphorus binding medication. Among patients with restricted dietary phosphorus intake (1000 mg/d), phosphorus binders must bind about 250 mg of excess phosphorus per day and among patients with more typical phosphorus intake (1500 mg/d), binders must bind about 750 mg per day. To determine the phosphorus binding capacity of binder prescriptions among American hemodialysis patients, we undertook a cross-sectional study of a random sample of in-center chronic hemodialysis patients. We obtained data for one randomly selected patient from 244 facilities nationwide. About one-third of patients had hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus level > 5.5 mg/dL). Among the 224 patients prescribed binders, the mean phosphorus binding capacity was 256 mg/d (SD 143). 59% of prescriptions had insufficient binding capacity for restricted dietary phosphorus intake, and 100% had insufficient binding capacity for typical dietary phosphorus intake. Patients using two binders had a higher binding capacity than patients using one binder (451 vs. 236 mg/d, p <0.001). A majority of binder prescriptions have insufficient binding capacity to maintain phosphorus balance. Use of two binders results in higher binder capacity. Further work is needed to understand the impact of binder prescriptions on mineral balance and metabolism and to determine the value of substantially increasing binder prescriptions. PMID:23013171

  20. The attitudes of consumers toward direct advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, L A; Brinberg, D; Klimberg, R; Rivera, C; Millstein, L G

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes about prescription drug advertising directed to consumers were assessed in 1,509 persons who had viewed prototypical advertisements for fictitious prescription drug products. Although many subjects were generally favorable toward the concept of drug advertising directed to consumers, strong reservations were also expressed, especially about television advertising. Prescription drug advertising did not appear to undermine the physician's authority, since respondents viewed the physician as the primary drug decision-maker. However, the physician was not perceived as the sole source of prescription drug information. Television advertising appeared to promote greater information-seeking about particular drugs; however, magazine ads were more fully accepted by subjects. Furthermore, magazine ads led to enhanced views of the patient's authority in drug decision-making. The greater information conveyed in magazine ads may have given subjects more confidence in their own ability to evaluate the drug and the ad. Ads that integrated risk information into the body of the advertisement were more positively viewed than ads that gave special emphasis to the risk information. The results suggest that consumer attitudes about prescription drug advertising are not firmly held and are capable of being influenced by the types of ads people view. Regulation of such ads may need to be flexed to adapt to the way different media are used and processed by consumers. PMID:3080797

  1. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention. PMID:27445597

  2. Physician perspectives on a pilot prescription monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kirsten; Watson, Ashby

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, during implementation of a pilot electronic prescription monitoring program in southwest Virginia, a survey was mailed to 672 physicians to learn about their knowledge of and attitudes toward the program and its impact on their opioid prescribing behaviors. A total of 275 surveys were returned yielding a response rate of 41%. Less than one-half had previously heard about the prescription monitoring program. Nearly 60% believed their prescribing behaviors were being monitored more closely as a result of the program; of these, 23% reported that this had a negative impact on their ability to help patients manage their pain. Sixty-eight percent reported that the prescription monitoring program was useful for monitoring patients' prescription histories and decreasing doctor shopping; however, only 11% had requested information from the prescription monitoring program database, primarily due to access barriers. Recommendations include education to increase physician awareness of and utilization of the program and to address their concerns about scrutiny of practice and collection of relevant data that examines the impact of the program on diversion, abuse, and quality of patient care for persons in pain. PMID:16219606

  3. Prescription practices involving opioid analgesics among Americans with Medicaid, 2010.

    PubMed

    Mack, Karin A; Zhang, Kun; Paulozzi, Leonard; Jones, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Recent state-based studies have shown an increased risk of opioid overdose death in Medicaid populations. To explore one side of risk, this study examines indicators of potential opioid inappropriate use or prescribing among Medicaid enrollees. We examined claims from enrollees aged 18-64 years in the 2010 Truven Health MarketScan® Multi-State Medicaid database, which consisted of weighted and nationally representative data from 12 states. Pharmaceutical claims were used to identify enrollees (n=359,368) with opioid prescriptions. Indicators of potential inappropriate use or prescribing included overlapping opioid prescriptions, overlapping opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions, long acting/extended release opioids for acute pain, and high daily doses. In 2010, Medicaid enrollees with opioid prescriptions obtained an average 6.3 opioid prescriptions, and 40% had at least one indicator of potential inappropriate use or prescribing. These indicators have been linked to opioid-related adverse health outcomes, and methods exist to detect and deter inappropriate use and prescribing of opioids.

  4. RxGen General Optical Model Prescription Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigrist, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    RxGen is a prescription generator for JPL's in-house optical modeling software package called MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems), which is an expert optical analysis software package focusing on modeling optics on dynamic structures, deformable optics, and controlled optics. The objectives of RxGen are to simplify and automate MACOS prescription generations, reducing errors associated with creating such optical prescriptions, and improving user efficiency without requiring MACOS proficiency. RxGen uses MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks) as the development and deployment platform, but RxGen can easily be ported to another optical modeling/analysis platform. Running RxGen within the modeling environment has the huge benefit that variations in optical models can be made an integral part of the modeling state. For instance, optical prescription parameters determined as external functional dependencies, optical variations by controlling the in-/exclusion of optical components like sub-systems, and/or controlling the state of all components. Combining the mentioned capabilities and flexibilities with RxGen's optical abstraction layer completely eliminates the hindering aspects for requiring proficiency in writing/editing MACOS prescriptions, allowing users to focus on the modeling aspects of optical systems, i.e., increasing productivity and efficiency. RxGen provides significant enhancements to MACOS and delivers a framework for fast prototyping as well as for developing very complex controlled optical systems.

  5. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention. PMID:27445597

  6. Prescription Extraction from Clinical Notes: Towards Automating EMR Medication Reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajuan; Steinhubl, Steven R.; Defilippi, Chrisopher; Ng, Kenney; Ebadollahi, Shahram; Stewart, Walter F.; Byrd, Roy J

    2015-01-01

    Medication in for ma lion is one of [he most important clinical data types in electronic medical records (EMR) This study developed an NLP application (PredMED) to extract full prescriptions and their relevant components from a large corpus of unstructured ambulatory office visit clinical notes and the corresponding structured medication reconciliation (MED REC) data in the EMR. PredMED achieved an 84.4% F-score on office visit encounter notes and 95.0% on MED„REC data, outperforming two available medication extraction systems. To assess the potential for using automatically extracted prescriptions in the medication reconciliation task, we manually analyzed discrepancies between prescriptions found in clinical encounter notes and in matching MED_REC data for sample patient encounters. PMID:26306266

  7. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  8. Perceptions of prescription warning labels within an underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Meyer, Brittney A.; Locke, Michelle R.; Wettergreen, Sara

    Objective To understand how underserved populations attend to prescription warning label (PWL) instructions, examine the importance of PWL instructions to participants and describe the challenges associated with interpreting the information on PWLs. Methods Adults from an underserved population (racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with low income, older adults) who had a history of prescription medication use and were able to understand English took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants were presented with eight different prescription bottles with an attached PWL. Participants were asked, “If this prescription was yours, what information would you need to know about the medicine?” The number of participants who attended to the warning labels was noted. Other questions assessed the importance of PWLs, the challenges with understanding PWLs, and ways a pharmacist could help participant understanding of the PWL. Results There were 103 participants. The mean age was 50.25 years (SD=18.05). Majority attended to the PWL. Participants not currently taking medications and who had limited health literacy were likely to overlook the warning labels. Majority rated the warning instructions to be extremely important (n=86, 83.5 %), wanted the pharmacist to help them understand PWLs by counseling them on the information on the label (n=63, 61.2%), and thought the graphics made the label information easy to understand. Conclusions PWLs are an important method of communicating medication information, as long as they are easily comprehensible to patients. In addition to placing PWLs on prescription bottles, health care providers need to counsel underserved populations on medication warnings, especially individuals with limited health literacy who are not currently using a prescription medication. PMID:24644523

  9. Regional variation in infant hypoallergenic formula prescriptions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Raymond J; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-03-01

    There is little information on the regional distribution of food allergy in Australia. We examined the influence of latitude (a marker of sunlight/vitamin D status) on food allergy, as measured by 2007 infant hypoallergenic formula (IHF) prescription rates in children ages 0-2 yrs. Data were compiled from the 52 statistical divisions in mainland Australia plus the island of Tasmania (n=53 observations). Data from the Australian Department of Health and Aging and the Australian Bureau of Statistics were analysed by statistical division. There was significant regional variability in hypoallergenic formula prescription rates (per 100,000 population/yr), with the highest rates in southern Australia (14,406) and the lowest in the north (721), compared with a national average of 4099. Geographical factors (decreasing latitude and increasing longitude) were associated with a higher rate of IHF prescriptions, such that rates were higher in southern vs. northern regions, and in eastern compared with western regions. Controlling for longitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, southern latitudes were associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates [beta, -147.98; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-281.83 to -14.14; p=0.03]. Controlling for latitude, physician density and markers of socioeconomic status, eastern longitudes were also associated with higher hypoallergenic formulae prescription rates (beta, 89.69; 95% CI=2.90-176.49; p=0.04). Among young children, hypoallergenic formula prescription rates are more common in the southern and eastern regions of Australia. These data provide support for a possible role of sun exposure/vitamin D status (amongst other potential factors) in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  10. Who Cares What It Costs to Dispense a Medicaid Prescription?

    PubMed Central

    Lamphere-Thorpe, Jo Ann; Johnston, William P.; Kilpatrick, Kerry E.; Norwood, G. Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Results of a 1992 Medicaid cost-of-dispensing study among North Carolina pharmacies are presented. The estimated statewide weighted average cost incurred by pharmacies to dispense a prescription was $5.37 in 1991. The variation in dispensing costs found among pharmacies of various sizes, organizational types, and locations is identified. Higher average dispensing costs were reported for large chain pharmacies and those pharmacies in urban areas. Considering the potential for expanded prescription drug benefits under a reformed health care system, the implications of the study's findings for pharmacy payment policy are discussed. PMID:10137800

  11. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs.

  12. Converging prescription brand shares as evidence of physician learning.

    PubMed

    Walker, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Within a drug category, there is an optimal brand the physician could choose to prescribe based on the patient's particular condition and characteristics. Physicians desire to prescribe the best brand for each patient for professional, moral, and legal reasons. Ideally, detailing provides information that supports this effort. This study finds that, over time, the proportion of prescriptions written for each brand moves toward a stable distribution--a convergence in which each brand's share in the category appears to match the proportion of prescription writing opportunities where the brand is the best choice for the patient. Detailing supports this convergence.

  13. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs. PMID:18630234

  14. Genetics of Aux/IAA and ARF action in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Liscum, E; Reed, J W

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of auxin signal-response pathways have been made in recent years. Much of this new knowledge has come through the study of mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations have been identified in a wide variety of auxin-response components, including auxin transporters, protein kinases and phosphatases, components of a ubiquitin-proteosome pathway, and transcriptional regulators. This review focuses on mutations that affect auxin-modulated transcription factors, in particular those in the Aux/IAA and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes. Mutants in members of these related gene families exhibit phenotypes that indicate both unique localized functions, as well as overlapping redundant functions, throughout plant development - from embryogenesis to flowering. Effects of specific mutations on Aux/IAA and ARF protein functions at the biochemical and physiological levels will be discussed. We will also discuss potential mechanisms for interactions between auxin and light response pathways that are suggested by these mutants.

  15. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  17. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Su, L Y; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, J P; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology.

  18. Disruptions in AUX1-dependent auxin influx alter hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Bethany B; Stowe-Evans, Emily L; Harper, Reneé M; Celaya, R Brandon; Ljung, Karin; Sandberg, Göran; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling, leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if co-irradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations--map1 (modifier of arf7 phenotypes 1)--was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1--a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmacological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  19. Genome-wide survey and comprehensive expression profiling of Aux/IAA gene family in chickpea and soybean

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikash K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26579165

  20. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007–2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18–65 for ‘non-definitive’ conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or ‘definitive’ conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56–0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical

  1. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007-2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18-65 for 'non-definitive' conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or 'definitive' conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56-0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical provider education

  2. Relationships between prescription and non-prescription drug use in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Poole, C; Jones, D; Veitch, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores, at an epidemiological level, the relationship between categories of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescribed (Rx) drugs in a community-resident elderly population. A total of 2818, randomly selected, older adults were interviewed at home about their use of prescribed and non-prescribed medication and other health-related factors. For comparative purposes OTC drugs were classified into 16 therapeutic groups-identical to those used by other researchers; prescribed drugs were classified into 45 British National Formulary (BNF) therapeutic sub-categories. Analyses revealed significant association between certain BNF categories and OTC categories, which may have a clinical explanation. These include a 3-fold increase (P<0.01) of OTC laxative use by those prescribed an antidepressant, and a 4-fold increase (P<0.001) in OTC antacid use among those prescribed oral corticosteroids. Our findings may indicate an attempt by older people to control side effects of prescription medicines with OTC preparations. This study, in part, supports the call by the Royal College of Physicians for further research to determine the effect of interactions (be they pharmacological, behavioural or otherwise) between OTC and prescribed medicines.

  3. Proscriptive versus prescriptive morality: two faces of moral regulation.

    PubMed

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Sheikh, Sana; Hepp, Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    A distinction is made between two forms of morality on the basis of approach-avoidance differences in self-regulation. Prescriptive morality is sensitive to positive outcomes, activation-based, and focused on what we should do. Proscriptive morality is sensitive to negative outcomes, inhibition-based, and focused on what we should not do. Seven studies profile these two faces of morality, support their distinct motivational underpinnings, and provide evidence of moral asymmetry. Both are well-represented in individuals' moral repertoire and equivalent in terms of moral weight, but proscriptive morality is condemnatory and strict, whereas prescriptive morality is commendatory and not strict. More specifically, in these studies proscriptive morality was perceived as concrete, mandatory, and duty-based, whereas prescriptive morality was perceived as more abstract, discretionary, and based in duty or desire; proscriptive immorality resulted in greater blame, whereas prescriptive morality resulted in greater moral credit. Implications for broader social regulation, including cross-cultural differences and political orientation, are discussed.

  4. Stories of Compliance and Subversion in a Prescriptive Policy Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John

    2008-01-01

    In their commitment to raising standards successive Conservative and Labour governments have moved progressively to tighter prescription of school policy and more far reaching proscription of practices deemed unacceptable. This article examines how 12 headteachers construct the policy environment and how they respond to it in the schools they…

  5. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  6. It is Time to Individualize the Dialysate Sodium Prescription.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Lomonte, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Sodium mass balance in hemodialysis patients is primarily dependent on dietary salt intake and sodium removal during dialysis. One of the most important goals of dialysis therapy is to fully remove the mass of sodium that has accumulated in the interdialytic period. It is currently the practice in dialysis centers all over the world to use a standardized dialysate sodium concentration (Na(+) D) for all patients. The aim of the present article was to summarize the current evidence for an individualized Na(+) D prescription. Three main points are discussed: (i) Na(+) D prescription, which must necessarily take into account the sodium setpoint and the sodium gradient; (ii) clinical experience with an individualized Na(+) D prescription, and (iii) guidelines for individualizing the Na(+) D prescription. To summarize, recent data suggest that tailoring Na(+) D to an individual's sodium setpoint has the potential for short- and long-term benefits for patients. Prospective interventional studies are warranted to further understand its effects, stratified for patients with low or high serum sodium levels.

  7. 21 CFR 201.100 - Prescription drugs for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs for human use. 201.100 Section 201.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for human use. A drug subject to the requirements of section 503(b)(1) of the act shall be exempt...

  8. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... failure). (25) The electronic prescription application must conduct internal audits and generate reports... internal audits may be automated and need not require human intervention to be conducted. (26) The... registration number and the specific internal code number required under § 1301.22(c)(5) of this chapter....

  9. Rural Adolescents' Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, April M.; Glover, Natalie; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities often have distinct contextual factors that impact residents' substance abuse behavior. However, most studies to date have focused either exclusively on urban populations or neglected to analyze data in a way that allows any rural/urban comparison. This is especially true for research examining nonmedical prescription drug use…

  10. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight (i.e...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a... photosensitized. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  11. Non-prescription medications: considerations for the dental practitioner.

    PubMed

    Kingon, Angus

    2012-04-01

    The widespread availability of non-prescription medications has a significant potential impact on dental practice. Dentists are trained to provide scientifically-based advice on the appropriate use of medications, but it is not uncommon for patients to take matters into their own hands, especially if it is felt that the treatment provided is not solving a specific problem, or is insufficient. Well-meaning but often ill-informed family and friends frequently have an opinion as to what should be done. Not only may the suggested treatment not be effective, it may also be harmful. Over-the-counter medications can easily be obtained, and there is nothing to stop individuals exceeding recommended doses, and if this occurs, there could be adverse medical sequelae. Patient compliance in taking prescription medications is known to be problematic, and when combined with the ready availability of complementary medications, probiotics and illicit drugs, the risk of self-harm can be seen to be a distinct possibility. To compound the position, sometimes there seems to be, in a practical sense, little regulation on the advertising and marketing of non-prescription medications, which can leave consumers not only confused but potentially vulnerable. While complementary medicines may not have a significant role in dental practice in 2012, that may not always be the case as research continues, and reference is made to some aspects of ongoing work. Non-prescription medications are discussed, and some effects on oral health are considered.

  12. 21 CFR 1306.11 - Requirement of prescription.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to a pharmacy via facsimile equipment, provided that the original... practitioner. (5) Central fill pharmacies shall not be authorized under this paragraph to prepare prescriptions... practitioner or the practitioner's agent to the pharmacy by facsimile. The facsimile serves as the...

  13. Exploring University Students' Online Information Seeking about Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…

  14. A Political History of Medicare and Prescription Drug Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Thomas R; Lee, Philip R; Lipton, Helene L

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of efforts to add prescription drug coverage to the Medicare program. It identifies several important patterns in policymaking over four decades. First, prescription drug coverage has usually been tied to the fate of broader proposals for Medicare reform. Second, action has been hampered by divided government, federal budget deficits, and ideological conflict between those seeking to expand the traditional Medicare program and those preferring a greater role for private health care companies. Third, the provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 reflect earlier missed opportunities. Policymakers concluded from past episodes that participation in the new program should be voluntary, with Medicare beneficiaries and taxpayers sharing the costs. They ignored lessons from past episodes, however, about the need to match expanded benefits with adequate mechanisms for cost containment. Based on several new circumstances in 2003, the article demonstrates why there was a historic opportunity to add a Medicare prescription drug benefit and identify challenges to implementing an effective policy. PMID:15225331

  15. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R.; Ketcham, Patricia L.; Smit, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess…

  16. 76 FR 64813 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances Clarification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Prescriptions for Controlled Substances was published on March 31, 2010 at 75 FR 16236-16319 and became... requirements. 73 FR 36746-47 (June 27, 2008). DEA did not require application of NIST SP 800-53A in the Interim... 1311.300(e), such information will be posted on DEA's Web site. 75 FR 16243, March 31, 2010....

  17. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail...

  18. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, IQ, educational attainment, lifetime history of a cannabis use disorder or other drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. PMID:26522870

  19. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Need for Correction As published August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51245), the... of FR Doc. 2011-21011, are corrected as follows: 1. On page 51247, column 3, in the preamble, under... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  20. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Need for Correction As published August 18, 2001 (76 FR 51245), the... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BK34 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY... 18, 2011. The temporary regulations provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered...

  1. 76 FR 59898 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... INFORMATION: Need for Correction As published August 18, 2011 (76 FR 51310), the notice of proposed rulemaking... subject of FR Doc. 2011-21012, is corrected as follows: 1. On Page 51311, column 2, under the part heading... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  2. 77 FR 48111 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... was published in the Federal Register on Monday, August 6, 2012 (77 FR 46653) relating to the branded...-reference to temporary regulations (REG-112805-10) which was the subject of FR Doc. 2012- 19074, is... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction...

  3. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  4. Observation as a Method of Diagnosis and Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nagel, Clint

    The author describes a diagnostic-prescriptive approach in which teachers use observation skills to identify visual, auditory, and behavioral deficits in learning disabled students. Teachers are advised to ask themselves seven questions, including whether a real learning disability exists; where the student is currently functioning in reading,…

  5. Prescriptions: Hyperrealism and the Chemical Regulation of Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Alan; Jolly, Margaretta

    2012-01-01

    Using contemporary literary sources, we explore the powerful ideological framework that normalises prescription dependency as part of everyday life, focusing upon the treatment of mood disorders. Through a literary critical methodology, we read novels by American hyperrealists such as Bret Easton Ellis, David Foster Wallace and Rick Moody as…

  6. Utilizing VA Information Technology to Develop Psychiatric Resident Prescription Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, Robert; Federman, Daniel G.; Borysiuk, Lydia; Sernyak, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Feedback about resident prescription practices allows psychiatry educators to ensure that residents have broad prescribing experience and can facilitate practice-based learning initiatives. The authors report on a procedure utilizing U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' computerized pharmacy records to efficiently construct…

  7. (Lack of) Support for Prescriptive Statements in Teacher Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester Dacy, Breana J.; Nihalani, Priya K.; Cestone, Christina M.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) mandates determining what educational practices are demonstrated to be effective through rigorous scientific research. What types of evidence are recommended practices based on? The authors analyzed 304 citations accompanying prescriptive statements in 6 recent teacher education textbooks. Prescriptive…

  8. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... experience adequately documented in medical literature or by other data (to be supplied to the Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. Developing multilingual prescription instructions for patients with limited english proficiency.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Chen, Alice Hm; Sarkar, Urmimala; Schoua-Glusberg, Alisu; Lindquist, Lee A; Schillinger, Dean; Wolf, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development of a set of patient-centered prescription medication instructions and their translation into Chinese, Korean, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese. Challenges and lessons learned from this process are reported to inform future efforts to develop easy-to-understand, multilingual materials for use in health care settings. PMID:22643463

  10. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886.5844 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886.5844 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... for the patient. The device may be modified to protect the eyes from bright sunlight...

  12. An integrated drug prescription and distribution system: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lanssiers, R; Everaert, E; De Win, M; Van De Velde, R; De Clercq, H

    2002-01-01

    Using the hospital's drug prescription and distribution system as a guide, benefits and drawbacks of a medical activity management system that is tightly integrated with the supply chain management of a hospital will be discussed from the point of view of various participating healthcare actors. PMID:15058416

  13. How Can I End a Prescription Drug Habit Safely?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  14. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  15. An Assessment-Prescriptive-Instructional Packet for Older Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.

    The purpose of this document is to suggest an assessment/prescriptive/instructional (API) process for working with older learners experiencing reading difficulties. Following a justification for the designing of materials specifically for older learners, the document explains how to collect data about learner's interests, attitudes, and reading…

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse & Diversion: Role of the Pain Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; March, Samantha J.; Inciardi, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research is to better understand the role that South Florida pain management clinics may be playing in the abuse and diversion of prescription drugs. This study explores 1) the characteristics and practices of pain clinics that may be facilitating the drug-seeking endeavors of prescription drug abusers and 2) the drug-seeking behaviors of prescription drug abusers who use pain clinics as a primary source for drugs. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with prescription drug abusers in South Florida. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and codes were generated based on thematic analyses of the data. Using grounded theory strategies, the analysis revealed six main themes: “pill mills”, on-site pharmacies, liberal prescribing habits, “sponsoring” drug diversion, pain doctor/pharmacy shopping, and faking symptoms/documentation. These findings should provide insights for law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and industry as they attempt to develop appropriate policy initiatives and recommendations for best practices. PMID:21278927

  17. Adolescents’ Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications and Other Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol J.; Young, Amy; Grey, Melissa; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study examines adolescent nonmedical use of prescription medications (NUPM) and its relationship to other problem behaviors. Methods A secondary analysis was conducted with data gathered from 912 adolescents in 2007. Four mutually exclusive groups were created from the data. Adolescents who: 1) did not use controlled prescription medications (non-users); 2) used their own controlled medications as prescribed (medical-users); 3) engaged in nonmedical use for self-treatment motivations (self-treaters), and 4) engaged in nonmedical use for sensation-seeking motivations (sensation-seekers). These four groups were compared on problem behaviors as well as depression and impulsivity. Results Approximately 10.9% of the sample engaged in NUPM and 36.8% had a legal prescription for a controlled medication. Sensation-seekers were more likely to engage in most problem behaviors when compared to all other groups, impulsivity and depression was variable among groups. Conclusions The findings suggest there are different subtypes of nonmedical users of prescription medications. PMID:19931825

  18. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as the computer system is available for use again. (g) When filing refill information for original... information must be retrievable by the prescription number: (1) The name and dosage form of the controlled... computer application may be used for the storage and retrieval of refill information for original...

  19. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as the computer system is available for use again. (g) When filing refill information for original... information must be retrievable by the prescription number: (1) The name and dosage form of the controlled... computer application may be used for the storage and retrieval of refill information for original...

  20. Prescriptions for Rural Mathematics Instruction: Analysis of the Rhetorical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.; Huber, Donna S.

    2005-01-01

    Very little empirical research has examined mathematics education in rural schools and communities. A modest nonresearch literature does exist, however, and this study analyzed this literature. We found 3 themes describing the prescriptions given to rural educators: (a) mathematics education in rural schools needs to be fixed; (b) good things…

  1. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  2. 77 FR 20637 - Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information on Prescription Medication Adherence AGENCY: Department of Health... the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health is seeking information about causes, impact...

  3. Using Noncontingent Reinforcement to Increase Compliance with Wearing Prescription Prostheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richling, Sarah M.; Rapp, John T.; Carroll, Regina A.; Smith, Jeanette N.; Nystedt, Aaron; Siewert, Brook

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) on compliance with wearing foot orthotics and a hearing aid with 2 individuals. Results showed that NCR increased the participants' compliance with wearing prescription prostheses to 100% after just a few 5-min sessions, and the behavior change was maintained during lengthier sessions.…

  4. An Individual Appraisal and Prescription for the Beginning Jogger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Myron W.; VanWoerkom, Carol L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Appraisal and Prescription Program is designed to provide safe initiating procedures for the beginning jogger. By using this procedure, the participant learns how to pace the amount of jogging according to the present level of fitness. A self-administered stress monitor worksheet and a sample exercise workout are included. (JN)

  5. Prescriptions for Children with Learning and Adjustment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Ralph F.

    A total of 1,170 psychoeducational prescriptions for various major learning and behavior problems of school children are presented. Intended to be of assistance to school, clinical, and educational psychologists and graduate students, the volume assumes a familiarity with childhood exceptionality and psychopathology. The prescriptions…

  6. Prescriptive Early Intervention With Culturally Diverse Populations: Some Initial Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Walter S.; Pedro-Carroll, JoAnne

    The Social Skills Development Program (SSDP) is a prevention program for inner-city primary-age school children. The services provided by SSDP are for children experiencing moderate school maladjustment. Included are descriptions of program rationale and operations, staffing, prescriptive early intervention, preventive health interventions and…

  7. Reinstating Knowledge: Diagnoses and Prescriptions for England's Curriculum Ills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines three recent accounts of what has allegedly gone wrong with the school curriculum in England in recent years and their prescriptions for remedying these ills--all three accounts sharing strong proposals to reinstate "knowledge" at the heart of the curriculum. These analyses, despite some significant similarities, come from very…

  8. Prescription data mining and the protection of patients' interests.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have exploited health information technology to "mine" data from drug prescriptions and use the data to better target their sales pitches to physicians. This article considers the policy arguments and first amendment implications regarding state regulation of data mining. It concludes that the legislative provisions are desirable and should withstand constitutional challenge.

  9. [Adverse drug reactions reporting is helping "non substituable" prescription!].

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Julien; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In August 2012, general practitioners of Haute- Garonne received a letter from Health insurance system, informing that prescriptions could be endorsed by "not substituable" after reporting an adverse drug reactions (ADR). Compared to an equivalent period before this letter, we observed an increase of ADRs reports for generics, mainly concerning gastrointestinal ADR and lack of efficacy. PMID:24927508

  10. Justice Implications of a Proposed Medicare Prescription Drug Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Social justice is a core value to the mission of social work. Older people are among the most vulnerable populations for whom social workers are called on to advocate. Although Medicare prescription drug coverage has been a top legislative issue over the past few years, such a benefit expansion has yet to be implemented. This article examines the…

  11. Peer Influence: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Alberto; Pritchard, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk-taking behavior (eg, alcohol abuse, tobacco usage, misuse of prescription medications) among college students is a widespread problem. This study focused not only on the frequency of risky health behaviors in college students, but also the companions with whom they engaged in such behaviors. Methods: Three hundred and twelve…

  12. 31 CFR 900.1 - Prescription of standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations by Treasury. See generally 31 CFR part 285. (c) Agencies are not limited to the remedies contained... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prescription of standards. 900.1 Section 900.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued)...

  13. 49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... later. (e) Service. All pleadings under this part shall be served by hand or overnight delivery on the... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EXPEDITED RELIEF FOR SERVICE...

  14. 49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... later. (e) Service. All pleadings under this part shall be served by hand or overnight delivery on the... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EXPEDITED RELIEF FOR SERVICE...

  15. 49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... later. (e) Service. All pleadings under this part shall be served by hand or overnight delivery on the... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EXPEDITED RELIEF FOR SERVICE...

  16. 49 CFR 1146.1 - Prescription of alternative rail service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... later. (e) Service. All pleadings under this part shall be served by hand or overnight delivery on the... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prescription of alternative rail service. 1146.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EXPEDITED RELIEF FOR SERVICE...

  17. Prescription options for the below knee amputee. A review.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, M A; Skinner, H B; Effeney, D J; Wilson, L A

    1985-02-01

    In 1973 a workshop sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences recommended that "efforts to develop prescription criteria for use of the numerous variants of the BK prosthesis should be intensified." This paper provides a review of the important considerations in the prescription of a below-knee prosthesis. It is intended that this information would assist the physician to make better informed decisions regarding the specific type of prosthesis for a particular patient. No attempt has been made to describe all prosthetic options since a majority of amputees are fit with only a few prescriptions. Thus, socket design, suspension, shank type, and foot specification may be optimized for individual patients through mutual agreement of the prosthetist and the knowledgeable physician. This paper will present some of the more difficult prescription solutions to the various fitting problems that are representative of our nation's amputee population. This is done with the knowledge that there may be other and equally successful solutions to these problems. Several illustrative examples are provided.

  18. [Pharmaceutical prescription in primary care. SESPAS report 2012].

    PubMed

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Peiró, Salvador; Meneu, Ricard

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, the Spanish National Health Service (NHS) paid for 958 million prescriptions. Given the massive population exposure to medication, the risks associated with drug consumption are highly significant from the perspective of public health. Areas requiring improvement in primary care prescription include overtreatment of patients in low risk situations, undertreatment of those in whom medication is indicated, poor patient information, polymedication, self-medication and the appreciable percentage of preventable adverse effects. Surprisingly, most of the pharmaceutical strategies in the NHS have not aimed to address these problems but have instead concentrated on reducing pharmaceutical expenditure, which is not a problem of pharmaceutical expenditure per se but is rather a consequence of "the problems" of prescription (and of the regulation and management of pharmaceutical services). Some key elements to improve this situation include more integrated healthcare, the development of electronic medical records systems, overall strategies to improve safety, and reducing the role of the pharmaceutical industry. Macro strategies include creating an agency able to objectively assess the additional value provided by a new drug and its additional cost, price fixing in line with cost-effectiveness, and exclusion of drugs with little or no added value from coverage, etc. Managing prescription involves the development of longitudinal patient care programs that incorporate clinical actions from different professionals, including whom to treat, how much to treat and how to treat. PMID:22138282

  19. The Morne Aux Diables volcano, Dominica, Lesser Antilles: A stratigraphic and petrologic study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, G. L.; Smith, A. L.; Rheubottom, A. N.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Morne Aux Diables is a topographically distinct stratovolcano located at the northernmost end of the island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles. In 2007, observations were conducted, and over 3,000 digital photographs were taken, of the well-exposed sea cliffs around Dominica. These observations, together with photogeological analysis of approximately 500 of these digital photographs of sea cliffs around the northern part of Dominica, have significantly improved our understanding of the geology of Morne aux Diables volcano, which previously had been based on scattered land exposures. The photographs were used to identify genetic packages of strata related to volcanogenic events and trace them around large sectors of the volcano's flanks. Based on these new studies, together with previous data, Morne aux Diables appears to have undergone two periods of activity, an older period dated between 2.1-1.5 Ma and a younger period dated at around 50,000 years B.P. Deposits associated with the older cone-forming activity are primarily composed of block and ash flows and surges associated with Pelean-style activity. These can be subdivided into a number of sequences based on the presence of paleosols. Domes associated with these eruptions are found both in the central vent area as well as around the flanks of the volcano. The upper deposits in the sea cliffs on the eastern, northern and western flanks are a thick sequence of surges that have been provisionally correlated with a well-exposed sequence of semi-vesicular block and ash flows and surge deposits at Morne a Louis on the west coast. The presence of these surge deposits at the top of the sea cliffs suggests that the older period of activity ended with open-crater Asama-style eruptions. Following an extensive quiescent period, renewed Pelean-style activity produced valley-fill block and ash flow and surge deposits, exposed on both the eastern and western sides of the volcano, together with associated domes (both central and

  20. Number Of Medicaid Prescriptions Grew, Drug Spending Was Steady In Medicaid Expansion States.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hefei; Borders, Tyrone F; Druss, Benjamin G

    2016-09-01

    Expansions of eligibility for Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act may have increased the number of Medicaid drug prescriptions. However, the expansions did not drive Medicaid spending on prescription drugs overall in 2014. PMID:27605639

  1. Exercise testing and prescription. Practical recommendations for the sedentary.

    PubMed

    King, C N; Senn, M D

    1996-05-01

    A sedentary lifestyle is prevalent in most industrialised societies. Persuasive evidence allows us to demonstrate that a physically active lifestyle protects against the development and progression of many chronic diseases. The assessment of sedentary individuals for the purpose of exercise testing and or exercise prescription should always culminate in the determination of the relative risk of the individual for traumatic events which may be precipitated by participation in moderate physical activity. Sedentary individuals may be categorised in a low to high risk stratification as apparently healthy (Class I), higher risk (Class II), or known coronary heart disease and/or symptomatic of chronic disease (Class III). An expanded role for allied health professionals, such as a clinical exercise physiologist, may enhance and extend the services of physicians and nurses as they relate to exercise testing, exercise prescription and preventative healthcare in general. Risk stratification will determine the type of exercise test, the exercise prescription and the exercise environment (low to high levels of supervision). The exercise prescription may include a determination of mode, duration, frequency, intensity, and progression of activity. Although target heart rate remains one of the most effective instruments for monitoring exercise intensity, the rate of perceived exertion should be incorporated especially in the titration of exercise prescriptions for those on beta-blockade therapy. Finally the benefits of an exercise programme, derived from a foundation of proper assessment, are numerous and include improvements in cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipid profile and retention of essential muscle mass during the course of the life-cycle. A considerable public health benefit will result if sedentary individuals become regularly more physically active.

  2. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  3. 42 CFR 423.464 - Coordination of benefits with other providers of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prescription drug coverage. 423.464 Section 423.464 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Coordination of Part D Plans With Other Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.464 Coordination...

  4. 42 CFR 410.30 - Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive... Other Health Services § 410.30 Prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy. (a) Scope. Payment may be made for prescription drugs used in immunosuppressive therapy that have been approved...

  5. Teens and Prescription Drugs: An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report synthesizes a number of national studies that show the intentional abuse of prescription drugs to get high is a growing concern, particularly among teens. The analysis shows that teens are turning away from street drugs and using prescription drugs to get high. New users of prescription drugs have caught up with new users of marijuana.…

  6. A Primer on Prescription Drug Abuse and the Role of the Pharmacy Director.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Andre; Weber, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    Prescription drug abuse, or using a prescription drug in a way not intended by the provider, has become such an issue in the United States that in 2013 the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified it as a new epidemic. The goal of this article is to provide pharmacy directors with a primer on prescription drug abuse and its prevention. This article will cover the causes and societal impact of prescription drug abuse, review recent and proposed strategies to prevent prescription drug abuse, and discuss efforts within the health system to reduce the risks of narcotic diversion that can lead to prescription drug abuse. There are several health and societal factors that have contributed to the rise in prescription drug abuse. As there is no singular contributory factor to this epidemic, there is no easy solution for proper containment and monitoring of prescription drug use. Pharmacy directors play a vital role in the safe use of prescription medications by providing for fail-safe systems for accounting and controlling prescription drugs. In addition, pharmacists can play a role in educating patients and health care workers on the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Health systems should form teams to identify drug diversion and provide an intervention that demands accountability while helping the impaired professional. Health system pharmacy directors must play an integral role in these efforts and continue to seek opportunities to reduce any risks for prescription drug abuse. PMID:26405329

  7. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  8. 50 CFR 221.20 - What supporting information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide with its preliminary prescriptions? 221.20 Section 221.20 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... information must NMFS provide with its preliminary prescriptions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When NMFS.... (b) Service. NMFS will serve a copy of its preliminary prescription on each license party....

  9. Linking Annual Prescription Volume of Antidepressants to Corresponding Web Search Query Data: A Possible Proxy for Medical Prescription Behavior?

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Uzelac, Zeljko; Zeiss, René; Connemann, Bernhard J; Lang, Dirk; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Persons using the Internet to retrieve medical information generate large amounts of health-related data, which are increasingly used in modern health sciences. We analyzed the relation between annual prescription volumes (APVs) of several antidepressants with marketing approval in Germany and corresponding web search query data generated in Google to test whether web search query volume may be a proxy for medical prescription practice. We obtained APVs of several antidepressants related to corresponding prescriptions at the expense of the statutory health insurance in Germany from 2004 to 2013. Web search query data generated in Germany and related to defined search terms (active substance or brand name) were obtained with Google Trends. We calculated correlations (Person's r) between the APVs of each substance and the respective annual "search share" values; coefficients of determination (R) were computed to determine the amount of variability shared by the 2 variables. Significant and strong correlations between substance-specific APVs and corresponding annual query volumes were found for each substance during the observational interval: agomelatine (r = 0.968, R = 0.932, P = 0.01), bupropion (r = 0.962, R = 0.925, P = 0.01), citalopram (r = 0.970, R = 0.941, P = 0.01), escitalopram (r = 0.824, R = 0.682, P = 0.01), fluoxetine (r = 0.885, R = 0.783, P = 0.01), paroxetine (r = 0.801, R = 0.641, P = 0.01), and sertraline (r = 0.880, R = 0.689, P = 0.01). Although the used data did not allow to perform an analysis with a higher temporal resolution (quarters, months), our results suggest that web search query volume may be a proxy for corresponding prescription behavior. However, further studies analyzing other pharmacologic agents and prescription data that facilitate an increased temporal resolution are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Linking Annual Prescription Volume of Antidepressants to Corresponding Web Search Query Data: A Possible Proxy for Medical Prescription Behavior?

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Uzelac, Zeljko; Zeiss, René; Connemann, Bernhard J; Lang, Dirk; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Persons using the Internet to retrieve medical information generate large amounts of health-related data, which are increasingly used in modern health sciences. We analyzed the relation between annual prescription volumes (APVs) of several antidepressants with marketing approval in Germany and corresponding web search query data generated in Google to test whether web search query volume may be a proxy for medical prescription practice. We obtained APVs of several antidepressants related to corresponding prescriptions at the expense of the statutory health insurance in Germany from 2004 to 2013. Web search query data generated in Germany and related to defined search terms (active substance or brand name) were obtained with Google Trends. We calculated correlations (Person's r) between the APVs of each substance and the respective annual "search share" values; coefficients of determination (R) were computed to determine the amount of variability shared by the 2 variables. Significant and strong correlations between substance-specific APVs and corresponding annual query volumes were found for each substance during the observational interval: agomelatine (r = 0.968, R = 0.932, P = 0.01), bupropion (r = 0.962, R = 0.925, P = 0.01), citalopram (r = 0.970, R = 0.941, P = 0.01), escitalopram (r = 0.824, R = 0.682, P = 0.01), fluoxetine (r = 0.885, R = 0.783, P = 0.01), paroxetine (r = 0.801, R = 0.641, P = 0.01), and sertraline (r = 0.880, R = 0.689, P = 0.01). Although the used data did not allow to perform an analysis with a higher temporal resolution (quarters, months), our results suggest that web search query volume may be a proxy for corresponding prescription behavior. However, further studies analyzing other pharmacologic agents and prescription data that facilitate an increased temporal resolution are needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26355849

  11. Evaluation of Hand Written and Computerized Out-Patient Prescriptions in Urban Part of Central Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Jatin; Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prescription order is an important therapeutic transaction between physician and patient. A good quality prescription is an extremely important factor for minimizing errors in dispensing medication and it should be adherent to guidelines for prescription writing for benefit of the patient. Aim To evaluate frequency and type of prescription errors in outpatient prescriptions and find whether prescription writing abides with WHO standards of prescription writing. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Anand city. Allopathic private practitioners practising at Anand city of different specialities were included in study. Collection of prescriptions was started a month after the consent to minimize bias in prescription writing. The prescriptions were collected from local pharmacy stores of Anand city over a period of six months. Prescriptions were analysed for errors in standard information, according to WHO guide to good prescribing. Statistical Analysis Descriptive analysis was performed to estimate frequency of errors, data were expressed as numbers and percentage. Results Total 749 (549 handwritten and 200 computerised) prescriptions were collected. Abundant omission errors were identified in handwritten prescriptions e.g., OPD number was mentioned in 6.19%, patient’s age was mentioned in 25.50%, gender in 17.30%, address in 9.29% and weight of patient mentioned in 11.29%, while in drug items only 2.97% drugs were prescribed by generic name. Route and Dosage form was mentioned in 77.35%-78.15%, dose mentioned in 47.25%, unit in 13.91%, regimens were mentioned in 72.93% while signa (direction for drug use) in 62.35%. Total 4384 errors out of 549 handwritten prescriptions and 501 errors out of 200 computerized prescriptions were found in clinicians and patient details. While in drug item details, total number of errors identified were 5015 and 621 in handwritten and computerized prescriptions respectively

  12. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  13. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  14. Prescription of Opioids for Opioid-Naive Medical Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Lail, Sharan; Sequeira, Kelly; Lieu, Jenny; Dhalla, Irfan A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Harms associated with prescription opioids are a major and increasing public health concern. Prescribing of opioids for inpatients may contribute to the problem, especially if primary care practitioners continue opioid therapy that is initiated in hospital. Objectives: To describe the extent and nature of opioid prescribing for opioid-naive patients (i.e., no use of opioids within 2 weeks before admission) on an internal medicine unit. Methods: This single-centre study involved chart review for opioid-naive patients admitted to the internal medicine unit of a large academic health sciences centre in Toronto, Ontario. Over 12 weeks, patients were prospectively identified for the study, and charts were later reviewed to characterize opioid use during the hospital stay and upon discharge. The primary outcomes were the proportions of opioid-naive patients for whom opioids were prescribed in hospital and upon discharge. Data on serious adverse events related to opioid use (e.g., need for naloxone or occurrence of falls) were also collected through chart review. Results: From July 4 to September 22, 2011, a total of 721 patients were admitted to the study unit, of whom 381 (53%) were classified as opioid-naive. Opioids were prescribed for 82 (22%) of these opioid-naive patients while they were in hospital. Among the opioid-naive patients, there were a total of 247 opioid prescriptions, with hydromorphone (110 prescriptions) and morphine (92 prescriptions) being the drugs most commonly prescribed. For 23 (28%) of the patients with a prescription for opioids in hospital (6% of all opioid-naive patients), an opioid was also prescribed upon discharge. The indication for opioids was documented in 16 (70%) of the 23 discharge prescriptions. No adverse events or deaths related to opioid use were identified during the hospital stays. Conclusions: Among opioid-naive patients admitted to the internal medicine unit, opioids were prescribed for about 1 in 5 patients, and

  15. [Analysis on traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions treating cancer based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system and discovery of new prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Cao, Qi-chen; Su, Yu-xi; Sui, Xin; Yang, Hong-jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Wen-ping

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumor is one of the main causes for death in the world at present as well as a major disease seriously harming human health and life and restricting the social and economic development. There are many kinds of reports about traditional Chinese medicine patent prescriptions, empirical prescriptions and self-made prescriptions treating cancer, and prescription rules were often analyzed based on medication frequency. Such methods were applicable for discovering dominant experience but hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge. In this paper, based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, the software integration of mutual information improvement method, complex system entropy clustering and unsupervised entropy-level clustering data mining methods was adopted to analyze the rules of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for cancer. Totally 114 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and 85 core combinations and 13 new prescriptions were indentified. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting tool, can be used to record, manage, inquire and analyze prescription data.

  16. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  17. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    PubMed

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  18. Prescription Data Processing—Its Role in the Control of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Maronde, Robert F.; Seibert, Stanley; Katzoff, Jack; Silverman, Milton

    1972-01-01

    Prescriptions in an outpatient setting were kept on file for immediate recall by computer terminals. Drugs with abuse potential were found to make up 33.6 percent of all prescriptions, and 12.4 percent of these prescriptions were for excessive quantities. An additional 2.6 percent of these prescriptions represented irrationally large quantities of drugs dispensed by multiple prescriptions. The physician was cooperative and willing to correct this situation when it was brought to his attention by the pharmacist. PMID:5070695

  19. Morne aux Diables. a potentially active volcano in northern Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheubottom, A. N.; Smith, A. L.; Roobol, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    The island of Dominica, which is located near the center of the Lesser Antilles island arc, comprises at least 8 potentially active volcanoes. One of these is Morne aux Diables, an isolated composite cone situated at the extreme northern end of the island. Age dating suggests that the main cone building activity occurred between 1.5 and 1.0 million years ago. Exposed on the volcano's flanks however are a number of unconsolidated valley-fill block and ash flow deposits suggesting more recent activity. One of these deposits, on the north-east flank of the volcano, has been recently dated at > 46,000 years B.P. Other evidence of potential activity from this center includes the presence of warm (27°C), acidic (pH 1.6), sulfate-rich springs on the summit of the volcano, hot springs on the coast, and the occurrence in 2002 and 2003 of shallow earthquake swarms partially located beneath the volcano. Morne aux Diables is dominantly composed of deposits of block and ash flows and associated domes from Pelean-style activity, however, semi-vesicular andesite block and ash flows and surges (Asama-style activity) and pumiceous lapilli falls (Plinian-style activity) are locally abundant. The Pelean domes are located both in the summit region and along the southern flanks of the volcano. Petrologically, the volcano is composed of a monotonous series of porphyritic andesites and dacites containing phenocrysts of plagioclase+augite-hypersthene with very sparse crystals of hornblende and quartz. Petrological models suggest the Morne aux Diables andesites and dacites can be produced by fractional crystallization of basaltic magma (such as those erupted from centers such as Morne Anglais and Morne Plat Pays in the south). Minor variations within this suite of andesites and dacites can be related to upper crustal fractionation of phenocryst phases.

  20. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  1. Proton pump inhibitor prescription abuse and sepsis in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Antonio; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent one of the most extensively prescribed classes of drugs in general and in patients with liver cirrhosis. Many prescriptions are made without a clear adherence to standard indications. As a class of ordinarily well tolerated drug, PPIs are not free of side-effects and concerns have been raised about a possible role for PPIs in predisposing patients to an increased risk of bacterial infections and sepsis. As evidences of different power are accumulating on this topic, prospective studies are needed to reach a more universal agreement, but definitely more attention is needed by prescribers in being more adherent to the few recognized indications for the use of PPIs, particularly in patients with liver cirrhosis. Otherwise, doctors could run the risk of being accused of “abused” prescription. PMID:26855807

  2. Antidepressant prescription and suicide rates: effect of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J John

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in both genders. The strongest association was found in the oldest age groups, where the increase in antidepressant use was highest, while there was no association in the under 20 or 50-69 age groups in either gender. Antidepressant prescription rate was related to suicide rate after controlling for divorce rate or unemployment rate, but not after controlling for alcohol consumption rate.

  3. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Anthropologists of medicine and science are increasingly studying all aspects of pharmaceutical industry practices--from research and development to the marketing of prescription drugs. This article ethnographically explores one particular stage in the life cycle of pharmaceuticals: sales and marketing. Drawing on a range of sources-investigative journalism, medical ethics, and autoethnography--the author examines the day-to-day activities of pharmaceutical salespersons, or drug reps, during the 1990s. He describes in detail the pharmaceutical gift cycle, a three-way exchange network between doctors, salespersons, and patients and how this process of exchange is currently in a state of involution. This gift economy exists to generate prescriptions (scripts) and can mask and/or perpetuate risks and side effects for patients. With implications of pharmaceutical industry practices impacting everything from the personal-psychological to the global political economy, medical anthropologists can play a lead role in the emerging scholarly discourse concerned with critical pharmaceutical studies.

  4. Changing roles for psychiatric clinical nurse specialists: prescriptive privileges.

    PubMed

    Rufli, G M

    1996-01-01

    Interest was expressed at the mental health center in expanding the role of psychiatric clinical nurse specialists to include prescribing medications. There is a definite need for this expanded prescriptive role. The goals of improving patient access to care, offering quality service and cost effectiveness can be met by the psychiatric clinical nurse specialist certified by ANA. The functions of a CNS in a collaborative role with psychiatrists would involve promotion and health maintenance, evaluation, intake screening, health teaching, community action, and advanced psychobiological interventions including the prescribing of pharmacological agents. The ARNP, CS could alleviate the case load for pharmacological evaluation for the psychiatrists and enhance access to pharmacological management. The change in the Kentucky law giving prescriptive privileges to ARNPs makes this role feasible. PMID:9416059

  5. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  6. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  7. The Common Prescription Patterns Based on the Hierarchical Clustering of Herb-Pairs Efficacies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Prescription patterns are rules or regularities used to generate, recognize, or judge a prescription. Most of existing studies focused on the specific prescription patterns for diverse diseases or syndromes, while little attention was paid to the common patterns, which reflect the global view of the regularities of prescriptions. In this paper, we designed a method CPPM to find the common prescription patterns. The CPPM is based on the hierarchical clustering of herb-pair efficacies (HPEs). Firstly, HPEs were hierarchically clustered; secondly, the individual herbs are labeled by the HPEC (the clusters of HPEs); and then the prescription patterns were extracted from the combinations of HPEC; finally the common patterns are recognized statistically. The results showed that HPEs have hierarchical clustering structure. When the clustering level is 2 and the HPEs were classified into two clusters, the common prescription patterns are obvious. Among 332 candidate prescriptions, 319 prescriptions follow the common patterns. The description of the patterns is that if a prescription contains the herbs of the cluster (C 1), it is very likely to have other herbs of another cluster (C 2); while a prescription has the herbs of C 2, it may have no herbs of C 1. Finally, we discussed that the common patterns are mathematically coincident with the Blood-Qi theory.

  8. No End in Sight: The Abuse of Prescription Narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting-and dangerous.

  9. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    PubMed Central

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A. J.; Tayem, Yasin I.; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship. PMID:27226912

  10. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Williams, J R; Hensel, P J

    1995-01-01

    Starting consumers off on the "path to purchase" by encouraging them to seek more information is a major goal of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for prescription medications. But the authors found that a consumer's attitude toward DTC advertising can determine which of several paths he or she is likely to take. The attitudes of older adults are especially significant for pharmaceutical marketers because these consumers are heavy users of the drugs being advertised.

  11. Medical cost offsets from prescription drug utilization among Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, M Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This brief commentary extends earlier work on the value of adherence to derive medical cost offset estimates from prescription drug utilization. Among seniors with chronic vascular disease, 1% increases in condition-specific medication use were associated with significant (P  less than  0.001) reductions in gross nonpharmacy medical costs in the amounts of 0.63% for dyslipidemia, 0.77% for congestive heart failure, 0.83% for diabetes, and 1.17% for hypertension. PMID:25278321

  12. Prescription dose in permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Ning; Heron, Dwight E.; Komanduri, Krishna; Huq, M. Saiful

    2005-08-15

    Recently, {sup 131}Cs seeds have been introduced for prostate permanent seed implants. This type of seed has a relatively short half-life of 9.7 days and has its most prominent emitted photon energy peaks in the 29-34 keV region. Traditionally, 145 and 125 Gy have been prescribed for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed prostate implants, respectively. Since both the half-life and dosimetry characteristics of {sup 131}Cs seed are quite different from those of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the appropriate prescription dose for {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implant may well be different. This study was designed to use a linear quadratic radiobiological model to determine an appropriate dose prescription scheme for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants. In this model, prostate edema was taken into consideration. Calculations were also performed for tumors of different doubling times and for other related radiobiological parameters of different values. As expected, the derived prescription dose values were dependent on type of tumors and types of edema. However, for prostate cancers in which tumor cells are relatively slow growing and are reported to have a mean potential doubling time of around 40 days, the appropriate prescription dose for permanent {sup 131}Cs seed prostate implants was determined to be: 127{sub -12}{sup +5}Gy if the experiences of {sup 125}I seed implants were followed and 121{sub -3}{sup +0}Gy if the experiences of {sup 103}Pd seed implants were followed.

  13. Prescription co-pay reduction program for diabetic employees.

    PubMed

    Nair, Kavita V; Miller, Kerri; Park, Jinhee; Allen, Richard R; Saseen, Joseph J; Biddle, Vinita

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of reducing the prescription co-pay for diabetes medications on pharmacy utilization, medication adherence, medical utilization, and expenditures. The co-pay reduction involved placing all diabetic drugs and testing supplies on the lowest co-pay tier for one employer group. The sample comprised members with diabetes who were both continuously enrolled in the 12-month pre period and the 2 years following co-pay reduction. Measured outcomes included diabetic prescription utilization, medication adherence, medical utilization, and expenditures. Generalized estimating equations for repeated measures were used to estimate differences between the pre period and years 1 and 2, while adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidity risk. Diabetic prescription utilization and medication adherence increased by approximately 3.0% in year 1 and dropped in year 2. The increases were primarily in brand name diabetes medications, which increased by approximately 5%, while generic use decreased in both years. Decreases in emergency room visits and hospitalizations were also observed in both years, followed by a decrease in health care expenditures in year 2. Adherent members experienced greater decreases in emergency room visits following the co-pay reduction compared to nonadherent members. After the implementation of a co-pay reduction, a modest increase in adherence and use of diabetes medications was observed. There were some compensatory cost savings for the employer from lower medical expenditures in year 1. In addition to financial strategies, additional strategies to reinforce medication adherence are needed to gain and sustain more meaningful increases in prescription utilization. PMID:20879904

  14. Low Literacy Impairs Comprehension of Prescription Drug Warning Labels

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C; Wolf, Michael S; Bass, Pat F; Middlebrooks, Mark; Kennen, Estela; Baker, David W; Bennett, Charles L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bocchini, Anna; Savory, Stephanie; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse events resulting from medication error are a serious concern. Patients' literacy and their ability to understand medication information are increasingly seen as a safety issue. OBJECTIVE To examine whether adult patients receiving primary care services at a public hospital clinic were able to correctly interpret commonly used prescription medication warning labels. DESIGN In-person structured interviews with literacy assessment. SETTING Public hospital, primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS A total of 251 adult patients waiting for an appointment at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport (LSUHSC-S) Primary Care Clinic. MEASUREMENTS Correct interpretation, as determined by expert panel review of patients' verbatim responses, for each of 8 commonly used prescription medication warning labels. RESULTS Approximately one-third of patients (n=74) were reading at or below the 6th-grade level (low literacy). Patient comprehension of warning labels was associated with one's literacy level. Multistep instructions proved difficult for patients across all literacy levels. After controlling for relevant potential confounding variables, patients with low literacy were 3.4 times less likely to interpret prescription medication warning labels correctly (95% confidence interval: 2.3 to 4.9). CONCLUSIONS Patients with low literacy had difficulty understanding prescription medication warning labels. Patients of all literacy levels had better understanding of warning labels that contained single-step versus multiple-step instructions. Warning labels should be developed with consumer participation, especially with lower literate populations, to ensure comprehension of short, concise messages created with familiar words and recognizable icons. PMID:16881945

  15. Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos G; Vandoros, Sotiris

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the prices of branded prescription medicines across different regulatory settings and health care systems, taking into account their launch date, patent status, market dynamics and the regulatory context in which they diffuse. By using volume-weighted price indices, this paper analyzes price levels for a basket of prescription medicines and their differences in 15 OECD countries, including the United States and key European countries, the impact of distribution margins and generic entry on public prices and to what extent innovation, by means of introducing newer classes of medicines, contributes to price formation across countries. In doing so, the paper seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the existing differences in prices across countries, whether at an ex-factory or a retail level. The evidence shows that retail prices for branded prescription medicines in the United States are higher than those in key European and other OECD countries, but not as high as widely thought. Large differences in prices are mainly observed at an ex-factory level, but these are not the prices that consumers and payers pay. Cross-country differences in retail prices are actually not as high as expected and, when controlling for exchange rates, these differences can be even smaller. Product age has a significant effect on prices in all settings after having controlled for other factors. Price convergence is observed across countries for newer prescription medicines compared with older medicines. There is no evidence that originator brand prices fall after generic entry in the United States, a phenomenon known as the 'generics paradox'. Finally, distribution and taxes are important determinants of retail prices in several of the study countries. To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time.

  16. Overview of prescription omega-3 fatty acid products for hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Howard S

    2014-11-01

    Patients with elevated triglycerides (TG) may be at a higher risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs), particularly the long-chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), effectively reduce TG and thus may impact CV outcomes; however, clinical data have been inconsistent. This review discusses the efficacy, safety, and key considerations of currently approved prescription OM3FA products in patients with elevated TG with or without concomitant elevations in other atherogenic parameters. Currently, 6 prescription OM3FA formulations are approved in the United States: omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza, Omtryg, and 2 generic formulations), omega-3-carboxylic acids (Epanova), which contain both EPA and DHA, and icosapent ethyl (Vascepa), which is an EPA-only formulation. All prescription OM3FA products effectively lower TG, with the magnitude of TG reduction affected by baseline TG level. Products that contain DHA can raise levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is of particular concern in patients with atherosclerosis; Vascepa, however, does not raise these levels and therefore provides these patients with another option. Long-term outcomes trials for Vascepa (ongoing) and Epanova (planned) will help clarify the potential CV benefits in patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia despite statin therapy.

  17. State prescription drug price Web sites: how useful to consumers?

    PubMed

    Tu, Ha T; Corey, Catherine G

    2008-02-01

    To aid consumers in comparing prescription drug costs, many states have launched Web sites to publish drug prices offered by local retail pharmacies. The current push to make retail pharmacy prices accessible to consumers is part of a much broader movement to increase price transparency throughout the health-care sector. Efforts to encourage price-based shopping for hospital and physician services have encountered widespread concerns, both on grounds that prices for complex services are difficult to measure and compare accurately and that quality varies substantially across providers. Experts agree, however, that prescription drugs are much easier to shop for than other, more complex health services. However, extensive gaps in available price information--the result of relying on Medicaid data--seriously hamper the effectiveness of state drug price-comparison Web sites, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). An alternative approach--requiring pharmacies to submit price lists to the states--would improve the usefulness of price information, but pharmacies typically oppose such a mandate. Another limitation of most state Web sites is that price information is restricted to local pharmacies, when online pharmacies, both U.S. and foreign, often sell prescription drugs at substantially lower prices. To further enhance consumer shopping tools, states might consider expanding the types of information provided, including online pharmacy comparison tools, lists of deeply discounted generic drugs offered by discount retailers, and lists of local pharmacies offering price matches. PMID:18494180

  18. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category. PMID:27592833

  19. Computer-aided auditing of prescription drug claims.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Vijay S; Hermiz, Keith B; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2014-09-01

    We describe a methodology for identifying and ranking candidate audit targets from a database of prescription drug claims. The relevant audit targets may include various entities such as prescribers, patients and pharmacies, who exhibit certain statistical behavior indicative of potential fraud and abuse over the prescription claims during a specified period of interest. Our overall approach is consistent with related work in statistical methods for detection of fraud and abuse, but has a relative emphasis on three specific aspects: first, based on the assessment of domain experts, certain focus areas are selected and data elements pertinent to the audit analysis in each focus area are identified; second, specialized statistical models are developed to characterize the normalized baseline behavior in each focus area; and third, statistical hypothesis testing is used to identify entities that diverge significantly from their expected behavior according to the relevant baseline model. The application of this overall methodology to a prescription claims database from a large health plan is considered in detail.

  20. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  1. Precise AuxPt1‑x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1‑x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1‑x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1‑x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  2. Use of Prescription and Non-Prescription Medications and Supplements by Cancer Patients during Chemotherapy; Questionnaire Validation

    PubMed Central

    Hanigan, Marie H.; Cruz, Brian L. dela; Thompson, David M.; Farmer, Kevin C.; Medina, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cancer patients take medications for coexisting disease and self medicate with over-the-counter drugs (OTCs). A complete analysis of the use of prescription drugs, OTCs and supplements during cancer treatment has never been done. Methods The study developed and validated a self-administered questionnaire on the use of concomitant medications by patients undergoing treatment with chemotherapy. The questionnaire listed 510 prescription medications, OTCs, and supplements (including vitamins, minerals and herbs). Fifty-two subjects completed the questionnaire while visiting the infusion clinic to receive chemotherapy. On a subsequent visit the subjects brought their medications to the clinic and a pharmacist reviewed their completed questionnaire. Results Ninety-six percent of the subjects reported taking prescription medications within three days prior to chemotherapy, 71% reported taking OTCs and 69% reported use of supplements. The subjects took an average of 5.5 (range 0-13) prescription drugs, 2.2 (0-20) OTCs and 1.9 (0-11) supplements. Twenty-one drugs were each taken by at least 10% of the subjects. Acetaminophen was taken by 59.6% of the subjects. One subject reported taking five acetaminophen-containing drugs. The questionnaire’s sensitivity was 92.0%, specificity 99.9%. Conclusion Within 3 days prior to chemotherapy, subjects took an average of 9.6 concomitant medications, many of which alter drug metabolism and or disposition. In clinical trials, multivariate analysis of all concomitant medications could add to clinically relevant data to identify drug interactions that negate or potentiate the efficacy of cancer treatment regimens. In some instances, apparent resistance of tumors to chemotherapy may be the result of drug interactions. PMID:18719067

  3. Meyer Children's Rehabilitation Institute Teaching Program for Young Children. [Prescriptive Teaching Program for Multiply Handicapped Nursery School Children].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Edward; And Others

    The prescriptive teaching program for multiply handicapped nursery school children is presented in three manuals: prescriptive teaching, integration of prescriptions into classroom activities; and equipment and materials. Given in the prescriptive teaching manual are directions for assessing a child's strengths and weaknesses in functioning on a…

  4. 21 CFR 200.200 - Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and... Prescription Drug Consumer Price Listing § 200.200 Prescription drugs; reminder advertisements and reminder labeling to provide price information to consumers. (a) Prescription drug reminder advertisements...

  5. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Gan, Defang; Zhuang, Dan; Ding, Fei; Yu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01-CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.

  6. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ∼11 min (ZmIAA2) to ∼120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  7. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  8. Longitudinal trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medication among middle and high school students

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription medications has been identified as a major public health problem among youth, although few longitudinal studies have examined non-medical use of prescription medications in the context of other drug use. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown gender and race differences in non-medical use of prescription medications. It was hypothesized that (1) non-medical use of prescription medications increases with age, and (2) these increases will be stronger in magnitude among female and Caucasian adolescents. Changes in non-medical use of prescription medications across 4 years were examined and compared with changes in other drug use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana). Middle and high school students enrolled in 5 schools in southeastern Michigan completed web-based surveys at 4 annual time points. The cumulative sample size was 5,217. The sample ranged from 12 to 18 years, 61% were Caucasian, 34% were African American, and 50% were female. Using a series of repeated measures latent class analyses, the trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medications were examined, demonstrating a 2-class solution: (1) the no/low non-medical use of prescription medications group had low probabilities of any non-medical use of prescription medications across all grades, and (2) the any non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a roughly linear increase in the probability of non-medical use of prescription medications over time. The probability of any non-medical use of prescription medications increased during the transition from middle school to high school. Results from this longitudinal study yielded several noteworthy findings: Participants who were classified in the any/high non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a discontinuous pattern of non-medical use of prescription medications over time, indicating that non-medical use of prescription medications is a relatively sporadic behavior that does not persist

  9. [The Pharmacist as Gatekeeper of Prescription Drug Abuse: Return to "Community Scientists"].

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya

    2016-01-01

      The non-medical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including benzodiazepines, is a growing health problem in Japan. An association between prescription drug overdose and suicide risk has also been reported. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has expected pharmacists to act as "gatekeepers", facilitating early identification of individuals at high risk of prescription drug abuse including overdose, supplying medication counseling to patients, and helping to introduce these patients to appropriate medical care. Prescription drugs such as benzodiazepines are widely used in psychiatry. However, these drugs are prescribed not only by psychiatrists but also by other healthcare professionals including primary care physicians. Moreover, in recent years, the dispensing of prescriptions has moved rapidly from inside to outside hospitals, with prescription drugs being dispensed mainly at community pharmacies. Although all healthcare professionals including hospital pharmacists can play a role in preventing prescription drug abuse, the role of the community pharmacist is vital in addressing this problem. Formerly, community pharmacists were recognized as "community scientists", low-threshold accessible healthcare advisors. Now, community pharmacists should return to the role of community scientists to prevent prescription drug abuse. This article begins by reviewing the current situation of prescription drug abuse and dependence in Japan. The role of pharmacists as gatekeepers in preventing prescription drug abuse is then examined. Finally, this article discusses the effect of intervention in the form of gatekeeper training for community pharmacists.

  10. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  11. Improving Patient Understanding of Prescription Drug Label Instructions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Federman, Alex D.; Bass, Pat F.; Jackson, Robert H.; Middlebrooks, Mark; Parker, Ruth M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Patient misunderstanding of instructions on prescription drug labels is common and a likely cause of medication error and less effective treatment. Objective To test whether the use of more explicit language to describe dose and frequency of use for prescribed drugs could improve comprehension, especially among patients with limited literacy. Design Cross-sectional study using in-person, structured interviews. Patients Three hundred and fifty-nine adults waiting for an appointment in two hospital-based primary care clinics and one federally qualified health center in Shreveport, Louisiana; Chicago, Illinois; and New York, New York, respectively. Measurement Correct understanding of each of ten label instructions as determined by a blinded panel review of patients’ verbatim responses. Results Patient understanding of prescription label instructions ranged from 53% for the least understood to 89% for the most commonly understood label. Patients were significantly more likely to understand instructions with explicit times periods (i.e., morning) or precise times of day compared to instructions stating times per day (i.e., twice) or hourly intervals (89%, 77%, 61%, and 53%, respectively,  < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, dosage instructions with specific times or time periods were significantly more likely to be understood compared to instructions stating times per day (time periods — adjusted relative risk ratio (ARR) 0.42, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.34–0.52; specific times — ARR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49–0.74). Low and marginal literacy remained statistically significant independent predictors of misinterpreting instructions (low - ARR 2.70, 95% CI 1.81–4.03; marginal -ARR 1.66, 95% CI 1.18–2.32). Conclusions Use of precise wording on prescription drug label instructions can improve patient comprehension. However, patients with limited literacy were more likely to misinterpret instructions despite use of more explicit language. PMID

  12. Prescriptive vs. performance based cook-off fire testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Erikson, William Wilding; Gill, Walter; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    In the fire safety community, the trend is toward implementing performance-based standards in place of existing prescriptive ones. Prescriptive standards can be difficult to adapt to changing design methods, materials, and application situations of systems that ultimately must perform well in unwanted fire situations. In general, this trend has produced positive results and is embraced by the fire protection community. The question arises as to whether this approach could be used to advantage in cook-off testing. Prescribed fuel fire cook-off tests have been instigated because of historical incidents that led to extensive damage to structures and loss of life. They are designed to evaluate the propensity for a violent response. The prescribed protocol has several advantages: it can be defined in terms of controllable parameters (wind speed, fuel type, pool size, etc.); and it may be conservative for a particular scenario. However, fires are inherently variable and prescribed tests are not necessarily representative of a particular accident scenario. Moreover, prescribed protocols are not necessarily adaptable and may not be conservative. We also consider performance-based testing. This requires more knowledge and thought regarding not only the fire environment, but the behavior of the munitions themselves. Sandia uses a performance based approach in assuring the safe behavior of systems of interest that contain energetic materials. Sandia also conducts prescriptive fire testing for the IAEA, NRC and the DOT. Here we comment on the strengths and weakness of both approaches and suggest a path forward should it be desirable to pursue a performance based cook-off standard.

  13. Prescription and practice of dialysis in Australia, 1988.

    PubMed

    Disney, A P

    1990-05-01

    Facilities for provision of treatment of end-stage renal failure with hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are available in many centers, most of which are government-funded. Medicare provides free treatment for all patients. There are no specific criteria for determining a patient's acceptance for dialysis treatment: age, quality of life, and capacity for independent living are important factors. The usual HD prescription is three dialysis periods weekly, hollow-fiber dialyzer, 1.0-1.2 m2 surface area, for 4 to 5 hours, with blood flow rate 250 mL/min and acetate-based dialysate flow rate 500 mL/min. Reuse of the dialyzer is common, but many units practice single use to reduce the expense and time necessary for processing the dialyzer and the risks of formalin exposure. There is only limited use of hemofiltration, or highly efficient dialyzers for shortened hours at higher blood flow rates. The choice of dialysis prescription is influenced by the physician's preference for the patient to be treated at home or in a self-care center with limited assistance. CAPD is preferred for home dialysis, especially for elderly or diabetic patients. There is no personal financial incentive to the physician to favor any particular form of dialysis. The costs of dialysis do influence the provision and prescription of treatment, causing the reuse of dialyzers and the limited use of bicarbonate-based HD and highly permeable dialyzers. Nevertheless, adequate dialysis should be available to all patients, and noncompliance with prescribed dialysis is infrequent. Quality-assurance programs have been developed both for nursing and medical care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Prescription for change: accessing medication in transitional Russia.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Francesca; Balabanova, Dina

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND Many Russians experienced difficulty in accessing prescription medication during the widespread health service disruption and rapid socio-economic transition of the 1990s. This paper examines trends and determinants of access in Russia during this period. METHODS Data were from nine rounds (1994-2004) of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a 38-centre household panel survey. Trends were measured in failing to access prescribed medication for the following reasons: unobtainable from a pharmacy, unable to afford and 'other' reasons. Determinants of unaffordability were studied in 1994, 1998 and 2004, using cross-sectional, age-adjusted logistic regression, with further multivariate analyses of unaffordability and failure to access for 'other' reasons in 2004. RESULTS After 1994, reporting of unavailability in pharmacies fell sharply from 25% to 4%. Meanwhile, unaffordability increased to 20% in 1998 but declined to 9% by 2004. In 1994, significant determinants of unaffordability were unemployment and lacking health care insurance in men. By 2004, determinants included low income and material goods in both sexes; rented accommodation and low education in men; and chronic disease and disability-related retirement in women. Not obtaining medicines for 'other' reasons was more likely amongst frequent male drinkers, and low educated or cohabiting women. Regional and gender differences were widest in 1998, coinciding with the Russian financial crisis. CONCLUSIONS Rapid improvements in drug availability in the late 1990s in Russia are a probable consequence of a more liberalized pharmaceutical sector and an improved pharmacy network, whilst later improvements in affordability may relate to expanded health care insurance coverage and economic recovery after the 1998 crash. A significant minority still finds prescription costs problematic, notably poorer and sick individuals, with inequalities apparently widening. Non-monetary determinants of affordability

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Antihypertensive Prescription at Emergency Department Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Aaron; Rahman, Tahsin; Reed, Brian; Millis, Scott; Ference, Brian; Flack, John M.; Levy, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor blood pressure (BP) control is a primary risk factor for target organ damage in the heart, brain, and kidney. Uncontrolled hypertension is common among emergency department (ED) patients, particularly in underresourced settings, but it is unclear what role ED providers should play in the management of chronic antihypertensive therapy. Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of prescribing antihypertensive therapy from the ED. Methods This was a retrospective study of data pooled from two prospective, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials, both of which enrolled ED patients with asymptomatic hypertension. Antihypertensives were prescribed at emergency physician discretion, and this was not related to randomization arm. Demographic data, BP at screening and randomization visit, and data on adverse effects potentially related to antihypertensive therapy were compiled. Means were compared using Student’s t-tests, and proportions were compared using chi-square tests. The effect of antihypertensive therapy on BP control was further analyzed using multivariable regression modeling controlling for age, race, sex, hypertension history, study cohort, and ED BP. Results Data were abstracted for 217 subjects. The median interval from ED visit to randomization was 12 days. Seventy-six subjects (35%) received one or more prescriptions for antihypertensive therapy. Age, sex, race, hypertension history, and mean duration of hypertension were equivalent between groups. Although mean ED BP was higher among those who received prescriptions, the mean systolic BP (sBP) reduction from ED to randomization was significantly greater (difference = 19 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval = 12 to 26 mm Hg). No patient in either group had an sBP less than 100 mm Hg at randomization. On multiple regression modeling, randomization sBP reduction was independently associated with antihypertensive prescription (p = 0.001). The incidence of adverse effects

  16. [Prescription of generic drugs to privately insured persons].

    PubMed

    Wild, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The system-related differences between private health insurance and statutory health insurance in Germany could lead to divergent prescriptions of medication. The study shows that doctors whose privately insured patients have been prescribed the same medication over a long period of time will frequently continue to prescribe the original medication even after its patent protection has expired. By contrast, patients in the statutory health insurance system will usually be switched to generic drugs. However, physicians prescribing medication to a privately insured person for the first time will frequently select generics in the first place. PMID:23236709

  17. Determination of the prescription dose for biradionuclide permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttens, V. E.; Lucas, S.

    2008-12-15

    A model based on the linear quadratic model that has been corrected for repopulation, sublethal cell damage repair, and RBE effect has been used to determine the prescription dose for prostate permanent brachytherapy using seeds loaded with a mixture of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I or a mixture of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 131}Cs. The prescription dose was determined by comparing the tumor cell survival fractions between the considered biradionuclide seed implant and one monoradionuclide seed implant chosen from {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs. Prostate edema is included in the model. The influence of the value of the radiobiological parameters and RBE were also investigated. Two mixtures of radionuclides were considered: {sup 103}Pd{sub 0.75}-{sup 125}I{sub 0.25} and {sup 103}Pd{sub 0.25}-{sup 131}Cs{sub 0.75}, where the subscripts indicate the fractions of total initial internal activity in the biradionuclide seed. These fractions were selected in order to obtain a dose distribution that lies between that of {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I/{sup 131}Cs. As expected, the computed prescription dose values are dependent on the model parameters (edema half-life and magnitude, radiobiogical parameters, and RBE). The radionuclide used as a benchmark also has a strong impact on the derived prescribed dose. The large uncertainties in the radiobiological parameters and RBE values produce big errors in the computed prescribed dose. Averaged over the range of all the parameters and depending on the radionuclide used as a benchmark (in subscript), the derived prescription dose for the first mixture (PdI) would be: D{sub Pd}{sup PdI}=142{sub -16}{sup +15} Gy and D{sub I}{sup PdI}=142{sub -8}{sup +6} Gy; and D{sub Pd}{sup PdCs}=128{sub -13}{sup +13} Gy and D{sub Cs}{sup PdCs}=115{sub -7}{sup +6} Gy for the PdCs mixture. The uncertainties could be reduced if the radiobiological parameters and RBE value were known more accurately. However, as edema characteristics are patient

  18. No End in Sight: The Abuse of Prescription Narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    From teenagers dying from heroin overdoses to crime tied to Vicodin and OxyContin addiction to road fatalities in which sedatives and muscle relaxants are involved, 20,000 deaths in the United States in 2014 were attributed to problems associated with narcotics and prescription drug use. Our author, whose research involves the neurobiological basis of drug addiction, traces the history and evolution of narcotics and leans on his clinical experience to discuss why certain drugs are powerful, addicting-and dangerous. PMID:27358666

  19. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Niels

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs. PMID:22899231

  20. Allopathic versus Homeopathic Strategies and the Recurrence of Prescriptions: Results from a Pharmacoeconomic Study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Basili, Andrea; Lagona, Francesco; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo; Basili, Corallina; Valeria Paterna, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This is a pharmaeconomic study to assess the impact of different, cost-specific pharmacological strategies on the recurrence rate of prescriptions in the treatment of cold symptoms. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study reporting individual prescriptions histories of subjects experiencing cold symptoms, obtained by a stratified random sample of 316 subjects, clustered into 139 Italian families, followed up for 40 months. Costs of homeopathic and allopathic treatments were recorded within each prescription. A Cox proportional hazards model with random effects was exploited to regress time elapsed between subsequent prescriptions over the relative difference between homeopathic- and allopathic-related costs, adjusting for age and gender and accounting for unobserved individual heterogeneity. Relative risks of event (prescription) re-occurrence have been estimated. The recurrence rate of prescriptions raise when allopathic strategies are preferred to homeopathic alternatives. No significant differences were observed between gender groups, while age was marginally significant. Inter-subjects heterogeneity was not significant.

  1. Analysis of prescription database extracted from standard textbooks of traditional Dai medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional Dai Medicine (TDM) is one of the four major ethnomedicine of China. In 2007 a group of experts produced a set of seven Dai medical textbooks on this subject. The first two were selected as the main data source to analyse well recognized prescriptions. Objective To quantify patterns of prescriptions, common ingredients, indications and usages of TDM. Methods A relational database linking the prescriptions, ingredients, herb names, indications, and usages was set up. Frequency of pattern of combination and common ingredients were tabulated. Results A total of 200 prescriptions and 402 herbs were compiled. Prescriptions based on "wind" disorders, a detoxification theory that most commonly deals with symptoms of digestive system diseases, accounted for over one third of all prescriptions. The major methods of preparations mostly used roots and whole herbs. Conclusion The information extracted from the relational database may be useful for understanding symptomatic treatments. Antidote and detoxification theory deserves further research. PMID:22931752

  2. A smart-card-enabled privacy preserving E-prescription system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjiang; Han, Xiaoxi; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert H

    2004-03-01

    Within the overall context of protection of health care information, privacy of prescription data needs special treatment. First, the involvement of diverse parties, especially nonmedical parties in the process of drug prescription complicates the protection of prescription data. Second, both patients and doctors have privacy stakes in prescription, and their privacy should be equally protected. Third, the following facts determine that prescription should not be processed in a truly anonymous manner: certain involved parties conduct useful research on the basis of aggregation of prescription data that are linkable with respect to either the patients or the doctors; prescription data has to be identifiable in some extreme circumstances, e.g., under the court order for inspection and assign liability. In this paper, we propose an e-prescription system to address issues pertaining to the privacy protection in the process of drug prescription. In our system, patients' smart cards play an important role. For one thing, the smart cards are implemented to be portable repositories carrying up-to-date personal medical records and insurance information, providing doctors instant data access crucial to the process of diagnosis and prescription. For the other, with the secret signing key being stored inside, the smart card enables the patient to sign electronically the prescription pad, declaring his acceptance of the prescription. To make the system more realistic, we identify the needs for a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people so as to protect the privacy of information housed on his card. A strong proxy signature scheme achieving technologically mutual agreements on the delegation is proposed to implement the delegation functionality.

  3. Inappropriateness of Medication Prescriptions to Elderly Patients in the Primary Care Setting: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Opondo, Dedan; Eslami, Saied; Visscher, Stefan; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Verheij, Robert; Korevaar, Joke C.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Background Inappropriate medication prescription is a common cause of preventable adverse drug events among elderly persons in the primary care setting. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to quantify the extent of inappropriate prescription to elderly persons in the primary care setting. Methods We systematically searched Ovid-Medline and Ovid-EMBASE from 1950 and 1980 respectively to March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened and selected primary studies published in English that measured (in)appropriate medication prescription among elderly persons (>65 years) in the primary care setting. We extracted data sources, instruments for assessing medication prescription appropriateness, and the rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions. We grouped the reported individual medications according to the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classification and compared the median rate of inappropriate medication prescription and its range within each therapeutic class. Results We included 19 studies, 14 of which used the Beers criteria as the instrument for assessing appropriateness of prescriptions. The median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions (IMP) was 20.5% [IQR 18.1 to 25.6%.]. Medications with largest median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions were propoxyphene 4.52(0.10–23.30)%, doxazosin 3.96 (0.32 15.70)%, diphenhydramine 3.30(0.02–4.40)% and amitriptiline 3.20 (0.05–20.5)% in a decreasing order of IMP rate. Available studies described unequal sets of medications and different measurement tools to estimate the overall prevalence of inappropriate prescription. Conclusions Approximately one in five prescriptions to elderly persons in primary care is inappropropriate despite the attention that has been directed to quality of prescription. Diphenhydramine and amitriptiline are the most common inappropriately prescribed medications with high risk adverse events while propoxyphene and doxazoxin are the most commonly

  4. Free vector propagator in the light-cone gauge and the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetto, A. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova )

    1992-10-15

    We show that the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt causal prescription in the light-cone gauge leads to a free vector propagator which is a tempered distribution, at variance with the Cauchy principal-value prescription and other ones related to it by residual gauge transformations, which unavoidably entail infrared singularities already at the free level of the theory. In this respect the causal prescription seems to enjoy a privileged status.

  5. [Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an Aux/IAA gene (RgIAA1) from Rehmannia glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Qing; Tian, Yun-He; Li, Ming-Jie; Yang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Bao; Lin, Wen-Xiong; Chen, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-12-01

    To clone and analyze a member of the Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family, RgIAA1, from Rehmannia glutinosa. The transcriptional EST database of R. glutinosa was used to clone the new Aux/IAA gene by cDNA probe of AtIAA14. Bioinformatics was applied to analyze the sequence characteristics of RgIAA1 protein and construct phylogenetiC trees. Quantitative RT-PCR has been applied to detect the transcription level of RgIAA1 in seven tissues as well as in leaves under three stresses. The results showed that, the cDNA sequence of RgIAA1 contains 903 bp was obtained. The open reading frame (ORF) of RgIAA1 was 681 bp encoding 226 amino acids, which has typical structural domains and characteristic sequence of Aux/IAA family proteins. RgIAA1 showed the highest expression level in unfolded leaf, followed by the stem. And the expression of RglAA1 was quickly decreased with leaf growing up. The transcription level increased under continuous cropping conditions while it reduced both in salinity and waterlogging stresses. RgIAA1, an Aux/IAA gene from R. glutinosa has been obtained for the first time, which can lay the foundation for further studies about its molecular function in development and responses to stress.

  6. The Effects of Bairesi Complex Prescription (a Uyghur Medicine Prescription) and Its Five Crude Herbal Extracts on Melanogenesis in G-361 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuedan; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Mansur, Arkin; Emet, Aynur; Nasir, Ezimet; Semet, Repket; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is considered a preimmune stage of a disease that is not well clarified. This condition is difficult to treat because there is no definite cure. Uyghur medicine is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. There are many types of prescriptions that are used for the treatment of vitiligo. Bairesi complex prescription is one of the active prescriptions for vitiligo that is used in the clinic. However, the intensities of melanogenesis due to uses of Bairesi complex prescription and its five constituent crude herbs have not been reported yet. In the present study, we found that the hot water extracts of Bairesi complex prescription and the crude herbs were more effective in eliciting melanin production in G-361 cells than the EtOH extracts. Furthermore, the Bairesi complex prescription exhibited less cytotoxicity and was more effective in melanin formation than the five crude herbal extracts. In the present study, we also discuss the mechanisms of melanogenesis due to the use of the Bairesi complex prescription and its single crude herbal extracts. PMID:27069495

  7. [Electronic prescription in Catalonia, Spain (Rec@t): a health tool].

    PubMed

    Gilabert-Perramon, Antoni; López-Calahorra, Pilar; Escoda-Geli, Núria; Salvadó-Trias, Clara

    2010-02-01

    Electronic prescription is new advance in the use of new technologies on health care. It is a tool that increases quality health care, patient's accessibility and safety in use of drugs and sustainability of the system. Electronic prescription is also a system of prescribing and dispensing in real time, improving coordination between health professionals. The electronic prescription model establishes that the patient comes to the health center where physician diagnostics, makes prescriptions of treatment and, if it is necessary, gives a medication plan to the patient. This medication plan contains currents treatments and a security code. Patients can go to any pharmacy he wants and have to present medication plan and health care card for drug delivery. The electronic prescription is being implemented gradually in Catalonia; Barcelona city is the last zone where Electronic prescription is being implemented. On November, more than 3.100 physicians, 2.450 pharmacies and 870.000 patients are using electronic prescriptions normally and without any remarkable incidences and more than 90.000 drugs are being dispensed every day. Implementation of electronic prescription project is a success in Catalonia, with a good reception from professionals and patients. The model of electronic prescription improves every day to be more useful to professionals and patients.

  8. Prescription Opioid Abuse and Diversion in an Urban Community: The Results of an Ultra- Rapid Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Beard, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion is a topic about which comparatively little is known, and systematic information garnered from prescription drug abusers and dealers on the specific mechanisms of diversion is extremely limited. Design A pilot ultra-rapid assessment was carried out in Wilmington, Delaware, during December 2006 to better understand the scope and dynamics of prescription drug abuse and diversion. This involved focus groups with prescription drug abusers, and key informant interviews with police, regulatory officials, prescription drug dealers, and pill brokers. Results The primary sources of prescription drugs on the street were the elderly, pain patients, and doctor shoppers, as well as pill brokers and dealers who work with all of the former. The popularity of prescription drugs in the street market was rooted in the abusers’ perceptions of these drugs as: 1) less stigmatizing; 2) less dangerous; and, 3) less subject to legal consequences than illicit drugs. For many, the abuse of prescription opioids also appeared to serve as a gateway to heroin use. Conclusion The diversion of prescription opioids might be reduced through physician education focusing on: 1) recognizing that a patient is misusing and/or diverting prescribed medications; 2) considering a patient’s risk for opioid misuse before initiating opioid therapy; and, 3) understanding the variation in the abuse potential of different opioid medications currently on the market. Patient education also appears appropriate in the areas of safeguarding medications, disposal of unused medications, and understanding the consequences of manipulating physicians and selling their medications. PMID:19416440

  9. Prescription errors in Brazilian hospitals: a multi-centre exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Oliveira, Regina Célia de; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Lyra Junior, Divaldo Pereira de; Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Fakih, Flávio Trevisan; Cassiani, Sílvia Helena De Bortoli

    2009-02-01

    In Brazil, millions of prescriptions do not follow the legal requirements necessary to guarantee the correct dispensing and administration of medication. This multi-centre exploratory study aimed to analyze the appropriateness of prescriptions at four Brazilian hospitals and to identify possible errors caused by inadequacies. The sample consisted of 864 prescriptions obtained at hospital medical clinics in January 2003. Data was collected by three nurse researchers during one week using a standard data sheet that included items about: the type of prescription; legibility; completeness; use of abbreviations; existence of changes and erasures. There were statistically significant differences between incomplete electronic prescriptions at hospital A, and handwritten ones from hospitals C (C2 = 12.703 and p < 0.001) and D (C2 = 14.074 and p < 0.001). Abbreviations were used in more than 80% of prescriptions at hospitals B, C and D. Changes were found in prescriptions at all hospitals, with higher levels at hospitals B (35.2%) and A (25.3%). This study identified a range of vulnerable points in the prescription phase of the medication system at the hospitals. Physicians, pharmacists and nurses should therefore jointly propose strategies to avoid these prescription errors. PMID:19219238

  10. Prescription errors in Brazilian hospitals: a multi-centre exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Oliveira, Regina Célia de; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Lyra Junior, Divaldo Pereira de; Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael Escobar; Fakih, Flávio Trevisan; Cassiani, Sílvia Helena De Bortoli

    2009-02-01

    In Brazil, millions of prescriptions do not follow the legal requirements necessary to guarantee the correct dispensing and administration of medication. This multi-centre exploratory study aimed to analyze the appropriateness of prescriptions at four Brazilian hospitals and to identify possible errors caused by inadequacies. The sample consisted of 864 prescriptions obtained at hospital medical clinics in January 2003. Data was collected by three nurse researchers during one week using a standard data sheet that included items about: the type of prescription; legibility; completeness; use of abbreviations; existence of changes and erasures. There were statistically significant differences between incomplete electronic prescriptions at hospital A, and handwritten ones from hospitals C (C2 = 12.703 and p < 0.001) and D (C2 = 14.074 and p < 0.001). Abbreviations were used in more than 80% of prescriptions at hospitals B, C and D. Changes were found in prescriptions at all hospitals, with higher levels at hospitals B (35.2%) and A (25.3%). This study identified a range of vulnerable points in the prescription phase of the medication system at the hospitals. Physicians, pharmacists and nurses should therefore jointly propose strategies to avoid these prescription errors.

  11. Do free or low-cost antibiotic promotions alter prescription filling habits?

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Jeremy; Wojcik, Susan M.; Fisher, Andrew; Grant, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Because free sample of prescription medications have been shown to influence prescribing habits of physicians, we sought to discern if promotional efforts of a retail pharmacy influenced prescriptions filled in our county after a free antibiotic program was initiated. Methods Retrospective analysis of prescription antibiotics filled throughout the county was performed. Prescriptions filled during the first 6 months of the year before the program was initiated were compared to prescriptions filled during the first 6 months of the year immediately following initiation of the promotion. Results A total of 436,372 antibiotic prescriptions were dispensed during that time. The number of antibiotics filled that were included in the promotion increased by 13.4% while the number of antibiotics filled that were excluded from the promotion decreased by 20.4%. Conclusion These data suggest that the promotional pricing of the antibiotics had a significant impact on the number of prescriptions filled in each category. Because a prescription written does not always equate to a prescription filled, further investigation is needed to confirm the relationship between these promotions and actual prescriber habits. PMID:25243028

  12. Widening Consumer Access to Medicines: A Comparison of Prescription to Non-Prescription Medicine Switch in Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gauld, Natalie J.; Kelly, Fiona S.; Emmerton, Lynne M.; Buetow, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in ‘switching’ (reclassifying) medicines from prescription to non-prescription. Objectives To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia. Methods We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000–2013). Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher’s knowledge and experience. Results The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ (‘third-party switch’), unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches. Conclusion Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch. PMID:25785589

  13. [Efficiency in the prescription of drugs. Impact of a health policy: automatic change to prescription by active ingredient].

    PubMed

    López de Landache, Isabel Elizondo; Braceras Izaguirre, Leire; Echeto García, Ainara; Gardeazabal Romillo, Maria José; Acevedo Heranz, Paloma

    2013-11-01

    In the Basque Country in June 2010 were changed in the electronic prescription system the treatments prescribed by a brand by active ingredients, all the patients who had prescribed these molecules: atorvastatin, clopidogrel, weekly risedronate and losartan-hydrochlorothiazide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of this change automated done in June 2010. Retrospective study of the prescriptions made in the Basque Country of the selected active ingredients. The use of generics of these molecules from May to December 2010 increased from 64 points to 87. Particularly clopidogrel increased from 6.25% in generic prescriptions to 93.76%, losartan + hydrochlorothiazide from 17.94% to 93.83%, 18.92% for atorvastatin acid and 96.03% risedronic 1.76% to 65.97%. If we make the estimation of the amount of active ingredient in generic containers that have been dispensed from June to December 2010. If they had dispensed brand drugs you get this quantity of total savings: 8 104 762.22 euros. This work suggests that a program to promote use of generics increased efficiency in the use of drugs. To promote the use of generic drugs is an efficiency measure implemented in the NHS and in the neighboring countries, in recent figures are reached 40% in securities of U.S.A packaging and around 65% in the Basque Country the consume in early 2010 was much lower than these figures stand at 20% and at the end of the year stood at 27% thanks to the measures taken. PMID:24404717

  14. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  15. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  16. IMRT treatment planning based on prioritizing prescription goals.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, Jan J; Alaly, James R; Zakarian, Konstantin; Thorstad, Wade L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2007-03-21

    Determining the 'best' optimization parameters in IMRT planning is typically a time-consuming trial-and-error process with no unambiguous termination point. Recently we and others proposed a goal-programming approach which better captures the desired prioritization of dosimetric goals. Here, individual prescription goals are addressed stepwise in their order of priority. In the first step, only the highest order goals are considered (target coverage and dose-limiting normal structures). In subsequent steps, the achievements of the previous steps are turned into hard constraints and lower priority goals are optimized, in turn, subject to higher priority constraints. So-called 'slip' factors were introduced to allow for slight, clinically acceptable violations of the constraints. Focusing on head and neck cases, we present several examples for this planning technique. The main advantages of the new optimization method are (i) its ability to generate plans that meet the clinical goals, as well as possible, without tuning any weighting factors or dose-volume constraints, and (ii) the ability to conveniently include more terms such as fluence map smoothness. Lower level goals can be optimized to the achievable limit without compromising higher order goals. The prioritized prescription-goal planning method allows for a more intuitive and human-time-efficient way of dealing with conflicting goals compared to the conventional trial-and-error method of varying weighting factors and dose-volume constraints.

  17. Prescription-filling process reengineering of an outpatient pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ying-Chyi; Chen, Been-Yuan; Tang, Ya-Yun; Qiu, Zheng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Fen; Wang, Shuw-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Shin; Chuang, Wen-Chi

    2012-04-01

    Shortening waiting times is the most obvious and effective method of increasing service quality. As the workforce is limited, it is necessary to reform current systems of medical care and improve the efficiency of medical care. After process reengineering was proposed in 1990s, however, this concept has not yet been commonly applied to medical centers. The subject of this study was an outpatient pharmacy in a medical center. This study applied the methods of a time study to measure field observations and as an analytic tool in process reengineering. The results show that the pharmacists were hindered in filling prescriptions for the following reasons: the preparation of certain prescription units, the menial sorting of medicines and also storage issues related to medicines. Improving the process will decrease time wasted by 10.41% and enhance service by 8.95%. The reengineering process resulted not only in a reduction in outpatients' waiting time but also enhanced the quality and competitiveness of the Hospital's medical treatment. PMID:20703644

  18. Are non-prescription medications needed for weight control?

    PubMed

    Bray, George A

    2008-03-01

    At any one time large numbers of people are attempting to control their weight. Women are the principal consumers of weight-control programs. Their options, outside the prescription drug market and surgical treatment, include diets and diet books, exercise alone or with supervision in exercise facilities, dietary supplements, group programs, doctors, dietitians, psychologists, and other health-care professionals. Non-prescription products available to help people control their weight cover a wide range, including herbal dietary supplements, diet drinks and portion-controlled foods, meal replacements, and low-carbohydrate diets and foods. The introduction of orlistat as an over-the-counter (OTC) product will provide the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved product for weight loss currently in that category since phenylpropanolamine (PPA) was withdrawn by the FDA. The FDA approval process is considerably more expensive than allowing untested herbal supplements to be marketed without testing, but the added safety evaluation by the FDA will reduce the risk of disastrous outcomes that have plagued many approaches to weight control. Support for a place for orlistat as an OTC product includes the inadequacy of current programs, empowerment of the public, lower cost, and bringing pharmacists into weight-control programs. The downside includes improper use of OTC orlistat that may not result in achieving individual expectations. PMID:18239604

  19. HOW CLINICIANS USE PRESCRIPTION DRUG MONITORING PROGRAMS: A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY

    PubMed Central

    Hildebran, Christi; Cohen, Deborah J.; Irvine, Jessica M.; Foley, Carol; O’Kane, Nicole; Beran, Todd; Deyo, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) are now active in most states to assist clinicians in identifying potential controlled drug misuse, diversion or excessive prescribing. Little is still known about the ways in which they are incorporated into workflow and clinical decision making, what barriers continue to exist, and how clinicians are sharing PDMP results with their patients. Design Qualitative data were collected through online focus groups and telephone interviews Setting Clinicians from pain management, emergency and family medicine, psychiatry/behavioral health, rehabilitation medicine, internal medicine and dentistry. Subjects 35 clinicians from 9 states participated. Methods We conducted two online focus groups and seven telephone interviews. A multidisciplinary team then used a grounded theory approach coupled with an immersion-crystallization strategy for identifying key themes in the resulting transcripts. Results Some participants, mainly from pain clinics, reported checking the PDMP with every patient, every time. Others checked only for new patients, for new opioid prescriptions, or for patients for whom they suspected abuse. Participants described varied approaches to sharing PDMP information with patients, including openly discussing potential addiction or safety concerns; avoiding discussion altogether; and approaching discussion confrontationally. Participants described patient anger or denial as a common response and noted the role of patient satisfaction surveys as an influence on prescribing. Conclusion Routines for accessing PDMP data and how clinicians respond to it vary widely. As PDMP use becomes more widespread, it will be important to understand what approaches are most effective for identifying and addressing unsafe medication use. PMID:24833113

  20. GPs as citizens' agents: prescription behavior and altruism.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kim Rose; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Boegh, Andreas; Hansen, Sofie Hartung

    2009-10-01

    To curb the heavily increasing drug budgets some Danish counties have introduced voluntary agreements between general practitioners (GPs) and health authorities. We extend the models of generic prescription by Hellerstein (Rand J Econ 29(1):108-136, 1998) and Lundin (J Health Econ 19:639-662, 2000) to allow for substitution between analogues and use difference-in-difference models to assess the effect on two drug groups (lipid-lowering and rheumatism drugs). For both drug groups we find evidence of a significant effect of the intervention. In the case of lipid-lowering drugs, we found a significant larger impact on GPs with low loyalty to the insurer and with indication of low prescription quality. In contrast we found that the intervention had a significantly lower impact on this group of GPs in the case of rheumatism drugs. We conclude that the effectiveness of the voluntary approach may partly be due to its indirect effect on GPs' altruistic motivation, which makes the GPs and the authorities collide in a common agency role. PMID:19083035

  1. Thick prescriptions: toward an interpretation of pharmaceutical sales practices.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Anthropologists of medicine and science are increasingly studying all aspects of pharmaceutical industry practices--from research and development to the marketing of prescription drugs. This article ethnographically explores one particular stage in the life cycle of pharmaceuticals: sales and marketing. Drawing on a range of sources-investigative journalism, medical ethics, and autoethnography--the author examines the day-to-day activities of pharmaceutical salespersons, or drug reps, during the 1990s. He describes in detail the pharmaceutical gift cycle, a three-way exchange network between doctors, salespersons, and patients and how this process of exchange is currently in a state of involution. This gift economy exists to generate prescriptions (scripts) and can mask and/or perpetuate risks and side effects for patients. With implications of pharmaceutical industry practices impacting everything from the personal-psychological to the global political economy, medical anthropologists can play a lead role in the emerging scholarly discourse concerned with critical pharmaceutical studies. PMID:15484967

  2. An experimental intervention: stimulating patient requests for generic prescription medications.

    PubMed

    Perri, M

    1989-01-01

    This experiment tested the effect of an informational radio advertising intervention on consumer attitudes toward generic medications, consumer attitudes toward the advertising of generic medicines, and the potential for consumers to request generic substitutes for their prescriptions in the future. The informational themes of the advertising intervention included price, quality, product availability, safety, and the role of the pharmacist in drug product selection. Results indicated 28% of the 205 radio station listeners surveyed were able to recall the generic ads. The attitudes of respondents indicating recall of the advertisements were no different from those of respondents unable to recall the advertisements. Consumer attitudes toward generics and the advertising of generic medicines were favorable. Most consumers (73%) thought that subjects such as generic medications should be advertised more often. Many consumers (50%) indicated they would like to hear more ads about generic medications. Patients believed the ads provided information they have a right to know (83%) and information that would be useful to them (77%). Consumers thought generic drugs were just as safe (67%) and effective (62%) as brand name medications. Consumers who recalled the ads were significantly (p less than .05) more likely to indicate they would ask their pharmacists about generic medications on their next prescriptions. This implies that the informational advertising intervention may have been effective in stimulating patient requests for generics in the future. PMID:10295632

  3. A Comparative Overview of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 25% of adults in the United States have elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. This is of particular concern given the evidence for a causal role of TG in the pathway of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Approved prescription omega-3 fatty acid products (RxOM3FAs) contain the long-chain fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and are effective options for the treatment of high TG levels. RxOM3FAs that contain both EPA and DHA include omega-3-acid ethyl esters (ethyl esters of EPA and DHA; brand and generic products) and omega-3-carboxylic acids (free fatty acids primarily composed of EPA and DHA), while the RxOM3FA icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of EPA) contains EPA only. All RxOM3FA products produce substantial TG reduction and other beneficial effects on atherogenic lipid and inflammation-related parameters, blood pressure, and heart rate variability, but products that contain DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). This commentary provides an overview of hypertriglyceridemia while summarizing the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of prescription RxOM3FAs. PMID:26681905

  4. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research†

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F; Koelwyn, Graeme J; Scott, Jessica; Jones, Lee W

    2015-01-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary study end point, the vast majority of studies have tested the efficacy of an exercise prescription that adhered to traditional guidelines consisting of either supervised or home-based endurance (aerobic) training or endurance training combined with resistance training, prescribed at a moderate intensity (50–75% of a predetermined physiological parameter, typically age-predicted heart rate maximum or reserve), for two to three sessions per week, for 10 to 60 min per exercise session, for 12 to 15 weeks. The use of generic exercise prescriptions may, however, be masking the full therapeutic potential of exercise treatment in the oncology setting. Against this background, this opinion paper provides an overview of the fundamental tenets of human exercise physiology known as the principles of training, with specific application of these principles in the design and conduct of clinical trials in exercise-oncology research. We contend that the application of these guidelines will ensure continued progress in the field while optimizing the safety and efficacy of exercise treatment following a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26136187

  5. Are non-prescription medications needed for weight control?

    PubMed

    Bray, George A

    2008-03-01

    At any one time large numbers of people are attempting to control their weight. Women are the principal consumers of weight-control programs. Their options, outside the prescription drug market and surgical treatment, include diets and diet books, exercise alone or with supervision in exercise facilities, dietary supplements, group programs, doctors, dietitians, psychologists, and other health-care professionals. Non-prescription products available to help people control their weight cover a wide range, including herbal dietary supplements, diet drinks and portion-controlled foods, meal replacements, and low-carbohydrate diets and foods. The introduction of orlistat as an over-the-counter (OTC) product will provide the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved product for weight loss currently in that category since phenylpropanolamine (PPA) was withdrawn by the FDA. The FDA approval process is considerably more expensive than allowing untested herbal supplements to be marketed without testing, but the added safety evaluation by the FDA will reduce the risk of disastrous outcomes that have plagued many approaches to weight control. Support for a place for orlistat as an OTC product includes the inadequacy of current programs, empowerment of the public, lower cost, and bringing pharmacists into weight-control programs. The downside includes improper use of OTC orlistat that may not result in achieving individual expectations.

  6. Prescription Opioids in Adolescence and Future Opioid Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Lloyd; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Heard, Kennon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Legitimate opioid use is associated with an increased risk of long-term opioid use and possibly misuse in adults. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of future opioid misuse among adolescents who have not yet graduated from high school. METHODS: Prospective, panel data come from the Monitoring the Future study. The analysis uses a nationally representative sample of 6220 individuals surveyed in school in 12th grade and then followed up through age 23. Analyses are stratified by predicted future opioid misuse as measured in 12th grade on the basis of known risk factors. The main outcome is nonmedical use of a prescription opioid at ages 19 to 23. Predictors include use of a legitimate prescription by 12th grade, as well as baseline history of drug use and baseline attitudes toward illegal drug use. RESULTS: Legitimate opioid use before high school graduation is independently associated with a 33% increase in the risk of future opioid misuse after high school. This association is concentrated among individuals who have little to no history of drug use and, as well, strong disapproval of illegal drug use at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Use of prescribed opioids before the 12th grade is independently associated with future opioid misuse among patients with little drug experience and who disapprove of illegal drug use. Clinic-based education and prevention efforts have substantial potential to reduce future opioid misuse among these individuals, who begin opioid use with strong attitudes against illegal drug use. PMID:26504126

  7. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Redican, Kerry J; Marek, Lydia I; Brock, Donna JP; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse. Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders. Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco¬done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries) turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers. Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed. PMID:24688929

  8. Medical and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids among High School Seniors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids among high school seniors in the United States, and to assess substance use behaviors based on medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Design Nationally representative samples of high school seniors (modal age 18) were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires. Setting Data were collected in public and private high schools. Participants The sample consisted of 7,374 students from three independent cohorts (2007-09). Main Outcome Measures Self-reports of medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids and other substance use. Results An estimated 17.6% of high school seniors reported lifetime medical use of prescription opioids, while 12.9% reported nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Gender differences in the medical and nonmedical use were minimal, while racial/ethnic differences were extensive. Over 37% of nonmedical users reported intranasal administration of prescription opioids. An estimated 80% of nonmedical users with an earlier history of medical use had obtained prescription opioids from a prescription they had previously. The odds of substance use behaviors were greater among individuals who reported any history of nonmedical use of prescription opioids relative to those who reported medical use only. Conclusions Nearly one in every four high school seniors in the United States has ever had some exposure to prescription opioids either medically or nonmedically. The quantity of prescription opioids and number of refills prescribed to adolescents should be carefully considered and closely monitored to reduce subsequent nonmedical use of leftover medication. PMID:22566521

  9. An Exploration of Social Circles and Prescription Drug Abuse Through Twitter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. Objective To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Methods Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. Results From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, P<.001). Conclusions Twitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it—potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm. PMID:24014109

  10. Levels and potential health risks of mercury in prescription, non-prescription medicines and dietary supplements in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Determination of mercury is important in the case of pharmaceuticals for which the European Union regulations have not defined the maximum permissible concentration of this metal. The aim of the study was to determine the levels of mercury in the following groups of drugs (n = 119): analgesics, diuretics, cardiacs, antihypertensives, anti-influenza, antibiotics, anti-allergics, tranquilizers, antibacterials and in dietary supplements (n = 33) available on the Polish market. Mercury was analyzed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry CV-AFS. Its content in the samples varied in the range of 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1). Higher mercury concentrations were reported for prescription drugs (Rx): 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1) (median: 7.4 ng g(-1)), lower--for non-prescription medicines (OTC): 1.2-45.8 ng g(-1) (median: 6.0 ng g(-1)). In the analyzed dietary supplements the concentrations were: 0.9-16.7 ng g(-1) (median: 5.9 ng g(-1)). On the basis of the information contained in the leaflet accompanying the medicine, a daily dose of mercury taken into the body with an analyzed medicament was estimated and the health risk posed by using such medicines was assessed. The study indicates that it is justified to carry out measurements of mercury in pharmaceuticals due to its high, potentially harmful.

  11. Prescription for change: accessing medication in transitional Russia

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Francesca; Balabanova, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Background Many Russians experienced difficulty in accessing prescription medication during the widespread health service disruption and rapid socio-economic transition of the 1990s. This paper examines trends and determinants of access in Russia during this period. Methods Data were from nine rounds (1994–2004) of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a 38-centre household panel survey. Trends were measured in failing to access prescribed medication for the following reasons: unobtainable from a pharmacy, unable to afford and ‘other’ reasons. Determinants of unaffordability were studied in 1994, 1998 and 2004, using cross-sectional, age-adjusted logistic regression, with further multivariate analyses of unaffordability and failure to access for ‘other’ reasons in 2004. Results After 1994, reporting of unavailability in pharmacies fell sharply from 25% to 4%. Meanwhile, unaffordability increased to 20% in 1998 but declined to 9% by 2004. In 1994, significant determinants of unaffordability were unemployment and lacking health care insurance in men. By 2004, determinants included low income and material goods in both sexes; rented accommodation and low education in men; and chronic disease and disability-related retirement in women. Not obtaining medicines for ‘other’ reasons was more likely amongst frequent male drinkers, and low educated or cohabiting women. Regional and gender differences were widest in 1998, coinciding with the Russian financial crisis. Conclusions Rapid improvements in drug availability in the late 1990s in Russia are a probable consequence of a more liberalized pharmaceutical sector and an improved pharmacy network, whilst later improvements in affordability may relate to expanded health care insurance coverage and economic recovery after the 1998 crash. A significant minority still finds prescription costs problematic, notably poorer and sick individuals, with inequalities apparently widening. Non-monetary determinants of

  12. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  13. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  14. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  15. Risk factors for medication errors in the electronic and manual prescription 1

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Cris Renata Grou; de Melo, Eveline Maria Magalhães; de Aguiar, Lucas Barbosa; Pinho, Diana Lúcia Moura; Stival, Marina Morato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to compare electronic and manual prescriptions of a public hospital of Brasilia, identifying risk factors for the occurrence of medication errors. Method: descriptive-exploratory, comparative and retrospective study. Data collection occurred from July 2012 to January 2013, using an instrument for the review of the information contained in medical records related to the medication process. A total of 190 manual and 199 electronic records composed the sample, with 2027 prescriptions each. Results: compared to the manual prescription, a significant reduction was observed in the risk factors after implantation of the electronic prescription, in items such as "lack of the form of dilution" (71.1% to 22.3%) and "prescription with brand name" (99.5% to 31.5%). Conversely, the risk factors "no check" and "lack of CRM of the prescriber" increased. The lack of the allergy registration and the occurrences related to medication were the same for both groups. Conclusion: generally, the use of the electronic prescription system was associated with a significant reduction in risk factors for medication errors, concerning the following aspects: illegibility, prescription with brand name and presence of essential items that provide a safe and effective prescription. PMID:27508913

  16. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  17. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  18. Communicating prosthetic prescriptions from dental students to the dental laboratory: is the message getting through?

    PubMed

    Parry, Glenn R; Evans, Jane L; Cameron, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the quality of written prosthetic prescriptions provided by fourth-year dental students to a commercially operated dental laboratory and to ascertain the contribution of interprofessional education to improving prescription quality. Based on guidelines established by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency of the European Union (Medical Device Directive 93/42/EEC), an audit was conducted prior to and after an educational intervention was delivered by a dental technician to a dental student cohort at one Australian dental school. Prior to the intervention, thirty-nine dental prosthetic prescriptions were collected, analyzed, and audited to determine the clarity of written communication and instructions from dental student to dental technician. Following the intervention, a further forty prosthetic prescriptions were collected from the same cohort of students and were audited. The audit of the initial prescriptions showed that 85 percent (n=33) did not comply with the recommended conventions. After the intervention, the prescriptions that did not meet the guidelines had fallen to 30 percent (n=12) of the total. Improvements in prosthetic prescriptions submitted by these dental students to the commercial dental laboratory suggest there is an advantage to including a prosthetic prescription-writing module in dental school curricula. PMID:25480279

  19. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  20. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription Drugs § 14.160 Establishment of standing technical advisory committees...

  1. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use....

  2. Prescription of Protective Paternalism for Men in Romantic and Work Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarlet, Marie; Dumont, Muriel; Delacollette, Nathalie; Dardenne, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and individual factors. In Studies 1 and 2, female participants prescribed for men more protective paternalistic behavior toward women in a romantic…

  3. How Parents of Teens Store and Monitor Prescription Drugs in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with parents of teens to explore how parents store and monitor prescription drugs in the home. Most parents had prescription drugs in the house, but took few precautions against teens accessing these drugs. Strategies for monitoring included moving the drugs to different locations, remembering how many pills…

  4. 42 CFR 423.56 - Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage. 423.56 Section 423.56 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  5. Licit and Illicit Use of Prescription Psychostimulants in Upperclassmen and Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Brynne; Langdon, Su

    2013-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants after college has not been well researched. In an online survey, current upperclassmen undergraduates (N = 96) and recent alumni (N = 337) reported licit and illicit use of prescription stimulants, perceptions of peer use, self-diagnosis of attention disorder, and plans for continued use. Post-graduate rate of use…

  6. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  7. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether...

  8. 78 FR 53152 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...,000''. Dated: August 22, 2013. Leslie Kux, Assistant Commissioner for Policy. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014... Administration is correcting a notice entitled ``Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014''...

  9. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  10. An Exploration of the Relationship between the Use of Methamphetamine and Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamonica, Aukje K.; Boeri, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns of use of prescription drugs and methamphetamine. We drew our sample from a study about 130 active and inactive methamphetamine users and focused on 16 participants with a recent history of methamphetamine and prescription drug use. We collected in-depth interviews to explore relationships in use trajectory patterns.…

  11. The diversion of stimulant medications among a convenience sample of college students with current prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart L

    2015-03-01

    Diversion is defined as the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace. Persons with legal prescriptions often give away or sell their medications to others. The misuse of prescription stimulant medications continues to be a problem on college campuses and a need to understand how students are obtaining stimulant medications exists. The object of the study was to identify the prevalence, correlates, and motivations associated with diversion of prescription stimulants among current prescription holders. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 1,022) between the ages of 18 and 24 enrolled at a large public university in the southeastern United States completed an in class questionnaire. Among those respondents, we identified 151 current stimulant prescription holders and analyzed the prevalence, motivations, and correlates associated with lifetime and current diversion. Overall, 58.9% of current prescription holders had given away or sold their stimulant medication during their lifetime. Those with a history of nonmedical use of prescription stimulants were almost 5 times more likely to divert their medication during their lifetime. The majority of those engaging in lifetime and current diversion medication did so infrequently. The most common motivations reported for both lifetime and current diversion were "to make extra money" and to "help during a time of high academic stress." Students who reported a history of prescription misuse were also more likely to engage in current diversion. Diversion-related behaviors should be explored further and programs aimed at the reducing these behaviors should be considered. PMID:25134041

  12. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  13. Prescription Drug Misuse among University Staff and Students: A Survey of Motives, Nature and Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Katy; Bennett, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To determine the prevalence and nature of prescription drug misuse among university staff and students in the UK. Methods: In 2009, an online questionnaire regarding non-medical use of prescription drugs was completed by 1614 students and 489 staff registered at a large university in Wales. The sample data were weighted to match the…

  14. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  15. 42 CFR 423.56 - Procedures to determine and document creditable status of prescription drug coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... status of prescription drug coverage. 423.56 Section 423.56 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Eligibility and Enrollment. § 423.56 Procedures to determine and document...

  16. 42 CFR 423.112 - Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... areas. 423.112 Section 423.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 423.112 Establishment of prescription drug plan service areas....

  17. 77 FR 19425 - Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... AFFAIRS Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar... purposes of calculating VA's charges for prescription drugs that were not administered during treatment but... administered during treatment for: (1) A nonservice-connected disability for which the veteran is entitled...

  18. Are Direct to Consumer Advertisements of Prescription Drugs Educational?: Comparing 1992 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Timothy Jon; Jarosch, Jeff; Pacholok, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the educational value of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements from 58 popular magazines published in 1992 and 2002. We find that the number of DTC prescription drug ads increased nine-fold from 1992 to 2002, while the advertisements for other health care products increased only slightly. We examine changes in…

  19. 21 CFR 203.50 - Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for wholesale distribution of prescription drugs. 203.50 Section 203.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Wholesale Distribution §...

  20. Motivations for Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Ibañez, Gladys E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among illicit drug users, their motives for abusing prescription drugs are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to 1) determine the motivations for engaging in the non-medical use of prescription opioids and sedatives among street-based illicit drug users, methadone maintenance patients, and residential drug treatment clients, 2) examine associations between prescription drug abuse motivations and gender, age, race/ethnicity, and user group, and 3) examine associations between specific motivations and prescription drug abuse patterns. Quantitative surveys (n = 684) and in-depth interviews (n = 45) were conducted with a diverse sample of prescription drug abusers in South Florida between March 2008 and November 2009. The three most common motivations reported were “to get high”, “to sleep”, and “for anxiety/stress”. There were age, race/ethnicity, and gender differences by motives. Prescription drug abuse patterns were also found to be associated with specific motivations. While additional research is needed, these findings serve to inform appropriate prevention and treatment initiatives for prescription drug abusers. PMID:20667680

  1. Total and Out-of-Pocket Expenditures for Prescription Drugs among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Shea, Dennis; Crystal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The burden of prescription drug costs on Medicare beneficiaries has become a critical policy issue in improving the Medicare program, yet few studies have provided detailed and current information on that burden. The present study estimates total and out-of-pocket expenditures for prescription drugs and the burden of these costs in…

  2. The diversion of stimulant medications among a convenience sample of college students with current prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Andrew R; Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart L

    2015-03-01

    Diversion is defined as the unlawful channeling of regulated pharmaceuticals from legal sources to the illicit marketplace. Persons with legal prescriptions often give away or sell their medications to others. The misuse of prescription stimulant medications continues to be a problem on college campuses and a need to understand how students are obtaining stimulant medications exists. The object of the study was to identify the prevalence, correlates, and motivations associated with diversion of prescription stimulants among current prescription holders. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 1,022) between the ages of 18 and 24 enrolled at a large public university in the southeastern United States completed an in class questionnaire. Among those respondents, we identified 151 current stimulant prescription holders and analyzed the prevalence, motivations, and correlates associated with lifetime and current diversion. Overall, 58.9% of current prescription holders had given away or sold their stimulant medication during their lifetime. Those with a history of nonmedical use of prescription stimulants were almost 5 times more likely to divert their medication during their lifetime. The majority of those engaging in lifetime and current diversion medication did so infrequently. The most common motivations reported for both lifetime and current diversion were "to make extra money" and to "help during a time of high academic stress." Students who reported a history of prescription misuse were also more likely to engage in current diversion. Diversion-related behaviors should be explored further and programs aimed at the reducing these behaviors should be considered.

  3. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  4. Medicare program: Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit programs: final marketing provisions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-09-18

    This final rule revises the Medicare Advantage (MA) program (Part C) and Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Program (Part D). The regulation contains new regulatory provisions regarding marketing processes for both programs. The revisions to the Part C and Part D programs are based on lessons we have learned since 2006, the initial year of the prescription drug program and the revised MA program.

  5. Monetary Value of a Prescription Assistance Program Service in a Rural Family Medicine Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Heather P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the monetary value of medications provided to rural Alabamians through provision of pharmaceutical manufacturer-sponsored prescription assistance programs (PAPs) provided by a clinical pharmacist in a private Black Belt family medicine clinic during 2007 and 2008. Methods: Patients struggling to afford prescription medications…

  6. 21 CFR 14.160 - Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment of standing technical advisory committees for human prescription drugs. 14.160 Section 14.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Advisory Committees for Human Prescription...

  7. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required... Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. (a) Sulfites are chemical substances that.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  8. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tapscott, Brian E.; Schepis, Ty S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription medications (NUPM) is an area of increasing public health concern, particularly in young adults. Young adults aged 18 to 25 have the highest annual and monthly rates of NUPM of any age group in the US, with notable consequences from using opioid, stimulant, tranquilizer and sedative medication. This article will review the literature on young adult NUPM, focusing first on the characteristics of those young adults engaged in NUPM. Then, we will examine the most common motives for NUPM, the sources young adults use to engage in nonmedical use and the related process of medication diversion. Finally, we will outline treatment and make specific recommendations of ways clinicians can help prevent the spread of NUPM in young adults, completing the work by covering future directions for research. PMID:24654550

  9. Peritoneal dialysis prescription during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Batarse, Rodolfo R; Steiger, Ralph M; Guest, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Management of the pregnant patient on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is potentially challenging because uterine enlargement may negatively affect catheter function and prescribed dwell volumes. Additional reports of the management of these patients are needed. Here, we describe a near-full-term delivery in a 27-year-old woman who had been on dialysis for 7 years. Peritoneal dialysis was continued during the entire pregnancy. In the third trimester, a higher delivered automated PD volume allowed for adequate clearance and control of volume status. A decision to hospitalize the patient to limit activity and facilitate the delivery of increased dialysate is believed to have contributed to the successful outcome for mother and infant. Our report discusses the management of this patient and reviews published dialysis prescriptions used during the third trimester of pregnancy in patients treated with PD. PMID:24711639

  10. Electronic transmission of prescriptions: towards realising the dream.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren; Chadwick, David W

    2004-01-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is about to commence upon major computerisation of its processes as part of a government plan of modernisation. One of these is the Electronic Transmission of Prescription (ETP). To achieve success it is important to know what benefits are expected from the new system and what barriers to adoption the systems will face. This paper reviews substantial ETP published material, and identifies 17 issues that need to be addressed. These issues are categorised under four major headings of stakeholders, cost, technology, and current process and practice, and are then further classified as positive or negative influences on the project's success. Many of these influences will be common to most of the computerisation projects to be undertaken by the NHS, and therefore this paper has wider applicability than ETP. PMID:18048207

  11. New Medicare-approved prescription drug discount card.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2004-05-28

    Patients who are on Medicare and have income under 135% of Federal poverty level and are not on Medicaid probably should obtain one of the new Medicare discount cards that became available on June 1, 2004, because all these cards include $600 annual credit for prescription-drug purchases for persons within that income limit. Unfortunately this program is complex, no one yet knows how it will work in practice, and after choosing a card one is locked in and cannot change cards until November 15. The most difficult part of the choice of which card to get may involve how it interacts with other programs, including ADAP, and pharmaceutical company patient assistance programs. PMID:15241856

  12. Visualization of patient prescription history data in emergency care.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Selcuk; Kayaalp, Mehmet; McDonald, Clement J

    2014-01-01

    Interpreting patient's medication history from long textual data can be unwieldy especially in emergency care. We developed a real-time software application that converts one-year-long patient prescription history data into a visually appealing and information-rich timeline chart. The chart can be digested by healthcare providers quickly; hence, it could be an invaluable clinical tool when the rapid response time is crucial as in stroke or severe trauma cases. Furthermore, the visual clarity of the displayed information may help providers minimize medication errors. The tool has been deployed at the emergency department of a trauma center. Due to its popularity, we developed another version of this tool. It provides more granular drug dispensation information, which clinical pharmacists find very useful in their routine medication-reconciliation efforts.

  13. Prescription Opioid Analgesics: Promoting Patient Safety with Better Patient Education.

    PubMed

    Costello, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Patients expect and deserve adequate postoperative pain relief. Opioid analgesics are widely used and effective in controlling postoperative pain, but their use poses risks that many patients don't understand and that all too often result in adverse outcomes. Inappropriate and often dangerous use of prescription medication has increased sharply in the past two decades in the United States. Patients and caregivers must have an adequate understanding of safe use, storage, and disposal of opioids to prevent adverse drug events in patients and others. Nurses play a key role in providing this patient education. This article provides a case study that highlights the risks and important aspects of opioid medication use in the postoperative patient.

  14. Complete denture prescription--an audit of performance.

    PubMed

    Basker, R M; Ogden, A R; Ralph, J P

    1993-04-24

    The quality of clinical records obtained during the various stages of complete denture construction was assessed in a survey conducted in five large dental laboratories in 1989. The most common fault in approximately half of 188 upper and 158 lower impressions was overextension in the labial and buccal sulci. Of the 87 occlusal records examined, the rims indicated the intended incisal relationship in about 50% of cases. The border of the eventual denture was defined by the technician rather than by the dentist in most instances. The post-dam was prescribed by the dentist in only 16% of the 50 trial dentures inspected. It is argued that a major cause of the lack of prescription is the level of the NHS fee, coupled with the fact that the laboratory expenses are deducted from that fee.

  15. Point-of-prescription interventions to improve antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Keith W; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Moehring, Rebekah; Anderson, Deverick J; Calderwood, Michael S; Han, Jennifer H; Mehta, Jimish M; Pollack, Lori A; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Srinivasan, Arjun; Camins, Bernard C; Schwartz, David N; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2015-04-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship is pivotal to improving patient outcomes, reducing adverse events, decreasing healthcare costs, and preventing further emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In an era in which antimicrobial resistance is increasing, judicious antimicrobial use is the responsibility of every healthcare provider. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have made headway in improving antimicrobial prescribing using such "top-down" methods as formulary restriction and prospective audit with feedback; however, engagement of prescribers has not been fully explored. Strategies that include frontline prescribers and other unit-based healthcare providers have the potential to expand stewardship, both to augment existing centralized ASPs and to provide alternative approaches to perform stewardship at healthcare facilities with limited resources. This review discusses interventions focusing on antimicrobial prescribing at the point of prescription as well as a pilot project to engage unit-based healthcare providers in antimicrobial stewardship.

  16. Wayward Prescriptions: Costs of Fraud in Payor Plans

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The cost of prescription drugs and medical devices has increased dramatically over the past several years. This increase has exceeded the annual average inflation index, making medical products desired sources of ill-gotten financial gains through diversion, theft, fraud, and deceit. With databases often being compromised, personal health information, personal identification, and therapy history are all available to be used by thieves through deception and misrepresentation, and are being traded on clandestine websites. With increasing values of medical services, wanted efforts continue to emerge in profiteering schemes, using illicit deals for financial gains by exploiting what was once perceived as sacred areas of medical care. Estimates of healthcare resource costs in dollars, lives, and products exceed $200 billion. Select examples of fraud in our medical services are presented that expose plan members to the risks of loss and theft that can compromise the privacy of their health records. The author outlines prevention steps for payors to guard against such practices. PMID:25126240

  17. Evidence for determining the exercise prescription in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gaught, Amber M; Carneiro, Kevin A

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies include weight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA. The choice of the specific type and mode of delivery of the exercise should be individualized and should consider the patient's preferences. Ongoing monitoring and supervision by a health care professional are essential for patients to participate in and benefit from exercise.

  18. Adolescents’ Access to Their Own Prescription Medications in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Durow, Paula Lynn; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this descriptive study was to determine adolescents’ access to their own medications at home, specifically prescription pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety, and sedative medications. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cohort of 501 adolescents from two southeastern Michigan school districts. Participants were asked what medications had been prescribed to them during the previous six months; if they had received prescription medications, they were asked in-depth questions about them, including how medications were stored and supervised at home. Results The sample was comprised of adolescents in the 8th and 9th grades, and 50.9% were male. Participants were primarily White (72.9%, n = 365) or African American (21.6%, n = 108). Slightly less than half of the adolescents (45.9%, n=230) reported having been prescribed medications in the previous six months. Of this group, 14.3% (n = 33) had been prescribed pain medications, 9.6% (n = 22) stimulants, 1.7% (n = 4) anti-anxiety medications, and 0.9% (n = 2) sedatives. In total, 57 adolescents were prescribed medications in the pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety, or sedative categories (including controlled medications), and the majority (73.7%, n=42) reported that they had unsupervised access to medications with abuse potential. Conclusions The majority of adolescents who were prescribed medications in the pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety or sedative categories during the previous six months had unsupervised access to them at home. It is critical that clinicians educate parents and patients about the importance of proper storage and disposal of medications, particularly those with abuse potential. PMID:23683499

  19. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of written medication information hinders patients' understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0-6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including 'WARNING' on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability. PMID:27258026

  20. Refining Prescription Warning Labels Using Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura; Huang, Yen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of written medication information hinders patients’ understanding and leads to patient misuse of prescribed medications. Incorporating patient feedback in designing prescription warning labels (PWLs) is crucial in enhancing patient comprehension of medication warning instructions. This qualitative study explored patient feedback on five newly designed PWLs. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 patients, who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication. These patients were shown different variations of the five most commonly used PWLs-Take with Food, Do not Drink Alcohol, Take with a Full glass of Water, Do not Chew or Break, and Protect from Sunlight. The 60-minute interviews explored feedback on patient comprehension of the PWL instructions and their suggestions for improving the clarity of the PWLs. At the end of the interview, patient self-reported socio-demographic information was collected with a 3-minute survey and a brief health literacy assessment was completed using the Newest Vital Sign. Twenty-one patients completed the interviews. Most patients were female (n = 15, 71.4%) with ages ranging from 23 to 66 years old (mean: 47.6 ± 13.3). The mean health literacy score was 2.4 on a scale of 0–6. Qualitative content analysis based on the text, pictures, and placement of the PWLs on the pill bottle showed preferences for including ‘WARNING’ on the PWL to create alertness, inclusion of a picture together with the text, yellow color highlighting behind the text, and placement of the PWL on the front of the pill bottle. Although patients had positive opinions of the redesigned PWLs, patients wanted further improvements to the content and design of the PWLs for enhanced clarity and understandability. PMID:27258026

  1. LIDAR Metrology for Prescription Characterization and Alignment of Large Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eegholm, B.; Eichhorn, W.; von Handorf, R.; Hayden, J.; Ohl, R.; Wenzel, G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the use of LIDAR, or "laser radar," (LR) as a fast, accurate, and non-contact tool for the measurement of the radius of curvature (RoC) of large mirrors. We report the results of a demonstration of this concept using a commercial laser radar system. We measured the RoC of a 1.4m x 1m spherical mirror with a nominal RoC of 4.6 m with a manufacturing tolerance of 4600mm +/- 6mm. The prescription of the mirror is related to its role as ground support equipment used in the test of part of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The RoC of such a large mirror is not easily measured without contacting the surface. From a position near the center of curvature of the mirror, the LIDAR scanned the mirror surface, sampling it with 1 point per 3.5 sq cm. The measurement consisted of 3983 points and lasted only a few minutes. The laser radar uses the LIDAR signal to provide range, and encoder information from angular azimuth and elevation rotation stages provide the spherical coordinates of a given point. A best-fit to a sphere of the measured points was performed. The resulting RoC was within 20 ppm of the nominal RoC, also showing good agreement with the results of a laser tracker-based, contact metrology. This paper also discusses parameters such as test alignment, scan density, and optical surface type, as well as future possible application for full prescription characterization of aspherical mirrors, including radius, conic, off-axis distance, and aperture.

  2. The green prescription study: a randomized controlled trial of written exercise advice provided by general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Swinburn, B A; Walter, L G; Arroll, B; Tilyard, M W; Russell, D G

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether written advice from general practitioners increases physical activity among sedentary people more than verbal advice alone. METHODS: Sedentary patients (n = 456) received verbal advice on increasing physical activity and were then randomized to an exercise prescription (green prescription) group or a verbal advice group. RESULTS: The number of people engaging in any recreational physical activity at 6 weeks increased substantially, but significantly more so in the green prescription group. Also, more participants in the green prescription group increased their activity over the period. CONCLUSIONS: A written goal-oriented exercise prescription, in addition to verbal advice, is a useful tool for general practitioners in motivating their parents to increase physical activity. PMID:9491025

  3. Act Your (Old) Age: Prescriptive, Ageist Biases Over Succession, Consumption, and Identity

    PubMed Central

    North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Perspectives on ageism have focused on descriptive stereotypes concerning what older people allegedly are. By contrast, we introduce prescriptive stereotypes that attempt to control how older people should be: encouraging active Succession of envied resources, preventing passive Consumption of shared resources, and avoidance of symbolic, ingroup identity resources. Six studies test these domains, utilizing vignette experiments and simulated behavioral interactions. Across studies, younger (compared with middle-aged and older) raters most resented elder violators of prescriptive stereotypes. Moreover, these younger participants were most polarized toward older targets (compared with middle-aged and younger analogues) – rewarding elders most for prescription adherences and punishing them most for violations. Taken together, these findings offer a novel approach to ageist prescriptions, which disproportionately target older people, are most endorsed by younger people, and suggest how elders shift from receiving the default prejudice of pity to either prescriptive resentment or reward. PMID:23471317

  4. Act your (old) age: prescriptive, ageist biases over succession, consumption, and identity.

    PubMed

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2013-06-01

    Perspectives on ageism have focused on descriptive stereotypes concerning what older people allegedly are. By contrast, we introduce prescriptive stereotypes that attempt to control how older people should be: encouraging active Succession of envied resources, preventing passive Consumption of shared resources, and avoidance of symbolic, ingroup identity resources. Six studies test these domains, utilizing vignette experiments and simulated behavioral interactions. Across studies, younger (compared with middle-aged and older) raters most resented elder violators of prescriptive stereotypes. Moreover, these younger participants were most polarized toward older targets (compared with middle-aged and younger analogues)--rewarding elders most for prescription adherences and punishing them most for violations. Taken together, these findings offer a novel approach to ageist prescriptions, which disproportionately target older people, are most endorsed by younger people, and suggest how elders shift from receiving the default prejudice of pity to either prescriptive resentment or reward.

  5. Prevalence and Patterns of Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Ketamine Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi S.; Alarcon, Erica; Tortu, Stephanie; Clatts, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological monitoring data has indicated sharp increases in prescription drug misuse. Despite these increases, little is known about the context or patterns associated with prescription drug misuse, particularly among youth or young injection drug users (IDUs). A three-city study of 213 young IDUs found prescription drug misuse to be pervasive, specifically the use of opioids and benzodiazepines. Particular practices not commonly associated with prescription drugs were reported, such as sniffing, smoking, and injection. Associated health risks included initiation into injection drug use, polydrug use, drug overdose, and drug dependency. A greater awareness of the potential health risks associated with prescription drug misuse should be incorporated into services that target IDUs, including street outreach, syringe exchanges, and drug treatment. PMID:18612374

  6. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  7. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  8. How patients understand the term ‘nonmedical use’ of prescription drugs: insights from cognitive interviews

    PubMed Central

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Horton, Ariana; Khan, Rubina; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background With rising rates of prescription drug abuse and associated overdose deaths, there is great interest in having accurate and efficient screening tools that identify nonmedical use of prescription drugs in health care settings. We sought to gain a better understanding of how patients interpret questions about misuse of prescription drugs, with the goal of improving the accuracy and acceptability of instruments intended for use in primary care. Methods A total of 27 English speaking adult patients were recruited from an urban safety net primary care clinic to complete a cognitive interview about a four-item screening questionnaire for tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs. Detailed field notes were analyzed for overall comprehension of the screening items on illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse, the accuracy with which participants classified drugs into these categories, and whether the screening response correctly captured the participant’s substance use behavior. Results Based on initial responses to the screening items, 6 (22%) participants screened positive for past year prescription drug misuse, and 8 (30%) for illicit drug use. The majority (26/27) of participants correctly interpreted the item on illicit drug use, and appropriately classified drugs in this category. Eleven (41%) participants had errors in their understanding of the prescription drug misuse item. The most common error was including use of medications without abuse potential as misuse. All cases of misunderstanding prescription drug misuse occurred among participants who screened negative for illicit drug use. Conclusions Our results suggest that terminology used to describe misuse of prescription medications may be misunderstood by many primary care patients, particularly those who do not use illicit drugs. Failure to improve upon the language used to describe prescription drug misuse in screening questionnaires intended for use in medical

  9. Characteristics and Correlates of Men and Women with Prescription Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Back, Sudie E.; Lawson, Katie; Singleton, Lauren; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that important gender differences in drug and alcohol use have been previously reported, little research to date has focused on gender differences with regard to nonmedical prescription opioid use. This study preliminarily examined the presenting characteristics and correlates (e.g., age of onset, route of administration, motives for using, method of introduction) of men and women with prescription opioid dependence. Participants were 24 (12 men, 12 women) non-treatment seeking individuals at least 18 years of age with current (i.e., past 12 months) prescription opioid dependence who participated in an in-depth interview. The average age of onset of prescription opioid use was 22.2 years (SD = 8.5). In comparison to men, women were approximately six years older when they initiated prescription opioid use, but were only three years older when they began to use prescription opioids regularly (i.e., weekly), suggesting an accelerated course of disease progression among women. Over half of the sample (61.5%) endorsed chewing and almost half (45.8%) endorsed crushing and snorting prescription opioids. Men were significantly more likely than women to crush and snort prescription opioids (75.0% vs. 16.7%; p = 0.01). Women were significantly more likely than men to be motivated to use prescription opioids in order to cope with interpersonal stress, and to use them first thing in the morning (ps = 0.04). Concomitant alcohol and other drug use were common among both men and women. The findings highlight clinically relevant gender differences and may help enhance the design of gender-sensitive screening and treatment interventions for prescription opioids. PMID:21514061

  10. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  11. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  12. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  13. The tomato Aux/IAA transcription factor IAA9 is involved in fruit development and leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-10-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose-response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  14. 50 CFR 221.73 - How will NMFS analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified prescription?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... any alternative prescription not adopted on: (1) Energy supply, distribution, cost, and use; (2) Flood... alternative and formulate its modified prescription? 221.73 Section 221.73 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Alternatives Process § 221.73 How will NMFS analyze...

  15. Using Simulation to Improve First-Year Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Medication Errors Involving the Top 100 Prescription Medications

    PubMed Central

    Awdishu, Linda; Namba, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate first-year pharmacy students’ ability to identify medication errors involving the top 100 prescription medications. Design. In the first quarter of a 3-quarter pharmacy self-care course, a didactic lecture on the most common prescribing and dispensing prescription errors was presented to first-year pharmacy students (P1) in preparation for a prescription review simulation done individually and as a group. In the following quarter, they were given a formal prescription review workshop before a second simulation involving individual and group review of a different set of prescriptions. Students were evaluated based on the number of correctly checked prescriptions and a self-assessment of their confidence in reviewing prescriptions. Assessment. All 63 P1 students completed the prescription review simulations. The individual scores did not significantly change, but group scores improved from 79 (16.2%) in the fall quarter to 98.6 (4.7%) in the winter quarter. Students perceived improvement of their prescription checking skills, specifically in their ability to fill a prescription on their own, identify prescribing and dispensing errors, and perform pharmaceutical calculations. Conclusion. A prescription review module consisting of a didactic lecture, workshop and simulation-based methods to teach prescription analysis was successful at improving first year pharmacy students’ knowledge, confidence, and application of these skills. PMID:27402989

  16. 21 CFR 1306.25 - Transfer between pharmacies of prescription information for Schedules III, IV, and V controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescription pursuant to 21 CFR 1306.05 and include: (i) Date of issuance of original prescription; (ii... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer between pharmacies of prescription... Substances Listed in Schedules III, IV, and V § 1306.25 Transfer between pharmacies of...

  17. 50 CFR 221.73 - How will NMFS analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified prescription?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... any alternative prescription not adopted on: (1) Energy supply, distribution, cost, and use; (2) Flood... alternative and formulate its modified prescription? 221.73 Section 221.73 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... proposed alternative and formulate its modified prescription? (a) In deciding whether to adopt a...

  18. 50 CFR 221.73 - How will NMFS analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified prescription?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... any alternative prescription not adopted on: (1) Energy supply, distribution, cost, and use; (2) Flood... alternative and formulate its modified prescription? 221.73 Section 221.73 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... proposed alternative and formulate its modified prescription? (a) In deciding whether to adopt a...

  19. 21 CFR 201.57 - Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). 201.57 Section... requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). The requirements in this section apply only to prescription drug products described...

  20. 21 CFR 201.57 - Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). 201.57 Section... requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products described in § 201.56(b)(1). The requirements in this section apply only to prescription drug products described...