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Sample records for relating experimentally-induced false

  1. Illusions and Delusions: Relating Experimentally-Induced False Memories to Anomalous Experiences and Ideas

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, Philip R.; Simons, Jon S.; Pigott, Jennifer S.; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Murray, Graham K.; Krystal, John H.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The salience hypothesis of psychosis rests on a simple but profound observation that subtle alterations in the way that we perceive and experience stimuli have important consequences for how important these stimuli become for us, how much they draw our attention, how they embed themselves in our memory and, ultimately, how they shape our beliefs. We put forward the idea that a classical memory illusion – the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) effect – offers a useful way of exploring processes related to such aberrant belief formation. The illusion occurs when, as a consequence of its relationship to previous stimuli, a stimulus that has not previously been presented is falsely remembered. Such illusory familiarity is thought to be generated by the surprising fluency with which the stimulus is processed. In this respect, the illusion relates directly to the salience hypothesis and may share common cognitive underpinnings with aberrations of perception and attribution that are found in psychosis. In this paper, we explore the theoretical importance of this experimentally-induced illusion in relation to the salience model of psychosis. We present data showing that, in healthy volunteers, the illusion relates directly to self reported anomalies of experience and magical thinking. We discuss this finding in terms of the salience hypothesis and of a broader Bayesian framework of perception and cognition which emphasizes the salience both of predictable and unpredictable experiences. PMID:19956402

  2. 76 FR 36320 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to False Representation and Lottery Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ..., concerning the rules of practice in proceedings relative to false representation and lottery orders (76 FR... 952 Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to False Representation and Lottery Orders AGENCY... relative to false representation and lottery orders. The primary purpose of this exercise is to update...

  3. Semantic False Memories In The Form Of Derived Relational Intrusions Following Training

    PubMed Central

    Guinther, Paul M; Dougher, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in characterizing memory phenomena that typically have been characterized by cognitive models, and the current study extends this development by producing “false memories” in the form of functional equivalence responding. A match-to-sample training procedure was administered in order to encourage participants to treat groups of unrelated English words as being interchangeable. Following training, participants were presented with a list of words from within one of the groups for a free recall test and a recognition test. Results showed that participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize words that had been assigned to the same group as the list words during prior training, relative to words not assigned to the same group and relative to words that co-occurred with list words. These results indicate that semantic relatedness can be experimentally manipulated in order to produce specific false memories. PMID:21119849

  4. Lie-Telling Behavior in Children with Autism and Its Relation to False-Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goulden, Keith J.; Manji, Shazeen; Loomes, Carly; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Children's lie-telling behavior and its relation to false-belief understanding was examined in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 26) and a comparison group of typically developing children (n = 27). Participants were assessed using a temptation resistance paradigm, in which children were told not to peek at a forbidden toy while…

  5. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Beato, Maria Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively) were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on recollection

  6. Commentary: ethics-related implications and neurobiological correlates of false confessions in juveniles.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert; Thompson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Forensic psychiatrists typically have no role in the process of obtaining confessions. They may believe, as do others, that a confession removes any doubt about guilt, but false confessions are not rare. Like the police, forensic psychiatrists can inadvertently elicit or solidify a false confession through the evaluation process by presuming guilt and forgetting that they are ethically obligated to strive for objectivity. Adolescents are at high risk of making false confessions because of their immaturity and vulnerability, extrinsic factors (such as interrogation techniques), and the dynamic interplay between them. Adolescent immaturity can have a direct bearing on a juvenile's appreciation of his Miranda rights and his vulnerability to making a confession (or a false confession) when exposed to coercive interrogation techniques designed for adults. Adolescents need special protection from such interrogation techniques. Forensic psychiatrists have an obligation to be alert to the potential for false confessions and to avoid compounding the problem by presuming guilt. PMID:19767499

  7. Why Distinctive Information Reduces False Memories: Evidence for Both Impoverished Relational-Encoding and Distinctiveness Heuristic Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hege, Amanda C. G.; Dodson, Chad S.

    2004-01-01

    Two accounts explain why studying pictures reduces false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (J. Deese, 1959; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995). The impoverished relational-encoding account suggests that studying pictures interferes with the encoding of relational information, which is the primary basis for false memories…

  8. "It's a hair-dryer…No, it's a drill": misidentification-related false recognitions in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Manila; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Marchetti, Igor; Lavezzini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Memory for visual objects, although typically highly accurate, can be distorted, especially in older adults. Here we asked whether also erroneous identifications of visual objects subsequently corrected and replaced by a correct identification might induce false recognitions, and whether this is more likely to occur in older people. For this aim a new paradigm was developed. In the first phase, participants performed a visual object identification task with degraded pictures of objects and produced correct and false but subsequently corrected identifications. In the second phase, participants performed a surprise recognition task in which also false identifications were presented. False identifications elicited false recognitions, with a stronger and more reliable effect in elderly participants, suggesting that correcting the initial visual error is not sufficient to correct the memory for the experience. Moreover, misidentification-related false recognitions coexisted in memory along with correct recognitions of correct identifications. These findings are discussed in relation with age-related deficits in memory updating and strategic retrieval.

  9. Preschoolers' Implicit and Explicit False-Belief Understanding: Relations with Complex Syntactical Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Three studies were carried out to investigate sentential complements being the critical device that allows for false-belief understanding in 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 102). Participants across studies accurately gazed in anticipation of a character's mistaken belief in a predictive looking task despite erring on verbal responses for direct…

  10. The Development of Gender Constancy in Early Childhood and Its Relation to Time Comprehension and False-Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmyj, Norbert; Bischof-Köhler, Doris

    2015-01-01

    What is the developmental course of children's gender constancy? Do other cognitive abilities such as time comprehension and false-belief understanding foster gender constancy and the subcomponents gender stability and gender consistency? We examined the development of gender constancy and its relation to time comprehension and false-belief…

  11. Language and Theory of Mind: Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Language Ability and False-Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Karen; Astington, Janet Wilde; Dack, Lisa Ain

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies show that children's language ability is related to false-belief understanding. However, there is considerable variation in the size of the correlation reported. Using data from 104 studies (N=8,891), this meta-analysis determines the strength of the relation in children under age 7 and examines moderators that may account for the…

  12. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  13. False assumptions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

  14. Effects of Sulpiride on True and False Memories of Thematically Related Pictures and Associated Words in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Regina V.; Ribeiro, Rafaela L.; de Souza, Altay A. Lino; Galduróz, José Carlos F.; Covolan, Luciene; Bueno, Orlando F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory, working memory, emotional memory, and attention are subject to dopaminergic modulation. However, the potential role of dopamine on the generation of false memories is unknown. This study defined the role of the dopamine D2 receptor on true and false recognition memories. Twenty-four young, healthy volunteers ingested a single dose of placebo or 400 mg oral sulpiride, a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, just before starting the recognition memory task in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. The sulpiride group presented more false recognitions during visual and verbal processing than the placebo group, although both groups had the same indices of true memory. These findings demonstrate that dopamine D2 receptors blockade in healthy volunteers can specifically increase the rate of false recognitions. The findings fit well the two-process view of causes of false memories, the activation/monitoring failures model. PMID:27047394

  15. Cumulative risk of false positive test in relation to breast symptoms in mammography screening: a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-09-01

    Mammography has been found effective as the primary screening test for breast cancer. We estimated the cumulative probability of false positive screening test results with respect to symptom history reported at screen. A historical prospective cohort study was done using individual screening data from 413,611 women aged 50-69 years with 2,627,256 invitations for mammography screening between 1992 and 2012 in Finland. Symptoms (lump, retraction, and secretion) were reported at 56,805 visits, and 48,873 visits resulted in a false positive mammography result. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of at least one false positive test and true positive at screening visits. The estimates were compared among women with and without symptoms history. The estimated cumulative probabilities were 18 and 6 % for false positive and true positive results, respectively. In women with a history of a lump, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 45 and 16 %, respectively, compared to 17 and 5 % with no reported lump. In women with a history of any given symptom, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 38 and 13 %, respectively. Likewise, women with a history of a 'lump and retraction' had the cumulative false positive probability of 56 %. The study showed higher cumulative risk of false positive tests and more cancers detected in women who reported symptoms compared to women who did not report symptoms at screen. The risk varies substantially, depending on symptom types and characteristics. Information on breast symptoms influences the balance of absolute benefits and harms of screening. PMID:27496148

  16. Cumulative risk of false positive test in relation to breast symptoms in mammography screening: a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-09-01

    Mammography has been found effective as the primary screening test for breast cancer. We estimated the cumulative probability of false positive screening test results with respect to symptom history reported at screen. A historical prospective cohort study was done using individual screening data from 413,611 women aged 50-69 years with 2,627,256 invitations for mammography screening between 1992 and 2012 in Finland. Symptoms (lump, retraction, and secretion) were reported at 56,805 visits, and 48,873 visits resulted in a false positive mammography result. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of at least one false positive test and true positive at screening visits. The estimates were compared among women with and without symptoms history. The estimated cumulative probabilities were 18 and 6 % for false positive and true positive results, respectively. In women with a history of a lump, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 45 and 16 %, respectively, compared to 17 and 5 % with no reported lump. In women with a history of any given symptom, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 38 and 13 %, respectively. Likewise, women with a history of a 'lump and retraction' had the cumulative false positive probability of 56 %. The study showed higher cumulative risk of false positive tests and more cancers detected in women who reported symptoms compared to women who did not report symptoms at screen. The risk varies substantially, depending on symptom types and characteristics. Information on breast symptoms influences the balance of absolute benefits and harms of screening.

  17. The Relation between Preschool Children's False-Belief Understanding and Domain-General Experimentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the present study is on the developmental antecedents of domain-general experimentation skills. We hypothesized that false-belief understanding would predict the ability to distinguish a conclusive from an inconclusive experiment. We conducted a longitudinal study with two assessment points (t1 and t2) to investigate this hypothesis.…

  18. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    PubMed

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy.

  19. A hybrid Bayesian-SVD based method to detect false alarms in PERSIANN precipitation estimation product using related physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghajarnia, Navid; Arasteh, Peyman D.; Araghinejad, Shahab; Liaghat, Majid A.

    2016-07-01

    Incorrect estimation of rainfall occurrence, so called False Alarm (FA) is one of the major sources of bias error of satellite based precipitation estimation products and may even cause lots of problems during the bias reduction and calibration processes. In this paper, a hybrid statistical method is introduced to detect FA events of PERSIANN dataset over Urmia Lake basin in northwest of Iran. The main FA detection model is based on Bayesian theorem at which four predictor parameters including PERSIANN rainfall estimations, brightness temperature (Tb), precipitable water (PW) and near surface air temperature (Tair) is considered as its input dataset. In order to decrease the dimensions of input dataset by summarizing their most important modes of variability and correlations to the reference dataset, a technique named singular value decomposition (SVD) is used. The application of Bayesian-SVD method in FA detection of Urmia Lake basin resulted in a trade-off between FA detection and Hit events loss. The results show success of proposed method in detecting about 30% of FA events in return for loss of about 12% of Hit events while better capability of this method in cold seasons is observed.

  20. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  1. Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runeson, Sverker; Andersson, Isabell E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three nonspecificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback, but several participants defied the…

  2. False memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

    2004-04-01

    In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure.

  3. The effect of various drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in immobilized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments related to the importance of functional disorders in the central nervous system in connection with stomach diseases were performed on Wistar rats. Assuming that severe mental strains may be triggering factors for such disorders, testing of the effects of different drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in these rats was done. The immobilization method described by Bonfils was used. Particular importance was placed on the sex related difference which appeared.

  4. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  5. Experimentally Induced Learned Helplessness: How Far Does it Generalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuffin, Keith; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed whether experimentally induced learned helplessness on a cognitive training task generalized to a situationally dissimilar social interaction test task. No significant differences were observed between groups on the subsequent test task, showing that helplessness failed to generalize. (Author/ABB)

  6. The effects of experimentally induced adelphophagy in gastropod embryos.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Olaf; Collin, Rachel; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula), to answer the following 3 questions: (1) Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2) Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3) Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10-30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across calyptraeids.

  7. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Adelphophagy in Gastropod Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Olaf; Collin, Rachel; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula), to answer the following 3 questions: (1) Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2) Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3) Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10–30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across calyptraeids

  8. Astigmatism in Monkeys with Experimentally Induced Myopia or Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    KEE, CHEA-SU; HUNG, LI-FANG; QIAO-GRIDER, YING; RAMAMIRTHAM, RAMKUMAR; SMITH, EARL L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Astigmatism is the most common ametropia found in humans and is often associated with large spherical ametropias. However, little is known about the etiology of astigmatism or the reason(s) for the association between spherical and astigmatic refractive errors. This study examines the frequency and characteristics of astigmatism in infant monkeys that developed axial ametropias as a result of altered early visual experience. Methods Data were obtained from 112 rhesus monkeys that experienced a variety of lens-rearing regimens that were intended to alter the normal course of emmetropization. These visual manipulations included form deprivation (n = 13); optically imposed defocus (n = 48); and continuous ambient lighting with (n = 6) or without optically imposed defocus (n = 6). In addition, data from 19 control monkeys and 39 infants reared with an optically imposed astigmatism were used for comparison purposes. The lens-rearing period started at approximately 3 weeks of age and ended by 4 to 5 months of age. Refractive development for all monkeys was assessed periodically throughout the treatment and subsequent recovery periods by retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Results In contrast to control monkeys, the monkeys that had experimentally induced axial ametropias frequently developed significant amounts of astigmatism (mean refractive astigmatism = 0.37 ± 0.33 D [control] vs. 1.24 ± 0.81 D [treated]; two-sample t-test, p < 0.0001), especially when their eyes exhibited relative hyperopic shifts in refractive error. The astigmatism was corneal in origin (Pearson’s r; p < 0.001 for total astigmatism and the JO and J45 components), and the axes of the astigmatism were typically oblique and bilaterally mirror symmetric. Interestingly, the astigmatism was not permanent; the majority of the monkeys exhibited substantial reductions in the amount of astigmatism at or near the end of the lens-rearing procedures. Conclusions In infant monkeys

  9. Ectoparasite Raymondia lobulata infestation in relation to the reproductive cycle of its host--the greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra.

    PubMed

    Sundari, Arasamuthu Arul; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Varman, Durairaj Ragu; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-02-01

    To study variation of infestations by the bat fly Raymondia lobulata (Diptera: Streblidae) on the greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae), we captured individual bats at their day roost in the south of India and recorded their rate of infestation continuously for a year. All examined bats (n = 72 individuals, 202 captures) were infested with parasites (n = 3,008). However, the recorded intensity of infestation (range 1-33) was gender-related and statistically higher in females than in males (F(1, 200) = 304.45, P < 0.001). Furthermore, pregnant and lactating females had greater parasite loads than non-reproductive females and males (F(1, 63) = 23.34, P < 0.001 and F(1, 37) = 78.07, P < 0.001, respectively). No significant differences were observed between males either during mating and non-mating periods or breeding and non-breeding seasons. Analysis of the relationship between parasite infestation and the reproductive status of bats revealed that pregnant and lactating females with pups were more vulnerable hosts for parasites. Our results also suggest a well-developed coevolutionary strategy for synchronized reproduction within the host-parasite relationship and add to our understanding of how host sex and reproductive status shape the dynamics of parasitism.

  10. Relations between temperament and theory of mind development in the United States and China: biological and behavioral correlates of preschoolers' false-belief understanding.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jonathan D; Wellman, Henry M; Olson, Sheryl L; Miller, Alison L; Wang, Li; Tardif, Twila

    2013-05-01

    The emotional reactivity hypothesis holds that, over the course of phylogeny, the selection of animals with less reactive temperaments supported the development of sophisticated social-cognitive skills in several species, including humans (Hare, 2007). In the ontogenetic human case, an emotional reactivity hypothesis predicts that children with less reactive temperaments will reach certain milestones in theory-of-mind (ToM) development more quickly. We examined relations between temperament and false-belief understanding in 102 preschool-age children from China and the United States. Temperament was measured via parental ratings of behavior as well as with physiological measures of children's reactivity (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity gauged via salivary cortisol). In accord with an emotional reactivity hypothesis, children with certain reactive temperaments--specifically, those who were more aggressive and those who were both socially withdrawn and physiologically reactive--evidenced poorer social-cognition. However, our findings also force amendment to the ontogenetic emotional reactivity hypothesis. For the majority of children in both countries, physiological reactivity predicted more advanced ToM, perhaps by facilitating social engagement and attention to social stimuli. Moreover, children who were withdrawn from social interaction yet nonreactive, especially Chinese children of this temperament, evidenced advanced ToM. Thus, some forms of social disengagement may foster social-cognitive development in certain sociocultural contexts.

  11. Ectoparasite Raymondia lobulata infestation in relation to the reproductive cycle of its host--the greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra.

    PubMed

    Sundari, Arasamuthu Arul; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Varman, Durairaj Ragu; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-02-01

    To study variation of infestations by the bat fly Raymondia lobulata (Diptera: Streblidae) on the greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae), we captured individual bats at their day roost in the south of India and recorded their rate of infestation continuously for a year. All examined bats (n = 72 individuals, 202 captures) were infested with parasites (n = 3,008). However, the recorded intensity of infestation (range 1-33) was gender-related and statistically higher in females than in males (F(1, 200) = 304.45, P < 0.001). Furthermore, pregnant and lactating females had greater parasite loads than non-reproductive females and males (F(1, 63) = 23.34, P < 0.001 and F(1, 37) = 78.07, P < 0.001, respectively). No significant differences were observed between males either during mating and non-mating periods or breeding and non-breeding seasons. Analysis of the relationship between parasite infestation and the reproductive status of bats revealed that pregnant and lactating females with pups were more vulnerable hosts for parasites. Our results also suggest a well-developed coevolutionary strategy for synchronized reproduction within the host-parasite relationship and add to our understanding of how host sex and reproductive status shape the dynamics of parasitism. PMID:21923461

  12. The False Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications. PMID:14180533

  13. Individual differences in susceptibility to experimentally induced phantom sensations.

    PubMed

    Burrack, Anna; Brugger, Peter

    2005-09-01

    We investigated individual differences in susceptibility to two vibration-induced phantom illusions, i.e. illusory arm extension and nose prolongation ("Pinocchio illusion"). Vibration was applied to the biceps brachii tendon of 32 healthy participants. Susceptibility to the illusions was quantified by vividness ratings and by ratings of the amount of illusory position changes of the arm and illusory shape changes of the nose. Participants also completed the Perceptual Aberration (PA) and the Need for Cognition (NFC) inventories. PA reflects the frequency of spontaneously experienced body schema alterations and NFC a person's tendency to cognitively structure experiences. PA was positively correlated with participants' susceptibility to illusory arm extension and, exclusively for men, also to nose elongation. A high NFC was weakly associated with a high susceptibility for the Pinocchio illusion. By inference, these findings indicate a physiological basis of PA and a cognitive mediation of experimentally induced phantom sensations.

  14. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, J K; Sparger, E; Ho, E W; Andersen, P R; O'Connor, T P; Mandell, C P; Lowenstine, L; Munn, R; Pedersen, N C

    1988-08-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV; formerly, feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus) is a typical lentivirus resembling human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in morphologic features, protein structure, and reverse transcriptase enzyme. It is antigenically dissimilar, however. The virus is tropic for primary and permanent feline T-lymphoblastoid cells and Crandell feline kidney cells. The virus did not grow in other permanent feline non-lymphoblastoid cells that were tested, or in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells from man, dogs, mice, and sheep. During short-term inoculation studies in cats, the feline immunodeficiency-like syndrome found in nature was not experimentally induced, but a distinct primary phase of infection was observed. Fever and neutropenia were observed 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation; fever lasted several days, and neutropenia persisted from 1 to 9 weeks. Generalized lymphadenopathy that persisted for 2 to 9 months appeared at the same time. Antibodies to FIV appeared 2 weeks after inoculation and then plateaued. Virus was reisolated from the blood of all infected cats within 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation and persisted indefinitely in the face of humoral antibody response. Virus was recovered from blood, plasma, CSF and saliva, but not from colostrum or milk. Contact transmission was achieved slowly in one colony of naturally infected cats, but not between experimentally infected and susceptible specific-pathogen-free cats kept together for periods as long as 4 to 14 months. The infection was transmitted readily, however, by parenteral inoculation with blood, plasma, or infective cell culture fluids. In utero and lactogenic transmission were not observed in kittens born to naturally or experimentally infected queens. Lymphadenopathy observed during the initial stage of FIV infection was ascribed to lymphoid hyperplasia and follicular dysplasia. A myeloproliferative disorder was observed in 1 cat with experimentally induced infection. PMID:2459996

  15. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load

  16. Change in serum ferritin concentration in experimentally induced anemia of chronic inflammation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, Seishiro; Nakazawa, Takafumi; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Kanai, Kazutaka; Ito, Naoyuki; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2013-11-01

    In veterinary medicine, hyperferritinemia is often observed in dogs with various diseases (e.g., histiocytic sarcoma and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia) without evidence of iron overload. The mechanism underlying hyperferritinemia development is not well understood. Anemia caused by inflammation is termed as anemia of chronic disease (ACD), and experimentally induced ACD is known to cause slight hyperferritinemia. However, almost all these studies were based on short-term acute inflammation. Hepcidin, a protein mainly produced by hepatocytes, is thought to be a key regulator in iron release from reticuloendothelial cells (RECs), and its expression is related to ACD. We hypothesized that in the case of long-term ACD, iron deposition in RECs increases through hepcidin, causing a diachronic increase in serum ferritin levels. In the present study, we used a canine model with repeated subcutaneous administration of turpentine oil every 3 days over a period of 42 days (15 injections) and induced long-term inflammatory conditions; furthermore, we evaluated the change in serum ferritin concentration. Hypoproliferative anemia, bone marrow iron deposition and hypoferremia, which are characteristic of ACD, were observed on administering the turpentine injections. Hepatic iron content, hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression and serum ferritin concentration increased during the early period after turpentine injection, but returned to normal levels later. These results show that experimentally induced long-term ACD caused hypoproliferative anemia without sustained increase in hepcidin expression and did not cause systemic iron overload. Thus, chronic inflammation may not contribute greatly to increase in hyperferritinemia.

  17. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  18. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough. PMID:1611233

  19. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  20. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  1. PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF HYPERALGESIA EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED BY NUCLEUS PULPOSUS

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Grava, André Luiz; Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone, indomethacin, atenolol and indomethacin plus atenolol) and analgesic drugs (morphine) on hyperalgesia experimentally induced by the nucleus pulposus (NP) in contact with the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats of weights ranging from 220 to 250 g were used in the study. Hyperalgesia was induced by means of a fragment of NP removed from the sacrococcygeal region that was placed in contact with the L5 dorsal root ganglion. The 30 animals were divided into experimental groups according to the drug used. The drugs were administered for two weeks after the surgical procedure to induce hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated using the paw pressure test, von Frey electronic test and Hargreaves test, over a seven-week period. Results: The greatest reduction of hyperalgesia was observed in the group of animals treated with morphine, followed by dexamethasone, indomethacin and atenolol. Reductions in hyperalgesia were observed after drug administration ceased, except for the group of animals treated with morphine, in which there was an increase in hyperalgesia after discontinuation of the treatment. Conclusion: Hyperalgesia induced by NP contact with the DRG can be reduced through administration of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs, but a greater reduction was observed with the administration of dexamethasone. PMID:27026966

  2. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  3. The Cell Nucleus in Physiological and Experimentally Induced Hypometabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, M.

    The main problem for manned space mission is, at present, represented by the mass penalty associated to the human presence. An efficient approach could be the induction of a hypometabolic stasis in the astronauts, thus drastically reducing the physical and psychological requirements of the crew. On the other hand, in the wild, a reduction in resource consumptions physiologi- cally occurs in certain animals which periodically enter hibernation, a hypometabolic state in which both the energy need and energy offer are kept at a minimum. During the last twelve years, we have been studying different tissues of hibernating dormice, with the aim of analyzing their features during the euthermia -hibernation-arousal cycle as well as getting insight into the mechanisms allowing adaptation to hypometabolism. We paid particular attention to the cell nucleus, as it is the site of chief metabolic functions, such as DNA replication and RNA transcription. Our observations revealed no significant modification in the basic features of cell nuclei during hibernation; however, the cell nuclei of hibernating dormice showed unusual nuclear bodies containing molecules involved in RNA pathways. Therefore, we supposed that they could represent storage/assembly sites of several factors for processing some RNA which could be slowly synthesised during hibernation and rapidly and abundantly released in early arousal in order to meet the increased metabolic needs of the cell. The nucleolus also underwent structural and molecular modifications during hibernation, maybe to continue important nucleolar functions, or, alternatively, permit a most efficient reactivation upon arousal. On the basis of the observations made in vivo , we recently tried to experimentally induce a reversible hypometabolic state in in vitro models, using cell lines derived from hibernating and non-hibernating species. By administering the synthetic opioid DADLE, we could significantly reduce both RNA transcrip- tion and

  4. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  5. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  6. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  7. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  8. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI: structure of the gene in the greater false vampire bat (Megaderma lyra) compared with human and domestic pig.

    PubMed

    Porter, Calvin A; Hewett-Emmett, David; Tashian, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI (CA-RP XI) is a member of the α-carbonic anhydrase family (encoded by the gene CA-11), which has lost features of the active site required for enzymatic activity. Using PCR, we amplified CA-11 from genomic DNA of the bat Megaderma lyra. To elucidate the gene structure, we sequenced PCR products and compared their sequences with genomic and mRNA sequences known from human and domestic pig. We identified and sequenced eight introns in the bat CA-11. Five introns (introns 3-7) are located in identical or similar positions in other members of the vertebrate α-carbonic anhydrase gene family. Two 5' introns and one 3' intron are located in the regions of little or no sequence similarity with other members of the gene family. The low sequence similarity and additional introns suggest a separate evolutionary origin for the 5' and 3' portions of the CA-RP XI gene.

  9. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI: structure of the gene in the greater false vampire bat (Megaderma lyra) compared with human and domestic pig.

    PubMed

    Porter, Calvin A; Hewett-Emmett, David; Tashian, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI (CA-RP XI) is a member of the α-carbonic anhydrase family (encoded by the gene CA-11), which has lost features of the active site required for enzymatic activity. Using PCR, we amplified CA-11 from genomic DNA of the bat Megaderma lyra. To elucidate the gene structure, we sequenced PCR products and compared their sequences with genomic and mRNA sequences known from human and domestic pig. We identified and sequenced eight introns in the bat CA-11. Five introns (introns 3-7) are located in identical or similar positions in other members of the vertebrate α-carbonic anhydrase gene family. Two 5' introns and one 3' intron are located in the regions of little or no sequence similarity with other members of the gene family. The low sequence similarity and additional introns suggest a separate evolutionary origin for the 5' and 3' portions of the CA-RP XI gene. PMID:23417223

  10. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  11. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  12. The role of experimentally-induced subacromial pain on shoulder strength and throwing accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wassinger, Craig A; Sole, Gisela; Osborne, Hamish

    2012-10-01

    Shoulder injuries often comprise two separate yet related components, structural tissue damage and pain. The role of each of these components on shoulder function is difficult to ascertain. Experimental pain models allow the assessment of consequences of localized pain when applied to healthy individuals. By understanding the role of pain on shoulder function, clinicians will be able to more efficiently assess and treat shoulder injuries. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of experimentally-induced sub-acromial pain on shoulder isokinetic rotational strength and throwing accuracy. This was a block counterbalanced, crossover, repeated measures study design utilizing 20 individuals without self-reported shoulder or cervical pathology. Shoulder function was measured with and without experimental pain injection (2 mL of 5% hypertonic saline) in the sub-acromial space. Functional tasks consisted of shoulder rotational strength utilizing isokinetic testing and throwing accuracy via the functional throwing performance index. The hypertonic saline induced moderate pain levels in all participants (4.3-5.1/10). Normalized shoulder internal (t = 3.76, p = 0.001) and external (t = 3.12, p = 0.006) rotation strength were both diminished in the painful condition compared to the pain free condition. Throwing accuracy was also reduced while the participants experienced pain (t = 3.99, p = 0.001). Moderate levels of experimental shoulder pain were sufficient to negatively influence shoulder strength and throwing accuracy in participants without shoulder pathology.

  13. Prediction of Symptom Change in Placebo Versus No-Treatment Group in Experimentally Induced Motion Sickness.

    PubMed

    Horing, Bjoern; Weimer, Katja; Muth, Eric R; Enck, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The long-standing question of who responds to placebo and who does not is of great theoretical and clinical relevance and has received increasing attention in recent years. We therefore performed a post hoc analysis of one of our previously published studies on placebo responses (PRs). In the analysis, fourteen potential predictors for the PR on experimentally induced motion sickness in 32 healthy volunteers were explored using moderated multiple regression. Generalized self-efficacy, generalized self, internal locus of control and cognitive flexibility were significantly associated with symptom improvement in the placebo group, as compared to the untreated control group. Notably, the directions of the associations were such that the "unfavorable" side of the constructs (e.g. low self-efficacy) predicted a higher PR. Instead, the "favorable" side predicted symptom improvement in the control group. Results fit well with prior research into psychological influences on motion sickness. Although PRs in motion sickness are not well established, it is suggested to include the identified constructs in future research involving motion sickness-related symptoms such as nausea and vertigo. Concerning PRs in general, the results may have implications for clinical as well as experimental research on other symptoms and disorders, such as pain or depression. PMID:25912825

  14. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  15. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  16. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  17. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  18. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  19. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  20. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False statements. 80.6 Section 80.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6...

  1. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  2. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  3. Effect of a lipid-rich emollient containing ceramide 3 in experimentally induced skin barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kucharekova, M; Schalkwijk, J; Van De Kerkhof, P C M; Van De Valk, P G M

    2002-06-01

    In the present study we compared the effect of a ceramide 3-containing emollient (Locobase(R) Repair) with a control emollient (vaselinum album/cremor lanette ana) and untreated damaged skin using clinical, bioengineering and immunohistochemical methods in two different models of experimentally induced skin barrier dysfunction. In model A (n = 13) skin barrier dysfunction was inflicted at three investigation sites by tape stripping. In model B (n = 13) the volunteers were patch tested at three investigation sites with sodium dodecyl sulphate (0.2%) for 4 h a day for 4 consecutive days. The investigation sites were treated once a day with the above-mentioned agents. Irritant reaction was assessed daily by erythema scoring and measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). After 5D, punch biopsies were taken from all sites. Immunohistochemical assessment was carried out with respect to epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation and Langerhans cells. Tape stripping resulted in an erythematous reaction and an increase of TEWL associated with up-regulation of cycling cells, involucrin and expression of cytokeratin 16. At day 4, ceramide 3-containing emollient significantly decreased (p < 0.03) the erythema score, TEWL and cycling cells in comparison with the untreated site. Repetitive exposure to SDS induced a variable degree of erythema, gradual increase of TEWL, an increase of cycling cells, and up-regulation of involucrin, E-FABP and SKALP. The treatment with the control emollient significantly prevented erythema, increase of TEWL and cycling cells at day 4 compared to the untreated site. In summary, the present study demonstrated that both tested emollients improve skin barrier in different conditions compared to the untreated skin. There is some indication that formulations containing skin-related lipids might be of benefit in barrier disruption following tape stripping. Different models and clinical trials are needed to establish the usefulness in

  4. Differential effects of experimentally induced chronic pancreatitis on neuropeptide immunoreactivities in the feline pancreas.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, R; Sternini, C; Widdison, A L; Alvarez, C; Brecha, N C; Reber, H A; Go, V L

    1993-11-01

    The distribution and concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) immunoreactivities in the pancreas of cats with experimentally induced chronic pancreatitis and of age- and sex-matched controls were investigated. By narrowing the main pancreatic duct between the head and the body to approximately 25% of its normal diameter, we induced within 5 weeks chronic pancreatitis restricted to the body and tail. In control animals, peptide immunoreactive nerves were distributed to the islets, acini, and ducts; the latter were predominantly innervated by fibers immunoreactive for NPY, VIP, or CGRP. The vasculature received an abundant supply of NPY-, CGRP-, and, to a lesser extent, SP-containing axons. Within intrapancreatic ganglia, peptide immunoreactivities were identified in fibers and ganglion cells, with the exception of CGRP and SP immunostaining, which could be visualized only in fibers. In animals with chronic pancreatitis, the innervation pattern of each peptidergic system was comparable to that described in controls. However, there was a remarkable increase in the density and staining intensity of VIP and NPY immunoreactive fibers in the exocrine parenchyma and fibrous septa of the body and tail, where chronic pancreatitis developed. Fibers immunoreactive for CGRP and SP also were moderately denser than in controls, whereas those containing GRP immunoreactivity did not show any detectable changes. In addition, a marked increase of the immunostaining for VIP and, to a much lesser extent, for NPY and GRP, was observed in neurites supplying the head of the pancreas, which appeared devoid of histologically detectable pathological alterations. Radioimmunoassay analysis confirmed the immunohistochemical observations. The increased density of distinct peptidergic nerves in the pancreas with induced chronic pancreatitis might be the result of

  5. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  6. Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

  7. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  8. Sleep deprivation and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Berkowitz, Shari R; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2016-02-23

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125-128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the "Escape" key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions.

  9. False rape: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Schoendorff, P; Achache, P; Miras, A; Malicier, D

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department for sexual assault. The forensic examination revealed genital lesions of an age that were incompatible with her statements. She also presented extragenital lesions that resembled self-inflicted lesions. The reports of false rape allegations in the literature have all dealt with the motivations of the false victims. This case report is a reminder that an allegation of rape can be considered only on the basis of proof and not on speculation. PMID:10624933

  10. False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?

    PubMed

    Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people's thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in "false belief" and "false photograph" (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true ("reality" questions) or false beliefs ("representation" questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants' working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal-parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and "false photo" control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes.

  11. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) can reduce pain, the mechanisms involved are not well established. There is a need to review the scientific literature to establish the evidence-base for the reduction of pain following SMT. Objectives To determine if SMT can reduce experimentally induced pain, and if so, if the effect is i) only at the level of the treated spinal segment, ii) broader but in the same general region as SMT is performed, or iii) systemic. Design A systematic critical literature review. Methods A systematic search was performed for experimental studies on healthy volunteers and people without chronic syndromes, in which the immediate effect of SMT was tested. Articles selected were reviewed blindly by two authors. A summary quality score was calculated to indicate level of manuscript quality. Outcome was considered positive if the pain-reducing effect was statistically significant. Separate evidence tables were constructed with information relevant to each research question. Results were interpreted taking into account their manuscript quality. Results Twenty-two articles were included, describing 43 experiments, primarily on pain produced by pressure (n = 27) or temperature (n = 9). Their quality was generally moderate. A hypoalgesic effect was shown in 19/27 experiments on pressure pain, produced by pressure in 3/9 on pain produced by temperature and in 6/7 tests on pain induced by other measures. Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear. Manipulation of a “restricted motion segment” (“manipulable lesion”) seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs. lower quality scores. Conclusions These results indicate that SMT has a direct local/regional hypoalgesic effect on

  12. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  13. Sleep deprivation and false confessions

    PubMed Central

    Frenda, Steven J.; Berkowitz, Shari R.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Fenn, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    False confession is a major contributor to the problem of wrongful convictions in the United States. Here, we provide direct evidence linking sleep deprivation and false confessions. In a procedure adapted from Kassin and Kiechel [(1996) Psychol Sci 7(3):125–128], participants completed computer tasks across multiple sessions and repeatedly received warnings that pressing the “Escape” key on their keyboard would cause the loss of study data. In their final session, participants either slept all night in laboratory bedrooms or remained awake all night. In the morning, all participants were asked to sign a statement, which summarized their activities in the laboratory and falsely alleged that they pressed the Escape key during an earlier session. After a single request, the odds of signing were 4.5 times higher for the sleep-deprived participants than for the rested participants. These findings have important implications and highlight the need for further research on factors affecting true and false confessions. PMID:26858426

  14. MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values

  15. Sensory Re-Weighting in Human Bipedal Postural Control: The Effects of Experimentally-Induced Plantar Pain.

    PubMed

    Pradels, Antoine; Pradon, Didier; Hlavačková, Petra; Diot, Bruno; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effects of experimentally-induced plantar pain on the displacement of centre of foot pressure during unperturbed upright stance in different sensory conditions of availability and/or reliability of visual input and somatosensory input from the vestibular system and neck. To achieve this goal, fourteen young healthy adults were asked to stand as still as possible in three sensory conditions: (1) No-vision, (2) Vision, and (3) No-vision - Head tilted backward, during two experimental conditions: (1) a No-pain condition, and (2) a condition when a painful stimulation was applied to the plantar surfaces of both feet (Plantar-pain condition). Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacements were recorded using a force platform. Results showed that (1) experimentally-induced plantar pain increased CoP displacements in the absence of vision (No-vision condition), (2) this deleterious effect was more accentuated when somatosensory information from the vestibular and neck was altered (No-vision - Head tilted backward condition) and (3) this deleterious effect was suppressed when visual information was available (Vision condition). From a fundamental point of view, these results lend support to the sensory re-weighting hypothesis whereby the central nervous system dynamically and selectively adjusts the relative contributions of sensory inputs (i.e. the sensory weightings) in order to maintain balance when one or more sensory channels are altered by the task (novel or challenging), environmental or individual conditions. From a clinical point of view, the present findings further suggest that prevention and treatment of plantar pain may be relevant for the preservation or improvement of balance control, particularly in situations (or individuals) in which information provided by the visual, neck proprioceptive and vestibular systems is unavailable or disrupted. PMID:23840337

  16. Sensory Re-Weighting in Human Bipedal Postural Control: The Effects of Experimentally-Induced Plantar Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pradels, Antoine; Pradon, Didier; Hlavačková, Petra; Diot, Bruno; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effects of experimentally-induced plantar pain on the displacement of centre of foot pressure during unperturbed upright stance in different sensory conditions of availability and/or reliability of visual input and somatosensory input from the vestibular system and neck. To achieve this goal, fourteen young healthy adults were asked to stand as still as possible in three sensory conditions: (1) No-vision, (2) Vision, and (3) No-vision – Head tilted backward, during two experimental conditions: (1) a No-pain condition, and (2) a condition when a painful stimulation was applied to the plantar surfaces of both feet (Plantar-pain condition). Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacements were recorded using a force platform. Results showed that (1) experimentally-induced plantar pain increased CoP displacements in the absence of vision (No-vision condition), (2) this deleterious effect was more accentuated when somatosensory information from the vestibular and neck was altered (No-vision – Head tilted backward condition) and (3) this deleterious effect was suppressed when visual information was available (Vision condition). From a fundamental point of view, these results lend support to the sensory re-weighting hypothesis whereby the central nervous system dynamically and selectively adjusts the relative contributions of sensory inputs (i.e. the sensory weightings) in order to maintain balance when one or more sensory channels are altered by the task (novel or challenging), environmental or individual conditions. From a clinical point of view, the present findings further suggest that prevention and treatment of plantar pain may be relevant for the preservation or improvement of balance control, particularly in situations (or individuals) in which information provided by the visual, neck proprioceptive and vestibular systems is unavailable or disrupted. PMID:23840337

  17. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  18. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:17252717

  19. [False innovations in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio; Bertele', Vittorio

    2006-11-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is actually poorer than it seems, largely because of "false" innovations. Various factors help create an image of novelty in the pharmaceutical area. These factors act throughout the research and development process and in the post-marketing stages affecting the selection of study hypotheses, the adoption of the appropriate study methodology, and the interpretation and publication of results. Each of these steps may be diverted from the priority objective of patients' interest and shifted towards to the defence of the drugs companies' commercial interests. Regulators, NHS, physicians and patients must be vigilant to recognise and get rid of false innovations which can prevent the use of more effective and safer drugs and waste resources useful for effective treatments in other areas. Rewarding this lack of innovation discourages research for excellence and reduces the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  1. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  2. Radiologists' interpretive efficiency and variability in true- and false-positive detection when screen-reading with tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) relative to standard mammography in population screening.

    PubMed

    Svahn, Tony M; Macaskill, Petra; Houssami, Nehmat

    2015-12-01

    We examined interpretive efficiency and variability in true- and false-positive detection (TP, FP) for radiologists screen-reading with digital breast tomosynthesis as adjunct to full-field digital mammography (2D/3D) relative to 2D alone in population-based screening studies. A systematic literature search was performed to identify screening studies that provided radiologist-specific data for TP and FP detection. Radiologist interpretive efficiency (trade-off between TPs and FPs) was calculated using the FP:TP ratio which expresses the number of FP recalls for each screen-detected breast cancer. We modeled a pooled FP:TP ratio to assess variability in radiologists' interpretive efficiency at study-level using random effects logistic regression. FP:TP ratio improved (ratio decreased) for 2D/3D screen-reading (relative to 2D) for a majority of radiologists (18 of 22) across all studies. Variability in radiologists' FP:TP ratio was consistently lower in all studies for 2D/3D screen-reading, as suggested by lower variance in ratios. Study-level pooled FP:TP ratio for 2D- and 2D/3D-mammography respectively, were 5.96 (95%CI: 4.08 to 8.72) and 3.17 (95%CI: 2.25 to 4.47) for the STORM trial; 10.25 (95%CI: 6.42 to 16.35) and 7.07 (95%CI: 4.99 to 10.02) for the Oslo trial; and 20.84 (95%CI: 13.95 to 31.12) and 8.37 (95%CI: 5.87 to 11.93) for the Houston study. This transfers into study-level improved interpretative efficiencies of 48%, 30% and 55%, respectively, for 2D/3D screen-reading (relative to 2D). In summary, study-level FP:TP trade-off improved using 2D/3D-mammography for all studies, which was also seen for most individual radiologists. There was variability in the FP:TP trade-off between readers and studies for 2D-as well as for 2D/3D-interpretations but variability in radiologists' interpretive efficiency was relatively lower using 2D/3D-mammography.

  3. Radiologists' interpretive efficiency and variability in true- and false-positive detection when screen-reading with tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) relative to standard mammography in population screening.

    PubMed

    Svahn, Tony M; Macaskill, Petra; Houssami, Nehmat

    2015-12-01

    We examined interpretive efficiency and variability in true- and false-positive detection (TP, FP) for radiologists screen-reading with digital breast tomosynthesis as adjunct to full-field digital mammography (2D/3D) relative to 2D alone in population-based screening studies. A systematic literature search was performed to identify screening studies that provided radiologist-specific data for TP and FP detection. Radiologist interpretive efficiency (trade-off between TPs and FPs) was calculated using the FP:TP ratio which expresses the number of FP recalls for each screen-detected breast cancer. We modeled a pooled FP:TP ratio to assess variability in radiologists' interpretive efficiency at study-level using random effects logistic regression. FP:TP ratio improved (ratio decreased) for 2D/3D screen-reading (relative to 2D) for a majority of radiologists (18 of 22) across all studies. Variability in radiologists' FP:TP ratio was consistently lower in all studies for 2D/3D screen-reading, as suggested by lower variance in ratios. Study-level pooled FP:TP ratio for 2D- and 2D/3D-mammography respectively, were 5.96 (95%CI: 4.08 to 8.72) and 3.17 (95%CI: 2.25 to 4.47) for the STORM trial; 10.25 (95%CI: 6.42 to 16.35) and 7.07 (95%CI: 4.99 to 10.02) for the Oslo trial; and 20.84 (95%CI: 13.95 to 31.12) and 8.37 (95%CI: 5.87 to 11.93) for the Houston study. This transfers into study-level improved interpretative efficiencies of 48%, 30% and 55%, respectively, for 2D/3D screen-reading (relative to 2D). In summary, study-level FP:TP trade-off improved using 2D/3D-mammography for all studies, which was also seen for most individual radiologists. There was variability in the FP:TP trade-off between readers and studies for 2D-as well as for 2D/3D-interpretations but variability in radiologists' interpretive efficiency was relatively lower using 2D/3D-mammography. PMID:26433751

  4. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  5. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  6. 22 CFR 40.63 - Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. 40.63 Section 40.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Immigration Violators § 40.63 Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (a) Fraud and...

  7. 22 CFR 40.63 - Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. 40.63 Section 40.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Immigration Violators § 40.63 Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (a) Fraud and...

  8. 22 CFR 40.63 - Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. 40.63 Section 40.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Immigration Violators § 40.63 Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (a) Fraud and...

  9. 22 CFR 40.63 - Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. 40.63 Section 40.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Immigration Violators § 40.63 Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (a) Fraud and...

  10. 22 CFR 40.63 - Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. 40.63 Section 40.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Immigration Violators § 40.63 Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (a) Fraud and...

  11. Cape Verde in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

    This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  12. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  13. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  14. 23 CFR 635.119 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., association, firm, or corporation, knowingly makes any false statement, false representation, or false report... submission of plans, maps, specifications, contracts, or costs of construction of any highway or...

  15. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  16. Neural signatures of experimentally induced flow experiences identified in a typical fMRI block design with BOLD imaging.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Martin; Keller, Johannes; Grön, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Previously, experimentally induced flow experiences have been demonstrated with perfusion imaging during activation blocks of 3 min length to accommodate with the putatively slowly evolving "mood" characteristics of flow. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a sample of 23 healthy, male participants to investigate flow in the context of a typical fMRI block design with block lengths as short as 30 s. To induce flow, demands of arithmetic tasks were automatically and continuously adjusted to the individual skill level. Compared against conditions of boredom and overload, experience of flow was evident from individuals' reported subjective experiences and changes in electrodermal activity. Neural activation was relatively increased during flow, particularly in the anterior insula, inferior frontal gyri, basal ganglia and midbrain. Relative activation decreases during flow were observed in medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex, and in the medial temporal lobe including the amygdala. Present findings suggest that even in the context of comparably short activation blocks flow can be reliably experienced and is associated with changes in neural activation of brain regions previously described. Possible mechanisms of interacting brain regions are outlined, awaiting further investigation which should now be possible given the greater temporal resolution compared with previous perfusion imaging.

  17. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  18. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  19. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  20. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  1. Radiological and histopathological evaluation of experimentally-induced periapical lesion in rats

    PubMed Central

    TEIXEIRA, Renata Cordeiro; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; CESTARI, Tania Mary; RUBIRA-BULLEN, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated experimentally-induced periapical bone loss sites using digital radiographic and histopathologic parameters. Material and Methods Twenty-seven Wistar rats were submitted to coronal opening of their mandibular right first molars. They were radiographed at 2, 15 and 30 days after the operative procedure by two digital radiographic storage phosphor plates (Digora®). The images were analyzed by creating a region of interest at the periapical region of each tooth (ImageJ) and registering the corresponding pixel values. After the sacrifice, the specimens were submitted to microscopic analysis in order to confirm the pulpal and periapical status of the tooth. Results There was significant statistically difference between the control and test sides in all the experimental periods regarding the pixel values (two-way ANOVA; p<0.05). Conclusions The microscopic analysis proved that a periapical disease development occurred during the experimental periods with an evolution from pulpal necrosis to periapical bone resorption. PMID:21922123

  2. High-intensity laser therapy during chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Gazzotti, Valeria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The aims of this study was the safety and the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on chronic degenerative tenosynovitis. We have effectuated the histological evaluation and seroassay (C reactive protein) on 18 chickens affect by chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced. We have been employed a Nd:YAG laser pulsed wave; all irradiated subjects received the same total energy (270 Joule) with a fluence of 7,7 J/cm2 and intensity of 10,7 W/cm2. The histological findings revealed a distinct reduction of the mineralization of the choral matrix, the anti-inflammatory effect of the laser, the hyperplasia of the synoviocytes and ectasia of the lymphatic vessels.

  3. Differences in lymphocyte subpopulations and cell counts before and after experimentally induced swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Robert; Johannisson, Anders; Jacobson, Magdalena; Fellström, Claes; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations before and immediately after experimentally induced swine dysentery. Twenty-one healthy crossbred pigs (approximately 22 kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Blood was sampled before inoculation and when clinical signs of swine dysentery occurred. Pigs that remained healthy were sampled when killed. Total and differential white blood cell counts were performed, and lymphocyte subpopulations were analysed using flow cytometry. Following a mean incubation period of 13 days, 12 pigs developed swine dysentery, whereas nine remained healthy throughout the study. Before inoculation, pigs that subsequently developed swine dysentery displayed higher levels of circulating gamma delta T cells (mean +/- se; 30.7 +/- 3.5 %) compared with pigs that remained healthy (14.9 +/- 1.4 %). Sick animals also displayed lower levels of CD8 cells (24.6 +/- 1.5 %), cytotoxic/suppressor T cells (10.9 +/- 1.3 %) and CD4 CD8 T cells (8.1 +/- 1.0 %) than the pigs that remained healthy (34.9 +/- 3.1 %; 17.6 +/- 2.0 %; 13.6 +/- 2.3 %). No difference was observed in leukocyte counts before inoculation. At onset of swine dysentery, there was an increase in monocytes (from 1.5 +/- 0.2 x 10 to 3.8 +/- 0.5 x 10 l) and CD4 CD8 T cells (from 5.8 +/- 0.9 to 8.9 +/- 0.7 %). In conclusion, gamma delta T cells and CD8 cells may be associated with susceptibility to experimentally induced swine dysentery, whereas monocytes and CD4 CD8 T cells appear to be the major responding leukocytes during the disease.

  4. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    PubMed Central

    Marchak, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

  5. Effects of experimentally induced low back pain on the sit-to-stand movement and electroencephalographic contingent negative variation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Yaguchi, Chie; Kaida, Chizuru; Irei, Mariko; Naka, Masami; Henry, Sharon M; Fujiwara, Katsuo

    2011-11-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that people with chronic, recurrent low back pain (LBP) exhibit changes in cerebrocortical activity that associate with altered postural coordination, suggesting a need for a better understanding of how the experience of LBP alters postural coordination and cerebrocortical activity. To characterize changes in postural coordination and pre-movement cerebrocortical activity related to the experience of acutely induced LBP, 14 healthy participants with no history of LBP performed sit-to-stand movements in 3 sequential conditions: (1) without experimentally induced LBP; NoPain1, (2) with movement-associated LBP induced by electrocutaneous stimulation; Pain, and (3) again without induced LBP; NoPain2. The Pain condition elicited altered muscle activation and redistributed forces under the seat and feet prior to movement, decreased peak vertical force exerted under the feet during weight transfer, longer movement times, as well as decreased and earlier peak hip extension. Stepwise regression models demonstrated that electroencephalographic amplitudes of contingent negative variation during the Pain condition significantly correlated with the participants' change in sit-to-stand measures between the NoPain1 and Pain conditions, as well as with the subsequent difference in sit-to-stand measures between the NoPain1 and NoPain2 conditions. The results, therefore, identify the contingent negative variation as a correlate for the extent of an individual's LBP-related movement modifications and to the subsequent change in movement patterns from before to after the experience of acutely induced LBP, thereby providing a direction for future studies aimed to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the development of altered movement patterns with LBP.

  6. The effect of an experimentally induced acute mastitis on the test results of an Ostertagia ostertagi milk ELISA.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Duchateau, Luc; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Claerebout, Edwin; Burvenich, Christian; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2006-03-15

    Antibody levels against Ostertagia ostertagi in the milk are a promising parameter to identify dairy cows or herds with production losses due to gastrointestinal nematodes. However, milk antibody levels can be influenced by udder-related factors. In this study, the effect of an experimentally induced mastitis on the test results (ODR) of a milk O. ostertagi ELISA was investigated. Twenty-five cows that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, were inoculated in their left udder quarters with Escherichia coli P4:O32 and quarter milk samples were collected at several intervals from 24 h before until 144 h after experimental infection. The effect of the contribution of milk from one or more infected quarters on the bulk tank milk ODR was estimated, based on a titration experiment. The mean O. ostertagi antibody levels of the infected udder quarters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those of the uninfected udder quarters at each sampling time post-infection. The largest difference was observed at 24 h post-infection with a mean difference of 0.251 ODR (95%CI: 0.172; 0.330). There was also a significant increase (P < 0.001) in total IgG levels with the largest difference being observed at 24 h post-infection. Highly significant (P < 0.005) correlation coefficients were observed between O. ostertagi ODR, total IgG ODR, Na+ and Cl- ion concentration and log transformed somatic cell counts at 24 h post-infection. The results demonstrate that an acute mastitis causes a flow of specific and non-specific antibodies from serum to milk with a subsequent increase in the O. ostertagi ODR values. The effect of the contribution of milk from infected quarters on the bulk tank milk O. ostertagi ODR was estimated to be minor if the relative number of infected quarters is small (< 3%).

  7. Memory and pain: tests of mood congruity and state dependent learning in experimentally induced and clinical pain.

    PubMed

    Pearce, S A; Isherwood, S; Hrouda, D; Richardson, P H; Erskine, A; Skinner, J

    1990-11-01

    The associative network theory of memory [2] is outlined along with the concepts of mood congruity and state dependent learning. Two experiments are reported which investigate the occurrence of these effects where memory for pain is concerned. In experiment 1 the performance of 25 chronic pain patients was compared with that of 25 non-patient controls on a test involving both immediate and delayed recall of a mixed list of stimulus words of 3 types: pain-related, negative or neutral. No significant group differences were found in overall rates of immediate recall. As predicted, however, pain patients recalled more pain-related words than non-patient controls (P less than 0.001). On delayed recall the same significant group x word-type interaction was obtained (P less than 0.02), but in addition the non-patient controls recalled significantly more words overall (P less than 0.02). These results provide some evidence for the occurrence of a mood congruity effect. Experiment 2 investigated state dependent learning and mood congruity effects in experimentally induced pain. Twenty volunteer subjects were allocated to 1 of 4 conditions in which a wordlist (as in experiment 1) was presented following either a painful stimulus (cold pressor test) or a non-painful one (warm water) and was then recalled immediately following further exposure to stimulus conditions which were congruent with the original stimulus (warm/warm and cold/cold conditions) or non-congruent (warm/cold and cold/warm conditions). A 3-way split plot ANOVA yielded no significant main effects for group or word-type, but a significant interaction emerged between state at encoding and at recall (P less than 0.04).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Androgen- and Estrogen-Receptor Content in Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Canine Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, John; Hicks, L. Louise; Walsh, Patrick C.

    1980-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which steroidal hormones influence the development of canine prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear and cytosolic androgen- and estrogen-receptor content, as measured under exchange conditions by the binding of [3H]R1881 (methyltrienolone) and [3H]estradiol, respectively, were quantitated in the prostates of purebred beagles of known age. In young dogs with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced (androstanediol plus estradiol treatment) prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear, but not cytosolic, prostatic androgen-receptor content was significantly greater than that determined in the normal prostates of age-matched dogs (3,452±222 and 4,035±274 fmol/mg DNA vs. 2,096±364 fmol/mg DNA, respectively). No differences were observed between the androgen-receptor content of the normal prostates of young dogs and the hyperplastic prostates of old dogs. The cytosolic and nuclear estrogen-receptor content of spontaneously arising prostatic hyperplasia in both young and old animals was similar to that found in normal prostates. The administration of estradiol plus androstanediol to castrate dogs significantly increased the prostatic nuclear androgen-receptor content over that found in dogs treated only with androstanediol. This estradiol-associated increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content was accompanied by the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Estradiol treatment of castrate dogs resulted in an increase in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, in the appearance of a putative prostatic cytosolic progesterone receptor, and in an alteration of the epithelium of the prostate to one characterized by squamous metaplasia. Treatment of castrate dogs with both estradiol and androstanediol resulted in a reduction in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, disappearance of the progesterone receptor, and loss of squamous metaplasia. An increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content, thus, appears to be an important event in the

  9. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before...

  10. Skin sensitization, false positives and false negatives: experience with guinea pig assays.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

    2010-07-01

    The advent of the local lymph node assay (LLNA), and efforts to develop in vitro alternatives for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals has focused attention on the issue of false positive and false negative results. In essence, the question becomes 'what is the gold standard?' In this context, attention has focused primarily on the LLNA as this is now the preferred assay for skin sensitization testing. However, for many years prior to introduction of the LLNA, the guinea pig maximization test and the occluded patch test of Buehler were the methods of choice. In order to encourage a more informed dialogue about the relative performance, accuracy and applicability of the LLNA and guinea pig tests, we have here considered the extent to which guinea pig methods were themselves subject to false positives and negative results. We describe and discuss here well-characterized examples of instances where both false negatives (including abietic acid and eugenol) or false positives (including vanillin and sulfanilic acid) have been recorded in guinea pig tests. These and other examples are discussed with particular reference to the fabrication of a gold standard dataset that is required for the validation of in vitro alternatives.

  11. The pathogenesis of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential development and pathology of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) were studied from 1 to 60 days after inoculation. Early lesions were characterized by an acute inflammatory response, which became granulomatous at 5 days. Early granulomas were discrete, with well-defined fibrohistiocytic walls. Trophozoite dissemination as a result of fibrolysis of granuloma wall was confined to the liver parenchyma. The granulomatous cellular infiltrate (less than 20 days) was characterized by granulocytes and histiocytes; older granulomas (greater than 30 days) were composed of lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cells, and a few granulocytes, and were characterized by the absence of epithelioid histiocytes. The degree of pathologic change adjacent to liver granulomas followed the sequential development of the amebic liver abscess. Severe changes observed were portal canal lymphocytic infiltration, the presence of foreign body giant cells, periportal fibrosis, proliferation of bile duct epithelium, and hepatocyte anisonucleosis and ballooning degeneration. The pathogenesis of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil model for the study of human amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6385727

  12. Sex Differences in Experimentally Induced Colitis in Mice: a Role for Estrogens.

    PubMed

    Bábíčková, Janka; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Lengyelová, Eva; Bartoňová, Anastázie; Hodosy, Július; Gardlík, Roman; Celec, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences have been found in the incidence and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The reported differences in observational studies are controversial, and the effects of sex hormones on the pathogenesis of IBD are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the progression of experimentally induced colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in adult mice by adding 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) into drinking water. Male and female mice were used as intact, gonadectomized, and supplemented with either estradiol or testosterone. In comparison to males, female mice with induced colitis had significantly longer colon (p < 0.05), lower decrease in body weight (p < 0.001), and lower stool consistency score (p < 0.05). Histopathological analysis showed less inflammatory infiltrates (p < 0.001) and crypt damage (p < 0.001) in female mice. Female mice with colitis had also lower concentration of TNF-α in colon homogenates (p < 0.01). Supplementation with estradiol in ovariectomized mice ameliorated the severity of colitis. Female mice are partially protected against chemically induced colitis. This protection seems to be mediated by estradiol.

  13. Experimentally-induced Increases in Early Gesture Lead to Increases in Spoken Vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Raudenbush, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produce at 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produce at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009b). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the increases lead to increases in spoken vocabulary. Fifteen children aged 1;5 participated in an 8-week at-home intervention study (6 weekly training sessions plus follow-up 2 weeks later) in which all were exposed to object words, but only some were told to point at the named objects. Before each training session and at follow-up, children interacted naturally with caregivers to establish a baseline against which changes in communication were measured. Children who were told to gesture increased the number of gesture meanings they conveyed, not only during training but also during interactions with caregivers. These experimentally-induced increases in gesture led to larger spoken repertoires at follow-up. PMID:26120283

  14. Activity and milk compositional changes following experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kester, H J; Sorter, D E; Hogan, J S

    2015-02-01

    Milk constituents and physical activity of cows experimentally infected with Streptococcus uberis mastitis were compared with those of uninfected cows. Twelve late-lactation Holsteins cows were paired based on milk production and parity. One cow in each pair was experimentally infected in the right front mammary gland with Strep. uberis. The remaining cow in each pair served as an uninfected control. Real-time analyses of milk constituents provided fat, protein, and lactose percentages at each milking. Pedometers were placed on the left front leg of all cows and activity was measured. Intramammary infections with Strep. uberis reduced milk yield in experimental cows by approximately 1.6kg/d in the first week after challenge compared with control cows. Lactose percentage in milk was reduced on d 3, 4, 5, and 6 after challenge in treatment cows compared with controls. Percentages of fat and protein in milk did not differ between infected and uninfected cows the week after infections were induced. Total steps per day were reduced and minutes resting per day were increased the week after experimental challenge in infected cows compared with control cows. The number of resting bouts did not differ between infected and uninfected cows. Changes in percentage of lactose in milk and animal activity caused by experimentally induced Strep. uberis mastitis were detected by the automated milk analyzer and pedometer systems.

  15. Two randomized controlled trials of zinc gluconate lozenge therapy of experimentally induced rhinovirus colds.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, B M; Conner, E M; Betts, R F; Oleske, J; Minnefor, A; Gwaltney, J M

    1987-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of zinc gluconate lozenge therapy in experimentally induced rhinovirus infection was assessed in two randomized controlled trials in susceptible adult volunteers. In trial 1, lozenges containing either zinc gluconate (23 mg of elemental zinc) or placebo were given 36 h after nasal inoculation of rhinovirus type 39 and administered eight times per day for 5 days. All of the volunteers had early cold symptoms at the time that treatment was begun. In trial 2, the same lozenge regimen was used, beginning 2 h after nasal inoculation with rhinovirus type 13, and continued for 7 days. Zinc therapy did not reduce the severity or duration of cold symptoms or the frequency or duration of viral shedding in either trial. Viral titers were measured in trial 2 and were shown to be unaffected by zinc therapy. Nasal mucus weights and the numbers of paper tissues used were slightly higher in zinc recipients. A statistically significant increase in levels of zinc in serum was documented in zinc recipients after 5 days of therapy. These data suggest that zinc gluconate lozenge therapy is not therapeutically useful in the treatment of rhinovirus colds. PMID:2820298

  16. Cell-specific regulation of Ferroportin transcription following experimentally-induced acute anemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Fiorito, Veronica; Marro, Samuele; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Ferroportin (FPN), the sole characterized iron exporter, is mainly controlled by the peptide hormone hepcidin in response to iron, erythroid factors, hypoxia, and inflammation. In addition, intracellular iron level controls FPN translation by modulating the binding of Iron Responsive Proteins at the 5'UTR of FPN mRNA. Recently, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)2α has been shown to regulate FPN expression in intestinal cells. Here we show that, during experimentally-induced acute anemia in mice, FPN is regulated at transcriptional level in a cell-specific manner. FPN mRNA level increases in duodenum and spleen macrophages, whereas it does not change in liver and is strongly down-regulated in erythroid precursors. These results were confirmed in Caco2, Raw264.7 and K562 cells treated with a hypoxic stimulus. Moreover, we found a differential expression of HIF1α and HIF2α in cells and tissues that might account for the specificity of FPN regulation. Thus, hypoxia, by directly controlling hepcidin and its target FPN, orchestrates a complex regulatory network aimed at ensuring rapid iron recovery from the periphery and efficient iron utilization in the erythroid compartment.

  17. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels.

  18. Diet shifts and population dynamics of estuarine foraminifera during ecosystem recovery after experimentally induced hypoxia crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, G. M.; Duijnstee, I. A. P.; Hazeleger, J. H.; Rossi, F.; Lourens, L. J.; Middelburg, J. J.; Wolthers, M.

    2016-03-01

    This study shows foraminiferal dynamics after experimentally induced hypoxia within the wider context of ecosystem recovery. 13C-labeled bicarbonate and glucose were added to the sediments to examine foraminiferal diet shifts during ecosystem recovery and test-size measurements were used to deduce population dynamics. Hypoxia-treated and undisturbed patches were compared to distinguish natural (seasonal) fluctuations from hypoxia-induced responses. The effect of timing of disturbance and duration of recovery were investigated. The foraminiferal diets and population dynamics showed higher fluctuations in the recovering patches compared to the controls. The foraminiferal diet and population structure of Haynesina germanica and Ammonia beccarii responded differentially and generally inversely to progressive stages of ecosystem recovery. Tracer inferred diet estimates in April and June and the two distinctly visible cohorts in the test-size distribution, discussed to reflect reproduction in June, strongly suggest that the ample availability of diatoms during the first month of ecosystem recovery after the winter hypoxia was likely profitable to A. beccarii. Enhanced reproduction itself was strongly linked to the subsequent dietary shift to bacteria. The distribution of the test dimensions of H. germanica indicated that this species had less fluctuation in population structure during ecosystem recovery but possibly reproduced in response to the induced winter hypoxia. Bacteria seemed to consistently contribute more to the diet of H. germanica than diatoms. For the diet and test-size distribution of both species, the timing of disturbance seemed to have a higher impact than the duration of the subsequent recovery period.

  19. Effect of ranitidine on healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, C G; Sangiah, S

    1993-07-01

    Thirty young ponies were examined endoscopically for evidence of gastric ulceration. Seven ponies had noninduced gastric ulcers present at the initial examination and were eliminated from the study. In an attempt to induce gastric ulcers experimentally, flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h) was administered for 7 days to the 23 ponies with endoscopically normal gastric mucosa. During the 7 days of flunixin administration, 11 ponies developed gastric ulcers that were appropriate for study. The 11 ponies were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Group-A (n = 5) and group-B (n = 6) ponies received ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) and corn syrup, respectively, until ulcers healed or for a maximum of 40 days. General anesthesia was induced every 3 to 5 days for visual evaluation of ulcer healing by use of a video endoscope. The earliest complete healing of gastric lesions observed in a corn syrup-treated pony was at 17 days. At 40 days, 3 of 5 and 3 of 6 ponies of the ranitidine and corn syrup-treated groups, respectively, had healed ulcers. Results of this study indicate that: noninduced gastric ulcers may be common in young ponies, flunixin meglumine may be effective in inducing gastric ulcers for gastric healing studies in young ponies, and ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, q 8 h) is not significantly effective in accelerating healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies under conditions of this study. PMID:8368605

  20. Ameliorative potential of fluoxetine/raloxifene combination on experimentally induced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kabel, Ahmed M; Elkhoely, Abeer A

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of malignancies in females worldwide. Targeting the estrogen receptors alone with raloxifene (RAL) reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors. Fluoxetine (FLX) is one of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that was proven to have anticancer properties. Our aim was to detect the effects of RAL/FLX combination on experimentally induced breast cancer. Eighty female Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: 7,12-Dimethyl Benzanthracene (DMBA) induced breast cancer group, DMBA+RAL, DMBA+FLX and DMBA+RAL+FLX. Tumor volume, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) were determined in the tumor tissues. Parts of the tumor were subjected to histopathological examination. RAL or FLX alone or in combination induced significant increase in tumor CAT and SOD with significant decrease in tumor volume, tissue MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and TGF-β1 and alleviated the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes compared to DMBA group. In conclusion, RAL/FLX combination had a better effect than each of RAL or FLX alone against DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats which may represent a new therapeutic modality for management of breast cancer. PMID:26881735

  1. Experimentally Induced Pulpal Lesion and Substance P Expression: Effect of Ketoprofen—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Gian Marco; Sacerdote, Paola; Amodeo, Giada; Mangano, Alessandro; Levrini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate substance P (SP) and the effect of ketoprofen administration, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on SP in the pulp of upper third molars with experimentally induced pulpal lesion. Materials and Methods. A sample of 20 young systemically healthy adults of both sexes, nonsmokers, with a healthy upper third molar to extract for orthodontic purposes, was selected. Prior to the procedure, an inflammatory process was generated by mechanical exposure of the pulp. After 15 minutes, the pulp was collected using a sterile barbed broach. SP levels were determined by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) kit. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 received a dose of ketoprofen 30 minutes prior to the experimental procedure. The subjects of group 2 did not receive any kind of drug administration. The patients were asked to complete a diary on the postoperative pain. Results. No statistically significant difference could be detected in SP expression between the two groups. In group 1, pain manifestation was significantly delayed in comparison with group 2. Conclusions. Preventive administration of ketoprofen did not significantly affect the pulpal levels of SP but resulted in a significantly postponed manifestation of pain after extraction. PMID:27034673

  2. In vivo microtubule dynamics during experimentally induced conversions between tubulin assembly states in Allogromia laticollaris.

    PubMed

    Welnhofer, E A; Travis, J L

    1996-01-01

    A distinctive property of foraminiferan tubulin is that, in addition to microtubules (MTs), it exists in an alternate assembly state, helical filaments. Here, we have examined in vivo MT dynamics during experimentally induced conversions between these two assembly states in the reticulopods of the marine foraminiferan Allogromia laticollaris. Exposure to high extracellular concentrations of Mg2+ (165 mM) resulted in a complete conversion of MTs into helical filaments. However, Mg2+ treatment also induced a retrograde movement of organelles and cytoplasm, and it was necessary to inhibit this response in order to assess the effects of assembly state changes on individual MTs. This was accomplished by simultaneous treatment with high extracellular Mg2+ and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). The resulting loss in MTs was detected by video enhanced DIC (VEC-DIC) microscopy as either an endwise MT shortening (at an average rate of 474 microns/min) or transformation into one or more irregularly shaped fibrils, which we termed residual fibrils. Correlative immunofluorescence and video microscopy showed residual fibrils to be composed of helical filaments. Removal of extracellular Mg2+/DNP initiated a reversal in assembly state, from helical filaments into MTs, which was completed within 5 min. VEC-DIC microscopy showed that MTs reformed by an endwise lengthening at an average rate of 216 microns/min. These results suggest that conversion between alternate tubulin assembly states provides a more rapid means to build and dismantle MTs than conventional subunit-driven pathways.

  3. Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Mani, Vasudevan; Ashok Dundapa, Taranalli; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive disorders such as dementia, attention deficits, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well investigated. However, effective interventions for the promotion and progression of AD are unavailable to date. The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous (300 and 500 mg/kg) and alcoholic (300 and 500 mg/kg) extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves as an antidementic and anticholinesterase agent and also as an immunostimulant in rats. Maximal electroshock, atropine, and cyclosporine were used to induce dementia. The passive avoidance task was used for assessing memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in different parts of the brain, and immune status was studied using dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin sensitivity tests. In all the three models both aqueous and alcoholic O. sanctum extracts decreased the time taken to reach the shock-free zone and the number of mistakes and significantly decreased the AChE activity in rats. O. sanctum treatment significantly increased the induration in the DNCB skin test. Therefore, O. sanctum was shown to be useful for the management of experimentally induced cognitive dysfunctions in rats.

  4. Effect of experimentally induced low back pain on postural sway with breathing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-09-01

    Although breathing perturbs balance, in healthy individuals little sway is detected in ground reaction forces because small movements of the spine and lower limbs compensate for the postural disturbance. When people have chronic low back pain (LBP), sway at the ground is increased, possibly as a result of reduced compensatory motion of the trunk. The aim of this study was to determine whether postural compensation for breathing is reduced during experimentally induced pain. Subjects stood on a force plate with eyes open, eyes closed, and while breathing with hypercapnoea before and after injection of hypertonic saline into the right lumbar longissimus muscle to induce LBP. Motion of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower limbs was measured with four inclinometers fixed over bony landmarks. During experimental pain, motion of the trunk in association with breathing was reduced. However, despite this reduction in motion, there was no increase in postural sway with breathing. These data suggest that increased body sway with breathing in people with chronic LBP is not simply because of reduced trunk movement, but instead, indicates changes in coordination by the central nervous system that are not replicated by experimental nociceptor stimulation.

  5. Experimentally Induced Pulpal Lesion and Substance P Expression: Effect of Ketoprofen-A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Gian Marco; Sacerdote, Paola; Amodeo, Giada; Mangano, Alessandro; Levrini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate substance P (SP) and the effect of ketoprofen administration, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on SP in the pulp of upper third molars with experimentally induced pulpal lesion. Materials and Methods. A sample of 20 young systemically healthy adults of both sexes, nonsmokers, with a healthy upper third molar to extract for orthodontic purposes, was selected. Prior to the procedure, an inflammatory process was generated by mechanical exposure of the pulp. After 15 minutes, the pulp was collected using a sterile barbed broach. SP levels were determined by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) kit. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 received a dose of ketoprofen 30 minutes prior to the experimental procedure. The subjects of group 2 did not receive any kind of drug administration. The patients were asked to complete a diary on the postoperative pain. Results. No statistically significant difference could be detected in SP expression between the two groups. In group 1, pain manifestation was significantly delayed in comparison with group 2. Conclusions. Preventive administration of ketoprofen did not significantly affect the pulpal levels of SP but resulted in a significantly postponed manifestation of pain after extraction. PMID:27034673

  6. Expression of Sonic hedgehog and retinal opsin genes in experimentally-induced myopic chick eyes.

    PubMed

    Escaño, M F; Fujii, S; Sekiya, Y; Yamamoto, M; Negi, A

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the expression of different genes in chick retinal tissues after induction of experimental myopia and to evaluate the roles of these genes in the regulation of postnatal eye growth and myopia. Form-deprivation using occlusive goggles and hyperopic defocus by negative spectacle lenses were used to induce myopia in hatched chicks. Expression levels of Sonic hedgehog, its receptor complex, and other retinal cell genes were evaluated by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Levels of Sonic hedgehog protein were further evaluated by Western blot analysis. The induction of myopia caused significant increase in expression of Sonic hedgehog mRNA and protein and increased expression of blue and red opsin mRNA. In contrast, the expression of mRNA for Sonic hedgehog receptor complex (Patched-Smoothened), rhodopsin, vimentin, green opsin, violet opsin, and HPC-1 were unaffected by the induction of myopia. The increase in expression of Sonic hedgehog in chick retinas in experimentally-induced myopia suggests involvement in the retina control of postnatal eye growth. Furthermore, Sonic hedgehog may influence the expression of blue and red opsins under myopic conditions.

  7. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels. PMID:20645246

  8. Hypolipidemic Effect of Celastrus paniculatus in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, K.; Maheshwari, V. L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding the animals with high fat diet. Oral administration of methanolic seed extract (50%) of Celastrus paniculatus at the optimized dose of 65 mg/kg body weight, substantially reduced the plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in comparison with induced hypercholesterolemic animal group and the results were comparable with the standard hypocholesterolemic drug and almost similar to the control group. Atherogenic index and liver weight of treated animals also showed significant decrease compared to the hypercholesterolemic animals. It substantially increased the HDL cholesterol level as compared to control group. A significant increase in the activities of lipoprotein lipase and plasma LCAT enhanced hepatic bile acid synthesis and thereby, increased degradation of cholesterol to neutral sterols. Furthermore, the activities of HMG-CoA reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were significantly reduced. Histological studies showed less cholesterol deposits in the aorta of animals fed with seed extract of C. paniculatus compared to the induced hypercholesterolemic animals not given C. paniculatus supplement. PMID:21966115

  9. Clinical and hematologic variables in ponies with experimentally induced equine ehrlichial colitis (Potomac horse fever).

    PubMed

    Ziemer, E L; Whitlock, R H; Palmer, J E; Spencer, P A

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and hematologic variables of 10 ponies with experimentally induced equine ehrlichial colitis (EEC; syn: Potomac horse fever) were studied for a 30-day period (6 ponies) or until death (4 ponies). The earliest clinical sign indicative of EEC was fever (rectal temperature exceeding 39 C). All ponies became depressed (CNS) at various times during the disease, and 90% of the ponies developed diarrhea between 9 and 15 days after infection was induced. The most significant hematologic change was an increase in plasma protein concentration after the onset of fever (P less than 0.05). The PCV in all ponies became increased above base line during the diarrheic phase of EEC. Forty percent of the ponies developed anemia (PCV less than or equal to 23%) during the study. White blood cell counts were highly variable, with 80% of the ponies developing leukopenia (WBC less than 5,000/microliters) during the illness and 60% of the ponies developing leukocytosis (WBC greater than 14,000/microliters) after leukopenia was observed. Differential WBC changes varied widely and included neutropenia with a left shift, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia. Serial thrombocyte counts, which were done for only 1 pony, identified the development of marked thrombocytopenia. Some hematologic changes in ponies with EEC were similar to those reported in canine monocytic and equine granulocytic ehrlichioses. These data are discussed in the context of the pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of EEC.

  10. The serum neutralizing antibody response in cattle to Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxoid and possible protection against experimentally induced hepatic abscesses.

    PubMed

    Saginala, S; Nagaraja, T G; Tan, Z L; Lechtenberg, K F; Chengappa, M M; Hine, P M

    1996-01-01

    The serum antileukotoxin antibody response and protection against subsequent experimental challenge with Fusobacterium necrophorum were investigated in 30 steers vaccinated with crude F. necrophorum leukotoxoid. Culture supernatant of F. necrophorum, strain 25, containing leukotoxoid was concentrated. The steers were assigned randomly to six groups (n = 5): PBS control with Stimulon adjuvant; vaccinated with concentrated supernatant diluted to provide 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 ml with the water-soluble Stimulon adjuvant; and 5.0 ml with the Ribi oil-emulsion adjuvant. The steers were injected subcutaneously on days 0 and 21. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals to monitor serum antileukotoxin antibody titres. On day 42, all the steers were challenged intraportally with F. necrophorum culture. Three weeks later (day 63), the steers were killed and necropsied for examination of their livers and assessment of protection. Steers vaccinated with crude leukotoxoid tended to have higher antileukotoxin titres than the controls, but the difference was not significant. Also, the antibody titre did not appear to be dose-dependent. In the control group, 3 out of 5 steers developed liver abscesses. The incidence of liver abscesses in steers vaccinated with Stimulon adjuvant was not dose related; however, only 8 of the 25 vaccinated steers developed abscesses. None of the steers vaccinated with the 5.0 ml dose with Ribi had any abscesses. Evidence for a relationship between antileukotoxin antibody and protection was shown by the lower titre in those steers that developed abscesses compared to those that did not. It was concluded that antileukotoxin antibody titres probably provided some degree of protection against experimentally induced liver abscesses, but further dose-titration studies using Ribi or possibly another more effective adjuvant will be needed to confirm this.

  11. False belief understanding in maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Maughan, Angeline; Toth, Sheree L; Bruce, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    False belief understanding was investigated in maltreated (N = 203), low socioeconomic status (SES) nonmaltreated (N = 143), and middle SES nonmaltreated (N = 172) 3- to 8-year-old children. Contrasts among the three groups provided an opportunity to examine the impact of family contextual influences on theory of mind development. Specifically, child maltreatment served as an "experiment of nature" in order to elucidate theory of mind abilities. Two false belief tasks and language assessments were administered. Among children with a verbal mental age of 49 months or greater, maltreatment was related to delays in the development of theory of mind, beyond the influence of chronological age and SES. The occurrence of maltreatment during the toddler period, onset during the toddler years, and physical abuse were features of maltreatment associated with delay in the development of theory of mind. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of harsh caregiving on the development of theory of mind. Implications for the understanding of normal developmental processes are highlighted. PMID:14984138

  12. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2010-12-16

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 - PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination

  13. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge

  14. Protective effects of D-002 on experimentally induced gastroesophageal reflux in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Zullyt; Molina, Vivian; Mas, Rosa; Ravelo, Yazmin; Perez, Yohany; Oyarzabal, Ambar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of beeswax alcohols (D-002) on the esophageal damage induced by gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in rats. METHODS: Sixty male rats were randomized into six groups (10 rats/group): a negative control and five groups with experimentally induced GER: a positive vehicle control, three treated with D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively), and one with omeprazole 10 mg/kg. All treatments were given by gastric gavage. One hour after dosing, GER was produced by simultaneous ligation of the pyloric end and the forestomach. Esophageal lesions index (ELI), gastric secretion volume and acidity, and esophageal malondialdehyde (MDA) and sulfhydryl (SH) group concentrations were measured. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. RESULTS: As compared to the negative control, the positive control group exhibited increased ELI (5.2 ± 0.33 vs 0 ± 0, P = 0.0003), gastric secretion volume (2.69 ± 0.09 vs 0.1 ± 0.0, P = 0.0003) and acidity (238 ± 19.37 vs 120.0 ± 5.77, P = 0.001), and esophageal concentrations of MDA (2.56 ± 0.1 vs 1.76 ± 0.28, P = 0.001) and SH groups (1.02 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.08, P = 0.0003). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced ELI (3.36 ± 0.31, 2.90 ± 0.46 and 2.8 ± 0.23, respectively) vs the positive control (5.2 ± 0.33) (P = 0.004; P = 0.002; P = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant changes in acidity with D-002 treatment, and only the highest dose reduced the volume of the gastric secretion (1.92 ± 0.25) vs the positive control (2.69 ± 0.09, P = 0.013). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) lowered the esophageal MDA (2.05 ± 0.16, 1.98 ± 0.22 and 1.93 ± 0.22, respectively) (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.03, respectively) and SH group concentration (0.87 ± 0.06, 0.79 ± 0.08 and 0.77 ± 0.06, respectively) (P = 0.04; P = 0.04; P = 0.02) vs the positive control (2.56 ± 0.10 and 1.02 ± 0.05, respectively). Omeprazole decreased ELI (2.54 ± 0.47), gastric secretion volume (1.97 ± 0.14) and acidity

  15. Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin: an endoplasmic reticulum protein expressed by trophozoites into experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses.

    PubMed

    González, Enrique; de Leon, Maria del Carmen García; Meza, Isaura; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Silva-Olivares, Angelica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Limón, Angelica; Rojas, Liliana; Hernández, Eric G; Cerritos, René; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2011-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin (EhCRT) is remarkably immunogenic in humans (90-100% of invasive amoebiasis patients). Nevertheless, the study of calreticulin in this protozoan is still in its early stages. The exact location, biological functions, and its role in pathogenesis are yet to be fully understood. The aim of the present work is to determine the location of EhCRT in virulent trophozoites in vivo and the expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses (ALA) in hamsters. Antibodies against recombinant EhCRT were used for the immunolocalization of EhCRT in trophozoites through confocal microscopy; immunohistochemical assays were also performed on tissue sections of ALAs at different times after intrahepatic inoculation. The expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of ALA was estimated through both in situ RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confocal assays of virulent trophozoites showed a distribution of EhCRT in the cytoplasmic vesicles of different sizes. Apparently, EhCRT is not exported into the hepatic tissue. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated an over-expression of the Ehcrt gene at 30 min after trophozoite inoculation, reaching a peak at 1-2 h; thereafter, the expression fell sharply to its original levels. These results demonstrate for the first time in an in vivo model of ALA, the expression of Ehcrt gene in E. histolytica trophozoites and add evidence that support CRT as a resident protein of the ER in E. histolytica species. The in vivo experiments suggest that CRT may play an important role during the early stages of the host-parasite relationship, when the parasite is adapting to a new environment, although the protein seems to be constitutively synthesized. Moreover, trophozoites apparently do not export EhCRT into the hepatic tissue in ALA.

  16. Gastroprotective Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Scoparone Derivatives on Experimentally Induced Gastric Lesions in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Lee, Gyung Rak; Oh, Sungil; Lee, Sung Eun; Choi, Won Sik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the gastroprotective efficacy of synthesized scoparone derivatives on experimentally induced gastritis and their toxicological safety. Six scoparone derivatives were synthesized and screened for gastroprotective activities against HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Among these compounds, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin were found to have gastroprotective activity greater than the standard drug rebamipide; 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6-methoxy-7,8-(1-methoxy)-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, and 6,7-(1-methoxy)-methylenedioxycoumarin were found to be equipotent or less potent that of rebamipide. Pharmacological studies suggest that the presence of a methoxy group at position C-5 or C-8 of the scoparone’s phenyl ring significantly improves gastroprotective activity, whereas the presence of a dioxolane ring at C-6, C-7, or C-8 was found to have decreased activity. In order to assess toxicological safety, two of the potent gastroprotective scoparone derivatives—5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin—were examined for their acute toxicity in mice as well as their effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. These two compounds showed low acute oral toxicity in adult male and female mice, and caused minimal changes to CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity. These results indicate that compared to other scoparone derivatives, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin can improve gastroprotective effects, and they have low toxicity and minimal effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25781220

  17. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HESPERIDIN ON CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATION IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN DIABETES IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Kakadiya, Jagdish; Mulani, Haresh; Shah, Nehal

    2010-01-01

    Present study was designed to evaluate effect Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Complication in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in normal and Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced in diabetic rats. Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o) was administered for 28 days in rats injected with single dose of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p, STZ) and Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p, NIC) and after isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) induced myocardial infarction in rats on 29th and 30th day. At the end of experimental period (i.e. on the day 31) serum and heart tissues sample were collected, and glucose, HbA1c and Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol ester synthetase (CES), lecithin Cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were find out. Administration of STZ–NIC in rats showed a significant (p<0.001) increased in the levels of serum glucose, glycosylated heamoglobin (HbA1c), Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) whereas the levels of High density lipoprotein (HDL) were found to be non significant but significant (p<0.001) increased in the level of heart tissues CES and significant (p<0.001, p<0.01) decreased LCAT and LPL, significantly (p<0.01) increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared to respective control groups. Treatment with Hesperidin significantly (P<0.05) decreased HbA1c, glucose, CES level and significantly (P<0.01) decreased LDL, TC, TG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and significant (P<0.01) increased LCAT and LPL level but no significantly change HDL in compared to diabetic control group. We concluded that HES (100 mg/kg) is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and reduced cardiac complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction diabetic rats. PMID:24825971

  18. Protective effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakadiya, Jagdish; Mulani, Haresh; Shah, Nehal

    2010-03-01

    Present study was designed to evaluate effect Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Complication in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in normal and Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced in diabetic rats. Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o) was administered for 28 days in rats injected with single dose of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p, STZ) and Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p, NIC) and after isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) induced myocardial infarction in rats on 29(th) and 30(th) day. At the end of experimental period (i.e. on the day 31) serum and heart tissues sample were collected, and glucose, HbA1c and Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol ester synthetase (CES), lecithin Cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were find out. Administration of STZ-NIC in rats showed a significant (p<0.001) increased in the levels of serum glucose, glycosylated heamoglobin (HbA1c), Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) whereas the levels of High density lipoprotein (HDL) were found to be non significant but significant (p<0.001) increased in the level of heart tissues CES and significant (p<0.001, p<0.01) decreased LCAT and LPL, significantly (p<0.01) increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared to respective control groups. Treatment with Hesperidin significantly (P<0.05) decreased HbA1c, glucose, CES level and significantly (P<0.01) decreased LDL, TC, TG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and significant (P<0.01) increased LCAT and LPL level but no significantly change HDL in compared to diabetic control group. We concluded that HES (100 mg/kg) is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and reduced cardiac complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction diabetic rats.

  19. Effect of different doses of Manuka honey in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Medhi, B; Avti, P K; Saikia, U N; Pandhi, P; Khanduja, K L

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of different doses of Manuka honey in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Adult Wistar rats of either sex were used (n = 30). Colitis was induced by a single intracolonic administration of TNBS dissolved in 35% ethanol. The rats (n = 30) were divided into five groups (n = 6) and were treated with vehicle (ethanol), TNBS, Manuka honey (5 g/kg, p.o.), Manuka honey (10 g/kg, p.o.) or sulfasalazine (360 mg/kg, p.o.) body weight for 14 days. After completion of treatment, the animals were killed and the following parameters were assessed: morphological score, histological score and different antioxidant parameters.Manuka honey at different doses provided protection against TNBS-induced colonic damage. There was significant protection with Manuka honey 5 g/kg as well as with 10 g/kg body weight compared with the control (p < 0.001). All the treated groups showed reduced colonic inflammation and all the biochemical parameters were significantly reduced compared with the control in the Manuka honey treated groups (p < 0.001). Manuka honey at different doses restored lipid peroxidation as well as improved antioxidant parameters. Morphological and histological scores were significantly reduced in the low dose Manuka honey treated group (p < 0.001). In the inflammatory model of colitis, oral administration of Manuka honey 5 g/kg and Manuka honey 10 g/kg body weight significantly reduced the colonic inflammation. The present study indicates that Manuka honey is efficacious in the TNBS-induced rat colitis model, but these results require further confirmation in human studies.

  20. Correlation Between Stereoacuity and Experimentally Induced Graded Monocular and Binocular Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Puthran, Neelam; Gagal, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stereopsis, the highest grade of binocular single vision, is affected by various factors, such as mis-alignment of visual axes, refractive errors especially anisometropia and astigmatism, both of which may result in amblyopia. There are very few studies in literature regarding the relationship between stereoacuity and refractive errors, especially astigmatism. Aim The present study was conducted to determine the correlation between stereoacuity and experimentally induced graded astigmatism in emmetropes. Materials and Methods A randomized study was conducted on 2000 individuals of either gender, between the ages of 8-35 years, at tertiary care centre attached to a medical college during the period of August 2012 to August 2014, All subjects were emmetropic with normal binocular single vision. Participants were randomly divided into four groups of 500 individuals each. Two groups were subjected to induced myopic astigmatism, either uni-ocularly or binocularly, using + 1.0 D and + 2.0 D cylinders at varying axes i.e., 450, 900 and 1800. Similarily, the remaining two groups were subjected to induced hypermetropic astigmatism, using - 1.0 D and - 2.0D cylinders at varying axes i.e. 450, 900 and 1800. Near stereoacuity was determined by the Titmus Fly Stereo Test, both before and after induction of astigmatism. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test and ANOVA. Results The mean stereoacuity in emmetropes was 28.81±4.97 seconds of arc. There was a decrease in stereoacuity with increase in dioptric power of astigmatism (p<0.001). Oblique astigmatism reduced the stereoacuity maximally, while stereoacuity was least affected at 180o axis. Hypermetropic astigmatism caused more deterioration in stereoacuity than myopic astigmatism. A gross reduction in stereoacuity was noted in induced monocular astigmatism as against binocular astigmatism. Conclusion This study suggests that stereoacuity is significantly affected by even minor degrees of monocular or

  1. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  2. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.5 False statements. Under...

  3. 43 CFR 3000.2 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERALS MANAGEMENT: GENERAL General § 3000.2 False statements. Under the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 1001, it is a crime punishable by 5 years imprisonment or a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False statements. 3000.2 Section...

  4. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  5. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  6. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  7. Associations among False Belief Understanding, Counterfactual Reasoning, and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Parker, Jessica; Turley-Ames, Kandi

    2009-01-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to clarify previous work on the association between counterfactual thinking and false belief performance to determine (1) whether these two variables are related and (2) if so, whether executive function skills mediate the relationship. A total of 92 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed false belief,…

  8. False Belief, Complementation Language, and Contextual Bias in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Lisa; Cheung, Him; Xiao, Wen

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we address two questions concerning the relation between children's false belief and their understanding of complex object complements. The first question is whether the previously demonstrated association between tensed complements and false belief generalizes to infinitival complements (de Villiers & Pyers, 2002). The…

  9. An association account of false belief understanding.

    PubMed

    De Bruin, L C; Newen, A

    2012-05-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young infants already understand false belief, then why do they fail the elicited-response false belief task? We postulate two systems to account for the development of false belief understanding: an association module, which provides infants with the capacity to register congruent associations between agents and objects, and an operating system, which allows them to transform these associations into incongruent associations through a process of inhibition, selection and representation. The interaction between the association module and the operating system enables infants to register increasingly complex associations on the basis of another agent's movements, visual perspective and propositional attitudes. This allows us account for the full range of findings on false belief understanding.

  10. Biological studies on the effect of estrogen on experimentally induced asthma in mice.

    PubMed

    El-Desouki, Nabila I; Tabl, Ghada A; Elkhodary, Yasmin A A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of estrogen hormone on the experimentally induced asthma in male mice. The animals were divided into four groups, with 20 mice in each group; group I (control mice) included mice that received no treatment, group II included mice that received intraperitoneal estrogen injection (0.25 mg/kg body weight (bw), twice on day 28 of the experiment), group III (asthmatic mice) included asthmatic mice that received intraperitoneal injection of two doses of ovalbumin (OVA; 2 µg of OVA mixed with 100 µg of aluminum potassium sulfate) on days 1 and 14 of the experiment and then challenged intranasally with a single dose of OVA (50 µg dissolved in 0.05 ml phosphate-buffered saline; PBS) on day 28 of the experiment, and group IV (asthmatic mice treated with estrogen) included asthma model male mice that received the estrogen (0.5 mg/kg bw in 40 ml PBS, twice on the day 28 of the experiment). The immunohistochemical studies observed a marked intensity of CD15 immunoreactivity in the lung tissues of asthma model mice. Physiological results recorded that the total and differential count of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthma model mice recorded a significant increase in the number of leukocytes especially in the number of eosinophil cells. The BALF of asthma model mice showed high levels of interleukins 4 and 5 (IL-4 and IL-5), and there was a significant decrease in both the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF of asthma model mice treated with estrogen. In conclusion, the obtained results indicated that the asthma is responsible for certain immunohistochemical and physiological alterations induced in lung tissues of mice. The administration of estrogen to asthmatic male mice could improve these changes. For this reason, the present findings support the possible role of estrogen in modulating the inflammatory effects caused by asthma in male mice and may be helpful to cure many asthmatic progressions.

  11. Cardiac isoenzymes in healthy Holstein calves and calves with experimentally induced endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Simon F.; Apple, Fred S.; Murakami, Mary Ann; Crump, Peter M.; Semrad, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a controlled study designed to establish normal values for cardiac troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) and CK-MB mass in healthy newborn Holstein calves, and to compare values for cTnI, cTnT, CK-MB and total creatine kinase (CK) with age-matched calves experiencing experimentally induced endotoxemia. Nineteen healthy Holstein bull calves, 48 to 72 h of age were used. Baseline cTnI, cTnT, CK-MB and total CK measurements were obtained from control (n = 9) and experimental (n = 10) calves. Controls then received physiological saline and experimental calves received endotoxin (O55:B5 Escherichia coli LPS) intravenously after which cardiac biomarkers and total CK were measured at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h post-initiation of infusion. Measured values were analyzed and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) by repeated measure design, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. The cardiac biomarker cTnT was not detected in any calf at any time point, and CK-MB was only detected in 5 of 95 samples. The cTnI was significantly increased compared to baseline and controls, 3 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Total CK was significantly increased in LPS administered calves at 18 and 24 h post infusion. The mean, standard deviation, and range for cTnI in healthy controls were 0.023 ng/mL (s = 0.01), and 0.01 to 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. In conclusion, LPS administration was associated with rapid and significant increases in cTnI but CK-MB and cTnT were not detected in the plasma of healthy calves. Total CK values increased significantly following LPS administration. Biochemical evidence of myocardial injury occurs within 3 h following LPS administration to neonatal Holstein calves. PMID:18783025

  12. An evaluation of the clinical pathologic findings in experimentally induced urinary bladder rupture in pre-ruminant calves.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D G; MacWilliams, P S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the biochemical abnormalities that develop over time in preruminant calves with experimentally induced uroperitoneum. Uroperitoneum was produced by incising the bladder via a standing left flank laparotomy. Serum and peritoneal concentrations sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphate and creatinine were determined at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 40 h. Serum creatinine concentration was increased by 8 h post-bladder rupture. Peritoneal concentrations of potassium and phosphate were significantly elevated 2 h after bladder rupture and peritoneal creatinine was significantly elevated by 4 h. Serum to peritoneal fluid ratios for potassium, phosphate and creatinine exceeded 2:1 within 2 h of bladder rupture. Pre-ruminant calves with experimentally induced uroperitoneum did not become hyperkalemic during the 40 h experiment. PMID:9553714

  13. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  14. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  15. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  16. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  17. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys...

  18. False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications.

    PubMed

    Leo, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, hundreds of convicted prisoners have been exonerated by DNA and non-DNA evidence, revealing that police-induced false confessions are a leading cause of wrongful conviction of the innocent. In this article, empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions is reviewed. After a description of the three sequential processes that are responsible for the elicitation of false confessions--misclassification, coercion, and contamination--the three psychologically distinct types of false confession (voluntary, compliant, and persuaded) are discussed along with the consequences of introducing false-confession evidence in the criminal justice system. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of empirical research for reducing the number of false confessions and improving the accuracy of confession evidence that is introduced against a defendant at trial. PMID:19767498

  19. COMPARISON OF LUNG ATTENUATION AND HETEROGENEITY BETWEEN CATS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ALLERGIC ASTHMA, NATURALLY OCCURRING ASTHMA AND NORMAL CATS.

    PubMed

    Masseau, Isabelle; Banuelos, Alina; Dodam, John; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling is a prominent feature of feline allergic asthma but requires biopsy for characterization. Computed tomography (CT) has appeal as a minimally invasive diagnostic test. The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to compare indices of airway remodeling between cats with experimentally induced, spontaneous asthma and healthy unaffected cats using CT. We hypothesized that experimental and spontaneous feline asthma would have similar CT airway remodeling characteristics and that these would be significantly different in healthy cats. Experimentally induced asthmatic research cats (n = 5), spontaneously asthmatic pet cats (n = 6), and healthy research cats (n = 5) were scanned unrestrained using a 64-detector row CT scanner. Inspiratory breath-hold CT scans were also performed in experimentally induced asthmatic and healthy cats. Mean ± extent variation of lung attenuation for each cat was determined using an airway inspector software program and CT images were scored for lung heterogeneity by a board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of cat group status. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA (unrestrained scans) and the Student's t-test (anesthetized scans) with significance defined as P < 0.10. Experimentally asthmatic and spontaneously asthmatic cats had significantly (P = 0.028 and P = 0.073, respectively) increased lung attenuation compared to healthy cats. Heterogeneity scores were higher in experimentally induced asthmatic cat than in healthy cats. Objective quantification of lung heterogeneity and lung volume did not differ among the three groups (P = 0.311, P = 0.181, respectively). Findings supported our hypothesis. Inspiratory breath-hold anesthetized CT scans facilitated discrimination between asthmatic and healthy cats in comparison to unrestrained CT scans.

  20. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime. PMID:25589599

  1. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  2. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix components in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Veeraraghavan, Vishnu Priya; Jainu, Mallika

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is an important component of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum, which progresses to the end stage liver disease, if not diagnosed and treated properly. The disproportionate production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from fat contributes to the pathogenesis of NASH. In this study, the comparative effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix (ECM) component levels were studied in experimentally induced NASH. Materials and Methods: The experimental protocol consists of using 48 male Wister rats, which were divided into 8 groups. The levels of hyaluronic acid, leptin and adiponectin were monitored in experimental NASH. Results: The experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and significant increase in adiponectin levels when compared to experimentally induced NASH group, but did not show any effect on the levels of leptin. Contrary to these two drugs, viz. pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid, the group treated with quercetin showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and leptin and significant decrease in adiponectin levels compared with that of experimentally induced NASH NASH group, offering maximum protection against NASH. Conclusion: Considering our findings, it could be concluded that quercetin may offer maximum protection against NASH by significantly increasing the levels of adiponectin, when compared to pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid. PMID:26557974

  3. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  4. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  5. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.107 False activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing warning system...

  6. 30 CFR 281.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false False statements. 281.5 Section 281.5 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General §...

  7. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  8. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  9. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  10. Time-related effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment in experimentally induced endometriosis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zanagnolo, V L; Beck, R; Schlaff, W D; Damewood, M D; Bobbie, D; Rock, J A

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to characterize the time-dependent effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRH-a) therapy on endometriosis explant using the rat model. Endometriosis was induced in 60 mature female rats. One group of treated animals as well as controls were killed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of treatment at which time the explant was evaluated. Explant volume was significantly reduced in all treatment groups, an effect that was more significant in animals treated for greater than or equal to 4 weeks compared with those treated for only 2 weeks. We conclude that GnRH-a treatment caused gradual regression of endometrial explant that was effectively complete by 4 weeks of treatment. We further conclude that this experimental model may be useful in the evaluation of other modes of endometriosis therapy.

  11. Controlling false discoveries in genetic studies.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2008-07-01

    A false discovery occurs when a researcher concludes that a marker is involved in the etiology of the disease whereas in reality it is not. In genetic studies the risk of false discoveries is very high because only few among the many markers that can be tested will have an effect on the disease. In this article, we argue that it may be best to use methods for controlling false discoveries that would introduce the same ratio of false discoveries divided by all rejected tests into the literature regardless of systematic differences between studies. After a brief discussion of traditional "multiple testing" methods, we show that methods that control the false discovery rate (FDR) may be more suitable to achieve this goal. These FDR methods are therefore discussed in more detail. Instead of merely testing for main effects, it may be important to search for gene-environment/covariate interactions, gene-gene interactions or genetic variants affecting disease subtypes. In the second section, we point out the challenges involved in controlling false discoveries in such searches. The final section discusses the role of replication studies for eliminating false discoveries and the complexities associated with the definition of what constitutes a replication and the design of these studies.

  12. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  13. A survey of people's attitudes and beliefs about false confessions.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Linda A; Coffman, Kimberly A J; Dailey, Elizabeth M

    2008-01-01

    The attitudes and beliefs of jury eligible individuals regarding false confessions were investigated in order to uncover potential biases. Survey respondents provided perceptions of factors related to false confessions (e.g. their frequency and likely situational and dispositional risk variables). Results indicate that people possess an awareness that false confessions can occur and believe that a confession should not be taken as an absolute indicator of guilt. However, their understanding of predisposing and situational factors that contribute to false confessions was incomplete, as was their understanding of interrogation practices. Furthermore, respondents showed a marked bias against believing that they personally would ever falsely confess, which is discussed in the context of potential inconsistencies between people's self-report and their actual behaviors in naturalistic situations. PMID:18788081

  14. The false-negative Meckel's scan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, G.; Froelich, J.W.

    1982-10-01

    A case is presented of a 17-month-old girl who underwent two Meckel's scans with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. The initial study was interpreted as normal while a subsequent study five days later was definitely positive. Surgery immediately following the positive Meckel's scan demonstrated a Meckel's diverticulum containing gastric mucosa without evidence of active hemorrhage. This prompted a review of the literature in reference to false-negative Meckel's scans which revealed a wide variance in the reported incidence of false-negative examinations. Repeat scintigraphy in the face of a strong clinical suspicion after an initial normal study may decrease the indicence of false-negative imaging series.

  15. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by

  16. The False Claims Act and clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Vogel, R L

    1993-01-01

    In its efforts to fight fraud, the government has turned increasingly to the civil False Claims Act. The Act imposes triple damages plus monetary penalties against those who defraud the federal government. The Act also encourages whistleblowers to report fraud by offering the prospect of large bounties. This article describes the False Claims Act, its qui tam provision dealing with whistleblowers, and the application of the Act to clinical laboratories.

  17. Review article: the false-bottom ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

    2013-11-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

  18. False memory for context activates the parahippocampal cortex.

    PubMed

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex during true memory than false memory, which has been interpreted as reflecting greater sensory processing during true memory. However, in these studies, sensory detail and contextual information were confounded. In the present fMRI study, we employed a novel paradigm to dissociate these factors. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented in one of two contexts (i.e., moving or stationary). During retrieval, participants classified shapes as previously "moving" or "stationary." Critically, contextual processing was relatively greater during false memory ("moving" responses to stationary items), while sensory processing was relatively greater during true memory ("moving" responses to moving items). Within the medial temporal lobe, false memory versus true memory produced greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex, whereas true memory versus false memory produced greater activity in the hippocampus. The present results indicate that the parahippocampal cortex mediates contextual processing rather than sensory processing.

  19. False Discovery Rate Estimation in Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Yadav, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement in proteomics separation techniques and improvements in mass analyzers, the data generated in a mass-spectrometry based proteomics experiment is rising exponentially. Such voluminous datasets necessitate automated computational tools for high-throughput data analysis and appropriate statistical control. The data is searched using one or more of the several popular database search algorithms. The matches assigned by these tools can have false positives and statistical validation of these false matches is necessary before making any biological interpretations. Without such procedures, the biological inferences do not hold true and may be outright misleading. There is a considerable overlap between true and false positives. To control the false positives amongst a set of accepted matches, there is a need for some statistical estimate that can reflect the amount of false positives present in the data processed. False discovery rate (FDR) is the metric for global confidence assessment of a large-scale proteomics dataset. This chapter covers the basics of FDR, its application in proteomics, and methods to estimate FDR.

  20. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  1. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising. PMID:2343426

  2. On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Derbish, Mary H

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority effect for different types of processing and material, measuring accuracy more directly by comparing true and false recollection rates. Survival-related information and processing was examined using word lists containing backward associates of neutral, negative, and survival-related critical lures and type of processing (pleasantness, moving, survival) was varied using an incidental memory paradigm. Across four experiments, results showed that survival-related words were more susceptible than negative and neutral words to the false memory illusion and that processing information in terms of its relevance to survival independently increased this susceptibility to the false memory illusion. Overall, although survival-related processing and survival-related information resulted in poorer, not more accurate, memory, such inaccuracies may have adaptive significance. These findings are discussed in the context of false memory research and recent theories concerning the importance of survival processing and the nature of adaptive memory. PMID:20096406

  3. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    False color representation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) taken through three different near-infrared filters of the Galileo imaging system and processed to reveal cloud top height. Images taken through Galileo's near-infrared filters record sunlight beyond the visible range that penetrates to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere before being reflected by clouds. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation. Light reflected by Jupiter at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane strongly absorbs is shown in red. Due to this absorption, only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (732 nm) where methane absorbs less strongly is shown in green. Lower clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere is shown in blue: This light is reflected from the deepest clouds. Thus, the color of a cloud in this image indicates its height. Blue or black areas are deep clouds; pink areas are high, thin hazes; white areas are high, thick clouds. This image shows the Great Red Spot to be relatively high, as are some smaller clouds to the northeast and northwest that are surprisingly like towering thunderstorms found on Earth. The deepest clouds are in the collar surrounding the Great Red Spot, and also just to the northwest of the high (bright) cloud in the northwest corner of the image. Preliminary modeling shows these cloud heights vary over 30 km in altitude. This mosaic, of eighteen images (6 in each filter) taken over a 6 minute interval during the second GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996, has been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet

  4. False Color Image of Volcano Sapas Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This false-color image shows the volcano Sapas Mons, which is located in the broad equatorial rise called Atla Regio (8 degrees north latitude and 188 degrees east longitude). The area shown is approximately 650 kilometers (404 miles) on a side. Sapas Mons measures about 400 kilometers (248 miles) across and 1.5 kilometers (0.9 mile) high. Its flanks show numerous overlapping lava flows. The dark flows on the lower right are thought to be smoother than the brighter ones near the central part of the volcano. Many of the flows appear to have been erupted along the flanks of the volcano rather than from the summit. This type of flank eruption is common on large volcanoes on Earth, such as the Hawaiian volcanoes. The summit area has two flat-topped mesas, whose smooth tops give a relatively dark appearance in the radar image. Also seen near the summit are groups of pits, some as large as one kilometer (0.6 mile) across. These are thought to have formed when underground chambers of magma were drained through other subsurface tubes and lead to a collapse at the surface. A 20 kilometer-diameter (12-mile diameter) impact crater northeast of the volcano is partially buried by the lava flows. Little was known about Atla Regio prior to Magellan. The new data, acquired in February 1991, show the region to be composed of at least five large volcanoes such as Sapas Mons, which are commonly linked by complex systems of fractures or rift zones. If comparable to similar features on Earth, Atla Regio probably formed when large volumes of molten rock upwelled from areas within the interior of Venus known as'hot spots.' Magellan is a NASA spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The basic scientific instrument is a synthetic aperture radar, or SAR, which can look through the thick clouds perpetually shielding the surface of Venus. Magellan is in orbit around Venus which completes one turn around its axis in 243 Earth days. That period of time, one Venus day

  5. False lock performance of quadriphase receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Quadriphase receivers, like biphase receivers, have the ability to false lock on a sideband on the data modulation. The theory associated with this phenomenon for receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK), using Costas loop demodulation, has recently been documented in the literature. This paper considers the corresponding theory for receivers of balanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) employing a quadriphase Costas loop (or equivalent fourth-power loop) for demodulation. Specific closed form expressions for false lock performance are developed and numerically evaluated for the particular case of single pole arm filters and an NRZ data format for each of the two statistically independent quadrature modulations.

  6. The effects of experimentally induced changes in self-concept on associative learning.

    PubMed

    Muller, D; Spuhler, R

    1976-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that self-concept influences ability to learn. This experiment systematically manipulated the self-concepts of learners regarding their abilities to learn a foreign language and measured their subsequent learning of a synthetic foreign language vocabulary list. Eleven Ss were randomly assigned to each of three groups: self-concept raised, self-concept lowered, control. Ss were college freshman who were not enrolled in a foreign language course or had not previously taken more than one semester of a foreign language. Self-concepts were measured as self-description of ability to learn a foreign language. Self-concepts were raised or lowered by providing false scores on a foreign language aptitude test. Learning was measured as performance on a paired-associates task utilizing random shapes and CVCs. Ss with lowered self-concepts learned more slowly than control Ss or Ss with raised self-concepts.

  7. Neural correlates of true and false belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Sodian, Beate; Meinhardt, Jörg; Thoermer, Claudia; Hajak, Göran

    2007-04-15

    Belief reasoning plays a central role in making inferences about other people's mental states. The ability to reason about false beliefs is considered as a critical test for having a Theory of Mind (ToM). There is some controversy as to whether it is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) or the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) that is centrally involved in belief reasoning. According to developmental studies of belief reasoning we conducted an fMRI experiment with a carefully controlled paradigm (Sally Anne scenario). We compared false belief reasoning with true belief reasoning in parallel tasks, using a series of cartoon stories depicting transfer of an object unbeknownst to the protagonist (false belief) or with the protagonist witnessing (true belief). The false belief versus true belief contrast revealed activation of the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the right lateral rostral prefrontal cortex and the right TPJ associated with false belief. We suggest that the activation of the dACC and the lateral PFC might be associated with action monitoring and stimulus-independent cognitive processing whereas the activation of the TPJ might be related to the computation of mental representations that create perspective differences, such as a person's false belief that contrasts with reality and therefore might be centrally involved in the decoupling mechanism. Additionally we found common patterns of activation for true and false belief reasoning, including inferior parietal and precuneus activation, but we found no activation of the MPFC or the TPJ in general belief reasoning.

  8. Biologically false positive reactions to serological tests for syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Kostant, George H.

    1956-01-01

    The frequency of biologically false positive reactions to serological tests for syphilis depends on a number of factors, including the individual immunological response, the number and type of serological tests performed, and the stage of the disease producing such reactions; the relative importance of such factors is discussed. The author also considers in detail the diseases or conditions giving rise to acute or chronic biologically false positive reactions. A variety of verification tests exists for differentiating the true syphilitic reaction from the biologically false positive reaction, but none is so accurate as the Treponema pallidum immobilization and immune adherence tests, which the author considers should be used when others have proved inconclusive. In the final section of his paper, he indicates the steps to be followed in attempting to distinguish between latent syphilis and biologically false positive reactions in persons with positive serological tests but no anamnestic or clinical evidence of syphilis. PMID:13329848

  9. Interrogation and false confessions: vulnerability factors.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    This paper reviews the psychological factors that make some individuals susceptible to making a false confession of having committed a criminal offence. A number of 'vulnerability factors' are highlighted and it is emphasized that these need to be interpreted within the context of all circumstances surrounding the case. PMID:1591561

  10. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  11. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Response to Reports... false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing... crossing by taking the following actions: (a) Prior to a train's arrival at the crossing, notify the...

  12. 49 CFR 234.107 - False activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Response to Reports... false activation, a railroad having maintenance responsibility for the highway-rail grade crossing... crossing by taking the following actions: (a) Prior to a train's arrival at the crossing, notify the...

  13. 30 CFR 581.5 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER... provisions of 18 U.S.C. 1001, it is a crime punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment or a fine of $10,000, or... States any false or fraudulent statement(s) to any matters within the Agency's jurisdiction....

  14. What Makes Language Learners False Beginners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Tomoko

    A study in Japan investigated second language skill loss and maintenance in three groups of English-as-a-Second-Language learners: (1) ninth graders studying basic vocabulary and sentence structures (true beginners); (2) students in the lowest level English class at a technical college, but with some English language skills (false beginners); and…

  15. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  16. How to Justify Teaching False Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Matthew H.

    2008-01-01

    We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

  17. Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

  18. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  19. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  20. The consequences of suggesting false childhood food events.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Scoboria, Alan; Arnold, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We combined data across eight published experiments (N=1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related event in the past and current preference for that food. Suggestion indirectly affected intention to eat the food via change in autobiographical belief. The development of belief with and without memory produced similar changes in food preferences and behavior intention, indicating that belief in the event drives changes in suggestion-related attitudes. Finally, positive suggestions (e.g., "you loved asparagus the first time you tried it") yielded stronger effects than negative suggestions (e.g., "you got sick eating egg salad"). These findings show that false autobiographical suggestions lead to the development of autobiographical beliefs, which in turn, have consequences for one's attitudes and behaviors. PMID:25613303

  1. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert E-mail: philipp.grothaus@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.

  2. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  3. False beats in coupled piano string unisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as ``false beating'' in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how ``mistunings'' between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. ``False beats'' in a single string partial can be ``inherited'' by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance.

  4. [False memory syndrome: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Nemets, Boris; Witztum, Eliezer; Kotler, Moshe

    2002-08-01

    The review describes the heated dispute on the present state of recovered traumatic memories. There are two main schools concerning the status of recovered memories of child abuse. One school believes in their authenticity unconditionally. Those who oppose the authenticity claim False Memory Syndrome's existence. They describe it as "a serious form of psychopathology characterized by strongly believed pseudomemories of childhood sexual abuse" and "condition in which a person's identity and interpersonal relationships are centered around a memory of traumatic experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly believes". This review presents the allegations of both sides involved in the dispute, with updates of scientific and judicial references and relevant recommendations to care takers.

  5. False beats in coupled piano string unisons.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Brian

    2004-02-01

    The behavior of a unison pair of piano strings coupled by the soundboard bridge, when one string has localized anisotropy in the reactive part of the bridge admittance for a given partial frequency, can be investigated using a theoretical matrix description. The anisotropy can cause what in piano tuning terminology is referred to as "false beating" in a partial of the single string. A mathematical model can be used to illustrate how "mistunings" between the strings of the unison (measured when the strings are sounding in isolation from each other) may theoretically arise as a consequence of the normal practice in piano tuning, of eliminating or reducing audible beating in the unison when both strings are sounding. "False beats" in a single string partial can be "inherited" by a partial of the coupled unison's spectrum, and mistunings between the strings can eliminate or reduce the appearance of this inheritance. PMID:15000199

  6. Accounting for false negatives in hotspot detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Wilson, John E.

    2007-08-28

    Hotspot sampling designs are used in environmental sampling to identify the location of one (or more) contiguous regions of elevated contamination. These regions are known as hotspots. The problem of how to calculate the probability of detecting an elliptical hotspot using a rectangular or triangular grid of sampling points was addressed by Singer and Wickman in 1969. This approach presumed that any sample which coincided with a hotspot would detect the hotspot without error. However, for many sampling methodologies, there is a chance that the hotspot will not be detected even though it has been sampled directly--a false negative. We present a mathematical solution and a numerical algorithm which account for false negatives when calculating the probability of detecting hotspots that are circular in shape.

  7. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  8. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area. PMID:20542936

  9. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    PubMed

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  10. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

  11. False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

  12. Correcting false memories: Errors must be noticed and replaced.

    PubMed

    Mullet, Hillary G; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2016-04-01

    Memory can be unreliable. For example, after reading The new baby stayed awake all night, people often misremember that the new baby cried all night (Brewer, 1977); similarly, after hearing bed, rest, and tired, people often falsely remember that sleep was on the list (Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In general, such false memories are difficult to correct, persisting despite warnings and additional study opportunities. We argue that errors must first be detected to be corrected; consistent with this argument, two experiments showed that false memories were nearly eliminated when conditions facilitated comparisons between participants' errors and corrective feedback (e.g., immediate trial-by-trial feedback that allowed direct comparisons between their responses and the correct information). However, knowledge that they had made an error was insufficient; unless the feedback message also contained the correct answer, the rate of false memories remained relatively constant. On the one hand, there is nothing special about correcting false memories: simply labeling an error as "wrong" is also insufficient for correcting other memory errors, including misremembered facts or mistranslations. However, unlike these other types of errors--which often benefit from the spacing afforded by delayed feedback--false memories require a special consideration: Learners may fail to notice their errors unless the correction conditions specifically highlight them.

  13. Correcting false memories: Errors must be noticed and replaced.

    PubMed

    Mullet, Hillary G; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2016-04-01

    Memory can be unreliable. For example, after reading The new baby stayed awake all night, people often misremember that the new baby cried all night (Brewer, 1977); similarly, after hearing bed, rest, and tired, people often falsely remember that sleep was on the list (Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In general, such false memories are difficult to correct, persisting despite warnings and additional study opportunities. We argue that errors must first be detected to be corrected; consistent with this argument, two experiments showed that false memories were nearly eliminated when conditions facilitated comparisons between participants' errors and corrective feedback (e.g., immediate trial-by-trial feedback that allowed direct comparisons between their responses and the correct information). However, knowledge that they had made an error was insufficient; unless the feedback message also contained the correct answer, the rate of false memories remained relatively constant. On the one hand, there is nothing special about correcting false memories: simply labeling an error as "wrong" is also insufficient for correcting other memory errors, including misremembered facts or mistranslations. However, unlike these other types of errors--which often benefit from the spacing afforded by delayed feedback--false memories require a special consideration: Learners may fail to notice their errors unless the correction conditions specifically highlight them. PMID:26576564

  14. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  15. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  16. Attachment, authenticity, and honesty: dispositional and experimentally induced security can reduce self- and other-deception.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Sesko, Amanda K; Shaver, Phillip R; Chun, David S

    2010-05-01

    Attachment security is hypothesized to promote authenticity and sincerity, or honesty, whereas insecurity is hypothesized to increase various forms of inauthenticity and dishonesty. The authors tested these ideas in 8 studies of dispositional and situational attachment insecurities and their influence on inauthenticity and dishonesty. The first 4 studies showed that authenticity is related to scoring low on the 2 dimensions of dispositional attachment insecurity-anxiety and avoidance-and that these 2 dimensions are associated with different aspects of inauthenticity. The first set of studies also showed that conscious and unconscious security priming increased state authenticity (compared with neutral or insecurity priming). The last 4 studies showed that attachment insecurity is related to dishonesty (lying and cheating) and that security priming reduces the tendency to lie or cheat and does so more effectively than positive mood priming. Implications for understanding the role of authenticity and inauthenticity in various relationship contexts are discussed.

  17. Metabolic regulation as a control for lipid disorders. I. Influence of (--)-hydroxycitrate on experimentally induced obesity in the rodent.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, C; Triscari, J

    1977-05-01

    The feasibility of treating obesity by metabolic regulation has been explored in this study by examining the effect of (--)-hydroxycitrate on three types of experimentally induced obesity in the rodent.(--)-Hydroxycitrate was utilized because it depressed fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in vivo through its activity as a potent competitive inhibitor of APT citrate lyase. In all models, the mature rat, the goldthioglucose-induced obese mouse, and the ventromedial hypothalmic lesioned obese rat, food intake and body weight gain were reduced signficantly by the chronic oral administration of a nontoxic dose of (--)-hydroxcitrate. Body composition analyses of mature rats treated with (--)-hydroxycitrate demonstrated a significant depression of body lipid levels and an unaltered body protein content. However, a citrate administration produced no significant effects on weight gain, food intake, or body lipid or protein levels when compared to controls. PMID:324261

  18. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  19. Comparison of unilateral arytenoid lateralization and ventral ventriculocordectomy for the treatment of experimentally induced laryngeal paralysis in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Alsup, J C; Greenfield, C L; Hungerford, L L; McKiernan, B C; Whiteley, H E

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in respiratory function in dogs with experimentally induced laryngeal paralysis treated with either unilateral arytenoid lateralization or ventral ventriculocordectomy, and compared the effectiveness of these procedures. Evaluation consisted of clinical assessment and tidal breathing flow volume loop and upper airway resistance measurements. Carbon dioxide and doxapram hydrochloride were used as respiratory stimulants. Initially, all dogs improved clinically after corrective surgery. However, by the end of the study, laryngeal collapse had developed in 2 of 5 dogs corrected by ventral ventriculocordectomy. No statistical differences in upper airway mechanics testing were seen between the surgical procedures. With both groups combined, many measurements of upper airway obstruction improved after surgical correction. Based on this study, these surgical procedures yield comparable results, although additional studies are needed to evaluate both the cause of laryngeal collapse and the role of upper airway mechanics testing in the evaluation of canine laryngeal paralysis. PMID:9167877

  20. Minimal involvement of the circumventricular organs in the pathogenesis of spontaneously arising and experimentally induced classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sisó, S; Martin, S; Konold, T; Hawkins, S A C; Thurston, L; Simmons, M M; Stack, M J; Jeffrey, M; González, L

    2012-01-01

    In sheep infected experimentally with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, amplification of infectivity in peripheral organs during early preclinical stages is thought to contribute to high titres of the agent being detected in blood, with subsequent haematogenous neuroinvasion through the circumventricular organs (CVOs). In contrast, little disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) or infectivity is detected in the peripheral tissues of cattle during the preclinical and clinical stages of BSE. The aim of this study was to investigate immunohistochemically the role of haematogenous neuroinvasion in cattle with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced BSE. There was almost complete absence of PrP(d) in the peripheral organs of BSE infected cattle. Additionally, there was minimal involvement of the CVOs during preclinical disease and there was progressive caudorostral accumulation of PrP(d) in the brain. These findings do not support haematogenous neuroinvasion in the bovine disease.

  1. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. The Voyager project is manages for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhea in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tangpu, Vareishang; Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The roots of Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. (Rosaceae) have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in Northeast India to treat diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and protective effects of P. fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhea in mice. Materials and Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhea in mice, using four experimental models, that is the measurement of fecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enteropooling assay, and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100-3200 mg/kg). In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrheal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared with 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant antidiarrheal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for protection from diarrhea. PMID:26401356

  3. Magnesium Supplementation Prevents and Reverses Experimentally Induced Movement Disturbances in Rats: Biochemical and Behavioral Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Maikel; Segat, Hecson J; De David Antoniazzi, Caren Tatiane; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Pase, Camila S; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Burger, Marilise E

    2015-08-01

    Reserpine administration results in a predictable animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) that has been largely used to access movement disturbances related to extrapyramidal oxidative damage. Here, OD was acutely induced by reserpine (two doses of 0.7 mg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.)), every other day for 3 days), which was administered after (experiment 1) and before (experiment 2) magnesium (Mg) supplementation (40 mg/kg/mL, peroral (p.o.)). In experiment 1, Mg was administered for 28 days before reserpine treatment, while in experiment 2, it was initiated 24 h after the last reserpine administration and was maintained for 10 consecutive days. Experiment 1 (prevention) showed that Mg supplementation was able to prevent reserpine-induced OD and catalepsy development. Mg was also able to prevent reactive species (RS) generation, thus preventing increase of protein carbonyl (PC) levels in both cortex and substantia nigra, but not in striatum. Experiment 2 (reversion) showed that Mg was able to decrease OD and catalepsy at all times assessed. In addition, Mg was able to decrease RS generation, with lower levels of PC in both cortex and striatum, but not in substantia nigra. These outcomes indicate that Mg is an important metal that should be present in the diet, since its intake is able to prevent and minimize the development of movement disorders closely related to oxidative damage in the extrapyramidal brain areas, such as OD.

  4. False belief in infancy: a fresh look.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    Can infants appreciate that others have false beliefs? Do they have a theory of mind? In this article I provide a detailed review of more than 20 experiments that have addressed these questions, and offered an affirmative answer, using nonverbal 'violation of expectation' and 'anticipatory looking' procedures. Although many of these experiments are both elegant and ingenious, I argue that their results can be explained by the operation of domain-general processes and in terms of 'low-level novelty'. This hypothesis suggests that the infants' looking behaviour is a function of the degree to which the observed (perceptual novelty) and remembered or expected (imaginal novelty) low-level properties of the test stimuli - their colours, shapes and movements - are novel with respect to events encoded by the infants earlier in the experiment. If the low-level novelty hypothesis is correct, research on false belief in infancy currently falls short of demonstrating that infants have even an implicit theory of mind. However, I suggest that the use of two experimental strategies - inanimate control procedures, and self-informed belief induction - could be used in combination with existing methods to bring us much closer to understanding the evolutionary and developmental origins of theory of mind. PMID:24666559

  5. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar

    PubMed Central

    Costa, C.A.X.; Brito, K.N.O.; Gomes, M.A.; Caliari, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar were described in details, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Variation in the virulence is therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to better understand the disease. PMID:20819776

  6. [Course of the progression of experimentally induced arteriosclerotic vessel wall changes after treatment with magnesium orotate] .

    PubMed

    Jellinek, H; Takács, E

    2000-12-01

    There are some experimental and clinical results regarding blood vessel protective properties of magnesium orotate (CAS 27067-77-2) till now. The goal of the present investigation was to verify the therapeutical efficacy of magnesium orotate vs. its singular components in cholesterol fed rabbits. Besides, the blood-lipid concentrations (LDL as risk factor for atherosclerosis and HDL as negative risk factor) were analyzed in relation to pathomorphological changes in the aortic blood vessel wall. The results of our experiments in New Zealand rabbits support the assumption that orotic acid and especially magnesium orotate influence the lipid level and/or the LDL/HDL-quotient in a favorable way and that they decrease the interaction between monocytes/macrophages and the endothelium of the blood vessels. Consequently, the plaque formation will be decreased in a clinically relevant manner.

  7. Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress.

    PubMed

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2009-04-01

    Two studies investigated the stress-eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315] and a self-report measure designed to evaluate changes in eating in response to stress. Increased intake of HF snacks was associated with high emotional eating but not with restraint. A laboratory-based experiment compared intake of HF and LF snacks after ego-threatening and neutral Stroop colour-naming tasks. Intake was suppressed by 31.8% in restrained compared to unrestrained eaters across tasks. Restrained eaters consumed significantly less after ego-threat than after the neutral manipulation, but this was associated only with intake of the LF snack. Restrained eaters' intake of dried fruit was suppressed by 33.2% after ego-threat relative to the neutral task, despite a significant increase in hunger for this group following ego-threat. These results suggest that the type and variety of foods offered influences the link between stress and eating in laboratory settings. Further research should aim to replicate and extend these findings, with a view to informing potential interventions for stress-related eating.

  8. Decoy Methods for Assessing False Positives and False Discovery Rates in Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W.; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2008-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs. stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs. unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs. composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size, but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from separate search was about three times that from composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when multiple

  9. Decoy methods for assessing false positives and false discovery rates in shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2009-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from the separate search was about three times that from the composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when

  10. Deficient cognitive control fuels children's exuberant false allegations.

    PubMed

    Poole, Debra Ann; Dickinson, Jason J; Brubacher, Sonja P; Liberty, Allison E; Kaake, Amanda M

    2014-02-01

    In eyewitness studies as in actual investigations, a minority of children generate numerous false (and sometimes incredulous) allegations. To explore the characteristics of these children, we reinterviewed and administered a battery of tasks to 61 children (ages 4-9 years) who had previously participated in an eyewitness study where a man broke a "germ rule" twice when he tried to touch them. Performance on utilization, response conflict (Luria tapping), and theory of mind tasks predicted the number of false reports of touching (with age and time since the event controlled) and correctly classified 90.16% of the children as typical witnesses or exuberant (more than 3) false reporters. Results of a factor analysis pointed to a common process underlying performance on these tasks that accounted for 49% of the variability in false reports. Relations between task performance and testimony confirmed that the mechanisms underlying occasional intrusions are different from those that drive persistent confabulation and that deficient cognitive control fuels young children's exuberant false reports. PMID:24157217

  11. Experimentally induced anhydrobiosis in the tardigrade Richtersius coronifer: phenotypic factors affecting survival.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, K Ingemar; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2002-11-01

    The ability of some animal taxa (e.g., nematodes, rotifers, and tardigrades) to enter an ametabolic (cryptobiotic) state is well known. Nevertheless, the phenotypic factors affecting successful anhydrobiosis have rarely been investigated. We report a laboratory study on the effects of body size, reproductive condition, and energetic condition on anhydrobiotic survival in a population of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer. Body size and energetic condition interacted in affecting the probability of survival, while reproductive condition had no effect. Large tardigrades had a lower probability of survival than medium-sized tardigrades and showed a positive response in survival to energetic condition. This suggests that energy constrained the possibility for large tardigrades to enter and to leave anhydrobiosis. As a possible alternative explanation for low survival in the largest specimens we discuss the expression of senescence. In line with the view that processes related to anhydrobiosis are connected with energetic costs we documented a decrease in the size of storage cells over a period of anhydrobiosis, showing for the first time that energy is consumed in the process of anhydrobiosis in tardigrades.

  12. Experimentally induced compaction and coalification in peat from the Okefenokee Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, C.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Dulong, F.T.; Neuzil, S.G.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of temperature (T) and pressure (P) on compaction and coalification of peat were studied in experiments that simulated open and closed systems of burial. In the open system, normal hydrostatic and lithostatic pressure conditions were simulated; in the closed system, hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures were equal. Samples consisted of fibric Taxodium peat and wood collected from the Okefenokee peat swamp. The experimental conditions were increased from ambient T and P to conditions simulating a depth of 900m at 100/sup 0/C over the span of one month and held constant for a second month until the experiment was terminated. The results indicate that more compaction and coalification occurred in the open system than in the closed system. The relative amount of CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ evolved in the open-system was more than four times the amount evolved in the closed system. The fluorescence spectra of pollen grains also indicate that the artificially induced coalification was greatest in the open system. The experimental data indicate that both compaction and coalification are controlled by peat composition and by P and T conditions during burial. At least in the early stages of coalification, wood in peat is not as compactible as the fibric peat. Anomalies in coal rank and in organic-maturation indicators may be the result of variable pressure conditions that affected or controlled the fugacity or activity of the reaction products during coalification.

  13. Bare, Bio-Active and Hydrogel-Coated Coils for Endovascular Treatment of Experimentally Induced Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Reinges, M.H.T.; Krings, T.; Drexler, A.Y.; Ludolph, A.; Sellhaus, B.; Bovi, M.; Geibprasert, S.; Agid, R.; Scherer, K.; Hans, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Endovascular treatments of cerebral aneurysms with bare platinum coils have a higher rate of recurrence compared to surgical clipping. This may be related to failed vessel wall reconstruction since histological and scanning electron microscopy results following embolization failed to demonstrate neoendothelialization over the aneurysm neck. The present study tried to elucidate whether the use of modified coils resulted in a better rate of reconstructing the vessel wall over the aneurysm neck in experimental aneurysms. Aneurysms were created in 20 rabbits by intraluminal elastase incubation of the common carotid artery. Five animals each were assigned to the following groups: untreated, bare platinum coils, bioactive coils with polyglycolic/polylactic acid coating, and hydrogel-coated platinum coils. After 12 months, angiography, histology and scanning electron microscopy was performed. No neoendothelial layer was visualized in the bioactive and bare coil groups with a tendency to an increased layering of fibroblasts along the bioactive coils at the aneurysm fundus. However, at the aneurysm neck perfused clefts were present and although a thin fibrinous layer was present over some coils, no bridging neointimal or neoendothial layer was noted over different coils. Following loose Hydrogel coiling, a complete obliteration of the aneurysm was present with neoendothelialization present over different coil loops. The study demonstrates that with surface coil modifications complete and stable aneurysm obliteration may become possible. A smooth and dense surface over the aneurysm neck may be necessary for endothelial cells to bridge the aneurysm neck and to lead to vessel wall reconstruction. PMID:20642888

  14. Experimentally induced sickness decreases food intake, but not hoarding, in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alfredo; Proud, Kevin; Demas, Gregory E

    2008-11-01

    A wide range of physiological and behavioral alterations occur in response to sickness. Sickness behaviors, rather than incidental by-products or side-effects of acute illness, serve as adaptive functional responses that allow animals to cope with a pathogenic challenge. Among the more salient sickness behaviors is a reduction in food intake; virtually all sick animals display marked decreases in this behavior. Food intake, however, is only one component of the food-related behavioral repertoire. For many mammalian species, food hoarding represents a substantial portion of the total energetic budget. Here we tested the effects of experimental sickness on food hoarding and food intake in a naturally food hoarding species, Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Adult male and female hamsters received injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce sickness or control injections. LPS-induced sickness resulted in a marked decrease in food intake in both males and females, but did not decrease hoarding in either sex. These results support previous findings suggesting that food hoarding and food intake appear to be differentially regulated at the physiological level.

  15. [The false equivalent Galeazzi in children].

    PubMed

    Marzouki, A; Elibrahimi, A; Elmrini, A; Boutayeb, F

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a false Galeazzi equivalent in children. This injury is characterised by an epiphyseal detachment of the distal extremity of the ulna rather than a distal radio-ulnar dislocation. A 16-year-old patient was injured in a fall from a bike. Radiographs showed a fracture of the radial shaft with anterior angulation, together with a type II Salter-Harris epiphyseal injury at the level of the distal ulna. We were unable to perform a closed reduction under general anesthesia due to interposition of periosteum at the fracture site. Thus surgical management was the only option, which consisted of removing the offending periosteum and performing osteosynthesis of the radial shaft fracture with a plate, and the epiphyseal detachment with pins. After 10 months, we noted no bone growth disturbance, or any reduced mobility of the wrist. We will continue the follow-up to monitor bone growth disturbance of the distal extremity of the ulna.

  16. Opportunity View of 'Gilbert' Layer (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Gilbert,' which is the rover's next target after completing an examination of three stratigtaphic layers forming a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater. The rover will descend deeper into the crater to reach the Gilbert layer.

    Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:30 p.m. during the rover's 1,429th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 31, 2008).

    This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  17. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yu-Min

    2013-01-01

    Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data.

  18. Layered Outcrops in Gusev Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the ways scientists collect mineralogical data about rocks on Mars is to view them through filters that allow only specific wavelengths of light to pass through the lens of the panoramic camera. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this false-color image of the rock nicknamed 'Tetl' at 1:05 p.m. martian time on its 270th martian day, or sol (Oct. 5, 2004) using the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Darker red hues in the image correspond to greater concentrations of oxidized soil and dust. Bluer hues correspond to portions of rock that are not as heavily coated with soils or are not as highly oxidized.

  19. Right ventricular false tendons, a cadaveric approach.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Wartmann, Christopher T; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Louis, Robert G; Black, Brandie; Jordan, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Left ventricular false tendons (LFTs) have been extensively described and recognized by gross anatomic studies. However, there is very little information available regarding right ventricular false tendons (RFTs). The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore and delineate the morphology, topography and morphometry of the RFTs, and provide a comprehensive picture of their anatomy across a broad range of specimens. We identified 35/100 heart specimens containing right ventricular RFTs and classified them into five types. In Type I (21, 47.7%) the RFTs, was located between the ventricular septum and the anterior papillary muscle; in Type II (11, 22.9%) between ventricular septum and the posterior papillary muscle; in Type III (7, 14.5%) between the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve and the right ventricular free wall; in Type IV (5, 10.4%) between the posterior papillary muscle and the ventricular free wall; and lastly, in Type V (4, 8.3%) between the anterior papillary muscle and ventricular free wall. The mean length of the RFTs was 18 +/- 7 mm with a mean diameter of 1.4 +/- 05 mm. Histologic examination with Masson trichrome and PAS revealed that 20 (41.6%) of the 48 RFTs carried conduction tissue fibers. The presence of conduction tissue fibers within the RFTs was limited to Types I, III, and IV. In Types II and V the RFTs resembled fibrous structures in contrast with Type I, II and IV, which were composed more of muscular fibers, including conduction tissue fibers. RFTs containing conduction tissue fibers were identified, which may implicate them in the appearance of arrhythmias.

  20. Constraining Oxygen False Positives in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, C. E.; Schottelkotte, J. C.; Kasting, J. F.

    2014-03-01

    Oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) in the present Earth's atmosphere are byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis coupled with organic carbon burial. On Earth, no known abiotic surface process would be able to generate such an atmosphere, and by extension, lifeless exoplanets are expected to be devoid of O2. As a result, molecular oxygen and ozone are often seen as convincing signposts for life. Recently, however, a number of authors have demonstrated the abiotic generation of molecular oxygen in a planetary atmosphere, either under oxidizing conditions (Hu et al., 2013) or around an M star (Tian et al., 2013). This èfalse positive', if verified, would remove oxygen and ozone from an already short list of easily detectable biosignatures. We explore oxygen false positives with our 1-D photochemical model, updated from Segura et al. (2007). Preliminary results show that if water vapor photolysis longward of ~200 nm is neglected, substantial amounts of CO and O2 can build up in the lower part of the atmosphere. Additionally, the ultimate fate of CO and O2 produced in such atmospheres is strongly dependent on the imposed lower boundary condition, with low depositional velocities corresponding to higher mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The deposition velocity of a gas depends on it dissolved concentration, however, and so one needs to consider the chemistry of these gases in solution. Ongoing work seeks to test the conclusions of Tian et al., (2013) by exploring this dependence on ocean chemistry and by including spectra from AD Leo (an active M-dwarf, used by Domagal-Goldman et al., (2011)) to compare with the M-dwarf spectra used by Tian et al.

  1. Experimentally induced host-shift changes life-history strategy in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Savković, Uroš; ĐorĐević, Mirko; Šešlija Jovanović, Darka; Lazarević, Jelica; Tucić, Nikola; Stojković, Biljana

    2016-04-01

    Expansion of the host range in phytophagous insects depends on their ability to form an association with a novel plant through changes in host-related traits. Phenotypic plasticity has important effects on initial survival of individuals faced with a new plant, as well as on the courses of evolutionary change during long-term adaptation to novel conditions. Using experimental populations of the seed beetle that evolved on ancestral (common bean) or novel (chickpea) host and applying reciprocal transplant at both larval and adult stage on the alternative host plant, we studied the relationship between the initial (plastic) phases of host-shift and the subsequent stages of evolutionary divergence in life-history strategies between populations exposed to the host-shift process. After 48 generations, populations became well adapted to chickpea by evolving the life-history strategy with prolonged larval development, increased body mass, earlier reproduction, shorter lifespan and decreased plasticity of all traits compared with ancestral conditions. In chickpea-adapted beetles, negative fitness consequences of low plasticity of pre-adult development (revealed as severe decrease in egg-to-adult viability on beans) exhibited mismatch with positive effects of low plasticity (i.e. low host sensitivity) in oviposition and fecundity. In contrast, beetles adapted to the ancestral host showed high plasticity of developmental process, which enabled high larval survival on chickpea, whereas elevated plasticity in adult behaviour (i.e. high host sensitivity) resulted in delayed reproduction and decreased fecundity on chickpea. The analysis of population growth parameters revealed significant fluctuation during successive phases of the host-shift process in A. obtectus. PMID:26790127

  2. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    after one or more exposures (cases) and 34 cats that survived (controls) demonstrated four significant associations after 100k permutations. When these same cats were analyzed using a sib-pair transmission test, three of the four associations were confirmed although not with genome-wide significance. GWAS was then done on three different age groups of cases to take into account age-related resistance, and different associations were observed. The only common and strong association identified between the various GWAS case configurations was for the 34.7-45.8Mb region of chromosome A3. No obvious candidate genes were present in this region.

  3. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    after one or more exposures (cases) and 34 cats that survived (controls) demonstrated four significant associations after 100k permutations. When these same cats were analyzed using a sib-pair transmission test, three of the four associations were confirmed although not with genome-wide significance. GWAS was then done on three different age groups of cases to take into account age-related resistance, and different associations were observed. The only common and strong association identified between the various GWAS case configurations was for the 34.7-45.8Mb region of chromosome A3. No obvious candidate genes were present in this region. PMID:25265870

  4. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A

    2016-01-01

    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information--a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat--but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval.

  5. Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Link, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or ?false negative? observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that ?false positive? errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors.

  6. 'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes (false-color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This false-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera shows that the dune crests have accumulated more dust than the flanks of the dunes and the flat surfaces between them. Also evident is a 'blue' tint on the flat surfaces as compared to the dune flanks. This results from the presence of the hematite-containing spherules ('blueberries') that accumulate on the flat surfaces.

    Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

    Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.

  7. Possible and False Biomarkers from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.

    2004-01-01

    The Search for life in the Solar System is one of NASA's main goals for the coming decade. We may never observe alien life directly; we or our robotic craft may always be removed from it by many years, or meters of crust. If we do find evidence of Life elsewhere in the Solar System it will probably be in form of chemical biomarkers, quintessentially biological molecules that indicate the presence of micro-organisms. What molecules would be truly indicative of alien life? Chlorophyll fragments, which are often used by geochemists are probably far too specific. Simpler molecules, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleo-bases might seem to be biomarkers, but they can form non-biotically in space. Alkyl substituted aromatics in ALH 84001 have been invoked as biomarkers, but they are not strong evidence in and of themselves. Understanding the range of nonbiological organic molecules which could act as false biomarkers in space is a prerequisite for any reasonable search for true biomarkers on other worlds. When simple organics arrive at the surface of a body like Europa, either from below or from space, how long do they survive and what do they make? How can we distinguish these from real biomarkers? In this talk I will present some ideas about what might be useful qualities to consider in a potential biomarker, and will ask for advice from the attendant geochemists.

  8. False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Inssbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43890.

  9. Deep Hole in 'Clovis' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    At a rock called 'Clovis,' the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit cut a 9-millimeter (0.35-inch) hole during the rover's 216th martian day, or sol (Aug. 11, 2004). The hole is the deepest drilled in a rock on Mars so far. This false color view was made from images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera on sol 226 (Aug. 21, 2004) at around 12:50 p.m. local true solar time -- early afternoon in Gusev Crater on Mars. To the right is a 'brush flower' of circles produced by scrubbing the surface of the rock with the abrasion tool's wire brush. Scientists used rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to look for iron-bearing minerals and determine the elemental chemical composition of the rock. This composite combines images taken with the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. The grayish-blue hue in this image suggests that the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than minerals on the surface. The diameter of the hole cut into the rock is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches).

  10. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater

  11. Spirit View of 'Wishstone' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Scientists working with NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit decided to examine this rock, dubbed 'Wishstone,' based on data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer. That instrument's data indicated that the mineralogy of the rocks in this area is different from that of rocks encountered either on the plains of Gusev Crater or in bedrock outcrops examined so far in the 'Columbia Hills' inside the crater. Spirit used its rock abrasion tool first to scour a patch of the rock's surface with a wire brush, then to grind away the surface to reveal interior material. Placement of the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer on the exposed circle of interior material revealed that the rock is rich in phosphorus. Spirit used its panoramic camera during the rover's 342nd martian day, or sol, (Dec. 18, 2004) to take the three individual images that were combined to produce this false-color view emphasizing the freshly ground dust around the hole cut by the rock abrasion tool.

    Unusually Rich in Phosophorus The graph in figure 1 compares the elemental makeup of a rock dubbed 'Wishstone' with the average composition of rocks that Spirit examined on the western spur of the 'Columbia Hills.' Wishstone lies farther into the hills than that spur. It is richer in phosphorus than any other Mars rock ever examined. Scientists plan to examine other rocks near Wishstone to help explain the significance of the high phosphorus concentration. The vertical scale is the ratio of the concentration of an element in the hills rocks to the concentration of the same element in a typical volcanic rock from the plains that Spirit crossed to reach the hills.

  12. Venus - False Color of Bereghinya Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false color Magellan image shows a portion of Bereghinya Planitia (plains) in the northern hemisphere of Venus, centered at 31 degrees north latitude, 43 degrees east longitude. The area is 260 kilometers (160 miles) wide and 330 kilometers (200 miles) long. This image was produced from Magellan radar data collected in Cycle 2 of the mission. Cycle 2 was completed January 15, 1992. The area was not imaged during the first cycle because of superior conjunction when the sun was between the Earth and Venus, preventing communication with the spacecraft. This image contains examples of several of the major geologic terrains on Venus and illustrates the basic stratigraphy or sequence of geologic events. The oldest terrains appear as bright, highly-fractured or chaotic highlands rising out of the plains. This is seen in the upper right and lower left quadrants of the image. The chaotic highlands, sometimes called tessera, may represent older and thicker crustal material and occupy about 15 percent of the surface of Venus. Plains surround and embay the fractured highland tessera. Plains are formed by fluid volcanic flows that may have once formed vast lava seas which covered all the low lying surfaces. Plains comprise more than 80 percent of the surface of Venus. The most recent activity in the region is volcanism that produced the radar bright flows best seen in the lower right quadrant of the image. The lava flows in this image are associated with the shield volcano Tepev Mons whose summit is near the lower left corner of the image. The flows are similar to the darker plains volcanics, but apparently have more rugged surfaces that more efficiently scatter the radar signal back to the spacecraft. The geologic sequence is early fracturing of the tessera, flooding by extensive plains lavas and scattered, less extensive individual flows on the plains surface. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft.

  13. A Frosty Rim In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    Our final image combines the features of the past two days, with a dust covered frosty crater rim and the bluer sand dunes of the north polar region.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 70.1, Longitude 351.8 East (8.2 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Natural and False Color Views of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This image shows two views of the trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's ice-covered satellite, Europa. The left image shows the approximate natural color appearance of Europa. The image on the right is a false-color composite version combining violet, green and infrared images to enhance color differences in the predominantly water-ice crust of Europa. Dark brown areas represent rocky material derived from the interior, implanted by impact, or from a combination of interior and exterior sources. Bright plains in the polar areas (top and bottom) are shown in tones of blue to distinguish possibly coarse-grained ice (dark blue) from fine-grained ice (light blue). Long, dark lines are fractures in the crust, some of which are more than 3,000 kilometers (1,850 miles) long. The bright feature containing a central dark spot in the lower third of the image is a young impact crater some 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. This crater has been provisionally named 'Pwyll' for the Celtic god of the underworld.

    Europa is about 3,160 kilometers (1,950 miles) in diameter, or about the size of Earth's moon. This image was taken on September 7, 1996, at a range of 677,000 kilometers (417,900 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter. The image was processed by Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  15. Blind sequential lineup administration reduces both false identifications and confidence in those false identifications.

    PubMed

    Charman, Steve D; Quiroz, Vanessa

    2016-10-01

    One of the most recommended procedures proposed by eyewitness experts is the use of double-blind lineups, in which the administrator does not know the identity of the suspect in the lineup. But despite the near universality of this recommendation, there is surprisingly little empirical research to support the claim that nonblind administration inflates false identifications. What little research has been conducted has shown conflicting findings with regard to the conditions under which nonblind administration affects false identifications, as well as its effects on witness confidence. The current study attempts to elucidate this effect. Student-participants (n = 312) were randomly assigned to play the role of either a lineup administrator (who were either told the identity of the suspect in the lineup or not) or a mock crime witness. Following unbiased instructions, administrators presented either a target-present or target-absent sequential lineup to the witness while being surreptitiously videorecorded. Nonblind administration significantly inflated false, but not correct, identifications, and significantly inflated witness confidence in those false identifications. Video recordings indicated that nonblind administrators were significantly more likely than blind administrators to smile (a) while the witness was viewing a photograph of the suspect, and (b) after a suspect identification. Results provide stronger support for the use of blind lineup administration by broadening the conditions under which nonblind administration is shown to inflate false identifications. Possible reconciliations for conflicting findings in the literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. The pathology of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Liver changes and amebic liver abscess formation.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pathogenesis of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was studied from 5 to 60 days after inoculation. Ulcerative lesions were noted 10 to 60 days after inoculation. The sequential development of lesions was asynchronous and progressed from destruction of the interglandular epithelium and of glandular crypt elements to loss of mucosa and formation of granulomatous lesions in the submucosa involving the muscularis mucosae. Pathologic changes in the liver correlated with the formation of ulcerative cecal lesions. Subacute hepatic changes showed lymphocytic portal infiltrate, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, multinucleated giant cells, granuloma formation, and sinusoidal mononuclear and granulocytic infiltrates. Metastatic amebic liver abscesses occurred as early as 10 days after inoculation, and small abscesses were found in the portal areas of the right liver lobe. The sequential development and pathologic manifestation of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil for the study of human intestinal amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014436

  17. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Beg, Zafarul H; Iqbal, Jahangir

    2005-05-01

    We investigated a dose-dependent hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) isolated from rice bran oil on experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Feeding of atherogenic diet (5% hydrogenated fat, 0.5% cholic acid and 1% cholesterol) for three weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma triglyceride (3.3-fold) and total cholesterol (2.4-fold) levels. There was a 5-fold increase in the level of LDL cholesterol with only a small increase in HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, HMG-CoA reductase activity was significantly reduced in these animals. The formation of TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (86%) and conjugated dienes (78%) were also significantly higher in these rats compared to normals. After the induction of hyperlipidemia for three weeks, rats were supplemented with different doses of TRF for one week. TRF supplementation decreased the lipid parameters in a dose-dependent manner with an optimum effect at a dose of 8 mg TRF/kg/day. HMG-CoA reductase activity, which was increased after the withdrawal of atherogenic diet, remained significantly decreased during the TRF treatment. Feeding of TRF also decreased TBARS and conjugated dienes significantly. These results suggest that TRF supplementation has significant health benefits through the modulation of physiological functions that include various atherogenic lipid profiles and antioxidants in hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Changes of serum amylase, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akuzawa, M; Morizono, M; Nagata, K; Hayano, S; Sakamoto, H; Yasuda, N; Okamoto, K; Kawasaki, Y; Deguchi, E

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the diagnostic application of amylase to canine pancreatic diseases, serum amylase activities, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) were analyzed in normal intact dogs and dogs experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. There was no statistic difference between normal male and female dogs. Amylase specific activities in pancreatic tissue extracts were more than 2,300 times higher than that in serum, and were also higher than those in other tissues; parotid and mandibular salivary glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney. Following the chloroform injection into the pancreatic tissue, WBC increased from 6 to 240 hr and serum glucose significantly increased at 72 and 96 hr, and no urine glucose was detected. BUN as well as serum and urine creatinine showed normal levels. ACCR increased until 96 hr without statistic significance. Serum amylase activities increased significantly after 3 hr and its isozyme was separated into 4 fractions (Amy1-Amy4) in contrast to 3 fractions (Amy2-Amy4) in intact dogs. Since this extra Amy1 seen from 1 hr increasing after 6 hr similarly to other 3 fractions, the evaluation of serum amylase and its isozyme fractions was indicated to be useful for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs.

  19. Comparative capacity of orally administered amoxicillin and parenterally administered penicillin-streptomycin to protect rabbits against experimentally induced streptococcal endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Pujadas, R; Escriva, E; Jane, J; Fernandez, F; Fava, P; Garau, J

    1986-01-01

    A single-intramuscular-dose immunization regimen with a penicillin G-streptomycin combination was compared with three oral-dose amoxicillin regimens for the capacity to prevent Streptococcus sanguis infections of experimentally induced valvular heart lesions in rabbits. Challenge doses of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) CFU of a strain of S. sanguis equally susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin were used in this study. Measured by recovery of test organisms from endocardial lesions, the lowest concentration of these inocula was infective for 60% of the recipients; the two higher-concentration inocula were infective for all recipients. The penicillin G-streptomycin combination provided complete protection against infection with inocula of all sizes. A single-oral-dose amoxicillin regimen (50 mg/kg of body weight) prevented endocarditis when rabbits were challenged with 10(4) CFU, but protection diminished with increasing inoculum concentrations. Similar results were achieved when five oral doses of amoxicillin (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) added at 8-h intervals were included in the single-oral-dose regimen. In contrast, when rabbits received two oral doses of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg of body weight) with a 10-h interval between doses, prophylaxis was fully effective with even the highest inoculum concentration. PMID:3729348

  20. Baseline haptoglobin concentrations are repeatable and predictive of certain aspects of a subsequent experimentally-induced inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Matson, Kevin D; Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Versteegh, Maaike A; Tieleman, B Irene

    2012-05-01

    Ecologists sometimes assume immunological indices reflect fundamental attributes of individuals-an important assumption if an index is to be interpreted in an evolutionary context since among-individual variation drives natural selection. Yet the extent to which individuals vary over different timescales is poorly understood. Haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, is an interesting parameter for studying variability as it is easily quantified and concentrations vary widely due to the molecule's role in inflammation, infection and trauma. We quantified haptoglobin in pigeon plasma samples collected over fourteen months and calculated repeatability to evaluate if haptoglobin concentration is a distinctive trait of individuals. We also explored the capacity of baseline haptoglobin concentrations to predict an array of physiological changes associated with a subsequent experimentally-induced inflammatory response. Maximum repeatability, which occurred over a short mid-winter interval, equaled 0.57. Baseline haptoglobin concentrations predicted response haptoglobin concentrations better than any other endotoxin-induced change. Overall, we identified several strengths and limitations of baseline [Hp] quantification. Acknowledging these qualities should lead to more refined conclusions in studies of the ecology and evolution of immune function. PMID:22316629

  1. Modulatory effects of curcumin and green tea extract against experimentally induced pulmonary fibrosis: a comparison with N-acetyl cysteine.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Mohammed Ahmed; El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Kortam, Mona Abd El Aziz

    2012-11-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of green tea extract (GTE), curcumin, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on experimentally induced pulmonary fibrosis. Curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w), GTE (150 mg/kg b.w), and NAC (490 mg/kg b.w) were administered orally for 14 days with concomitant administration of cyclophosphamide (CP). Lung fibrosis was assessed by measuring hydroxyproline and elastin levels and confirmed by histopathological examination. Oxidative stress was also observed in the CP group. Lung myeloperoxidase activity was significantly decreased in animals of the CP group. N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, leukotriene C₄, and protein were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Transforming growth factor-β, interleukin -1β, and histamine were increased in both serum and BALF. All modulators markedly attenuated the altered biochemical parameters as compared to CP-treated rats. These results suggest the possibility of using these treatments as protective agents with chemotherapy and as protective agents for lung fibrosis.

  2. Changes of serum amylase, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akuzawa, M; Morizono, M; Nagata, K; Hayano, S; Sakamoto, H; Yasuda, N; Okamoto, K; Kawasaki, Y; Deguchi, E

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the diagnostic application of amylase to canine pancreatic diseases, serum amylase activities, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) were analyzed in normal intact dogs and dogs experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. There was no statistic difference between normal male and female dogs. Amylase specific activities in pancreatic tissue extracts were more than 2,300 times higher than that in serum, and were also higher than those in other tissues; parotid and mandibular salivary glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney. Following the chloroform injection into the pancreatic tissue, WBC increased from 6 to 240 hr and serum glucose significantly increased at 72 and 96 hr, and no urine glucose was detected. BUN as well as serum and urine creatinine showed normal levels. ACCR increased until 96 hr without statistic significance. Serum amylase activities increased significantly after 3 hr and its isozyme was separated into 4 fractions (Amy1-Amy4) in contrast to 3 fractions (Amy2-Amy4) in intact dogs. Since this extra Amy1 seen from 1 hr increasing after 6 hr similarly to other 3 fractions, the evaluation of serum amylase and its isozyme fractions was indicated to be useful for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs. PMID:7521216

  3. Changes in urinary bone resorption markers (pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline) resulting from experimentally-induced osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint of rats.

    PubMed

    Imada, Masae; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Ohno, Shigeru; Sasaki, Akiko; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Tanne, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the urinary bone resorption markers, pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpyr), excreted from experimentally-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats. Osteoarthritic lesions were induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase into the right TMJs of 16-week-old male rats. The whole day's urine was collected from each animal one day before the injection and 5, 7, 11 and 14 days after the injection. Urine samples were analyzed by high-perfomance liquid chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy. Histological changes in condyle were examined by using paraffin sections with toluidine blue staining. Degenerative changes were observed in the articular cartilage of the experimental group on day 7 and day 14 after the injection of collagenase. The concentration of Pyr was remarkably high in the experimental group, and consequently the Pyr to Dpyr ratio was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the experimental group than in the control group from 7-14 days after the injection. These findings suggest that a urinary Pyr/Dpyr ratio would be available for the detection of degenerative changes in condyle relevant to temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA). PMID:12555930

  4. Evaluation of the biocompatibility and osteoproductive activity of ostrich eggshell powder in experimentally induced calvarial defects in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Durmuş, Ercan; Celik, Ilhami; Aydin, M Faruk; Yildirim, Gülsün; Sur, Emrah

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of particulate ostrich eggshell grafting on the healing of experimentally induced skull defects. The clinical, radiological, histological, and histomorphometrical findings of this material were compared with the results of commercially available demineralized bone matrix (DBM). The study was conducted on 18 adult New Zealand rabbits. One defect served as a control and the remaining ones either were filled with different sized eggshell particles or DBM, in each animal. Clinical and radiological inspections and histologic investigations of the animals were done at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months of postoperative period. Radiologically, minimal bone regeneration was observed at the empty, control defect sites. The most advanced bone regeneration was in the DBM grafted defects. The eggshell particle grafted defect sites displayed weak bone regeneration at earlier stages, at 1st and 3rd months after operation when compared with demineralized bone matrix. Nevertheless, ossification was satisfactory at 6th month after operation when compared with the control defects. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that Ostrich eggshell powder (OSP) is a worth-while bone substitute because it is a safe, cheap, and easily available material. Long-term studies will clarify its possible role in maxillofacial surgery. Further sophisticated experiments should be undertaken before human implantation concerning its osteoproductive activity alone or in combination with other materials. PMID:18076098

  5. Ultrasound characteristics of experimentally induced luteinized unruptured follicles (LUF) and naturally occurring hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAF) in the mare.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Newcombe, J R

    2012-02-01

    The development of hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAF) involves luteinization and hemorrhage of the follicle. This is observed on ultrasound as an increase in the echogenicity of the granulosa layer and formation of echoic particles in the antrum. The inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with flunixin meglumine (FM) during the periovulatory period induces ovulatory failure with development of luteinized unruptured follicles (LUF). These two types of anovulatory follicles appear to share similar ultrasound features but they have not been compared critically. The following endpoints: follicle diameter, follicular contents score, interval from hCG administration to beginning of follicular hemorrhage, interval from hemorrhage to organization of follicular contents, and cycle length were studied and compared in mares with HAF (n = 11) and LUF (n = 13). The objective of this study was to elucidate whether these two unruptured follicles have a consistent clinical pattern of development and therefore can be considered as part of the same anovulatory syndrome. None of the endpoints analyzed differed significantly between HAF and LUF. However, there was a greater individual variation in HAF as compared with LUF in regards to interval from hCG to hemorrhage, follicular diameter at the administration of hCG, and beginning of hemorrhage. In conclusion, HAF share a similar cascade of ultrasound characteristics with the experimentally induced LUF. This finding may provide new insights in elucidating the pathogenesis of HAF.

  6. Spirit's West Valley Panorama (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle

  7. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

    Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

    This view combines many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). Images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers were mixed to produce this view, which is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

  8. Panorama from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006).

    The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers.

    The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast.

    This view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet). It is presented in false

  9. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing when Thinking about a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…

  10. Ameliorative potential of omega 3 fatty acids and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on experimentally-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kabel, Ahmed M; Abd Elmaaboud, Maaly A; Albarraq, Ahmed A

    2015-05-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has a relation to obesity. It may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, the therapeutic options are limited due to complex pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin and omega 3 fatty acids on experimentally-induced NASH. Sixty male albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups; control group, high fat emulsion/sucrose (HFE/S) diet, HFE/S+carboxymethyl cellulose, HFE/S +Atorvastatin, HFE/S+Fish oil and HFE/S+Atorvastatin+Fish oil. Serum alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins, insulin, glucose, C-reactive protein and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were measured. Also, hepatic TC, TG, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) were determined. Liver sections were examined histopathologically. Atorvastatin improved lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress but did not improve insulin resistance, hepatic TGF-β1 or body weight while fish oil improved lipid profile, decreased inflammation and oxidative stress, improved insulin resistance, hepatic TGF-β1 and body weight compared to HFE/S group. Atorvastatin/fish oil combination produced significant improvement in the lipid profile, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, hepatic TGF-β1 and body weight compared to the use of each of these drugs alone. This might be attributed to the effect of fish oil on the lipid profile, inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance and TGF-β1 which potentiates the effect of atorvastatin on NASH. PMID:25541279

  11. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    to identify rocks and features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains.

    Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is a false-color composite combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  12. Screening for possible human carcinogens and mutagens. False positives, false negatives: statistical implications.

    PubMed

    Lovell, D P

    1989-07-01

    A screening method aimed at identifying potential human carcinogens using either animal cancer bioassays or short-term genotoxic assays has 4 possible results: true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative. Such a categorisation is superficially similar to the results of hypothesis testing in a statistical analysis. In this latter case the false positive rate is determined by the significance level of the test and the false negative rate by the statistical power of the test. Although the two types of categorisation appear somewhat similar, different statistical issues are involved in their interpretation. Statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of the results of a series of assays include the use of Bayes' theorem and multivariate methods such as clustering techniques for the selection of batteries of short-term test capable of a better prediction of potential carcinogens. The conclusions drawn from such studies are dependent upon the estimates of values of sensitivity and specificity used, the choice of statistical method and the nature of the data set. The statistical issues resulting from the analysis of specific genotoxicity experiments involve the choice of suitable experimental designs and appropriate analyses together with the relationship of statistical significance to biological importance. The purpose of statistical analysis should increasingly be to estimate and explore effects rather than for formal hypothesis testing.

  13. 29 CFR 1602.51 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. 1602.51 Section 1602.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY... Information Report EEO-6 § 1602.51 Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. The making...

  14. Examination of the Relationship between False-Belief Understanding and Referential Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine the relation between false-belief understanding and referential communication skills. The ability of 76 children aged 5 years to attribute false beliefs to themselves and others was examined with three false-belief tasks. The referential communication skills of the same children were assessed with two…

  15. Mechanisms underlying the production of false memories for famous people's names in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Plancher, Gaën; Guyard, Anne; Nicolas, Serge; Piolino, Pascale

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that the occurrence of false memories increases with aging, but the results remain inconsistent concerning Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the mechanisms underlying the production of false memories are still unclear. Using an experimental episodic memory test with material based on the names of famous people in a procedure derived from the DRM paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 21, 803-814], we examined correct and false recall and recognition in 30 young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 30 patients with AD. Moreover, we evaluated the relationships between false memory performance, correct episodic memory performance, and a set of neuropsychological assessments evaluating the semantic memory and executive functions. The results clearly indicated that correct recall and recognition performance decreased with the subjects' age, but it decreased even more with AD. In addition, semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with age but not with dementia. On the contrary, non-semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with AD. Finally, the regression analyses showed that executive functions mediated related false memories and episodic memory mediated related and unrelated false memories in aging. Moreover, executive functions predicted related and unrelated false memories in AD, and episodic and semantic memory predicted semantically related and unrelated false memories in AD. In conclusion, the results obtained are consistent with the current constructive models of memory suggesting that false memory creation depends on different cognitive functions and, consequently, that the impairments of these functions influence the production of false memories.

  16. Stabilizing the false vacuum. Mott skyrmions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanász-Nagy, M.; Dóra, B.; Demler, E. A.; Zaránd, G.

    2015-01-13

    Topological excitations keep fascinating physicists since many decades. While individual vortices and solitons emerge and have been observed in many areas of physics, their most intriguing higher dimensional topological relatives, skyrmions (smooth, topologically stable textures) and magnetic monopoles emerging almost necessarily in any grand unified theory and responsible for charge quantization remained mostly elusive. Here we propose that loading a three-component nematic superfluid such as 23Na into a deep optical lattice and thereby creating an insulating core, one can create topologically stable skyrmion textures. The skyrmion’s extreme stability and its compact geometry enable one to investigate the skyrmion’s structure, andmore » the interplay of topology and excitations in detail. In particular, the superfluid’s excitation spectrum as well as the quantum numbers are demonstrated to change dramatically due to the skyrmion, and reflect the presence of a trapped monopole, as imposed by the skyrmion’s topology.« less

  17. Stabilizing the false vacuum: Mott skyrmions

    PubMed Central

    Kanász-Nagy, M.; Dóra, B.; Demler, E. A.; Zaránd, G.

    2015-01-01

    Topological excitations keep fascinating physicists since many decades. While individual vortices and solitons emerge and have been observed in many areas of physics, their most intriguing higher dimensional topological relatives, skyrmions (smooth, topologically stable textures) and magnetic monopoles emerging almost necessarily in any grand unified theory and responsible for charge quantization remained mostly elusive. Here we propose that loading a three-component nematic superfluid such as 23Na into a deep optical lattice and thereby creating an insulating core, one can create topologically stable skyrmion textures. The skyrmion's extreme stability and its compact geometry enable one to investigate the skyrmion's structure, and the interplay of topology and excitations in detail. In particular, the superfluid's excitation spectrum as well as the quantum numbers are demonstrated to change dramatically due to the skyrmion, and reflect the presence of a trapped monopole, as imposed by the skyrmion's topology. PMID:25582915

  18. Stabilizing the false vacuum. Mott skyrmions

    SciTech Connect

    Kanász-Nagy, M.; Dóra, B.; Demler, E. A.; Zaránd, G.

    2015-01-13

    Topological excitations keep fascinating physicists since many decades. While individual vortices and solitons emerge and have been observed in many areas of physics, their most intriguing higher dimensional topological relatives, skyrmions (smooth, topologically stable textures) and magnetic monopoles emerging almost necessarily in any grand unified theory and responsible for charge quantization remained mostly elusive. Here we propose that loading a three-component nematic superfluid such as 23Na into a deep optical lattice and thereby creating an insulating core, one can create topologically stable skyrmion textures. The skyrmion’s extreme stability and its compact geometry enable one to investigate the skyrmion’s structure, and the interplay of topology and excitations in detail. In particular, the superfluid’s excitation spectrum as well as the quantum numbers are demonstrated to change dramatically due to the skyrmion, and reflect the presence of a trapped monopole, as imposed by the skyrmion’s topology.

  19. Dodging the Dilemma of True-False Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, Richard R.; Long, Clifford A.

    1977-01-01

    A scoring technique for true-false tests is presented. The technique, paired item scoring, involves combining two statements and having the student select one of the four resultants possible: true-true, false-true, true-false, and false-false. The combined item is treated as a multiple choice item. (Author/JKS)

  20. Venus - False Color Image of Alpha Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan radar image shows Alpha Regio, a topographic upland approximately 1,300 kilometers (806 miles) across which is centered on 25 degrees south latitude, 4 degrees east longitude. In 1963 Alpha Regio was the first feature on Venus to be identified from Earth based radar. The radar bright area of Alpha Regio is characterized by multiple sets of intersecting trends of structural features such as ridges, troughs and flat floored fault valleys that together form a polygonal outline. Circular to oblong dark patches within the complex terrain are local topographic lows that are filled with smooth volcanic lava. Complex ridged terrains such as Alpha, formerly called 'tessera' in the Soviet Venera 15 and 16 radar missions and the Arecibo radar data, appear to be widespread and common surface expressions of Venusian tectonic processes. Directly south of the complex ridged terrain is a large ovoid shaped feature named Eve. The radar bright spot located centrally within Eve marks the location of the prime meridian of Venus. Magellan radar data reveals that relatively young lava flows emanate from Eve and extends into the southern margin of the ridged terrain at Alpha. The mosaic was produced by Eric de Jong and Myche McAuley in the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory.

  1. How the Sausage is Made: Kepler's False Alarms, False Positives, and Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Kepler mission has now designated over 7,000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs), or transit-like signatures, utilizing up to four years of data. The number of potentially habitable planet candidates (PCs) among this sample has risen significantly over time. However, starting with Kepler threshold crossing events (TCEs), there are initially about as many false alarms (FAs) detected as there are KOIs. Furthermore, due to its design, contamination from eclipsing binaries, variable stars, and other transiting planets result in a significant number of KOIs being designated as false positives (FPs). Many of these FAs and FPs occur at long orbital periods, where habitable planets are typically found. I will review the process of how an initial TCE becomes a KOI, and then is ultimately classified as a FA, FP, or PC, along with the various vetting tools employed. The understanding of this process is crucial to performing accurate statistical analyses on populations of habitable planet candidates discovered by Kepler.

  2. Effect of exercise on serum vitamin D and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aly, Yosria E; Abdou, Azza S; Rashad, Mona M; Nassef, Menatallah M

    2016-09-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of swimming exercise on serum vitamin D level and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sixty adult male rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Each was further subdivided into sedentary and exercised subgroups. Diabetes Mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) dissolved in cold 0.01 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). The exercised subgroups underwent swimming for 60 min, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, vitamin D and tissue Vitamin D receptors (VDR) were evaluated. Significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in sedentary diabetic rats was detected. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein (HDL), free fatty acids, serum vitamin D and pancreatic, adipose, and muscular VDR showed a significant decrease in the same group. It is evident that all these parameters were reversed by swimming exercise indicating its beneficial role in type 2 Diabetes. In diabetic groups; serum vitamin D was found to be correlated negatively with serum glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL and positively correlated with HDL and tissue VDR. In conclusion, Disturbed vitamin D is associated with metabolic impairments in sedentary diabetic rats. Moderate swimming exercise is beneficial in improving these consequences through modulation of vitamin D status. Future studies could be designed to investigate the effect of the combination of vitamin D intake with exercise in diabetic patients. PMID:27504197

  3. Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p < 0.05) at the 4th, 8th and 16th h. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the BGL significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study. In the oral glucose load method the 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered elevated blood glucose at the 3rd and 5th. The 500 mg kg(-1) lowered the blood glucose from the 1st to the 5th, while the 250 mg kg(-1) also lowered the blood glucose level but only significantly at the 5th h. The extract is practically non toxic when administered orally. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model.

  4. Efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of dairy calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Mani, Rinosh; Breshears, Melanie A; Gilmour, Margi; Taylor, Jared D; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves. PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63-300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J. Six doses of the assigned treatment (0.2 mL/eye, topically, q 48 h) were administered to each eye. On nontreatment days, eyes were assessed and corneal swab specimens and tear samples were collected for bacterial culture. Calves were euthanized 12 days after M bovis inoculation. The eyes were harvested for gross and histologic evaluation and bacterial culture. RESULTS The calf inoculated with M bovis 12040577 did not develop corneal ulcers. Of the 22 eyes inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, 18 developed corneal ulcers consistent with IBK within 48 hours after inoculation; 4 of those eyes developed secondary corneal ulcers that were not consistent with IBK. Corneal ulcer size and severity and the time required for ulcer healing did not differ between the treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that B bacteriovorus 109J was not effective for the treatment of IBK; however, the experimental model used produced lesions that did not completely mimic naturally occurring IBK. PMID:27580114

  5. Selected clinical chemistry analytes correlate with the pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis experimentally induced by fowl aviadenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Matos, Miguel; Grafl, Beatrice; Liebhart, Dieter; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Hess, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, clinical chemistry was applied to assess the pathogenesis and progression of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). For this, five fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) strains from recent IBH field outbreaks were used to orally inoculate different groups of day-old specific pathogen-free chickens, which were weighed, sampled and examined during necropsy by sequential killing. Mortalities of 50% and 30% were recorded in two groups between 6 and 9 days post-infection (dpi), along with a decreased weight of 23% and 20%, respectively, compared to the control group. Macroscopical changes were seen in the liver and kidney between 6 and 10 dpi, with no lesions being observed in the other organs. Histological lesions were observed in the liver and pancreas during the same period. Plasma was collected from killed birds of each group at each time point and the following clinical chemistry analytes were investigated: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), bile acids, total protein, albumin, uric acid and lipase. Plasma protein profile, AST and GLDH, together with bile acids values paralleled the macroscopical and histopathological lesions in the liver, while plasma lipase activity levels coincided with lesions observed in pancreas. In agreement with the histology and clinical chemistry, viral load in the target organs, liver and pancreas, was highest at 7 dpi. Thus, clinical chemistry was found to be a valuable tool in evaluating and monitoring the progression of IBH in experimentally infected birds, providing a deeper knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of a FAdV infection in chickens.

  6. Differential modulation of motor cortex excitability in BDNF Met allele carriers following experimentally induced and use-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, John; Hughes, James; Ridding, Michael; Thomas, Paul Q; Semmler, John G

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how healthy young subjects with one of three variants of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene modulate motor cortex excitability following experimentally induced and use-dependent plasticity interventions. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of 12 Val/Val, ten Val/Met and seven Met/Met genotypes (aged 18-39 years). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left hemisphere was used to assess changes in FDI motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) following three separate interventions involving paired associative stimulation, a simple ballistic task and complex visuomotor tracking task using the index finger. Val/Val subjects increased FDI MEPs following all interventions (≥ 25%, P < 0.01), whereas the Met allele carriers only showed increased MEPs after the simple motor task (≥ 26%, P < 0.01). In contrast to the simple motor task, there was no significant change in MEPs for the Val/Met subjects (7%, P = 0.50) and a reduction in MEPs for the Met/Met group (-38%, P < 0.01) following the complex motor task. Despite these differences in use-dependent plasticity, the performance of both motor tasks was not different between BDNF genotypes. We conclude that modulation of motor cortex excitability is strongly influenced by the BDNF polymorphism, with the greatest differences observed for the complex motor task. We also found unique motor cortex plasticity in the rarest form of the BDNF polymorphism (Met/Met subjects), which may have implications for functional recovery after disease or injury to the nervous system in these individuals. PMID:22694150

  7. False Memory ≠ False Memory: DRM Errors Are Unrelated to the Misinformation Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study ‘false memories’. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r  = −.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM ‘false memories’ and misinformation effect ‘false memories’ do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

  8. Balancing false positives and false negatives for the detection of differential expression in malignancies

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, F; Moreau, Y; Engelen, K; Timmerman, D; Vergote, I; De Moor, B

    2004-01-01

    A basic problem of microarray data analysis is to identify genes whose expression is affected by the distinction between malignancies with different properties. These genes are said to be differentially expressed. Differential expression can be detected by selecting the genes with P-values (derived using an appropriate hypothesis test) below a certain rejection level. This selection, however, is not possible without accepting some false positives and negatives since the two sets of P-values, associated with the genes whose expression is and is not affected by the distinction between the different malignancies, overlap. We describe a procedure for the study of differential expression in microarray data based on receiver-operating characteristic curves. This approach can be useful to select a rejection level that balances the number of false positives and negatives and to assess the degree of overlap between the two sets of P-values. Since this degree of overlap characterises the balance that can be reached between the number of false positives and negatives, this quantity can be seen as a quality measure of microarray data with respect to the detection of differential expression. As an example, we apply our method to data sets studying acute leukaemia. PMID:15354216

  9. Venus - False Color of Sacajawea Petera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Magellan image reveals Sacajawea Patera, a large, elongate caldera located in western Ishtar Terra on the smooth plateau of Lakshmi Planum. The image is centered at 64.5 degrees north latitude and 337 degrees east longitude. It is approximately 420 kilometers (252 miles) wide at the base. Sacajawea is a depression approximately 1.2 km (0.6 1.2 miles) deep and 120 by 215 km (74 by 133 miles) in diameter; it is elongate in a southwest northeast direction. The depression is bounded by a zone of circumferential curvilinear structures interpreted to be graben and fault scarps. These structures are space 0.5 to 4 km (0.3 to 2.5 miles) apart, are 0.6 to 4 km (0.4 to 2.5 miles) in width and up to 100 km (62 miles) in length. Extending up to 140 km (87 miles) in length from the southeast of the patera is a system of linear structures thought to represent a flanking rift zone along which the lateral injection and eruption of magma may have occurred. A shield edifice 12 km (7 miles) in diameter with a prominent central pit lies along the trend of one of these features. The impact crater Zlata, approximately 6 km (4 miles) in diameter is located within the zone of graben to the northwest of the patera. Few flow features are observed in association with Sacajawea, possibly due to age and state of degradation of the flows. Mottled bright deposits 4 to 20 km (2.5 to 12 miles) in width are located near the periphery and in the center of the patera floor within local topographic lows. Diffuse patches of dark material approximately 40 km (25 miles) in width are observed southwest of the patera, superimposed on portions of the surrounding graben. The formation of Sacajawea is thought to be related to the drainage and collapse of a large magma chamber. Gravitational relaxation may have caused the resultant caldera to sag, producing the numerous faults and graben that circumscribe the patera. Regions of complex, highly deformed tessera like terrain are located north and east of

  10. Inside interrogation: the lie, the bluff, and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Perillo, Jennifer T; Kassin, Saul M

    2011-08-01

    Using a less deceptive variant of the false evidence ploy, interrogators often use the bluff tactic, whereby they pretend to have evidence to be tested without further claiming that it necessarily implicates the suspect. Three experiments were conducted to assess the impact of the bluff on confession rates. Using the Kassin and Kiechel (Psychol Sci 7:125-128, 1996) computer crash paradigm, Experiment 1 indicated that bluffing increases false confessions comparable to the effect produced by the presentation of false evidence. Experiment 2 replicated the bluff effect and provided self-reports indicating that innocent participants saw the bluff as a promise of future exoneration which, paradoxically, made it easier to confess. Using a variant of the Russano et al. (Psychol Sci 16:481-486, 2005) cheating paradigm, Experiment 3 replicated the bluff effect on innocent suspects once again, though a ceiling effect was obtained in the guilty condition. Results suggest that the phenomenology of innocence can lead innocents to confess even in response to relatively benign interrogation tactics. PMID:20734122

  11. False-evidence ploys and interrogations: mock jurors' perceptions of false-evidence ploy type, deception, coercion, and justification.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Krista D; Woody, William Douglas; Brady, Sara E; Batterman, Keller C; Stastny, Bradley J; Bruns, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    We studied mock jurors' evaluations of police false-evidence ploys across two false-evidence ploy information conditions (true or false confession). Study 1 participants evaluated lists of demeanor, testimonial, and scientific ploys and rated testimonial false-evidence ploys as more coercive than demeanor false-evidence ploys. Participants in the false-confession condition rated false-evidence ploys as more deceptive than did participants in the true-confession condition. Study 2 participants evaluated false-evidence ploy types within interrogation transcripts. Participants rated testimonial false-evidence ploys as more deceptive and coercive than demeanor false-evidence ploys; participants in the true-confession condition rated false-evidence ploys as more justified. Across studies, participants reading realistic transcripts rated false-evidence ploys as more deceptive and coercive. We discuss implications for scholars, attorneys, and interrogators. PMID:22315159

  12. Anthelmintic activity of a standardized extract from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) against experimentally induced cestodiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Purobi; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. Materials and Methods: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magnetic resonance 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass and infrared spectroscopy. The amount of active principle in rhizome isolated active fraction of plant was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Later, the standardized rhizome extract of plant and its active principle were tested for in vivo anthelmintic efficacy against experimentally induced Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic cestode, infections in rats. Results: The study revealed that b-asarone is the active principle of plant. The HPLC analysis of local variety of A. calamus revealed that active fraction contains 83.54% (w/w) of b-asarone. The in vivo study revealed that treatment of H. diminuta infected rats by a single 800 mg/kg dose of rhizome extract for 5 days results into 62.30% reduction in eggs per gram of feces counts and 83.25% reduction in worm counts of animals. These findings compared well with the efficacy of a reference drug, praziquantel. The active principle b-asarone showed slightly better anthelmintic effects than crude extract. In acute toxicity assay, a single oral 2000 mg/kg dose of extract did not reveal any signs of toxicity or mortality in mice, and the LD50 of the extract was noted to be >2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of this study indicate that rhizomes of A. calamus bear significant dose-dependent effects against intestinal helminths. Further, the Indian variety of A. calamus contains high b-asarone content. Therefore, there exists a great potential to develop some

  13. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing..., late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual. Payments may not be based on false or misleading....S.C. chapter 33 in the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false...

  14. 38 CFR 21.7658 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing... Reserve Pursuit of Course and Required Reports § 21.7658 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Reservist... the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false or misleading claims for...

  15. 38 CFR 21.7158 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False, late, or missing... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7158 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Veteran....C. chapter 30 in the same manner as they are applied to people who make similar false or...

  16. 19 CFR 148.19 - False or fraudulent statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False or fraudulent statement. 148.19 Section 148... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.19 False or fraudulent statement. A passenger who makes any false or fraudulent statement or engages in other...

  17. 7 CFR 160.90 - False, misleading, or deceitful practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False, misleading, or deceitful practices. 160.90... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.90 False, misleading, or... commerce or of anything offered as such shall be false, misleading, or deceitful in any manner....

  18. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  19. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for dismissal....

  20. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for dismissal....

  1. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false statements shall be cause for rejection of the application or, as provided in subpart N of this part, for dismissal....

  2. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section 21.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false...

  3. 42 CFR 21.23 - False statements as disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False statements as disqualification. 21.23 Section 21.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.23 False statements as disqualification. Willfully false...

  4. 38 CFR 21.7658 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false False, late, or missing... Reserve Pursuit of Course and Required Reports § 21.7658 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Reservist... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a reservist or any other person who submits false...

  5. 38 CFR 21.7658 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False, late, or missing... Reserve Pursuit of Course and Required Reports § 21.7658 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Reservist... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a reservist or any other person who submits false...

  6. 38 CFR 21.7658 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false False, late, or missing... Reserve Pursuit of Course and Required Reports § 21.7658 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Reservist... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a reservist or any other person who submits false...

  7. 38 CFR 21.7658 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false False, late, or missing... Reserve Pursuit of Course and Required Reports § 21.7658 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Reservist... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a reservist or any other person who submits false...

  8. False-color composite image of Raco, Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is a false color composite of Raco, Michigan, centered at 46.39 north latitude and 84.88 east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers. Raco is located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. In this color representation, darker areas in the image are smooth surfaces such as frozen lakes and other non-forested areas. The colors are related to the types of trees and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material covering the surface, called forest biomass. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43882.

  9. "False Positive" Claims of Near-Death Experiences and "False Negative" Denials of Near-Death Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greyson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Some persons who claim to have had near-death experiences (NDEs) fail research criteria for having had NDEs ("false positives"); others who deny having had NDEs do meet research criteria for having had NDEs ("false negatives"). The author evaluated false positive claims and false negative denials in an organization that promotes near-death…

  10. Uninfected anastomotic false aneurysms following arterial reconstruction with prosthetic grafts.

    PubMed

    Read, R C; Thompson, B W

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen men, aged 49 to 76 years, average 60, were treated at the Little Rock, Arkansas Veterans Administration Hospital between January 1, 1969 and January 1, 1974 for 1-3 false aneurysms, a total of 18, following prosthetic arterial grafting. Most (ten patients, 15 aneurysms) had aorto-femoral bifurcation grafts for Leriche syndrome. Dacron prostheses were employed in ten, Teflon in three. The interval between the initial operation and the appearance of the aneurysms averaged six years. The end-to-side femoral anastomosis broke down in all ten patients with Leriche syndrome. Six of the eight unilateral aneurysms were on the right side, two had bilateral aneurysms and one patient had three. Five patients died some months or years after repair from vascular accidents. Three other patients required amputations sometime later because their grafts clotted. Silk sutures were employed in only two patients. Plastic sutures in the others were found to have pulled out of the recipient vessels. The aneurysms were all uninfected and were repaired by local stitching in four and the addition of further plastic grafting in nine. We conclude that false aneurysms occur with plastic sutures and they relate primarily to disruption of the end-to-side femoral artery attachment from the stresses of movement at the hip joint.

  11. Mitigating false-positive associations in rare disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Akle, Sebastian; Chun, Sung; Jordan, Daniel M; Cassa, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Clinical sequencing is expanding, but causal variants are still not identified in the majority of cases. These unsolved cases can aid in gene discovery when individuals with similar phenotypes are identified in systems such as the Matchmaker Exchange. We describe risks for gene discovery in this growing set of unsolved cases. In a set of rare disease cases with the same phenotype, it is not difficult to find two individuals with the same phenotype that carry variants in the same gene. We quantify the risk of false-positive association in a cohort of individuals with the same phenotype, using the prior probability of observing a variant in each gene from over 60,000 individuals (Exome Aggregation Consortium). Based on the number of individuals with a genic variant, cohort size, specific gene, and mode of inheritance, we calculate a P value that the match represents a true association. A match in two of 10 patients in MECP2 is statistically significant (P = 0.0014), whereas a match in TTN would not reach significance, as expected (P > 0.999). Finally, we analyze the probability of matching in clinical exome cases to estimate the number of cases needed to identify genes related to different disorders. We offer Rare Disease Match, an online tool to mitigate the uncertainty of false-positive associations. PMID:26378430

  12. Mitigating false-positive associations in rare disease gene discovery.

    PubMed

    Akle, Sebastian; Chun, Sung; Jordan, Daniel M; Cassa, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Clinical sequencing is expanding, but causal variants are still not identified in the majority of cases. These unsolved cases can aid in gene discovery when individuals with similar phenotypes are identified in systems such as the Matchmaker Exchange. We describe risks for gene discovery in this growing set of unsolved cases. In a set of rare disease cases with the same phenotype, it is not difficult to find two individuals with the same phenotype that carry variants in the same gene. We quantify the risk of false-positive association in a cohort of individuals with the same phenotype, using the prior probability of observing a variant in each gene from over 60,000 individuals (Exome Aggregation Consortium). Based on the number of individuals with a genic variant, cohort size, specific gene, and mode of inheritance, we calculate a P value that the match represents a true association. A match in two of 10 patients in MECP2 is statistically significant (P = 0.0014), whereas a match in TTN would not reach significance, as expected (P > 0.999). Finally, we analyze the probability of matching in clinical exome cases to estimate the number of cases needed to identify genes related to different disorders. We offer Rare Disease Match, an online tool to mitigate the uncertainty of false-positive associations.

  13. THE XO PLANETARY SURVEY PROJECT: ASTROPHYSICAL FALSE POSITIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Poleski, Radosaw; McCullough, Peter R.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Burke, Christopher J.; Machalek, Pavel; Janes, Kenneth

    2010-07-15

    Searches for planetary transits find many astrophysical false positives as a by-product. There are four main types analyzed in the literature: a grazing-incidence eclipsing binary (EB) star, an EB star with a small radius companion star, a blend of one or more stars with an unrelated EB star, and a physical triple star system. We present a list of 69 astrophysical false positives that had been identified as candidates of transiting planets of the on-going XO survey. This list may be useful in order to avoid redundant observation and characterization of these particular candidates that have been independently identified by other wide-field searches for transiting planets. The list may be useful for those modeling the yield of the XO survey and surveys similar to it. Subsequent observations of some of the listed stars may improve mass-radius relations, especially for low-mass stars. From the candidates exhibiting eclipses, we report three new spectroscopic double-line binaries and give mass function estimations for 15 single-line spectroscopic binaries.

  14. View of 'Cape St. Mary' from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape St. Mary' from the from the vantage point of 'Cape Verde,' the next promontory counterclockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape St. Mary combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into a false-color mosaic. Contrast has been adjusted to improve the visibility of details in shaded areas.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact. Near the base of the Cape St. Mary cliff are layers with a pattern called 'crossbedding,' intersecting with each other at angles, rather than parallel to each other. Large-scale crossbedding can result from material being deposited as wind-blown dunes.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 970th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Oct. 16, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances subtle color differences among materials in the rocks and soils of the scene.

  15. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories

    PubMed Central

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring. PMID:25824306

  16. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  17. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics. There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Nonetheless, the autocorrelation of summer sea ice area is found to increase in a global warming scenario. The variance, by contrast, decreases. A simple physical mechanism is proposed to explain the occurrence of increasing autocorrelation but not variance when there is no approaching bifurcation. Additionally, a similar mechanism is shown to allow an increase in both indicators with no physically attainable bifurcation. This implies that relying on autocorrelation and variance as early warning signals can raise false alarms in the climate system, warning of "tipping points" that are not actually there.

  18. The relationship between false confessions and perceptions of parental rearing practices.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Finnbogadottir, Hildur; Smari, Unnur Jakobsdottir

    2006-10-01

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between a history of having made a false confession and reported parental rearing practices. It was hypothesized that the reporting of rejection and absence of warmth by parents would be associated with the making of a false confession. The participants were 804 college students in Iceland. Each was asked about false confessions made to teachers and parents in the past, as well as about false confessions made to the police during questioning. The participants completed questionnaires relating to perceived parental rearing practices (EMBU), proneness to antisocial behavior (the Gough Socialization Scale), personality (EPQ), self-esteem (Rosenberg), and compliance (GCS). Only eight participants (1% of those interrogated) claimed to have made false confessions to the police, whereas 10% claimed to have made false confessions to teachers or parents. False confessions were significantly associated with proneness to antisocial behavior and the EMBU Rejection and Warmth scales for both fathers and mothers. PMID:16987205

  19. The false dichotomy: a refutation of the Neandertal indistinguishability claim.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas; Overmann, Karenleigh; Coolidge, Frederick

    2016-06-20

    In the debate about the demise of the Neandertal, several scholars have claimed that humanity's nearest relatives were indistinguishable archaeologically, and thus behaviorally and cognitively, from contemporaneous Homo sapiens. They suggest that to hold otherwise is to characterize Neandertals as inferior to H. sapiens, a false dichotomy that excludes the possibility that the two human types simply differed in ways visible to natural selection, including their cognition. Support of the Neandertal indistinguishability claim requires ignoring the cranial differences between the two human types, which have implications for cognition and behavior. Further, support of the claim requires minimizing asymmetries in the quantity and degree of behavioral differences as attested by the archaeological record. The present paper reviews the evidence for cognitive and archaeological differences between the two human types in support of the excluded middle position.

  20. Main Ustilaginoidins and Their Distribution in Rice False Smut Balls

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jiajia; Sun, Weibo; Mao, Ziling; Xu, Dan; Wang, Xiaohan; Lu, Shiqiong; Lai, Daowan; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang; Zhang, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    Rice false smut has become an increasingly serious fungal disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins previously isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs) infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. To investigate the main ustilaginoidins and their distribution in rice FSBs, five main bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones, namely ustilaginoidins A (1), G (2), B (3), I (4) and C (5), were isolated and identified by NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as by comparison with the data in the literature. The rice FSBs at early, middle and late maturity stages were divided into their different parts and the contents of five main ustilaginoidins for each part were determined by HPLC analysis. The results revealed that the highest levels of ustilaginoidins were in late stage rice FSBs, followed by those at middle stage. Most ustilaginoidins, 96.4% of the total quantity, were distributed in the middle layer at early stage. However, ustilaginoidins were mainly distributed in the outer and middle layers at middle and late stages. Small amounts of ustilaginoidins A (1) and G (2) were found in the inner part of rice FSBs at each maturity stage. The contents of ustilaginoidins A (1) and G (2) without hydroxymethyl groups at C-2 and C-2’ of the γ-pyrone rings in rice FSBs were relatively high at early stage, while the contents of ustilaginoidins B (3), I (4), and C (5) with hydroxymethyl groups at C-2 or C-2’ were relatively high at late stage. PMID:26473920

  1. Aging reduces veridical remembering but increases false remembering: neuropsychological test correlates of remember-know judgments.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Roediger, Henry L; McDaniel, Mark A; Balota, David A

    2009-09-01

    In 1985 Tulving introduced the remember-know procedure, whereby subjects are asked to distinguish between memories that involve retrieval of contextual details (remembering) and memories that do not (knowing). Several studies have been reported showing age-related declines in remember hits, which has typically been interpreted as supporting dual-process theories of cognitive aging that align remembering with a recollection process and knowing with a familiarity process. Less attention has been paid to remember false alarms, or their relation to age. We reviewed the literature examining aging and remember/know judgments and show that age-related increases in remember false alarms, i.e., false remembering, are as reliable as age-related decreases in remember hits, i.e., veridical remembering. Moreover, a meta-analysis showed that the age effect size for remember hits and false alarms are similar, and larger than age effects on know hits and false alarms. We also show that the neuropsychological correlates of remember hits and false alarms differ. Neuropsychological tests of medial-temporal lobe functioning were related to remember hits, but tests of frontal-lobe functioning and age were not. By contrast, age and frontal-lobe functioning predicted unique variance in remember false alarms, but MTL functioning did not. We discuss various explanations for these findings and conclude that any comprehensive explanation of recollective experience will need to account for the processes underlying both remember hits and false alarms.

  2. Chinese Preschoolers' Implicit and Explicit False-Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bo; Low, Jason; Jing, Zhang; Qinghua, Qu

    2012-01-01

    Mandarin-speaking preschoolers in Mainland China (3- to 4-year-olds; N = 192) were tested for dissociations between anticipatory looking (AL) and verbal judgments on false-belief tasks. The dissociation between the two kinds of understanding was robust despite direct false-belief test questions using a Mandarin specific think-falsely verb and…

  3. 7 CFR 623.22 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 623.22 Section 623.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.22 Filing of false...

  4. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalty for false statement... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (a) Any..., or his dependents pursuant to section 9, 33 U.S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall...

  5. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penalty for false statement... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (a) Any..., or his dependents pursuant to section 9, 33 U.S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall...

  6. The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

    2011-01-01

    The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process…

  7. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

  8. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penalty for false statement... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (a) Any..., or his dependents pursuant to section 9, 33 U.S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall...

  9. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penalty for false statement... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (a) Any..., or his dependents pursuant to section 9, 33 U.S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall...

  10. 38 CFR 21.7158 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false False, late, or missing... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7158 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Veteran... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a veteran or servicemember or any other person...

  11. 38 CFR 21.7158 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false False, late, or missing... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7158 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Veteran... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a veteran or servicemember or any other person...

  12. 38 CFR 21.7158 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False, late, or missing... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7158 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Veteran... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a veteran or servicemember or any other person...

  13. 38 CFR 21.7158 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false False, late, or missing... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7158 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Veteran... provisions of §§ 21.4006 and 21.4007 of this part to a veteran or servicemember or any other person...

  14. Compelling untruths: content borrowing and vivid false memories.

    PubMed

    Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R; Arnal, Jack D; Leding, Juliana K

    2005-09-01

    False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory item. In 2 experiments using think-out-loud protocols at both study and test, evidence for content borrowing occurred for more than half of the false remember judgments participants reported. The present study also provides evidence consistent with recollection rejection and distinctiveness playing a role in false-memory editing.

  15. Effects of Labeling on Preschoolers' Explicit False Belief Performance: Outcomes of Cognitive Flexibility or Inhibitory Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Jason; Simpson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Executive function mechanisms underpinning language-related effects on theory of mind understanding were examined in a sample of 165 preschoolers. Verbal labels were manipulated to identify relevant perspectives on an explicit false belief task. In Experiment 1 with 4-year-olds (N = 74), false belief reasoning was superior in the fully and…

  16. 15 CFR 265.4 - Making or giving of false reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Making or giving of false reports. 265.4 Section 265.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO General § 265.4 Making or...

  17. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Discourse Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Lists and Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Faust, Miriam; Moeller, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to discourse and text processing by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including more distantly related meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories:…

  18. 45 CFR 1182.18 - Penalties for obtaining an Institute record under false pretenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalties for obtaining an Institute record under false pretenses. 1182.18 Section 1182.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY...

  19. Optimal False Discovery Rate Control for Dependent Data.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jichun; Cai, T Tony; Maris, John; Li, Hongzhe

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of optimal false discovery rate control when the test statistics are dependent. An optimal joint oracle procedure, which minimizes the false non-discovery rate subject to a constraint on the false discovery rate is developed. A data-driven marginal plug-in procedure is then proposed to approximate the optimal joint procedure for multivariate normal data. It is shown that the marginal procedure is asymptotically optimal for multivariate normal data with a short-range dependent covariance structure. Numerical results show that the marginal procedure controls false discovery rate and leads to a smaller false non-discovery rate than several commonly used p-value based false discovery rate controlling methods. The procedure is illustrated by an application to a genome-wide association study of neuroblastoma and it identifies a few more genetic variants that are potentially associated with neuroblastoma than several p-value-based false discovery rate controlling procedures.

  20. Unconjugated oestrogen and progesterone concentrations in the blood of bitches with false pregnancy and pyometra.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J C

    1975-06-21

    The changes in total unconjugated oestrogen and progesterone concentrations in the peripheral blood of one bitch throughout a false pregnancy were measured. The levels of these hormones detected in 11 bitches when examined during a false pregnancy, and in 13 other bitches with pyometa are also reported. Oestrogen and progesterone concentrations were within normal limits in both of these conditions where single samples were obtained, but the bitch with false pregnancy studied in detail showed a raised oestrogen level during metoestrus. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to previous studies on the aetiology of false pregnancy and pyometra.

  1. Effects of topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution in dogs with experimentally induced recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Spertus, Chloe B; Mohammed, Hussni O; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution in dogs with experimentally induced recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infection. ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen-free Beagles. PROCEDURES 12 months prior to the beginning of the randomized, masked, placebo-controlled 30-day trial, latent ocular CHV-1 infection was experimentally induced in each dog by topical ocular inoculation of both eyes with a field strain of CHV-1. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by oral administration of prednisolone for 7 days (starting day 1). Starting on the fourth day of prednisolone administration, each dog received 1% trifluridine solution or artificial tears (placebo) topically in both eyes 6 times daily for 2 days and then 4 times daily for 12 days. Ophthalmic examinations were performed every 2 days, and ocular disease scores were calculated. Ocular samples for CHV-1 PCR assays and blood samples for clinicopathologic analyses and assessment of CHV-1 serum neutralization antibody titers were collected at predetermined intervals. RESULTS Conjunctivitis was clinically detected in all dogs by day 4. Compared with dogs receiving placebo, mean and total clinical ocular disease scores were significantly lower and median CHV-1 shedding duration was significantly shorter for the trifluridine-treated dogs. Both groups had increasing CHV-1 serum neutralization antibody titers over time, but no significant differences between groups were detected. Clinicopathologic findings were unremarkable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution was well tolerated and effective at reducing disease scores and viral shedding duration in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection, but may require frequent administration. PMID:27668586

  2. Effects of topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution in dogs with experimentally induced recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Spertus, Chloe B; Mohammed, Hussni O; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution in dogs with experimentally induced recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infection. ANIMALS 10 specific pathogen-free Beagles. PROCEDURES 12 months prior to the beginning of the randomized, masked, placebo-controlled 30-day trial, latent ocular CHV-1 infection was experimentally induced in each dog by topical ocular inoculation of both eyes with a field strain of CHV-1. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by oral administration of prednisolone for 7 days (starting day 1). Starting on the fourth day of prednisolone administration, each dog received 1% trifluridine solution or artificial tears (placebo) topically in both eyes 6 times daily for 2 days and then 4 times daily for 12 days. Ophthalmic examinations were performed every 2 days, and ocular disease scores were calculated. Ocular samples for CHV-1 PCR assays and blood samples for clinicopathologic analyses and assessment of CHV-1 serum neutralization antibody titers were collected at predetermined intervals. RESULTS Conjunctivitis was clinically detected in all dogs by day 4. Compared with dogs receiving placebo, mean and total clinical ocular disease scores were significantly lower and median CHV-1 shedding duration was significantly shorter for the trifluridine-treated dogs. Both groups had increasing CHV-1 serum neutralization antibody titers over time, but no significant differences between groups were detected. Clinicopathologic findings were unremarkable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ocular application of 1% trifluridine ophthalmic solution was well tolerated and effective at reducing disease scores and viral shedding duration in dogs with experimentally induced ocular CHV-1 infection, but may require frequent administration.

  3. Image processing of false identity documents for forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Talbot-Wright, Benjamin; Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Roux, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Forensic intelligence has recently gathered increasing attention as a potential expansion of forensic science that may contribute in a wider policing and security context. Whilst the new avenue is certainly promising, relatively few attempts to incorporate models, methods and techniques into practical projects are reported. This work reports a practical application of a generalised and transversal framework for developing forensic intelligence processes referred to here as the Transversal model adapted from previous work. Visual features present in the images of four datasets of false identity documents were systematically profiled and compared using image processing for the detection of a series of modus operandi (M.O.) actions. The nature of these series and their relation to the notion of common source was evaluated with respect to alternative known information and inferences drawn regarding respective crime systems. 439 documents seized by police and border guard authorities across 10 jurisdictions in Switzerland with known and unknown source level links formed the datasets for this study. Training sets were developed based on both known source level data, and visually supported relationships. Performance was evaluated through the use of intra-variability and inter-variability scores drawn from over 48,000 comparisons. The optimised method exhibited significant sensitivity combined with strong specificity and demonstrates its ability to support forensic intelligence efforts. PMID:27081791

  4. Berberine is a dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor antagonist and ameliorates experimentally induced colitis by suppressing innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Masaaki; Takagi, Rie; Kaneko, Atsushi; Matsushita, Sho

    2015-12-15

    Berberine is an herbal alkaloid with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. Here, we examined the effects of berberine on dopamine receptors and the ensuing anti-inflammatory responses. Berberine was found to be an antagonist at both dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors and ameliorates the development of experimentally induced colitis in mice. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated immune cells, berberine treatment modified cytokine levels, consistent with the effects of the dopamine receptor specific antagonists SCH23390 and L750667. Our findings indicate that dopamine receptor antagonists suppress innate and adaptive immune responses, providing a foundation for their use in combatting inflammatory diseases.

  5. "False positive" claims of near-death experiences and "false negative" denials of near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Greyson, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Some persons who claim to have had near-death experiences (NDEs) fail research criteria for having had NDEs ("false positives"); others who deny having had NDEs do meet research criteria for having had NDEs ("false negatives"). The author evaluated false positive claims and false negative denials in an organization that promotes near-death research and in psychiatric outpatients. The frequency of false positives and negatives varied in samples that differed in prevalence of, and knowledge about, NDEs. The influence of participants' knowledge about NDEs on the findings of near-death research makes it critically important to use standardized criteria for identifying NDEs.

  6. Making sense of early false-belief understanding.

    PubMed

    Helming, Katharina A; Strickland, Brent; Jacob, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    We address the puzzle about early belief ascription: young children fail elicited-response false-belief tasks, but they demonstrate spontaneous false-belief understanding. Based on recent converging evidence, we articulate a pragmatic framework to solve this puzzle. Young children do understand the contents of others' false belief, but they are overwhelmed when they must simultaneously make sense of two distinct actions: the instrumental action of a mistaken agent and the experimenter's communicative action. PMID:24612994

  7. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance.

  8. Can reinforcement induce children to falsely incriminate themselves?

    PubMed

    Billings, F James; Taylor, Tanya; Burns, James; Corey, Deb L; Garven, Sena; Wood, James M

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether reinforcement can induce children to falsely incriminate themselves. Ninety-nine children in kindergarten through third grade were questioned regarding the staged theft of a toy. Half received reinforcement for self-incriminating responses. Within 4 min reinforced children made 52% false admissions of guilty knowledge concerning the theft, and 30% false admissions of having witnessed it. Corresponding figures for controls were 36 and 10%. Twelve percent of children admitted to participating in the theft, but the effect of reinforcement was only marginally significant. The findings indicate that reinforcement can induce children to falsely implicate themselves in wrongdoing. PMID:16779674

  9. False lock performance of Shuttle Costas loop receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, K. T.; Holmes, J. K.; Huth, G. K.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The false (sideband) lock problem in Shuttle Costas loop receivers, in the presence of noise, is assessed. False lock margin is defined depending on symbol signal-to-noise ratio rather than in the absence of noise. Closed-form results are given for the case where the arm filters of the Costas loop are one-pole Butterworth filters as used in the Shuttle receivers. However, the approach taken is also general enough to cover filters of arbitrary characteristics. As part of the development of the false lock margin, it is shown that the false lock phenomenon of the squaring loop is identical to that of the Costas loop.

  10. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  11. 'Gibson' Panorama by Spirit at 'Home Plate' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this high-resolution view of intricately layered exposures of rock while parked on the northwest edge of the bright, semi-circular feature known as 'Home Plate.' The rover was perched at a 27-degree upward tilt while creating the panorama, resulting in the 'U' shape of the mosaic. In reality, the features along the 1-meter to 2-meter (1-foot to 6.5-foot) vertical exposure of the rim of Home Plate in this vicinity are relatively level. Rocks near the rover in this view, known as the 'Gibson' panorama, include 'Barnhill,' 'Rogan,' and 'Mackey.'

    Spirit acquired 246 separate images of this scene using 6 different filters on the panoramic camera (Pancam) during the rover's Martian days, or sols, 748 through 751 (Feb. 9 through Feb. 12, 2006). The field of view covers 160 degrees of terrain around the rover. This image is a false-color rendering using using Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters, presented to enhance many subtle color differences between rocks and soils in the scene. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  12. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  13. 42 CFR 1001.901 - False or improper claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False or improper claims. 1001.901 Section 1001.901 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.901...

  14. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  15. Retrieval Failure Contributes to Gist-Based False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Scott A.; Robbins, Clifford A.; Gilmore, Adrian W.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    People often falsely recognize items that are similar to previously encountered items. This robust memory error is referred to as "gist-based false recognition". A widely held view is that this error occurs because the details fade rapidly from our memory. Contrary to this view, an initial experiment revealed that, following the same encoding…

  16. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

  17. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false False, late, or missing reports. 21.9740 Section 21.9740 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740...

  18. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false False, late, or missing reports. 21.9740 Section 21.9740 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740...

  19. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false False, late, or missing reports. 21.9740 Section 21.9740 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740...

  20. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false False, late, or missing reports. 21.9740 Section 21.9740 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740...

  1. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  2. 7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1450.12 Section 1450.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP)...

  3. 7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1450.12 Section 1450.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP)...

  4. 7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1450.12 Section 1450.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP)...

  5. 7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing of false claims. 1450.12 Section 1450.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP)...

  6. Some Advantages of Controlling for False Discoveries in Multiple Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Valerie S. L.

    Multiple comparison procedures for controlling familywise Type I error and the false discovery rate are described and compared, including the traditional Bonferroni correction, a sequential (step-up) Bonferroni procedure (Hochberg, 1988), and a sequential false discovery rate procedure proposed by Benjamini and Hochberg (1995). Motivation for…

  7. The false classification of extinction risk in noisy environments

    PubMed Central

    Connors, B. M.; Cooper, A. B.; Peterman, R. M.; Dulvy, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    Abundance trends are the basis for many classifications of threat and recovery status, but they can be a challenge to interpret because of observation error, stochastic variation in abundance (process noise) and temporal autocorrelation in that process noise. To measure the frequency of incorrectly detecting a decline (false-positive or false alarm) and failing to detect a true decline (false-negative), we simulated stable and declining abundance time series across several magnitudes of observation error and autocorrelated process noise. We then empirically estimated the magnitude of observation error and autocorrelated process noise across a broad range of taxa and mapped these estimates onto the simulated parameter space. Based on the taxa we examined, at low classification thresholds (30% decline in abundance) and short observation windows (10 years), false alarms would be expected to occur, on average, about 40% of the time assuming density-independent dynamics, whereas false-negatives would be expected to occur about 60% of the time. However, false alarms and failures to detect true declines were reduced at higher classification thresholds (50% or 80% declines), longer observation windows (20, 40, 60 years), and assuming density-dependent dynamics. The lowest false-positive and false-negative rates are likely to occur for large-bodied, long-lived animal species. PMID:24898368

  8. False Recognition in Lewy-Body Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boysson, C.; Belleville, S.; Phillips, N. A.; Johns, E. K.; Goupil, D.; Souchay, C.; Bouchard, R.; Chertkow, H.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the false recognition phenomenon in persons with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and those with Lewy-body disease (LBD). Patients with LBD (n=10) or FTD (n=15) and their corresponding controls (n=30) were subjected to the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to induce false recognition. Patients were…

  9. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress...

  11. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  12. Black Preschoolers' Social Cognition: Storytelling and False Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    Noting that the lower performance of low-income children on false belief tasks in comparison to that of middle-income children has not been adequately explained, this study examined the possibility that black children's experiences and talents with storytelling may facilitate their performance on false belief tasks when narrative questions are…

  13. Why do pictures, but not visual words, reduce older adults' false memories?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2015-09-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Why Do Pictures, but Not Visual Words, Reduce Older Adults’ False Memories?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both the case of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all three study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. PMID:26213799

  15. Why do pictures, but not visual words, reduce older adults' false memories?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2015-09-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26213799

  16. CT colonography with computer-aided detection: recognizing the causes of false-positive reader results.

    PubMed

    Trilisky, Igor; Wroblewski, Kristen; Vannier, Michael W; Horne, John M; Dachman, Abraham H

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) colonography is a screening modality used to detect colonic polyps before they progress to colorectal cancer. Computer-aided detection (CAD) is designed to decrease errors of detection by finding and displaying polyp candidates for evaluation by the reader. CT colonography CAD false-positive results are common and have numerous causes. The relative frequency of CAD false-positive results and their effect on reader performance on the basis of a 19-reader, 100-case trial shows that the vast majority of CAD false-positive results were dismissed by readers. Many CAD false-positive results are easily disregarded, including those that result from coarse mucosa, reconstruction, peristalsis, motion, streak artifacts, diverticulum, rectal tubes, and lipomas. CAD false-positive results caused by haustral folds, extracolonic candidates, diminutive lesions (<6 mm), anal papillae, internal hemorrhoids, varices, extrinsic compression, and flexural pseudotumors are almost always recognized and disregarded. The ileocecal valve and tagged stool are common sources of CAD false-positive results associated with reader false-positive results. Nondismissable CAD soft-tissue polyp candidates larger than 6 mm are another common cause of reader false-positive results that may lead to further evaluation with follow-up CT colonography or optical colonoscopy. Strategies for correctly evaluating CAD polyp candidates are important to avoid pitfalls from common sources of CAD false-positive results.

  17. False lumens in type III aortic dissections: progress CT study

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, T.; Naito, H.; Ohta, M.; Sugahara, T.; Takamiya, M.; Kozuka, T.; Nakajima, N.

    1985-09-01

    The fate of false lumens in 13 patients having Type III aortic dissections was studied using computed tomography (CT). Contrast media filled false lumens with or without thrombosis were observed in ten patients; the false lumens of three patients were entirely thrombosed at initial examination. Follow-up CT studies showed shrinkage or disappearance of the false lumens with thrombosis in four patients, progression of thrombosis in two patients, and enlargement of the false lumen in one patient who subsequently required surgical repair. No change was observed in the remaining six patients during our observation period. CT study provides useful information for evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment and the timing of surgical intervention during follow-up evaluation of medically treated Type III aortic dissections.

  18. False lumens in type III aortic dissections: progress CT study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Naito, H; Ohta, M; Sugahara, T; Takamiya, M; Kozuka, T; Nakajima, N

    1985-09-01

    The fate of false lumens in 13 patients having Type III aortic dissections was studied using computed tomography (CT). Contrast media filled false lumens with or without thrombosis were observed in ten patients; the false lumens of three patients were entirely thrombosed at initial examination. Follow-up CT studies showed shrinkage or disappearance of the false lumens with thrombosis in four patients, progression of thrombosis in two patients, and enlargement of the false lumen in one patient who subsequently required surgical repair. No change was observed in the remaining six patients during our observation period. CT study provides useful information for evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment and the timing of surgical intervention during follow-up evaluation of medically treated Type III aortic dissections.

  19. Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerance Control Under False Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    An active fault tolerant control (FTC) law is generally sensitive to false identification since the control gain is reconfigured for fault occurrence. In the conventional FTC law design procedure, dynamic variations due to false identification are not considered. In this paper, an FTC synthesis method is developed in order to consider possible variations of closed-loop dynamics under false identification into the control design procedure. An active FTC synthesis problem is formulated into an LMI optimization problem to minimize the upper bound of the induced-L2 norm which can represent the worst-case performance degradation due to false identification. The developed synthesis method is applied for control of the longitudinal motions of FASER (Free-flying Airplane for Subscale Experimental Research). The designed FTC law of the airplane is simulated for pitch angle command tracking under a false identification case.

  20. Why perversion?: 'False love' and the perverse pact.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruth

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, the author works with the awareness that perversion is a socially, historically and theologically loaded term, at the same time as it may be the latest frontier in psychoanalysis, both clinically, and in relation to contemporary art and culture which emphasize the perverse. Positioning itself against tendencies to deny the existence of a category of 'perversion' or, inversely, to abuse it for the power that accrues from the act of diagnosing, she also points to other liabilities in the history of the treatment of this term, such as the narrowing down of perversion to the exclusively sexual domain, or, alternatively, the overextension of it to polymorphously erotic practices that enhance sexual excitement. The paradoxes of perversion and the difficulties of distinguishing the perverse from the non-perverse are addressed. The case is also made that, in order to understand perversion, one must unlink it from the narrow notion of sexual practice and see what is involved on a deeper level--an approach initiated when psychoanalysis turned to perversion as a defense against psychotic anxieties, and began considering the necessary place of perversion in the transference--countertransference. Two features common to both sexual and non-sexual perverse relations are the seductive and bribing aspects of perversion, and its means-ends reversal. Perversion is a haven for the disguising of hatred and suspicion as excitement and (false) love. Displaced child and beating father, entitled child and seductive mother, are both prototypes of psychoanalytic reflection on parents who excite, deceive and corrupt their children and establish perverse pacts with them. The notion of the perverse pact is foregrounded in Alice's analysis, where first the resurrection and then the dismantling of such a pact were effected through various analytic means. PMID:16096075

  1. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  2. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  3. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  4. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories. PMID:23214081

  5. Misremembering What You See or Hear: Dissociable Effects of Modality on Short- and Long-Term False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewska, Justyna M.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Munier, Emily; Bendler, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    False working memories readily emerge using a visual item-recognition variant of the converging associates task. Two experiments, manipulating study and test modality, extended prior working memory results by demonstrating a reliable false recognition effect (more false alarms to associatively related lures than to unrelated lures) within seconds…

  6. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  7. Animals in Education: Are We Prisoners of False Sentiment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minerney, Joseph D.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that concerns over the use of animals in science education is confounded by the unworthy introduction of false sentiment by animal rights groups, which persist in ignoring the realities of biology. (PR)

  8. Labelling improves false belief understanding. A training study.

    PubMed

    Sellabona, Elisabet Serrat; Sánchez, Carles Rostan; Majoral, Eduard Vallès; Guitart, Moisès Esteban; Caballero, Francesc Sidera; Ortiz, Jèssica Serrano

    2013-01-01

    A total of 104 children aged between 41 and 47 months were selected to study the relationship between language and false belief understanding. Participants were assigned to four different training conditions: discourse, labelling, control (all with deceptive objects), and sentential complements (involving non-deceptive objects). Post-test results showed an improvement in children's false belief understanding in the discourse and the labelling conditions, but not in the sentential complements with non-deceptive objects or the control group. Furthermore, the most remarkable improvement in false belief understanding occurred in the labelling group. These results suggest that some types of linguistic experience promote the development of false belief understanding, provided that differing perspectives are confronted. PMID:23866253

  9. The effect of Twitter exposure on false memory formation.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Kimberly M; Griffin, Nicholas R; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Ravizza, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter have increased drastically in popularity. However, information on these sites is not verified and may contain inaccuracies. It is well-established that false information encountered after an event can lead to memory distortion. Therefore, social media may be particularly harmful for autobiographical memory. Here, we tested the effect of Twitter on false memory. We presented participants with a series of images that depicted a story and then presented false information about the images in a scrolling feed that bore either a low or high resemblance to a Twitter feed. Confidence for correct information was similar across the groups, but confidence for suggested information was significantly lower when false information was presented in a Twitter format. We propose that individuals take into account the medium of the message when integrating information into memory.

  10. One hundred alleged false confession cases: some normative data.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes the psychological characteristics of individuals who retract self-incriminating admissions made during police interviewing. A group of 100 alleged false confessors was compared with 104 other forensic referrals on four psychological variables. The two groups differed significantly on tests of intelligence, suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Normative data are provided for clinicians to evaluate test scores when assessing the psychological characteristics of individuals who claim to have made false confessions. PMID:2364207

  11. One hundred alleged false confession cases: some normative data.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes the psychological characteristics of individuals who retract self-incriminating admissions made during police interviewing. A group of 100 alleged false confessors was compared with 104 other forensic referrals on four psychological variables. The two groups differed significantly on tests of intelligence, suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Normative data are provided for clinicians to evaluate test scores when assessing the psychological characteristics of individuals who claim to have made false confessions.

  12. False-lock performance improvement in Costas loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarios, A. H.; Tozer, T. C.

    1982-10-01

    A technique is described to reduce the probability of false-lock in Costas loops. This is where a frequency offset arises at a multiple of half the incoming data rate due to finite bandwidth of the arm filters. A modification is described to process components of this offset so as to augment the feedback control voltage. The performance is analyzed and it is shown how certain false-lock positions may be avoided.

  13. Processing of false belief passages during natural story comprehension: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kandylaki, Katerina D; Nagels, Arne; Tune, Sarah; Wiese, Richard; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kircher, Tilo

    2015-11-01

    The neural correlates of theory of mind (ToM) are typically studied using paradigms which require participants to draw explicit, task-related inferences (e.g., in the false belief task). In a natural setup, such as listening to stories, false belief mentalizing occurs incidentally as part of narrative processing. In our experiment, participants listened to auditorily presented stories with false belief passages (implicit false belief processing) and immediately after each story answered comprehension questions (explicit false belief processing), while neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All stories included (among other situations) one false belief condition and one closely matched control condition. For the implicit ToM processing, we modeled the hemodynamic response during the false belief passages in the story and compared it to the hemodynamic response during the closely matched control passages. For implicit mentalizing, we found activation in typical ToM processing regions, that is the angular gyrus (AG), superior medial frontal gyrus (SmFG), precuneus (PCUN), middle temporal gyrus (MTG) as well as in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) billaterally. For explicit ToM, we only found AG activation. The conjunction analysis highlighted the left AG and MTG as well as the bilateral IFG as overlapping ToM processing regions for both implicit and explicit modes. Implicit ToM processing during listening to false belief passages, recruits the left SmFG and billateral PCUN in addition to the "mentalizing network" known form explicit processing tasks.

  14. Processing of false belief passages during natural story comprehension: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kandylaki, Katerina D; Nagels, Arne; Tune, Sarah; Wiese, Richard; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kircher, Tilo

    2015-11-01

    The neural correlates of theory of mind (ToM) are typically studied using paradigms which require participants to draw explicit, task-related inferences (e.g., in the false belief task). In a natural setup, such as listening to stories, false belief mentalizing occurs incidentally as part of narrative processing. In our experiment, participants listened to auditorily presented stories with false belief passages (implicit false belief processing) and immediately after each story answered comprehension questions (explicit false belief processing), while neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All stories included (among other situations) one false belief condition and one closely matched control condition. For the implicit ToM processing, we modeled the hemodynamic response during the false belief passages in the story and compared it to the hemodynamic response during the closely matched control passages. For implicit mentalizing, we found activation in typical ToM processing regions, that is the angular gyrus (AG), superior medial frontal gyrus (SmFG), precuneus (PCUN), middle temporal gyrus (MTG) as well as in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) billaterally. For explicit ToM, we only found AG activation. The conjunction analysis highlighted the left AG and MTG as well as the bilateral IFG as overlapping ToM processing regions for both implicit and explicit modes. Implicit ToM processing during listening to false belief passages, recruits the left SmFG and billateral PCUN in addition to the "mentalizing network" known form explicit processing tasks. PMID:26356583

  15. “That Never Happened”: Adults’ Discernment of Children’s True and False Memory Reports

    PubMed Central

    Block, Stephanie D.; Shestowsky, Donna; Segovia, Daisy A.; Goodman, Gail S.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Alexander, Kristen Weede

    2014-01-01

    Adults’ evaluations of children’s reports can determine whether legal proceedings are undertaken and whether they ultimately lead to justice. The current study involved 92 undergraduates and 35 laypersons who viewed and evaluated videotaped interviews of 3- and 5-year-olds providing true or false memory reports. The children’s reports fell into the following categories based on a 2 (event type: true vs. false) × 2 (child report: assent vs. denial) factorial design: Accurate reports, false reports, accurate denials, and false denials. Results revealed that adults were generally better able to correctly judge accurate reports, accurate denials, and false reports compared to false denials: For false denials, adults were, on average, “confident” that the event had not occurred, even though the event had in fact been experienced. Participant age predicted performance. These findings underscore the greater difficulty adults have in evaluating young children’s false denials compared to other types of reports. Implications for law-related situations in which adults are called upon to evaluate children’s statements are discussed. PMID:23030818

  16. False-Positive Stress Echocardiograms: A Continuing Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Qamruddin, Salima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress echocardiography is an integral test in the cardiac diagnostic laboratory and has high sensitivity and specificity. Despite the excellent specificity of stress echocardiography, we continue to see a subset of patients with false-positive tests (defined as <50% diameter stenosis on subsequent coronary angiography). These false-positive findings present a management challenge because it remains unclear if and how to treat these patients. Methods: This article reviews relevant clinical studies and their outcomes. Results: Studies suggest that a group of patients develops a hypertensive response to exercise and therefore may have false-positive stress echocardiography. Hence, superior blood pressure control prior to stress echocardiography may prevent some false-positive tests. In addition, a subset of patients has microvascular abnormalities, vasomotor changes, endothelial dysfunction, and/or small vessel coronary disease that can lead to false-positive stress echocardiography. Conclusion: The evidence is insufficient to state that a false-positive stress echocardiography in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease portends a poor outcome, but considerable evidence shows that some of these patients have microvascular abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction and consequently may benefit from aggressive medical management and further testing. PMID:27660577

  17. False-Positive Stress Echocardiograms: A Continuing Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Qamruddin, Salima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress echocardiography is an integral test in the cardiac diagnostic laboratory and has high sensitivity and specificity. Despite the excellent specificity of stress echocardiography, we continue to see a subset of patients with false-positive tests (defined as <50% diameter stenosis on subsequent coronary angiography). These false-positive findings present a management challenge because it remains unclear if and how to treat these patients. Methods: This article reviews relevant clinical studies and their outcomes. Results: Studies suggest that a group of patients develops a hypertensive response to exercise and therefore may have false-positive stress echocardiography. Hence, superior blood pressure control prior to stress echocardiography may prevent some false-positive tests. In addition, a subset of patients has microvascular abnormalities, vasomotor changes, endothelial dysfunction, and/or small vessel coronary disease that can lead to false-positive stress echocardiography. Conclusion: The evidence is insufficient to state that a false-positive stress echocardiography in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease portends a poor outcome, but considerable evidence shows that some of these patients have microvascular abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction and consequently may benefit from aggressive medical management and further testing.

  18. False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in humans.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kathryn; Chittka, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Our memory is often surprisingly inaccurate, with errors ranging from misremembering minor details of events to generating illusory memories of entire episodes. The pervasiveness of such false memories generates a puzzle: in the face of selection pressure for accuracy of memory, how could such systematic failures have persisted over evolutionary time? It is possible that memory errors are an inevitable by-product of our adaptive memories and that semantic false memories are specifically connected to our ability to learn rules and concepts and to classify objects by category memberships. Here we test this possibility using a standard experimental false memory paradigm and inter-individual variation in verbal categorisation ability. Indeed it turns out that the error scores are significantly negatively correlated, with those individuals scoring fewer errors on the categorisation test being more susceptible to false memory intrusions in a free recall test. A similar trend, though not significant, was observed between individual categorisation ability and false memory susceptibility in a word recognition task. Our results therefore indicate that false memories, to some extent, might be a by-product of our ability to learn rules, categories and concepts. PMID:25254105

  19. Transcatheter Embolization of Pulmonary Artery False Aneurysm Associated with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, T. Kanazawa, S.; Mimura, H.; Yasui, K.; Okumura, Y.; Dendo, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Takahara, M.; Hiraki, Y.

    2004-03-15

    A 29-year-old woman with primary pulmonary hypertension presented with recurrent hemoptysis. Contrast-enhanced CT of the chest demonstrated the enhanced mass surrounded by consolidation related to parenchymal hemorrhage. Pulmonary angiography suggested that the mass was a pulmonary artery false aneurysm. After a microcatheter was superselectively inserted into the parent artery of the falseaneurysm, the false aneurysm was successfully treated by transcatheterembolization with coils. Her hemoptysis has never recurred.

  20. Chondrocyte IGF-1 receptor expression and responsiveness to IGF-1 stimulation in mouse articular cartilage during various phases of experimentally induced arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Verschure, P J; van Marle, J; Joosten, L A; van den Berg, W B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the distribution of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors and the biological response to IGF-1 stimulation in articular cartilage of normal mouse knee joints and arthritic joints taken at various stages of experimentally induced arthritis. METHODS--In situ IGF-1 receptor expression and responsiveness to IGF-1 stimulation were examined in murine articular cartilage at different phases in two models of experimentally induced arthritis. IGF-1 receptor expression was visualised in joint sections with the use of anti-IGF-1 receptor antibodies and quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Chondrocyte proteoglycan (PG) synthesis was measured by incorporation of 35S-sulphate. RESULTS--In control cartilage, the majority of IGF-1 receptors were found on chondrocytes localised in the middle and deeper zones of the cartilage, whereas receptor expression in surface zone chondrocytes was very low. During culture of normal articular cartilage, IGF-1 was able to maintain chondrocyte PG synthesis at the in vivo level. Concurrently with the development of arthritis, cartilage lost its capacity to react to IGF-1, but IGF-1 stimulation recovered when the inflammatory response waned. Shortly after induction of arthritis, IGF-1 receptor expression initially declined, but it had returned to normal levels by day 1 and remained increased thereafter. CONCLUSION--The distribution of IGF-1 receptor expression in the different zones of normal articular cartilage reflects IGF-1 stimulation and metabolic activity of chondrocytes in these layers. This correlation is disturbed in arthritic cartilage, suggesting inadequate or overruled signalling. Images PMID:7677441

  1. Gastroprotective activity of isopulegol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice: investigation of possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Izabel Gomes; Moura, Brinell Arcanjo; Neto, Manuel Rufino de Aquino; Tomé, Adriana da Rocha; Rocha, Nayrton Flávio Moura; de Carvalho, Alyne Mara Rodrigues; Macêdo, Danielle Silveira; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated whether isopulegol, a monoterpene present in essential oils of several aromatic plants, would be able to promote some gastroprotective effect and also verified the possible mechanisms involved in this action. For this study, ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in mice and histopathological assessment were used. The roles of NO, sulfhydryls (glutathione, GSH), ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP) channels), and prostaglandins were also investigated. Isopulegol exhibited a dose-related gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced lesions, while the pretreatment with glibenclamide and indomethacin [but not with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester] were able to reverse this action. The pretreatment with isopulegol also restored GSH levels to normal levels and exhibited dose-related gastroprotective effect against indomethacin-induced ulcer. The results suggested that isopulegol presents significant gastroprotective effects in both ethanol- and indomethacin-induced ulcer models, which appear to be mediated, at least in part, by endogenous prostaglandins, K(ATP) channel opening, and antioxidant properties. PMID:19479241

  2. Component Structure of Individual Differences in True and False Recognition of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James C.; Shastri, Kalyan K.; Abdi, Herve; Neville-Smith, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Principal-component analyses of 4 face-recognition studies uncovered 2 independent components. The first component was strongly related to false-alarm errors with new faces as well as to facial "conjunctions" that recombine features of previously studied faces. The second component was strongly related to hits as well as to the conjunction/new…

  3. Decreased susceptibility to false memories from misinformation in hormonal contraception users.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Nicole; Patihis, Lawrence; Nielsen, Shawn E

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones are increasingly implicated in memory formation. Recent literature has documented a relationship between hormones and emotional memory and sex differences, which are likely related to hormones, have long been demonstrated in a variety of mnemonic domains, including false memories. Hormonal contraception (HC), which alters sex hormones, has been associated with a bias towards gist memory and away from detailed memory in women who use it during an emotional memory task. Here, we investigated whether HC was associated with changes in susceptibility to false memories, which may be related to the formation of gist memories. We tested false memory susceptibility using two well-validated false memory paradigms: the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task, and a story-based misinformation task. We found that hormonal contraceptive users were less susceptible to false memories compared to non-users in the misinformation task, and no differences were seen between groups on the DRM task. We hypothesise that the differences in false memories from the misinformation task may be related to hormonal contraceptive users' memory bias away from details, towards gist memory. PMID:25142128

  4. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  5. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  6. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). Conclusion The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study. PMID:26161864

  7. Multibehavioral analysis of fear and anxiety before, during, and after experimentally induced predatory stress in Callithrix penicillata.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marilia; de Souza Silva, Maria A; Huston, Joseph P; Tomaz, Carlos

    2004-06-01

    A detailed behavioral analysis of nine Callithrix penicillata was conducted in the Marmoset Predator Confrontation Test (MPCT) during (a) four habituation trials with no "predator," (b) six confrontation trials with the predator (taxidermized oncilla cat, Felis tigrina), and (c) four trials with the predator removed. The marmosets habituated to the test apparatus with significant decreases in locomotion, exploration and long calls. Initial exposure to the predator elicited mainly fear-related behaviors (proximic avoidance, tsik-tsik vocalization, swaying/tongue in-out), whereas repeated confrontations attenuated these behaviors, concomitant to an increase in anxiety-associated responses (scratching/grooming/scent marking). The initial behavioral repertoire, observed before confrontations, was fully restored only upon removal of the predator. This easily discernable complex defensive behavioral repertoire is hoped to provide a comprehensive baseline for studying the biological substrates of fear/anxiety parameters in nonhuman primates. PMID:15219778

  8. [False memories and aging: age effects on predictive inferences].

    PubMed

    Gras, Doriane; Tardieu, Hubert; Nicolas, Serge

    2008-12-01

    To study false memories in older adults, a lot of experiments used the DRM paradigm (Deese, Roediger et McDermott). Most of the time, the results showed that older adults make more false memories than young adults. To test this hypothesis with a more ecological material, we used a situation of text reading. When we read a text, we activate predictive inferences, which are anticipations of what will happen next. We constructed short texts inducing predictive inferences (represented by a target word not presented) to study false memories in young and older adults. For example, in the text , the target word "sting" is not presented but represents the predictive inference. After the reading of the texts, we propose to the subjects a restitution task consisting in recalling texts with the first sentence as clue. Then, they made a recognition task composed of target words and lures; they had to say if they remembered having read these words in the texts. In these two tasks, the subjects tended to remember not presented target words, creating false memories. This effect was the same for the two age groups showing that, in an ecological situation like text reading, older persons make as many false memories as young adults. PMID:19087911

  9. Filtering False Positives Based on Server-Side Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Makoto; Hanaoka, Miyuki; Kono, Kenji

    Reducing the rate of false positives is of vital importance in enhancing the usefulness of signature-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs). To reduce the number of false positives, a network administrator must thoroughly investigate a lengthy list of signatures and carefully disable the ones that detect attacks that are not harmful to the administrator's environment. This is a daunting task; if some signatures are disabled by mistake, the NIDS fails to detect critical remote attacks. We designed a NIDS, TrueAlarm, to reduce the rate of false positives. Conventional NIDSs alert administrators that a malicious message has been detected, regardless of whether the message actually attempts to compromise the protected server. In contrast, TrueAlarm delays the alert until it has confirmed that an attempt has been made. The TrueAlarm NIDS cooperates with a server-side monitor that observes the protected server's behavior. TrueAlarm only alerts administrators when a server-side monitor has detected deviant server behavior that must have been caused by a message detected by a NIDS. Our experimental results revealed that TrueAlarm reduces the rate of false positives. Using actual network traffic collected over 14 days, TrueAlarm produced 46 false positives, while Snort, a conventional NIDS, produced 818.

  10. The Role of Sleep in False Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jessica D.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Propper, Ruth; Huang, Li-Wen; Wamsley, Erin; Tucker, Matthew A.; Walker, Matthew P.; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Memories are not stored as exact copies of our experiences. As a result, remembering is subject not only to memory failure, but to inaccuracies and distortions as well. Although such distortions are often retained or even enhanced over time, sleep’s contribution to the development of false memories is unknown. Here, we report that a night of sleep increases both veridical and false recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, compared to an equivalent period of daytime wakefulness. But while veridical memory deteriorates across both wake and sleep, false memories are preferentially preserved by sleep, actually showing a non-significant improvement. The same selectivity of false over veridical memories was observed in a follow-up nap study. Unlike previous studies implicating deep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) in declarative memory consolidation, here veridical recall correlated with decreased SWS, a finding that was observed in both the overnight and nap studies. These findings lead to two counterintuitive conclusions – that under certain circumstances sleep can promote false memories over veridical ones, and SWS can be associated with impairment rather than facilitation of declarative memory consolidation. While these effects produce memories that are less accurate after sleep, these memories may, in the end, be more useful. PMID:19348959

  11. Pomegranate exerts chemoprevention of experimentally induced mammary tumorigenesis by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bishayee, Anupam; Mandal, Animesh; Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bhatia, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    abstract Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women in the United States and discovery and development of safe chemopreventive drugs is urgently needed. The fruit pomegranate (Punica granatum) is gaining importance because of its various health benefits. This study was initiated to investigate chemopreventive potential of a pomegranate emulsion (PE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) rat mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were orally administered with PE (0.2–5.0 g/kg), starting 2 wk before and 16 wk following DMBA treatment. PE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden, and reversed histopathological changes. PE dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in mammary tumors. Immunohistochemical studies showed that PE increased intratumor Bax, decreased Bcl2 and manifested a proapoptotic shift in Bax/Bcl2 ratio. In addition, our gene expression study showed PE-mediated upregulation of Bad, caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and cytochrome c in mammary tumors. Thus, PE exerts chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis mediated through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2 in concert with caspase cascades. Pomegranate bioactive phytoconstituents could be developed as a chemopreventive drug to reduce the risk of breast cancer. PMID:26699876

  12. Pomegranate exerts chemoprevention of experimentally induced mammary tumorigenesis by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Anupam; Mandal, Animesh; Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bhatia, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women in the United States and discovery and development of safe chemopreventive drugs is urgently needed. The fruit pomegranate (Punica granatum) is gaining importance because of its various health benefits. This study was initiated to investigate chemopreventive potential of a pomegranate emulsion (PE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) rat mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were orally administered with PE (0.2-5.0 g/kg), starting 2 wk before and 16 wk following DMBA treatment. PE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden, and reversed histopathological changes. PE dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in mammary tumors. Immunohistochemical studies showed that PE increased intratumor Bax, decreased Bcl2 and manifested a proapoptotic shift in Bax/Bcl2 ratio. In addition, our gene expression study showed PE-mediated upregulation of Bad, caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and cytochrome c in mammary tumors. Thus, PE exerts chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis mediated through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2 in concert with caspase cascades. Pomegranate bioactive phytoconstituents could be developed as a chemopreventive drug to reduce the risk of breast cancer. PMID:26699876

  13. Increases of Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase Expressions by Lacosamide Pretreatment Contributes to Neuroprotection Against Experimentally Induced Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Young; Park, Joon Ha; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Won, Moo-Ho; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kim, Sung Koo

    2016-09-01

    Lacosamide is a new antiepileptic drug which is widely used to treat partial-onset seizures. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of lacosamide against transient ischemic damage and expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We found that pre-treatment with 25 mg/kg lacosamide protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient global cerebral ischemic insult using hematoxylin-eosin staining and neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Transient ischemia dramatically changed expressions of SOD1, SOD2 and GPX, not CAT, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lacosamide pre-treatment increased expressions of CAT and GPX, not SOD1 and 2, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons compared with controls, and their expressions induced by lacosamide pre-treatment were maintained after transient cerebral ischemia. In brief, pre-treatment with lacosamide protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage induced by transient global cerebral ischemia, and the lacosamide-mediated neuroprotection may be closely related to increases of CAT and GPX expressions by lacosamide pre-treatment. PMID:27209305

  14. Perceptual representations in false recognition and priming of pictures.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2008-12-01

    Using a new procedure, we investigate whether imagination can induce false memory by creating a perceptual representation. Participants studied pictures and words with and without an imagery task and at test performed both a direct recognition test and an indirect perceptual identification test on pictorial stimuli. Corrected false recognition rates were 7% for pictures studied in word form (Experiment 1), 26% for pictures imagined once (Experiment 2), and 48% for pictures imagined multiple times (Experiment 3), although on the indirect test, no priming was found for these items. Furthermore, a perceptual/conceptual imagery manipulation did not affect the tendency to claim that imagined items had been studied as pictures (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the false memories reported on direct tests are not driven by perceptual representations.

  15. Blocking Mimicry Makes True and False Smiles Look the Same

    PubMed Central

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G.; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions. PMID:24670316

  16. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  17. Left ventricular false tendons: anatomic, echocardiographic, and pathophysiologic insights.

    PubMed

    Silbiger, Jeffrey J

    2013-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) false tendons are chordlike structures that traverse the LV cavity. They attach to the septum, to the papillary muscles, or to the free wall of the ventricle but not to the mitral valve. They are found in approximately half of human hearts examined at autopsy. Although it has been more than 100 years since their initial description, the functional significance of these structures remains largely unexplored. It has been suggested that they retard LV remodeling by tethering the walls to which they are attached, but there are few data to substantiate this. Some studies have suggested that false tendons reduce the severity of functional mitral regurgitation by stabilizing the position of the papillary muscles as the left ventricle enlarges. LV false tendons may also have deleterious effects and have been implicated in promoting membrane formation in discrete subaortic stenosis. This article reviews current understanding of the anatomy, echocardiographic characteristics, and pathophysiology of these structures.

  18. Blocking mimicry makes true and false smiles look the same.

    PubMed

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions.

  19. Effectiveness of false correction strategy on science reading comprehension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, Cynthia Anne

    False-correction reading strategy theoretically prompted college students to activate their prior knowledge when provided false statements linked to a portion of their biology textbook. This strategy is based in elaborative interrogation theory, which suggests that prompting readers to answer interrogatives about text students are reading increases their comprehension of that text. These interrogatives always asked "why" statements pulled from a text, one sentence in length, were "true." True statements in this study based on a text were converted by the experimenter into false statements, one sentence in length. Students were requested to rewrite each statement (n=12) on average every 200 words in a text as they were reading, converting each false statement into a true statement. These students outperformed other students requested to reread the same biology text twice (an established placebo-control strategy). These students, in turn, outperformed still other students reading an unrelated control text taken from the same textbook used only to establish a prior knowledge baseline for all students included in this study. Students participating in this study were enrolled students in an undergraduate introductory general biology course designed for non-majors. A three-group, posttest-only, randomized experimental control-group design was used to prevent pretest activation of students' prior knowledge thus increasing chances of producing evidence of false-correction effectiveness and to begin augmenting potential generalizability to science classrooms. Students' (n=357) general biology knowledge, verbal ability, and attempts to use the false correction strategy were collected and analyzed. Eight of the participants were interviewed by the researcher in a first attempt in this domain to collect data on participants' points of view about the strategy. The results of this study are not yet recommended for use in authentic school settings as further research is indicated.

  20. Spirit Examines Light-Toned 'Halley' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Stretching along 'Low Ridge' in front of the winter haven for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit are several continuous rock layers that make up the ridge. Some of these layers form fins that stick out from the other rocks in a way that suggests that they are resistant to erosion. Spirit is currently straddling one of these fin-like layers and can reach a small bit of light-toned material that might be a broken bit of it. Informally named 'Halley,' this rock was broken by Spirit's wheels when the rover drove over it.

    The first analyses of Halley showed it to be unusual in composition, containing a lot of the minor element zinc relative to the soil around it and having much of its iron tied up in the mineral hematite. When scientists again placed the scientific instruments on Spirit's robotic arm on a particularly bright-looking part of Halley, they found that the chemical composition of the bright spots was suggestive of a calcium sulfate mineral. Bright soils that Spirit has examined earlier in the mission contain iron sulfate.

    This discovery raises new questions for the science team: Why is the sulfate mineralogy here different? Did Halley and the fin material form by water percolating through the layered rocks of Low Ridge? When did the chemical alteration of this rock occur? Spirit will continue to work on Halley and other light-toned materials along Low Ridge in the coming months to try to answer these questions.

    Spirit took this red-green-blue composite image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 820th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 24, 2006). The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the rocks and soil. It combines frames taken through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 430-nanometer filters. The middle of the imaged area has dark basaltic sand. Spirit's wheel track is at the left edge of the frame. Just to the right of the wheel track in the lower left are two types

  1. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  2. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one’s own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children’s abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology. PMID:26517260

  3. Migration and Differentiation of GFP-transplanted Bone Marrow-derived Cells into Experimentally Induced Periodontal Polyp in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Saeka; Shoumura, Masahito; Osuga, Naoto; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Nakano, Keisuke; Okafuji, Norimasa; Ochiai, Takanaga; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Perforation of floor of the dental pulp is often encountered during root canal treatment in routine clinical practice of dental caries. If perforation were large, granulation tissue would grow to form periodontal polyp. Granulation tissue consists of proliferating cells however their origin is not clear. It was shown that the cells in granulation tissue are mainly from migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of the bone marrow. Hence, this study utilized GFP bone marrow transplantation mouse model. The floor of the pulp chamber in maxillary first molar was perforated using ½ dental round bur. Morphological assessment was carried out by micro CT and microscopy and GFP cell mechanism was further assessed by immunohistochemistry using double fluorescent staining with GFP-S100A4; GFP-Runx2 and GFP-CD31. Results of micro CT revealed alveolar bone resorption and widening of periodontal ligament. Histopathological examination showed proliferation of fibroblasts with some round cells and blood vessels in the granulation tissue. At 2 weeks, the outermost layer of the granulation tissue was lined by squamous cells with distinct intercellular bridges. At 4 weeks, the granulation tissue became larger than the perforation and the outermost layer was lined by relatively typical stratified squamous epithelium. Double immunofluorescent staining of GFP and Runx2 revealed that both proteins were expressed in spindle-shaped cells. Double immunofluorescent staining of GFP and CD31 revealed that both proteins were expressed in vascular endothelial cells in morphologically distinct vessels. The results suggest that fibroblasts, periodontal ligament fibroblasts and blood vessels in granulation tissue were derived from transplanted-bone marrow cells. Thus, essential growth of granulation tissue in periodontal polyp was caused by the migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow, which differentiated into fibroblasts and later on differentiated into

  4. Can the false-discovery rate be misleading?

    PubMed

    Barboza, Rodrigo; Cociorva, Daniel; Xu, Tao; Barbosa, Valmir C; Perales, Jonas; Valente, Richard H; França, Felipe M G; Yates, John R; Carvalho, Paulo C

    2011-10-01

    The decoy-database approach is currently the gold standard for assessing the confidence of identifications in shotgun proteomic experiments. Here, we demonstrate that what might appear to be a good result under the decoy-database approach for a given false-discovery rate could be, in fact, the product of overfitting. This problem has been overlooked until now and could lead to obtaining boosted identification numbers whose reliability does not correspond to the expected false-discovery rate. To overcome this, we are introducing a modified version of the method, termed a semi-labeled decoy approach, which enables the statistical determination of an overfitted result.

  5. Do 15-Month-Old Infants Understand False Beliefs?

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Kristine H.; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    For more than two decades, researchers have argued that young children do not understand mental states such as beliefs. Part of the evidence for this claim comes from preschoolers’ failure at verbal tasks that require the understanding that others may hold false beliefs. Here, we used a novel nonverbal task to examine 15-month-old infants’ ability to predict an actor’s behavior on the basis of her true or false belief about a toy’s hiding place. Results were positive, supporting the view that, from a young age, children appeal to mental states—goals, perceptions, and beliefs—to explain the behavior of others. PMID:15821091

  6. Rivastigmine Alleviates Experimentally Induced Colitis in Mice and Rats by Acting at Central and Peripheral Sites to Modulate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Shifrin, Helena; Nadler-Milbauer, Mirela; Shoham, Shai; Weinstock, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The cholinergic anti-inflammatory system and α7 nicotinic receptors in macrophages have been proposed to play a role in neuroimmunomodulation and in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. We investigated the ability of a cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor rivastigmine, to improve the pathology of ulcerative colitis by increasing the concentration of extracellular acetylcholine in the brain and periphery. In combination with carbachol (10 µM), rivastigmine (1 µM) significantly decreased the release of nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 from lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and this effect was abolished by α7 nicotinic receptor blockade by bungarotoxin. Rivastigmine (1 mg/kg) but not (0.5 mg/kg), injected subcutaneously once daily in BALB/c mice with colitis induced by 4% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), reduced the disease activity index (DAI) by 60% and damage to colon structure. Rivastigmine (1 mg/kg) also reduced myeloperoxidase activity and IL-6 by >60%, and the infiltration of CD11b expressing cells by 80%. These effects were accompanied by significantly greater ChE inhibition in cortex, brain stem, plasma and colon than that after 0.5 mg/kg. Co-administration of rivastigmine (1 mg/kg) with the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly increased the number of CD11b expressing cells in the colon but did not change DAI compared to those treated with rivastigmine alone. Rivastigmine 1 and 2 mg given rectally to rats with colitis induced by rectal administration of 30 mg dintrobezene sulfonic acid (DNBS) also caused a dose related reduction in ChE activity in blood and colon, the number of ulcers and area of ulceration, levels of TNF-α and in MPO activity. The study revealed that the ChE inhibitor rivastigmine is able to reduce gastro-intestinal inflammation by actions at various sites at which it preserves ACh. These include ACh released from vagal nerve endings that activates alpha7 nicotinic receptors on circulating macrophages and in

  7. Strength recovery and vein growth during self-sealing of experimentally-induced faults in Westerly granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that crustal deformation in the presence of a chemically-active pore fluid is commonly accompanied by self-sealing processes that can occur relatively rapidly compared with geological timescales. This is consistent with earthquake models involving transient fluid flow on faults during seismic slip, followed by self-sealing which may occur through the physico-chemical process of the crack-seal mechanism. In this mechanism, brittle deformation of water-saturated rock produces new fracture surfaces that are out of chemical equilibrium with the pore fluid, leading to mineral dissolution, mass transport and precipitation in a cycle of coupled deformation and fluid flow. Here, we present direct experimental evidence for the rapid development of dilatant crack-seal quartz veins during sequential stressing of pre-faulted rock samples. Right-cylindrical, pre-faulted samples of Westerly granite were held at a constant temperature of 400°C and an effective confining pressure in the range 100 to 160 MPa in a triaxial deformation apparatus. An differential axial stress was then applied cyclically to the samples at a strain rate of 10-5 s-1 to induce frictional sliding under either saturated (λ = 0.4) or dry (λ = 0) conditions using distilled water as the pore fluid. The samples were broken a number of times (5 to 7 depending on the test) over periods of up to several months, and left to cook between loading cycles at constant temperature and hydrostatic pressure for hold times varying between 1 hour and 78 days. On re-loading, all the saturated samples exhibited substantial strength recovery for hold times greater than about 100 hours, while dry samples showed no increase in strength for any hold time up to the maximum of 34 days. The reason for the strength recovery becomes clear from post-test microstructural analysis of the deformed samples. All of the saturated samples showed evidence of the development of quartz veins in the fault zones

  8. Experimental investigation of false positive errors in auditory species occurrence surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.W.; Weir, Linda A.; McClintock, Brett T.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    False positive errors are a significant component of many ecological data sets, which in combination with false negative errors, can lead to severe biases in conclusions about ecological systems. We present results of a field experiment where observers recorded observations for known combinations of electronically broadcast calling anurans under conditions mimicking field surveys to determine species occurrence. Our objectives were to characterize false positive error probabilities for auditory methods based on a large number of observers, to determine if targeted instruction could be used to reduce false positive error rates, and to establish useful predictors of among-observer and among-species differences in error rates. We recruited 31 observers, ranging in abilities from novice to expert, that recorded detections for 12 species during 180 calling trials (66,960 total observations). All observers made multiple false positive errors and on average 8.1% of recorded detections in the experiment were false positive errors. Additional instruction had only minor effects on error rates. After instruction, false positive error probabilities decreased by 16% for treatment individuals compared to controls with broad confidence interval overlap of 0 (95% CI: -46 to 30%). This coincided with an increase in false negative errors due to the treatment (26%; -3 to 61%). Differences among observers in false positive and in false negative error rates were best predicted by scores from an online test and a self-assessment of observer ability completed prior to the field experiment. In contrast, years of experience conducting call surveys was a weak predictor of error rates. False positive errors were also more common for species that were played more frequently, but were not related to the dominant spectral frequency of the call. Our results corroborate other work that demonstrates false positives are a significant component of species occurrence data collected by auditory

  9. Experimental investigation of false positive errors in auditory species occurrence surveys.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A W; Weir, Linda A; Mcclintock, Brett T; Grant, Evan H Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L; Simons, Theodore R

    2012-07-01

    False positive errors are a significant component of many ecological data sets, which in combination with false negative errors, can lead to severe biases in conclusions about ecological systems. We present results of a field experiment where observers recorded observations for known combinations of electronically broadcast calling anurans under conditions mimicking field surveys to determine species occurrence. Our objectives were to characterize false positive error probabilities for auditory methods based on a large number of observers, to determine if targeted instruction could be used to reduce false positive error rates, and to establish useful predictors of among-observer and among-species differences in error rates. We recruited 31 observers, ranging in abilities from novice to expert, who recorded detections for 12 species during 180 calling trials (66,960 total observations). All observers made multiple false positive errors, and on average 8.1% of recorded detections in the experiment were false positive errors. Additional instruction had only minor effects on error rates. After instruction, false positive error probabilities decreased by 16% for treatment individuals compared to controls with broad confidence interval overlap of 0 (95% CI:--46 to 30%). This coincided with an increase in false negative errors due to the treatment (26%;--3 to 61%). Differences among observers in false positive and in false negative error rates were best predicted by scores from an online test and a self-assessment of observer ability completed prior to the field experiment. In contrast, years of experience conducting call surveys was a weak predictor of error rates. False positive errors were also more common for species that were played more frequently but were not related to the dominant spectral frequency of the call. Our results corroborate other work that demonstrates false positives are a significant component of species occurrence data collected by auditory methods

  10. Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

  11. Young Children's Emerging Ability to Make False Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the origins of children's ability to make consciously false statements, a necessary component of lying. Children 2 to 5 years of age were rewarded for claiming that they saw a picture of a bird when viewing pictures of fish. They were asked outcome questions ("Do you win/lose?"), recognition questions ("Do you have a…

  12. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD.

  13. Direct Instruction vs. Arts Integration: A False Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author takes on what he considers to be the false dichotomy between direct instruction and arts integration. He contends that at a time when national issues of sustainability and conservation of energy and resources become ever more urgent, it is time that those committed to quality arts education stop squandering time, money,…

  14. True/False Test: Enhancing Its Power through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Felix B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses how modifying the true-or-false (T/F) test, by requiring written explanations, reveals major weaknesses and hazards of the simple (unexplained) T/F tests popular among teachers. But, more important, the modification transforms the test into a very efficient formative assessment tool. It opens a window that allows a teacher to…

  15. A Tutorial on Multiple Testing: False Discovery Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of criteria and methods in multiple testing, with an emphasis on the false discovery rate control. The popular Benjamini and Hochberg procedure is described. The rationale for this approach is explained through a simple Bayesian interpretation. Some state-of-the-art variations and extensions are also presented.

  16. Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

  17. Reducing False Positives in Runtime Analysis of Deadlocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensalem, Saddek; Havelund, Klaus; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an improvement of a standard algorithm for detecting dead-lock potentials in multi-threaded programs, in that it reduces the number of false positives. The standard algorithm works as follows. The multi-threaded program under observation is executed, while lock and unlock events are observed. A graph of locks is built, with edges between locks symbolizing locking orders. Any cycle in the graph signifies a potential for a deadlock. The typical standard example is the group of dining philosophers sharing forks. The algorithm is interesting because it can catch deadlock potentials even though no deadlocks occur in the examined trace, and at the same time it scales very well in contrast t o more formal approaches to deadlock detection. The algorithm, however, can yield false positives (as well as false negatives). The extension of the algorithm described in this paper reduces the amount of false positives for three particular cases: when a gate lock protects a cycle, when a single thread introduces a cycle, and when the code segments in different threads that cause the cycle can actually not execute in parallel. The paper formalizes a theory for dynamic deadlock detection and compares it to model checking and static analysis techniques. It furthermore describes an implementation for analyzing Java programs and its application to two case studies: a planetary rover and a space craft altitude control system.

  18. False Choices: Why School Vouchers Threaten Our Children's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Robert, Ed.; Miner, Barbara, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A voucher system of schooling would destroy the few democratic gains made in public education in recent years, worsen inequalities that already permeate education, and block opportunities for meaningful reform. Articles included in this special issue are: (1) an introduction, "Why We Are Publishing False Choices" ("Rethinking Schools" Editorial…

  19. Context effects and false memory for alcohol words in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2009-03-01

    This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (87 male) 10th grade students, ages 14-16 (M=15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental--Group E, n=92) or only Neutral (Control--Group C, n=79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two's. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhibited higher false recognition of Neutral than Alcohol items, whereas Group E displayed equivalent false rates for both word types. The reported number of alcohol TV ads seen in the past week predicted higher false recognition of Neutral words in Group C and of Alcohol words in Group E. False memory for Alcohol words in Group E was greater in males and high anxiety sensitive participants. These context-dependent biases may contribute to exaggerations in perceived drinking norms previously found to predict alcohol misuse in young drinkers. PMID:19081200

  20. Looking for Childhood Schizophrenia: Case Series of False Positives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayer, Catherine; Sporn, Alexandra; Gogtay, Nitin; Tossell, Julia; Lenane, Marge; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive experience with the diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicates a high rate of false positives. Most mislabeled patients have chronic disabling, affective, or behavioral disorders. The authors report the cases of three children who passed stringent initial childhood-onset schizophrenia "screens" but had no chronic psychotic…

  1. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    PubMed

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring.

  2. Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

  3. The Just So Story--Obvious but False.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Considers how public opinion and entire theories of teaching reading are based in the false Just So story--Just Sound Out, and you can read. Explains why sounding out is a handicap. Suggests a better alternative, teaching by recognizing words. (SG)

  4. Educators' Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Saykaly, Christine; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research investigating children's lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals' abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators' abilities to evaluate the veracity of children's reports of bullying. In this study, educators' abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying…

  5. Teacher Education and the Enduring Significance of "False Empathy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Chezare A.; Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    The concept "False Empathy" posited by critical race theory luminary Richard Delgado ("Calif Law Rev" 84(1):61-100, 1996) easily obscures White teacher's good intentions to be effective educators of racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse students. It is argued here that critical race theory is useful for isolating and…

  6. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  7. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  8. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  9. Reducing Child Witnesses' False Reports of Misinformation from Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Debra Ann; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Explored whether source-monitoring training (SMT) would help 3- to 8-year-olds report only experienced events during a target interview. Found that SMT reduced 7- and 8- year-olds' false reports in response to direct questions but had no impact on younger children's performance. Findings suggest a transition between 3 and 8 years in strategic use…

  10. 7 CFR 28.961 - False and misleading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and Processing Tests § 28.961 False and misleading information. The publication or communication by any person of...

  11. 7 CFR 28.961 - False and misleading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and Processing Tests § 28.961 False and misleading information. The publication or communication by any person of...

  12. 7 CFR 28.961 - False and misleading information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and Processing Tests § 28.961 False and misleading information. The publication or communication by any person of...

  13. Do 10-Month-Old Infants Understand Others' False Beliefs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan

    2011-01-01

    As adults, we know that others' mental states, such as beliefs, guide their behavior and that these mental states can deviate from reality. Researchers have examined whether young children possess adult-like theory of mind by focusing on their understanding about others' false beliefs. The present research revealed that 10-month-old infants seemed…

  14. 12. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN EAST FALSE PARTITION WALL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN EAST FALSE PARTITION WALL IN CLEAN ROOM (102) AND EAST WALL OF VEHICLE SUPPORT BUILDING SHOWING PREFILTER NEAR SOUTH WALL - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Detecting False Positives in Multielement Designs: Implications for Brief Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Sara M.; Rapp, John T.; Henrickson, Marissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the extent to which multielement designs produced false positives using continuous duration recording (CDR) and interval recording with 10-s and 1-min interval sizes. Specifically, they created 6,000 graphs with multielement designs that varied in the number of data paths, and the number of data points per data path, using a…

  16. A Demonstration of Regression False Positive Selection in Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Business analytics courses, such as marketing research, data mining, forecasting, and advanced financial modeling, have substantial predictive modeling components. The predictive modeling in these courses requires students to estimate and test many linear regressions. As a result, false positive variable selection ("type I errors") is…

  17. Counterfactual Thinking and False Belief: The Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Stefane; Turley-Ames, Kandi J.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine further the relationship between counterfactual thinking and false belief (FB) as examined by Guajardo and Turley-Ames ("Cognitive Development, 19" (2004) 53-80). More specifically, the current research examined the importance of working memory and inhibitory control in understanding the relationship…

  18. False Positive Probabilities for all Kepler Objects of Interest: 1284 Newly Validated Planets and 428 Likely False Positives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Rowe, Jason F.; Ravichandran, Ganesh; Petigura, Erik A.; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie M.

    2016-05-01

    We present astrophysical false positive probability calculations for every Kepler Object of Interest (KOI)—the first large-scale demonstration of a fully automated transiting planet validation procedure. Out of 7056 KOIs, we determine that 1935 have probabilities <1% of being astrophysical false positives, and thus may be considered validated planets. Of these, 1284 have not yet been validated or confirmed by other methods. In addition, we identify 428 KOIs that are likely to be false positives, but have not yet been identified as such, though some of these may be a result of unidentified transit timing variations. A side product of these calculations is full stellar property posterior samplings for every host star, modeled as single, binary, and triple systems. These calculations use vespa, a publicly available Python package that is able to be easily applied to any transiting exoplanet candidate.

  19. ``False Positive,'' an Apt Term and Concept for Volcanologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderman, R.

    2010-12-01

    A less-than-bold prediction is that signals that could presage an eruption, but later turn out not to have been predictive (false positives), will continue to vex volcanologists and societies touched by volcanic processes. At present, even at the most carefully monitored volcanoes, many remote-sensing, geophysical, and geochemical clues are often incompletely diagnostic. Even assessing multiple kinds of data cannot ensure successful prediction of eruption or eruptive behavior. Although we’ve witnessed improvements in instrumentation, a growing number of instructive examples, and advances in understanding, the concept of false positives might elevate public understanding since the term is in common use (eg., medical tests). The term helps reveal inherent uncertainty to the press and public, with much-needed emphasis on the limits of the data. Such understanding among the public is critical when scientists forecast an eruption that fails to materialize (“cry wolf”), a circumstance that can have profound negative consequences, including loss of credibility. Bayes’ theorem can calculate probabilities as well as the rates of false positives and false negatives. The rates are a function of both the accuracy of the test and the actual rate of occurrence of the phenomena in question. Globally, rates of occurrence differ for various volcanological processes. For example, dome extrusion is common, whereas caldera collapse, comparatively rare. The latter’s rarity may suggest caution in interpreting precursory signals that could indicate that outcome. Despite the risk of false positives, it may be appropriate to heed test results, even those of marginal reliability, because the consequences of disaster are much greater than the cost of avoidance. For example, risks of uncertain ash plumes detected by VAACs with remote sensing may be minimized by altering an aircraft’s route, a choice less onerous than confronting the danger of ash encounter.

  20. Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm.

    PubMed

    Russano, Melissa B; Meissner, Christian A; Narchet, Fadia M; Kassin, Saul M

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with which to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm involves guilty and innocent participants being accused of intentionally breaking an experimental rule, or "cheating." In the first demonstration of this paradigm, we explored the influence of two common police interrogation tactics: minimization and an explicit offer of leniency, or a "deal." Results indicated that guilty persons were more likely to confess than innocent persons, and that the use of minimization and the offer of a deal increased the rate of both true and false confessions. Police investigators are encouraged to avoid interrogation techniques that imply or directly promise leniency, as they appear to reduce the diagnostic value of any confession that is elicited. PMID:15943675

  1. Dynamical emergence of the Universe into the false vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, Johann; Birrell, Jeremiah E-mail: jbirrell@email.arizona.edu

    2015-11-01

    We study how the hot Universe evolves and acquires the prevailing vacuum state, demonstrating that in specific conditions which are believed to apply, the Universe becomes frozen into the state with the smallest value of Higgs vacuum field v=( h), even if this is not the state of lowest energy. This supports the false vacuum dark energy Λ-model. Under several likely hypotheses we determine the temperature in the evolution of the Universe at which two vacuua v{sub 1}, v{sub 2} can swap between being true and false. We evaluate the dynamical surface pressure on domain walls between low and high mass vaccua due to the presence of matter and show that the low mass state remains the preferred vacuum of the Universe.

  2. A textural approach for mass false positive reduction in mammography.

    PubMed

    Lladó, X; Oliver, A; Freixenet, J; Martí, R; Martí, J

    2009-09-01

    During the last decade several algorithms have been proposed for automatic mass detection in mammographic images. However, almost all these methods suffer from a high number of false positives. In this paper we propose a new approach for tackling this false positive reduction problem. The key point of our proposal is the use of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for representing the textural properties of the masses. We extend the basic LBP histogram descriptor into a spatially enhanced histogram which encodes both the local region appearance and the spatial structure of the masses. Support Vector Machines (SVM) are then used for classifying the true masses from the ones being actually normal parenchyma. Our approach is evaluated using 1792 ROIs extracted from the DDSM database. The experiments show that LBP are effective and efficient descriptors for mammographic masses. Moreover, the comparison with current methods illustrates that our proposal obtains a better performance. PMID:19406614

  3. Matched false-belief performance during verbal and nonverbal interference.

    PubMed

    Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The strength of this inference depends on the cognitive processes that are matched between the verbal and nonverbal inference tasks. Here, we matched the two interference tasks in terms of their effects on spatial working memory. We found equal success on false-belief reasoning during both verbal and nonverbal interference, suggesting that language is not specifically necessary for adult theory of mind.

  4. False discovery rates for rare variants from sequenced data.

    PubMed

    Capanu, Marinela; Seshan, Venkatraman E

    2015-02-01

    The detection of rare deleterious variants is the preeminent current technical challenge in statistical genetics. Sorting the deleterious from neutral variants at a disease locus is challenging because of the sparseness of the evidence for each individual variant. Hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model uncertainty are two techniques that have been shown to be promising in pinpointing individual rare variants that may be driving the association. Interpreting the results from these techniques from the perspective of multiple testing is a challenge and the goal of this article is to better understand their false discovery properties. Using simulations, we conclude that accurate false discovery control cannot be achieved in this framework unless the magnitude of the variants' risk is large and the hierarchical characteristics have high accuracy in distinguishing deleterious from neutral variants.

  5. The false claims act and its impact on medical practices.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    A lawsuit under the federal False Claims Act can threaten the survival of a medical practice. The Act prohibits a range of misconduct involving the submission of false claims to the government, as well as the knowing and improper retention of overpayments of government funds. Violations of the Act result in liability for treble damages and civil penalties of as much as $11,000 per violation. Although the Act imposes liability only on persons who act "knowingly," the "knowing" requirement is met if the person acts with deliberate ignorance or reckless disregard of the circumstances. The Act contains a "qui tam provision under which a whistleblower, acting on behalf of the government, may file suit to enforce the Act's terms, and if the lawsuit is successful, can receive a substantial percentage of the government's recovery.

  6. A positive emotional bias in confabulatory false beliefs about place.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Berry, Helen; Evans, Cathryn E Y

    2004-08-01

    Some neurological patients with medial frontal lesions exhibit striking confabulations. Most accounts of the cause of confabulations are cognitive, though the literature has produced anecdotal suggestions that confabulations may not be emotionally neutral, having a ('wish-fulfilment') bias that shapes the patient's perception of reality in a more affectively positive direction. The present study reviewed every case (N = 16) of false beliefs about place reported in the neuroscientific literature from 1980 to 2000, with blind raters evaluating the 'pleasantness' of the patient's actual and confabulated locations. In each case the confabulated location was evaluated as more pleasant. This striking finding supports the claim that there may be a systematic affective bias in the false beliefs held by neurological patients with confabulation. PMID:15223194

  7. "False" migration of rigid fixation appliances in pediatric craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Papay, F A; Hardy, S; Morales, L; Walker, M; Enlow, D

    1995-07-01

    Osseous fixation techniques have been widely used to provide rigid stabilization in the craniofacial skeleton. Reported sequelae of its usage has been limited to palpation of the screw-plate system and radiological imaging artifacts. Over the past 3 years we have identified miniplates, microplates, and wire sutures on the inner cranial table of the growing child. The observation of "false" migration of these appliances has provided the impetus to review these patients in more detail. Twenty patients underwent secondary cranial remodeling within a two-year period; 7 of these patients were seen to have "false" migration. There were no untoward sequelae in removal of these appliances, and no adverse neurological symptoms were seen.

  8. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery.

  9. False-vacuum decay in generalized extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

    1990-01-01

    False-vacuum decay was studied in context of generalized extended inflationary theories, and the bubble nucleation rates was computed for these theories in the limit of G(sub N) yields 0. It was found that the time dependence of the nucleation rate can be exponentially strong through the time dependence of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field. This can have a pronounced effect on whether extended inflation can be successfully implemented.

  10. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery. PMID:11692765

  11. Structure and strategy in the associative false memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Libby, L K; Neisser, U

    2001-05-01

    List-learning experiments can have several levels of structure: individual words, the gist (if any) of each list, and the task in which those lists are embedded. The usual presentation of the DRM associative paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) strongly encourages a focus on gist and produces a high rate of false recall of key words (FRK). The experiments reported here were designed to invite the use of memory strategies based on structures other than the gist and thus reduce FRK. The crucial condition of Experiment 1, short lists followed by rehearsal, encouraged a focus on individual words and produced a low rate of FRK. In Experiment 2, the lists were embedded in a guessing game, which virtually eliminated FRK. FRK was also low in Experiments 3a and 3b when participants engaged in a complex task involving the first letters of list words. The relevance of these findings to false memories in the DRM and the connection of false autobiographical memories is discussed. PMID:11469310

  12. Frequency of false-negative reactions to the fragrance mix.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; van der Kley, A M; Bruynzeel, D P; Meinardi, M M; Smeenk, G; van Joost, T; Pavel, S

    1993-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of false-negative reactions to the fragrance mix, the 8 constituents of the mix in concentrations of 5% (2% for cinnamic aldehyde) were added to the European standard series for routine testing. Patients with positive reactions to individual ingredients in the absence of a reaction to the mix were retested with serial dilutions. In a 4-month period, 677 patients were tested. 61 (9%) reacted to the mix and to 1 or more of the ingredients. 4 patients (0.6% of all patients tested and 6.2% of the patients allergic to fragrances) had false-negative reactions to the mix. They were allergic to cinnamic alcohol, geraniol, isoeugenol and oak moss (1 reaction each), in the absence of a reaction to the fragrance mix. It is concluded that the currently used concentration of the mix (8 x 1%) not infrequently results in false-negative reactions, and that further research should be done to overcome this problem.

  13. Testing a flexible method to reduce false monsoon onsets.

    PubMed

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew Alexander; Spengler, Thomas; Chu, Pao-Shin

    2014-01-01

    To generate information about the monsoon onset and withdrawal we have to choose a monsoon definition and apply it to data. One problem that arises is that false monsoon onsets can hamper our analysis, which is often alleviated by smoothing the data in time or space. Another problem is that local communities or stakeholder groups may define the monsoon differently. We therefore aim to develop a technique that reduces false onsets for high-resolution gridded data, while also being flexible for different requirements that can be tailored to particular end-users. In this study, we explain how we developed our technique and demonstrate how it successfully reduces false onsets and withdrawals. The presented results yield improved information about the monsoon length and its interannual variability. Due to this improvement, we are able to extract information from higher resolution data sets. This implies that we can potentially get a more detailed picture of local climate variations that can be used in more local climate application projects such as community-based adaptations.

  14. On preserving robustness-false alarm tradeoff in media hashing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Zhu, X.; Yuan, J.; Chang, E.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses one of the important issues in generating a robust media hash. Robustness of a media hashing algorithm is primarily determined by three factors, (1) robustness-false alarm tradeoff achieved by the chosen feature representation, (2) accuracy of the bit extraction step and (3) the distance measure used to measure similarity (dissimilarity) between two hashes. The robustness-false alarm tradeoff in feature space is measured by a similarity (dissimilarity) measure and it defines a limit on the performance of the hashing algorithm. The distance measure used to compute the distance between the hashes determines how far this tradeoff in the feature space is preserved through the bit extraction step. Hence the bit extraction step is crucial, in defining the robustness of a hashing algorithm. Although this is recognized as an important requirement by all, to our knowledge there is no work in the existing literature that elucidates the effcacy of their algorithm based on their effectiveness in improving this tradeoff compared to other methods. This paper specifically demonstrates the kind of robustness false alarm tradeoff achieved by existing methods and proposes a method for hashing that clearly improves this tradeoff.

  15. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  16. Neural network target identification system for false alarm reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-04-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  17. Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity.

  18. SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1983-01-01

    Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

  19. The effect of cognitive load on hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory.

    PubMed

    Tat, Michael J; Azuma, Tamiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining hemispheric asymmetries in false memory have shown that the right hemisphere (RH) is more susceptible to false memories compared to the left hemisphere (LH). Theories suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory may be due to differences in representational coding and the use of top-down mechanisms in each hemisphere. In the current study, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm was used in conjunction with divided visual field presentation to examine the role of top-down mechanisms in hemispheric asymmetries of true and false memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of related words while completing secondary cognitive load tasks. In Experiment 2, the secondary tasks were administered during memory retrieval instead of memory encoding. Results revealed that cognitive loads imposed during the study phase influenced veridical memory in the LH more than the RH, but cognitive loads imposed during retrieval did not influence veridical memory in either hemisphere. Surprisingly, false memory rates were not influenced by cognitive loads and were higher in the LH. These data provide evidence that, at least for veridical memory, top-down control mechanisms are used more readily for the encoding of information into memory in the LH compared to the RH.

  20. Is there a positive bias in false recognition? Evidence from confabulating amnesia patients.

    PubMed

    Alkathiri, Nura H; Morris, Robin G; Kopelman, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    Although there is some evidence for a positive emotional bias in the content of confabulations in brain damaged patients, findings have been inconsistent. The present study used the semantic-associates procedure to induce false recall and false recognition in order to examine whether a positive bias would be found in confabulating amnesic patients, relative to non-confabulating amnesic patients and healthy controls. Lists of positive, negative and neutral words were presented in order to induce false recall or false recognition of non-presented (but semantically associated) words. The latter were termed 'critical intrusions'. Thirteen confabulating amnesic patients, 13 non-confabulating amnesic patients and 13 healthy controls were investigated. Confabulating patients falsely recognised a higher proportion of positive (but unrelated) words, compared with non-confabulating patients and healthy controls. No differences were found for recall memory. Signal detection analysis, however, indicated that the positive bias for false recognition memory might reflect weaker memory in the confabulating amnesic group. This suggested that amnesia patients with weaker memory are more likely to confabulate and the content of these confabulations are more likely to be positive.

  1. The effect of cognitive load on hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory.

    PubMed

    Tat, Michael J; Azuma, Tamiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining hemispheric asymmetries in false memory have shown that the right hemisphere (RH) is more susceptible to false memories compared to the left hemisphere (LH). Theories suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in true and false memory may be due to differences in representational coding and the use of top-down mechanisms in each hemisphere. In the current study, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm was used in conjunction with divided visual field presentation to examine the role of top-down mechanisms in hemispheric asymmetries of true and false memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of related words while completing secondary cognitive load tasks. In Experiment 2, the secondary tasks were administered during memory retrieval instead of memory encoding. Results revealed that cognitive loads imposed during the study phase influenced veridical memory in the LH more than the RH, but cognitive loads imposed during retrieval did not influence veridical memory in either hemisphere. Surprisingly, false memory rates were not influenced by cognitive loads and were higher in the LH. These data provide evidence that, at least for veridical memory, top-down control mechanisms are used more readily for the encoding of information into memory in the LH compared to the RH. PMID:26291874

  2. EMG activation of trunk and upper limb muscles following experimentally-induced overpronation and oversupination of the feet in quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Ntousis, Theodoros; Mandalidis, Dimitris; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2013-02-01

    Kinematic studies have shown that experimentally-induced overpronation or oversupination of the subtalar joint may alter the position of the legs, hips and pelvis and consequently the trunk and upper limb. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such foot deformity affects the activity of muscles that act on the trunk and upper limb. Twenty-eight healthy individuals (11 males and 17 females) 21.4±1.9 years of age without skeletal deformity, leg length discrepancy (LLD), overpronated or oversupinated feet or excessive lateral pelvic inclination volunteered for the study. Bilateral EMG recordings of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and rectus abdominis were undertaken for 30-s with each subject in the relaxed standing position and at 5° and 10° bilateral or unilateral overpronation or oversupination of the foot on the dominant side using wooden wedge-shape blocks. The recorded EMG activity was normalised based on the EMG activity produced by the muscles under investigation during maximum isometric voluntary contraction. The findings of the present study revealed that neither bilateral nor unilateral overpronation/oversupination of the feet induced a significant alteration of the EMG activity of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and rectus abdominis on either the dominant or non-dominant side. These findings suggest that in the absence of other major structural deformity bilateral or unilateral foot overpronation or oversupination does not affect the EMG activity of muscles that act on the trunk and upper limb in quiet standing. PMID:22940541

  3. Effects of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil on some epididymal sperm parameters and histopathology of testes following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee, E; Emadi, L; Azari, O; Kheirandish, R; Esmaili Nejad, M R; Shafiei Bafti, H

    2016-06-01

    Copper overload can cause sperm cell damage by inducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, cumin has a good antioxidant potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cumin on sperm quality and testicular tissue following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice. Forty-eight mature male mice were divided into four equal groups as follows: group Cu which received 0.1 ml copper sulphate at dose of 100 mg kg(-1) , group Cc which received Cuminum cyminum at dose of 1 mg kg(-1) , treatment group which received copper sulphate (100 mg kg(-1) ) and treated with Cuminum cyminum (1 mg kg(-1) ), and control group which received the same volume of normal saline. Six mice in each group were sacrificed at week 4 and week 6. The results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group Cu were significantly decreased at weeks 4 and 6, and severe degenerative changes were observed in testicular tissues in comparison with the control group. In treatment group, significant improvement in the sperm count, motility and viability, and normal architecture in most seminiferous tubules with organised epithelium was observed compared to the group Cu. The sperm quality parameters in the treatment group approached those of the control group.

  4. A single-blind placebo-controlled investigation into the analgesic effects of interferential currents on experimentally induced ischaemic pain in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark I; Tabasam, Ghazala

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this single-blind placebo-controlled study was to examine the analgesic effects of interferential currents (IFC) on experimentally induced ischaemic pain. Ischaemic pain was induced using the submaximal effort tourniquet technique (SETT) and pain intensity was recorded using a visual analogue scale at 1-min intervals was used as the primary outcome measure. Following baseline recordings 30 healthy volunteers received either active IFC, sham IFC, or no treatment (10 subjects per group). Data were analysed by calculating the mean change in pain intensity at each 1-min interval by subtracting data during treatment from the baseline data. IFC was administered throughout the duration of the ischaemic pain test via four electrodes (quadripolar application) on the forearm. Active IFC delivered electrical currents at a 'strong but comfortable' intensity. A 'dummy' stimulator that delivered no current was used as sham IFC. Subjects in the no treatment control group were informed that the IFC device was not switched on. There were significant effects for Groups (P=0.04) which were attributed to a significant reduction in pain intensity for the IFC group when compared with sham and no-treatment control (P< or =0.05). There were no significant effects for Time (P=0.69) or Group-Time interaction (P=0.45). In conclusion, IFC produced significantly greater analgesia than sham and no-treatment control groups under the present experimental conditions.

  5. Effect of dietary enrichment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or n-9 PUFA on arachidonate metabolism in vivo and experimentally induced inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Masaru; Watanabe, Shiro; Niimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ishikura, Yoshiyuki; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2004-03-01

    Mice were fed a diet supplemented with palm oil (control diet), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-, or n-9 PUFA-rich oil for 3 weeks. The n-3 PUFA-rich diet suppressed the generation of both leukotrienes (LT) and prostaglandins (PG), but the n-9 PUFA-rich diet did LT but not PG generation during acute inflammation. Leukocyte accumulation during acute inflammation was not different in the n-3 or n-9 PUFA-rich diet group as compared with the control group. The n-3 PUFA-rich diet but not the n-9 PUFA-rich diet suppressed Freund's adjuvant-induced granuloma formation. The n-9 PUFA-rich diet significantly attenuated galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury more effectively than the n-3 PUFA-rich diet as compared with the control diet. The present study revealed the differential modification of experimentally induced inflammation in mice by dietary n-3 PUFA and n-9 PUFA, which may be due to their different effects on 5-lipoxygenease and cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid during inflammatory processes.

  6. Effects of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil on some epididymal sperm parameters and histopathology of testes following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee, E; Emadi, L; Azari, O; Kheirandish, R; Esmaili Nejad, M R; Shafiei Bafti, H

    2016-06-01

    Copper overload can cause sperm cell damage by inducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, cumin has a good antioxidant potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cumin on sperm quality and testicular tissue following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice. Forty-eight mature male mice were divided into four equal groups as follows: group Cu which received 0.1 ml copper sulphate at dose of 100 mg kg(-1) , group Cc which received Cuminum cyminum at dose of 1 mg kg(-1) , treatment group which received copper sulphate (100 mg kg(-1) ) and treated with Cuminum cyminum (1 mg kg(-1) ), and control group which received the same volume of normal saline. Six mice in each group were sacrificed at week 4 and week 6. The results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group Cu were significantly decreased at weeks 4 and 6, and severe degenerative changes were observed in testicular tissues in comparison with the control group. In treatment group, significant improvement in the sperm count, motility and viability, and normal architecture in most seminiferous tubules with organised epithelium was observed compared to the group Cu. The sperm quality parameters in the treatment group approached those of the control group. PMID:26332396

  7. An Experimental Analysis of Children's Ability to Provide a False Report about a Crime.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Joshua; Foster, Ida; Talwar, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has evaluated children's lie-telling behaviors and skills(1-2); however, limitations with the tasks used for eliciting false testimonies and interviewing children have restricted the generalizability of the findings. The primary aim of the current study is to provide an easy-to-administer and ecologically valid method for measuring the veracity and quality of school-aged children's (ages 6-11) testimonies when they are asked to provide different types of true and false reports. Moreover, the methodology enables researchers to examine the social and developmental factors that could influence the credibility of a child's testimony. In the current study, children will witness a theft, and are then asked to either falsely deny the transgression, falsely accuse a researcher of the theft, or tell the truth. Afterwards, children are to be interviewed by a second researcher using a thorough and ecologically valid interview protocol that requires children to provide closed-ended and free-recall responses about the events with the instigator (E1). Coders then evaluate the length and number of theft-related details the children give throughout the interview, as well as their ability to maintain their true and false reports. The representative results indicate that the truth and lie-telling conditions elicit the intended behaviors from the children. The open-ended interview questions encouraged children to provide free-recall information about their experiences with E1. Moreover, findings from the closed-ended questions suggest that children are significantly better at maintaining their lies with age, and when producing a false denial compared to a false accusation. Results from the current study can be used to develop a greater understanding of the characteristics of children's true and false testimonies about crime, which can potentially benefit law enforcement, legal staff and professionals who interview children. PMID:27168278

  8. An Experimental Analysis of Children's Ability to Provide a False Report about a Crime.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Joshua; Foster, Ida; Talwar, Victoria

    2016-05-03

    A considerable amount of research has evaluated children's lie-telling behaviors and skills(1-2); however, limitations with the tasks used for eliciting false testimonies and interviewing children have restricted the generalizability of the findings. The primary aim of the current study is to provide an easy-to-administer and ecologically valid method for measuring the veracity and quality of school-aged children's (ages 6-11) testimonies when they are asked to provide different types of true and false reports. Moreover, the methodology enables researchers to examine the social and developmental factors that could influence the credibility of a child's testimony. In the current study, children will witness a theft, and are then asked to either falsely deny the transgression, falsely accuse a researcher of the theft, or tell the truth. Afterwards, children are to be interviewed by a second researcher using a thorough and ecologically valid interview protocol that requires children to provide closed-ended and free-recall responses about the events with the instigator (E1). Coders then evaluate the length and number of theft-related details the children give throughout the interview, as well as their ability to maintain their true and false reports. The representative results indicate that the truth and lie-telling conditions elicit the intended behaviors from the children. The open-ended interview questions encouraged children to provide free-recall information about their experiences with E1. Moreover, findings from the closed-ended questions suggest that children are significantly better at maintaining their lies with age, and when producing a false denial compared to a false accusation. Results from the current study can be used to develop a greater understanding of the characteristics of children's true and false testimonies about crime, which can potentially benefit law enforcement, legal staff and professionals who interview children.

  9. False Recognition in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease—Disinhibition or Amnesia?

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Emma C.; Wong, Stephanie; Dutt, Aparna; Tu, Sicong; Bertoux, Maxime; Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier; Rao, Sulakshana; Hodges, John R.; Ghosh, Amitabha; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory recall processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be similarly impaired, whereas recognition performance is more variable. A potential reason for this variability could be false-positive errors made on recognition trials and whether these errors are due to amnesia per se or a general over-endorsement of recognition items regardless of memory. The current study addressed this issue by analysing recognition performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 39 bvFTD, 77 AD and 61 control participants from two centers (India, Australia), as well as disinhibition assessed using the Hayling test. Whereas both AD and bvFTD patients were comparably impaired on delayed recall, bvFTD patients showed intact recognition performance in terms of the number of correct hits. However, both patient groups endorsed significantly more false-positives than controls, and bvFTD and AD patients scored equally poorly on a sensitivity index (correct hits—false-positives). Furthermore, measures of disinhibition were significantly associated with false positives in both groups, with a stronger relationship with false-positives in bvFTD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed similar neural correlates of false positive endorsement across bvFTD and AD, with both patient groups showing involvement of prefrontal and Papez circuitry regions, such as medial temporal and thalamic regions, and a DTI analysis detected an emerging but non-significant trend between false positives and decreased fornix integrity in bvFTD only. These findings suggest that false-positive errors on recognition tests relate to similar mechanisms in bvFTD and AD, reflecting deficits in episodic memory processes and disinhibition. These findings highlight that current memory tests are not sufficient to accurately distinguish between bvFTD and AD patients. PMID:27489543

  10. False Recognition in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease-Disinhibition or Amnesia?

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Emma C; Wong, Stephanie; Dutt, Aparna; Tu, Sicong; Bertoux, Maxime; Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier; Rao, Sulakshana; Hodges, John R; Ghosh, Amitabha; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory recall processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can be similarly impaired, whereas recognition performance is more variable. A potential reason for this variability could be false-positive errors made on recognition trials and whether these errors are due to amnesia per se or a general over-endorsement of recognition items regardless of memory. The current study addressed this issue by analysing recognition performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in 39 bvFTD, 77 AD and 61 control participants from two centers (India, Australia), as well as disinhibition assessed using the Hayling test. Whereas both AD and bvFTD patients were comparably impaired on delayed recall, bvFTD patients showed intact recognition performance in terms of the number of correct hits. However, both patient groups endorsed significantly more false-positives than controls, and bvFTD and AD patients scored equally poorly on a sensitivity index (correct hits-false-positives). Furthermore, measures of disinhibition were significantly associated with false positives in both groups, with a stronger relationship with false-positives in bvFTD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed similar neural correlates of false positive endorsement across bvFTD and AD, with both patient groups showing involvement of prefrontal and Papez circuitry regions, such as medial temporal and thalamic regions, and a DTI analysis detected an emerging but non-significant trend between false positives and decreased fornix integrity in bvFTD only. These findings suggest that false-positive errors on recognition tests relate to similar mechanisms in bvFTD and AD, reflecting deficits in episodic memory processes and disinhibition. These findings highlight that current memory tests are not sufficient to accurately distinguish between bvFTD and AD patients. PMID:27489543

  11. The Role of Memory Activation in Creating False Memories of Encoding Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Using 3 experiments, I examined false memory for encoding context by presenting Deese-Roediger-McDermott themes (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) in usual-looking fonts and by testing related, but unstudied, lure items in a font that was shown during encoding. In 2 of the experiments, testing lure items in the font used to study their…

  12. Effects of Post-Encoding Stress on Performance in the DRM False Memory Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false…

  13. Differences in Binding and Monitoring Mechanisms Contribute to Lifespan Age Differences in False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2-component framework of episodic memory development across the lifespan (Shing & Lindenberger, 2011), we examined the contribution of memory-related binding and monitoring processes to false memory susceptibility in childhood and old age. We administered a repeated continuous recognition task to children (N = 20, 10-12 years),…

  14. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  15. 20 CFR 429.109 - Are there any penalties for filing false claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... claims? 429.109 Section 429.109 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 429.109 Are there any penalties for filing false claims? A person who files a...

  16. 20 CFR 429.211 - Are there any penalties for filing false claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... claims? 429.211 Section 429.211 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claims Act of 1964 § 429.211 Are there any penalties for filing false claims? A person who...

  17. 20 CFR 429.109 - Are there any penalties for filing false claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... claims? 429.109 Section 429.109 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 429.109 Are there any penalties for filing false claims? A person who files a...

  18. 20 CFR 429.109 - Are there any penalties for filing false claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... claims? 429.109 Section 429.109 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 429.109 Are there any penalties for filing false claims? A person who files a...

  19. Effects of Bilateral Eye Movements on Gist Based False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on gist based false recognition was investigated. Following exposure to lists of words related to a critical but non-studied word participants were asked to engage in 30s of bilateral vs. vertical vs. no eye movements. Subsequent testing of recognition memory revealed that those who…

  20. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Increases Both True and False Memory in Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…