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  1. Age-related dedifferentiation and compensatory changes in the functional network underlying face processing.

    PubMed

    Burianová, Hana; Lee, Yunjo; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence has shown that older adults fail to show adaptation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) to the same face presented repeatedly, despite accurate detection of the previously presented face. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this phenomenon is associated with age-related reductions in face specificity in brain activity and whether older adults compensate for these face-processing deficiencies by increasing activity in other areas within the face-processing network, or outside this network. A comparison of brain activity across multiple stimulus categories showed that, unlike young adults who engaged a number of brain regions specific to face processing, older adults generalized these patterns of activity to objects and houses. Also, young adults showed functional connectivity between the right FG and its homologous region during face processing, whereas older adults did not engage the left FG but showed a functional connection between the right FG and left orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, this frontotemporal functional connection was activated more strongly in older adults who performed better on a face-matching task (done outside of the scanner), suggesting increased involvement of this functional link for successful face recognition with increasing age. These findings suggest that 2 neural mechanisms, dedifferentiation and compensatory neural recruitment, underlie age differences in face processing.

  2. Face sensorimotor cortex and its neuroplasticity related to orofacial sensorimotor functions.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Martin, Ruth; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J

    2011-12-01

    This review describes evidence in subprimates and primates that the face primary somatosensory cortex (face SI) and primary motor cortex (face MI) are involved in sensorimotor integration and control of orofacial motor functions that include semiautomatic movements (e.g., chewing, swallowing) and voluntary movements (e.g., jaw-opening). The review also notes that the neuroplastic capabilities of the face SI and face MI have recently been documented, and may reflect or allow for functional adaptation (or maladaptation) of the orofacial sensorimotor system to an altered oral state or oral motor behaviour. They may contribute to the processes whereby patients undergoing oral rehabilitation can (or cannot) restore the lost orofacial sensorimotor functions. Such understanding is important since pain, injuries to the oral tissues, and alterations to the dental occlusion induced by tooth loss or attrition are common occurrences in humans that may sometimes be accompanied by impaired oral sensorimotor functions. Furthermore, impaired oral sensorimotor functions are common in many neurological disorders, sometimes making the most vital functions of eating, swallowing and speaking difficult and thereby reducing the patient's quality of life. It has also been well documented that such negative consequences can be improved following oral rehabilitation as patients adapt, for example, to a new dental prosthesis aimed at restoring function. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and cortical neuroplastic processes underlying orofacial sensorimotor functions and adaptation is also important for the development of new therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery of patients suffering from orofacial pain and sensorimotor disorders and improve their quality of life.

  3. Functional connectivity differences in autism during face and car recognition: underconnectivity and atypical age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Andrew C; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Simmonds, Daniel; Foran, William; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz; O'Hearn, Kirsten

    2016-10-16

    Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning. We then examined task-based functional connectivity between the FFA and the rest of the brain, comparing autism and TD groups during encoding and recognition of face and car stimuli. The autism group exhibited underconnectivity, relative to the TD group, between the FFA and frontal and primary visual cortices, independent of age. Underconnectivity with the medial and rostral lateral prefrontal cortex was face-specific during encoding and recognition, respectively. Conversely, underconnectivity with the L orbitofrontal cortex was evident for both face and car encoding. Atypical age-related changes in connectivity emerged between the FFA and the R temporoparietal junction, and R dorsal striatum for face stimuli only. Similar differences in age-related changes in autism emerged for FFA connectivity with the amygdala across both face and car recognition. Thus, underconnectivity and atypical development of functional connectivity may lead to a less optimal face-processing network in the context of increasing general and social cognitive deficits in autism.

  4. Cortical deficits of emotional face processing in adults with ADHD: its relation to social cognition and executive function.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustin; Petroni, Agustin; Urquina, Hugo; Torrente, Fernando; Torralva, Teresa; Hurtado, Esteban; Guex, Raphael; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Beltrachini, Leandro; Muravchik, Carlos; Baez, Sandra; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Sigman, Mariano; Lischinsky, Alicia; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been shown that adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired social cognition, no previous study has reported the brain correlates of face valence processing. This study looked for behavioral, neuropsychological, and electrophysiological markers of emotion processing for faces (N170) in adult ADHD compared to controls matched by age, gender, educational level, and handedness. We designed an event-related potential (ERP) study based on a dual valence task (DVT), in which faces and words were presented to test the effects of stimulus type (faces, words, or face-word stimuli) and valence (positive versus negative). Individual signatures of cognitive functioning in participants with ADHD and controls were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including executive functioning (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). Compared to controls, the adult ADHD group showed deficits in N170 emotion modulation for facial stimuli. These N170 impairments were observed in the absence of any deficit in facial structural processing, suggesting a specific ADHD impairment in early facial emotion modulation. The cortical current density mapping of N170 yielded a main neural source of N170 at posterior section of fusiform gyrus (maximum at left hemisphere for words and right hemisphere for faces and simultaneous stimuli). Neural generators of N170 (fusiform gyrus) were reduced in ADHD. In those patients, N170 emotion processing was associated with performance on an emotional inference ToM task, and N170 from simultaneous stimuli was associated with EF, especially working memory. This is the first report to reveal an adult ADHD-specific impairment in the cortical modulation of emotion for faces and an association between N170 cortical measures and ToM and EF.

  5. Location, Location, Location: Alterations in the Functional Topography of Face- but not Object- or Place-Related Cortex in Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Luna, Beatriz; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) and matched typically developing (TD) controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while undergoing an fMRI scan. With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, we mapped category-selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups. Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism. Instead, our results suggest that the functional topography of face-related cortex is selectively disrupted in autism and that this alteration is present in early adolescence. Furthermore, for those HFA adolescents who do exhibit face-selective activation, this activation tends to be located in traditionally object-related regions, which supports the hypothesis that perceptual processing of faces in autism may be more akin to the perceptual processing of common objects in TD individuals. PMID:20631857

  6. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  7. The functional basis of face evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.; Todorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    People automatically evaluate faces on multiple trait dimensions, and these evaluations predict important social outcomes, ranging from electoral success to sentencing decisions. Based on behavioral studies and computer modeling, we develop a 2D model of face evaluation. First, using a principal components analysis of trait judgments of emotionally neutral faces, we identify two orthogonal dimensions, valence and dominance, that are sufficient to describe face evaluation and show that these dimensions can be approximated by judgments of trustworthiness and dominance. Second, using a data-driven statistical model for face representation, we build and validate models for representing face trustworthiness and face dominance. Third, using these models, we show that, whereas valence evaluation is more sensitive to features resembling expressions signaling whether the person should be avoided or approached, dominance evaluation is more sensitive to features signaling physical strength/weakness. Fourth, we show that important social judgments, such as threat, can be reproduced as a function of the two orthogonal dimensions of valence and dominance. The findings suggest that face evaluation involves an overgeneralization of adaptive mechanisms for inferring harmful intentions and the ability to cause harm and can account for rapid, yet not necessarily accurate, judgments from faces. PMID:18685089

  8. Appearance is a function of the face.

    PubMed

    Borah, Gregory L; Rankin, Marlene K

    2010-03-01

    Increasingly, third-party insurers deny coverage to patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities because these are not seen as "functional." Recent facial transplants have demonstrated that severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face. This study was designed to establish a population-based definition of the functions of the human face, rank importance of the face among various anatomical areas, and determine the risk value the average person places on a normal appearance. Voluntary adult subjects (n = 210) in three states aged 18 to 75 years were recruited using a quota sampling technique. Subjects completed study questionnaires of demography and bias using the Gamble Chance of Death Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The face ranked as the most important anatomical area for functional reconstruction. Appearance was the fifth most important function of the face, after breathing, sight, speech, and eating. Normal facial appearance was rated as very important for one to be a functioning member of American society (p = 0.01) by 49 percent. One in seven subjects (13 percent) would accept a 30 to 45 percent risk of death to obtain a "normal" face. Normal appearance is a primary function of the face, based on a large, culturally diverse population sample across the lifespan. Normal appearance ranks above smell and expression as a function. Restoration of facial appearance is ranked the most important anatomical area for repair. Normal facial appearance is very important for one to be a functional member of American society.

  9. Conjunction faces alter confidence-accuracy relations for old faces.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R

    2017-06-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and participants made 3 responses: old/new judgments, confidence judgments, and an indication of whether each response was based on memory for a feature or in general familiarity. Experiments 1 and 3 showed that, given equal confidence, familiarity-based responses were more accurate than feature-based responses; these results provide strong support for a multidimensional model in which 2 separate types of information contribute to confidence and accuracy responses. Experiment 2 showed that this feature/familiarity difference disappeared when conjunction faces were included in the test, supporting a unidimensional model in which confidence and accuracy are based on a single type of information. Inclusion of conjunction faces fundamentally alters the way that previously encountered faces are processed; participants apparently rely entirely on feature-based information to recognize them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Visual function and vision-related quality of life after macular hole surgery with short-duration, 3-day face-down positioning.

    PubMed

    Rayat, Jaspreet; Almeida, David R P; Belliveau, Michel; Wong, Jonathan; Gale, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the relationship of vision-related quality of life (VRQOL) and visual function in patients undergoing macular-hole (MH) repair with and without cataract surgery and short-duration, 3-day prone posturing. Previous communications have assessed VRQOL in European and Japanese populations, but this is the first study to investigate VRQOL after MH surgery in a Canadian population. Prospective interventional case series. We studied 20 consecutive eyes in 19 patients with stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular holes. Of those, 15 received combined cataract and MH surgery, and 5 received MH repair alone. Patients completed the self-administered National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire before and after surgery. All patients received full ocular examinations pre- and postsurgery. Along with the questionnaire scores, we examined macular-hole closure rates, complications, postoperative visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Macular-hole closure was achieved in 20 of 20 eyes (100%). Mean postoperative logMAR decreased (i.e., improved) by -0.303 (95% CI, -0.501-- -0.105, p = 0.0047). The Visual Function Questionnaire composite score rose from 82.019 ± 12.612 SD to 88.499 ± 7.963 SD (p = 0.012). Subscale scores, including general vision, near activities, mental health, role difficulties, and dependency were all significantly improved (p < 0.05). No complications or intraocular pressure increases were observed. Macular-hole surgery followed by short-duration, 3-day face-down positioning significantly improved VRQOL and visual acuity in a group of Canadian patients. The use of VRQOL tools alongside anatomic outcomes provide a more comprehensive overview of patients' experiences and satisfaction after surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Symmetry complementarity-guided design of anthrax toxin inhibitors based on β-cyclodextrin: Synthesis and relative activities of face-selective functionalized polycationic clusters.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Moscoso, Alejandro; Méndez-Ardoy, Alejandro; Ortega-Caballero, Fernando; Benito, Juan M; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; Defaye, Jacques; Robinson, Tanisha M; Yohannes, Adiamseged; Karginov, Vladimir A; García Fernández, José M

    2011-01-03

    Three new series of potential anthrax toxin inhibitors based on the β-cyclodextrin (βCD) scaffold were developed by exploiting face-selective Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-cycloadditions, amine-isothiocyanate coupling, and allyl group hydroboration-oxidation/hydroxy → amine replacement reactions. The molecular design follows the "symmetry-complementarity" concept between homogeneously functionalized polycationic βCD derivatives and protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxin known to form C₇-symmetric pores on the cell membrane used by lethal and edema factors to gain access to the cytosol. The synthesis and antitoxin activity of a collection of βCD derivatives differing in the number, arrangement, and face location of the cationic elements are reported herein. These results set the basis for a structure-activity relationship development program of new candidates to combat the anthrax threat.

  12. A face a mother could love: depression-related maternal neural responses to infant emotion faces.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    Depressed mothers show negatively biased responses to their infants' emotional bids, perhaps due to faulty processing of infant cues. This study is the first to examine depression-related differences in mothers' neural response to their own infant's emotion faces, considering both effects of perinatal depression history and current depressive symptoms. Primiparous mothers (n = 22), half of whom had a history of major depressive episodes (with one episode occurring during pregnancy and/or postpartum), were exposed to images of their own and unfamiliar infants' joy and distress faces during functional neuroimaging. Group differences (depression vs. no-depression) and continuous effects of current depressive symptoms were tested in relation to neural response to own infant emotion faces. Compared to mothers with no psychiatric diagnoses, those with depression showed blunted responses to their own infant's distress faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Mothers with higher levels of current symptomatology showed reduced responses to their own infant's joy faces in the orbitofrontal cortex and insula. Current symptomatology also predicted lower responses to own infant joy-distress in left-sided prefrontal and insula/striatal regions. These deficits in self-regulatory and motivational response circuits may help explain parenting difficulties in depressed mothers.

  13. Facing a real person: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Pönkänen, Laura M; Hietanen, Jari K; Peltola, Mikko J; Kauppinen, Pasi K; Haapalainen, Antti; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2008-03-05

    Although faces are typically perceived in the context of human interaction, face processing is commonly studied by displaying faces on a computer screen. This study on event-related potential examined whether the processing of faces differs depending on whether participants are viewing faces live or on a computer screen. In both the conditions, the participants were shown a real face, a dummy face, and a control object. N170 and early posterior negativity discriminated between faces and control object in both the conditions. Interestingly, early posterior negativity differentiated between the real face and the dummy face only in the live condition. The results indicate that a live face, as a potentially interacting stimulus, is processed differently than an inanimate face already at the early processing stages.

  14. A Program in Community Relations: Face-to-Face Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Philip G.; O'Connell, Walter E.

    One of the sources of conflict in our urban centers today is the distrust that exists between the community and the police. In an effort to improve relations between community members and the police, so that both groups might work together more effectively in solving community problems, the Houston Cooperative Crime Prevention Program was…

  15. Functional dissociation of the left and right fusiform gyrus in self-face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the fusiform gyrus is engaged in face perception, such as the processes of face familiarity and identity. However, the functional role of the fusiform gyrus in face processing related to high-level social cognition remains unclear. The current study assessed the functional role of individually defined fusiform face area (FFA) in the processing of self-face physical properties and self-face identity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor neural responses to rapidly presented face stimuli drawn from morph continua between self-face (Morph 100%) and a gender-matched friend's face (Morph 0%) in a face recognition task. Contrasting Morph 100% versus Morph 60% that differed in self-face physical properties but were both recognized as the self uncovered neural activity sensitive to self-face physical properties in the left FFA. Contrasting Morphs 50% that were recognized as the self versus a friend on different trials revealed neural modulations associated with self-face identity in the right FFA. Moreover, the right FFA activity correlated with the frequency of recognizing Morphs 50% as the self. Our results provide evidence for functional dissociations of the left and right FFAs in the representations of self-face physical properties and self-face identity.

  16. Role of features and second-order spatial-relations in face discrimination, face recognition, and individual face skills

    PubMed Central

    Rotshtein, Pia; Geng, Joy J; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    We compared the contribution of featural information and second-order spatial-relations (spacing between features) in face processing. A fully factorial design had ‘features’ (eyes, mouth, nose) the same or different across two successive displays, while orthogonally the second-order spatial-relations between those features were the same or different. The range of such changes matched the possibilities within the population of natural face-images. Behaviorally we found that judging whether two successive faces depicted the same person was dominated by features, though second-order spatial-relations also contributed. This influence of spatial-relations correlated, for individual subjects, with their skill at recognition of faces (as famous, or as previously exposed) in separate behavioral tests. Using the same repetition-design in fMRI, we found feature-dependent effects in lateral occipital and right fusiform regions; plus spatial-relation effects in bilateral inferior occipital gyrus and right fusiform that correlated with individual differences in (separately measured) behavioral sensitivity to those changes. The results suggest that featural and second-order spatial-relation aspects of faces make distinct contributions to behavioral discrimination and recognition, with features contributing most to face discrimination and second-order spatial-relational aspects correlating best with recognition skills. Distinct neural responses to these aspects were found with fMRI, particularly when individual skills were taken into account for the impact of second-order spatial-relations. PMID:17714006

  17. Second-order relational face processing is applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast.

    PubMed

    Matheson, H E; Bilsbury, T G; McMullen, P A

    2012-03-01

    A large body of research suggests that faces are processed by a specialized mechanism within the human visual system. This specialized mechanism is made up of subprocesses (Maurer, LeGrand, & Mondloch, 2002). One subprocess, called second- order relational processing, analyzes the metric distances between face parts. Importantly, it is well established that other-race faces and contrast-reversed faces are associated with impaired performance on numerous face processing tasks. Here, we investigated the specificity of second-order relational processing by testing how this process is applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast. Participants completed a feature displacement discrimination task, directly measuring the sensitivity to second-order relations between face parts. Across three experiments we show that, despite absolute differences in sensitivity in some conditions, inversion impaired performance in all conditions. The presence of robust inversion effects for all faces suggests that second-order relational processing can be applied to faces of different race and photographic contrast.

  18. A Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Functional Measurement Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Theuns, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information Integration Theory (IIT) is concerned with how people combine information into an overall judgment. A method is hereby presented to perform Functional Measurement (FM) experiments, the methodological counterpart of IIT, on the Web. In a comparison of Web-based FM experiments, face-to-face experiments, and computer-based experiments in…

  19. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    PubMed

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  20. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Cuaya, Laura V.; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs’ brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  1. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  2. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  3. Age-related differences in attentional bias for emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Tomaszczyk, Jennifer C; Fernandes, Myra A

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests an aging-related positivity effect in orienting to faces. However, these studies have eschewed direct comparison of orienting when positive and negative faces are presented simultaneously, thereby potentially underestimating the degree to which emotional valence influences such effects. In the current study younger and older adults viewed face pairs for 1000 ms, and upon face-pair offset indicated the location of a dot that appeared in the former location of one of the faces, to assess attentional orienting. When shown negative-neutral pairs, both age groups were biased to attend to negative faces, but when shown positive-negative pairs only younger adults showed a bias toward negative; older adults showed a lack of orienting toward either emotional face. Results suggest younger adults have a negativity bias in attention orienting regardless of the valence of nearby stimuli, whereas older adults show an absence of this bias when positive information is present.

  4. Featural and configural face processing strategies: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Klaver, Peter; Loenneker, Thomas; Martin, Ernst; Mast, Fred W

    2008-02-12

    We explored the processing mechanisms of featural and configural face information using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Featural information describes the information contained in the facial parts; configural information conveys the spatial interrelationship between parts. In a delayed matching-to-sample task, participants decided whether an intact test face matched a precedent scrambled or blurred cue face. Scrambled faces primarily contain featural information whereas blurred faces preserve configural information. Scrambled cue faces evoked enhanced activation in the left fusiform gyrus, left parietal lobe, and left lingual gyrus when viewing intact test faces. Following blurred cue faces, test faces enhanced activation bilaterally in the middle temporal gyrus. The results suggest that featural and configural information is processed by following distinct neural pathways.

  5. Reduced face identity aftereffects in relatives of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Gray, Laura; Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition with complex aetiology. To aid the discovery of genetic mechanisms, researchers have turned towards identifying potential endophenotypes - subtle neurobiological or neurocognitive traits present in individuals with autism and their "unaffected" relatives. Previous research has shown that relatives of individuals with autism exhibit face processing atypicalities, which are similar in nature albeit of lesser degree, to those found in children and adults with autism. Yet very few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms responsible for such atypicalities. Here, we investigated whether atypicalities in adaptive norm-based coding of faces are present in relatives of children with autism, similar to those previously reported in children with autism. To test this possibility, we administered a face identity aftereffect task in which adaptation to a particular face biases perception towards the opposite identity, so that a previously neutral face (i.e., the average face) takes on the computationally opposite identity. Parents and siblings of individuals with autism showed smaller aftereffects compared to parents and siblings of typically developing children, especially so when the adapting stimuli were located further away from the average face. In addition, both groups showed stronger aftereffects for adaptors far from the average than for adaptors closer to the average. These results suggest that, in relatives of children with autism, face-coding mechanism are similar (i.e., norm-based) but less efficient than in relatives of typical children. This finding points towards the possibility that diminished adaptive mechanisms might represent a neurocognitive endophenotype for autism.

  6. Amygdala Activation during Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suslow, Thomas; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Schwindt, Wolfram; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that critical functions of the human amygdala are to modulate the moment-to-moment vigilance level and to enhance the processing and the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing material. In this functional magnetic resonance study, pictures of human faces bearing fearful, angry, and happy expressions were presented to…

  7. Amygdala Activation during Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suslow, Thomas; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Schwindt, Wolfram; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that critical functions of the human amygdala are to modulate the moment-to-moment vigilance level and to enhance the processing and the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing material. In this functional magnetic resonance study, pictures of human faces bearing fearful, angry, and happy expressions were presented to…

  8. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  9. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  10. Fusiform gyrus face selectivity relates to individual differences in facial recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Furl, Nicholas; Garrido, Lúcia; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon; Duchaine, Bradley

    2011-07-01

    Regions of the occipital and temporal lobes, including a region in the fusiform gyrus (FG), have been proposed to constitute a "core" visual representation system for faces, in part because they show face selectivity and face repetition suppression. But recent fMRI studies of developmental prosopagnosics (DPs) raise questions about whether these measures relate to face processing skills. Although DPs manifest deficient face processing, most studies to date have not shown unequivocal reductions of functional responses in the proposed core regions. We scanned 15 DPs and 15 non-DP control participants with fMRI while employing factor analysis to derive behavioral components related to face identification or other processes. Repetition suppression specific to facial identities in FG or to expression in FG and STS did not show compelling relationships with face identification ability. However, we identified robust relationships between face selectivity and face identification ability in FG across our sample for several convergent measures, including voxel-wise statistical parametric mapping, peak face selectivity in individually defined "fusiform face areas" (FFAs), and anatomical extents (cluster sizes) of those FFAs. None of these measures showed associations with behavioral expression or object recognition ability. As a group, DPs had reduced face-selective responses in bilateral FFA when compared with non-DPs. Individual DPs were also more likely than non-DPs to lack expected face-selective activity in core regions. These findings associate individual differences in face processing ability with selectivity in core face processing regions. This confirms that face selectivity can provide a valid marker for neural mechanisms that contribute to face identification ability.

  11. Feminine Faces of Leadership: Beyond Structural- Functionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Hope-Arlene

    1999-01-01

    Reviews four philosophical leadership perspectives: structural-functionalism, constructivism, critical theory, and feminism. Explores the leadership phenomenon through the eyes of six women principals. Although the behaviors of all six fall within a structural-functionalist perspective, each is attempting to construct inclusive, positive, and…

  12. Written on the Face: Self- and Expert-Rated Impairments in Personality Functioning Are Differently Related to the Expression of Disgust Toward an Interviewer.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Zimmermann, Johannes; Peham, Doris; Bock, Astrid; Mitte, Kristin; Benecke, Cord

    2016-06-01

    Although current theories suggest that impairments in personality functioning are at the core of personality pathology, there is a lack of research on how these impairments play out behaviorally. The aim of the present study was to investigate disgust expressions as indicators of personality dysfunction. Facial expressions were investigated in a sample of 78 female participants during an in-depth clinical interview and coded with the Facial Action Coding System. Personality dysfunction was assessed with self- and expert ratings. By applying a joint regression analysis, the authors found that disgust expressions toward the interviewer were positively associated with expert ratings but negatively associated with self-ratings. In other words, disgust expressions were indicative of an underestimation of personality dysfunction by participants as compared with experts. This suggests that interactional expressions of disgust might be a behavioral marker of personality dysfunction when individuals are unaware of or deny impairments.

  13. Race-specific norms for coding face identity and a functional role for norms.

    PubMed

    Armann, Regine; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

    2011-11-09

    Models of face perception often adopt a framework in which faces are represented as points or vectors in a multidimensional space, relative to the average face that serves as a norm for encoding. Since faces are very similar in their configuration and share many visual properties, they could be encoded in one common space against one norm. However, certain face properties may result in grouping and "subclassification" of similar faces. We studied the processing of faces of different races, using high-level aftereffects, where exposure to one face systematically distorts the perception of a subsequently viewed face toward the "opposite" identity in face space. We measured identity aftereffects for adapt-test pairs that were opposite relative to race-specific (Asian and Caucasian) averages and pairs that were opposite relative to a "generic" average (both races morphed together). Aftereffects were larger for race-specific compared to mixed-race adapt-test pairs. These results suggest that race-specific norms are used to code identity because aftereffects are generally larger for adapt-test pairs drawn from trajectories passing through the norm (opposite pairs) than for those that do not. We also found that identification thresholds were lower when targets were distributed around race-specific averages than around the mixed-race average, suggesting that norm-based face encoding may play a functional role in facilitating identity discrimination.

  14. Aging effects on selective attention-related electroencephalographic patterns during face encoding.

    PubMed

    Deiber, M-P; Rodriguez, C; Jaques, D; Missonnier, P; Emch, J; Millet, P; Gold, G; Giannakopoulos, P; Ibañez, V

    2010-11-24

    Previous electrophysiological studies revealed that human faces elicit an early visual event-related potential (ERP) within the occipito-temporal cortex, the N170 component. Although face perception has been proposed to rely on automatic processing, the impact of selective attention on N170 remains controversial both in young and elderly individuals. Using early visual ERP and alpha power analysis, we assessed the influence of aging on selective attention to faces during delayed-recognition tasks for face and letter stimuli, examining 36 elderly and 20 young adults with preserved cognition. Face recognition performance worsened with age. Aging induced a latency delay of the N1 component for faces and letters, as well as of the face N170 component. Contrasting with letters, ignored faces elicited larger N1 and N170 components than attended faces in both age groups. This counterintuitive attention effect on face processing persisted when scenes replaced letters. In contrast with young, elderly subjects failed to suppress irrelevant letters when attending faces. Whereas attended stimuli induced a parietal alpha band desynchronization within 300-1000 ms post-stimulus with bilateral-to-right distribution for faces and left lateralization for letters, ignored and passively viewed stimuli elicited a central alpha synchronization larger on the right hemisphere. Aging delayed the latency of this alpha synchronization for both face and letter stimuli, and reduced its amplitude for ignored letters. These results suggest that due to their social relevance, human faces may cause paradoxical attention effects on early visual ERP components, but they still undergo classical top-down control as a function of endogenous selective attention. Aging does not affect the face bottom-up alerting mechanism but reduces the top-down suppression of distracting letters, possibly impinging upon face recognition, and more generally delays the top-down suppression of task-irrelevant information

  15. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  16. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    PubMed Central

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization. PMID:27250879

  17. Representations of faces and body parts in macaque temporal cortex: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Mark A; DeSimone, Kevin; Moore, Tirin; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2005-05-10

    Human neuroimaging studies suggest that areas in temporal cortex respond preferentially to certain biologically relevant stimulus categories such as faces and bodies. Single-cell studies in monkeys have reported cells in inferior temporal cortex that respond selectively to faces, hands, and bodies but provide little evidence of large clusters of category-specific cells that would form "areas." We probed the category selectivity of macaque temporal cortex for representations of monkey faces and monkey body parts relative to man-made objects using functional MRI in animals trained to fixate. Two face-selective areas were activated bilaterally in the posterior and anterior superior temporal sulcus exhibiting different degrees of category selectivity. The posterior face area was more extensively activated in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. Immediately adjacent to the face areas, regions were activated bilaterally responding preferentially to body parts. Our findings suggest a category-selective organization for faces and body parts in macaque temporal cortex.

  18. Abnormal Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders during Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Sterling, Lindsey; Stegbauer, Keith C.; Mahurin, Roderick; Johnson, L. Clark; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in the interactions between functionally linked brain regions have been suggested to be associated with the clinical impairments observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated functional connectivity within the limbic system during face identification; a primary component of social cognition, in 19 high-functioning…

  19. Abnormal Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders during Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Sterling, Lindsey; Stegbauer, Keith C.; Mahurin, Roderick; Johnson, L. Clark; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in the interactions between functionally linked brain regions have been suggested to be associated with the clinical impairments observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated functional connectivity within the limbic system during face identification; a primary component of social cognition, in 19 high-functioning…

  20. The other-race effect for face perception: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, M J; Schreppel, T; Jäger, D; Koehler, S; Ehlis, A-C; Fallgatter, A J

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that a recognition bias can be observed whenever subjects have to decide whether they have seen a person before that belongs to a different ethnical group. Although this "other-race effect" is well documented on a behavioural level, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One plausible explanation might be that cortical areas involved in face processing are not as effective for other-race faces due to a missing experience with individuals from other ethnical groups. This interpretation is strongly supported by a functional magnetic resonance imaging study showing decreased brain activity on other-race faces. Furthermore, two event-related potential studies revealed differences in brain activity in the first 250 ms after face presentation, but with inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated 12 Caucasian subjects, showing them faces of Asian and Caucasian subjects in a perceptual priming paradigm and measured the event-related brain potentials. On a behavioural level we found slower reaction times to Asian faces compared to Caucasian faces in the unprimed condition, reflecting a deficit for Caucasian subjects to process other-race faces. In accordance with these behavioural data we see a significantly reduced late N250r amplitude in the unprimed condition to the Asian faces compared to the Caucasian faces. These results clearly indicate that the other-race effect was present in our sample and very specific only in the unprimed condition around 350-450 ms after stimulus onset.

  1. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel Joel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G Bruce; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among 'distal' nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions.

  2. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance

    PubMed Central

    Joel Shaw, Daniel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Bruce Pike, G.

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among ‘distal’ nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions. PMID:26772669

  3. Social attributions from faces: determinants, consequences, accuracy, and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Olivola, Christopher Y; Dotsch, Ron; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter

    2015-01-03

    Since the early twentieth century, psychologists have known that there is consensus in attributing social and personality characteristics from facial appearance. Recent studies have shown that surprisingly little time and effort are needed to arrive at this consensus. Here we review recent research on social attributions from faces. Section I outlines data-driven methods capable of identifying the perceptual basis of consensus in social attributions from faces (e.g., What makes a face look threatening?). Section II describes nonperceptual determinants of social attributions (e.g., person knowledge and incidental associations). Section III discusses evidence that attributions from faces predict important social outcomes in diverse domains (e.g., investment decisions and leader selection). In Section IV, we argue that the diagnostic validity of these attributions has been greatly overstated in the literature. In the final section, we offer an account of the functional significance of these attributions.

  4. The changing landscape of functional brain networks for face processing in typical development

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jane E.; Swearingen, Joshua E.; Clark, Jonathan D.; Benca, Chelsie E.; Collins, Heather R.; Corbly, Christine R.; Gathers, Ann D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2012-01-01

    Greater expertise for faces in adults than in children may be achieved by a dynamic interplay of functional segregation and integration of brain regions throughout development. The present study examined developmental changes in face network functional connectivity in children (5–12 years) and adults (18–43 years) during face-viewing using a graph-theory approach. A face-specific developmental change involved connectivity of the right occipital face area (ROFA). During childhood, this node increased in strength and within-module clustering based on positive connectivity. These changes reflect an important role of the ROFA in segregation of function during childhood. In addition, strength and diversity of connections within a module that included primary visual areas (left and right calcarine) and limbic regions (left hippocampus and right inferior orbitofrontal cortex) increased from childhood to adulthood, reflecting increased visuo-limbic integration. This integration was pronounced for faces but also emerged for natural objects. Taken together, the primary face-specific developmental changes involved segregation of a posterior visual module during childhood, possibly implicated in early stage perceptual face processing, and greater integration of visuo-limbic connections from childhood to adulthood, which may reflect processing related to development of perceptual expertise for individuation of faces and other visually homogenous categories. PMID:22906788

  5. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  6. Reputation Management: The New Face of Corporate Public Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, James G.; Goodman, Michael B.; Alexander, Jill B.; Genest, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an empirical study of the Fortune 500 companies suggesting that "reputation management" is gaining ground as a driving philosophy behind corporate public relations. Finds some interesting correlations between reputation and specific categories of spending. Concludes that if reputation management is the new face of corporate…

  7. Reputation Management: The New Face of Corporate Public Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, James G.; Goodman, Michael B.; Alexander, Jill B.; Genest, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an empirical study of the Fortune 500 companies suggesting that "reputation management" is gaining ground as a driving philosophy behind corporate public relations. Finds some interesting correlations between reputation and specific categories of spending. Concludes that if reputation management is the new face of corporate…

  8. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ela I.; Iglesias, Jaime; Saavedra, Cristina; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs) as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM). New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing. PMID:26160999

  9. Distinct neural correlates of the preference-related valuation of supraliminally and subliminally presented faces.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayahito; Abe, Nobuhito; Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawasaki, Iori; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2015-08-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural substrates involved in the valuation of supraliminally presented targets and the subsequent preference decisions. However, the neural mechanisms of the valuation of subliminally presented targets, which can guide subsequent preference decisions, remain to be explored. In the present study, we determined whether the neural systems associated with the valuation of supraliminally presented faces are involved in the valuation of subliminally presented faces. The subjects were supraliminally and subliminally presented with faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following fMRI, the subjects were presented with pairs of faces and were asked to choose which face they preferred. We analyzed brain activation by back-sorting the fMRI data according to the subjects' choices. The present study yielded two main findings. First, the ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex predict preferences only for supraliminally presented faces. Second, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may predict preferences for subliminally presented faces. These findings indicate that neural correlates of the preference-related valuation of faces are dissociable, contingent upon whether the subjects consciously perceive the faces.

  10. The eye-size illusion: psychophysical characteristics, generality, and relation to holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen S; Fu, Genyue; Quinn, Paul C; Sun, Yu-Hao; Xiao, Naiqi G; Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Pascalis, Olivier; Damon, Fabrice; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Rakover [(2011). In Y. H. Zhang (Ed.), Advances in face image analysis: Techniques and technologies (pp. 316-333). Hershey, PA: IGI Global] observed a novel eye-size illusion: when increasing the size of a face but keeping the size of its eyes unchanged, the eyes are perceived to be smaller than in the original face. Here, we systematically manipulated the face size and found that the magnitude of this illusion linearly changed as a function of the face frame size (experiment 1). Additionally, the same magnitude of an illusion was observed for the perception of the size of the mouth when we changed the face frame but kept the mouth size constant (experiment 2). Further, when the faces and eyes were presented upside down, the magnitude of the illusion was significantly reduced in both Chinese participants (experiment 3) and Caucasian participants (experiment 4). The results suggest that the perception of eye or mouth size occurs in the relational context of the whole face; and when the face is inverted, thereby disrupting holistic processing, the magnitude of the illusion is reduced. We therefore suggest that holistic processing is involved in producing the illusion.

  11. Abnormal functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders during face processing.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, Natalia M; Richards, Todd; Sterling, Lindsey; Stegbauer, Keith C; Mahurin, Roderick; Johnson, L Clark; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    Abnormalities in the interactions between functionally linked brain regions have been suggested to be associated with the clinical impairments observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated functional connectivity within the limbic system during face identification; a primary component of social cognition, in 19 high-functioning adults with ASD and 21 age-and IQ-matched control adults. Activation during identification of previously viewed faces and houses using a one-back paradigm was compared. The fusiform face area (FFA) was individually localized in each participant and used as the seed point for functional connectivity analyses. The degree of correlation between FFA and the extended neural circuitry involved in face identification was tested. A whole brain analysis was also conducted in order to determine whether connectivity from the FFA to aberrant brain locations was present in the ASD group. Measures of clinical severity (ADOS social score and ADI-R social score) were included as independent variables into the functional connectivity analyses. Significant FFA-amygdala and FFA-superior temporal sulcus functional connectivity was found in both the ASD and control participants. However, the control group had significantly increased connectivity to the left amygdala and the posterior cingulate compared to ASD. Post hoc analyses additionally found increased connectivity to the thalamus in the controls. A significant relationship between abnormal functional connectivity and clinical severity in the ASD group was observed. Specifically, greater social impairment was associated with reduced FFA-amygdala connectivity and increased FFA-right inferior frontal connectivity. These results suggest that abnormal neural connections within the limbic system may contribute to the social impairments observed in ASD.

  12. Reward circuitry function in autism during face anticipation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Richey, J Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary outcomes, participants with ASDs showed hyperactivation in left midfrontal and anterior cingulate gyrus. Groups did not differ in nucleus accumbens responses to faces. The ASD group demonstrated hyperactivation in bilateral amygdala during face anticipation that predicted social symptom severity and in bilateral insular cortex during face outcomes. These results add to the growing body of evidence that autism is characterized by altered functioning of reward circuitry. Additionally, atypical amygdala activation during the processing of social rewards may contribute to the development or expression of autistic features.

  13. Long-term function of single-implant restorations: a 17- to 19-year follow-up study on implant infraposition related to the shape of the face and patients' satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Bernt; Bergenblock, Sibel; Fürst, Björn; Jemt, Torsten

    2013-08-01

    Various levels of infraposition of single-implant restorations have been observed in long-term follow-up studies, but little knowledge is available on the biological mechanism behind this pattern. The primary aim of this study is to report the frequency and severeness of implant infraposition in the anterior single-implant application after 17 to 19 years in function and, secondly, to try to relate these observations to anatomical appearance of the shape of the face of the patient. The present study comprised of 57 patients who were provided with 65 CeraOne™ single-tooth restorations (Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) between 1989 and 1991. Altogether 46 of these patients were treated with single implants in the anterior region. Besides clinical and radiographic data, clinical photographs, study casts, and patient's assessment of the long-term aesthetic result (visual analog scale) was collected at the termination of the present study. The degree of implant crown infraposition was related to assessed facial shape and to patient and clinical assessment of the aesthetic result by means of Pearson's correlation test. To increase the numbers of patients, another group of 25 patients presented in another similar study were pooled with the present material for prevalence calculations. Altogether 47 patients showed up for the final examination after an average of 18 years (82%). Two implants failed (18 years cumulative survival rates [CSR]- 96.8%) and eight original single-crown restorations were replaced (CSR 83.8%). Three of the replaced crowns were replaced because of infraposition of the crowns. About 40% of the patients showed signs of infraposition, similar in younger and older age groups, but more frequently observed in female patients at termination of the study (p < 0.05). There was a weak trend indicating an association between "long-face" appearance and infraposition of the crown restoration (p > 0.05), and patients were more satisfied with the aesthetic

  14. Encoding of faces and objects into visual working memory: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Berti, Stefan

    2013-09-11

    Visual working memory (VWM) is an important prerequisite for cognitive functions, but little is known on whether the general perceptual processing advantage for faces also applies to VWM processes. The aim of the present study was (a) to test whether there is a general advantage for face stimuli in VWM and (b) to unravel whether this advantage is related to early sensory processing stages. To address these questions, we compared encoding of faces and complex nonfacial objects into VWM within a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. In detail, we tested whether the N170 ERP component - which is associated with face-specific holistic processing - is affected by memory load for faces or whether it might be involved in WM encoding of any complex object. Participants performed a same-different task with either face or watch stimuli and with two different levels of memory load. Behavioral measures show an advantage for faces on the level of VWM, mirrored in higher estimated VWM capacity (i.e. Cowan's K) for faces compared with watches. In the ERP, the N170 amplitude was enhanced for faces compared with watches. However, the N170 was not modulated by working memory load either for faces or for watches. In contrast, the P3b component was affected by memory load irrespective of the stimulus category. Taken together, the results suggest that the VWM advantage for faces is not reflected at the sensory stages of stimulus processing, but rather at later higher-level processes as reflected by the P3b component.

  15. Typical and Atypical Development of Functional Connectivity in the Face Network.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Zhu, Qi; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia

    2015-10-28

    Extensive studies have demonstrated that face recognition performance does not reach adult levels until adolescence. However, there is no consensus on whether such prolonged improvement stems from development of general cognitive factors or face-specific mechanisms. Here, we used behavioral experiments and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate these two hypotheses. With a large cohort of children (n = 379), we found that the ability of face-specific recognition in humans increased with age throughout childhood and into late adolescence in both face memory and face perception. Neurally, to circumvent the potential problem of age differences in task performance, attention, or cognitive strategies in task-state fMRI studies, we measured the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) in human brain and found that the OFA-FFA RSFC increased until 11-13 years of age. Moreover, the OFA-FFA RSFC was selectively impaired in adults with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). In contrast, no age-related changes or differences between DP and normal adults were observed for RSFCs in the object system. Finally, the OFA-FFA RSFC matured earlier than face selectivity in either the OFA or FFA. These results suggest the critical role of the OFA-FFA RSFC in the development of face recognition. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that prolonged development of face recognition is face specific, not domain general. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514624-12$15.00/0.

  16. Neural Correlates of Perceiving Emotional Faces and Bodies in Developmental Prosopagnosia: An Event-Related fMRI-Study

    PubMed Central

    Van den Stock, Jan; van de Riet, Wim A. C.; Righart, Ruthger; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    Many people experience transient difficulties in recognizing faces but only a small number of them cannot recognize their family members when meeting them unexpectedly. Such face blindness is associated with serious problems in everyday life. A better understanding of the neuro-functional basis of impaired face recognition may be achieved by a careful comparison with an equally unique object category and by a adding a more realistic setting involving neutral faces as well facial expressions. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neuro-functional basis of perceiving faces and bodies in three developmental prosopagnosics (DP) and matched healthy controls. Our approach involved materials consisting of neutral faces and bodies as well as faces and bodies expressing fear or happiness. The first main result is that the presence of emotional information has a different effect in the patient vs. the control group in the fusiform face area (FFA). Neutral faces trigger lower activation in the DP group, compared to the control group, while activation for facial expressions is the same in both groups. The second main result is that compared to controls, DPs have increased activation for bodies in the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and for neutral faces in the extrastriate body area (EBA), indicating that body and face sensitive processes are less categorically segregated in DP. Taken together our study shows the importance of using naturalistic emotional stimuli for a better understanding of developmental face deficits. PMID:18797499

  17. Identification of famous faces and buildings: a functional neuroimaging study of semantically unique items.

    PubMed

    Gorno-Tempini, M L; Price, C J

    2001-10-01

    Several functional imaging experiments have clearly established that the fusiform gyri are preferentially responsive to faces, whereas the parahippocampal/lingual gyri are more responsive to buildings. Other studies have demonstrated that famous faces additionally activate the anterior temporal cortex relative to unfamiliar faces, animals, tools, body parts and maps. One explanation for this apparent specialization for known people could be that famous faces are 'semantically unique items'. In other words, they carry unique semantic associations that are not shared by other perceptually similar category members. If this hypothesis is correct, the anterior temporal cortex should also respond to other semantically unique items, such as famous buildings. In this PET study, we investigated the effect of fame (famous relative to non-famous) on activation elicited by famous and non-famous faces and buildings during a same-different matching task. We found that, when the task was held constant, category-specific activations in the fusiform and parahippocampal/lingual areas were not modulated by fame. In contrast, in the left anterior middle temporal gyrus there was an effect of fame that was common to faces and buildings. These results suggest that the identification of famous faces and buildings involves category-specific perceptual processing in the fusiform and parahippocampal/lingual regions, respectively, and shared analysis of unique semantic attributes in the left anterior temporal cortex.

  18. Visual scanpaths to threat-related faces in deluded schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa J; Williams, Leanne M; Davidson, Dean

    2003-08-01

    This study examined visuo-cognitive processing of threat-related (anger, fear) and non-threat faces (happy, sad, neutral) in deluded schizophrenia (n=11), non-deluded schizophrenia (n=8), and healthy control (n=22) participants. Focal analyses examined scanpath aberrations for particular facial expressions in sub-groups of schizophrenia patients determined by the presence or absence of overt delusions. Deluded schizophrenia subjects exhibited significantly fewer fixations of shorter duration for all faces, and fewer fixations of reduced duration to the feature areas of negative facial expressions (anger, sad), compared with healthy controls. Compared with non-deluded schizophrenia subjects, deluded subjects exhibited fewer fixations to fear expressions and more fixations to the feature areas of happy expressions. These findings were revealed in the context of restricted scanning (reduced number and duration of fixations, shorter scanpath length and shorter duration of fixations to facial features) in the entire schizophrenia group (n=19) compared with healthy controls. The findings suggest a controlled attentional bias away from the feature areas of negative facial expressions in deluded schizophrenia, that is, specific to threat-related expressions compared with non-deluded schizophrenia subjects. This controlled bias away from negative social stimuli in deluded schizophrenia is discussed in terms of an attentional style of 'vigilance-avoidance' operating across early and late stages of information processing.

  19. Quantifying interindividual variability and asymmetry of face-selective regions: a probabilistic functional atlas.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Yang, Zetian; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Xu; Dang, Xiaobin; Huang, Yangyue; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Face-selective regions (FSRs) are among the most widely studied functional regions in the human brain. However, individual variability of the FSRs has not been well quantified. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to localize the FSRs and quantify their spatial and functional variabilities in 202 healthy adults. The occipital face area (OFA), posterior and anterior fusiform face areas (pFFA and aFFA), posterior continuation of the superior temporal sulcus (pcSTS), and posterior and anterior STS (pSTS and aSTS) were delineated for each individual with a semi-automated procedure. A probabilistic atlas was constructed to characterize their interindividual variability, revealing that the FSRs were highly variable in location and extent across subjects. The variability of FSRs was further quantified on both functional (i.e., face selectivity) and spatial (i.e., volume, location of peak activation, and anatomical location) features. Considerable interindividual variability and rightward asymmetry were found in all FSRs on these features. Taken together, our work presents the first effort to characterize comprehensively the variability of FSRs in a large sample of healthy subjects, and invites future work on the origin of the variability and its relation to individual differences in behavioral performance. Moreover, the probabilistic functional atlas will provide an adequate spatial reference for mapping the face network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Study of the Effectiveness of ITV as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Teaching of Functional Illiterates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornish, J. Robert

    This Pennsylvania study investigated whether functionally illiterate adults in a face-to-face adult basic education (ABE) program using instructional television (ITV) show greater achievement gains than those in similar programs without ITV. Achievement data were drawn from raw scores on Level I, Form A (pretest), and Level I, Form B, (posttest),…

  1. Comparison of Power Relations within Electronic and Face-to-Face Classroom Discussions: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeris, Laurel

    2002-01-01

    Online discussions and transcriptions of face-to-face discussions by graduate students (14 online, 14 on campus) were analyzed. Technical support was not available 24 hours a day to online students who were predominantly women. Online discussions were more student-to-student, classroom discussions student-to-teacher. The analysis suggests how…

  2. Face imagery and its relation to perception and covert recognition in prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jason J S; Cherkasova, Mariya

    2003-07-22

    Face imagery can access facial memories without the use of perceptual stimuli. Current data on the relation of imagery to the perceptual function and neuroanatomy of prosopagnosic patients are mixed, and little is known about the type of facial information patients can access through imagery. The authors wished to determine 1) which lesions abolished face imagery in prosopagnosia, 2) if deficits in perceiving facial structure were paralleled by similar deficits in imagery, and 3) if covert recognition of faces correlated with the degree of residual imagery for faces. The authors tested nine prosopagnosic patients who had been tested previously for perception of facial configuration and covert recognition of famous faces. The authors constructed a battery of 37 questions that asked subjects to imagine the faces of two celebrities and to choose which one had a certain facial property. Half were questions about facial features and half were about overall facial shape. Imagery was abolished only by anterior temporal lesions. Imagery for facial shape but not features was degraded by lesions of the right hemisphere's fusiform face area, which severely impaired perception of facial configuration. Feature imagery was degraded only when there was associated left occipito-temporal damage. Covert recognition was found when either configural perception or imagery was severely damaged, but not when both were abnormal. In patients with impaired configural perception, covert recognition correlated with feature imagery, suggesting that feature-based processing may drive residual covert abilities in these patients. Although anterior temporal cortex may be the site of facial memory stores, these data also support hypotheses that perceptual areas like the fusiform face area have parallel contributions to mental imagery. The data on covert recognition are consistent with a view that it is the residue of a partially damaged face-recognition network. Covert recognition may reflect the

  3. Sensitive periods for the functional specialization of the neural system for human face processing.

    PubMed

    Röder, Brigitte; Ley, Pia; Shenoy, Bhamy H; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Bottari, Davide

    2013-10-15

    The aim of the study was to identify possible sensitive phases in the development of the processing system for human faces. We tested the neural processing of faces in 11 humans who had been blind from birth and had undergone cataract surgery between 2 mo and 14 y of age. Pictures of faces and houses, scrambled versions of these pictures, and pictures of butterflies were presented while event-related potentials were recorded. Participants had to respond to the pictures of butterflies (targets) only. All participants, even those who had been blind from birth for several years, were able to categorize the pictures and to detect the targets. In healthy controls and in a group of visually impaired individuals with a history of developmental or incomplete congenital cataracts, the well-known enhancement of the N170 (negative peak around 170 ms) event-related potential to faces emerged, but a face-sensitive response was not observed in humans with a history of congenital dense cataracts. By contrast, this group showed a similar N170 response to all visual stimuli, which was indistinguishable from the N170 response to faces in the controls. The face-sensitive N170 response has been associated with the structural encoding of faces. Therefore, these data provide evidence for the hypothesis that the functional differentiation of category-specific neural representations in humans, presumably involving the elaboration of inhibitory circuits, is dependent on experience and linked to a sensitive period. Such functional specialization of neural systems seems necessary to archive high processing proficiency.

  4. Event-related oscillations (ERO) and event-related potentials (ERP) in emotional face recognition.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Pozzoli, Uberto

    2008-10-01

    The study aims to explore the significance of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related brain oscillations (EROs) (delta, theta, and alpha power) in response to emotional face during 180-250 poststimulus time interval. Twenty-one adults looked at emotional (sad, happy, fearful) or neutral faces. The results demonstrated that the emotional face elicited a negative peak at approximately 230 ms (N230). Moreover EEG measures showed that motivational significance of face (stimulus type) can modulate the amplitude of EEG, especially for theta and delta. Regression analysis showed that theta oscillations mainly effect as oscillation activity at the N2 latency. Thus, this frequency band variation could represent a complex set of cognitive processes, whereby selective attention becomes focused on an emotional relevant stimulus.

  5. Eye coding mechanisms in early human face event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Guillaume A; Ince, Robin A A; van Rijsbergen, Nicola J; Schyns, Philippe G

    2014-11-10

    In humans, the N170 event-related potential (ERP) is an integrated measure of cortical activity that varies in amplitude and latency across trials. Researchers often conjecture that N170 variations reflect cortical mechanisms of stimulus coding for recognition. Here, to settle the conjecture and understand cortical information processing mechanisms, we unraveled the coding function of N170 latency and amplitude variations in possibly the simplest socially important natural visual task: face detection. On each experimental trial, 16 observers saw face and noise pictures sparsely sampled with small Gaussian apertures. Reverse-correlation methods coupled with information theory revealed that the presence of the eye specifically covaries with behavioral and neural measurements: the left eye strongly modulates reaction times and lateral electrodes represent mainly the presence of the contralateral eye during the rising part of the N170, with maximum sensitivity before the N170 peak. Furthermore, single-trial N170 latencies code more about the presence of the contralateral eye than N170 amplitudes and early latencies are associated with faster reaction times. The absence of these effects in control images that did not contain a face refutes alternative accounts based on retinal biases or allocation of attention to the eye location on the face. We conclude that the rising part of the N170, roughly 120-170 ms post-stimulus, is a critical time-window in human face processing mechanisms, reflecting predominantly, in a face detection task, the encoding of a single feature: the contralateral eye.

  6. Specific amygdala response to masked fearful faces in post-traumatic stress relative to other anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Neumeister, P; Feldker, K; Heitmann, C Y; Buff, C; Brinkmann, L; Bruchmann, M; Straube, T

    2017-09-27

    Altered amygdala activation to fear-related stimuli has been proposed to be a potential neural correlate of heightened threat sensitivity in anxiety- and stress-related disorders. However, the role of stimulus awareness and disorder specificity remains widely unclear. Here we investigated amygdala responses to conscious and unconscious fearful faces in patients suffering from panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in a large sample of healthy controls (HC). During event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging participants (n = 120; 20 PD, 20 GAD, 20 PTSD, 60 HC) were confronted with briefly presented fearful faces, neutral faces, and non-faces in a backward masking paradigm. The design allowed for the analysis of trial-by-trial face detection performance and amygdala responses to fearful v. neutral faces. All participants exhibited increased amygdala activation to fearful v. neutral faces during conscious trials. Specifically during unconscious face processing, the PTSD, compared with all other groups, showed higher right basolateral (BLA) amygdala activity to fearful v. neutral faces. The present study shows that BLA amygdala hyperactivity during unconscious, but not conscious, processing of fearful faces differentiates PTSD from the investigated disorders. This finding suggests an automatic and specific neural hyper-responsivity to general fear cues in PTSD and supports the idea of categorical differences between PTSD and other anxiety-related disorders.

  7. The tailored Greens function for a forward facing step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glegg, Stewart

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the theoretical development of a tailored Greens function for a step based on an application of the Weiner Hopf technique. The results are applied to a boundary layer flow over forward and backward facing steps using the approach developed by P.E. Doak. It is concluded that the sound radiation is a consequence of scattering mechanism that can be modeled from solutions for scattering by parallel semi-infinite plates. At very low frequencies the far-field sound has the characteristics of a streamwise dipole and the sound from turbulent flow in the vicinity of the step scales with the sixth power of the flow velocity. At higher frequencies the directionality is almost omnidirectional and the radiated sound scales as U5. Interference effects become important at high frequencies and the spectrum exhibits a dip at certain angles to the flow. The directionality and spectral characteristics are similar to those measured experimentally.

  8. Perceptual and Gaze Biases during Face Processing: Related or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Hélène; Fiori-Duharcourt, Nicole; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Lemoine, Christelle; Vergilino-Perez, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a left perceptual bias while looking at faces, due to the fact that observers mainly use information from the left side of a face (from the observer's point of view) to perform a judgment task. Such a bias is consistent with the right hemisphere dominance for face processing and has sometimes been linked to a left gaze bias, i.e. more and/or longer fixations on the left side of the face. Here, we recorded eye-movements, in two different experiments during a gender judgment task, using normal and chimeric faces which were presented above, below, right or left to the central fixation point or on it (central position). Participants performed the judgment task by remaining fixated on the fixation point or after executing several saccades (up to three). A left perceptual bias was not systematically found as it depended on the number of allowed saccades and face position. Moreover, the gaze bias clearly depended on the face position as the initial fixation was guided by face position and landed on the closest half-face, toward the center of gravity of the face. The analysis of the subsequent fixations revealed that observers move their eyes from one side to the other. More importantly, no apparent link between gaze and perceptual biases was found here. This implies that we do not look necessarily toward the side of the face that we use to make a gender judgment task. Despite the fact that these results may be limited by the absence of perceptual and gaze biases in some conditions, we emphasized the inter-individual differences observed in terms of perceptual bias, hinting at the importance of performing individual analysis and drawing attention to the influence of the method used to study this bias. PMID:24454927

  9. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry.

    PubMed

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M; Klaver, P; Grüter, T; Specht, K; Weis, S; Kennerknecht, I; Elger, C E; Fernandez, G

    2011-05-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for faces with negative valence. Anatomical analysis revealed diminished gray matter density in the bilateral lingual gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In most of these areas, gray matter density correlated with memory success. Decreased functional activation was found in the left fusiform gyrus, a crucial area for face processing, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas activation of the medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced. Hence, our data lend strength to the hypothesis that congenital prosopagnosia is explained by network dysfunction and suggest that anatomic curtailing of visual processing in the lingual gyrus plays a substantial role. The dysfunctional circuitry further encompasses the fusiform gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to their difficulties in long-term memory for complex visual information. Despite their deficits in face identity recognition, processing of emotion related information is preserved and possibly mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. Congenital prosopagnosia may, therefore, be a blueprint of differential curtailing in networks of visual cognition.

  10. “What” Precedes “Which”: Developmental Neural Tuning in Face- and Place-Related Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Beatriz; Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    Although category-specific activation for faces in the ventral visual pathway appears adult-like in adolescence, recognition abilities for individual faces are still immature. We investigated how the ability to represent “individual” faces and houses develops at the neural level. Category-selective regions of interest (ROIs) for faces in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and for places in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) were identified individually in children, adolescents, and adults. Then, using an functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation paradigm, we measured category selectivity and individual-level adaptation for faces and houses in each ROI. Only adults exhibited both category selectivity and individual-level adaptation bilaterally for faces in the FG and for houses in the PPA. Adolescents showed category selectivity bilaterally for faces in the FG and houses in the PPA. Despite this profile of category selectivity, adolescents only exhibited individual-level adaptation for houses bilaterally in the PPA and for faces in the “left” FG. Children only showed category-selective responses for houses in the PPA, and they failed to exhibit category-selective responses for faces in the FG and individual-level adaptation effects anywhere in the brain. These results indicate that category-level neural tuning develops prior to individual-level neural tuning and that face-related cortex is disproportionately slower in this developmental transition than is place-related cortex. PMID:21257673

  11. Emotional Face Processing in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Functional Impairments in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Susan B.; Fournier, Jay C.; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Hinze, Amanda K.; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Scott K.; Kowatch, Robert. A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary. A; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder involves poor social functioning, but the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have found deficits in emotional face processing localized to emotional brain regions. However, few studies have examined dysfunction in other regions of the face processing circuit. This study assessed hypoactivation in key face processing regions of the brain in pediatric bipolar disorder. Method Youth with a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n=20) were matched to a nonbipolar clinical group (n=20), with similar demographics and comorbid diagnoses, and a healthy control group (n=20). Youth participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning which employed a task-irrelevant emotion processing design in which processing of facial emotions was not germane to task performance. Results Hypoactivation, isolated to the fusiform gyrus, was found when viewing animated, emerging facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fearfulness, and especially anger in pediatric bipolar participants relative to matched clinical and healthy control groups. Conclusions The results of the study imply that differences exist in visual regions of the brain’s face processing system and are not solely isolated to emotional brain regions, such as the amygdala. Findings are discussed in relation to facial emotion recognition and fusiform gyrus deficits previously reported in the autism literature. Behavioral interventions targeting attention to facial stimuli might be explored as possible treatments for bipolar disorder in youth. PMID:24290464

  12. Abnormal GABAergic function and face processing in schizophrenia: A pharmacologic-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tso, Ivy F; Fang, Yu; Phan, K Luan; Welsh, Robert C; Taylor, Stephan F

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli ("Do you like this face?"). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia.

  13. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  14. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  15. Mirror neuron and theory of mind mechanisms involved in face-to-face interactions: a functional magnetic resonance imaging approach to empathy.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J; Fink, Gereon R; Piefke, Martina

    2007-08-01

    Empathy allows emotional psychological inference about other person's mental states and feelings in social contexts. We aimed at specifying the common and differential neural mechanisms of "self"- and "other"-related attribution of emotional states using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects viewed faces expressing emotions with direct or averted gaze and either focused on their own emotional response to each face (self-task) or evaluated the emotional state expressed by the face (other-task). The common network activated by both tasks included the left lateral orbito-frontal and medial prefrontal cortices (MPFC), bilateral inferior frontal cortices, superior temporal sulci and temporal poles, as well as the right cerebellum. In a subset of these regions, neural activity was significantly correlated with empathic abilities. The self- (relative to the other-) task differentially activated the MPFC, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, and the temporo-parietal junction bilaterally. Empathy-related processing of emotional facial expressions recruited brain areas involved in mirror neuron and theory-of-mind (ToM) mechanisms. The differential engagement of the MPFC, the PCC/precuneus, and temporo-parietal regions in the self-task indicates that these structures act as key players in the evaluation of one's own emotional state during empathic face-to-face interaction. Activation of mirror neurons in a task relying on empathic abilities without explicit task-related motor components supports the view that mirror neurons are not only involved in motor cognition but also in emotional interpersonal cognition. An interplay between ToM and mirror neuron mechanisms may hold for the maintenance of a self-other distinction during empathic interpersonal face-to-face interactions.

  16. Functional Mapping of Face-Selective Regions in the Extrastriate Visual Cortex of the Marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chia-Chun; Yen, Cecil C.; Ciuchta, Jennifer L.; Papoti, Daniel; Bock, Nicholas A.; Leopold, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex of humans and macaques has specialized regions for processing faces and other visual stimulus categories. It is unknown whether a similar functional organization exists in New World monkeys, such as the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a species of growing interest as a primate model in neuroscience. To address this question, we measured selective neural responses in the brain of four awake marmosets trained to fix their gaze upon images of faces, bodies, objects, and control patterns. In two of the subjects, we measured high gamma-range field potentials from electrocorticography arrays implanted over a large portion of the occipital and inferotemporal cortex. In the other two subjects, we measured BOLD fMRI responses across the entire brain. Both techniques revealed robust, regionally specific patterns of category-selective neural responses. We report that at least six face-selective patches mark the occipitotemporal pathway of the marmoset, with the most anterior patches showing the strongest preference for faces over other stimuli. The similar appearance of these patches to previous findings in macaques and humans, including their apparent arrangement in two parallel pathways, suggests that core elements of the face processing network were present in the common anthropoid primate ancestor living ∼35 million years ago. The findings also identify the marmoset as a viable animal model system for studying specialized neural mechanisms related to high-level social visual perception in humans. PMID:25609630

  17. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  18. The Development of Infant Learning about Specific Face-Voice Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Flom, Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the development of infants' ability to perceive, learn, and remember the unique face-voice relations of unfamiliar adults. Infants of 2, 4, and 6 months were habituated to the faces and voices of 2 same-gender adults speaking and then received test trials where the faces and voices were synchronized yet mismatched. Results…

  19. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  20. Separable effects of inversion and contrast-reversal on face detection thresholds and response functions: a sweep VEP study.

    PubMed

    Liu-Shuang, Joan; Ales, Justin; Rossion, Bruno; Norcia, Anthony M

    2015-02-10

    The human brain rapidly detects faces in the visual environment. We recently presented a sweep visual evoked potential approach to objectively define face detection thresholds as well as suprathreshold response functions (Ales, Farzin, Rossion, & Norcia, 2012). Here we determined these parameters are affected by orientation (upright vs. inverted) and contrast polarity (positive vs. negative), two manipulations that disproportionately disrupt the perception of faces relative to other object categories. Face stimuli parametrically increased in visibility through phase-descrambling while alternating with scrambled images at a fixed presentation rate of 3 Hz (6 images/s). The power spectrum and mean luminance of all stimuli were equalized. As a face gradually emerged during a stimulation sequence, EEG responses at 3 Hz appeared at ≈35% phase coherence over right occipito-temporal channels, replicating previous observations. With inversion and contrast-reversal, the 3-Hz amplitude decreased by ≈20%-50% and the face detection threshold increased by ≈30%-60% coherence. Furthermore, while the 3-Hz response emerged abruptly and saturated quickly for normal faces, suggesting a categorical neural response, the response profile for inverted and negative polarity faces was shallower and more linear, indicating gradual and continuously increasing activation of the underlying neural population. These findings demonstrate that inversion and contrast-reversal increase the threshold and modulate the suprathreshold response function of face detection. © 2015 ARVO.

  1. Processing of famous faces and medial temporal lobe event-related potentials: a depth electrode study.

    PubMed

    Dietl, T; Trautner, P; Staedtgen, M; Vannucci, M; Vannuchi, M; Mecklinger, A; Grunwald, T; Clusmann, H; Elger, C E; Kurthen, M

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims at analyzing the modulation of two types of event-related potentials originating from the human medial temporal lobe, the rhinal AMTL-N400 and the hippocampal P600 by the processing of famous faces. Therefore, we used a face recognition paradigm in which subjects had to discriminate the faces of famous persons from the faces of non-famous persons. Eleven patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing intrahippocampal depth electrode recording for presurgical evaluation participated in this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a sequence of famous and non-famous faces was presented to the patients. The presentation of each face was repeated. The faces evoked N400-like potentials (anterior medial temporal lobe N400, AMTL-N400) in the rhinal cortex and P600-like potentials in the hippocampus. ERPs elicited by famous faces were contrasted with ERPs elicited by non-famous faces. The first presentation of famous faces elicited an enhanced AMTL-N400 and an enhanced hippocampal P600 in comparison to the second presentations of the famous faces or the (first and second presentation of the) non-famous faces. This findings are discussed in terms of associative semantic memory processes and the retrieval of person-specific information from long-term memory stores triggered by the processing of famous faces.

  2. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The neuropsychology of face perception: beyond simple dissociations and functional selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Anthony P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Face processing relies on a distributed, patchy network of cortical regions in the temporal and frontal lobes that respond disproportionately to face stimuli, other cortical regions that are not even primarily visual (such as somatosensory cortex), and subcortical structures such as the amygdala. Higher-level face perception abilities, such as judging identity, emotion and trustworthiness, appear to rely on an intact face-processing network that includes the occipital face area (OFA), whereas lower-level face categorization abilities, such as discriminating faces from objects, can be achieved without OFA, perhaps via the direct connections to the fusiform face area (FFA) from several extrastriate cortical areas. Some lesion, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings argue against a strict feed-forward hierarchical model of face perception, in which the OFA is the principal and common source of input for other visual and non-visual cortical regions involved in face perception, including the FFA, face-selective superior temporal sulcus and somatosensory cortex. Instead, these findings point to a more interactive model in which higher-level face perception abilities depend on the interplay between several functionally and anatomically distinct neural regions. Furthermore, the nature of these interactions may depend on the particular demands of the task. We review the lesion and TMS literature on this topic and highlight the dynamic and distributed nature of face processing. PMID:21536556

  4. Visual Afterimages of Emotional Faces in High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Troubridge, Erin K.; Walsh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Fixating an emotional facial expression can create afterimages, such that subsequent faces are seen as having the opposite expression of that fixated. Visual afterimages have been used to map the relationships among emotion categories, and this method was used here to compare ASD and matched control participants. Participants adapted to a facial…

  5. Effects of attractiveness on face memory separated from distinctiveness: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Altmann, Carolin S; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined effects of attractiveness on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of face memory. Extending previous reports, we controlled for potential moderating effects of distinctiveness, a variable known to affect memory. Attractive and unattractive faces were selected on the basis of a rating study, and were matched for distinctiveness. In a subsequent recognition memory experiment, we found more accurate memory for unattractive relative to attractive faces. Additionally, an attractiveness effect in the early posterior negativity (EPN) during learning, with larger amplitudes for attractive than unattractive faces, correlated significantly with the magnitude of the memory advantage for unattractive faces at test. These findings establish a contribution of attractiveness to face memory over and above the well-known effect of distinctiveness. Additionally, as the EPN is typically enhanced for affective stimuli, our ERP results imply that the processing of emotionally relevant attractive faces during learning may hamper their encoding into memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Amygdala Damage Affects Event-Related Potentials for Fearful Faces at Specific Time Windows

    PubMed Central

    Rotshtein, Pia; Richardson, Mark P; Winston, Joel S; Kiebel, Stefan J; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Eimer, Martin; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala is known to influence processing of threat-related stimuli in distant brain regions, including visual cortex. The time-course of these distant influences is unknown, although this information is important for resolving debates over likely pathways mediating an apparent rapidity in emotional processing. To address this, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to seen fearful face expressions, in preoperative patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy who had varying degrees of amygdala pathology, plus healthy volunteers. We found that amygdala damage diminished ERPs for fearful versus neutral faces within the P1 time-range, ∼100–150 ms, and for a later component at ∼500–600 ms. Individual severity of amygdala damage determined the magnitude of both these effects, consistent with a causal amygdala role. By contrast, amygdala damage did not affect explicit perception of fearful expressions nor a distinct emotional ERP effect at 150–250 ms. These results demonstrate two distinct time-points at which the amygdala influences fear processing. The data also demonstrate that while not all aspects of expression processing are disrupted by amygdala damage, there is a crucial impact on an early P1 component. These findings are consistent with the existence of multiple processing stages or routes for fearful faces that vary in their dependence on amygdala function. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20017134

  7. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p < 0.0001), and dependent on stimulus frequency (p < 0.0001) and the sex of the participants (p < 0.005). VDTs were significantly higher for older adults when compared to younger adults for the finger stimulation condition (p < 0.05). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in cheek and lower lip VDTs between male and female subjects. Difference in the VDTs between the three stimulation sites is presumed to reflect the unique typing and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics.

  8. Reward Promotes Self-Face Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Youlong; Chen, Jie; Xiao, Xiao; Li, Jin; Yang, Zilu; Fan, Wei; Zhong, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The present study adopted a reward-priming paradigm to investigate whether and how monetary reward cues affected self-face processing. Event-related potentials were recorded during judgments of head orientation of target faces (self, friend, and stranger), with performance associated with a monetary reward. The results showed self-faces elicited larger N2 mean amplitudes than other-faces, and mean N2 amplitudes increased after monetary reward as compared with no reward cue. Moreover, an interaction effect between cue type and face type was observed for the P3 component, suggesting that both self-faces and friend-faces elicited larger P3 mean amplitudes than stranger-faces after no reward cue, with no significant difference between self-faces and friend-faces under this condition. However, self-faces elicited larger P3 mean amplitudes than friend-faces when monetary reward cues were provided. Interestingly, the enhancement of reward on friend-faces processing was observed at late positive potentials (LPP; 450–600 ms), suggesting that the LPP difference between friend-faces and stranger-faces was enhanced with monetary reward cues. Thus, we found that the enhancement effect of reward on self-relevant processing occurred at the later stages, but not at the early stage. These findings suggest that the activation of the reward expectations can enhance self-face processing, yielding a robust and sustained modulation over their overlapped brain areas where reward and self-relevant processing mechanisms may operate together. PMID:27242637

  9. Brain regions sensitive to the face inversion effect: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans.

    PubMed

    Leube, Dirk T; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Rapp, Alexander; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Bartels, Mathias; Kircher, Tilo T J

    2003-05-22

    Perception of upright faces relies on configural processing. Therefore recognition of inverted, compared to upright faces is impaired. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment we investigated the neural correlate of a face inversion task. Thirteen healthy subjects were presented with a equal number of upright and inverted faces alternating with a low level baseline with an upright and inverted picture of an abstract symbol. Brain activation was calculated for upright minus inverted faces. For this differential contrast, we found a signal change in the right superior temporal sulcus and right insula. Configural properties are processed in a network comprising right superior temporal and insular cortex.

  10. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing.

  11. Altered Neural Function to Happy Faces in Adolescents with and at Risk for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kerestes, Rebecca; Segreti, Anna Maria; Pan, Lisa A.; Phillips, Mary L.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is accumulating evidence of alterations in neural circuitry underlying the processing of social-affective information in adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However the extent to which such alterations are present in youth at risk for mood disorders remains unclear. Method Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent task responses and functional connectivity using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses to mild and intense happy face stimuli was examined in 29 adolescents with MDD (MDD; M age, 16.0, SD 1.2 years), 38 healthy adolescents at risk of a mood disorder, by virtue of having a parent diagnosed with either Bipolar Disorder (BD) or MDD (Mood-risk; M age 13.4, SD 2.5 years) and 43 healthy control adolescents, having parents with no psychiatric disorder (HC; M age 14.6, SD 2.2 years). Results Relative to HC adolescents, Mood-risk adolescents showed elevated right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to 100% intensity happy (vs. neutral) faces and concomitant lowered ventral putamen activity to 50% intensity happy (vs. neutral) faces. gPPI analyses revealed that MDD adolescents showed significantly lower right DLPFC functional connectivity with the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) compared to HC to all happy faces. Limitations The current study is limited by the smaller number of healthy offspring at risk for MDD compared to BD. Conclusions Because Mood-risk adolescents were healthy at the time of the scan, elevated DLPFC and lowered ventral striatal activity in Mood-risk adolescents may be associated with risk or resiliency. In contrast, altered DLPFC-VLPFC functional connectivity in MDD adolescents may be associated with depressed mood state. Such alterations may affect social-affective development and progression to a mood disorder in Mood-risk adolescents. Future longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to directly answer this research question. PMID:26724693

  12. Face Inversion Disproportionately Impairs the Perception of Vertical but Not Horizontal Relations between Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Upside-down inversion disrupts the processing of spatial relations between the features of a face, while largely preserving local feature analysis. However, recent studies on face inversion failed to observe a clear dissociation between relational and featural processing. To resolve these discrepancies and clarify how inversion affects face…

  13. Face Inversion Disproportionately Impairs the Perception of Vertical but Not Horizontal Relations between Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Upside-down inversion disrupts the processing of spatial relations between the features of a face, while largely preserving local feature analysis. However, recent studies on face inversion failed to observe a clear dissociation between relational and featural processing. To resolve these discrepancies and clarify how inversion affects face…

  14. Recognition of faces and names: multimodal physiological correlates of memory and executive function.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Meghan B; Shirk, Steven D; McLaren, Donald G; Dodd, Jessica S; Ezzati, Ali; Ally, Brandon A; Atri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    We sought to characterize electrophysiological, eye-tracking and behavioral correlates of face-name recognition memory in healthy younger adults using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), infrared eye-tracking (ET), and neuropsychological measures. Twenty-one participants first studied 40 face-name (FN) pairs; 20 were presented four times (4R) and 20 were shown once (1R). Recognition memory was assessed by asking participants to make old/new judgments for 80 FN pairs, of which half were previously studied items and half were novel FN pairs (N). Simultaneous EEG and ET recording were collected during recognition trials. Comparisons of event-related potentials (ERPs) for correctly identified FN pairs were compared across the three item types revealing classic ERP old/new effects including 1) relative positivity (1R > N) bi-frontally from 300 to 500 ms, reflecting enhanced familiarity, 2) relative positivity (4R > 1R and 4R > N) in parietal areas from 500 to 800 ms, reflecting enhanced recollection, and 3) late frontal effects (1R > N) from 1000 to 1800 ms in right frontal areas, reflecting post-retrieval monitoring. ET analysis also revealed significant differences in eye movements across conditions. Exploration of cross-modality relationships suggested associations between memory and executive function measures and the three ERP effects. Executive function measures were associated with several indicators of saccadic eye movements and fixations, which were also associated with all three ERP effects. This novel characterization of face-name recognition memory performance using simultaneous EEG and ET reproduced classic ERP and ET effects, supports the construct validity of the multimodal FN paradigm, and holds promise as an integrative tool to probe brain networks supporting memory and executive functioning.

  15. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  16. Recognition memory for emotional faces in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Schefter, Maria; Werheid, Katja; Almkvist, Ove; Lönnqvist-Akenine, Ulrika; Kathmann, Norbert; Winblad, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the temporal course of emotional face recognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Patients and healthy controls (HC) performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces displaying a negative or neutral expression. In aMCI patients, recognition accuracy was preserved for negative faces. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed disease-related changes in early perceptual components but not in ERP indices of explicit recognition. Specifically, aMCI patients showed impaired recognition effects for negative faces on the amplitudes of N170 and P2, suggesting deficient memory-related processing of negative faces at the stage of structural encoding and during an early recognition stage at which faces are individuated, respectively. Moreover, while a right-lateralized emotion effect specifically observed for correctly recognized faces on the amplitude of N170 was absent in aMCI, a similar emotion effect for successfully recognized faces on P2 was preserved in the patients, albeit with a different distribution. This suggests that in aMCI facilitated processing of successfully recognized emotional faces starts later in the processing sequence. Nonetheless, an early frontal old/new effect confined to negative faces and a parietal old/new effect unaffected by facial emotion were observed in both groups. This indicates that familiarity and conceptual priming processes may specifically contribute to recognition of negative faces in older adults and that aMCI patients can recruit the same retrieval mechanisms as controls, despite disease-related changes on early perceptual ERP components.

  17. Reduced Face Identity Aftereffects in Relatives of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Gray, Laura; Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition with complex aetiology. To aid the discovery of genetic mechanisms, researchers have turned towards identifying potential endophenotypes--subtle neurobiological or neurocognitive traits present in individuals with autism and their "unaffected" relatives. Previous research has shown that relatives of…

  18. Age- and fatigue-related markers of human faces: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy Tu; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Rubin, Peter A D

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the facial cues that are used when making judgments about how old or tired a face appears. Experimental study. Forty-seven subjects: 15 male and 32 female participants, ranging from age 18 to 30 years. Forty-eight full-face digital images of "normal-appearing" patients were collected and uploaded to an eye-tracking system. We used an Applied Science Laboratories (Bedford, MA) Eye Tracker device associated with gaze-tracking software to record and calculate the gaze and fixation of the participants' left eye as they viewed images on a computer screen. After seeing each picture, participants were asked to assess the age of the face in the picture by making a selection on a rating scale divided into 5-year intervals; for fatigue judgments we used a rating scale from 1 (not tired) to 7 (most tired). The main outcome measure was gaze fixation, as assessed by tracking the eye movements of participants as they viewed full-face digital pictures. For fatigue judgments, participants spent the most time looking at the eye region (31.81%), then the forehead and the nose regions (14.99% and 14.12%, respectively); in the eye region, participants looked most at the brows (13.1%) and lower lids (9.4%). Participants spent more time looking at the cheeks on faces they rated as least tired than they did on those they rated as most tired (t = 2.079, P<0.05). For age judgments, the eye region (27.22%) and then the forehead (15.71%) and the nose (14.30%) had the highest frequencies of interest; in the eye region, the brows and lower lids also had the highest frequencies of interest (11.40% and 8.90%, respectively). Participants looked more at the brows (t = -2.63, P<0.05) and glabella (t = -3.28, P<0.01) in those faces they rated as looking the oldest. This study supports the hypothesis that age and fatigue judgments are related to preferential attention toward the eye region. Consequently, these results suggest that aesthetic or functional surgery to the eye region may

  19. Uncertainty relations for characteristic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Tasca, D. S.; Walborn, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    We present the uncertainty relation for the characteristic functions (ChUR) of the quantum mechanical position and momentum probability distributions. This inequality is more general than the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and is saturated in two extreme cases for wave functions described by periodic Dirac combs. We further discuss a broad spectrum of applications of the ChUR; in particular, we constrain quantum optical measurements involving general detection apertures and provide the uncertainty relation that is relevant for loop quantum cosmology. A method to measure the characteristic function directly using an auxiliary qubit is also briefly discussed.

  20. Face recognition in age related macular degeneration: perceived disability, measured disability, and performance with a bioptic device.

    PubMed

    Tejeria, L; Harper, R A; Artes, P H; Dickinson, C M

    2002-09-01

    (1) To explore the relation between performance on tasks of familiar face recognition (FFR) and face expression difference discrimination (FED) with both perceived disability in face recognition and clinical measures of visual function in subjects with age related macular degeneration (AMD). (2) To quantify the gain in performance for face recognition tasks when subjects use a bioptic telescopic low vision device. 30 subjects with AMD (age range 66-90 years; visual acuity 0.4-1.4 logMAR) were recruited for the study. Perceived (self rated) disability in face recognition was assessed by an eight item questionnaire covering a range of issues relating to face recognition. Visual functions measured were distance visual acuity (ETDRS logMAR charts), continuous text reading acuity (MNRead charts), contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson chart), and colour vision (large panel D-15). In the FFR task, images of famous people had to be identified. FED was assessed by a forced choice test where subjects had to decide which one of four images showed a different facial expression. These tasks were repeated with subjects using a bioptic device. Overall perceived disability in face recognition did not correlate with performance on either task, although a specific item on difficulty recognising familiar faces did correlate with FFR (r = 0.49, p<0.05). FFR performance was most closely related to distance acuity (r = -0.69, p<0.001), while FED performance was most closely related to continuous text reading acuity (r = -0.79, p<0.001). In multiple regression, neither contrast sensitivity nor colour vision significantly increased the explained variance. When using a bioptic telescope, FFR performance improved in 86% of subjects (median gain = 49%; p<0.001), while FED performance increased in 79% of subjects (median gain = 50%; p<0.01). Distance and reading visual acuity are closely associated with measured task performance in FFR and FED. A bioptic low vision device can offer a significant

  1. Caregiving experience and its relation to perceptual narrowing of face gender.

    PubMed

    Rennels, Jennifer L; Juvrud, Joshua; Kayl, Andrea J; Asperholm, Martin; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Herlitz, Agneta

    2017-08-01

    This research examined whether infants tested longitudinally at 10, 14, and 16 months of age (N = 58) showed evidence of perceptual narrowing based on face gender (better discrimination of female than male faces) and whether changes in caregiving experience longitudinally predicted changes in infants' discrimination of male faces. To test face discrimination, infants participated in familiarization/novelty preference tasks and visual search tasks including female and male faces. At each age of participation, they were coded as having a female primary caregiver only or distributed caregiving experience (alternating experience with a female and male primary caregiver). Perceptual narrowing was evident for infants with a female primary caregiver, but only within the visual search task, which required location of a familiarized face among 3 novel distractor faces (exemplar-based discrimination); it was not evident within the familiarity/novelty preference task, which required discrimination between a familiarized and novel face (individual-based discrimination). Caregiving experience significantly explained individual changes in infants' ability to locate male faces during the visual search task after 10 months. These data are the first to demonstrate flexibility of the face processing system in relation to gender discrimination when there is a change in caregiver within the infants' natural environment after perceptual narrowing normally manifests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The effect of face-to-face or group education during pregnancy on sexual function of couples in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; MohammadiMahdiabadzade, Maryam; Nasiri, Hamid; GholamiDehaghi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy can be in conflict with sexual function which can be affected by physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. Therefore, comparison of the effect of face-to-face education with group education on sexual function during pregnancy in couples was the purpose of this research. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study, 64 pregnant couples were selected and randomized in two groups in Isfahan. The data were collected using the triangulation of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Brief form of Sexual Function Inventory (BSFI), and demographic characteristics questionnaires. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS. Results: No significant difference was found in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Education was effective on sexual function in the two groups of women (P < 0.001), but no significant difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.61). Also, education was effective on sexual function of men in both the groups (P < 0.001) and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between couples regarding the education (P = 0.104). Conclusions: The results of the study showed that type of education plays a role in improvement of sexual function in pregnancy. In addition, sex education is effective in prevention of sexual disorders in pregnancy. Therefore, having a special approach toward sex education classes during pregnancy is important for the health providers, particularly midwifery professionals. PMID:26457096

  3. Event-related potentials reveal the development of stable face representations from natural variability.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Sally; Burton, A Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2017-08-01

    Natural variability between instances of unfamiliar faces can make it difficult to reconcile two images as the same person. Yet for familiar faces, effortless recognition occurs even with considerable variability between images. To explore how stable face representations develop, we employed incidental learning in the form of a face sorting task. In each trial, multiple images of two facial identities were sorted into two corresponding piles. Following the sort, participants showed evidence of having learnt the faces performing more accurately on a matching task with seen than with unseen identities. Furthermore, ventral temporal event-related potentials were more negative in the N250 time range for previously seen than for previously unseen identities. These effects appear to demonstrate some degree of abstraction, rather than simple picture learning, as the neurophysiological and behavioural effects were observed with novel images of the previously seen identities. The results provide evidence of the development of facial representations, allowing a window onto natural mechanisms of face learning.

  4. Functional connectivity for face processing in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Moody, T D; Sasaki, M A; Bohon, C; Strober, M A; Bookheimer, S Y; Sheen, C L; Feusner, J D

    2015-12-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) are both characterized by distorted perception of appearance. Previous studies in BDD suggest abnormalities in visual processing of own and others' faces, but no study has examined visual processing of faces in AN, nor directly compared the two disorders in this respect. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data on 60 individuals of equivalent age and gender in each of three groups--20 BDD, 20 weight-restored AN, and 20 healthy controls (HC)--while they viewed images of others' faces that contained only high or low spatial frequency information (HSF or LSF). We tested hypotheses about functional connectivity within specialized sub-networks for HSF and LSF visual processing, using psychophysiological interaction analyses. The BDD group demonstrated increased functional connectivity compared to HC between left anterior occipital face area and right fusiform face area (FFA) for LSF faces, which was associated with symptom severity. Both BDD and AN groups had increased connectivity compared to HC between FFA and precuneous/posterior cingulate gyrus for LSF faces, and decreased connectivity between FFA and insula. In addition, we found that LSF connectivity between FFA and posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly associated with thoughts about own appearance in AN. Results suggest similar abnormal functional connectivity within higher-order systems for face processing in BDD and AN, but distinct abnormal connectivity patterns within occipito-temporal visual networks. Findings may have implications for understanding relationships between these disorders, and the pathophysiology underlying perceptual distortions.

  5. Decreased face primary motor cortex (face-M1) excitability induced by noxious stimulation of the rat molar tooth pulp is dependent on the functional integrity of face-M1 astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Awamleh, L; Pun, H; Lee, J-C; Avivi-Arber, L

    2015-04-01

    Acute inflammatory dental pain is a prevalent condition often associated with limited jaw movements. Mustard oil (MO, a small-fiber excitant/inflammatory irritant) application to the rat molar tooth pulp induces increased excitability (i.e., central sensitization) of trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons that can be modulated by MDH application of the astrocytic inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO). The objectives of the study were to determine whether MO application to the rat right maxillary first molar tooth pulp affects left face-M1 excitability manifested as altered intracortical microstimulation thresholds for evoking electromyographic activity in the right anterior digastric (RAD, jaw-opening muscle), and whether MSO application to face-M1 can modulate this MO effect. Under Ketamine general anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley male rats had a microelectrode positioned at a low-threshold (≤30 μA) face-M1 site. Then MO (n = 16) or control solution (n = 16) was applied to the previously exposed tooth pulp, and RAD threshold was monitored for 15 min. MSO (0.1 mM, n = 8) or saline (n = 8) was then applied to the face-M1, and RAD thresholds were monitored every 15 min for 120 min. ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni was used to analyze data (p < 0.05). Within 15 min of MO (but not control) pulp application, RAD thresholds increased significantly (p < 0.001) as compared to baseline. One hour following MSO (but not saline) application to the face-M1, RAD thresholds decreased significantly (p = 0.005) toward baseline. These novel findings suggest that acute inflammatory dental pain is associated with decreased face-M1 excitability that may be dependent on the functional integrity of face-M1 astrocytes and related to mechanisms underlying limited jaw movements in acute orofacial pain conditions.

  6. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing

    PubMed Central

    Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T.; Alpers, Georg W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer—conveyed by facial expression and face direction—amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. PMID:28158672

  7. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    PubMed

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: a multicentre functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Amir M; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bruehl, Ruediger; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mareckova, Klara; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Face processing pattern under top-down perception: a functional MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Jizheng; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Guangming

    2009-02-01

    Although top-down perceptual process plays an important role in face processing, its neural substrate is still puzzling because the top-down stream is extracted difficultly from the activation pattern associated with contamination caused by bottom-up face perception input. In the present study, a novel paradigm of instructing participants to detect faces from pure noise images is employed, which could efficiently eliminate the interference of bottom-up face perception in topdown face processing. Analyzing the map of functional connectivity with right FFA analyzed by conventional Pearson's correlation, a possible face processing pattern induced by top-down perception can be obtained. Apart from the brain areas of bilateral fusiform gyrus (FG), left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS), which are consistent with a core system in the distributed cortical network for face perception, activation induced by top-down face processing is also found in these regions that include the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC), right oribitofrontal cortex (OFC), left precuneus, right parahippocampal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right frontal pole, bilateral premotor cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and bilateral thalamus. The results indicate that making-decision, attention, episodic memory retrieving and contextual associative processing network cooperate with general face processing regions to process face information under top-down perception.

  10. Functional compartmentalization and viewpoint generalization within the macaque face-processing system.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, Winrich A; Tsao, Doris Y

    2010-11-05

    Primates can recognize faces across a range of viewing conditions. Representations of individual identity should thus exist that are invariant to accidental image transformations like view direction. We targeted the recently discovered face-processing network of the macaque monkey that consists of six interconnected face-selective regions and recorded from the two middle patches (ML, middle lateral, and MF, middle fundus) and two anterior patches (AL, anterior lateral, and AM, anterior medial). We found that the anatomical position of a face patch was associated with a unique functional identity: Face patches differed qualitatively in how they represented identity across head orientations. Neurons in ML and MF were view-specific; neurons in AL were tuned to identity mirror-symmetrically across views, thus achieving partial view invariance; and neurons in AM, the most anterior face patch, achieved almost full view invariance.

  11. The changing face of asthma and its relation with microbes.

    PubMed

    Earl, Chris S; An, Shi-qi; Ryan, Robert P

    2015-07-01

    During the past 50 years, the prevalence of asthma has increased and this has coincided with our changing relation with microorganisms. Asthma is a complex disease associated with local tissue inflammation of the airway that is determined by environmental, immunological, and host genetic factors. In a subgroup of sufferers, respiratory infections are associated with the development of chronic disease and more frequent inflammatory exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that these infections are polymicrobial in nature. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the recently discovered asthma airway microbiota may play a critical role in pathophysiological processes associated with the disease. Here, we discuss the current data regarding a possible role for infection in chronic asthma with a particular focus on the role bacteria may play. We discuss recent advances that are beginning to elucidate the complex relations between the microbiota and the immune response in asthma patients. We also highlight the clinical implications of these recent findings in regards to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  12. Altered Functional Subnetwork During Emotional Face Processing: A Potential Intermediate Phenotype for Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hengyi; Bertolino, Alessandro; Walter, Henrik; Schneider, Michael; Schäfer, Axel; Taurisano, Paolo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Otto, Kristina; Dixson, Luanna; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Heinz, Andreas; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mattheisen, Manuel; Witt, Stephanie H; Cichon, Sven; Noethen, Markus; Rietschel, Marcella; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Although deficits in emotional processing are prominent in schizophrenia, it has been difficult to identify neural mechanisms related to the genetic risk for this highly heritable illness. Prior studies have not found consistent regional activation or connectivity alterations in first-degree relatives compared with healthy controls, suggesting that a more comprehensive search for connectomic biomarkers is warranted. To identify a potential systems-level intermediate phenotype linked to emotion processing in schizophrenia and to examine the psychological association, task specificity, test-retest reliability, and clinical validity of the identified phenotype. The study was performed in university research hospitals from June 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013. We examined 58 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and 94 healthy controls with an emotional face-matching functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Test-retest reliability was analyzed with an independent sample of 26 healthy participants. A clinical association study was performed in 31 patients with schizophrenia and 45 healthy controls. Data analysis was performed from January 1 to September 30, 2014. Conventional amygdala activity and seeded connectivity measures, graph-based global and local network connectivity measures, Spearman rank correlation, intraclass correlation, and gray matter volumes. Among the 152 volunteers included in the relative-control sample, 58 were unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (mean [SD] age, 33.29 [12.56]; 38 were women), and 94 were healthy controls without a first-degree relative with mental illness (mean [SD] age, 32.69 [10.09] years; 55 were women). A graph-theoretical connectivity approach identified significantly decreased connectivity in a subnetwork that primarily included the limbic cortex, visual cortex, and subcortex during emotional face processing (cluster-level P corrected for familywise error =

  13. Sex differences in adults' relative visual interest in female and male faces, toys, and play styles.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora

    2009-06-01

    An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.

  14. Perceptual and Social Attributes Underlining Age-Related Preferences for Faces

    PubMed Central

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Cullen, Brendan; Clavin, Sarah L.; Newell, Fiona N.

    2016-01-01

    Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with aging, with an age-related bias in favoring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity) and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance) factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together with older aged

  15. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces.

  16. The development of infant learning about specific face-voice relations.

    PubMed

    Bahrick, Lorraine E; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Flom, Ross

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the development of infants' ability to perceive, learn, and remember the unique face-voice relations of unfamiliar adults. Infants of 2, 4, and 6 months were habituated to the faces and voices of 2 same-gender adults speaking and then received test trials where the faces and voices were synchronized yet mismatched. Results indicated that 4- and 6-month-olds, but not 2-month-olds, detected the change in face-voice pairings. Two-month-olds did, however, discriminate among the faces and voices in a control study. Results of a subsequent intermodal matching procedure indicated that only the 6-month-olds showed matching and memory for the face-voice relations. These findings suggest that infants' ability to detect the arbitrary relations between specific faces and voices of unfamiliar adults emerges between 2 and 4 months of age, whereas matching and memory for these relations emerges somewhat later, perhaps between 4 and 6 months of age.

  17. Face emotion recognition is related to individual differences in psychosis-proneness.

    PubMed

    Germine, L T; Hooker, C I

    2011-05-01

    Deficits in face emotion recognition (FER) in schizophrenia are well documented, and have been proposed as a potential intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia liability. However, research on the relationship between psychosis vulnerability and FER has mixed findings and methodological limitations. Moreover, no study has yet characterized the relationship between FER ability and level of psychosis-proneness. If FER ability varies continuously with psychosis-proneness, this suggests a relationship between FER and polygenic risk factors. We tested two large internet samples to see whether psychometric psychosis-proneness, as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B), is related to differences in face emotion identification and discrimination or other face processing abilities. Experiment 1 (n=2332) showed that psychosis-proneness predicts face emotion identification ability but not face gender identification ability. Experiment 2 (n=1514) demonstrated that psychosis-proneness also predicts performance on face emotion but not face identity discrimination. The tasks in Experiment 2 used identical stimuli and task parameters, differing only in emotion/identity judgment. Notably, the relationships demonstrated in Experiments 1 and 2 persisted even when individuals with the highest psychosis-proneness levels (the putative high-risk group) were excluded from analysis. Our data suggest that FER ability is related to individual differences in psychosis-like characteristics in the normal population, and that these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in face processing and/or visual perception. Our results suggest that FER may provide a useful candidate intermediate phenotype.

  18. Age-related changes in processing faces from detection to identification: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Sharon; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of people 70 to 90 years old to apply global, configural and featural face-processing strategies. In addition we investigated age-related changes in the ability to categorize faces at basic, subordinate and individual levels. Using the N170 potential as index of early face processing and the P300 component as index of categorical decision making and effort, we found significant age-related perceptual changes which slowed and somewhat impaired face processing. Specifically, older participants had problems integrating face features into global structures, demonstrating enhanced dependence on distal global information. They did not apply configural computations by default while processing faces which suggests that, unless identification is required, they process faces only at a basic level. These perceptual changes could be the cause for slower and less accurate subordinate categorization, particularly when it is based on details. At the neural levels face processing was not right-lateralized, reflecting excessive involvement of the left hemisphere in perception leading to a more general reduction of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. In addition we found excessive but nonselective activation of frontal regions adding support to the view that executive control and particularly inhibition of irrelevant input are reduced in the elderly. PMID:20961658

  19. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour.

  20. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Dean; D’Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers’ mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker’s overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour. PMID:26426329

  1. Drawing cartoon faces--a functional imaging study of the cognitive neuroscience of drawing.

    PubMed

    Miall, R Chris; Gowen, Emma; Tchalenko, John

    2009-03-01

    We report a functional imaging study of drawing cartoon faces. Normal, untrained participants were scanned while viewing simple black and white cartoon line drawings of human faces, retaining them for a short memory interval, and then drawing them without vision of their hand or the paper. Specific encoding and retention of information about the faces were tested for by contrasting these two stages (with display of cartoon faces) against the exploration and retention of random dot stimuli. Drawing was contrasted between conditions in which only memory of a previously viewed face was available versus a condition in which both memory and simultaneous viewing of the cartoon were possible, and versus drawing of a new, previously unseen, face. We show that the encoding of cartoon faces powerfully activates the face-sensitive areas of the lateral occipital cortex and the fusiform gyrus, but there is no significant activation in these areas during the retention interval. Activity in both areas was also high when drawing the displayed cartoons. Drawing from memory activates areas in posterior parietal cortex and frontal areas. This activity is consistent with the encoding and retention of the spatial information about the face to be drawn as a visuo-motor action plan, either representing a series of targets for ocular fixation or as spatial targets for the drawing action.

  2. Maternal affect and quality of parenting experiences are related to amygdala response to infant faces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jennifer; Wonch, Kathleen E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Ali, Nida; Steiner, Meir; Hall, Geoffrey B; Fleming, Alison S

    2012-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in mood and anxiety in the early postpartum period are related to brain response to infant stimuli during fMRI, with particular focus on regions implicated in both maternal behavior and mood/anxiety, that is, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the amygdala. At approximately 3 months postpartum, 22 mothers completed an affect-rating task (ART) during fMRI, where their affective response to infant stimuli was explicitly probed. Mothers viewed/rated four infant face conditions: own positive (OP), own negative (ON), unfamiliar positive (UP), and unfamiliar negative (UN). Mood and anxiety were measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Version (STAI-T); maternal factors related to parental stress and attachment were also assessed. Brain-imaging data underwent a random-effects analysis, and cluster-based statistical thresholding was applied to the following contrasts: OP-UP, ON-UN, OP-ON, and UP-UN. Our main finding was that poorer quality of maternal experience was significantly related to reduced amygdala response to OP compared to UP infant faces. Our results suggest that, in human mothers, infant-related amygdala function may be an important factor in maternal anxiety/mood, in quality of mothering, and in individual differences in the motivation to mother. We are very grateful to the staff at the Imaging Research Center of the Brain-Body Institute for their contributions to this project. This work was supported by an Ontario Mental Health Foundation operating grant awarded to Alison Fleming and a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to Jennifer Barrett.

  3. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea; Polly, P David

    2013-01-01

    Facial length is one of the best known examples of heterochrony. Changes in the timing of facial growth have been invoked as a mechanism for the origin of our short human face from our long-faced extinct relatives. Such heterochronic changes arguably permit great evolutionary flexibility, allowing the mammalian face to be remodelled simply by modifying postnatal growth. Here we present new data that show that this mechanism is significantly constrained by adult size. Small mammals are more brachycephalic (short faced) than large ones, despite the putative independence between adult size and facial length. This pattern holds across four phenotypic lineages: antelopes, fruit bats, tree squirrels and mongooses. Despite the apparent flexibility of facial heterochrony, growth of the face is linked to absolute size and introduces what seems to be a loose but clade-wide mammalian constraint on head shape.

  4. Empathy for pain-related dorsolateral prefrontal activity is modulated by angry face perception.

    PubMed

    Enzi, Björn; Amirie, Scharbanu; Brüne, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Empathy, i.e., the ability to perceive and share another person's affective state, is associated with activity in a complex neural network, including the anterior insula, the anterior and mid-cingulate cortex, and the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here, we were interested in the question how facial emotions influence the activation of the 'pain network'. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal correlates of empathy for pain and its interaction with emotional face recognition in 20 healthy subjects. We identified various brain regions commonly associated with empathy for pain, including the right mid-cingulate cortex, the left anterior insula (AI), and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), with an increased neuronal response in the left dlPFC after the presentation of angry faces. Furthermore, a negative correlation between psychological measures of alexithymia and empathy for pain-related brain activity was observed in the left AI. The dlPFC is an important brain region involved in cognitive reappraisal or in 'top-down' control of the limbic system. Our findings could therefore reflect a regulatory response associated with distancing from negatively valenced stimuli. Moreover, our results underline the involvement of the AI in empathy for pain responses and their relationship to alexithymia.

  5. Double dissociation of configural and featural face processing on P1 and P2 components as a function of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailing; Guo, Shichun; Fu, Shimin

    2016-08-01

    Face recognition relies on both configural and featural processing. Previous research has shown that P1 is sensitive to configural face processing, but it is unclear whether any component is sensitive to featural face processing; moreover, if there is such a component, its temporal sequence relative to P1 is unknown. Thus, to avoid confounding physical stimuli differences between configural and featural face processing on ERP components, a spatial attention paradigm was employed by instructing participants to attend an image stream (faces and houses) or an alphanumeric character stream. The interaction between attention and face processing type on P1 and P2 components indicates different mechanisms of configural and featural face processing as a function of spatial attention. The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) results clearly demonstrated that participants could selectively attend to different streams of information. Importantly, configural face processing elicited a larger posterior P1 (approximately 128 ms) than featural face processing, whereas P2 (approximately 248 ms) was greater for featural than for configural face processing under attended condition. The interaction between attention and face processing type (configural vs. featural) on P1 and P2 components indicates that there are different mechanisms of configural and featural face processing operating as functions of spatial attention. While the P1 result confirms previous findings separating configural and featural face processing, the newly observed P2 finding in the present study extends this separation to a double dissociation. Therefore, configural and featural face processing are modulated differently by spatial attention, and configural face processing precedes featural face processing. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: evidence from event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Monk, Christopher S.; Phan, K. Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7 to 19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from increased efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. PMID:26220144

  7. The role of relational binding in item memory: evidence from face recognition in a case of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Lee, Yunjo; Kube, Jana; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-04-01

    Current theories state that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory representations regarding relations, whereas extrahippocampal cortical regions support representations for single items. However, findings of impaired item memory in hippocampal amnesics suggest a more nuanced role for the hippocampus in item memory. The hippocampus may be necessary when the item elements need to be bound within and across episodes to form a lasting representation that can be used flexibly. The current investigation was designed to test this hypothesis in face recognition. H.C., an individual who developed with a compromised hippocampal system, and control participants incidentally studied individual faces that either varied in presentation viewpoint across study repetitions or remained in a fixed viewpoint across the study repetitions. Eye movements were recorded during encoding and participants then completed a surprise recognition memory test. H.C. demonstrated altered face viewing during encoding. Although the overall number of fixations made by H.C. was not significantly different from that of controls, the distribution of her viewing was primarily directed to the eye region. Critically, H.C. was significantly impaired in her ability to subsequently recognize faces studied from variable viewpoints, but demonstrated spared performance in recognizing faces she encoded from a fixed viewpoint, implicating a relationship between eye movement behavior in the service of a hippocampal binding function. These findings suggest that a compromised hippocampal system disrupts the ability to bind item features within and across study repetitions, ultimately disrupting recognition when it requires access to flexible relational representations.

  8. Memory for faces and voices varies as a function of sex and expressed emotion.

    PubMed

    S Cortes, Diana; Laukka, Petri; Lindahl, Christina; Fischer, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination) varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral). At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms) was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i.e., faces, voices, and face-voice combinations). For the subjective sense of recollection ("remember" hits), neutral items received the highest hit rates only for faces, whereas for voices and face-voice combinations anger and fear expressions instead received the highest recollection rates. We also observed better accuracy for items by female expressers, and own-sex bias where female participants displayed memory advantage for female faces and face-voice combinations. Results further suggest that own-sex bias can be explained by recollection, rather than familiarity, rates. Overall, results show that memory for faces and voices may be influenced by the expressions that they carry, as well as by the sex of both items and participants. Emotion expressions may also enhance the subjective sense of recollection without enhancing memory accuracy.

  9. Anatomical Connections of the Functionally Defined "Face Patches" in the Macaque Monkey.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Tsao, Doris

    2016-06-15

    The neural circuits underlying face recognition provide a model for understanding visual object representation, social cognition, and hierarchical information processing. A fundamental piece of information lacking to date is the detailed anatomical connections of the face patches. Here, we injected retrograde tracers into four different face patches (PL, ML, AL, AM) to characterize their anatomical connectivity. We found that the patches are strongly and specifically connected to each other, and individual patches receive inputs from extrastriate cortex, the medial temporal lobe, and three subcortical structures (the pulvinar, claustrum, and amygdala). Inputs from prefrontal cortex were surprisingly weak. Patches were densely interconnected to one another in both feedforward and feedback directions, inconsistent with a serial hierarchy. These results provide the first direct anatomical evidence that the face patches constitute a highly specialized system and suggest that subcortical regions may play a vital role in routing face-related information to subsequent processing stages.

  10. Anatomical connections of the functionally-defined “face patches” in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Kadharbatcha S.

    2017-01-01

    The neural circuits underlying face recognition provide a model for understanding visual object representation, social cognition, and hierarchical information processing. A fundamental piece of information lacking to date is the detailed anatomical connections of the face patches. Here, we injected retrograde tracers into four different face patches (PL, ML, AL, AM) to characterize their anatomical connectivity. We found that the patches are strongly and specifically connected to each other, and individual patches receive inputs from extrastriate cortex, the medial temporal lobe, and three subcortical structures (the pulvinar, claustrum, and amygdala). Inputs from prefrontal cortex were surprisingly weak. Patches were densely interconnected to one another in both feedforward and feedback directions, inconsistent with a serial hierarchy. These results provide the first direct anatomical evidence that the face patches constitute a highly specialized system, and suggest that subcortical regions may play a vital role in routing face-related information to subsequent processing stages. PMID:27263973

  11. Gaze Direction Modulates the Relation between Neural Responses to Faces and Visual Awareness.

    PubMed

    Madipakkam, Apoorva Rajiv; Rothkirch, Marcus; Guggenmos, Matthias; Heinz, Andreas; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-09-30

    Gaze direction and especially direct gaze is a powerful nonverbal cue that plays an important role in social interactions. Here we studied the neural mechanisms underlying the privileged access of direct gaze to visual awareness. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy human volunteers who were exposed to faces with direct or averted gaze under continuous flash suppression, thereby manipulating their awareness of the faces. A gaze processing network comprising fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and intraparietal sulcus showed overall reduced neural responses when participants reported to be unaware of the faces. Interestingly, direct gaze elicited greater responses than averted gaze when participants were aware of the faces, but smaller responses when they were unaware. Additional between-subject correlation and single-trial analyses indicated that this pattern of results was due to a modulation of the relationship between neural responses and awareness by gaze direction: with increasing neural activation in the FFA, direct-gaze faces entered awareness more readily than averted-gaze faces. These findings suggest that for direct gaze, lower levels of neural activity are sufficient to give rise to awareness than for averted gaze, thus providing a neural basis for privileged access of direct gaze to awareness. Significance statement: Another person's eye gaze directed at oneself is a powerful social signal acting as a catalyst for further communication. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms underlying the prioritized access of direct gaze to visual awareness in healthy human volunteers and show that with increasing neural activation, direct-gaze faces enter awareness more readily than averted-gaze faces. This suggests that for a socially highly relevant cue like direct gaze, lower levels of neural activity are sufficient to give rise to awareness compared with averted gaze, possibly because the human brain is attuned

  12. The Motivational Salience of Faces Is Related to Both Their Valence and Dominance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-01-01

    Both behavioral and neural measures of the motivational salience of faces are positively correlated with their physical attractiveness. Whether physical characteristics other than attractiveness contribute to the motivational salience of faces is not known, however. Research with male macaques recently showed that more dominant macaques' faces hold greater motivational salience. Here we investigated whether dominance also contributes to the motivational salience of faces in human participants. Principal component analysis of third-party ratings of faces for multiple traits revealed two orthogonal components. The first component ("valence") was highly correlated with rated trustworthiness and attractiveness. The second component ("dominance") was highly correlated with rated dominance and aggressiveness. Importantly, both components were positively and independently related to the motivational salience of faces, as assessed from responses on a standard key-press task. These results show that at least two dissociable components underpin the motivational salience of faces in humans and present new evidence for similarities in how humans and non-human primates respond to facial cues of dominance.

  13. Attachment Avoidance Is Significantly Related to Attentional Preference for Infant Faces: Evidence from Eye Movement Data

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women’s eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants (N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18–29 years (M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment. PMID:28184210

  14. The Motivational Salience of Faces Is Related to Both Their Valence and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.

    2016-01-01

    Both behavioral and neural measures of the motivational salience of faces are positively correlated with their physical attractiveness. Whether physical characteristics other than attractiveness contribute to the motivational salience of faces is not known, however. Research with male macaques recently showed that more dominant macaques’ faces hold greater motivational salience. Here we investigated whether dominance also contributes to the motivational salience of faces in human participants. Principal component analysis of third-party ratings of faces for multiple traits revealed two orthogonal components. The first component (“valence”) was highly correlated with rated trustworthiness and attractiveness. The second component (“dominance”) was highly correlated with rated dominance and aggressiveness. Importantly, both components were positively and independently related to the motivational salience of faces, as assessed from responses on a standard key-press task. These results show that at least two dissociable components underpin the motivational salience of faces in humans and present new evidence for similarities in how humans and non-human primates respond to facial cues of dominance. PMID:27513859

  15. Test-retest reliability of infant event related potentials evoked by faces.

    PubMed

    Munsters, N M; van Ravenswaaij, H; van den Boomen, C; Kemner, C

    2017-04-05

    Reliable measures are required to draw meaningful conclusions regarding developmental changes in longitudinal studies. Little is known, however, about the test-retest reliability of face-sensitive event related potentials (ERPs), a frequently used neural measure in infants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of ERPs typically evoked by faces in 9-10 month-old infants. The infants (N=31) were presented with neutral, fearful and happy faces that contained only the lower or higher spatial frequency information. They were tested twice within two weeks. The present results show that the test-retest reliability of the face-sensitive ERP components is moderate (P400 and Nc) to substantial (N290). However, there is low test-retest reliability for the effects of the specific experimental manipulations (i.e. emotion and spatial frequency) on the face-sensitive ERPs. To conclude, in infants the face-sensitive ERP components (i.e. N290, P400 and Nc) show adequate test-retest reliability, but not the effects of emotion and spatial frequency on these ERP components. We propose that further research focuses on investigating elements that might increase the test-retest reliability, as adequate test-retest reliability is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions on individual developmental trajectories of the face-sensitive ERPs in infants.

  16. Delayed attentional disengagement from sad face: a study of alpha rhythm by event-related desynchronization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan; Sun, Junfeng; Tong, Shanbao

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of different emotional facial cues on the detection of subsequent visual digit targets presented after various cue-target intervals (CTIs). Behavioral results indicated that, compared to neutral faces, happy faces facilitated the response to subsequent tasks only after a short CTI (17 ms), while sad faces would slow or inhibit the processing of following tasks after different CTIs (17, 350, 1000, and 1500 ms). Event-related desynchronization of alpha rhythm (α-ERD) showed that the left frontal and parietal cortical areas were more prominently activated by emotional faces than by neutral ones. In particular, happy faces induced more activity in left frontal lobes, starting from the beginning of CTI (post-cue 0~400 ms), while sad faces induced stronger and longer activation during the middle of CTI (post-cue 400~800 ms). Such a later a-ERD in left frontal area suggested that the attentional disengagement was slowed by sad faces.

  17. The stigma of burns Perceptions of burned patients' relatives when facing discharge from hospital.

    PubMed

    Rossi, L A; Vila, V da S C; Zago, M M F; Ferreira, E

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this ethnographic study was to investigate the cultural meanings reported by 25 relatives of burned patients about their loved one's impending hospital discharge. Data were collected by means of participant observation and semi-structured interviews conducted during hospital visiting hours, and support group meetings with relatives. The following inter-related phases were considered in the analysis process: reading of the material and data reduction (selection of data using the objective of the study as a guide), data display, conclusion outlining, and verification. Following this process, the data were coded and similar codes were grouped into categories. It was found that the relatives of burned patients felt afraid when faced with the prospect of hospital discharge. Their descriptions reveal the family's feelings and attitudes in face of other people's reactions, and in face of the patient's own reactions in the context of possible changes in their social roles.

  18. An Exploration of the Characteristics of Public Relations in Regards to Face-to-Face versus Distance Learning in Two Private Liberal Arts Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Cessna Catherine Smith

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of Public Relations (PR) among graduate higher education publics regarding distance learning as contrasted with face-to-face learning contexts. The research questions assessed student, faculty and administrator perceptions of characteristics of PR: trust, communication, quality, respect and rigor. Participants…

  19. An Exploration of the Characteristics of Public Relations in Regards to Face-to-Face versus Distance Learning in Two Private Liberal Arts Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Cessna Catherine Smith

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of Public Relations (PR) among graduate higher education publics regarding distance learning as contrasted with face-to-face learning contexts. The research questions assessed student, faculty and administrator perceptions of characteristics of PR: trust, communication, quality, respect and rigor. Participants…

  20. The neural correlates of the face attractiveness aftereffect: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Genyue; Mondloch, Catherine J; Ding, Xiao Pan; A Short, Lindsey; Sun, Liping; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-15

    Extensive behavioral evidence shows that our internal representation of faces, or face prototype, can be dynamically updated by immediate experience. This is illustrated by the robust attractiveness aftereffect phenomenon whereby originally unattractive faces become attractive after we are exposed to a set of unattractive faces. Although behavioral evidence suggests this effect to have a strong neural basis, limited neuroimaging evidence exists. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy methodology (fNIRS) to bridge this gap. During the pre-adaptation trials, participants judged the attractiveness of three sets of faces: normal/undistorted faces, compressed faces (the internal features and distances between them were compressed), and expanded faces (the internal features and distances between them were stretched). Then, participants were shown extremely compressed faces for 5 min as adaptation stimuli, after which participants judged the same three sets of faces in post-adaptation trials. Behaviorally, after the adaptation trials, participants rated the compressed faces more attractive whereas they judged the other two sets of faces as less attractive, replicating the robust adaptation effect. fNIRS results showed that short-term exposure to compressed faces led to significant decreases in neural activity to all face types, but in a more extended network of cortical regions in the frontal and occipital cortexes for undistorted faces. Taken together, these findings suggest that the face attractiveness aftereffect mainly reflects changes in the neural representation of the face prototype in response to recent exposures to new face exemplars.

  1. Symmetry Is Related to Sexual Dimorphism in Faces: Data Across Culture and Species

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; Waitt, Corri; Tiddeman, Bernard P.; Feinberg, David R.; Perrett, David I.; Apicella, Coren L.; Marlowe, Frank W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many animals both display and assess multiple signals. Two prominently studied traits are symmetry and sexual dimorphism, which, for many animals, are proposed cues to heritable fitness benefits. These traits are associated with other potential benefits, such as fertility. In humans, the face has been extensively studied in terms of attractiveness. Faces have the potential to be advertisements of mate quality and both symmetry and sexual dimorphism have been linked to the attractiveness of human face shape. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that measurements of symmetry and sexual dimorphism from faces are related in humans, both in Europeans and African hunter-gatherers, and in a non-human primate. Using human judges, symmetry measurements were also related to perceived sexual dimorphism. In all samples, symmetric males had more masculine facial proportions and symmetric females had more feminine facial proportions. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the claim that sexual dimorphism and symmetry in faces are signals advertising quality by providing evidence that there must be a biological mechanism linking the two traits during development. Such data also suggests that the signalling properties of faces are universal across human populations and are potentially phylogenetically old in primates. PMID:18461131

  2. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  3. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  4. Towards a functional neuroanatomy of self processing: effects of faces and words.

    PubMed

    Kircher, T T; Senior, C; Phillips, M L; Benson, P J; Bullmore, E T; Brammer, M; Simmons, A; Williams, S C; Bartels, M; David, A S

    2000-09-01

    We studied the neural correlates of self vs. non-self judgements using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Individually tailored faces and personality trait words were used as stimuli in three experiments (exp.). In the first two experiments, brain activation was measured while subjects viewed morphed versions of either their own (self face exp.) or their partner's face (partner's face exp.), alternating in blocks with presentation of an unknown face. In the self face exp. right limbic areas (hippocampal formation, insula, anterior cingulate), the right middle temporal lobe, left inferior parietal and left prefrontal regions showed signal changes. In the partner's face exp., only the right insula was activated. In the third exp., subjects made decisions about psychological trait adjectives previously categorized as describing their own attributes. Activation was present in the precuneus, the left parietal lobe, left insula/inferior frontal gyrus and the left anterior cingulate. A reaction time advantage was present when subjects responded to self-relevant words. The main area with signal changes during self-reference processing, regardless of the type of stimulus, was the left fusiform gyrus. The self-relevant stimuli engaged to a differential extent long term and working memory, semantic and emotional processes. We suggest that regions activated by these stimuli are engaged in self-processing.

  5. Functional MRI reveals compromised neural integrity of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2009-07-14

    The summed activity of multiple nodes of a distributed cortical network supports face recognition in humans, including "core" ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) regions, and "extended" regions outside VOTC. Many individuals with congenital prosopagnosia-an impairment in face processing-exhibit normal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation in the core VOTC regions. These individuals evince a reduction in the structural integrity of the white matter tracts connecting VOTC to anterior temporal and frontal cortices, part of the "extended" face network. The impairment in congenital prosopagnosia may arise, therefore, not from a dysfunction of the core VOTC areas but from a failure to propagate signals between the intact VOTC and the extended nodes of the network. Using the fMR adaptation paradigm with famous and unknown faces, we show that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia evince normal adaptation effects in VOTC, indicating sensitivity to facial identity, but show no differential activation for familiar versus unknown faces outside VOTC, particularly in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior paracingulate cortex. Normal BOLD activation in VOTC is thus insufficient to subserve intact face recognition, and disrupted information propagation between VOTC and the extended face processing network may explain the functional impairment in congenital prosopagnosia.

  6. Do neural correlates of face expertise vary with task demands? Event-related potential correlates of own- and other-race face inversion

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Holger

    2013-01-01

    We are typically more accurate at remembering own- than other-race faces. This “own-race bias” has been suggested to result from enhanced expertise with and more efficient perceptual processing of own-race than other-race faces. In line with this idea, the N170, an event-related potential correlate of face perception, has been repeatedly found to be larger for other-race faces. Other studies, however, found no difference in N170 amplitude for faces from diverse ethnic groups. The present study tested whether these seemingly incongruent findings can be explained by varying task demands. European participants were presented with upright and inverted European and Asian faces (as well as European and Asian houses), and asked to either indicate the ethnicity or the orientation of the stimuli. Larger N170s for other-race faces were observed in the ethnicity but not in the orientation task, suggesting that the necessity to process facial category information is a minimum prerequisite for the occurrence of the effect. In addition, N170 inversion effects, with larger amplitudes for inverted relative to upright stimuli, were more pronounced for own- relative to other-race faces in both tasks. Overall, the present findings suggest that the occurrence of ethnicity effects in N170 for upright faces depends on the amount of facial detail required for the task at hand. At the same time, the larger inversion effects for own- than other-race faces occur independent of task and may reflect the fine-tuning of perceptual processing to faces of maximum expertise. PMID:24399955

  7. Do neural correlates of face expertise vary with task demands? Event-related potential correlates of own- and other-race face inversion.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger

    2013-01-01

    We are typically more accurate at remembering own- than other-race faces. This "own-race bias" has been suggested to result from enhanced expertise with and more efficient perceptual processing of own-race than other-race faces. In line with this idea, the N170, an event-related potential correlate of face perception, has been repeatedly found to be larger for other-race faces. Other studies, however, found no difference in N170 amplitude for faces from diverse ethnic groups. The present study tested whether these seemingly incongruent findings can be explained by varying task demands. European participants were presented with upright and inverted European and Asian faces (as well as European and Asian houses), and asked to either indicate the ethnicity or the orientation of the stimuli. Larger N170s for other-race faces were observed in the ethnicity but not in the orientation task, suggesting that the necessity to process facial category information is a minimum prerequisite for the occurrence of the effect. In addition, N170 inversion effects, with larger amplitudes for inverted relative to upright stimuli, were more pronounced for own- relative to other-race faces in both tasks. Overall, the present findings suggest that the occurrence of ethnicity effects in N170 for upright faces depends on the amount of facial detail required for the task at hand. At the same time, the larger inversion effects for own- than other-race faces occur independent of task and may reflect the fine-tuning of perceptual processing to faces of maximum expertise.

  8. Love withdrawal is related to heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and incongruent emotional feedback: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-03-01

    Parental use of love withdrawal is thought to affect children's later psychological functioning because it creates a link between children's performance and relational consequences. To investigate whether love withdrawal is also associated with the underlying level of basic information processing in the brain, we studied event-related potentials to feedback stimuli that combined performance feedback with emotional facial expressions. We focused on the VPP (face processing) and N400 (incongruence processing). More maternal use of love withdrawal was related to more positive VPP amplitudes, larger effects of the emotional facial expression on VPP amplitude, and more negative N400 responses to incongruent combinations of feedback and facial expressions. Our findings suggest a heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and greater sensitivity to incongruence between feedback and facial expression in individuals who experienced more love withdrawal.

  9. Exploring consciousness in emotional face decoding: an event-related potential analysis.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela

    2006-05-01

    The author analyzed the role of consciousness in emotional face comprehension. The author recorded psychophysiological measures of event-related potentials (ERPs), elicited by supraliminal and subliminal stimuli when participants viewed emotional facial expressions of 4 emotions or neutral stimuli. The author analyzed an ERP emotion-specific effect (N200 peak variation; temporal interval was 180-300 ms poststimulus) in terms of peak amplitude and latency variables. The results indicated 4 important findings. First, there was an emotional-specific ERP deflection only for emotional stimuli, not for neutral stimuli. Second, the unaware information processing was quite similar to that of aware in terms of peak morphology, but not in terms of latency. In fact, unconscious stimulation produced a more delayed peak variation than did conscious stimulation. Third, valence of facial stimulus (positive or negative) was supraliminally and subliminally decoded because it was showed by differences of peak deflection between negative high arousing (fear and anger) and low arousing (happiness, sadness, and neutral) stimuli. Finally, the author found a more posterior distribution of ERP as a function of emotional content of the stimulus. Cortical lateralization (right or left) was not correlated to conscious or unconscious stimulation. The author discussed the functional significance of her results in terms of supraliminal and subliminal conditions.

  10. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies published before October 2010. Fifty studies were included and assessed on methodological quality. Twenty-eight studies reported significantly favorable health outcomes following communication-related BCTs. In these studies, 'behavioral counseling' was most frequently used (15 times), followed by motivational interviewing (eight times), education and advice (both seven times). Physicians and nurses seem equally capable of providing face-to-face communication-related BCTs in primary care. Behavioral counseling, motivational interviewing, education and advice all seem effective communication-related BCTs. However, BCTs were also found in less successful studies. Furthermore, based on existing literature, one primary care profession does not seem better equipped than the other to provide face-to-face communication-related BCTs. There is evidence that behavioral counseling, motivational interviewing, education and advice can be used as effective communication-related BCTs by physicians and nurses. However, further research is needed to examine the underlying working mechanisms of communication-related BCTs, and whether they meet the requirements of patients and primary care providers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual versus face-to-face clinical simulation in relation to student knowledge, anxiety, and self-confidence in maternal-newborn nursing: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cobbett, Shelley; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna

    2016-10-01

    Clinical simulations can provide students with realistic clinical learning environments to increase their knowledge, self-confidence, and decrease their anxiety prior to entering clinical practice settings. To compare the effectiveness of two maternal newborn clinical simulation scenarios; virtual clinical simulation and face-to-face high fidelity manikin simulation. Randomized pretest-posttest design. A public research university in Canada. Fifty-six third year Bachelor of Science in Nursing students. Participants were randomized to either face-to-face or virtual clinical simulation and then to dyads for completion of two clinical simulations. Measures included: (1) Nursing Anxiety and Self-Confidence with Clinical Decision Making Scale (NASC-CDM) (White, 2011), (2) knowledge pretest and post-test related to preeclampsia and group B strep, and (3) Simulation Completion Questionnaire. Before and after each simulation students completed a knowledge test and the NASC-CDM and the Simulation Completion Questionnaire at study completion. There were no statistically significant differences in student knowledge and self-confidence between face-to-face and virtual clinical simulations. Anxiety scores were higher for students in the virtual clinical simulation than for those in the face-to-face simulation. Students' self-reported preference was face-to-face citing the similarities to practicing in a 'real' situation and the immediate debrief. Students not liking the virtual clinical simulation most often cited technological issues as their rationale. Given the equivalency of knowledge and self-confidence when undergraduate nursing students participate in either maternal newborn clinical scenarios of face-to-face or virtual clinical simulation identified in this trial, it is important to take into the consideration costs and benefits/risks of simulation implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Are the Functions of Teachers in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Learning Environments Really Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso Diaz, Laura; Blazquez Entonado, Florentino

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is not to compare online and traditional face-to-face instruction merely to prove which one is better, but rather it aims to highlight some of the possible risks and strengths which may help to improve the role of teachers in both methods. The scene consisted of various thematic blocks from a training programme, with…

  13. Familiar smiling faces in Alzheimer’s disease: Understanding the positivity-related recognition bias

    PubMed Central

    Werheid, Katja; McDonald, Rebecca S.; Simmons-Stern, Nicholas; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has revealed a recognition bias favoring positive faces and other stimuli in older compared to younger adults. However, it is yet unclear whether this bias reflects an age-related preference for positive emotional stimuli, or an affirmatory bias used to compensate for episodic memory deficits. To follow up this point, the present study examined recognition of emotional faces and current mood state in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy controls. Expecting lower overall memory performance, more negative and less positive mood in AD patients, the critical question was whether the positivity-related recognition bias would be increased compared to cognitively unimpaired controls. Eighteen AD patients and 18 healthy controls studied happy, neutral, and angry faces, which in a subsequent recognition task were intermixed with 50% distracter faces. As expected, the patient group showed reduced memory performance, along with a less positive and more negative mood. The recognition bias for positive faces persisted. This pattern supports the view that the positivity-induced recognition bias represents a compensatory, gist-based memory process that is applied when item-based recognition fails. PMID:21736891

  14. Hard to “tune in”: neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N.; Koike, Takahiko; Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Izuma, Keise; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Ishitobi, Makoto; Omori, Masao; Munesue, Toshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty in eye contact (EC). This may make it difficult for their partners during face to face communication with them. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interaction of ASD patients and normal subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with typically-developed (normal) subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline EC was maintained while subjects performed real-time joint-attention task. The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD–Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal–Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole (OP) activation by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. On the other hand, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG that was observed in the Normal-Normal pairs (Saito et al., 2010) during EC diminished in ASD–Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal–Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of the normal partners on the eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during EC may be a prerequisite for eye cue detection by the normal partner. PMID:23060772

  15. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the flashed face distortion effect.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tanya; Kung, Chun-Chia

    2014-10-27

    The flashed face distortion (FFD) effect was coined by Tangen, Murphy, and Thompson (2011) in their second-place winner of the 2012 Best Illusion of the Year Contest. The FFD arises when people view various eye-aligned faces that are sequentially flashed in the visual periphery, and gradually the faces appear to be deformed and grotesque. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants were presented with four conditions: (a) one face pair changing only its illumination; (b) two and (c) three alternating face pairs; and (d) nonrepeated face pairs. Participants rated the magnitude of each illusion immediately after each block. Results showed that the receptive region of the early visual cortex (V1-V4), and category-selective areas such as the fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA), responded proportionally to the participants' rated FFD strength. A random-effects voxelwise analysis further revealed positively correlated areas (including the medial and superolateral frontal areas) and negatively correlated areas (including the precuneus, postcentral gyrus, right insula, and bilateral middle frontal gyri) with respect to participants' ratings. Time series correlations among these nine ROIs (four positive and five negative) indicated that most participants showed a clustering of the two separate ROI types. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) also demonstrated the segregation of the positive and negative ROIs; additionally, two subsystems were identified within the negative ROIs. These results suggest that the FFD is mediated by at least two networks: one that is likely responsible for perception and another that is likely responsible for subjective feelings and engagement.

  16. Callous-Unemotional Traits Are Related to Combined Deficits in Recognizing Afraid Faces and Body Poses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Luna C.

    2009-01-01

    Results from a study that involves letting boys aged 8-16 years label emotional faces and static body poses show that callous-unemotional traits are related to poor accuracy in the tests. The results imply that a general "fear-blindness" is associated to a lack of empathy and to violence and antisocial behavior.

  17. Early Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.

    2011-01-01

    Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…

  18. Callous-Unemotional Traits Are Related to Combined Deficits in Recognizing Afraid Faces and Body Poses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Luna C.

    2009-01-01

    Results from a study that involves letting boys aged 8-16 years label emotional faces and static body poses show that callous-unemotional traits are related to poor accuracy in the tests. The results imply that a general "fear-blindness" is associated to a lack of empathy and to violence and antisocial behavior.

  19. Early Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.

    2011-01-01

    Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…

  20. Two critical and functionally distinct stages of face and body perception.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, David; Goldhaber, Tanya; Duchaine, Bradley; Walsh, Vincent; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-11-07

    Cortical regions that respond preferentially to particular object categories, such as faces and bodies, are essential for visual perception of these object categories. However, precisely when these regions play a causal role in recognition of their preferred categories is unclear. Here we addressed this question using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Across a series of experiments, TMS was delivered over the functionally localized right occipital face area (rOFA) or right extrastriate body area (rEBA) at different latencies, up to 150 ms, after stimulus onset while adult human participants performed delayed match-to-sample tasks on face and body stimuli. Results showed that TMS disrupted task performance during two temporally distinct time periods after stimulus onset, the first at 40/50 ms and the second at 100/110 ms. These two time periods exhibited functionally distinct patterns of impairment: TMS delivered during the early time period (at 40/50 ms) disrupted task performance for both preferred (faces at rOFA and bodies at rEBA) and nonpreferred (bodies at rOFA and faces at rEBA) categories. In contrast, TMS delivered during the later time period (at 100/110 ms) disrupted task performance for the preferred category only of each area (faces at rOFA and bodies at rEBA). These results indicate that category-selective cortical regions are critical for two functionally distinct stages of visual object recognition: an early, presumably preparatory stage that is not category selective occurring almost immediately after stimulus onset, followed by a later stage of category-specific perceptual processing.

  1. Two Critical and Functionally Distinct Stages of Face and Body Perception

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, Tanya; Duchaine, Bradley; Walsh, Vincent; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Cortical regions that respond preferentially to particular object categories, such as faces and bodies, are essential for visual perception of these object categories. However, precisely when these regions play a causal role in recognition of their preferred categories is unclear. Here we addressed this question using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Across a series of experiments, TMS was delivered over the functionally localized right occipital face area (rOFA) or right extrastriate body area (rEBA) at different latencies, up to 150 ms, after stimulus onset while adult human participants performed delayed match-to-sample tasks on face and body stimuli. Results showed that TMS disrupted task performance during two temporally distinct time periods after stimulus onset, the first at 40/50 ms and the second at 100/110 ms. These two time periods exhibited functionally distinct patterns of impairment: TMS delivered during the early time period (at 40/50 ms) disrupted task performance for both preferred (faces at rOFA and bodies at rEBA) and nonpreferred (bodies at rOFA and faces at rEBA) categories. In contrast, TMS delivered during the later time period (at 100/110 ms) disrupted task performance for the preferred category only of each area (faces at rOFA and bodies at rEBA). These results indicate that category-selective cortical regions are critical for two functionally distinct stages of visual object recognition: an early, presumably preparatory stage that is not category selective occurring almost immediately after stimulus onset, followed by a later stage of category-specific perceptual processing. PMID:23136426

  2. Face-related visual search deficits in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    She, Shenglin; Zhang, Bei; Li, Xuanzi; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Ruikeng; Li, Juanhua; Bi, Taiyong; Zheng, Yingjun

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a complex illness with multiple cognitive dysfunctions, including a deficit in visual processing. However, whether the deficiency of visual processing in schizophrenia is general across stimuli or stimulus-specific remains the subject of debate. In the current study, eighteen first-episode schizophrenic patients and eighteen healthy controls participated in three visual search tasks in which they were asked to search a specific target of a triangle, face identity or facial affect. The results showed that, compared to healthy controls, the accuracies for face identity and facial affect searches were significantly lower in schizophrenic patients, while the performance of the triangle search was the same. Furthermore, the accuracy of the facial affect search was negatively correlated to negative symptoms in schizophrenia. These results revealed a face-related deficit in schizophrenia and suggest that visual processing deficits in schizophrenia were stimuli-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Event-related repetitive TMS reveals distinct, critical roles for right OFA and bilateral posterior STS in judging the sex and trustworthiness of faces.

    PubMed

    Dzhelyova, Milena P; Ellison, Amanda; Atkinson, Anthony P

    2011-10-01

    Judging the sex of faces relies on cues related to facial morphology and spatial relations between features, whereas judging the trustworthiness of faces relies on both structural and expressive cues that signal affective valence. The right occipital face area (OFA) processes structural cues and has been associated with sex judgments, whereas the posterior STS processes changeable facial cues related to muscle movements and is activated when observers judge trustworthiness. It is commonly supposed that the STS receives inputs from the OFA, yet it is unknown whether these regions have functionally dissociable, critical roles in sex and trustworthiness judgments. We addressed this issue using event-related, fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve healthy volunteers judged the sex of individually presented faces and, in a separate session, whether those same faces were trustworthy or not. Relative to sham stimulation, RTs were significantly longer for sex judgments when rTMS was delivered over the right OFA but not the right or left STS, and for trustworthiness judgments on male but not female faces when rTMS was delivered over the right STS or left STS but not the right OFA. Nonetheless, an analysis of the RT distributions revealed a possible critical role also for the right OFA in trustworthiness judgments, limited to faces with longer RTs, perhaps reflecting the later, ancillary use of structural cues related to the sex of the face. On the whole, our findings provide evidence that evaluations of the trustworthiness and sex of faces rely on functionally dissociable cortical regions.

  4. Common neural systems associated with the recognition of famous faces and names: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M

    2010-04-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related functional-MRI in 17 healthy participants to directly compare activation in response to randomly presented famous and non-famous names and faces (25 stimuli in each of the four categories). Findings indicated distinct areas of activation that differed for faces and names in regions typically associated with pre-semantic perceptual processes. In contrast, overlapping brain regions were activated in areas associated with the retrieval of biographical knowledge and associated social affective features. Specifically, activation for famous faces was primarily right lateralized and famous names were left-lateralized. However, for both stimuli, similar areas of bilateral activity were observed in the early phases of perceptual processing. Activation for fame, irrespective of stimulus modality, activated an extensive left hemisphere network, with bilateral activity observed in the hippocampi, posterior cingulate, and middle temporal gyri. Findings are discussed within the framework of recent proposals concerning the neural network of person identification.

  5. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7-19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from greater efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Functional Architecture for Face-processing Expertise: FMRI Evidence of the Developmental Trajectory of the Core and the Extended Face Systems

    PubMed Central

    Haist, Frank; Adamo, Maha; Han, Jarnet; Lee, Kang; Stiles, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Expertise in processing faces is a cornerstone of human social interaction. However, the developmental course of many key brain regions supporting face preferential processing in the human brain remains undefined. Here, we present findings from an FMRI study using a simple viewing paradigm of faces and objects in a continuous age sample covering the age range from 6 years through adulthood. These findings are the first to use such a sample paired with whole-brain FMRI analyses to investigate development within the core and extended face networks across the developmental spectrum from middle childhood to adulthood. We found evidence, albeit modest, for a developmental trend in the volume of the right fusiform face area (rFFA) but no developmental change in the intensity of activation. From a spatial perspective, the middle portion of the right fusiform gyrus most commonly found in adult studies of face processing was increasingly likely to be included in the FFA as age increased to adulthood. Outside of the FFA, the most striking finding was that children hyperactivated nearly every aspect of the extended face system relative to adults, including the amygdala, anterior temporal pole, insula, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and parietal cortex. Overall, the findings suggest that development is best characterized by increasing modulation of face-sensitive regions throughout the brain to engage only those systems necessary for task requirements. PMID:23948645

  7. Field Measurement of Head Related Transfer Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    HEAD RELATED TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FREDERIC WIGHTMAN, Ph.D. DORIS J. KISTLER, Ph.D. HEARING DEVELOPMENT... function , F the free-field to eardrum transfer function (sometimes called the head - related transfer function , or HRTF), and M the microphone transfer ...into three areas: 1) acoustical measurements of free-field-to-eardrum transfer functions (also called head -relaLed transfer functions , or

  8. Sleep spindle-related reactivation of category-specific cortical regions after learning face-scene associations.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Til O; Mölle, Matthias; Diedrichs, Jens; Born, Jan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2012-02-01

    Newly acquired declarative memory traces are believed to be reactivated during NonREM sleep to promote their hippocampo-neocortical transfer for long-term storage. Yet it remains a major challenge to unravel the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in humans, we show that sleep spindles play a key role in the reactivation of memory-related neocortical representations. On separate days, participants either learned face-scene associations or performed a visuomotor control task. Spindle-coupled reactivation of brain regions representing the specific task stimuli was traced during subsequent NonREM sleep with EEG-informed fMRI. Relative to the control task, learning face-scene associations triggered a stronger combined activation of neocortical and hippocampal regions during subsequent sleep. Notably, reactivation did not only occur in temporal synchrony with spindle events but was tuned by ongoing variations in spindle amplitude. These learning-related increases in spindle-coupled neocortical activity were topographically specific because reactivation was restricted to the face- and scene-selective visual cortical areas previously activated during pre-sleep learning. Spindle-coupled hippocampal activation was stronger the better the participant had performed at prior learning. These results are in agreement with the notion that sleep spindles orchestrate the reactivation of new hippocampal-neocortical memories during sleep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compositional and functional stability of arthropod communities in the face of ant invasions.

    PubMed

    Krushelnycky, Paul D; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2008-09-01

    There is a general consensus that the diversity of a biotic community can have an influence on its stability, but the strength, ubiquity, and relative importance of this effect is less clear. In the context of biological invasions, diversity has usually been studied in terms of its effect on a community's invasibility, but diversity may also influence stability by affecting the magnitude of compositional or functional changes experienced by a community upon invasion. We examined the impacts of invasive ants on arthropod communities at five natural area sites in the Hawaiian Islands, and assessed whether differences among sites in community diversity and density variables were related to measures of stability. Ant invasion was usually associated with significant changes in overall community composition, as measured by Bray-Curtis distances, particularly among endemic subsets of the communities. Changes in mean species richness were also strong at three of the five sites. Among sites, diversity was negatively related to stability as measured by resistance to overall compositional change, but this effect could not be separated from the strong negative effect of invasive ant density on compositional stability. When compositional stability was measured as proportional change in richness, the best predictor of stability among endemic community subsets was endemic richness, with richer communities losing proportionately more species than species-poor communities. This effect was highly significant even after controlling for differences in invasive ant density and suggested that communities that had already lost many endemic species were resistant to further species loss upon ant invasion, while more intact communities remained vulnerable to species loss. Communities underwent strong but idiosyncratic functional shifts in association with ant invasion, both in terms of trophic structure and total arthropod biomass. There were no apparent relationships, however, between

  10. Oxytocin modulation of amygdala functional connectivity to fearful faces in generalized social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Labuschagne, Izelle; Hosanagar, Avinash; Wood, Amanda G; Nathan, Pradeep J; Phan, K Luan

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is thought to attenuate anxiety by dampening amygdala reactivity to threat in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). Because the brain is organized into networks of interconnected areas, it is likely that OXT impacts functional coupling between the amygdala and other socio-emotional areas of the brain. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of OXT on amygdala functional connectivity during the processing of fearful faces in GSAD subjects and healthy controls (HCs). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled, within-subjects design, 18 HCs and 17 GSAD subjects performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task designed to probe amygdala response to fearful faces following acute intranasal administration of PBO or OXT. Functional connectivity between the amygdala and the rest of the brain was compared between OXT and PBO sessions using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Results indicated that within individuals with GSAD, but not HCs, OXT enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the bilateral insula and middle cingulate/dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus during the processing of fearful faces. These findings suggest that OXT may have broad pro-social implications such as enhancing the integration and modulation of social responses.

  11. Are observed allocation responses in a grassland FACE experiment consistent with functional balance theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, B. D.; Scheider, M.; Lüscher, A.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycles are tightly coupled by plant tissue stoichiometry and plant controls on ecosystem N retention and fixation. Their co-evolution under rising CO2 and global environmental change is one of the key uncertainties in future Earth system projections. Free Air CO2 Enrichment experiments provide crucial insights into ecosystem responses to elevated CO2, but due to the paucity of such experiments, upscaling and generalisations are often difficult to make. Here, we investigate observed responses in the SwissFACE experiment using a new ecosystem model for the coupled C and N cycles that embodies functional balance theory. In the model, above versus belowground allocation is balanced under daily light conditions and N availability to achieve C and N acquisition in a ratio corresponding to its requirement for new growth. A model setup with plant control on N fixation, based on the relative efficiencies of mineral N uptake versus symbiotic fixation, is compared with a no-fixation setup, reflecting the SwissFACE field experiment conducted separately with N-fixing and non-fixing monocultures. Model predictions based on functional balance theory are generally consistent with observed responses. The strong observed aboveground growth enhancement in non-fixing grass monocultures under high mineral N addition is caused by the relief of N limitation and reduced requirement for fine roots. Under elevated CO2 and low N fertilisation, resource limitation shifts belowground and therefore leads to smaller leaf growth enhancements but enhanced fine root production. On time scales beyond the experiment, this limitation is predicted to be relieved by re-balancing of net N mineralisation and enhanced N retention. These dynamics are different in N-fixing plant communities where temporally increased N limitation after the CO2 step increase is relieved by higher rates of N fixation. Such a model-data analysis supports the interpretation of empirical results

  12. How experience shapes memory for faces: an event-related potential study on the own-age bias.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Wolff, Nicole; Steffens, Melanie C; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-10-01

    Young adults more accurately remember own-age than older faces. We tested whether this own-age bias (OAB) is reduced by increased experience. Young experts (geriatric nurses) and controls performed a recognition experiment with young and old faces. Critically, while control participants demonstrated better memory for young faces, no OAB was observed in the experts. Event-related potentials revealed larger N170 and P2 amplitudes for young than old faces in both groups, suggesting no group differences during early perceptual processing. At test, N250 repetition effects were more anteriorily distributed for own- than other-age faces in control participants, whereas experts showed no corresponding effects. A larger late positive component (LPC) for old than young faces was observed in controls, but not in experts. Larger LPCs may reflect prolonged stimulus processing compromising memory retrieval. In sum, experience with other-age faces does not affect early perceptual processing, but modulates later stages related to memory retrieval.

  13. Automatic attention towards face or body as a function of mating motivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2012-03-22

    Because women's faces and bodies carry different cues of reproductive value, men may attend to different perceptual cues as functions of their long-term versus short-term mating motivations. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments on 135 male and 132 female participants. When influenced by short-term rather than long-term mating motivations, men's attention was captured by (Study 1), was shifted to (Study 2), and was distracted by (Study 3) the waist/hip area rather than the face on photographs of attractive women. Similar effects were not found among the female participants in response to photographs of attractive men. These results support the evolutionary view that, similar to the attentional selectivity found in other domains of life, male perceptual attention has evolved to selectively capture and hold reproductive information about the opposite sex as a function of short-term versus long-term mating goals.

  14. The relativity of biological function.

    PubMed

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.

  15. Response bias-related impairment of early subjective face discrimination in social anxiety disorders: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanyan; Gu, Ruolei; Cao, Jianqin; Bi, Xuejing; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xun

    2017-04-01

    Considerable research has shown that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is accompanied by various negative cognitive biases, such as social feedback expectancy bias, memory bias, and interpretation bias. However, whether the memory bias in individuals with SAD is actually a manifestation of response bias, and whether such response bias is associated with deficits in face discrimination, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated response bias (i.e., a tendency to recognize more negative evaluations) to faces with positive (social acceptance) or negative (social rejection) social evaluations in individuals with SAD and healthy controls (HCs) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results revealed significant group differences in response bias in the forced-choice recall task, but no difference in overall memory accuracy. ERP results demonstrated that HCs showed a larger N170 to faces that had rejected them as compared to those that had accepted them, but this effect was not evident in the SAD group. Further analysis showed that response bias was correlated with the ΔN170 (rejected - accepted) amplitude. We concluded that the response bias in individuals with SAD is resulted from impairments in early discrimination of social faces, as reflected by the absent early N170 differentiation effect, which was associated with their combined negative biases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Face repetition effects in direct and indirect tasks: an event-related brain potentials study.

    PubMed

    Trenner, Maja U; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Jentzsch, Ines; Sommer, Werner

    2004-11-01

    We investigated immediate repetition effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) during direct and indirect tasks for sequentially presented face pairs. The first face (F1) was presented masked or unmasked, and at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs, 67 vs. 1000 ms) preceding the second face (F2). Experiment I (indirect task) required a semantic classification of F2, with F1 identity being irrelevant. Experiment II (direct task) used the same stimulus sequence but required a physical identity matching of F1 and F2. Whereas no masked repetition effects in behaviour or ERPs were seen, such effects were clearly shown for unmasked F1 faces. For short SOAs, an early-onset ( approximately 100 ms) occipital repetition effect, an inferior temporal N250r (200-300 ms) and a central-parietal N400 modulation (300-500 ms) were seen in both tasks, whereas a parietal P600 effect (500-800 ms) was only present in the indirect task. For long SOAs, the early occipital effect disappeared, suggesting that it reflects a fast decaying iconic memory trace. Clear task differences were seen for N250r, N400, and P600 modulations: P600 was larger for the indirect task, and may be a correlate of semantic analysis required by this task. By contrast, N250r and N400 were larger for the direct task, suggesting that these components are sensitive to task relevance and/or attentional focus to F1, and thus do not reflect purely automatic facilitation in processing. This suggests an influence of strategic processing on the activation of both perceptual representations of faces and semantic representations of people.

  17. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhishuai, Jin; Hong, Liu; Daxing, Wu; Pin, Zhang; Xuejing, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG) while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC) in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  18. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA.

  19. Age- and gender-related variations of emotion recognition in pseudowords and faces.

    PubMed

    Demenescu, Liliana R; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Mathiak, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The ability to interpret emotionally salient stimuli is an important skill for successful social functioning at any age. The objective of the present study was to disentangle age and gender effects on emotion recognition ability in voices and faces. Three age groups of participants (young, age range: 18-35 years; middle-aged, age range: 36-55 years; and older, age range: 56-75 years) identified basic emotions presented in voices and faces in a forced-choice paradigm. Five emotions (angry, fearful, sad, disgusted, and happy) and a nonemotional category (neutral) were shown as encoded in color photographs of facial expressions and pseudowords spoken in affective prosody. Overall, older participants had a lower accuracy rate in categorizing emotions than young and middle-aged participants. Females performed better than males in recognizing emotions from voices, and this gender difference emerged in middle-aged and older participants. The performance of emotion recognition in faces was significantly correlated with the performance in voices. The current study provides further evidence for a general age and gender effect on emotion recognition; the advantage of females seems to be age- and stimulus modality-dependent.

  20. Research on Sic/c Plasma-Facing Functionally Graded Materials (fgm) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Chang-Chun; Cao, Wen-Bin; Wu, An-Hua

    2003-06-01

    Graphite is widely used in present Tokamak facilities as first wall material and C/C composite has been selected as one of the candidate materials of diverter used in ITER. But C-based materials have too high chemical sputtering yield at 600-1000K and emerge irradiation enhanced sublimation at >1200K under the plasma erosion conditions, causing series contamination problem of plasma. SiC as a low Z advanced ceramic material, has a series of advantages for using as plasma-facing materials, however, it has relatively low thermal conductivity. Since 1997, the FGM design idea for making SiC/C plasma-facing FGM was proposed by the author and research on design and fabrication of SiC/C plasma-facing FGM was conducted in LSCPM with the aim to combine the excellent high temperature properties, low chemical sputtering, high erosion resistance, and low activation after irradiation of SiC with the high thermal conductivity of graphite, to reduce the thermal stress caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients on the interfaces and to prevent the cracks and failure under serious plasma erosion conditions. The evaluation of plasma-relevant performances was carried out in Southwest Institute of Nuclear Physics. The results of the evaluation show the good application perspective of SiC/C FGM as plasma-facing materials in fusion technology.

  1. Functional connectivity decreases in autism in emotion, self, and face circuits identified by Knowledge-based Enrichment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Wenbo; Ma, Liang; Wan, Lin; Luo, Qiang; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-03-01

    A powerful new method is described called Knowledge based functional connectivity Enrichment Analysis (KEA) for interpreting resting state functional connectivity, using circuits that are functionally identified using search terms with the Neurosynth database. The method derives its power by focusing on neural circuits, sets of brain regions that share a common biological function, instead of trying to interpret single functional connectivity links. This provides a novel way of investigating how task- or function-related networks have resting state functional connectivity differences in different psychiatric states, provides a new way to bridge the gap between task and resting-state functional networks, and potentially helps to identify brain networks that might be treated. The method was applied to interpreting functional connectivity differences in autism. Functional connectivity decreases at the network circuit level in 394 patients with autism compared with 473 controls were found in networks involving the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus cortex, and the precuneus, in networks that are implicated in the sense of self, face processing, and theory of mind. The decreases were correlated with symptom severity.

  2. Attentional functioning and relational learning.

    PubMed

    Soraci, S A; Deckner, C W; Baumeister, A A; Carlin, M T

    1990-11-01

    Stimulus properties such as similarity-dissimilarity and novelty-familiarity are inherently relational and are embedded in ubiquitous stimulus contexts. Children with mental retardation and young children without mental retardation are particularly prone to failure on relational tasks such as oddity and match-to-sample (Greenfield, 1985; Soraci et al., in press). Converging evidence from a number of studies suggest that a critical factor in the performance discrepancies between these and other children is a differential sensitivity to relational information. In these studies relational characteristics of stimulus arrays were enhanced in order to facilitate performances on such relational tasks. Findings indicate the theoretical and practical significance of perceptually based interventions that induce rapid discrimination learning.

  3. Exploring Patterns, Relations, and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Charles P.

    1992-01-01

    Describes three activities using dominoes, playing cards, and the calendar to give students mathematical experiences reinforcing basic skills and problem-solving strategies that involve patterns, relationships, and functions. Students discover mathematical relationships underlying the magic tricks used in the activities. (MDH)

  4. Confidence-accuracy relations for faces and scenes: roles of features and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Séguin, Julie Anne; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R

    2012-12-01

    Using naturalistic scenes, we recently demonstrated that confidence-accuracy relations differ depending on whether recognition responses are based on memory for a specific feature or instead on general familiarity: When confidence is controlled for, accuracy is higher for familiarity-based than for feature-based responses. In the present experiment, we show that these results generalize to face recognition. Subjects studied photographs of scenes and faces presented for varying brief durations and received a recognition test on which they (1) indicated whether each picture was old or new, (2) rated their confidence in their response, and (3) indicated whether their response was based on memory for a feature or on general familiarity. For both stimulus types, subjects were more accurate and more confident for their feature-based than for their familiarity-based responses. However, when confidence was held constant, accuracy was higher for familiarity-based than for feature-based responses. These results demonstrate an important similarity between face and scene recognition and show that for both types of stimuli, confidence and accuracy are based on different information.

  5. Stimulus familiarity modulates functional connectivity of the perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus during visual discrimination of faces and objects

    PubMed Central

    McLelland, Victoria C.; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia—a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage—showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information. PMID:24624075

  6. Stimulus familiarity modulates functional connectivity of the perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus during visual discrimination of faces and objects.

    PubMed

    McLelland, Victoria C; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia-a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage-showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information.

  7. Perception of emotions on happy/sad chimeric faces in Alzheimer disease: relationship with cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Luzzi, Simona; Piccirilli, Massimo; Provinciali, Leandro

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the ability to recognize facial emotions in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Happiness and sadness, fundamental emotions that are easily recognized across cultures, were evaluated. Results were further analyzed in relation to demographic, clinical, and neuropsychologic characteristics. A test exploring recognition of facial emotions using chimeric faces based on Jaynes' happy and sad faces was administered to 71 patients with probable AD. The ability to identify positive and negative facial emotions was largely preserved in AD subjects. Impaired recognition of facial emotions was found in 27%. Poor test performance was associated with low scores on constructional praxis and nonverbal memory tasks. Decoding of emotional facial expressions seems to be differently affected in relation to patients' neuropsychologic profile, as poor test performance closely correlated with nonverbal cognitive impairment. This emotion-discrimination disorder likely characterizes the behavior of a subset of AD patients with predominant right-hemisphere dysfunction. A preserved ability to process the emotional features of faces may have an important role in the management of demented patients, and suggests the use of nonverbal communication as an integrative/alternative system. The simple test used in our study may be a useful clinical tool to explore emotional behavior in demented subjects.

  8. Beyond face validity - A comment on Nicholls, Licht, and Pearl. [gender-related personality traits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.

  9. Beyond face validity - A comment on Nicholls, Licht, and Pearl. [gender-related personality traits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.

  10. The influence of variations in eating disorder-related symptoms on processing of emotional faces in a non-clinical female sample: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Ridout, Nathan

    2016-06-30

    This study aimed to: (i) determine if the attention bias towards angry faces reported in eating disorders generalises to a non-clinical sample varying in eating disorder-related symptoms; (ii) examine if the bias occurs during initial orientation or later strategic processing; and (iii) confirm previous findings of impaired facial emotion recognition in non-clinical disordered eating. Fifty-two females viewed a series of face-pairs (happy or angry paired with neutral) whilst their attentional deployment was continuously monitored using an eye-tracker. They subsequently identified the emotion portrayed in a separate series of faces. The highest (n=18) and lowest scorers (n=17) on the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) were compared on the attention and facial emotion recognition tasks. Those with relatively high scores exhibited impaired facial emotion recognition, confirming previous findings in similar non-clinical samples. They also displayed biased attention away from emotional faces during later strategic processing, which is consistent with previously observed impairments in clinical samples. These differences were related to drive-for-thinness. Although we found no evidence of a bias towards angry faces, it is plausible that the observed impairments in emotion recognition and avoidance of emotional faces could disrupt social functioning and act as a risk factor for the development of eating disorders.

  11. Are Mindfulness and Self-Compassion Related to Psychological Distress and Communication in Couples Facing Lung Cancer? A Dyadic Approach.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Melanie P J; Karremans, Johan C; van der Drift, Miep A; Molema, Johan; van den Hurk, Desiree G M; Prins, Judith B; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer patients and their spouses report high rates of distress. Due to the increasing popularity of and evidence for mindfulness-based interventions in cancer, mindfulness and self-compassion have been identified as potentially helpful skills when coping with cancer. This dyadic study examined how mindfulness and self-compassion are related to psychological distress and communication about cancer in couples facing lung cancer. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, self-reported mindfulness, self-compassion, psychological distress and communication about cancer were analyzed in a cross-sectional sample of 88 couples facing lung cancer. Regarding psychological distress, no difference was found between patients and spouses. In both partners, own levels of mindfulness (B = -0.19, p = .002) and self-compassion (B = -0.45, p < .001) were negatively related to own distress levels. At a dyadic level, own self-compassion was less strongly associated with distress if the partner reported high self-compassion (B = 0.03, p = .049). Regarding communication about cancer, patients reported to communicate more openly with their partner than with spouses. However, after controlling for gender, this difference was no longer significant. In both partners, own self-compassion (B = 0.03, p = .010) was significantly associated with own communication while mindfulness was not. A trend showed that mindfulness of the partner was related to more open communication in the individual (B = 0.01, p = .080). These findings give a first indication that mindfulness and self-compassion skills may go beyond the individual and could impact couple functioning. Future research should examine whether couples facing (lung) cancer may benefit from programs in which mindfulness and self-compassion are cultivated.

  12. Race perception and gaze direction differently impair visual working memory for faces: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Paola; Dalmaso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Humans are amazingly experts at processing and recognizing faces, however there are moderating factors of this ability. In the present study, we used the event-related potential technique to investigate the influence of both race and gaze direction on visual working memory (i.e., VWM) face representations. In a change detection task, we orthogonally manipulated race (own-race vs. other-race faces) and eye-gaze direction (direct gaze vs. averted gaze). Participants were required to encode identities of these faces. We quantified the amount of information encoded in VWM by monitoring the amplitude of the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) time-locked to the faces. Notably, race and eye-gaze direction differently modulated SPCN amplitude such that other-race faces elicited reduced SPCN amplitudes compared with own-race faces only when displaying a direct gaze. On the other hand, faces displaying averted gaze, independently of their race, elicited increased SPCN amplitudes compared with faces displaying direct gaze. We interpret these findings as denoting that race and eye-gaze direction affect different face processing stages.

  13. Altered Automatic Face Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Visual Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Takako; Kamio, Yoko; Yamasaki, Takao; Yasumoto, Sawa; Hirose, Shinichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have different automatic responses to faces than typically developing (TD) individuals. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 10 individuals with high-functioning ASD (HFASD) and 10 TD individuals. Visual stimuli consisted of upright and inverted faces (fearful and neutral) and objects…

  14. Face Memory and Object Recognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome and in Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…

  15. Emotion Recognition in Faces and the Use of Visual Context in Young People with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Barry; Clarke, Natalie; Jordan, Jo; Young, Andrew W.; Clarke, Paula; Miles, Jeremy; Nation, Kate; Clarke, Leesa; Williams, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We compared young people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with age, sex and IQ matched controls on emotion recognition of faces and pictorial context. Each participant completed two tests of emotion recognition. The first used Ekman series faces. The second used facial expressions in visual context. A control task involved…

  16. Face Memory and Object Recognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome and in Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…

  17. Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-08-20

    A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

  18. Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Rogers, Alistair; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R

    2009-01-01

    Plant responses to the projected future levels of CO(2) were first characterized in short-term experiments lasting days to weeks. However, longer term acclimation responses to elevated CO(2) were subsequently discovered to be very important in determining plant and ecosystem function. Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) experiments are the culmination of efforts to assess the impact of elevated CO(2) on plants over multiple seasons and, in the case of crops, over their entire lifetime. FACE has been used to expose vegetation to elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) under completely open-air conditions for nearly two decades. This review describes some of the lessons learned from the long-term investment in these experiments. First, elevated CO(2) stimulates photosynthetic carbon gain and net primary production over the long term despite down-regulation of Rubisco activity. Second, elevated CO(2) improves nitrogen use efficiency and, third, decreases water use at both the leaf and canopy scale. Fourth, elevated CO(2) stimulates dark respiration via a transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism. Fifth, elevated CO(2) does not directly stimulate C(4) photosynthesis, but can indirectly stimulate carbon gain in times and places of drought. Finally, the stimulation of yield by elevated CO(2) in crop species is much smaller than expected. While many of these lessons have been most clearly demonstrated in crop systems, all of the lessons have important implications for natural systems.

  19. Functional imaging of face and hand imitation: towards a motor theory of empathy.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Kenneth R; Johnson-Frey, Scott H; Grafton, Scott T

    2004-02-01

    Empathy requires the ability to map the feelings of others onto our own nervous system. Until recently, there was no plausible mechanism to explain how such a mapping might occur. The discovery of mirror neurons, however, suggests that the nervous system is capable of mapping the observed actions of others onto the premotor cortex of the self, at least for reaching and grasping movements. Is there a mirroring system for emotive actions, such as facial expression? Subjects (N = 15; all right-handed; eight men, seven women) watched movies of facial expressions (smile or frown) and hand movements (move index or middle finger) while brain activity was imaged using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects watched the movies under three different conditions: passive viewing, active imitation, and an active motor control. Subjects also performed a verb generation task to functionally identify language-processing areas. We found evidence for a common cortical imitation circuit for both face and hand imitation, consisting of Broca's area, bilateral dorsal and ventral premotor areas, right superior temporal gyrus (STG), supplementary motor area, posterior temporo-occipital cortex, and cerebellar areas. For faces, passive viewing led to significant activation in the right ventral premotor area, whereas imitation produced bilateral activation. This result is consistent with evidence for right hemisphere (RH) dominance for emotional processing, and suggests that there may be a right hemisphere mirroring system that could provide a neural substrate for empathy.

  20. The two faces of protein misfolding: gain- and loss-of-function in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Tatzelt, Jörg; Haass, Christian

    2008-01-23

    The etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases may be diverse; however, a common pathological denominator is the formation of aberrant protein conformers and the occurrence of pathognomonic proteinaceous deposits. Different approaches coming from neuropathology, genetics, animal modeling and biophysics have established a crucial role of protein misfolding in the pathogenic process. However, there is an ongoing debate about the nature of the harmful proteinaceous species and how toxic conformers selectively damage neuronal populations. Increasing evidence indicates that soluble oligomers are associated with early pathological alterations, and strikingly, oligomeric assemblies of different disease-associated proteins may share common structural features. A major step towards the understanding of mechanisms implicated in neuronal degeneration is the identification of genes, which are responsible for familial variants of neurodegenerative diseases. Studies based on these disease-associated genes illuminated the two faces of protein misfolding in neurodegeneration: a gain of toxic function and a loss of physiological function, which can even occur in combination. Here, we summarize how these two faces of protein misfolding contribute to the pathomechanisms of Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases.

  1. The two faces of protein misfolding: gain- and loss-of-function in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Tatzelt, Jörg; Haass, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The etiologies of neurodegenerative diseases may be diverse; however, a common pathological denominator is the formation of aberrant protein conformers and the occurrence of pathognomonic proteinaceous deposits. Different approaches coming from neuropathology, genetics, animal modeling and biophysics have established a crucial role of protein misfolding in the pathogenic process. However, there is an ongoing debate about the nature of the harmful proteinaceous species and how toxic conformers selectively damage neuronal populations. Increasing evidence indicates that soluble oligomers are associated with early pathological alterations, and strikingly, oligomeric assemblies of different disease-associated proteins may share common structural features. A major step towards the understanding of mechanisms implicated in neuronal degeneration is the identification of genes, which are responsible for familial variants of neurodegenerative diseases. Studies based on these disease-associated genes illuminated the two faces of protein misfolding in neurodegeneration: a gain of toxic function and a loss of physiological function, which can even occur in combination. Here, we summarize how these two faces of protein misfolding contribute to the pathomechanisms of Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases. PMID:18216876

  2. Neuroanatomic localization of priming effects for famous faces with latency-corrected event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Rajan; Ouyang, Guang; Sommer, Werner; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-02-01

    The late components of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) pose a difficult problem in source localization. One of the reasons is the smearing of these components in conventional averaging because of trial-to-trial latency-variability. The smearing problem may be addressed by reconstructing the ERPs after latency synchronization with the Residue Iteration Decomposition (RIDE) method. Here we assessed whether the benefits of RIDE at the surface level also improve source localization of RIDE-reconstructed ERPs (RERPs) measured in a face priming paradigm. Separate source models for conventionally averaged ERPs and RERPs were derived and sources were localized for both early and late components. Jackknife averaging on the data was used to reduce the residual variance during source localization compared to conventional source model fitting on individual subject data. Distances between corresponding sources of both ERP and RERP models were measured to check consistency in both source models. Sources for activity around P100, N170, early repetition effect (ERE/N250r) and late repetition effect (LRE/N400) were reported and priming effects in these sources were evaluated for six time windows. Significant improvement in priming effect of the late sources was found from the RERP source model, especially in the Medio-Temporal Lobe, Prefrontal Cortex, and Anterior Temporal Lobe. Consistent with previous studies, we found early priming effects in the right hemisphere and late priming effects in the left hemisphere. Also, the priming effects in right hemisphere outnumbered the left hemisphere, signifying dominance of right hemisphere in face recognition. In conclusion, RIDE reconstructed ERPs promise a comprehensive understanding of the time-resolved dynamics the late sources play during face recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. "Beaned": A 5-Year Analysis of Baseball-Related Injuries of the Face.

    PubMed

    Carniol, Eric T; Shaigany, Kevin; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-12-01

    Baseball remains one of the most popular and safest games played by children and adults in America and worldwide. Rules and equipment changes have continued to make the game safer. For youth leagues, pitching restrictions, safety balls, helmets, and face mask equipment continue to make the game safer. With increased utilization of safety equipment, the objective was to analyze recent trends in baseball-related facial injuries. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was searched for baseball-related facial injuries with analysis of incidence, age, and sex and specific injury diagnoses, mechanisms, and facial locations. From 2009 to 2013, there were 5270 cases entries, or 187,533 estimated emergency department (ED) visits, due to baseball-related facial injuries. During this time, there was a significant decline in the incidence of ED visits (P = .014). Inclusion criteria were met by 3208 visits. The majority of injuries occurred in patients ≤18 years old (81.5%). The most common injury was laceration (33.2%), followed by contusion (29.7%) and fracture (26.9%), while the most common injury site on the face was the nose (24.9%). The injuries were most commonly due to impact from a baseball (70%) or a bat (12.5%). The overall incidence of ED visits due to baseball-related facial injuries has decreased over the past 5 years, concurrent with increased societal use of protective equipment. Nonetheless, these injuries remain a common source for ED visits, and a continued effort to utilize safety measures should be made, particularly in youth leagues. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  4. Modulation of face-sensitive event-related potentials by canonical and distorted human faces: the role of vertical symmetry and up-down featural arrangement.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Kuefner, Dana; Westerlund, Alissa; Nelson, Charles A

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the sensitivity of early face-sensitive event-related potential (ERP) components to the disruption of two structural properties embedded in faces, namely, "updown featural arrangement" and "vertical symmetry." Behavioral measures and ERPs were recorded as adults made an orientation judgment for canonical faces and distorted faces that had been manipulated for either or both of the mentioned properties. The P1, the N170, and the vertex positive potential (VPP) exhibited a similar gradient in sensitivity to the two investigated properties, in that they all showed a linear increase in amplitude or latency as the properties were selectively disrupted in the order of (1) up-down featural arrangement, (2) vertical symmetry, and (3) both up-down featural arrangement and vertical symmetry. Exceptions to this finding were seen for the amplitudes of the N170 and VPP, which were largest for the stimulus in which solely vertical symmetry was disrupted. Interestingly, the enhanced amplitudes of the N170 and VPP are consistent with a drop in behavioral performance on the orientation judgment for this stimulus.

  5. Protein crystal growth rates are face-specifically modified by structurally related contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschler, Joachim; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan Carlos

    1997-02-01

    Growth rates of turkey egg-white lysozyme (TEWL) crystal faces have been measured in uncontaminated solutions as well as in solutions contaminated by the homologous hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL). Comparison of growth rates from uncontaminated and contaminated solutions shows that the growth rate of the {112} faces drops significantly in the presence of the contaminant, whereas the growth rate of the {110} faces does not change. This demonstrates that HEWL acts specifically on the growth process of the {112} faces.

  6. Asymmetric Correlation between Experienced Parental Attachment and Event-Related Potentials Evoked in Response to Parental Faces

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Junqiang; Zhai, Hongchang; Zhou, Anbang; Gong, Yongyuan; Luo, Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the modulation effects of attachment relationships with parents on the neural correlates that are associated with parental faces. The event-related potentials elicited in 31 college students while viewing facial stimuli of their parents in two single oddball paradigms (father vs. unfamiliar male and mother vs. unfamiliar female) were measured. We found that enhanced P3a and P3b and attenuated N2b were elicited by parental faces; however, the N170 component failed to discriminate parental faces from unfamiliar faces. An experienced attachment relationship with the father was positively correlated to the P3a response associated with the father’s face, whereas no correlation was found in the case of mothers. Further exploration in dipole source localization showed that, within the time window of the P300, distinctive brain regions were involved in the processing of parental faces; the father’s face was located in the medial frontal gyrus, which might be involved in self effect, and the anterior cingulate gyrus was activated in response to the mother’s face. This research is the first to demonstrate that neural mechanisms involved with parents can be modulated differentially by the qualities of the attachments to the parents. In addition, parental faces share a highly similar temporal pattern, but the origins of these neural responses are distinct, which could merit further investigation. PMID:23844240

  7. Caregiving Experience and Its Relation to Perceptual Narrowing of Face Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Juvrud, Joshua; Kayl, Andrea J.; Asperholm, Martin; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Herlitz, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    This research examined whether infants tested longitudinally at 10, 14, and 16 months of age (N = 58) showed evidence of perceptual narrowing based on face gender (better discrimination of female than male faces) and whether changes in caregiving experience longitudinally predicted changes in infants' discrimination of male faces. To test face…

  8. Cross-Modal Face Identity Aftereffects and Their Relation to Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter J.; Elward, Rachael L.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the magnitude of the face identity aftereffect following adaptation to different modes of adaptors in four experiments. The perceptual midpoint between two morphed famous faces was measured pre- and post-adaptation. Significant aftereffects were observed for visual (faces) and nonvisual adaptors (voices and names) but not nonspecific…

  9. Cross-Modal Face Identity Aftereffects and Their Relation to Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter J.; Elward, Rachael L.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the magnitude of the face identity aftereffect following adaptation to different modes of adaptors in four experiments. The perceptual midpoint between two morphed famous faces was measured pre- and post-adaptation. Significant aftereffects were observed for visual (faces) and nonvisual adaptors (voices and names) but not nonspecific…

  10. A mixture of sparse coding models explaining properties of face neurons related to holistic and parts-based processing.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Haruo; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2017-07-01

    Experimental studies have revealed evidence of both parts-based and holistic representations of objects and faces in the primate visual system. However, it is still a mystery how such seemingly contradictory types of processing can coexist within a single system. Here, we propose a novel theory called mixture of sparse coding models, inspired by the formation of category-specific subregions in the inferotemporal (IT) cortex. We developed a hierarchical network that constructed a mixture of two sparse coding submodels on top of a simple Gabor analysis. The submodels were each trained with face or non-face object images, which resulted in separate representations of facial parts and object parts. Importantly, evoked neural activities were modeled by Bayesian inference, which had a top-down explaining-away effect that enabled recognition of an individual part to depend strongly on the category of the whole input. We show that this explaining-away effect was indeed crucial for the units in the face submodel to exhibit significant selectivity to face images over object images in a similar way to actual face-selective neurons in the macaque IT cortex. Furthermore, the model explained, qualitatively and quantitatively, several tuning properties to facial features found in the middle patch of face processing in IT as documented by Freiwald, Tsao, and Livingstone (2009). These included, in particular, tuning to only a small number of facial features that were often related to geometrically large parts like face outline and hair, preference and anti-preference of extreme facial features (e.g., very large/small inter-eye distance), and reduction of the gain of feature tuning for partial face stimuli compared to whole face stimuli. Thus, we hypothesize that the coding principle of facial features in the middle patch of face processing in the macaque IT cortex may be closely related to mixture of sparse coding models.

  11. Is Social Phobia a "Mis-Communication" Disorder? Brain Functional Connectivity during Face Perception Differs between Patients with Social Phobia and Healthy Control Subjects.

    PubMed

    Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Gentili, Claudio; Gobbini, Maria Ida; Pietrini, Pietro; Guazzelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a differential recruitment of brain areas throughout the distributed neural system for face perception has been found in social phobic patients as compared to healthy control subjects. These functional abnormalities in social phobic patients extend beyond emotion-related brain areas, such as the amygdala, to include cortical networks that modulate attention and process other facial features, and they are also associated with an alteration of the task-related activation/deactivation trade-off. Functional connectivity is becoming a powerful tool to examine how components of large-scale distributed neural systems are coupled together while performing a specific function. This study was designed to determine whether functional connectivity networks among brain regions within the distributed system for face perception also would differ between social phobic patients and healthy controls. Data were obtained from eight social phobic patients and seven healthy controls by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings indicated that social phobic patients and healthy controls have different patterns of functional connectivity across brain regions within both the core and the extended systems for face perception and the default mode network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that functional connectivity during brain response to socially relevant stimuli differs between social phobic patients and healthy controls. These results expand our previous findings and indicate that brain functional changes in social phobic patients are not restricted to a single specific brain structure, but rather involve a mis-communication among different sensory and emotional processing brain areas.

  12. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.

  13. Neural correlates of own- and other-race face recognition in children: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of elementary school children’s own- and other-race face processing. An old-new paradigm was used to assess children’s recognition ability of own- and other-race faces. FNIRS data revealed that other-race faces elicited significantly greater [oxy-Hb] changes than own-race faces in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9) and the left cuneus (BA18). With increased age, the [oxy-Hb] activity differences between own- and other-race faces, or the neural other-race effect (NORE), underwent significant changes in these two cortical areas: at younger ages, the neural response to the other-race faces was modestly greater than that to the own-race faces, but with increased age, the neural response to the own-race faces became increasingly greater than that to the other-race faces. Moreover, these areas had strong regional functional connectivity with a swath of the cortical regions in terms of the neural other-race effect that also changed with increased age. We also found significant and positive correlations between the behavioral other-race effect (reaction time) and the neural other-race effect in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9). These results taken together suggest that children, like adults, devote different amounts of neural resources to processing own- and other-race faces, but the size and direction of the neural other-race effect and associated functional regional connectivity change with increased age. PMID:23891903

  14. Neural correlates of own- and other-race face recognition in children: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-15

    The present study used the functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of elementary school children's own- and other-race face processing. An old-new paradigm was used to assess children's recognition ability of own- and other-race faces. FNIRS data revealed that other-race faces elicited significantly greater [oxy-Hb] changes than own-race faces in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9) and the left cuneus (BA18). With increased age, the [oxy-Hb] activity differences between own- and other-race faces, or the neural other-race effect (NORE), underwent significant changes in these two cortical areas: at younger ages, the neural response to the other-race faces was modestly greater than that to the own-race faces, but with increased age, the neural response to the own-race faces became increasingly greater than that to the other-race faces. Moreover, these areas had strong regional functional connectivity with a swath of the cortical regions in terms of the neural other-race effect that also changed with increased age. We also found significant and positive correlations between the behavioral other-race effect (reaction time) and the neural other-race effect in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9). These results taken together suggest that children, like adults, devote different amounts of neural resources to processing own- and other-race faces, but the size and direction of the neural other-race effect and associated functional regional connectivity change with increased age.

  15. Simple Method for Converting Conventional Face-bow to Postural Face-bow for Recording the Relationship of Maxilla Relative to the Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Gooya, Ali; Zarakani, Houman; Memari, Yeganeh

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in prosthetic dentistry is that the axis-orbital plane will usually be parallel to the horizontal reference plane. Most articulator systems have incorporated this concept into their designs and use orbitale as the anterior reference point for transferring the vertical position of the maxilla to the articulator. Clinical observations of Cantonese patients suggest that in some individuals the Frankfort plane may not be horizontal, thus the orientation of the casts in the articulator is incorrect with respect to the horizontal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce a simple method for converting the conventional face-bow to postural face-bow to reproduce the orientation of the occlusal plane relative to the true horizontal plane with the patient in Natural Head Posture (NHP). PMID:26005456

  16. MFI-type zeolite functional liquid phase sensor coated on the optical fiber end-face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaoxin; Sidiroglou, Fotios; Hill, Matthew R.; Collins, Stephen F.; Duke, Mikel

    2012-02-01

    Optical fibers are a unique medium to coat with functional sensor materials that change in refractive index upon adsorption/interaction with specific compounds. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique to coat the end face of an optical fiber with the microporous MFI-type zeolite. The exposure of the zeolite films from air to water or to aqueous solutions of ethanol and isopropanol causes a distinct change in the film's refractive index. This change was then detected using a simple fiber optic refractive index sensor by monitoring the signal intensity reflected back from the coated fiber endface and as the zeolite is transferred between air, water and solutions containing ethanol and isopropanol. The zeolite coating was developed using the in-situ templated growth technique to grow the zeolite crystals on the cleaved endface of an optical fiber. Effective coating was achieved when the fiber was oriented horizontally in the hydrothermal reactor. The zeolite coated end face reflected less energy in water, at 0.0201 μW, and exhibited almost no change (~2% increase) with increasing ethanol concentration, but exhibited a 135% increase in reflected energy, i.e. 0.048 μW, in 100% ethanol. The zeolite therefore gave the sensor alcohol selectivity. Further work is exploring applicability for liquid phase chemical and water quality analysis.

  17. Cultural shaping of neural responses: Feedback-related potentials vary with self-construal and face priming.

    PubMed

    Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Glazer, James; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Previous work shows that when an image of a face is presented immediately prior to each trial of a speeded cognitive task (face-priming), the error-related negativity (ERN) is upregulated for Asians, but it is downregulated for Caucasians. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that images of "generalized other" vary cross-culturally such that they evoke anxiety for Asians, whereas they serve as safety cues for Caucasians. Here, we tested whether the cross-cultural variation in the face-priming effect would be observed in a gambling paradigm. Caucasian Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian sojourners were exposed to a brief flash of a schematic face during a gamble. For Asian Americans, face-priming resulted in significant increases of both negative-going deflection of ERP upon negative feedback (feedback-related negativity [FRN]) and positive-going deflection of ERP upon positive feedback (feedback-related positivity [FRP]). For Caucasian Americans, face-priming showed a significant reversal, decreasing both FRN and FRP. The cultural difference in the face-priming effect in FRN and FRP was partially mediated by interdependent self-construal. Curiously, Asian sojourners showed a pattern similar to the one for Caucasian Americans. Our findings suggest that culture shapes neural pathways in both systematic and highly dynamic fashion.

  18. Age-related differences in brain electrical activity during extended continuous face recognition in younger children, older children and adults.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Jan W; Glimmerveen, Johanna C; Franken, Ingmar H A; Martens, Vanessa E G; de Bruin, Eveline A

    2011-09-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with distracter faces. The children were required to make old vs. new decisions. Older children responded faster than younger children, but younger children exhibited a steeper decrease in latencies across the five repetitions. Older children exhibited better accuracy for new faces, but there were no age differences in recognition accuracy for repeated faces. For the N2, N400 and late positive complex (LPC), we analyzed the old/new effects (repetition 1 vs. new presentation) and the extended repetition effects (repetitions 1 through 5). Compared to older children, younger children exhibited larger frontocentral N2 and N400 old/new effects. For extended face repetitions, negativity of the N2 and N400 decreased in a linear fashion in both age groups. For the LPC, an ERP component thought to reflect recollection, no significant old/new or extended repetition effects were found. Employing the same face recognition paradigm in 20 adults (Study 2), we found a significant N400 old/new effect at lateral frontal sites and a significant LPC repetition effect at parietal sites, with LPC amplitudes increasing linearly with the number of repetitions. This study clearly demonstrates differential developmental courses for the N400 and LPC pertaining to recognition memory for faces. It is concluded that face recognition in children is mediated by early and probably more automatic than conscious recognition processes. In adults, the LPC extended repetition effect indicates that adult face recognition memory is related to a conscious and graded recollection process rather than to an automatic recognition process.

  19. Face-centered-cubic B80 metal: Density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qing-Bo; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang

    2008-06-01

    By means of ab initio calculations within the density functional theory, we have found that B80 fullerenes can condense to form stable face-centered-cubic (fcc) solids. It is shown that when forming a crystal, B80 cages are geometrically distorted, the Ih symmetry is lowered to Th , and four boron-boron chemical bonds are formed between every two nearest neighbor B80 cages. The cohesive energy of B80 fcc solid is 0.23 eV/atom with respect to the isolated B80 fullerene. The calculated electronic structure reveals that the fcc B80 solid is a metal. The predicted solid phase would constitute a form of pure boron and might have diverse implications. In addition, a simple electron counting rule is proposed, which could explain the stability of B80 fullerene and the recently predicted stable boron sheet.

  20. Face inversion disrupts the perception of vertical relations between features in the right human occipito-temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno; Sorger, Bettina; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-03-01

    The impact of inversion on the extraction of relational and featural face information was investigated in two fMRI experiments. Unlike previous studies, the contribution of horizontal and vertical spatial relations were considered separately since they have been shown to be differentially vulnerable to face inversion (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Hence, inversion largely affects the perception of vertical relations (e.g. eye or mouth height) while the processing of features (e.g. eye shape and surface) and of horizontal relations (e.g. inter-ocular distance) is affected to a far lesser extent. Participants viewed pairs of faces that differed either at the level of one local feature (i.e. the eyes) or of the spatial relations of this feature with adjacent features. Changes of spatial relations were divided into two conditions, depending on the vertical or horizontal axis of the modifications. These stimulus conditions were presented in separate blocks in the first (block) experiment while they were presented in a random order in the second event-related (ER) experiment. Face-preferring voxels located in the right-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (rMFG) largely decreased their activity with inversion. Inversion-related decreases were more moderate in left-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (lMFG). ER experiment revealed that inversion affected rMFG and lMFG activity in distinct stimulus conditions. Whereas inversion affected lMFG processing only in featural condition, inversion selectively affected the processing of vertical relations in rMFG. Correlation analyses further indicated that the inversion effect (IE) observed in rMFG and right inferior occipital gyrus (rIOG) reliably predicted the large behavioural IE observed for the processing of vertical relations. In contrast, lMFG IE correlated with the weak behavioural IE observed for the processing of horizontal relations. Our findings suggest that face configuration is mostly encoded in rMFG, whereas more local

  1. Action comprehension: deriving spatial and functional relations.

    PubMed

    Bach, Patric; Knoblich, Günther; Gunter, Thomas C; Friederici, Angela D; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    A perceived action can be understood only when information about the action carried out and the objects used are taken into account. It was investigated how spatial and functional information contributes to establishing these relations. Participants observed static frames showing a hand wielding an instrument and a potential target object of the action. The 2 elements could either match or mismatch, spatially or functionally. Participants were required to judge only 1 of the 2 relations while ignoring the other. Both irrelevant spatial and functional mismatches affected judgments of the relevant relation. Moreover, the functional relation provided a context for the judgment of the spatial relation but not vice versa. The results are discussed in respect to recent accounts of action understanding. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Event-Related Potentials of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing of Emotional Faces.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Afsane; Mehrinejad, Seyed Abolghasem; Ghadiri, Mohammad; Rezaei, Farzin

    2017-01-01

    Emotional stimulus is processed automatically in a bottom-up way or can be processed voluntarily in a top-down way. Imaging studies have indicated that bottom-up and top-down processing are mediated through different neural systems. However, temporal differentiation of top-down versus bottom-up processing of facial emotional expressions has remained to be clarified. The present study aimed to explore the time course of these processes as indexed by the emotion-specific P100 and late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential (ERP) components in a group of healthy women. Fourteen female students of Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran aged 18-30 years, voluntarily participated in the study. The subjects completed 2 overt and covert emotional tasks during ERP acquisition. The results indicated that fearful expressions significantly produced greater P100 amplitude compared to other expressions. Moreover, the P100 findings showed an interaction between emotion and processing conditions. Further analysis indicated that within the overt condition, fearful expressions elicited more P100 amplitude compared to other emotional expressions. Also, overt conditions created significantly more LPP latencies and amplitudes compared to covert conditions. Based on the results, early perceptual processing of fearful face expressions is enhanced in top-down way compared to bottom-up way. It also suggests that P100 may reflect an attentional bias toward fearful emotions. However, no such differentiation was observed within later processing stages of face expressions, as indexed by the ERP LPP component, in a top-down versus bottom-up way. Overall, this study provides a basis for further exploring of bottom-up and top-down processes underlying emotion and may be typically helpful for investigating the temporal characteristics associated with impaired emotional processing in psychiatric disorders.

  3. Wrist function in malunion: Is the distal radius designed to retain function in the face of fracture?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fractures of the distal radius are the most common fracture in humans and are the sempiternal hazard of 3.5 million years of bipedalism. Despite the antiquity of the injury, one of the most controversial topics in current orthopaedics is the management of distal radius fractures. It has been suggested that radiographic appearances rarely correlate with functional outcomes. As the success of the human species is predicated almost exclusively on its dexterity and intelligence, it is conceivable that the distal radius has evolved to preserve function even in the face of injury. We therefore hypothesise that the distal radius is designed to accommodate the possibility of fracture. Methods We conducted a review of studies comparing fracture pattern and form with function. We also explore the paleoanthropological evidence and comparative studies with other primates. Findings The evidence points to the human distal radius being highly tolerant of post-fracture deformity in terms of preservation of function. In addition, the distal radius appears to have apparently anatomically ‘redundant’ features that confer this capability. We believe these phenomena to be an evolved trait that developed with bipedalism, increasing the chances of survival for a species whose success depends upon its dexterity. PMID:27376442

  4. Functions of health fatalism: fatalistic talk as face saving, uncertainty management, stress relief and sense making.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Bethany; Wright, Lanelle; Condit, Celeste M

    2009-07-01

    Much research on fatalism assumes that fatalistic statements represent a global outlook that conflicts with belief in the efficacy of health behaviours. Other scholars have suggested a more contextual approach, suggesting that fatalism fulfils personal and social functions. This study analyses 96 in-depth lay interviews in the US, most with low-income members of the general public, about four diseases: heart disease, lung cancer, diabetes and depression. Within these interviews, fatalistic statements always occurred alongside statements endorsing the utility of behaviours for protecting health. This usage pattern suggests that these statements may have useful functions, rather than being simply a repudiation of the utility of health choices. We examine four functions that are suggested by previous researchers or by the participants' comments: stress relief, uncertainty management, sense making and (less strongly) face saving. As these themes indicate, individuals often make fatalistic statements to express an understanding of locally or broadly limiting factors for health efficacy, including genes, spiritual agents, prior behaviours, personality, and other factors.

  5. Cross-modal face identity aftereffects and their relation to priming.

    PubMed

    Hills, Peter J; Elward, Rachael L; Lewis, Michael B

    2010-08-01

    We tested the magnitude of the face identity aftereffect following adaptation to different modes of adaptors in four experiments. The perceptual midpoint between two morphed famous faces was measured pre- and post-adaptation. Significant aftereffects were observed for visual (faces) and nonvisual adaptors (voices and names) but not nonspecific semantic information (e.g., occupations). Aftereffects were also observed following imagination and adaptation to an associated person. The strongest aftereffects were found adapting to facial caricatures. These results are discussed in terms of cross-modal adaptation occurring at various loci within the face-recognition system analogous to priming.

  6. Quantum affine algebras and universal functional relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirov, Kh S.; Razumov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    By the universal integrability objects we mean certain monodromy-type and transfer- type operators, where the representation in the auxiliary space is properly fixed, while the representation in the quantum space is not. This notion is actually determined by the structure of the universal R-matrix. We call functional relations between such universal integrability objects, and so, being independent of the representation in the quantum space, the universal functional relations. We present a short review of the universal functional relations for the quantum integrable systems associated with the quantum groups of loop Lie algebras.

  7. The social evaluation of faces: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Said, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience research on the social evaluation of faces has accumulated over the last decade, yielding divergent results. We used a meta-analytic technique, multi-level kernel density analysis (MKDA), to analyze 29 neuroimaging studies on face evaluation. Across negative face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in bilateral amygdala. Across positive face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in medial prefrontal cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), left caudate and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Based on additional analyses comparing linear and non-linear responses, we propose a ventral/dorsal dissociation within the amygdala, wherein separate populations of neurons code for face valence and intensity, respectively. Finally, we argue that some of the differences between studies are attributable to differences in the typicality of face stimuli. Specifically, extremely attractive faces are more likely to elicit responses in NAcc/caudate and mOFC. PMID:22287188

  8. The social evaluation of faces: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Said, Christopher P; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Neuroscience research on the social evaluation of faces has accumulated over the last decade, yielding divergent results. We used a meta-analytic technique, multi-level kernel density analysis (MKDA), to analyze 29 neuroimaging studies on face evaluation. Across negative face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in bilateral amygdala. Across positive face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in medial prefrontal cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), left caudate and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Based on additional analyses comparing linear and non-linear responses, we propose a ventral/dorsal dissociation within the amygdala, wherein separate populations of neurons code for face valence and intensity, respectively. Finally, we argue that some of the differences between studies are attributable to differences in the typicality of face stimuli. Specifically, extremely attractive faces are more likely to elicit responses in NAcc/caudate and mOFC.

  9. Pathway analysis of genetic markers associated with a functional MRI faces paradigm implicates polymorphisms in calcium responsive pathways.

    PubMed

    Mattingsdal, Morten; Brown, Andrew Anand; Djurovic, Srdjan; Sønderby, Ida Elken; Server, Andres; Melle, Ingrid; Agartz, Ingrid; Hovig, Eivind; Jensen, Jimmy; Andreassen, Ole A

    2013-04-15

    Several lines of evidence suggest that common polygenic variation influences brain function in humans. Combining high-density genetic markers with brain imaging techniques is constricted by the practicalities of collecting sufficiently large brain imaging samples. Pathway analysis promises to leverage knowledge on function of genes to detect recurring signals of moderate effect. We adapt this approach, exploiting the deep information collected on brain function by fMRI methods, to identify molecular pathways containing genetic variants which influence brain activation during a commonly applied experiment based on a face matching task (n=246) which was developed to study neural processing of faces displaying negative emotions. Genetic markers moderately associated (p<10(-4)) with whole brain activation phenotypes constructed by applying principal components to contrast maps, were tested for pathway enrichment using permutation based methods. The most significant pathways are related to post NMDA receptor activation events, driven by genetic variants in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2G, CAMK2D) and a calcium-regulated nucleotide exchange factor (RASGRF2) in which all are activated by intracellular calcium/calmodulin. The most significant effect of the combined polygenic model were localized to the left inferior frontal gyrus (p=1.03 × 10(-9)), a region primarily involved in semantic processing but also involved in processing negative emotions. These findings suggest that pathway analysis of GWAS results derived from principal component analysis of fMRI data is a promising method, to our knowledge, not previously described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactive Explanations: The Functional Role of Gestural and Bodily Action for Explaining and Learning Scientific Concepts in Face-to-Face Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopelitis, Stephanie A.

    As human beings, we live in, live with, and live through our bodies. And because of this it is no wonder that our hands and bodies are in motion as we interact with others in our world. Hands and body move as we give directions to another, anticipate which way to turn the screwdriver, and direct our friend to come sit next to us. Gestures, indeed, fill our everyday lives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the functional role of the body in the parts of our lives where we teach and learn with another. This project is an investigation into, what I call, "interactive explanations". I explore how the hands and body work toward the joint achievement of explanation and learning in face-to-face arrangements. The study aims to uncover how the body participates in teaching and learning in and across events as it slides between the multiple, interdependent roles of (1) a communicative entity, (2) a tool for thinking, and (3) a resource to shape interaction. Understanding gestures functional roles as flexible and diverse better explains how the body participates in teaching and learning interactions. The study further aims to show that these roles and functions are dynamic and changeable based on the interests, goals and contingencies of participants' changing roles and aims in interactions, and within and across events. I employed the methodology of comparative microanalysis of pairs of videotaped conversations in which, first, experts in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) explained concepts to non-experts, and second, these non-experts re-explained the concept to other non-experts. The principle finding is that people strategically, creatively and collaboratively employ the hands and body as vital and flexible resources for the joint achievement of explanation and understanding. Findings further show that gestures used to explain complex STEM concepts travel across time with the non-expert into re-explanations of the concept. My

  11. Segregation of face sensitive areas within the fusiform gyrus using global signal regression? A study on amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Johann D; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Veer, Ilya M; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Pöhland, Lydia; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed. To characterize this effect in more detail, post hoc analyses revealed the following: first, direct overlays of task-functional magnetic resonance imaging derived face sensitive areas and clusters of positive versus negative amygdala rs-FC showed that the positive amygdala rs-FC cluster corresponded best with the fusiform face area, whereas the occipital face area corresponded to the negative amygdala rs-FC cluster. Second, as expected from a hierarchical face perception model, these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters showed differential rs-FC with other regions of the visual stream. Third, dynamic connectivity analyses revealed that these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters also differed in their rs-FC variance across time to the amygdala. Furthermore, subsample analyses of three independent research sites confirmed reliability of the effect of GSR, as revealed by similar patterns of distinct amygdala rs-FC polarity within the FFG. In this article, we discuss the potential of GSR to segregate face sensitive areas within the FFG and furthermore discuss how our results may relate to the functional organization of the face-perception circuit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. On the Relation between Face and Object Recognition in Developmental Prosopagnosia: No Dissociation but a Systematic Association.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 individuals with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests of visual object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive correlations between the severity of the face recognition impairment and the degree of impaired performance with degraded objects. This suggests that the face and object deficits are systematically related rather than coincidental. We conclude that at present, there is no strong evidence in the literature on developmental prosopagnosia supporting domain-specific accounts of face recognition.

  13. Event-Related Potential Responses to Beloved and Familiar Faces in Different Marriage Styles: Evidence from Mosuo Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002

  14. On the Relation between Face and Object Recognition in Developmental Prosopagnosia: No Dissociation but a Systematic Association

    PubMed Central

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 individuals with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests of visual object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive correlations between the severity of the face recognition impairment and the degree of impaired performance with degraded objects. This suggests that the face and object deficits are systematically related rather than coincidental. We conclude that at present, there is no strong evidence in the literature on developmental prosopagnosia supporting domain-specific accounts of face recognition. PMID:27792780

  15. Functional specialization and convergence in the occipito-temporal cortex supporting haptic and visual identification of human faces and body parts: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Kochiyama, Takanori; Lederman, Susan J

    2009-10-01

    Humans can recognize common objects by touch extremely well whenever vision is unavailable. Despite its importance to a thorough understanding of human object recognition, the neuroscientific study of this topic has been relatively neglected. To date, the few published studies have addressed the haptic recognition of nonbiological objects. We now focus on haptic recognition of the human body, a particularly salient object category for touch. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate that regions of the occipito-temporal cortex are specialized for visual perception of faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and other body parts (extrastriate body area, EBA). Are the same category-sensitive regions activated when these components of the body are recognized haptically? Here, we use fMRI to compare brain organization for haptic and visual recognition of human body parts. Sixteen subjects identified exemplars of faces, hands, feet, and nonbiological control objects using vision and haptics separately. We identified two discrete regions within the fusiform gyrus (FFA and the haptic face region) that were each sensitive to both haptically and visually presented faces; however, these two regions differed significantly in their response patterns. Similarly, two regions within the lateral occipito-temporal area (EBA and the haptic body region) were each sensitive to body parts in both modalities, although the response patterns differed. Thus, although the fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipito-temporal cortex appear to exhibit modality-independent, category-sensitive activity, our results also indicate a degree of functional specialization related to sensory modality within these structures.

  16. Attentional Biases toward Face-Related Stimuli among Face Dissatisfied Women: Orienting and Maintenance of Attention Revealed by Eye-Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Hui; Su, Yanhua; Bi, Taiyong; Gao, Xiao; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine attentional biases toward attractive and unattractive faces among face dissatisfied women. Twenty-seven women with high face dissatisfaction (HFD) and 27 women with low face dissatisfaction (LFD) completed a visual dot-probe task while their eye-movements were tracking. Under the condition of faces-neutral stimuli (vases) pairs, compared to LFD women, HFD women directed their first fixations more often toward faces, directed their first fixations toward unattractive faces more quickly, and had longer first fixation duration on such faces. All participants had longer overall gaze duration on attractive faces than on unattractive ones. Our behavioral data revealed that HFD women had difficulty in disengaging their attention from faces. However, there are no group differences in stimulus pairs containing an attractive and an unattractive face. In sum, when faces were paired with neutral stimuli (vases) HFD women showed an attention pattern characterized by orienting and maintenance, at least initially, toward unattractive faces but showed overall attention maintenance to attractive ones, but any attention bias wasn’t found in attractive - unattractive face pairs. PMID:27445892

  17. The Development of Expert Face Processing: Are Infants Sensitive to Normal Differences in Second-Order Relational Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Reed, Andrea; Corbly, Christine R.; Joseph, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity to second-order relational information (i.e., spatial relations among features such as the distance between eyes) is a vital part of achieving expertise with face processing. Prior research is unclear on whether infants are sensitive to second-order differences seen in typical human populations. In the current experiments, we examined…

  18. The Development of Expert Face Processing: Are Infants Sensitive to Normal Differences in Second-Order Relational Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Reed, Andrea; Corbly, Christine R.; Joseph, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity to second-order relational information (i.e., spatial relations among features such as the distance between eyes) is a vital part of achieving expertise with face processing. Prior research is unclear on whether infants are sensitive to second-order differences seen in typical human populations. In the current experiments, we examined…

  19. Effect of empathy trait on attention to faces: an event-related potential (ERP) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is deeply linked with the ability to adapt to human social environments. The present study investigated the relationship between the empathy trait and attention elicited by discriminating facial expressions. Methods Event-related potentials were measured while 32 participants (17 men and 15 women) discriminated facial expressions (happy or angry) and colors of flowers (yellow or purple) under an oddball paradigm. The empathy trait of participants was measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980). Results The empathy trait correlated positively with both the early portion (300 to 600 ms after stimulus onset) and late portion (600 to 800 ms after stimulus onset) of late positive potential (LPP) amplitude elicited by faces, but not with LPP elicited by flowers. Conclusions This result suggests that, compared to people with low empathy, people with high empathy pay more attention when discriminating facial expressions. The present study suggests that differences exist in methods of adapting to social environments between people with high and low empathy. PMID:24460950

  20. Relation between facial affect recognition and configural face processing in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Jouve, Elisabeth; Guillaume, Fabrice; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Biological Sex Determines Whether Faces Look Real

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Judging whether a face is real or artificial can be done relatively rapidly and accurately, even when visual information is substantially impoverished. The perception of animacy in the face also has several interesting properties that may reflect both the underlying “tuning” of face space to preferentially represent real face appearance and the diagnosticity of individual features for categorizing faces as animate or inanimate. In the current study, we examined how sex categories interact with animacy perception by separately characterizing animacy judgments as a function of stimulus sex. We find that stimulus sex affects subjective ratings of animacy and sex categorization of real and artificial faces. Specifically, female faces look more artificial and artificial faces look more female. We discuss our results in terms of the ecology of real and artificial faces and the possible role of visual experience with artificial female faces, and the objectification of female faces. PMID:24244103

  2. Prenatal factors related to face presentation: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Arsene, Emmanuelle; Langlois, Carole; Garabedian, Charles; Clouqueur, Elodie; Deruelle, Philippe; Subtil, Damien

    2016-08-01

    Face presentation is rare. Its risk factors are debated and its mechanism is practically unknown. The objectives of the study were to determine the prenatal factors associated with face presentation at delivery and discuss the mechanism by which it occurs. Retrospective case-control study including all cases of face presentation of infants born at a gestational age between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation over a 16 year period. For each case, we selected three control women who gave birth the same day. During the study period, there were 64 cases of face presentation (incidence: 0.8 per 1000 births), which we compared with 191 controls. After logistic regression, the four factors most closely associated with delivery in face presentation were twin pregnancy [OR 25.8 (4.7-141.8)], birth weight <2500 g [OR 8.9 (2.1-38.0)], polyhydramnios [OR 7.1 (2.0-25.2)], and multiparity [OR 3.6 (1.5-8.6)]. These factors are all associated with a reduction in the uterine constraints on fetal attitude. This may play a role in the mechanism resulting in face presentation.

  3. Memory for famous faces and the temporal pole: functional imaging findings in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Griffith, H Randall; Richardson, Elizabeth; Pyzalski, Robert W; Bell, Brian; Dow, Christian; Hermann, Bruce P; Seidenberg, Michael

    2006-08-01

    The ability to recognize, name, and provide information about famous persons is deficient in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), although the neural basis for these deficits is not well understood. We examined the relationship of resting metabolism of the temporal poles, as determined by [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, to performance on a task of famous face recognition, naming, and generation of semantic information in 12 patients with TLE. Correlations between metabolic measures of the temporal poles and performance on the Famous Faces Task revealed strong relationships between all aspects of the Famous Faces Task and the left temporal pole, whereas Famous Faces Task correlations with the right temporal pole were not significant. These findings indicate that the left temporal pole is associated with lexical and semantic retrieval of knowledge of famous persons in patients with TLE. Further study appears warranted to elucidate the networks involved in semantic knowledge for famous faces.

  4. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Target-context unitization effect on the familiarity-related FN400: a face recognition exclusion task.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Etienne, Yann

    2015-03-01

    Using two exclusion tasks, the present study examined how the ERP correlates of face recognition are affected by the nature of the information to be retrieved. Intrinsic (facial expression) and extrinsic (background scene) visual information were paired with face identity and constituted the exclusion criterion at test time. Although perceptual information had to be taken into account in both situations, the FN400 old-new effect was observed only for old target faces on the expression-exclusion task, whereas it was found for both old target and old non-target faces in the background-exclusion situation. These results reveal that the FN400, which is generally interpreted as a correlate of familiarity, was modulated by the retrieval of intra-item and intrinsic face information, but not by the retrieval of extrinsic information. The observed effects on the FN400 depended on the nature of the information to be retrieved and its relationship (unitization) to the recognition target. On the other hand, the parietal old-new effect (generally described as an ERP correlate of recollection) reflected the retrieval of both types of contextual features equivalently. The current findings are discussed in relation to recent controversies about the nature of the recognition processes reflected by the ERP correlates of face recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pendulum, elliptic functions, and relative cohomology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Françoise, J.-P.; Garrido, P. L.; Gallavotti, G.

    2010-03-01

    Revisiting canonical integration of the classical pendulum around its unstable equilibrium, normal hyperbolic canonical coordinates are constructed and an identity between elliptic functions is found whose proof can be based on symplectic geometry and global relative cohomology. Alternatively it can be reduced to a well known identity between elliptic functions. Normal canonical action-angle variables are also constructed around the stable equilibrium and a corresponding identity is exhibited.

  7. Viewing preferences of rhesus monkeys related to memory for complex pictures, colours and faces.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F A; Goldman-Rakic, P S

    1994-01-31

    In order to determine the preferences of rhesus monkeys for visual stimuli, their eye movements were measured in response to presentations of complex pictures, fields of uniform colour, and of faces using the scleral search coil technique. The monkeys (n = 4) controlled both the onset and offset of the stimuli by the direction of their gaze. Each stimulus was presented 4 times, with 0 or 2, and 36 or 38 trials between successive presentations. Several trends were apparent in their scanning behaviour: (1) all 4 monkeys spent more time looking at pictures and faces compared to colour fields. As individuals, they differed in their overall propensity in looking at visual stimuli: monkeys that spent the most (or least) time looking at pictures spent the most (or least) time looking at colour fields. (2) Although the monkeys appeared to prefer pictures and faces to colour fields as measured by gaze duration, preferences for individual pictures, faces and colour fields were not evident. (3) Memory for recently presented stimuli substantially affected gaze duration which was significantly longer for the first compared to the second presentation of the pictures and faces, and memory was estimated to influence gaze duration over as many as 38 intervening trials. These effects were not significant in the case of colour fields. (4) There were no significant differences either in the average latencies to initiate eye movements or the number of saccades on the first and second presentations of pictures, colors or faces for the 4 monkeys. However, the average latencies to the first eye movement within a trial were longer for colour fields than for pictures for all 4 monkeys. Individual monkeys differed substantially in their mean latencies for the initiation of the first eye movement within a trial, which ranged from 235 ms to 414 ms in the two extreme cases. (5) At the presentation of faces, the monkeys tended to make saccades to major facial features, and only occasionally to

  8. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177–1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670–674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm2 on the right and 50 mm2 on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region. PMID:23027970

  9. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance.

    PubMed

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J Christopher; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-10-16

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177-1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670-674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm(2) on the right and 50 mm(2) on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region.

  10. Relations between Prosodic Variables and Communicative Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Judy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three children were observed interacting with their mothers before the onset of single words, when vocabulary consisted of 10 words, and when it consisted of 50 words. Relations between communicative functions and acoustic analysis of prosodic variables were studied. Considerable variability was found in the number of rises produced overall and…

  11. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  12. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  13. Functional status after childbirth and related concepts.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Nadine M

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between functional status after childbirth and related concepts. The sample consisted of 177 women. The Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) 85-Part 2, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth (IFSAC) were used to measure variables. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum. Overall, this group had relatively low levels of anxiety and high levels of social support and functional status after childbirth. The STAI demonstrated coefficient alphas from .90 to .93, the PRQ 85-Part 2 .87 to .93, and the IFSAC .90. The relationship between state anxiety in the postpartum period and FSAC (r = -.204, p = .008) was significant. Additional significant findings between social support, anxiety, and subscales of the IFSAC were found. Nurses must understand these relationships to develop and implement effective interventions. This study is clinically relevant to nurses involved in caring for pregnant and postpartum clients.

  14. Geometric Figure-Rotation Task and Face Representation in Dyslexia: Role of Spatial Relations and Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Anneliese A.

    1981-01-01

    Compared to normal readers, the dyslexic children not only drew significantly more "neolithic faces" but also made more errors of spatial displacement (up/down or right/left) on parts of asymmetric figures, while among both groups there were similar percentages who made no errors in the global rotation of figures. (Author/SJL)

  15. A U-Shaped Relation between Sitting Ability and Upright Face Processing in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Allen, Casey L.; Barna, Amelia Cevelle

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates connections exist between action, perception, and cognition in infants. In this study, associated changes between sitting ability and upright face processing were tested in 111 infants. Using the visual habituation "switch" task (C. H. Cashon & L. B. Cohen, 2004; L. B. Cohen & C. H. Cashon, 2001), holistic…

  16. A U-Shaped Relation between Sitting Ability and Upright Face Processing in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Allen, Casey L.; Barna, Amelia Cevelle

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates connections exist between action, perception, and cognition in infants. In this study, associated changes between sitting ability and upright face processing were tested in 111 infants. Using the visual habituation "switch" task (C. H. Cashon & L. B. Cohen, 2004; L. B. Cohen & C. H. Cashon, 2001), holistic…

  17. Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen and water relations: Six important lessons from FACE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both natural and managed ecosystems are currently exposed to an elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) level that has not been experienced by terrestrial vegetation since the early Miocene and are facing a future that portends uncertain consequences of ever increasing [CO2]. Understanding how...

  18. A comparison of face to face and video-based education on attitude related to diet and fluids: Adherence in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Hasanzadeh, Farzaneh; Shamsoddini, Somayyeh; Emamimoghadam, Zahra; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2012-07-01

    Adherence to diet and fluids is the cornerstone of patients undergoing hemodialysis. By informing hemodialysis patients we can help them have a proper diet and reduce mortality and complications of toxins. Face to face education is one of the most common methods of training in health care system. But advantages of video- based education are being simple and cost-effective, although this method is virtual. Seventy-five hemodialysis patients were divided randomly into face to face and video-based education groups. A training manual was designed based on Orem's self-care model. Content of training manual was same in both the groups. In the face to face group, 2 educational sessions were accomplished during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. In the video-based education group, a produced film, separated to 2 episodes was presented during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. An Attitude questionnaire was completed as a pretest and at the end of weeks 2 and 4. SPSS software version 11.5 was used for analysis. Attitudes about fluid and diet adherence at the end of weeks 2 and 4 are not significantly different in face to face or video-based education groups. The patients' attitude had a significant difference in face to face group between the 3 study phases (pre-, 2, and 4 weeks postintervention). The same results were obtained in 3 phases of video-based education group. Our findings showed that video-based education could be as effective as face to face method. It is recommended that more investment be devoted to video-based education.

  19. Special Relativity via Modified Bessel Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    2000-10-01

    The recursive formulas of modified Bessel functions give the relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Modified Bessel functions are solutions to a continuous time, one-dimensional discrete jump process. The jump process is analyzed from two inertial frames with a relative constant velocity; the average distance of a particle along the chain corresponds to the distance between two observers in the two inertial frames. The recursion relations of modified Bessel functions are compared to the 'k calculus' which uses the radial Doppler effect to derive relativistic kinematics. The Doppler effect predicts that the frequency is a decreasing function of the velocity, and the Planck frequency, which increases with velocity, does not transform like the frequency of a clock. The Lorentz transformation can be interpreted as energy and momentum conservation relations through the addition formula for hyperbolic cosine and sine, respectively. The addition formula for the hyperbolic tangent gives the well-known relativistic formula for the addition of velocities. In the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits the distributions of the particle's position are Gaussian and Poisson, respectively.

  20. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  1. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES

  2. Computing Partial Transposes and Related Entanglement Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    The partial transpose (PT) is an important function for entanglement testing and quantification and also for the study of geometrical aspects of the quantum state space. In this article, considering general bipartite and multipartite discrete systems, explicit formulas ready for the numerical implementation of the PT and of related entanglement functions are presented and the Fortran code produced for that purpose is described. What is more, we obtain an analytical expression for the Hilbert-Schmidt entanglement of two-qudit systems and for the associated closest separable state. In contrast to previous works on this matter, we only use the properties of the PT, not applying Lagrange multipliers.

  3. Face gender modulates women's brain activity during face encoding.

    PubMed

    Lovén, Johanna; Svärd, Joakim; Ebner, Natalie C; Herlitz, Agneta; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-07-01

    Women typically remember more female than male faces, whereas men do not show a reliable own-gender bias. However, little is known about the neural correlates of this own-gender bias in face recognition memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether face gender modulated brain activity in fusiform and inferior occipital gyri during incidental encoding of faces. Fifteen women and 14 men underwent fMRI while passively viewing female and male faces, followed by a surprise face recognition task. Women recognized more female than male faces and showed higher activity to female than male faces in individually defined regions of fusiform and inferior occipital gyri. In contrast, men's recognition memory and blood-oxygen-level-dependent response were not modulated by face gender. Importantly, higher activity in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) to one gender was related to better memory performance for that gender. These findings suggest that the FFG is involved in the gender bias in memory for faces, which may be linked to differential experience with female and male faces. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Face lift.

    PubMed

    Warren, Richard J; Aston, Sherrell J; Mendelson, Bryan C

    2011-12-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify and describe the anatomy of and changes to the aging face, including changes in bone mass and structure and changes to the skin, tissue, and muscles. 2. Assess each individual's unique anatomy before embarking on face-lift surgery and incorporate various surgical techniques, including fat grafting and other corrective procedures in addition to shifting existing fat to a higher position on the face, into discussions with patients. 3. Identify risk factors and potential complications in prospective patients. 4. Describe the benefits and risks of various techniques. The ability to surgically rejuvenate the aging face has progressed in parallel with plastic surgeons' understanding of facial anatomy. In turn, a more clear explanation now exists for the visible changes seen in the aging face. This article and its associated video content review the current understanding of facial anatomy as it relates to facial aging. The standard face-lift techniques are explained and their various features, both good and bad, are reviewed. The objective is for surgeons to make a better aesthetic diagnosis before embarking on face-lift surgery, and to have the ability to use the appropriate technique depending on the clinical situation.

  5. A Comparative Study of Factors Related to Student Performance in Online and Traditional Face-to-Face MBA Courses That Are Quantitative and Qualitative in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Carenado V.

    2013-01-01

    Online learning environments have been embraced by many institutions, faculty, and students as a viable adult learning option to the traditional face-to-face learning environment. As this mode of delivery for instruction continues to grow in acceptance, it is important to understand the characteristics of adult learners, the historical progression…

  6. Temporal dynamics of the face familiarity effect: bootstrap analysis of single-subject event-related potential data.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.

  7. Changes in vertical tooth position and face height related to long term anterior repositioning splint therapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, D T; Gaudet, E L; Phillips, C

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates whether extended full-time wear of a partial coverage mandibular anterior repositioning splint (MORA) causes intrusion of posterior teeth and determines the effect on jaw position. Sixty-four patients from two private orthodontic practices were studied using cephalometric radiographs to measure vertical change in position of the anterior and posterior teeth and the mandible. The splint wear time ranged from a minimum of one half year to a maximum of 4.8 years, with a mean of 1.33 years. No significant change was recorded in the distance from the mandibular molar to the mandibular plane. On average, the maxillary incisor and maxillary molar extruded about 1 mm, while the mandibular molar was unchanged and the mandibular incisor intruded about 0.6 mm. Posterior face height increased an average of 1.6 mm, and anterior face height increased an average of 2.7 mms. In 20% of the patients, intrusion of the mandibular molars of 1 mm or more occurred. In 41%, extrusion of the maxillary incisors of 1 mm or more was noted. Intrusion of the upper molars or extrusion of the lower incisors occurred in only 5% of the patients. The data indicates that only a very small proportion of patients having long term splint therapy using the MORA have clinically significant molar intrusion. Change in mandibular position was expressed in a vertical increase in posterior and anterior face height. Only very small changes occurred in antero-posterior position.

  8. The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13–15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war, terrorism and political conflict. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political violence exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Results confirmed that political violence exposure was positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms. Interpersonal, temperance and transcendence strengths were negatively associated with psychiatric symptoms. Moderating effects of the interpersonal strengths on the relation between political violence exposure and the psychiatric and PTSD indices were confirmed. The findings extend existing knowledge about the resilience function of character strengths in exposure to protracted conflict and have important practical implications for applying strength-building practices for adolescents who grow up in war-affected environments. PMID:26793139

  9. The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13-15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war, terrorism and political conflict. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political violence exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Results confirmed that political violence exposure was positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms. Interpersonal, temperance and transcendence strengths were negatively associated with psychiatric symptoms. Moderating effects of the interpersonal strengths on the relation between political violence exposure and the psychiatric and PTSD indices were confirmed. The findings extend existing knowledge about the resilience function of character strengths in exposure to protracted conflict and have important practical implications for applying strength-building practices for adolescents who grow up in war-affected environments.

  10. Eukaryotic CTR Copper Uptake Transporters Require Two Faces of the Third Transmembrane Domain for Helix Packing, Oligomerization, and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Stephen G.; Eng, Edward T.; De Feo, Christopher J.; Unger, Vinzenz M.

    2005-01-01

    Members of the copper uptake transporter (CTR) family from yeast, plants, and mammals including human are required for cellular uptake of the essential metal copper. Based on biochemical data, CTRs have three transmembrane domains and have been shown to oligomerize in the membrane. Among individual members of the family, there is little amino acid sequence identity, raising questions as to how these proteins adopt a common fold, oligomerize, and participate in copper transport. Using site-directed mutagenesis, tryptophan scanning, genetic complementation, subcellular localization, chemical cross-linking, and the yeast unfolded protein response, we demonstrated that at least half of the third transmembrane domain (TM3) plays a vital role in CTR structure and function. The results of our analysis showed that TM3 contains two functionally distinct faces. One face bears a highly conserved Gly-X-X-X-Gly (GG4) motif, which we showed to be essential for CTR oligomerization. Moreover, we showed that steric constraints reach past the GG4-motif itself including amino acid residues that are not conserved throughout the CTR family. A second face of TM3 contains three amino acid positions that, when mutated to tryptophan, cause predominantly abnormal localization but are still partially functional in growth complementation experiments. These mutations cluster on the face opposite to the GG4-bearing face of TM3 where they may mediate interactions with the remaining two transmembrane domains. Taken together, our data support TM3 as being buried within trimeric CTR where it plays an essential role in CTR assembly. PMID:15385536

  11. Eukaryotic CTR copper uptake transporters require two faces of the third transmembrane domain for helix packing, oligomerization, and function.

    PubMed

    Aller, Stephen G; Eng, Edward T; De Feo, Christopher J; Unger, Vinzenz M

    2004-12-17

    Members of the copper uptake transporter (CTR) family from yeast, plants, and mammals including human are required for cellular uptake of the essential metal copper. Based on biochemical data, CTRs have three transmembrane domains and have been shown to oligomerize in the membrane. Among individual members of the family, there is little amino acid sequence identity, raising questions as to how these proteins adopt a common fold, oligomerize, and participate in copper transport. Using site-directed mutagenesis, tryptophan scanning, genetic complementation, subcellular localization, chemical cross-linking, and the yeast unfolded protein response, we demonstrated that at least half of the third transmembrane domain (TM3) plays a vital role in CTR structure and function. The results of our analysis showed that TM3 contains two functionally distinct faces. One face bears a highly conserved Gly-X-X-X-Gly (GG4) motif, which we showed to be essential for CTR oligomerization. Moreover, we showed that steric constraints reach past the GG4-motif itself including amino acid residues that are not conserved throughout the CTR family. A second face of TM3 contains three amino acid positions that, when mutated to tryptophan, cause predominantly abnormal localization but are still partially functional in growth complementation experiments. These mutations cluster on the face opposite to the GG4-bearing face of TM3 where they may mediate interactions with the remaining two transmembrane domains. Taken together, our data support TM3 as being buried within trimeric CTR where it plays an essential role in CTR assembly.

  12. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

  13. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

  14. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-03-23

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the "uncanny valley" effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics.

  15. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-03-01

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the “uncanny valley” effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics.

  16. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the “uncanny valley” effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics. PMID:28332557

  17. Relation between Amygdala Structure and Function in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G.; Womer, Fay Y.; Jones, Monique M.; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P.; Martin, Andres; Constable, R. Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed decreased amygdala volume and increased amygdala response to emotional faces. Amygdala volume is inversely related to activation during emotional face processing.

  18. Relation between Amygdala Structure and Function in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G.; Womer, Fay Y.; Jones, Monique M.; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P.; Martin, Andres; Constable, R. Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed decreased amygdala volume and increased amygdala response to emotional faces. Amygdala volume is inversely related to activation during emotional face processing.

  19. Functional Brain Activation to Emotional and non-Emotional Faces in Healthy Children: Evidence for Developmentally Undifferentiated Amygdala Function During the School Age Period

    PubMed Central

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Belden, Andrew C.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. Particularly, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous research has consistently found greater amygdala responses to fearful faces as compared to neutral faces in adults, convergent with a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in fear processing. Studies have found that the amygdala also responds differentially to other facial emotion types in adults. Yet, the literature regarding when this differential amygdala responsivity develops is limited and mixed. Thus, the goal of current study was to examine amygdala responses to emotional and neutral faces in a relatively large sample of healthy school age children (N = 52). While the amygdala was active in response to emotional and neutral faces, the results do not support the hypothesis that the amygdala responds differentially to emotional faces in 7 – 12 year old children. Nonetheless, amygdala activity was correlated with the severity of subclinical depression symptoms and emotional regulation skills. Additionally, sex differences were observed in frontal, temporal, and visual regions as well as effects of pubertal development in visual regions. These findings suggest important differences in amygdala reactivity in childhood. PMID:23636982

  20. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Eva Henje; Connolly, Colm G.; Ho, Tiffany C.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P.; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N.; Yang, Tony T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad- happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Methods Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. Results The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Limitations Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Conclusions Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:25827506

  1. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Looking for a face in the crowd: fixation-related potentials in an eye-movement visual search task.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Lisandro N; Kamienkowski, Juan E; Varatharajah, Alexander; Sigman, Mariano; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Ison, Matias J

    2014-04-01

    Despite the compelling contribution of the study of event related potentials (ERPs) and eye movements to cognitive neuroscience, these two approaches have largely evolved independently. We designed an eye-movement visual search paradigm that allowed us to concurrently record EEG and eye movements while subjects were asked to find a hidden target face in a crowded scene with distractor faces. Fixation event-related potentials (fERPs) to target and distractor stimuli showed the emergence of robust sensory components associated with the perception of stimuli and cognitive components associated with the detection of target faces. We compared those components with the ones obtained in a control task at fixation: qualitative similarities as well as differences in terms of scalp topography and latency emerged between the two. By using single trial analyses, fixations to target and distractors could be decoded from the EEG signals above chance level in 11 out of 12 subjects. Our results show that EEG signatures related to cognitive behavior develop across spatially unconstrained exploration of natural scenes and provide a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of target detection during natural search.

  3. Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

  4. Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2004-11-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.

  5. In Your Face: Risk of Punishment Enhances Cognitive Control and Error-Related Activity in the Corrugator Supercilii Muscle.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn R; Mattsson-Mårn, Isak Berglund; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is needed when mistakes have consequences, especially when such consequences are potentially harmful. However, little is known about how the aversive consequences of deficient control affect behavior. To address this issue, participants performed a two-choice response time task where error commissions were expected to be punished by electric shocks during certain blocks. By manipulating (1) the perceived punishment risk (no, low, high) associated with error commissions, and (2) response conflict (low, high), we showed that motivation to avoid punishment enhanced performance during high response conflict. As a novel index of the processes enabling successful cognitive control under threat, we explored electromyographic activity in the corrugator supercilii (cEMG) muscle of the upper face. The corrugator supercilii is partially controlled by the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) which is sensitive to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. As hypothesized, the cEMG exhibited several key similarities with the core temporal and functional characteristics of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) ERP component, the hallmark index of cognitive control elicited by performance errors, and which has been linked to the aMCC. The cEMG was amplified within 100 ms of error commissions (the same time-window as the ERN), particularly during the high punishment risk condition where errors would be most aversive. Furthermore, similar to the ERN, the magnitude of error cEMG predicted post-error response time slowing. Our results suggest that cEMG activity can serve as an index of avoidance motivated control, which is instrumental to adaptive cognitive control when consequences are potentially harmful.

  6. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  7. The Hierarchical Brain Network for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level. PMID:23527282

  8. The face that sank the Essex: potential function of the spermaceti organ in aggression.

    PubMed

    Carrier, David R; Deban, Stephen M; Otterstrom, Jason

    2002-06-01

    'Forehead to forehead I meet thee, this third time, Moby Dick!' [Ahab (Melville, 1851)] Herman Melville's fictional portrayal of the sinking of the Pequod was inspired by instances in which large sperm whales sank whaling ships by ramming the ships with their heads. Observations of aggression in species of the four major clades of cetacean and the artiodactyl outgroup suggest that head-butting during male-male aggression is a basal behavior for cetaceans. We hypothesize that the ability of sperm whales to destroy stout wooden ships, 3-5 times their body mass, is a product of specialization for male-male aggression. Specifically, we suggest that the greatly enlarged and derived melon of sperm whales, the spermaceti organ, evolved as a battering ram to injure an opponent. To address this hypothesis, we examined the correlation between relative melon size and the level of sexual dimorphism in body size among cetaceans. We also modeled impacts between two equal-sized sperm whales to determine whether it is physically possible for the spermaceti organ to function as an effective battering ram. We found (i) that the evolution of relative melon size in cetaceans is positively correlated with the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body size and (ii) that the spermaceti organ of a charging sperm whale has enough momentum to seriously injure an opponent. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spermaceti organ has evolved to be a weapon used in male-male aggression.

  9. Genetic diversity and ecosystem functioning in the face of multiple stressors.

    PubMed

    Roger, Fabian; Godhe, Anna; Gamfeldt, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Species diversity is important for a range of ecosystem processes and properties, including the resistance to single and multiple stressors. It has been suggested that genetic diversity may play a similar role, but empirical evidence is still relatively scarce. Here, we report the results of a microcosm experiment where four strains of the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi were grown in monoculture and in mixture under a factorial combination of temperature and salinity stress. The strains differed in their susceptibility to the two stressors and no strain was able to survive both stressors simultaneously. Strong competition between the genotypes resulted in the dominance of one strain under both control and salinity stress conditions. The overall productivity of the mixture, however, was not related to the dominance of this strain, but was instead dependent on the treatment; under control conditions we observed a positive effect of genetic richness, whereas a negative effect was observed in the stress treatments. This suggests that interactions among the strains can be both positive and negative, depending on the abiotic environment. Our results provide additional evidence that the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship is also relevant at the level of genetic diversity.

  10. Identification of functionally related neural assemblies.

    PubMed

    Gerstein, G L; Perkel, D H; Subramanian, K N

    1978-01-20

    Present-day techniques of multiple-electrode together with computer-aided separation of impulses arising from different neurons permit the simultaneous recording of nerve-impulse timings in sets of neurons exceeding 20 in number. This in turn makes it feasible to search for functional groups of neurons, defined as subsets that tend to fire in near simultaneity significantly more often than would independent neurons at corresponding mean rates. A statistical technique is described that permits the detection and identification of such functional groups. The method is accretional, based on identification of associated neurons through interative application of a significance test on multiple coincidences of neuronal firings within an observational window. Examples of the operation of the method and indications as to its sensitivity are furnished through computer simulations of neural networks. The entire algorithm may be used as a screening technique to select smaller groups of neurons for cross-correlational and related finer-grained temporal analyses, or it may be used in its own right to detect and characterize functional groups that are not distinguishable by other statistical procedures.

  11. White-faced ibis DDE-related reproductive problems continue at Carson Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Herron, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Organochlorine, mercury, and selenium contamination was studied in White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada in 1985 and 1986. DDE was detected in 138 of 140 eggs sampled. Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with residues of DDE. DDE residues in ibis eggs, unlike residues in most other wading bird eggs from the Great Basin have not declined during the last decade. At DDE levels in eggs above 4 ppm (wet weight), clutch size and productivity decreased, and the incidence of cracked eggs increased. Assuming that 4 ppm DOE is the critical residue level, 40% of the nesting population in 1985 and 1986 was adversely impacted by DDE, with a net loss of 20% of the population' s expected .production. Most eggs containing high levels (up to 29 ppm) also contained DDT, which implies the source was recently-used DDT. No evidence of breeding ground DDE-DDT contamination was found.

  12. Adaptation Duration Dissociates Category-, Image-, and Person-Specific Processes on Face-Evoked Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Márta; Zbanţ, Adriana; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated that face perception is biased by the prior presentation of another face, a phenomenon termed as face-related after-effect (FAE). FAE is linked to a neural signal-reduction at occipito-temporal areas and it can be observed in the amplitude modulation of the early event-related potential (ERP) components. Recently, macaque single-cell recording studies suggested that manipulating the duration of the adaptor makes the selective adaptation of different visual motion processing steps possible. To date, however, only a few studies tested the effects of adaptor duration on the electrophysiological correlates of human face processing directly. The goal of the current study was to test the effect of adaptor duration on the image-, identity-, and generic category-specific face processing steps. To this end, in a two-alternative forced choice familiarity decision task we used five adaptor durations (ranging from 200–5000 ms) and four adaptor categories: adaptor and test were identical images—Repetition Suppression (RS); adaptor and test were different images of the Same Identity (SameID); adaptor and test images depicted Different Identities (DiffID); the adaptor was a Fourier phase-randomized image (No). Behaviorally, a strong priming effect was observed in both accuracy and response times for RS compared with both DiffID and No. The electrophysiological results suggest that rapid adaptation leads to a category-specific modulation of P100, N170, and N250. In addition, both identity and image-specific processes affected the N250 component during rapid adaptation. On the other hand, prolonged (5000 ms) adaptation enhanced, and extended category-specific adaptation processes over all tested ERP components. Additionally, prolonged adaptation led to the emergence of image-, and identity-specific modulations on the N170 and P2 components as well. In other words, there was a clear dissociation among category, identity-, and image

  13. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional brain activation to emotionally valenced faces in school-aged children with a history of preschool-onset major depression.

    PubMed

    Barch, Deanna M; Gaffrey, Michael S; Botteron, Kelly N; Belden, Andrew C; Luby, Joan L

    2012-12-15

    Recent research has demonstrated that clinical depression can emerge as early as the preschool period. Here, we examine brain function in children with a history of preschool-onset depression (PO-MDD) in comparison with healthy children. Participants were medication naïve school-aged children (ages 7-11) with PO-MDD (n = 22) or no psychiatric history (n = 16) followed longitudinally as part of the Preschool Depression Study. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of blood oxygen level-dependent signal to examine functional brain activity in response to emotionally valenced faces (sad, fearful, angry, happy, neutral) following a negative mood induction provided to all children. In categorical group comparisons, children with PO-MDD demonstrated increased activity in parietal cortex in response to sad faces but no differences in brain activity in a priori regions of interest (e.g., amygdala). However, in dimensional analyses, the severity of depression symptoms at the baseline preschool assessment predicted increased responses to sad faces in amygdala, hippocampal, parietal, and orbital frontal regions. School-aged children with a history of PO-MDD showed patterns of functional brain responses to emotionally evocative stimuli similar to patterns found in adults and adolescents with major depression. These patterns were most strongly related to the severity of depression during the preschool period, suggesting that the magnitude of early symptoms may be particularly important for understanding altered brain function. These findings suggest that an early episode of depression before age 6 may be associated with enduring brain change or may represent a biomarker that was present even before the preschool episode. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Patterns, aetiology and risk factors of intimate partner violence-related injuries to head, neck and face in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) related injuries have been recognized among health care professionals. However, few studies have provided detailed information on injuries to the head, neck and face regions in Chinese women. As abused Chinese women are generally unwilling to disclose IPV and there are differences in socio-demographic characteristics, societal norms and behaviours, the women may exhibit different patterns, aetiology and risk factors of IPV-related HNF injuries. This study aims to examine the patterns of head, neck and face injuries presenting to Accident and Emergency departments, including the anatomical regions, types, severity, aetiology and demographic and non-demographic risk factors of injuries inflicted by intimate partners in Chinese context. Methods Medical charts of 223 women presented to the Accident and Emergency departments of two regional hospitals in Hong Kong between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Results Head, neck and face injuries remained the most common injuries found in abused Chinese women (77.6%), and punching with a fist was the most common aetiology (60.2%). In particular, punching with a fist was significantly associated on the upper third of the maxillofacial region (p = .01) and the back part of the head (p = .03). Moreover, cohabiting and separated women were more likely to have multiple injuries than those who were married (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4, 7.8; OR = 2.1, 95% CI = .4, 11.9). Conclusions The findings enhance the understanding of head, neck and face injuries and inform clinicians about the linkage among injuries and risks in abused Chinese women. PMID:24410868

  16. Field measurement of head related transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wightman, Frederic; Kistler, Doris J.

    1990-04-01

    This effort sought to refine and simplify techniques for generating acoustic signals that could be used in 3-D auditory displays. Such signals are presented to a listener over headphones and create the illusion of a virtual sound source at a predetermined position in 3-D space. The signals are generated digitally, using algorithms based on the acoustic effects of human outer ear structures on sound waves reaching the ears. To date, the main area of difficulty inhibiting development of practical (3-D) displays is in obtaining estimates of these outer ear effects. The work was divided into three areas: (1) acoustic measurements of free field-to-eardrum transfer functions (also called head related transfer functions, of HRTFs); (2) analysis of HRTFs; and (3) psychophysical assessment of human performance in sound localization tasks involving stimuli presented both in real and in simulated (virtual) auditory space. The focus was on evaluating means for making HRTF measurements faster and easier, thus simplifying synthesis of auditory stimuli for 3-D displays.

  17. The European functional tree of bird life in the face of global change

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Psomas, Achilleas; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lavergne, Sébastien; Pearman, Peter B.; Renaud, Julien; Zupan, Laure; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized joint impact of climate and land cover change on facets of biodiversity and their associated functions, risk assessments have primarily evaluated impacts on species ranges and richness. Here we quantify the sensitivity of the functional structure of European avian assemblages to changes in both regional climate and land cover. We combine species range forecasts with functional trait information. We show that species sensitivity to environmental change is randomly distributed across the functional tree of the European avifauna and that functionally unique species are not disproportionately threatened by 2080. However, projected species range changes will modify the mean species richness and functional diversity of bird diets and feeding behaviours. This will unequally affect the spatial structure of functional diversity, leading to homogenization across Europe. Therefore, global changes may alter the functional structure of species assemblages in the future in ways that need to be accounted for in conservation planning. PMID:24452245

  18. The European functional tree of bird life in the face of global change.

    PubMed

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Psomas, Achilleas; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lavergne, Sébastien; Pearman, Peter B; Renaud, Julien; Zupan, Laure; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized joint impact of climate and land cover change on facets of biodiversity and their associated functions, risk assessments have primarily evaluated impacts on species ranges and richness. Here we quantify the sensitivity of the functional structure of European avian assemblages to changes in both regional climate and land cover. We combine species range forecasts with functional-trait information. We show that species sensitivity to environmental change is randomly distributed across the functional tree of the European avifauna and that functionally unique species are not disproportionately threatened by 2080. However, projected species range changes will modify the mean species richness and functional diversity of bird diets and feeding behaviours. This will unequally affect the spatial structure of functional diversity, leading to homogenization across Europe. Therefore, global changes may alter the functional structure of species assemblages in the future in ways that need to be accounted for in conservation planning.

  19. Functional brain activation to emotional and nonemotional faces in healthy children: evidence for developmentally undifferentiated amygdala function during the school-age period.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-12-01

    The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. In particular, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous research has consistently found greater amygdala responses to fearful than to neutral faces in adults, convergent with a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in fear processing. Studies have shown that the amygdala also responds differentially to other facial emotion types in adults. Yet the literature regarding when this differential amygdala responsivity develops is limited and mixed. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine amygdala responses to emotional and neutral faces in a relatively large sample of healthy school-age children (N = 52). Although the amygdala was active in response to emotional and neutral faces, the results did not support the hypothesis that the amygdala responds differentially to emotional faces in 7- to 12-year-old children. Nonetheless, amygdala activity was correlated with the severity of subclinical depression symptoms and with emotional regulation skills. Additionally, sex differences were observed in frontal, temporal, and visual regions, as well as effects of pubertal development in visual regions. These findings suggest important differences in amygdala reactivity in childhood.

  20. Facing Complaining Customer and Suppressed Emotion at Worksite Related to Sleep Disturbance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Shil; Lee, Wanhyung; Hong, Kwanyoung; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei Jin; Yoon, Jin Ha

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age < 65 years) in the 3rd Korean Working Condition Survey (2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sleep disturbance occurrence were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43-8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30-9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16-2.73) and 1.63 (1.02-2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34-20.80) and 10.17 (4.46-22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population.

  1. The ties to unbind: age-related differences in feature (un)binding in working memory for emotional faces

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivanoglu, Didem; Jain, Shivangi; Ariel, Robert; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated age-related differences in the processing of emotional stimuli. Specifically, we were interested in whether older adults would show deficits in unbinding emotional expression (i.e., either no emotion, happiness, anger, or disgust) from bound stimuli (i.e., photographs of faces expressing these emotions), as a hyper-binding account of age-related differences in working memory would predict. Younger and older adults completed different N-Back tasks (side-by-side 0-Back, 1-Back, 2-Back) under three conditions: match/mismatch judgments based on either the identity of the face (identity condition), the face’s emotional expression (expression condition), or both identity and expression of the face (both condition). The two age groups performed more slowly and with lower accuracy in the expression condition than in the both condition, indicating the presence of an unbinding process. This unbinding effect was more pronounced in older adults than in younger adults, but only in the 2-Back task. Thus, older adults seemed to have a specific deficit in unbinding in working memory. Additionally, no age-related differences were found in accuracy in the 0-Back task, but such differences emerged in the 1-Back task, and were further magnified in the 2-Back task, indicating independent age-related differences in attention/STM and working memory. Pupil dilation data confirmed that the attention/STM version of the task (1-Back) is more effortful for older adults than younger adults. PMID:24795660

  2. The influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A; Pachai, Matthew V; Rutherford, M D

    2013-11-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye contact (the cone of gaze) was narrower for upright than inverted faces. In both groups, the cone of gaze was wider for angry faces than for fearful or neutral faces. These results suggest that in high-functioning adults with ASD, the perception of eye contact is not tuned to be finer for upright than inverted faces, but that information is nevertheless integrated across expression and gaze direction.

  3. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Yunzhe; Wang, Xiaochun; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490–910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right) when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 μV•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 μV•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 μV•s). These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system. PMID:25221488

  4. Visual Scanning Patterns and Executive Function in Relation to Facial Emotion Recognition in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Circelli, Karishma S.; Clark, Uraina S.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Objective The ability to perceive facial emotion varies with age. Relative to younger adults (YA), older adults (OA) are less accurate at identifying fear, anger, and sadness, and more accurate at identifying disgust. Because different emotions are conveyed by different parts of the face, changes in visual scanning patterns may account for age-related variability. We investigated the relation between scanning patterns and recognition of facial emotions. Additionally, as frontal-lobe changes with age may affect scanning patterns and emotion recognition, we examined correlations between scanning parameters and performance on executive function tests. Methods We recorded eye movements from 16 OA (mean age 68.9) and 16 YA (mean age 19.2) while they categorized facial expressions and non-face control images (landscapes), and administered standard tests of executive function. Results OA were less accurate than YA at identifying fear (p<.05, r=.44) and more accurate at identifying disgust (p<.05, r=.39). OA fixated less than YA on the top half of the face for disgust, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces (p’s<.05, r’s≥.38), whereas there was no group difference for landscapes. For OA, executive function was correlated with recognition of sad expressions and with scanning patterns for fearful, sad, and surprised expressions. Conclusion We report significant age-related differences in visual scanning that are specific to faces. The observed relation between scanning patterns and executive function supports the hypothesis that frontal-lobe changes with age may underlie some changes in emotion recognition. PMID:22616800

  5. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces: Implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature.

  6. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  7. Neuropolitics: EEG spectral maps related to a political vote based on the first impression of the candidate's face.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Astolfi, L; De Vico Fallani, F; Aloise, F; Mattia, D; Bocale, S; Vernucci, F; Babiloni, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the EEG activity elicited by a fast observation of face of real politicians during a simulated political election. Politician's face are taken from real local election performed in Italy in the 2004 and 2008. We recorded the EEG activity of eight healthy subjects while they are asked to give a judgment on dominance, trustworthiness traits and a preference of vote on faces shown. Statistical differences of spectral EEG scalp activity have been mapped onto a realistic head model. For each experimental condition, we employed the t-test to compare the PSD values and adopted the False Discovery Rate correction for multiple comparisons. The scalp statistical maps revealed a desynchronization in the alpha band related to the politicians who lost the simulated elections and have been judged less trustworthy. Although these results might be congruent with the recent literature, the present is the first EEG study about and there is the need to extend the paradigm and the analysis on a larger number of subjects to validate these results.

  8. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16 years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home.

  9. Age-related differences in face recognition: Neural correlates of repetition and semantic priming in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Komes, Jessica; Tüttenberg, Simone; Leidinger, Jana; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2017-08-01

    Difficulties in person recognition are among the common complaints associated with cognitive ageing. The present series of experiments therefore investigated face and person recognition in young and older adults. The authors examined how within-domain and cross-domain repetition as well as semantic priming affect familiar face recognition and analyzed both behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures to identify specific processing stages of age-related deficits. During repetition priming (Experiments 1 and 2), the authors observed evidence of an age-related deficit in behavioral priming and clear reductions of both the N250r and the N400 ERP priming effects in older participants. At the same time, both semantic priming (Experiment 3) and the associated N400 ERP effect of semantic priming were largely intact in older adults. The authors suggest that ageing selectively affects the access to domain-general representations of familiar people via bottom-up perceptual processing units. At the same time, accessing domain-general representations via top-down semantic units seems to be relatively preserved in older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Medicaid Program; Face-to-Face Requirements for Home Health Services; Policy Changes and Clarifications Related to Home Health. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-02-02

    This final rule revises the Medicaid home health service definition consistent with section 6407 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (the Affordable Care Act) and section 504 of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) to add requirements that, for home health services, physicians document, and, for certain medical equipment, physicians or certain authorized non-physician practitioners (NPP) document the occurrence of a face-to-face encounter (including through the use of telehealth) with the Medicaid eligible beneficiary within reasonable timeframes. This rule also aligns the timeframes for the face-to-face encounter with similar regulatory requirements for Medicare home health services. In addition, this rule amends the definitions of medical supplies, equipment, and appliances. We expect minimal impact with the implementation of section 6407 of the Affordable Care Act and section 504 of MACRA. We recognize that states may have budgetary implications as a result of the amended definitions of medical supplies, equipment and appliances. Specifically, this rule may expand coverage of medical supplies, equipment and appliances under the home health benefit. There will be items that had previously only been offered under certain sections of the Act that will now be covered under the home health benefit.

  11. Facing Complaining Customer and Suppressed Emotion at Worksite Related to Sleep Disturbance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age < 65 years) in the 3rd Korean Working Condition Survey (2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sleep disturbance occurrence were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43–8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30–9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16–2.73) and 1.63 (1.02–2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34–20.80) and 10.17 (4.46–22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population. PMID:27709845

  12. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), as well as interviews after training. After training, all participants met behavioral criteria for expertise with the specific stimuli on which they received training. Scores on standardized measures improved after training for both groups, but only the face training group showed an increased face inversion effect behaviorally and electrophysiological changes to faces in the P100 component. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD can gain expertise in face processing through training. PMID:21484517

  13. An Island of Stability: Art Images and Natural Scenes – but Not Natural Faces – Show Consistent Esthetic Response in Alzheimer’s-Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Daniel J.; Stockinger, Simone; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of esthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in esthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved esthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar esthetic stability in early stage AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs – which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings – was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with esthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face-processing in healthy and diseased aging. Our work also gives insights into general theories of esthetics, since people with AD are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color esthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with AD, basic esthetic judgment of artistic images represents an “island of stability” in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, esthetic response could be a promising route to future therapies. PMID:23471005

  14. A general correlation of MPPS penetration as a function of face velocity with the model 8140 using the certitest 8160

    SciTech Connect

    Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Functional Subpopulations of Neurons in a Macaque Face Patch Revealed by Single-Unit fMRI Mapping.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Hyun; Russ, Brian E; McMahon, David B T; Koyano, Kenji W; Berman, Rebecca A; Leopold, David A

    2017-08-16

    Neurons within fMRI-defined face patches of the macaque brain exhibit shared categorical responses to flashed images but diverge in their responses under more natural viewing conditions. Here we investigate functional diversity among neurons in the anterior fundus (AF) face patch, combining whole-brain fMRI with longitudinal single-unit recordings in a local population (<1 mm(3)). For each cell, we computed a whole-brain correlation map based on its shared time course with voxels throughout the brain during naturalistic movie viewing. Based on this mapping, neighboring neurons showed markedly different affiliation with distant visually responsive areas and fell coarsely into subpopulations. Of these, only one subpopulation (∼16% of neurons) yielded similar correlation maps to the local fMRI signal. The results employ the readout of large-scale fMRI networks and, by indicating multiple functional domains within a single voxel, present a new view of functional diversity within a local neural population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The functional correlates of face perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions as evidenced by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Jehna, M; Neuper, C; Ischebeck, A; Loitfelder, M; Ropele, S; Langkammer, C; Ebner, F; Fuchs, S; Schmidt, R; Fazekas, F; Enzinger, C

    2011-06-01

    Recognition and processing of emotional facial expression are crucial for social behavior and employ higher-order cognitive and visual working processes. In neuropsychiatric disorders, impaired emotion recognition most frequently concerned three specific emotions, i.e., anger, fear, and disgust. As incorrect processing of (neutral) facial stimuli per se might also underlie deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions, we aimed to assess all these aspects in one experiment. We therefore report here a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm for parallel assessment of the neural correlates of both the recognition of neutral faces and the three clinically most relevant emotions for future use in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. FMRI analyses were expanded through comparisons of the emotional conditions with each other. The differential insights resulting from these two analyses strategies are compared and discussed. 30 healthy participants (21 F/9 M; age 36.3 ± 14.3, 17-66 years) underwent fMRI and behavioral testing for non-emotional and emotional face recognition. Recognition of neutral faces elicited activation in the fusiform gyri. Processing angry faces led to activation in left middle and superior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex. There was considerable heterogeneity regarding the fear versus neutral contrast, resulting in null effects for this contrast. Upon recognition of disgust, activation was noted in bilateral occipital, in the fronto-orbital cortex and in the insula. Analyzing contrasts between emotional conditions showed similar results (to those of contrasting with reference conditions) for separated emotional network patterns. We demonstrate here that our paradigm reproduces single aspects of separate previous studies across a cohort of healthy subjects, irrespective of age. Our approach might prove useful in future studies of patients with neurologic disorders with potential effect on emotion

  17. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  18. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  19. Culture- and Immigration-Related Stress Faced by Chinese American Families with a Patient Having Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kung, Winnie W

    2016-07-01

    The impact of culture and immigration on the experience of Chinese American families with a member having schizophrenia is explored within the frameworks of family systems and stress and coping. This qualitative study was conducted within an intervention study of family psychoeducation using therapists' session notes from 103 family sessions and 13 relatives' group sessions from nine patients and 19 relatives. The high stigma attached to mental illness leading to social isolation, and families' devotion to caregiving exacerbated caregiver burden. Taboo against discussing dating and sexuality and the consideration of arranged marriages caused unique stress. The insecurity as immigrants and shortage of bilingual services were related to greater enmeshment within these families. Implications on research methodology and practice are discussed. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. Assessment of Institutional and Personnel-Related Challenges Facing Educational Programme for the Mentally Challenged Persons at Kaimosi Special School, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mmbwanga, Daniel M.; Matemba, Collins K.; Bota, Kennedy N.

    2015-01-01

    The mentally challenged child (MC) can achieve a lot if the right environment and curriculum are designed for him/her. However, the realization of the desirable outcomes faces many challenges. The objective of the study was to examine institutional and personnel-related challenges facing education programs for the MC persons at Kaimosi Special…

  1. Neural correlates of face and object perception in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) examined by scalp-surface event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hirokata; Hirata, Satoshi; Ueno, Ari; Matsuda, Goh; Fuwa, Kohki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Hirai, Masahiro; Hiraki, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2010-10-12

    The neural system of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, is a topic of increasing research interest. However, electrophysiological examinations of neural activity during visual processing in awake chimpanzees are currently lacking. In the present report, skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of faces and objects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, human faces and stimuli composed of scrambled face images were displayed. In Experiment 2, three types of pictures (faces, flowers, and cars) were presented. The waveforms evoked by face stimuli were distinguished from other stimulus types, as reflected by an enhanced early positivity appearing before 200 ms post stimulus, and an enhanced late negativity after 200 ms, around posterior and occipito-temporal sites. Face-sensitive activity was clearly observed in both experiments. However, in contrast to the robustly observed face-evoked N170 component in humans, we found that faces did not elicit a peak in the latency range of 150-200 ms in either experiment. Although this pilot study examined a single subject and requires further examination, the observed scalp voltage patterns suggest that selective processing of faces in the chimpanzee brain can be detected by recording surface ERPs. In addition, this non-invasive method for examining an awake chimpanzee can be used to extend our knowledge of the characteristics of visual cognition in other primate species.

  2. Neural Correlates of Face and Object Perception in an Awake Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Examined by Scalp-Surface Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Hirokata; Hirata, Satoshi; Ueno, Ari; Matsuda, Goh; Fuwa, Kohki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Hirai, Masahiro; Hiraki, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    Background The neural system of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, is a topic of increasing research interest. However, electrophysiological examinations of neural activity during visual processing in awake chimpanzees are currently lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present report, skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of faces and objects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, human faces and stimuli composed of scrambled face images were displayed. In Experiment 2, three types of pictures (faces, flowers, and cars) were presented. The waveforms evoked by face stimuli were distinguished from other stimulus types, as reflected by an enhanced early positivity appearing before 200 ms post stimulus, and an enhanced late negativity after 200 ms, around posterior and occipito-temporal sites. Face-sensitive activity was clearly observed in both experiments. However, in contrast to the robustly observed face-evoked N170 component in humans, we found that faces did not elicit a peak in the latency range of 150–200 ms in either experiment. Conclusions/Significance Although this pilot study examined a single subject and requires further examination, the observed scalp voltage patterns suggest that selective processing of faces in the chimpanzee brain can be detected by recording surface ERPs. In addition, this non-invasive method for examining an awake chimpanzee can be used to extend our knowledge of the characteristics of visual cognition in other primate species. PMID:20967284

  3. The scar on the face of Scotland: deprivation and alcohol-related facial injuries in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Conway, David I; McMahon, Alex D; Graham, Lesley; Snedker, Stephen; McCluskey, Karyn; Devlin, Mark; Goodall, Christine

    2010-03-01

    : Recent media and political attention have focused on a "rising tide" of youth violence and alcohol-related problems in Scotland. Facial injuries in Scotland are most commonly sustained as a result of interpersonal violence, and young men are a high risk group for facial injuries. Facial injuries are known to be associated with alcohol consumption but the sociodemographic determinants are not fully known. : Influences on the incidence of alcohol-related facial injuries were investigated using data on 22,417 patients between 2001 and 2006 from the Scottish Morbidity Records. : Since 2001, the incidence of alcohol-related facial injuries in Scotland has declined, but the nature and scale of the problem remain considerable, with the major burden for such injuries disproportionately affecting young men from socioeconomically deprived areas. : The role of poverty as the major determinant of alcohol-related facial injuries has thus far not been explicitly acknowledged. Interventions to change behavior alone are unlikely to succeed unless they are supported by measures designed to improve socioeconomic circumstances and to reduce socioeconomic inequalities.

  4. Inhibition of Personally-Relevant Angry Faces Moderates the Effect of Empathy on Interpersonal Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Vanessa; Ellenbogen, Mark A.; Wilson, Alexa L.; Desormeau, Philip; Nijjar, Rami

    2015-01-01

    While empathy is typically assumed to promote effective social interactions, it can sometimes be detrimental when it is unrestrained and overgeneralized. The present study explored whether cognitive inhibition would moderate the effect of empathy on social functioning. Eighty healthy young adults underwent two assessments six months apart. Participants’ ability to suppress interference from distracting emotional stimuli was assessed using a Negative Affective Priming Task that included both generic and personally-relevant (i.e., participants’ intimate partners) facial expressions of emotion. The UCLA Life Stress Interview and Empathy Quotient were administered to measure interpersonal functioning and empathy respectively. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with worse concurrent interpersonal outcomes for individuals who showed weak inhibition of the personally-relevant depictions of anger. The effect of empathy on social functioning might be dependent on individuals’ ability to suppress interference from meaningful emotional distractors in their environment. PMID:25695426

  5. EN FACE VERSUS 12-LINE RADIAL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SCAN PATTERNS FOR DETECTION OF MACULAR FLUID IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    PubMed

    Adam, Murtaza K; Shahlaee, Abtin; Samara, Wasim A; Maguire, Joseph I; Ho, Allen C; Hsu, Jason

    2017-08-14

    To compare fluid detection of autosegmented en face to 12-line radial spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan patterns in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Retrospective observational case series. Sixty-seven patients (94 eyes) with neovascular age-related macular degeneration underwent autosegmented en face optical coherence tomography (with associated 304-line raster scan) and 12-line radial scan patterns. Sensitivity and specificity of fluid detection for en face scan and 12-line radial scans were determined by combining radial and 304-line raster scans as a gold standard. Two hundred and fifty-eight en face and 12-line radial spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were interpreted. Seventy-five scans (58.1%) had fluid, whereas 54 scans (41.9%) did not. En face scan pattern fluid detection sensitivity and specificity was 89.3% and 61.1%, respectively. Twelve-line radial scan pattern fluid detection sensitivity and specificity was 97.3% and 100%, respectively. The difference in fluid detection between scan patterns was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Decreased central macular thickness was associated with false-positive (P = 0.035) and false-negative (P = 0.01) fluid detection on en face scans. En face optical coherence tomography alone is not as sensitive or specific as the 12-line radial scan pattern in detecting fluid in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. En face scans should be corroborated with other optical coherence tomography protocols to guide clinical decision making.

  6. Ancillary personnel in Spanish and Latin-American hospitals faced with living related kidney donation.

    PubMed

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A; Ayala-García, M A; Sebastián, M J; Abdo-Cuza, A; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramírez, E J; Muñoz, G; Suárez-López, J; Castellanos, R; Ramírez, R; González, B; Martínez, M A; Díaz, E; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2014-01-01

    Ancillary hospital personnel represent an important body of opinion because as they work in a hospital their opinion has more credibility for the general public as a result of their activity in hospitals. However, in most cases they do not have any health care training which means that their attitude could be based on a lack of knowledge or unfounded fears. To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation (LKD) among ancillary personnel in Spanish and Latin-American hospitals and to analyze the variables that might influence such attitude. from «International Collaborative Donor Project» a random sample was taken among ancillary personnel in Spain, Mexico and Cuba hospitals. Attitude towards LKD was evaluated using a validated, anonymously filled and self-administered survey. 951 professionals were surveyed (Spain: 277, Mexico: 632, Cuba: 42). 89% (n=850) are in favor of related kidney donation, lowering to 31% (n=289) in non-related donation. Of the rest, 8% (n=78) are not in favor and the 3% (n=23) are unsure. By country, Cubans (98%) and Mexicans (91%) are more in favour than Spanish (84%) (P=.001). The following variables are related to favourable attitude towards LKD: female sex (P=.017), university degree (P=.010), work in health services (P=.035), labour stability (P=.016), personal experience in donation and transplantation (P=.001), positive attitude toward cadaveric donation (P<.001), belief that he or she might need a transplant in the future (P<.001), positive attitude towards living liver donation (P<.001), a willingness to receive a donated living liver if needed (P<.001), having discussed the subject of organ donation and transplantation within the family (P<.001), partner's positive attitude towards the subject (P<.001), participation in voluntary type pro-social activities (P=.002) and not being concerned about possible mutilation after donation (P<.001) CONCLUSIONS: The attitude toward living related kidney donation is favourable among

  7. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  8. Gamma and Related Functions Generalized for Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Given a sequence g[subscript k] greater than 0, the "g-factorial" product [big product][superscript k] [subscript i=1] g[subscript i] is extended from integer k to real x by generalizing properties of the gamma function [Gamma](x). The Euler-Mascheroni constant [gamma] and the beta and zeta functions are also generalized. Specific examples include…

  9. Gamma and Related Functions Generalized for Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Given a sequence g[subscript k] greater than 0, the "g-factorial" product [big product][superscript k] [subscript i=1] g[subscript i] is extended from integer k to real x by generalizing properties of the gamma function [Gamma](x). The Euler-Mascheroni constant [gamma] and the beta and zeta functions are also generalized. Specific examples include…

  10. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  11. Age-Related Differences in Brain Electrical Activity during Extended Continuous Face Recognition in Younger Children, Older Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Martens, Vanessa E. G.; de Bruin, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with…

  12. Psychotherapy with a narcissistic playboy facing the end of his life: a self-psychology and object relations perspective.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Eugenio M

    2010-01-01

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder is considered to be one of the most tenacious and stable types of personality organization. It usually presents a challenge to clinicians and is often resistant to treatment. The continuous search for the affirmation by others of the grandiose self and the devaluation of others in an attempt to stabilize their self-esteem is typically seen in individuals with narcissistic personality organization. On the other hand, corrective life events such as personal achievements, long-term nurturing relationships, and the management of loss and disillusionment can contribute to a more realistic realignment of the person's Ego Ideals and self-esteem. One such example is the case of Don Joaquin, a 69-year-old playboy who was facing death from leukemia. This article will describe the supportive and psychodynamic psychotherapy treatment approach that was utilized, and how Self-Psychology and Object Relations Theory provided a useful framework to bring help and relief to this patient, as he prepared to face the end of his life.

  13. Effects of aromatherapy massage on face-down posture-related pain after vitrectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naho; Munesada, Minako; Yamada, Noriko; Suzuki, Haruka; Futohashi, Ayano; Shigeeda, Takashi; Kato, Satoshi; Nishigaki, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative face-down posturing (FDP) is recommended to optimize the effects of intraocular gas tamponade after vitrectomy. However, patients undergoing FDP usually experience physical and psychological burdens. This 3-armed, randomized, single-center trial investigated the effects of aromatherapy on FDP-related physical pain. Sixty-three patients under FDP were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: aromatherapy massage with essential oil (AT), oil massage without essential oil (OT), and a control group. The AT and OT groups received 10 minutes of massage by ward nurses trained by an aromatherapist, while the control group received usual care. Outcomes were assessed as short-term (pre- to post-intervention) and long-term (first to third postoperative day) changes in physical pain in five body regions using face-scale. The AT and OT groups both revealed similar short-term pain reductions after intervention, compared with the control group. Regarding long-term effects, neither group experienced significant effects until the second day. Significantly more pain reduction compared with usual care occurred on the third day, mainly in the AT group, though there were few significant differences between the AT and OT groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that simple oil massage is an effective strategy for immediate pain reduction in patients undergoing FDP, while aromatherapy may have a long-term effect on pain reduction. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Event-related brain responses to emotional words, pictures, and faces - a cross-domain comparison.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2014-01-01

    Emotion effects in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have previously been reported for a range of visual stimuli, including emotional words, pictures, and facial expressions. Still, little is known about the actual comparability of emotion effects across these stimulus classes. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating emotion effects in response to words, pictures, and facial expressions using a blocked within-subject design. Furthermore, ratings of stimulus arousal and valence were collected from an independent sample of participants. Modulations of early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive complex (LPC) were visible for all stimulus domains, but showed clear differences, particularly in valence processing. While emotion effects were limited to positive stimuli for words, they were predominant for negative stimuli in pictures and facial expressions. These findings corroborate the notion of a positivity offset for words and a negativity bias for pictures and facial expressions, which was assumed to be caused by generally lower arousal levels of written language. Interestingly, however, these assumed differences were not confirmed by arousal ratings. Instead, words were rated as overall more positive than pictures and facial expressions. Taken together, the present results point toward systematic differences in the processing of written words and pictorial stimuli of emotional content, not only in terms of a valence bias evident in ERPs, but also concerning their emotional evaluation captured by ratings of stimulus valence and arousal.

  15. Face Context Influences Local Part Processing: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Sun, Yaoru; Zhao, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Perception of face parts on the basis of features is thought to be different from perception of whole faces, which is more based on configural information. Face context is also suggested to play an important role in face processing. To investigate how face context influences the early-stage perception of facial local parts, we used an oddball paradigm that tested perceptual stages of face processing rather than recognition. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by whole faces and face parts presented in four conditions (upright-normal, upright-thatcherised, inverted-normal and inverted-thatcherised), as well as the ERPs elicited by non-face objects (whole houses and house parts) with corresponding conditions. The results showed that face context significantly affected the N170 with increased amplitudes and earlier peak latency for upright normal faces. Removing face context delayed the P1 latency but did not affect the P1 amplitude prominently for both upright and inverted normal faces. Across all conditions, neither the N170 nor the P1 was modulated by house context. The significant changes on the N170 and P1 components revealed that face context influences local part processing at the early stage of face processing and this context effect might be specific for face perception. We further suggested that perceptions of whole faces and face parts are functionally distinguished.

  16. Legal and regulatory challenges currently facing diabetes treatment providers and related durable medical equipment suppliers.

    PubMed

    Liles, Robert

    2013-03-01

    It has been estimated that 24 million Americans have diabetes, many of whom are Medicare beneficiaries. These individuals carefully monitor their blood glucose levels primarily through the use of in-home blood glucose testing kits. Although the test is relatively simple, the cumulative expense of providing glucose test strips and lancets to patients is ever increasing, both to the Medicare program and to uninsured individuals who must pay out-of-pocket for these testing supplies. This article discusses the diabetes durable medical equipment (DME) coverage under Part B Medicare, the establishment and role of DME Medicare administrative contractors, and national and local coverage requirements for diabetes DME suppliers. This article also discusses the federal government's ongoing concerns regarding the improper billing of diabetes testing supplies. To protect the Medicare Trust Fund, the federal government has contracted with multiple private entities to conduct reviews and audits of questionable Medicare claims. These private sector contractors have conducted unannounced site visits of DME supplier offices, interviewed patients and their families, placed suppliers on prepayment review, and conducted extensive postpayment audits of prior paid Medicare claims. In more egregious administrative cases, Medicare contractors have recommended that problematic providers and/or DME suppliers have their Medicare numbers suspended or, in some instances, revoked. More serious infractions can lead to civil or criminal liability. In the final part of this article, we will examine the future of enforcement efforts by law enforcement and Medicare contractors and the importance of understanding and complying with federal laws when ordering and supplying diabetes testing strips and lancets.

  17. Legal and Regulatory Challenges Currently Facing Diabetes Treatment Providers and Related Durable Medical Equipment Suppliers

    PubMed Central

    Liles, Robert

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 24 million Americans have diabetes, many of whom are Medicare beneficiaries. These individuals carefully monitor their blood glucose levels primarily through the use of in-home blood glucose testing kits. Although the test is relatively simple, the cumulative expense of providing glucose test strips and lancets to patients is ever increasing, both to the Medicare program and to uninsured individuals who must pay out-of-pocket for these testing supplies. This article discusses the diabetes durable medical equipment (DME) coverage under Part B Medicare, the establishment and role of DME Medicare administrative contractors, and national and local coverage requirements for diabetes DME suppliers. This article also discusses the federal government’s ongoing concerns regarding the improper billing of diabetes testing supplies. To protect the Medicare Trust Fund, the federal government has contracted with multiple private entities to conduct reviews and audits of questionable Medicare claims. These private sector contractors have conducted unannounced site visits of DME supplier offices, interviewed patients and their families, placed suppliers on prepayment review, and conducted extensive postpayment audits of prior paid Medicare claims. In more egregious administrative cases, Medicare contractors have recommended that problematic providers and/or DME suppliers have their Medicare numbers suspended or, in some instances, revoked. More serious infractions can lead to civil or criminal liability. In the final part of this article, we will examine the future of enforcement efforts by law enforcement and Medicare contractors and the importance of understanding and complying with federal laws when ordering and supplying diabetes testing strips and lancets. PMID:23566989

  18. Brain regions and functional interactions supporting early word recognition in the face of input variability.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Siugzdaite, Roma; Gómez, David Maximiliano; Macagno, Francesco; Cattarossi, Luigi; Mehler, Jacques

    2017-07-18

    Perception and cognition in infants have been traditionally investigated using habituation paradigms, assuming that babies' memories in laboratory contexts are best constructed after numerous repetitions of the very same stimulus in the absence of interference. A crucial, yet open, question regards how babies deal with stimuli experienced in a fashion similar to everyday learning situations-namely, in the presence of interfering stimuli. To address this question, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to test 40 healthy newborns on their ability to encode words presented in concomitance with other words. The results evidenced a habituation-like hemodynamic response during encoding in the left-frontal region, which was associated with a progressive decrement of the functional connections between this region and the left-temporal, right-temporal, and right-parietal regions. In a recognition test phase, a characteristic neural signature of recognition recruited first the right-frontal region and subsequently the right-parietal ones. Connections originating from the right-temporal regions to these areas emerged when newborns listened to the familiar word in the test phase. These findings suggest a neural specialization at birth characterized by the lateralization of memory functions: the interplay between temporal and left-frontal regions during encoding and between temporo-parietal and right-frontal regions during recognition of speech sounds. Most critically, the results show that newborns are capable of retaining the sound of specific words despite hearing other stimuli during encoding. Thus, habituation designs that include various items may be as effective for studying early memory as repeated presentation of a single word.

  19. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in ... zoster (shingles) or herpes simplex (cold sores) infection Injury to the face Migraine Myofascial pain syndrome Sinusitis or sinus infection ( ...

  20. Biological adaptations for functional features of language in the face of cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick

    2011-04-01

    Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.

  1. How family members manage risk around functional decline: The autonomy management process in households facing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-01-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of retrospective interviewing in 2012–2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual’s natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual’s deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual’s ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual’s autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder’s functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  2. Assessment of HIV-related risky behaviour: a comparative study of face-to-face interviews and polling booth surveys in the general population of Cotonou, Benin.

    PubMed

    Béhanzin, Luc; Diabaté, Souleymane; Minani, Isaac; Lowndes, Catherine M; Boily, Marie-Claude; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Anagonou, Séverin; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Buvé, Anne; Alary, Michel

    2013-11-01

    During the 2008 HIV prevalence survey carried out in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, face-to-face interviews (FTFI) were used to assess risky behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We compared sexual behaviours reported in FTFI with those reported in polling booth surveys (PBS) carried out in parallel in an independent random sample of the same population. In PBS, respondents grouped by gender and marital status answered simple questions by putting tokens with question numbers in a green box (affirmative answers) or a red box (negative answers). Both boxes were placed inside a private booth. For each group and question, data were gathered together by type of answer. The structured and gender-specific FTFI guided by trained interviewers included all questions asked during PBS. Pearson χ2 or Fisher's exact test was used to compare FTFI and PBS according to affirmative answers. Overall, respondents reported more stigmatised behaviours in PBS than in FTFI: the proportions of married women and men who reported ever having had commercial sex were 17.4% and 41.6% in PBS versus 1.8% and 19.6% in FTFI, respectively. The corresponding proportions among unmarried women and men were 16.1% and 25.5% in PBS versus 3.9% and 13.0% in FTFI, respectively. The proportion of married women who reported having had extramarital sex since marriage was 23.6% in PBS versus 4.6% in FTFI. PBS are suitable to monitor reliable HIV/STI risk behaviours. Their use should be expanded in behavioural surveillance.

  3. Assessment of HIV related risky behaviour: a comparative study of face-to-face interviews and Polling Booth Surveys in the general population of Cotonou, Benin

    PubMed Central

    BÉHANZIN, Luc; DIABATÉ, Souleymane; MINANI, Isaac; LOWNDES, Catherine M.; BOILY, Marie-Claude; LABBÉ, Annie-Claude; ANAGONOU, Séverin; ZANNOU, Djimon Marcel; BUVÉ, Anne; ALARY, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives During the 2008 HIV prevalence survey carried out in the general population of Cotonou, Benin, face-to-face interviews (FTFI) were used to assess risky behaviours for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We compared sexual behaviours reported in FTFI with those reported in polling booth surveys (PBS) carried out in parallel in an independent random sample of the same population. Methods In PBS, respondents grouped by gender and marital status answered simple questions by putting tokens with question numbers in a green box (affirmative answers) or a red box (negative answers). Both boxes were placed inside a private booth. For each group and question, data were gathered together by type of answer. The structured and gender-specific FTFI guided by trained interviewers included all questions asked during the PBS.. Pearson chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used to compare FTFI and PBS according to affirmative answers. Results Overall, respondents reported more stigmatized behaviours in PBS than in FTFI: the proportions of both married women and men who reported ever having had commercial sex were 17.4% and 41.6% in PBS versus 1.8% and 19.6% in FTFI, respectively. The corresponding proportions among unmarried women and men were 16.1% and 25.5% in PBS versus 3.9% and 13.0% in FTFI, respectively. The proportion of married women who reported having had extramarital sex since marriage was 23.6% in PBS versus 4.6% in FTFI. Conclusion Polling booth surveys are suitable to monitor reliable HIV/STI risk behaviours. Their use should be expanded in behavioural surveillance. PMID:23723251

  4. Lung function after cold-water dives with a standard scuba regulator or full-face-mask during wintertime.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Florian; Muth, Claus-Martin; Tetzlaff, Kay; Koch, Andreas; Leberle, Richard; Georgieff, Michael; Winkler, Bernd E

    2014-06-01

    Full-face-masks (FFM) prevent the diver's face from cold and can support nasal breathing underwater. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the use of FFMs on lung function and wellbeing. Twenty-one, healthy, non-asthmatic divers performed two cold-water dives (4⁰C, 25 min, 10 metres' depth) - one with a FFM and the other with a standard scuba regulator (SSR). Spirometry was performed before and after each dive and well-being and cold sensation were assessed after the dives. Significant decreases in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁) and midexpiratory flow at 75% of FVC (MEF₇₅) occurred after both FFM and SSR dives. Changes in FVC and FEV₁ did not differ significantly between FFM and SSR dives. However, the mid-expiratory flows measured at 50% and 25% of FVC (MEF₅₀ and MEF₂₅) were significantly lower 10 minutes after the FFM dive compared to 10 minutes after the SSR dive. The wellbeing and cold sensation of the divers were significantly improved with FFM dives compared to SSR dives. Cold-water dives during wintertime can be associated with airway narrowing. During cold-water dives, the use of a FFM appears to reduce the cold sensation and enhance the well-being of the divers. However, a FFM does not appear to prevent airway narrowing in healthy, non-asthmatic subjects.

  5. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

  6. Effects of touch on emotional face processing: A study of event-related potentials, facial EMG and cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Spapé, M M; Harjunen, Ville; Ravaja, N

    2017-03-01

    Being touched is known to affect emotion, and even a casual touch can elicit positive feelings and affinity. Psychophysiological studies have recently shown that tactile primes affect visual evoked potentials to emotional stimuli, suggesting altered affective stimulus processing. As, however, these studies approached emotion from a purely unidimensional perspective, it remains unclear whether touch biases emotional evaluation or a more general feature such as salience. Here, we investigated how simple tactile primes modulate event related potentials (ERPs), facial EMG and cardiac response to pictures of facial expressions of emotion. All measures replicated known effects of emotional face processing: Disgust and fear modulated early ERPs, anger increased the cardiac orienting response, and expressions elicited emotion-congruent facial EMG activity. Tactile primes also affected these measures, but priming never interacted with the type of emotional expression. Thus, touch may additively affect general stimulus processing, but it does not bias or modulate immediate affective evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Understanding plutonism in three dimensions: Field and geochemical relations on the southeast face of El Capitan, Yosemite National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Roger

    Detailed mapping of the spatial extents of exposed rock units on the vertical southeast face of El Capitan was completed to determine the chronology and geometry of emplacement. Field relations display a complex intrusive history at the point of interaction between two intrusive suites and two mafic dike swarms. Mapping revealed two sets of aplite dikes with trace element compositions suggestive of derivation from intrusive suite of Yosemite Valley or Buena Vista Crest magmas. Within the El Capitan and Taft Granites, 62 samples from multiple km-tall transects were analyzed for major- and trace-element abundances. Texture analysis was completed on 78 scale photographs of El Capitan Granite. No systemic variations in texture, mineralogy or chemistry were found in either the Taft or El Capitan Granites. These observations are consistent with incremental pluton assembly and are hard to reconcile with models for magma chambers that are envisioned as large, convecting, fractionating bodies.

  8. Is empathy necessary to comprehend the emotional faces? The empathic effect on attentional mechanisms (eye movements), cortical correlates (N200 event-related potentials) and facial behaviour (electromyography) in face processing.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the effect of social empathy on processing emotional facial expressions. Previous evidence suggested a close relationship between emotional empathy and both the ability to detect facial emotions and the attentional mechanisms involved. A multi-measure approach was adopted: we investigated the association between trait empathy (Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale) and individuals' performance (response times; RTs), attentional mechanisms (eye movements; number and duration of fixations), correlates of cortical activation (event-related potential (ERP) N200 component), and facial responsiveness (facial zygomatic and corrugator activity). Trait empathy was found to affect face detection performance (reduced RTs), attentional processes (more scanning eye movements in specific areas of interest), ERP salience effect (increased N200 amplitude), and electromyographic activity (more facial responses). A second important result was the demonstration of strong, direct correlations among these measures. We suggest that empathy may function as a social facilitator of the processes underlying the detection of facial emotion, and a general "facial response effect" is proposed to explain these results. We assumed that empathy influences cognitive and the facial responsiveness, such that empathic individuals are more skilful in processing facial emotion.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of SiC/Cu functionally graded material used for plasma facing components in a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yun-Han; Li, Jiang-Tao; Ge, Chang-Chun; Bai, Xin-De

    2002-06-01

    A new SiC/Cu functionally graded material that contains a spectrum of 0-100% compositional distributions of SiC used for plasma facing component was proposed and fabricated by a novel process termed graded sintering under ultra-high pressure, by which a near dense graded composite has been successfully obtained. Tests on plasma relevant performances showed that in SiC/Cu graded composite the CD 4 production due to chemical sputtering is 85% lower than that of SMF800 nuclear graphite, while its thermal desorption is about 10% of that graphite; fatigue cracks and chemical decomposition were found on the surface of SiC/Cu FGM after 300 cyclic impacts of laser pulse with power density of 398 MW/m 2; slight damage was also observed on the material surface after in situ plasma irradiation in a Tokamak facility.

  10. Functional differences in face processing between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, K; Konoike, N; Nakamura, K

    2015-09-24

    The ability to categorize social information is essential to survive in a primate's social group. In the monkey brain, there are neural systems to categorize social information. Among these, the relationship between the amygdala and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) has recently gained focus with regard to emotion regulation. However, the processing of facial information and the functional differences in these two areas remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we examined the response properties of single neurons in the amygdala and vlPFC while presenting video clips of three types of facial emotions (aggressive threat, coo, and scream) in Macaca mulatta. Neurons in the amygdala were preferentially activated upon presentation of a scream facial expression, which is strongly negative, whereas the neurons in the vlPFC were activated upon presentation of coo, a facial expression with multiple meanings depending on the social context. Information analyses revealed that the amount of information conveyed by the amygdala neurons about the type of emotion transiently increased immediately after stimulus presentation. In contrast, the information conveyed by the vlPFC neurons showed sustained elevation during stimulus presentation. Therefore, our results suggest that the amygdala processes strong emotion roughly but rapidly, whereas the vlPFC spends a great deal of time processing ambiguous facial information in communication, and make an accurate decision from multiple possibilities based on memory. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional neuroimaging of dressing-related skills

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Christopher T.; Foster, Donald J.; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of motor function following stroke involves reorganization of motor output through intact pathways, with compensatory brain activity likely variable by task. One class of motor tasks, those involved in self-care, is particularly important in stroke rehabilitation. Identifying the brain areas that are engaged in self-care and how they reorganize after stroke may enable development of more effective rehabilitation strategies. We piloted a paradigm for functional MRI assessment of self-care activity. In two groups, young adults and older adults, two self-care tasks (buttoning and zipping) produce activation similar to a bimanual tapping task, with bilateral activation of primary and secondary motor cortices, primary sensory cortex, and cerebellum. Quantitative differences include more activation of sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum in buttoning than bimanual tapping. Pilot subjects with stroke showed greater superior parietal activity across tasks than controls, potentially representing an increased need for sensorimotor integration to perform motor tasks. PMID:23070748

  12. What makes faces special?

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaomin; Tjan, Bosco S; Biederman, Irving

    2006-10-01

    What may be special about faces, compared to non-face objects, is that their neural representation may be fundamentally spatial, e.g., Gabor-like. Subjects matched a sequence of two filtered images, each containing every other combination of spatial frequency and orientation, of faces or non-face 3D blobs, judging whether the person or blob was the same or different. On a match trial, the images were either identical or complementary (containing the remaining spatial frequency and orientation content). Relative to an identical pair of images, a complementary pair of faces, but not blobs, reduced matching accuracy and released fMRI adaptation in the fusiform face area.

  13. Age Related Changes in Autonomic Functions.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Rachna; Amir, Mohammed; Pakhare, Abhijit; Rathi, Preeti; Chaudhary, Lalita

    2016-03-01

    Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) imbalance may trigger or enhance pathology in different organ systems that varies in different age groups hence objective of present study was to evaluate association of different Age-groups with autonomic functions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 62 healthy volunteers in Department of Physiology LLRM Medical College Meerut, India. Volunteers were divided into three groups as younger (15-45 years), middle (45-60) and elder age (above 60), Autonomic functions were tested in three domains viz. Cardio-vagal, adrenergic and sudomotor functions. Numerical data was summarized as mean and standard deviation and categorical data as count and percentage. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to find difference among groups, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean ± standard deviation OHT(Orthostatic Hypotension Test) among of younger, middle and elder age groups were 8.80±2.28, 13.40±4.64 and 21.82±6.04 respectively which represent decrease in sympathetic functions with age (p<0.001). Cardio-vagal or parasympathetic responses indicated by DBT (Deep Breathing Test) Valsalva and 30:15 ratio of HR response to standing tests has shown statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in mean response with increasing age. Sudomotor response appeared normal in younger and middle group but was interrupted in more than half of elderly people (p<0.001). Sympathetic responses & para-sympathetic responses have shown the significant decline with increasing age group. Sudomotor responses were partially interrupted in elderly age group.

  14. The effect of face inversion for neurons inside and outside fMRI-defined face-selective cortical regions.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; Van Belle, Goedele; Vanduffel, Wim; Rossion, Bruno; Vogels, Rufin

    2015-03-01

    It is widely believed that face processing in the primate brain occurs in a network of category-selective cortical regions. Combined functional MRI (fMRI)-single-cell recording studies in macaques have identified high concentrations of neurons that respond more to faces than objects within face-selective patches. However, cells with a preference for faces over objects are also found scattered throughout inferior temporal (IT) cortex, raising the question whether face-selective cells inside and outside of the face patches differ functionally. Here, we compare the properties of face-selective cells inside and outside of face-selective patches in the IT cortex by means of an image manipulation that reliably disrupts behavior toward face processing: inversion. We recorded IT neurons from two fMRI-defined face-patches (ML and AL) and a region outside of the face patches (herein labeled OUT) during upright and inverted face stimulation. Overall, turning faces upside down reduced the firing rate of face-selective cells. However, there were differences among the recording regions. First, the reduced neuronal response for inverted faces was independent of stimulus position, relative to fixation, in the face-selective patches (ML and AL) only. Additionally, the effect of inversion for face-selective cells in ML, but not those in AL or OUT, was impervious to whether the neurons were initially searched for using upright or inverted stimuli. Collectively, these results show that face-selective cells differ in their functional characteristics depending on their anatomicofunctional location, suggesting that upright faces are preferably coded by face-selective cells inside but not outside of the fMRI-defined face-selective regions of the posterior IT cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The effect of face inversion for neurons inside and outside fMRI-defined face-selective cortical regions

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Goedele; Vanduffel, Wim; Rossion, Bruno; Vogels, Rufin

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that face processing in the primate brain occurs in a network of category-selective cortical regions. Combined functional MRI (fMRI)-single-cell recording studies in macaques have identified high concentrations of neurons that respond more to faces than objects within face-selective patches. However, cells with a preference for faces over objects are also found scattered throughout inferior temporal (IT) cortex, raising the question whether face-selective cells inside and outside of the face patches differ functionally. Here, we compare the properties of face-selective cells inside and outside of face-selective patches in the IT cortex by means of an image manipulation that reliably disrupts behavior toward face processing: inversion. We recorded IT neurons from two fMRI-defined face-patches (ML and AL) and a region outside of the face patches (herein labeled OUT) during upright and inverted face stimulation. Overall, turning faces upside down reduced the firing rate of face-selective cells. However, there were differences among the recording regions. First, the reduced neuronal response for inverted faces was independent of stimulus position, relative to fixation, in the face-selective patches (ML and AL) only. Additionally, the effect of inversion for face-selective cells in ML, but not those in AL or OUT, was impervious to whether the neurons were initially searched for using upright or inverted stimuli. Collectively, these results show that face-selective cells differ in their functional characteristics depending on their anatomicofunctional location, suggesting that upright faces are preferably coded by face-selective cells inside but not outside of the fMRI-defined face-selective regions of the posterior IT cortex. PMID:25520434

  16. Facing your fears in adolescence: cognitive-behavioral therapy for high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Reaven, Judy; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Leuthe, Eileen; Moody, Eric; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are at high risk for developing psychiatric symptoms, with anxiety disorders among the most commonly cooccurring. Cognitive behavior therapies (CBTs) are considered the best practice for treating anxiety in the general population. Modified CBT approaches for youth with high-functioning ASD and anxiety have resulted in significant reductions in anxiety following intervention. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intervention for treating anxiety in adolescents with ASD based on a CBT program designed for school-aged children. The Facing Your Fears-Adolescent Version (FYF-A) program was developed; feasibility and acceptability data were obtained, along with initial efficacy of the intervention. Twenty-four adolescents, aged 13-18, completed the FYF-A intervention. Results indicated significant reductions in anxiety severity and interference posttreatment, with low rates of anxiety maintained at 3-month follow-up. In addition, nearly 46% of teen participants met criteria for a positive treatment response on primary diagnosis following the intervention. Initial findings from the current study are encouraging and suggest that modified group CBT for adolescents with high-functioning ASD may be effective in reducing anxiety symptoms. Limitations include small sample size and lack of control group. Future directions are discussed.

  17. Facing Your Fears in Adolescence: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Reaven, Judy; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Leuthe, Eileen; Moody, Eric; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are at high risk for developing psychiatric symptoms, with anxiety disorders among the most commonly cooccurring. Cognitive behavior therapies (CBTs) are considered the best practice for treating anxiety in the general population. Modified CBT approaches for youth with high-functioning ASD and anxiety have resulted in significant reductions in anxiety following intervention. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intervention for treating anxiety in adolescents with ASD based on a CBT program designed for school-aged children. The Facing Your Fears-Adolescent Version (FYF-A) program was developed; feasibility and acceptability data were obtained, along with initial efficacy of the intervention. Twenty-four adolescents, aged 13–18, completed the FYF-A intervention. Results indicated significant reductions in anxiety severity and interference posttreatment, with low rates of anxiety maintained at 3-month follow-up. In addition, nearly 46% of teen participants met criteria for a positive treatment response on primary diagnosis following the intervention. Initial findings from the current study are encouraging and suggest that modified group CBT for adolescents with high-functioning ASD may be effective in reducing anxiety symptoms. Limitations include small sample size and lack of control group. Future directions are discussed. PMID:23091719

  18. Representation of spatial relations on the specific test, Draw-A-Person-With-Face-In-Front, as indicative of literacy skills in Australian aboriginals and "Westerners".

    PubMed

    Pontius, A A

    1984-08-01

    A novel test, Draw-A-Person-With-Face-In-Front, uses simple measurement with a ruler to detect subtle misrepresentation of spatial relations within the pattern of the human face (in contradistinction to facial recognition tests). Studies have repeatedly shown a close association between misrepresentation of the face and low or absent skills in widely diverse cultural populations and time periods. Recent criticism by Davidson that neglects to consider this particular test and the replications of similar results does not address the main point of my study of Australian Aboriginal children or the specification of remedial intervention made possible by fractionating factors of specific under-used capability within a cultural context.

  19. Functional Architecture for Disparity in Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex and Its Relationship to the Architecture for Faces, Color, Scenes, and Visual Field

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Bohon, Kaitlin S.

    2015-01-01

    Binocular disparity is a powerful depth cue for object perception. The computations for object vision culminate in inferior temporal cortex (IT), but the functional organization for disparity in IT is unknown. Here we addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in alert monkeys to stimuli that appeared in front of (near), behind (far), or at the fixation plane. We discovered three regions that showed preferential responses for near and far stimuli, relative to zero-disparity stimuli at the fixation plane. These “near/far” disparity-biased regions were located within dorsal IT, as predicted by microelectrode studies, and on the posterior inferotemporal gyrus. In a second analysis, we instead compared responses to near stimuli with responses to far stimuli and discovered a separate network of “near” disparity-biased regions that extended along the crest of the superior temporal sulcus. We also measured in the same animals fMRI responses to faces, scenes, color, and checkerboard annuli at different visual field eccentricities. Disparity-biased regions defined in either analysis did not show a color bias, suggesting that disparity and color contribute to different computations within IT. Scene-biased regions responded preferentially to near and far stimuli (compared with stimuli without disparity) and had a peripheral visual field bias, whereas face patches had a marked near bias and a central visual field bias. These results support the idea that IT is organized by a coarse eccentricity map, and show that disparity likely contributes to computations associated with both central (face processing) and peripheral (scene processing) visual field biases, but likely does not contribute much to computations within IT that are implicated in processing color. PMID:25926470

  20. Functional relations for the density-functional exchange and correlation functionals connecting functionals at three densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Daniel P.

    2012-03-01

    It is shown that the density-functional-theory exchange and correlation functionals satisfy 0=γEhx[ρN]+2Ecγ[ρN]-γEhx[ρN-1γ]-2Ecγ[ρN-1γ]+2∫d3r'[ρN-10(r)-ρN-1γ(r)]v0([ρN];r)+∫d3r'[ρN-10(r)-ρN-1γ(r)]r·∇v0([ρN];r)+∫d3r'ρN(r)r·∇vcγ([ρN];r)-∫d3r'ρN-1γ(r)r·∇vcγ([ρN-1γ];r)-∫d3r'fγ(r)r·∇vhxcγ([ρN];r)-2∫d3r'fγ(r)vhxcγ([ρN];r). In the derivation of this equation the adiabatic connection formulation is used, where the ground-state density of an N-electron system ρN is kept constant independent of the electron-electron coupling strength γ. Here Ehx[ρ] is the Hartree plus exchange energy, Ecγ[ρ] is the correlation energy, vhxcγ[ρ] is the Hartree plus exchange-correlation potential, vc[ρ] is the correlation potential, and v0[ρ]is the Kohn-Sham potential. The charge densities ρN and ρN-1γ are the N- and (N-1)-electron ground-state densities of the same Hamiltonian at electron-electron coupling strength γ. fγ(r)=ρN(r)-ρN-1γ(r) is the Fukui function. This equation can be useful in testing the internal self-consistency of approximations to the exchange and correlation functionals. As an example the identity is tested on the analytical Hooke's atom charge density for some frequently used approximate functionals.

  1. The own-age bias in face memory is unrelated to differences in attention--evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Markus F; End, Albert; Luttmann, Stefanie; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Participants are more accurate at remembering faces from their own relative to a different age group (the own-age bias, or OAB). A recent socio-cognitive account has suggested that differential allocation of attention to old versus young faces underlies this phenomenon. Critically, empirical evidence for a direct relationship between attention to own- versus other-age faces and the OAB in memory is lacking. To fill this gap, we tested the roles of attention in three different experimental paradigms, and additionally analyzed event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In Experiment 1, we compared the learning of old and young faces during focused versus divided attention, but revealed similar OABs in subsequent memory for both attention conditions. Similarly, manipulating attention during learning did not differentially affect the ERPs elicited by young versus old faces. In Experiment 2, we examined the repetition effects from task-irrelevant old and young faces presented under varying attentional loads on the N250r ERP component as an index of face recognition. Independent of load, the N250r effects were comparable for both age categories. Finally, in Experiment 3 we measured the N2pc as an index of attentional selection of old versus young target faces in a visual search task. The N2pc was not significantly different for the young versus the old target search conditions, suggesting similar orientations of attention to either face age group. Overall, we propose that the OAB in memory is largely unrelated to early attentional processes. Our findings therefore contrast with the predictions from socio-cognitive accounts on own-group biases in recognition memory, and are more easily reconciled with expertise-based models.

  2. Challenges faced by visually disabled people in use of medicines, self-adopted coping strategies and medicine-related mishaps.

    PubMed

    Weeraratne, Chamari L; Opatha, Sharmika T; Rosa, Chamith T

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties faced by visually disabled people when using medicines, self-adopted coping strategies, and medicine-related mishaps have been under-explored locally and internationally. The objective of this study was to gain insight regarding this long-neglected issue. A descriptive cross-sectional study, using an interviewer administered questionnaire on 63 visually disabled adults was carried out at a vocational training centre and a school for visually disabled students in Sri Lanka. Among 63 participants, 71% wanted to be independent in medicine use and 79% in spite of difficulties had self-administered medicines. They had difficulty in locating medicines (25.39%), identifying medicines and medicine containers (17.46%), and administering liquid medications (25.39%). These difficulties led to inaccurate dosing (14.28%), missed doses (39.68%), and discontinuation of treatment prematurely (28.57%). Self-adopted coping strategies to overcome these difficulties included using different sized and shaped containers, tying medicines to the attire, and dipping their finger into a measuring cup while measuring liquid medicines. Mishaps related to medicines such as taking vinegar instead of gripe mixture and, putting ear drops into eyes were disclosed. There were many challenges for visually disabled people in taking medicines and some self-adopted coping strategies were inadequate to overcome these.

  3. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-03-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination - just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al., 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination – just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al. 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain. PMID:25659502

  5. Sex-related preferences for real and doll’s faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants: Boys prefer non-social or mechanical toys such as cars, while girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). Forty-eight 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls) and 48 young adults (24 women) saw six trials of all relevant pairs of faces and objects, with each trial containing a different exemplar of a stimulus type. The infant results showed no sex-related preferences; infants preferred faces of men and women, regardless of whether they were real or doll’s faces. Similarly, adults did not show sex-related preferences for social versus non-social stimuli, but, unlike infants, they preferred faces of the opposite sex over objects. These results challenge claims of an innate basis for sex-related preferences for toy and real stimuli preferences (Connellan et al., 2000) and suggest that sex-related preferences result from maturational and social development, which continues into adulthood. PMID:23933180

  6. The face and its emotion: right N170 deficits in structural processing and early emotional discrimination in schizophrenic patients and relatives.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Riveros, Rodrigo; Hurtado, Esteban; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Urquina, Hugo; Herrera, Eduar; Amoruso, Lucía; Reyes, Migdyrai Martin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-30

    Previous studies have reported facial emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenic patients, as well as abnormalities in the N170 component of the event-related potential. Current research on schizophrenia highlights the importance of complexly-inherited brain-based deficits. In order to examine the N170 markers of face structural and emotional processing, DSM-IV diagnosed schizophrenia probands (n=13), unaffected first-degree relatives from multiplex families (n=13), and control subjects (n=13) matched by age, gender and educational level, performed a categorization task which involved words and faces with positive and negative valence. The N170 component, while present in relatives and control subjects, was reduced in patients, not only for faces, but also for face-word differences, suggesting a deficit in structural processing of stimuli. Control subjects showed N170 modulation according to the valence of facial stimuli. However, this discrimination effect was found to be reduced both in patients and relatives. This is the first report showing N170 valence deficits in relatives. Our results suggest a generalized deficit affecting the structural encoding of faces in patients, as well as the emotion discrimination both in patients and relatives. Finally, these findings lend support to the notion that cortical markers of facial discrimination can be validly considered as vulnerability markers.

  7. Age-Related Differences in Face Recognition: Neural Correlates of Repetition and Semantic Priming in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Holger; Komes, Jessica; Tüttenberg, Simone; Leidinger, Jana; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in person recognition are among the common complaints associated with cognitive ageing. The present series of experiments therefore investigated face and person recognition in young and older adults. The authors examined how within-domain and cross-domain repetition as well as semantic priming affect familiar face recognition and…

  8. Visual adaptation and face perception

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of faces can be strongly affected by the characteristics of faces viewed previously. These perceptual after-effects reflect processes of sensory adaptation that are found throughout the visual system, but which have been considered only relatively recently in the context of higher level perceptual judgements. In this review, we explore the consequences of adaptation for human face perception, and the implications of adaptation for understanding the neural-coding schemes underlying the visual representation of faces. The properties of face after-effects suggest that they, in part, reflect response changes at high and possibly face-specific levels of visual processing. Yet, the form of the after-effects and the norm-based codes that they point to show many parallels with the adaptations and functional organization that are thought to underlie the encoding of perceptual attributes like colour. The nature and basis for human colour vision have been studied extensively, and we draw on ideas and principles that have been developed to account for norms and normalization in colour vision to consider potential similarities and differences in the representation and adaptation of faces. PMID:21536555

  9. Looking to the eyes influences the processing of emotion on face-sensitive event-related potentials in 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Westerlund, Alissa; Montoya, Lina; McCormick, Sarah A; Miguel, Helga O; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies in infants have shown that face-sensitive components of the ongoing electroencephalogram (the event-related potential, or ERP) are larger in amplitude to negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger) versus positive emotions (e.g., happy). However, it is still unclear whether the negative emotions linked with the face or the negative emotions alone contribute to these amplitude differences. We simultaneously recorded infant looking behaviors (via eye-tracking) and face-sensitive ERPs while 7-month-old infants viewed human faces or animals displaying happy, fear, or angry expressions. We observed that the amplitude of the N290 was greater (i.e., more negative) to angry animals compared to happy or fearful animals; no such differences were obtained for human faces. Eye-tracking data highlighted the importance of the eye region in processing emotional human faces. Infants that spent more time looking to the eye region of human faces showing fearful or angry expressions had greater N290 or P400 amplitudes, respectively.

  10. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0

  11. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  12. Faces and bodies in the brain.

    PubMed

    Berlucchi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of face-sensitive and body-sensitive regions in the extrastriate human cortex has raised the problem of the relations of these areas to face and body knowledge and their role in person identification. In this commentary, I point to some as yet unexplored aspects of these cortical regions, including their status as proper anatomo-functional areas, the role of body appearance in the recognition of persons, and the development of body-related and face-related areas in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

  13. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  14. The Effects of Face Inversion on the Perception of Long-Range and Local Spatial Relations in Eye and Mouth Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekunova, Alla; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study hypothesized a configurational anisotropy in the face inversion effect, with vertical relations more difficult to process. However, another difference in the stimuli of that report was that the vertical but not horizontal shifts lacked local spatial references. Difficulty processing long-range spatial relations might also be…

  15. The Effects of Face Inversion on the Perception of Long-Range and Local Spatial Relations in Eye and Mouth Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekunova, Alla; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study hypothesized a configurational anisotropy in the face inversion effect, with vertical relations more difficult to process. However, another difference in the stimuli of that report was that the vertical but not horizontal shifts lacked local spatial references. Difficulty processing long-range spatial relations might also be…

  16. Warriors and Peacekeepers: Testing a Biosocial Implicit Leadership Hypothesis of Intergroup Relations Using Masculine and Feminine Faces

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Brian R.; Dekker, Peter H.; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership. PMID:22276190

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Refreshing: Event-related Potentials Associated with Directing Reflective Attention to Face, Scene, or Word Representations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; McCarthy, Gregory; Muller, Kathleen A; Brudner, Samuel N; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-09-01

    Refreshing is the component cognitive process of directing reflective attention to one of several active mental representations. Previous studies using fMRI suggested that refresh tasks involve a component process of initiating refreshing as well as the top-down modulation of representational regions central to refreshing. However, those studies were limited by fMRI's low temporal resolution. In this study, we used EEG to examine the time course of refreshing on the scale of milliseconds rather than seconds. ERP analyses showed that a typical refresh task does have a distinct electrophysiological response as compared to a control condition and includes at least two main temporal components: an earlier (∼400 msec) positive peak reminiscent of a P3 response and a later (∼800-1400 msec) sustained positivity over several sites reminiscent of the late directing attention positivity. Overall, the evoked potentials for refreshing representations from three different visual categories (faces, scenes, words) were similar, but multivariate pattern analysis showed that some category information was nonetheless present in the EEG signal. When related to previous fMRI studies, these results are consistent with a two-phase model, with the first phase dominated by frontal control signals involved in initiating refreshing and the second by the top-down modulation of posterior perceptual cortical areas that constitutes refreshing a representation. This study also lays the foundation for future studies of the neural correlates of reflective attention at a finer temporal resolution than is possible using fMRI.

  18. Adolescents' ability to read different emotional faces relates to their history of maltreatment and type of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Leist, Tatyana; Dadds, Mark R

    2009-04-01

    Emotional processing styles appear to characterize various forms of psychopathology and environmental adversity in children. For example, autistic, anxious, high- and low-emotion conduct problem children, and children who have been maltreated, all appear to show specific deficits and strengths in recognizing the facial expressions of emotions. Until now, the relationships between emotion recognition, antisocial behaviour, emotional problems, callous-unemotional (CU) traits and early maltreatment have never been assessed simultaneously in one study, and the specific associations of emotion recognition to maltreatment and child characteristics are therefore unknown. We examined facial-emotion processing in a sample of 23 adolescents selected for high-risk status on the variables of interest. As expected, maltreatment and child characteristics showed unique associations. CU traits were uniquely related to impairments in fear recognition. Antisocial behaviour was uniquely associated with better fear recognition, but impaired anger recognition. Emotional problems were associated with better recognition of anger and sadness, but lower recognition of neutral faces. Maltreatment was predictive of superior recognition of fear and sadness. The findings are considered in terms of social information-processing theories of psychopathology. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed.

  19. Face it: collecting mental health and disaster related data using Facebook vs. personal interview: the case of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Aviel, Or; Dubiner, Yonit; Evelyn Baruch; Soffer, Yechiel; Shrira, Amit

    2013-06-30

    Collecting mental health data during disaster is a difficult task. The aim of this study was to compare reported sensitive information regarding the disaster and general questions on physical or psychological functioning between social network (Facebook) interview and face-to-face interview after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Data were collected from a battery of self-reported questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to 133 face-to-face participants and to 40 Facebook interviewees, during March-April 2011. The face-to-face interview group showed a significantly higher level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated risk for clinical level of PTSD and reported more worries about another disaster, lower life satisfaction, less perceived social support and lower self-rated health than the Facebook group. Our data may suggest that the reliability of internet surveys is jeopardized during extreme conditions such as large-scale disasters as it tends to underestimate the reactions to such events. This indicates the discrepancy from data collected in situ to data collected using social networks. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relations between key executive functions and aggression in childhood.

    PubMed

    Granvald, Viktor; Marciszko, Carin

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between three key executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and mental set-shifting) and multiple types of aggression in a general population sample of 9-year-old children. One hundred and forty-eight children completed a battery of executive function tasks and were rated on aggression by their primary teachers. All executive function (EF) composites were related to a composite measure of aggression. Working memory (WM) was most consistently related to the different types of aggression (overt, relational, reactive, and proactive), whereas inhibition and mental set-shifting only were related to relational and reactive aggression, respectively. Specificity in relations (studied as independent contributions) was generally low with the exception of the relation between WM and relational aggression. Taken together, our results highlight the roles of WM and relational aggression in EF-aggression relations in middle childhood.

  1. Face Lift.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dinah; Small, Kevin H; Barton, Fritz E

    2015-11-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify the essential anatomy of the aging face and its relationship to face-lift surgery. 2. Understand the common operative approaches to the aging face and a historical perspective. 3. Understand and describe the common complications following face lifting and treatment options. Surgical rejuvenation of the aging face remains one of the most commonly performed plastic surgery procedures. This article reviews the anatomy of the face and its impact on surgical correction. In addition, this review discusses the evolution of various face-lift techniques and the current surgical approach to the aging face. Finally, this article discusses potential postoperative complications after rhytidectomy and management solutions.

  2. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  3. An Arginine-Faced Amphipathic Alpha Helix Is Required for Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6 Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Joseph S.; Ornelles, David A.

    1999-01-01

    A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic α helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this α helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic α helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection. PMID:10233919

  4. Relations among several nuclear and electronic density functional reactivity indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Luis, Josep M.; Duran, Miquel; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Solà, Miquel

    2003-11-01

    An expansion of the energy functional in terms of the total number of electrons and the normal coordinates within the canonical ensemble is presented. A comparison of this expansion with the expansion of the energy in terms of the total number of electrons and the external potential leads to new relations among common density functional reactivity descriptors. The formulas obtained provide explicit links between important quantities related to the chemical reactivity of a system. In particular, the relation between the nuclear and the electronic Fukui functions is recovered. The connection between the derivatives of the electronic energy and the nuclear repulsion energy with respect to the external potential offers a proof for the "Quantum Chemical le Chatelier Principle." Finally, the nuclear linear response function is defined and the relation of this function with the electronic linear response function is given.

  5. Ornstein-Zernike derivative relations and thermodynamic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Hin Hark; Eu, Byung Chan

    1992-01-01

    The consequences of the derivatives of the Ornstein-Zernike relation with respect to the density (ρ) and temperature (T) are examined. An approximate closure for the Ornstein-Zernike relation is used to evaluate the derivatives of the pair-correlation function to all orders without knowing explicitly the correlation functions higher in order than the pair-correlation function. The first- and second-order thermodynamic (ρ or T) derivatives of the pair-correlation function are calculated and compared with the experiments of Egelstaff et al. In addition, the thermodynamic functions involving these derivatives are evaluated to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the method.

  6. Relation between amygdala structure and function in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Jessica H; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G; Womer, Fay Y; Jones, Monique M; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P; Martin, Andrés; Constable, R Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P

    2009-06-01

    Previous study supports the presence of reduced volume and elevated response to emotional stimuli in amygdala in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). In the present study, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained during the same neuroimaging session to examine amygdala structure-function relations in adolescents with BD. We hypothesized that amygdala volume would be inversely associated with amygdala response to emotional stimuli, such that BD participants with the smallest amygdala volumes would exhibit the highest amygdala response. Fifty-one adolescents (21 with BD I and 30 control adolescents, ages 10-18 years) underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Amygdala volume (n = 49) and signal change (n = 44) during emotional face processing were compared between groups, and structure-function correlations were examined within the BD group (n = 16). Adolescents with BD showed decreased amygdala volume (p =.009) and increased amygdala response to emotional faces (p =.043). There was no significant interaction between diagnosis and emotion type. A significant inverse association between amygdala volume and activation during emotional face processing was observed (r = -0.54, p =.029). Decreased volume and increased response to emotional stimuli in the amygdala in adolescents with BD are consistent with previous reports. This study represents the first report, to our knowledge, of the two findings in the same adolescent BD sample and supports an amygdala structure-function relation characterized by an inverse association between volume and response to emotional stimuli. This preliminary finding requires replication and suggests a possible pathophysiological link between abnormalities in amygdala structure and response to emotional stimuli in BD.

  7. Families of tessellations of space by elementary polyhedra via retessellations of face-centered-cubic and related tilings.

    PubMed

    Gabbrielli, Ruggero; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    The problem of tiling or tessellating (i.e., completely filling) three-dimensional Euclidean space R(3) with polyhedra has fascinated people for centuries and continues to intrigue mathematicians and scientists today. Tilings are of fundamental importance to the understanding of the underlying structures for a wide range of systems in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences. In this paper, we enumerate and investigate the most comprehensive set of tilings of R(3) by any two regular polyhedra known to date. We find that among all of the Platonic solids, only the tetrahedron and octahedron can be combined to tile R(3). For tilings composed of only congruent tetrahedra and congruent octahedra, there seem to be only four distinct ratios between the sides of the two polyhedra. These four canonical periodic tilings are, respectively, associated with certain packings of tetrahedra (octahedra) in which the holes are octahedra (tetrahedra). Moreover, we derive two families of an uncountably infinite number of periodic tilings of tetrahedra and octahedra that continuously connect the aforementioned four canonical tilings with one another, containing the previously reported Conway-Jiao-Torquato family of tilings [Conway et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11009 (2011)] as a special case. For tilings containing infinite planar surfaces, nonperiodic arrangements can be easily generated by arbitrary relative sliding along these surfaces. We also find that there are three distinct canonical periodic tilings of R(3) by congruent regular tetrahedra and congruent regular truncated tetrahedra associated with certain packings of tetrahedra (truncated tetrahedra) in which the holes are truncated tetrahedra (tetrahedra). Remarkably, we discover that most of the aforementioned periodic tilings can be obtained by "retessellating" the well-known tiling associated with the face-centered-cubic lattice, i.e., by combining the associated fundamental tiles (regular tetrahedra and

  8. Perception of Caucasian and African faces in 5- to 9-month-old Caucasian infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Timeo, Susanna; Brigadoi, Sabrina; Farroni, Teresa

    2017-09-13

    Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this population. The present study is the first to investigate the development of different neural responses to faces of different race in infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Specifically, a group of 5-month-old and a group of 9-month-old Caucasian infants were assessed during passing-viewing of Caucasian and African faces. Results showed a greater activation for African than for Caucasian faces for both oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. Moreover, results suggested a tendency for a progressive specialization between 5 and 9 months of age. This is the first fNIRS study investigating the neural correlates of race perception in Caucasian infants during the first year of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron work function and surface energy of body-centered and face-centered cubic modifications of 4 d- and 5 d-metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, L. P.; Shebzukhova, I. G.

    2016-07-01

    A technique for the evaluation of the electron work function of metallic single crystals and the electron work function anisotropy has been developed in the framework of the electron-statistical method. The surface energy and the electron work function have been calculated for crystal faces of allotropic modifications of 4 d- and 5 d-metals. A change in the electron work function due to the allotropic transformations has been estimated, and the periodic dependence of the electron work function has been determined. It has been shown that the results obtained using the proposed technique correlate with the available experimental data for polycrystals.

  10. Multiple Faces of Dynamin-related Protein 1 and Its Role in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Ramesh; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a large role in neuronal function by constantly providing energy, particularly at synapses. Recent studies suggest that amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau interact with the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), causing excessive fragmentation of mitochondria and leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neurons. Recent research also revealed Aβ-induced and phosphorylated tau-induced changes in mitochondria, particularly affecting mitochondrial shape, size, distribution and axonal transport in AD neurons. These changes affect mitochondrial health and, in turn, could affect synaptic function and neuronal damage and ultimately leading to memory loss and cognitive impairment in patients with AD. This article highlights recent findings in the role of Drp1 in AD pathogenesis. This article also highlights Drp1 and its relationships to glycogen synthase kinase 3, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, p53, and microRNAs in AD pathogenesis. PMID:26708942

  11. Successful Decoding of Famous Faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

    2015-01-01

    What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

  12. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions.

  13. Relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and psychological wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autobiographical memory serves three basic functions in everyday life: self-definition, social connection, and directing behaviour (e.g., Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005). However, no research has examined relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and healthy functioning (i.e., psychological wellbeing). The present research examined the relations between the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory and three factors of psychological wellbeing in single and recurring autobiographical memories. A total of 103 undergraduate students were recruited and provided ratings of each function for four autobiographical memories (two single, two recurring events). Results found that individuals who use their autobiographical memories to serve self, social, and directive functions reported higher levels of Purpose and Communion and Positive Relationships, and that these relations differ slightly by event type.

  14. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  15. Common Neural Systems Associated with the Recognition of Famous Faces and Names: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L.; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M.; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related…

  16. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  17. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  18. Common Neural Systems Associated with the Recognition of Famous Faces and Names: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L.; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M.; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related…

  19. Revealing the neural networks associated with processing of natural social interaction and the related effects of actor-orientation and face-visibility.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Manish; Shelly, Elizabeth Walter; Lepage, Jean-Francois; Hoeft, Fumiko; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the intentions and desires of those around us is vital for adapting to a dynamic social environment. In this paper, a novel event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with dynamic and natural stimuli (2s video clips) was developed to directly examine the neural networks associated with processing of gestures with social intent as compared to nonsocial intent. When comparing social to nonsocial gestures, increased activation in both the mentalizing (or theory of mind) and amygdala networks was found. As a secondary aim, a factor of actor-orientation was included in the paradigm to examine how the neural mechanisms differ with respect to personal engagement during a social interaction versus passively observing an interaction. Activity in the lateral occipital cortex and precentral gyrus was found sensitive to actor-orientation during social interactions. Lastly, by manipulating face-visibility we tested whether facial information alone is the primary driver of neural activation differences observed between social and nonsocial gestures. We discovered that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform gyrus (FFG) was partially driven by observing facial expressions during social gestures. Altogether, using multiple factors associated with processing of natural social interaction, we conceptually advance our understanding of how social stimuli is processed in the brain and discuss the application of this paradigm to clinical populations where atypical social cognition is manifested as a key symptom. © 2013.

  20. Stimulus Dependent Dynamic Reorganization of the Human Face Processing Network.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Gideon; Sporns, Olaf; Avidan, Galia

    2016-09-12

    Using the "face inversion effect", a hallmark of face perception, we examined network mechanisms supporting face representation by tracking functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stimulus-dependent dynamic functional connectivity within and between brain networks associated with the processing of upright and inverted faces. We developed a novel approach adapting the general linear model (GLM) framework classically used for univariate fMRI analysis to capture stimulus-dependent fMRI dynamic connectivity of the face network. We show that under the face inversion manipulation, the face and non-face networks have complementary roles that are evident in their stimulus-dependent dynamic connectivity patterns as assessed by network decomposition into components or communities. Moreover, we show that connectivity patterns are associated with the behavioral face inversion effect. Thus, we establish "a network-level signature" of the face inversion effect and demonstrate how a simple physical transformation of the face stimulus induces a dramatic functional reorganization across related brain networks. Finally, we suggest that the dynamic GLM network analysis approach, developed here for the face network, provides a general framework for modeling the dynamics of blocked stimulus-dependent connectivity experimental designs and hence can be applied to a host of neuroimaging studies.

  1. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  2. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  3. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  4. The fusiform face area is not sufficient for face recognition: evidence from a patient with dense prosopagnosia and no occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Jennifer K E; Culham, Jody C; Duchaine, Bradley C; Pratesi, Cristiana Cavina; Valyear, Kenneth F; Schindler, Igor; Humphrey, G Keith; Milner, A David; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2006-01-01

    We tested functional activation for faces in patient D.F., who following acquired brain damage has a profound deficit in object recognition based on form (visual form agnosia) and also prosopagnosia that is undocumented to date. Functional imaging demonstrated that like our control observers, D.F. shows significantly more activation when passively viewing face compared to scene images in an area that is consistent with the fusiform face area (FFA) (p < 0.01). Control observers also show occipital face area (OFA) activation; however, whereas D.F.'s lesions appear to overlap the OFA bilaterally. We asked, given that D.F. shows FFA activation for faces, to what extent is she able to recognize faces? D.F. demonstrated a severe impairment in higher level face processing--she could not recognize face identity, gender or emotional expression. In contrast, she performed relatively normally on many face categorization tasks. D.F. can differentiate faces from non-faces given sufficient texture information and processing time, and she can do this is independent of color and illumination information. D.F. can use configural information for categorizing faces when they are presented in an upright but not a sideways orientation and given that she also cannot discriminate half-faces she may rely on a spatially symmetric feature arrangement. Faces appear to be a unique category, which she can classify even when she has no advance knowledge that she will be shown face images. Together, these imaging and behavioral data support the importance of the integrity of a complex network of regions for face identification, including more than just the FFA--in particular the OFA, a region believed to be associated with low-level processing.

  5. What makes faces special?

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xiaomin; Tjan, Bosco S.; Biederman, Irving

    2009-01-01

    What may be special about faces, compared to non-face objects, is that their neural representation may be fundamentally spatial, e.g., Gabor-like. Subjects matched a sequence of two filtered images, each containing every other combination of spatial frequency and orientation, of faces or non-face 3D blobs, judging whether the person or blob was the same or different. On a match trial, the images were either identical or complementary (containing the remaining spatial frequency and orientation content). Relative to an identical pair of images, a complementary pair of faces, but not blobs, reduced matching accuracy and released fMRI adaptation in the fusiform face area. PMID:16938328

  6. Constructing and Deriving Reciprocal Trigonometric Relations: A Functional Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K.; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed…

  7. Calculation of phonon dispersion relation using new correlation functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitropas, Ukrit; Hsu, Chung-Hao

    2017-06-01

    To extend the use of Local Density Approximation (LDA), a new analytical correlation functional is introduced. Correlation energy is an essential ingredient within density functional theory and used to determine ground state energy and other properties including phonon dispersion relation. Except for high and low density limit, the general expression of correlation energy is unknown. The approximation approach is therefore required. The accuracy of the modelling system depends on the quality of correlation energy approximation. Typical correlation functionals used in LDA such as Vosko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN) and Perdew-Wang (PW) were obtained from parameterizing the near-exact quantum Monte Carlo data of Ceperley and Alder. These functionals are presented in complex form and inconvenient to implement. Alternatively, the latest published formula of Chachiyo correlation functional provides a comparable result for those much more complicated functionals. In addition, it provides more predictive power based on the first principle approach, not fitting functionals. Nevertheless, the performance of Chachiyo formula for calculating phonon dispersion relation (a key to the thermal properties of materials) has not been tested yet. Here, the implementation of new correlation functional to calculate phonon dispersion relation is initiated. The accuracy and its validity will be explored.

  8. BASCO: a toolbox for task-related functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Göttlich, Martin; Beyer, Frederike; Krämer, Ulrike M.

    2015-01-01

    BASCO (BetA Series COrrelation) is a user-friendly MATLAB toolbox with a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows investigating functional connectivity in event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Connectivity analyses extend and compliment univariate activation analyses since the actual interaction between brain regions involved in a task can be explored. BASCO supports seed-based functional connectivity as well as brain network analyses. Although there are a multitude of advanced toolboxes for investigating resting-state functional connectivity, BASCO is the first toolbox for evaluating task-related whole-brain functional connectivity employing a large number of network nodes. Thus, BASCO allows investigating task-specific rather than resting-state networks. Here, we summarize the main features of the toolbox and describe the methods and algorithms. PMID:26441558

  9. Constructing and deriving reciprocal trigonometric relations: a functional analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires.

  10. CONSTRUCTING AND DERIVING RECIPROCAL TRIGONOMETRIC RELATIONS: A FUNCTIONAL ANALYTIC APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires. PMID:19949509

  11. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy.

  12. The functional origins of speech-related hand gestures.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, Ian Q; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Travis, Scott G; Gholamrezaei, Gita; Karl, Jenni M

    2010-12-25

    Many theories of language posit its recent evolution, perhaps contemporaneous with the evolution of Homo sapiens. The embodied language theory, however, in proposing that language includes gestures, provides an avenue for tracing language origins to phylogenetically earlier ancestral species. Here, evidence is presented that the structure of functional hand movements (e.g., reaching for food, climbing a ladder, or crawling), in rats and humans is similar. The structure of these functional hand movements is then compared to speech-related hand gestures in humans. The sequence of language-related gestures are also found to be characteristic of functional hand movements. It is suggested that these findings show that the arm and hand gestures that accompany human speech are derived from the same neural substrates that produce functional movements. Additionally, evidence is reviewed that supports the idea that speech-related gestures resemble the movements elicited by long-train stimulation of the primate motor cortex. Together, this evidence suggests that speech-related hand gestures have their evolutionary origins in functional hand movements of ancestral non-primate and primate species and may be constrained by the neural substrate for those movements. These findings are further discussed in relation to the idea that speech-related gestures reflect forelimb motor cortex contributions to embodied language.

  13. Decreased face primary motor cortex (face-M1) excitability induced by noxious stimulation of the rat molar tooth pulp is dependent on the functional integrity of medullary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pun, H; Awamleh, L; Lee, J-C; Avivi-Arber, L

    2016-03-01

    We have recently shown that application of the small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the rat molar tooth pulp can decrease face-M1 excitability, but increase the excitability of trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons and that application of the astrocytic inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) to the face-M1 or MDH can attenuate the MO-induced changes. The present study aimed to determine whether medullary MSO application could modulate the MO-induced decreased face-M1 excitability. Under ketamine general anesthesia, electromyographic (EMG) electrodes were implanted into the right anterior digastric (RAD, jaw-opening muscle) of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. A microelectrode was positioned at a low-threshold (≤30 μA) site in the left face-M1. Then MO (n = 16) or control-solution (n = 16) was applied to the previously exposed molar tooth pulp, and intracortical microstimulation threshold intensities for evoking RAD EMG activities were monitored for 15 min. MSO (0.1 mM, n = 8) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, n = 8) was then applied to the MDH and RAD thresholds monitored every 15 min for 120 min. Statistics used ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni as appropriate (p < 0.05). As compared to baseline, RAD thresholds significantly increased (i.e., decreased excitability) within 1 min (26.3 ± 7.9%, p = 0.007) and peaked at 15 min following pulpal MO application (49.9 ± 5.7%, p < 0.001) but not following control-solution. Following MSO (but not PBS) application to the medulla, RAD thresholds significantly decreased within 15 min (26.5 ± 3.0%, p = 0.05) and at 60 min approached 6.3 ± 2.4%, of baseline values (p = 0.1). These novel findings suggest that clinically related motor disturbances arising from dental pain may involve decreased face-M1 excitability that is modulated by medullary astrocytes.

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of masked face priming

    PubMed Central

    Henson, R.N.; Mouchlianitis, E.; Matthews, W.J.; Kouider, S.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sandwich-masked priming paradigm with faces, we report two ERP effects that appear to reflect different levels of subliminal face processing. These two ERP repetition effects dissociate in their onset, scalp topography, and sensitivity to face familiarity. The “early” effect occurred between 100 and 150 ms, was maximally negative-going over lateral temporoparietal channels, and was found for both familiar and unfamiliar faces. The “late” effect occurred between 300 and 500 ms, was maximally positive-going over centroparietal channels, and was found only for familiar faces. The early effect resembled our previous fMRI data from the same paradigm; the late effect resembled the behavioural priming found, in the form of faster reaction times to make fame judgments about primed relative to unprimed familiar faces. None of the ERP or behavioural effects appeared explicable by a measure of participants’ ability to see the primes. The ERP and behavioural effects showed some sensitivity to whether the same or a different photograph of a face was repeated, but could remain reliable across different photographs, and did not appear attributable to a low-level measure of pixelwise overlap between prime and probe photograph. The functional significance of these ERP effects is discussed in relation to unconscious perception and face processing. PMID:18234522

  15. Entanglement criteria via concave-function uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yichen

    2010-07-15

    A general theorem as a necessary condition for the separability of quantum states in both finite and infinite dimensional systems, based on concave-function uncertainty relations, is derived. Two special cases of the general theorem are stronger than two known entanglement criteria based on the Shannon entropic uncertainty relation and the Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation, respectively; other special cases are able to detect entanglement where some famous entanglement criteria fail.

  16. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    PubMed Central

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  17. Neural mechanisms underlying the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces: a tentative model

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In our daily lives, we form some impressions of other people. Although those impressions are affected by many factors, face-based affective signals such as facial expression, facial attractiveness, or trustworthiness are important. Previous psychological studies have demonstrated the impact of facial impressions on remembering other people, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this psychological process. The purpose of this article is to review recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies to investigate the effects of face-based affective signals including facial expression, facial attractiveness, and trustworthiness on memory for faces, and to propose a tentative concept for understanding this affective-cognitive interaction. On the basis of the aforementioned research, three brain regions are potentially involved in the processing of face-based affective signals. The first candidate is the amygdala, where activity is generally modulated by both affectively positive and negative signals from faces. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as the second candidate, increases as a function of perceived positive signals from faces; whereas activity in the insular cortex, as the third candidate, reflects a function of face-based negative signals. In addition, neuroscientific studies have reported that the three regions are functionally connected to the memory-related hippocampal regions. These findings suggest that the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces could be modulated by interactions between the regions associated with the processing of face-based affective signals and the hippocampus as a memory-related region. PMID:22837740

  18. Threat-related amygdala functional connectivity is associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Martin Korsbak; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie Bech; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Communication between the amygdala and other brain regions critically regulates sensitivity to threat, which has been associated with risk for mood and affective disorders. The extent to which these neural pathways are genetically determined or correlate with risk-related personality measures is not fully understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated independent and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala functional connectivity during an emotional faces paradigm in 76 healthy individuals. Functional connectivity between left amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and between both amygdalae and a cluster including posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and visual cortex was significantly increased in 5-HTTLPR S' allele carriers relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between right amygdala and mPFC and visual cortex, and between both amygdalae and left lateral orbitofrontal (lOFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Notably, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between neuroticism and functional connectivity between both amygdalae and left lOFC/vlPFC, such that S' carriers exhibited a more negative association relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for both independent and interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala communication, which may mediate effects on risk for mood and affective disorders.

  19. Fusiform gyrus face-selectivity reflects facial recognition ability

    PubMed Central

    Furl, N.; Garrido, L.; Dolan, R.; Driver, J.; Duchaine, B.

    2012-01-01

    Regions of the occipital and temporal lobes, including a region in the fusiform gyrus (FG), have been proposed to comprise a “core” visual representation system for faces, in part because they show face selectivity and face repetition suppression. But recent fMRI studies of developmental prosopagnosics (DPs) raise questions about whether these measures relate to face processing skills. Although DPs manifest deficient face processing, most studies to date have not shown unequivocal reductions of functional responses in the proposed core regions. We scanned 15 DPs and 15 non-DP control participants with fMRI while employing factor analysis to derive behavioral components related to face identification or other processes. Repetition suppression specific to facial identities in FG or to expression in FG and STS did not show compelling relationships with face identification ability. However, we identified robust relationships between face selectivity and face identification ability in FG across our sample for several convergent measures, including voxel-wise statistical parametric mapping, peak face selectivity in individually defined “fusiform face areas” (FFAs), and anatomical extents (cluster sizes) of those FFAs. None of these measures showed associations with behavioral expression or object recognition ability. As a group, DPs had reduced face-selective responses in bilateral FFA when compared with non-DPs. Individual DPs were also more likely than non-DPs to lack expected face-selective activity in core regions. These findings associate individual differences in face processing ability with selectivity in core face processing regions. This confirms that face selectivity can provide a valid marker for neural mechanisms that contribute to face identification ability. PMID:20617881

  20. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Parr, Lisa A; Durham, Emily L; Matthews, Lea C; Smith, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    While humans (like other primates) communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles). The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips) and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds). Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle group diverged

  1. Does volunteering moderate the relation between functional limitations and mortality?

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Newsom, Jason T

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that functional limitations increase, and organizational volunteering decreases, the risk of mortality in later life. However, scant attention has been paid to investigating the joint effect of functional limitations and organizational volunteering on mortality. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that volunteering moderates the relation between functional limitations and risk of mortality. This prospective study used baseline survey data from a representative sample of 916 non-institutionalized adults 65 years old and older who lived in the continental United States. Data on mortality were extracted six years later from the National Death Index. Survival analyses revealed that functional limitations were associated with an increased risk of dying only among participants who never or almost never volunteered, suggesting that volunteering buffers the association between functional limitations and mortality. We conclude that although it may be more difficult for older adults with functional limitations to volunteer, they may receive important benefits from doing so.

  2. Animal, but not human, faces engage the distributed face network in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Elisabeth M; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy J; Garcia, Natalie V; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Multiple hypotheses have been offered to explain the impaired face-processing behavior and the accompanying underlying disruptions in neural circuitry among individuals with autism. We explored the specificity of atypical face-processing activation and potential alterations to fusiform gyrus (FG) morphology as potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and age-matched typically developing (TD) adolescents were scanned with sMRI and fMRI as they observed human and animal faces. In spite of exhibiting comparable face recognition behavior, the HFA adolescents evinced hypo-activation throughout the face-processing system in response to unfamiliar human, but not animal, faces. They also exhibited greater activation in affective regions of the face-processing network in response to animal, but not human, faces. Importantly, this atypical pattern of activation in response to human faces was not related to atypical structural properties of the FG. This atypical neural response to human faces in autism may stem from abnormalities in the ability to represent the reward value of social (i.e. conspecific) stimuli.

  3. Transfer of function and prior derived-relations testing.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Adam H; Best, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    This experiment assessed transfer of function through equivalence relations with and without prior derived-stimulus-relations (DSR) testing. In a DSR-Testing Group, eight college students learned A-B and A-C discriminations in baseline. They then derived the B-C and C-B equivalence relations before being exposed to a transfer-of-function manipulation and test. Eight participants in a No-DSR Testing Group were exposed to the transfer-of-function manipulation and test immediately after learning the baseline discriminations (i.e., B-C and C-B testing were omitted). In the transfer-of-function manipulation, participants learned to respond differently in the presence of B1 and B2 to avoid money loss. In the transfer-of-function test, responding in the presence of C1 and C2 was measured in the absence of differential consequences. Transfer of function occurred reliably only in the DSR-Testing Group (i.e., participants responding to C1 and C2 in the manner they learned to respond to B1 and B2, respectively). These findings support the notion that prior DSR testing can be critical to observing transfer of function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Use of Dispersion Relations For The Geomagnetic Transfer Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcuello, A.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J. J.

    The magnetotelluric responses are complex magnitudes, where real and imaginary parts contain the same information on the geoelectrical structure. It seems possible, from very general hypotheses on the geoelectrical models (causality, stability and passivity), to apply the Kramers-Krönig dispersion relations to the magnetotelluric responses (impedance, geomagnetic transfer functions,...). In particular, the applica- bility of these relations to the impedance is a current point of discussion, but there are not many examples of their application to the geomagnetic transfer functions (tipper). The aim of this paper is to study how the relations of dispersion are applied to the real and imaginary part of the geomagnetic transfer functions, and to check its validity. For this reason, we have considered data (or responses) from two- and three-dimensional structures, and for these data, we have taken two situations: 1.- Responses that have been synthetically generated from numerical modelling, that allows us to control the quality of the data. 2.- Responses obtained from fieldwork, that are affected by exper- imental error. Additionally, we have also explored the use of these relations to extrap- olate the geomagnetic transfer functions outside the interval of measured frequencies, in order to obtain constrains on the values of these extrapolated data. The results have shown that the dispersion relations are accomplished for the geomag- netic transfer functions, and they can offer information about how these responses are behaved outside (but near) the range of measured frequencies.

  5. Recognizing Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Hadyn D.

    1975-01-01

    The proposition that the mechanisms underlying facial recognition are different from those involved in recognizing other classes of pictorial material was assessed following a general review of the literature concerned with recognizing faces. (Author/RK)

  6. Functional Imaging and Related Techniques: An Introduction for Rehabilitation Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; Ford, Anastasia; McGregor, Keith M.; Meinzer, Marcus; Cheshkov, Sergey; Li, Xiufeng; Walker-Batson, Delaina; Briggs, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging and related neuroimaging techniques are becoming important tools for rehabilitation research. Functional neuroimaging techniques can be used to determine the effects of brain injury or disease on brain systems related to cognition and behavior and to determine how rehabilitation changes brain systems. These techniques include: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Related diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques (DWI), including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), can quantify white matter integrity. With the proliferation of these imaging techniques in rehabilitation research, it is critical that rehabilitation researchers, as well as consumers of rehabilitation research, become familiar with neuroimaging techniques, what they can offer, and their strengths and weaknesses The purpose to this review is to provide such an introduction to these neuroimaging techniques. PMID:20593321

  7. Tactile perception recruits functionally related visual areas in the late-blind.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manu S; Hansen, Peter J; Blakemore, Colin B

    2006-09-18

    When blind people touch Braille characters, blood flow increases in visual areas, leading to speculation that visual circuitry assists tactile discrimination in the blind. We tested this hypothesis in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study designed to reveal activation appropriate to the nature of tactile stimulation. In late-blind individuals, hMT/V5 and fusiform face area activated during visual imagery of moving patterns or faces. When they touched a doll's face, right fusiform face area was again activated. Equally, hMT/V5 was activated when objects moved over the skin. We saw no difference in hMT/V5 or fusiform face area activity during motion or face perception in the congenitally blind. We conclude that specialized visual areas, once established through visual experience, assist equivalent tactile identification tasks years after the onset of blindness.

  8. Impact of metal and ceramic fixed orthodontic appliances on judgments of beauty and other face-related attributes.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Lílian Martins; Araújo, Telma Martins de; Santos, Aline Rôde; Faber, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Physical attributes, behavior, and personal ornaments exert a direct influence on how a person's beauty and personality are judged. The aim of this study was to investigate how people who wear a fixed orthodontic appliance see themselves and are seen by others in social settings. A total of 60 adults evaluated their own smiling faces in 3 different scenarios: without a fixed orthodontic appliance, wearing a metal fixed orthodontic appliance, and wearing an esthetic fixed orthodontic appliance. Furthermore, 15 adult raters randomly assessed the same faces in standardized front-view facial photographs. Both the subjects and the raters answered a questionnaire in which they evaluated criteria on a numbered scale ranging from 0 to 10. The models judged their own beauty, and the raters assigned scores to beauty, age, intelligence, ridiculousness, extroversion, and success. The self-evaluations showed decreased beauty scores (P <0.0001) when a fixed orthodontic appliance, especially a metal one, was being worn. There was no statistically significant difference between the 3 situations in the 6 criteria analyzed. A fixed orthodontic appliance did not affect how personal attributes are assessed. However, fixed orthodontic appliances apparently changed the subjects' self-perceptions when they looked in the mirror. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interindividual variation in fornix microstructure and macrostructure is related to visual discrimination accuracy for scenes but not faces.

    PubMed

    Postans, Mark; Hodgetts, Carl J; Mundy, Matthew E; Jones, Derek K; Lawrence, Andrew D; Graham, Kim S

    2014-09-03

    Transection of the nonhuman primate fornix has been shown to impair learning of configurations of spatial features and object-in-scene memory. Although damage to the human fornix also results in memory impairment, it is not known whether there is a preferential involvement of this white-matter tract in spatial learning, as implied by animal studies. Diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained from healthy participants who had completed versions of a task in which they made rapid same/different discriminations to two categories of highly visually similar stimuli: (1) virtual reality scene pairs; and (2) face pairs. Diffusion-MRI measures of white-matter microstructure [fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)] and macrostructure (tissue volume fraction, f) were then extracted from the fornix of each participant, which had been reconstructed using a deterministic tractography protocol. Fornix MD and f measures correlated with scene, but not face, discrimination accuracy in both discrimination tasks. A complementary voxelwise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics suggested the crus of the fornix as a focus for this relationship. These findings extend previous reports of spatial learning impairments after fornix transection in nonhuman primates, critically highlighting the fornix as a source of interindividual variation in scene discrimination in humans.

  10. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Highest l-Weight Representations and Functional Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirov, Khazret S.; Razumov, Alexander V.

    2017-06-01

    We discuss highest ℓ-weight representations of quantum loop algebras and the corresponding functional relations between integrability objects. In particular, we compare the prefundamental and q-oscillator representations of the positive Borel subalgebras of the quantum group U_q(L({sl}_{l+1})) for arbitrary values of l. Our article has partially the nature of a short review, but it also contains new results. These are the expressions for the L-operators, and the exact relationship between different representations, as a byproduct resulting in certain conclusions about functional relations.

  12. Physiology of diastolic function and transmitral pressure-flow relations.

    PubMed

    Yellin, E L; Meisner, J S

    2000-08-01

    The study of diastolic function, in particular, the creative application of noninvasive modalities, such as echocardiography and MR imaging, requires an understanding and appreciation of the basic physiology of left ventricular filling dynamics. The physics and physiology of diastolic function and dysfunction is examined by relating the phasic patterns of transmitral flow to the properties of the cardiac chambers. Particular attention is paid to the equations governing the transmitral pressure-flow relations and the active and passive chamber properties that determine the flow patterns: Active relaxation, passive compliance, viscoelasticity, and elastic deformation. The physiologic role of diastolic suction is discussed within this context.

  13. [Face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Kita, Yosuke; Inagaki, Masumi

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to review previous research conducted on face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Face recognition is a key question in the ASD research field because it can provide clues for elucidating the neural substrates responsible for the social impairment of these patients. Historically, behavioral studies have reported low performance and/or unique strategies of face recognition among ASD patients. However, the performance and strategy of ASD patients is comparable to those of the control group, depending on the experimental situation or developmental stage, suggesting that face recognition of ASD patients is not entirely impaired. Recent brain function studies, including event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have investigated the cognitive process of face recognition in ASD patients, and revealed impaired function in the brain's neural network comprising the fusiform gyrus and amygdala. This impaired function is potentially involved in the diminished preference for faces, and in the atypical development of face recognition, eliciting symptoms of unstable behavioral characteristics in these patients. Additionally, face recognition in ASD patients is examined from a different perspective, namely self-face recognition, and facial emotion recognition. While the former topic is intimately linked to basic social abilities such as self-other discrimination, the latter is closely associated with mentalizing. Further research on face recognition in ASD patients should investigate the connection between behavioral and neurological specifics in these patients, by considering developmental changes and the spectrum clinical condition of ASD.

  14. Relation between anthropometric and cephalometric measurements and proportions of the face of healthy young white adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Budai, Maria; Farkas, Leslie G; Tompson, Bryan; Katic, Marko; Forrest, Christopher R

    2003-03-01

    The specific aim of this study was to determine the differences between 6 anthropometric (taken from the surface) and cephalometric (taken from x-rays) measurements and 12 proportion indices formed by the measurements obtained from the face of 51 healthy Caucasoid young adult males and females. The z-score analysis revealed negligible differences in frequency of normal values, in surface measurements 97.4% (298 of 306) versus 96.7% (296 of 306) in cephalometric ones. The optimal normal measurements dominated, in males in 76.8% and in females in 80.8%. The mean values of the 6 linear measurements, taken from the surface and the cephalogram of the face were in equal number similar and significantly dissimilar in both sexes (Table 1). Comparison of the mean anthropometric and cephalometric proportion indices did not show significant differences in the two sexes (Table 2). For males 50% of the 12 proportions the indices were similar and 50% were significantly different. For females the frequency of similar proportions was seen in 33.3% and in 66.7% moderately-severely differing, statistically not significant. The z-score analysis identified subnormal measurements on the facial surface in 2.6% (8 of 306) and in cephalometric ones in 3.3% (10 of 306). The subnormal measurements of mild and moderate degree disclosed on the skeleton were not detected on the surface and some of the severely subnormal ones became mild-moderate on the skin surface. The study showed that the vertical anthropometric and cephalometric measurements in the facial profile were in highly significant percentage normal when compared with their normative data established for healthy populations. Generally, the cephalometric normal measurements were smaller than those of the anthropometric ones, some of them significantly. The significant differences between the proportions on the surface and skeleton in healthy subjects advice to be cautious in clinical practice, to judge the morphological changes of

  15. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  16. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  17. BmTx3, a scorpion toxin with two putative functional faces separately active on A-type K+ and HERG currents.

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Isabelle; Xu, Chen-Qi; Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Vacher, Hélène; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Chi, Cheng-Wu; Tytgat, Jan

    2004-01-01

    A novel HERG channel blocker was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, sequenced and characterized at the pharmacological level after chemical synthesis. According to the determined amino acid sequence, the cDNA and genomic genes were then cloned. The genomic gene consists of two exons interrupted by an intron of 65 bp at position -6 upstream from the mature toxin. The protein sequence of this toxin was completely identical with that of a known A-type K+ current blocker BmTx3, belonging to scorpion alpha-KTx subfamily 15. Thus BmTx3 is the first reported alpha-KTx peptide also showing HERG-blocking activity, like gamma-KTx peptides. Moreover, different from classical alpha-KTx peptides, such as charybdotoxin, BmTx3 cannot block Shaker -type K+ channels. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that this toxin takes an intermediate position between classical alpha-KTx and gamma-KTx toxins. From a structural point of view, we propose that two separate functional faces might exist on the BmTx3 molecule, responsible for the two different K+-current-blocking functions. Face A, composed of Arg18 and Lys19 in the alpha-helix side, might correspond to HERG blocking activity, whereas Face B, containing a putative functional dyad (Lys27 and Tyr36) in the beta-sheet side, might correspond to A-type blocking activity. A specific deletion mutant with the disrupted Face B, BmTx3-Y36P37del, loses the A-type current-blocking activity, but keeps a similar HERG-blocking activity, as seen with the wild-type toxin. PMID:14599291

  18. Does a single session of electroconvulsive therapy alter the neural response to emotional faces in depression? A randomised sham-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars V; Ott, Caroline V; Macoveanu, Julian; Harmer, Catherine J; Jørgensen, Anders; Revsbech, Rasmus; Jensen, Hans M; Paulson, Olaf B; Siebner, Hartwig R; Jørgensen, Martin B

    2017-09-01

    Negative neurocognitive bias is a core feature of major depressive disorder that is reversed by pharmacological and psychological treatments. This double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated for the first time whether electroconvulsive therapy modulates negative neurocognitive bias in major depressive disorder. Patients with major depressive disorder were randomised to one active ( n=15) or sham electroconvulsive therapy ( n=12). The following day they underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while viewing emotional faces and performed facial expression recognition and dot-probe tasks. A single electroconvulsive therapy session had no effect on amygdala response to emotional faces. Whole-brain analysis revealed no effects of electroconvulsive therapy versus sham therapy after family-wise error correction at the cluster level, using a cluster-forming threshold of Z>3.1 ( p<0.001) to secure family-wise error <5%. Groups showed no differences in behavioural measures, mood and medication. Exploratory cluster-corrected whole-brain analysis ( Z>2.3; p<0.01) revealed electroconvulsive therapy-induced changes in parahippocampal and superior frontal responses to fearful versus happy faces as well as in fear-specific functional connectivity between amygdala and occipito-temporal regions. Across all patients, greater fear-specific amygdala - occipital coupling correlated with lower fear vigilance. Despite no statistically significant shift in neural response to faces after a single electroconvulsive therapy session, the observed trend changes after a single electroconvulsive therapy session point to an early shift in emotional processing that may contribute to antidepressant effects of electroconvulsive therapy.

  19. Executive Function Subcomponents and their Relations to Everyday Functioning in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Everyday functioning and its executive functioning cognitive correlates (i.e., switching, inhibition, and updating) were investigated in healthy older adults (HOAs) using multiple methods of functional status. In addition to whether computerized experimental tasks would better dissociate these subcomponents than neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, we were also interested in the contributions of both experimental and neuropsychological measures of executive function subcomponents to functional abilities. Seventy HOAs (45 young-old and 25 old-old) and 70 younger adults completed executive function and neuropsychological tests. In addition to self- and informant questionnaires of functional abilities, HOAs completed two performance-based measures. An aging effect was found on all executive function measures. Old-old older adults and their informants did not report more functional difficulties but demonstrated more difficulties on performance-based measures relative to young-old participants. For the HOAs, after controlling for age and education, the neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, but not experimental measures, explained a significant amount of variance in the informant-report and both performance-based measures. Updating measures differentially predicted performance-based measures, while switching was important for questionnaire and performance-based measures. The contribution of executive functioning to functional status when measured with experimental measures specifically designed to isolate the executive subcomponent was not as strong as hypothesized. Further research examining the value of isolating executive function subcomponents in neuropsychological assessment and the prediction of functional abilities in older adults is warranted. PMID:27206842

  20. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027

  1. Factors Related to Gait Function in Post-stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ki Hun; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Kun Jae; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] Gait function after a stroke is an important factor for determining a patient's ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with gait function in post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-nine stroke patients (16 females and 23 males; average age 67.82 ± 10.96 years; post-onset duration: 200.18 ± 27.14 days) participated in this study. [Methods] Their gait function, motor function (Manual Muscle Test [MMT] and Brünnstrom stage), level of cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination score [MMSE], and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for the Geriatric Population [LOTCA-G]), and ADL (Korean modified Barthel index [K-MBI]) were assessed. [Results] The degree of gait function showed significant positive correlations with the following variables: MMT of the elbow, knee, ankle and wrist; Brünnstrom stage; MMSE; LOTCA-G subscores except motor praxis; K-MBI. Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed the Brünnstrom stage was the only explanatory variable closely associated with gait level. [Conclusion] Gait function of post-stroke patients was related to motor function, cognition, and ADL. In particular, there is a significant association between gait level and the Brünnstrom stages, reflecting the importance of monitoring the motor recovery of gait function in post-stroke patients.

  2. Factors Related to Gait Function in Post-stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ki Hun; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Kun Jae; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait function after a stroke is an important factor for determining a patient’s ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL). The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with gait function in post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-nine stroke patients (16 females and 23 males; average age 67.82 ± 10.96 years; post-onset duration: 200.18 ± 27.14 days) participated in this study. [Methods] Their gait function, motor function (Manual Muscle Test [MMT] and Brünnstrom stage), level of cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination score [MMSE], and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for the Geriatric Population [LOTCA-G]), and ADL (Korean modified Barthel index [K-MBI]) were assessed. [Results] The degree of gait function showed significant positive correlations with the following variables: MMT of the elbow, knee, ankle and wrist; Brünnstrom stage; MMSE; LOTCA-G subscores except motor praxis; K-MBI. Stepwise linear regression analysis revealed the Brünnstrom stage was the only explanatory variable closely associated with gait level. [Conclusion] Gait function of post-stroke patients was related to motor function, cognition, and ADL. In particular, there is a significant association between gait level and the Brünnstrom stages, reflecting the importance of monitoring the motor recovery of gait function in post-stroke patients. PMID:25540503

  3. Hitchin functionals are related to measures of entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévay, Péter; Sárosi, Gábor

    2012-11-01

    According to the black hole/qubit correspondence (BHQC) certain black hole entropy formulas in supergravity can be related to multipartite entanglement measures of quantum information. Here we show that the origin of this correspondence is a connection between Hitchin functionals used as action functionals for form theories of gravity related to topological strings and entanglement measures for systems with a small number of constituents. The basic idea acting as a unifying agent in these seemingly unrelated fields is stability connected to the mathematical notion of special prehomogeneous vector spaces associated to Freudenthal systems coming from simple Jordan algebras. It is shown that the nonlinear function featuring these functionals and defining Calabi-Yau and generalized Calabi-Yau structures is the Freudenthal dual, a concept introduced recently in connection with the BHQC. We propose to use the Hitchin invariant for three-forms in seven dimensions as an entanglement measure playing a basic role in classifying three-fermion systems with seven modes. The representative of the class of maximal tripartite entanglement is the three-form used as a calibration for compactification on manifolds with G2 holonomy. The idea that entanglement measures are related to action functionals from which the usual correspondence of the BHQC follows at the tree level suggests that one can use the BHQC in a more general context.

  4. The impact of oxytocin administration and maternal love withdrawal on event-related potential (ERP) responses to emotional faces with performance feedback.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tops, Mattie; Grewen, Karen M; Light, Kathleen C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-03-01

    This is the first experimental study on the effect of oxytocin administration on the neural processing of facial stimuli conducted with female participants that uses event-related potentials (ERPs). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects design, we studied the effects of 16 IU of intranasal oxytocin on ERPs to pictures combining performance feedback with emotional facial expressions in 48 female undergraduate students. Participants also reported on the amount of love withdrawal they experienced from their mothers. Vertex positive potential (VPP) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were more positive after oxytocin compared to placebo administration. This suggests that oxytocin increased attention to the feedback stimuli (LPP) and enhanced the processing of emotional faces (VPP). Oxytocin heightened processing of the happy and disgusted faces primarily for those reporting less love withdrawal. Significant associations with LPP amplitude suggest that more maternal love withdrawal relates to the allocation of attention toward the motivationally relevant combination of negative feedback with a disgusted face.

  5. How Executive Functions Are Related to Intelligence in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio, Ana; Cruz, Raquel; Sampaio, Adriana; Garayzabal, Elena; Martinez-Regueiro, Rocio; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Carracedo, Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome is characterized by impairments in executive functions (EFs). However, it remains unknown how distinct types of EFs relate to intelligence in this syndrome. The present study analyzed performance on working memory, inhibiting and shifting, and its links to IQ in a sample of 17 individuals with WS, and compared them with a group…

  6. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  7. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  8. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  9. How Executive Functions Are Related to Intelligence in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio, Ana; Cruz, Raquel; Sampaio, Adriana; Garayzabal, Elena; Martinez-Regueiro, Rocio; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Carracedo, Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome is characterized by impairments in executive functions (EFs). However, it remains unknown how distinct types of EFs relate to intelligence in this syndrome. The present study analyzed performance on working memory, inhibiting and shifting, and its links to IQ in a sample of 17 individuals with WS, and compared them with a group…

  10. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  11. Graphene-related nanomaterials: tuning properties by functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qing; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Zhongfang

    2013-05-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent progress on graphene-related nanomaterials, including doped graphene and derived graphene nanoribbons, graphene oxide, graphane, fluorographene, graphyne, graphdiyne, and porous graphene, from both experimental and theoretical perspectives, and emphasize tuning their stability, electronic and magnetic properties by chemical functionalization.

  12. Motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Brain plasticity can be classified as adaptive and maladaptive. Maladaptive plasticity indicates hindered functional recovery or the development of an unwanted symptom. Although a considerable amount is known about adaptive plasticity in stroke, relatively little is known of maladaptive plasticity. In the current study, previous studies on motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke are reviewed in terms of compensatory movement pattern (CMP), delayed-onset involuntary abnormal movements (IAMs), and the ipsilateral motor pathway as a motor recovery mechanism. For successful stroke rehabilitation, it is important that the characteristics of maladaptive plasticity are accurately recognized. However, there is a lack of definitive evidence regarding the recognition of motor function-related maladaptive plasticity, although it seems that each of the three above-mentioned topics are involved. As for CMP, patients with a good neurological state as much as having a normal movement pattern, should be considered to have maladaptive plasticity, and in terms of the ipsilateral motor pathway, patients with bilateral innervations can be considered to have maladaptive plasticity. On the other hand, IAMs due to delayed neuronal degeneration should be ruled out in patients with delayed-onset IAMs. Therefore, for the accurate recognition of motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke, a thorough evaluation of neurological state using brain mapping techniques is necessary, and subsequently, the prevention or intensive management of maladaptive plasticity is needed.

  13. Age-Related Difference in Functional Brain Connectivity of Mastication

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-shu; Wu, Ching-yi; Wu, Shih-yun; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Cheng, Dong-hui; Lo, Wen-liang

    2017-01-01

    The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature. For the OA and the YA group, we identified the mastication-related hubs, i.e., the nodes for which the degree centrality (DC) was positively correlated with the MPI. For each pair of nodes, we identified the inter-nodal link for which the FC was positively correlated with the MPI. The network analysis revealed that, in the YA group, the FC between the sensorimotor cortex, the thalamus (THA) and the cerebellum was positively correlated with the MPI. Consistently, the cerebellum nodes were defined as the mastication-related hubs. In contrast, in the OA group, we found a sparser connection within the sensorimotor regions and cerebellum and a denser connection across distributed regions, including the FC between the superior parietal lobe (SPL), the anterior insula (aINS) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Compared to the YA group, the network of the OA group also comprised more mastication-related hubs, which were spatially distributed outside the sensorimotor regions, including the right SPL, the right aINS, and the bilateral dACC. In general, the findings supported the hypothesis that in OA, higher masticatory performance is associated with a widespread pattern of mastication-related hubs. Such a widespread engagement of multiple brain regions associated with the MPI may reflect an increased demand in sensorimotor integration, attentional

  14. IntraFace

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/. PMID:27346987

  15. Synthesis and characterization of "face-to-face" porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, J P; Elliott, C M; Halbert, T R; Tovrog, B S

    1977-01-01

    The syntheses of four binary porphyrins, two of which are constrained to a "face-to-face" conformation, and their Co2+ and Cu2+ derivatives are described. Electron spin resonance indicates that the intermetallic separation in the binuclear "face-to-face" porphyrins is about 6.5-6.8 A. Electronic spectra and proton magnetic resonance spectra support the postulated "face-to-face" conformations. A hypothesis that related compounds may serve as multielectron redox catalysts for O2 and N2 is presented. PMID:189304

  16. Social and emotional attachment in the neural representation of faces.

    PubMed

    Gobbini, M Ida; Leibenluft, Ellen; Santiago, Neil; Haxby, James V

    2004-08-01

    To dissociate the role of visual familiarity from the role of social and emotional factors in recognizing familiar individuals, we measured neural activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects viewed (1) faces of personally familiar individuals (i.e. friends and family), (2) faces of famous individuals, and (3) faces of strangers. Personally familiar faces evoked a stronger response than did famous familiar faces and unfamiliar faces in areas that have been associated with 'theory of mind', and a weaker response in the amygdala. These response modulations may reflect the spontaneous activation of social knowledge about the personality and attitudes of close friends and relatives and the less guarded attitude one has around these people. These results suggest that familiarity causes changes in neural response that extend beyond a visual memory for a face.

  17. The Relations Between Patterning, Executive Function, and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Schmerold, Katrina; Bock, Allison; Peterson, Matthew; Leaf, Britney; Vennergrund, Katherine; Pasnak, Robert

    2017-02-17

    Patterning, or the ability to understand patterns, is a skill commonly taught to young children as part of school mathematics curricula. It seems likely that some aspects of executive function, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory, may be expressed in the patterning abilities of children. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between patterning and executive functioning for first grade children. In addition, the relations between patterning, executive functioning, mathematics, and reading were examined. The results showed that patterning was significantly related to cognitive flexibility and working memory, but not to inhibition. Patterning, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were significantly related to mathematical skills. Only patterning and working memory were significantly related to reading. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling both showed that patterning had effects on both reading and mathematics measures, and that the effects of cognitive flexibility were entirely mediated by patterning. Working memory had independent effects on reading and mathematics, and also effects moderated by patterning. In sum, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility and working memory are related to patterning and express their effects on reading and mathematics in whole or in part through patterning.

  18. [Neurolinguistic aspects in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroanatomical and functional relations].

    PubMed

    Palau-Baduell, M; Valls-Santasusana, A; Salvadó-Salvadó, B

    2010-03-03

    Impairments in language and communication are a defining feature of autism spectrum disorders. There is significant variability in linguistic abilities in autism spectrum disorders. They have difficulties with certain aspects of language such as semantics functions, syntax, prosody and phonology, although the most evident language deficits concern to pragmatics functioning. These language difficulties can cause serious problems in social interaction. The neural bases underlying this failure to develop language are unknown. Several functional and structural imaging studies have identified irregularities in language-related regions in autism spectrum disorders, such as morphometric differences in Broca's area and Wernicke's area, and patterns of reduced or reversed laterality in frontal and temporal cortex. There is also decreased functional connectivity between anterior and posterior language regions.

  19. Functional state of knee arthritis patients and related factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study is to provide a direction for efficient management of arthritis through the analysis of multiple factors related to the functional state of patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Visual Analog Scale, Knee Society Knee Score & Function Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Short Form-36 Health Survey and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for a total of 135 patients with knee arthritis were determined with a survey. [Results] There is a significant correlation between age, pain, Knee Society Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Knee Society Function Score, and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score. [Conclusion] It is necessary to improve the factors that affect knee function and quality of life, and a study on knee joint muscle strength is suggested as a follow-up study. PMID:28265166

  20. Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A.

    2013-04-01

    The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.

  1. Quantum groups and functional relations for lower rank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirov, Kh. S.; Razumov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed construction of the universal integrability objects related to the integrable systems associated with the quantum loop algebra Uq(L(sl2)) is given. The full proof of the functional relations in the form independent of the representation of the quantum loop algebra on the quantum space is presented. The case of the general gradation and general twisting is treated. The specialization of the universal functional relations to the case when the quantum space is the state space of a discrete spin chain is described. This is a digression of the corresponding consideration for the case of the quantum loop algebra Uq(L(sl3)) with an extension to the higher spin case.

  2. Face Time: Educating Face Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Lamparello, Brooke M.; Bueno, Ericka M.; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. Methods: We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. Results: We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Conclusions: Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. Practice Implications: As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients’ needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care. PMID:23861990

  3. Serotonergic modulation of face-emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Del-Ben, C M; Ferreira, C A Q; Alves-Neto, W C; Graeff, F G

    2008-04-01

    Facial expressions of basic emotions have been widely used to investigate the neural substrates of emotion processing, but little is known about the exact meaning of subjective changes provoked by perceiving facial expressions. Our assumption was that fearful faces would be related to the processing of potential threats, whereas angry faces would be related to the processing of proximal threats. Experimental studies have suggested that serotonin modulates the brain processes underlying defensive responses to environmental threats, facilitating risk assessment behavior elicited by potential threats and inhibiting fight or flight responses to proximal threats. In order to test these predictions about the relationship between fearful and angry faces and defensive behaviors, we carried out a review of the literature about the effects of pharmacological probes that affect 5-HT-mediated neurotransmission on the perception of emotional faces. The hypothesis that angry faces would be processed as a proximal threat and that, as a consequence, their recognition would be impaired by an increase in 5-HT function was not supported by the results reviewed. In contrast, most of the studies that evaluated the behavioral effects of serotonin challenges showed that increased 5-HT neurotransmission facilitates the recognition of fearful faces, whereas its decrease impairs the same performance. These results agree with the hypothesis that fearful faces are processed as potential threats and that 5-HT enhances this brain processing.

  4. Testing the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: Predicting Psychopathology Symptoms in Families Facing Economic Hardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Raviv, Tali; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model and its proposed relations between poverty-related stress, effortful and involuntary stress responses, and symptoms of psychopathology in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children and their parents. Prospective Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses conducted with 98…

  5. Testing the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: Predicting Psychopathology Symptoms in Families Facing Economic Hardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Raviv, Tali; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model and its proposed relations between poverty-related stress, effortful and involuntary stress responses, and symptoms of psychopathology in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children and their parents. Prospective Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses conducted with 98…

  6. Reduced anterior temporal and hippocampal functional connectivity during face processing discriminates individuals with social anxiety disorder from healthy controls and panic disorder, and increases following treatment.

    PubMed

    Pantazatos, Spiro P; Talati, Ardesheer; Schneier, Franklin R; Hirsch, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with anomalous brain activation and functional connectivity (FC). However, brain-based features sensitive enough to discriminate individual subjects with a specific anxiety disorder and that track symptom severity longitudinally, desirable qualities for putative disorder-specific biomarkers, remain to be identified. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI during emotional face perceptual tasks and a new, large-scale and condition-dependent FC and machine learning approach were used to identify features (pair-wise correlations) that discriminated patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD, N=16) from controls (N=19). We assessed whether these features discriminated SAD from panic disorder (PD, N=16), and SAD from controls in an independent replication sample that performed a similar task at baseline (N: SAD=15, controls=17) and following 8-weeks paroxetine treatment (N: SAD=12, untreated controls=7). High SAD vs HCs discrimination (area under the ROC curve, AUC, arithmetic mean of sensitivity and specificity) was achieved with two FC features during unattended neutral face perception (AUC=0.88, P<0.05 corrected). These features also discriminated SAD vs PD (AUC=0.82, P=0.0001) and SAD vs HCs in the independent replication sample (FC during unattended angry face perception, AUC=0.71, P=0.01). The most informative FC was left hippocampus-left temporal pole, which was reduced in both SAD samples (replication sample P=0.027), and this FC increased following the treatment (post>pre, t(11)=2.9, P=0.007). In conclusion, SAD is associated with reduced FC between left temporal pole and left hippocampus during face perception, and results suggest promise for emerging FC-based biomarkers for SAD diagnosis and treatment effects.

  7. Reduced Anterior Temporal and Hippocampal Functional Connectivity During Face Processing Discriminates Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder from Healthy Controls and Panic Disorder, and Increases Following Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pantazatos, Spiro P; Talati, Ardesheer; Schneier, Franklin R; Hirsch, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with anomalous brain activation and functional connectivity (FC). However, brain-based features sensitive enough to discriminate individual subjects with a specific anxiety disorder and that track symptom severity longitudinally, desirable qualities for putative disorder-specific biomarkers, remain to be identified. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI during emotional face perceptual tasks and a new, large-scale and condition-dependent FC and machine learning approach were used to identify features (pair-wise correlations) that discriminated patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD, N=16) from controls (N=19). We assessed whether these features discriminated SAD from panic disorder (PD, N=16), and SAD from controls in an independent replication sample that performed a similar task at baseline (N: SAD=15, controls=17) and following 8-weeks paroxetine treatment (N: SAD=12, untreated controls=7). High SAD vs HCs discrimination (area under the ROC curve, AUC, arithmetic mean of sensitivity and specificity) was achieved with two FC features during unattended neutral face perception (AUC=0.88, P<0.05 corrected). These features also discriminated SAD vs PD (AUC=0.82, P=0.0001) and SAD vs HCs in the independent replication sample (FC during unattended angry face perception, AUC=0.71, P=0.01). The most informative FC was left hippocampus-left temporal pole, which was reduced in both SAD samples (replication sample P=0.027), and this FC increased following the treatment (post>pre, t(11)=2.9, P=0.007). In conclusion, SAD is associated with reduced FC between left temporal pole and left hippocampus during face perception, and results suggest promise for emerging FC-based biomarkers for SAD diagnosis and treatment effects. PMID:24084831

  8. About Face

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD and PTSD treatment. Choose a topic below to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How ...

  9. Face Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadash, Dre Ann

    1984-01-01

    Eighth graders made prints of their own faces, using photographic papers and chemicals. Describes the supplies needed and the printing process involved. Because junior high school students are so concerned with self, this was a very meaningful activity for them. (CS)

  10. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  11. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  12. Functional Independent Scaling Relation for ORR/OER Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine A.; Dickens, Colin F.; Nørskov, Jens K.; Vegge, Tejs

    2016-10-11

    A widely used adsorption energy scaling relation between OH* and OOH* intermediates in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), has previously been determined using density functional theory and shown to dictate a minimum thermodynamic overpotential for both reactions. Here, we show that the oxygen–oxygen bond in the OOH* intermediate is, however, not well described with the previously used class of exchange-correlation functionals. By quantifying and correcting the systematic error, an improved description of gaseous peroxide species versus experimental data and a reduction in calculational uncertainty is obtained. For adsorbates, we find that the systematic error largely cancels the vdW interaction missing in the original determination of the scaling relation. An improved scaling relation, which is fully independent of the applied exchange–correlation functional, is obtained and found to differ by 0.1 eV from the original. Lastly, this largely confirms that, although obtained with a method suffering from systematic errors, the previously obtained scaling relation is applicable for predictions of catalytic activity.

  13. Functional Independent Scaling Relation for ORR/OER Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine A.; Dickens, Colin F.; ...

    2016-10-11

    A widely used adsorption energy scaling relation between OH* and OOH* intermediates in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), has previously been determined using density functional theory and shown to dictate a minimum thermodynamic overpotential for both reactions. Here, we show that the oxygen–oxygen bond in the OOH* intermediate is, however, not well described with the previously used class of exchange-correlation functionals. By quantifying and correcting the systematic error, an improved description of gaseous peroxide species versus experimental data and a reduction in calculational uncertainty is obtained. For adsorbates, we find that the systematic error largelymore » cancels the vdW interaction missing in the original determination of the scaling relation. An improved scaling relation, which is fully independent of the applied exchange–correlation functional, is obtained and found to differ by 0.1 eV from the original. Lastly, this largely confirms that, although obtained with a method suffering from systematic errors, the previously obtained scaling relation is applicable for predictions of catalytic activity.« less

  14. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  15. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  16. CHESS: a computer-based system for providing information, referrals, decision support and social support to people facing medical and other health-related crises.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D H; Bosworth, K; Hawkins, R P; Boberg, E W; Bricker, E

    1992-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS will improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has developed programs in five specific topic areas: Academic Crisis, Adult Children of Alcoholics, AIDS/HIV Infection, Breast Cancer and Sexual Assault. The lessons learned, and the structures developed, will serve as a model for future implementation of CHESS programs in a broad range of other topic areas. CHESS is designed around three major desired outcomes: 1) improving the emotional health status of users; 2) increasing the cost-effective use of health and human services; and 3) reducing the incidence of risk-taking behaviors that can lead to injury or illness. Pilot-testing and initial analysis of controlled evaluation data has shown that CHESS is extensively used, is useful and easy-to-use, and produces positive emotional outcomes. Further evaluation in continuing.

  17. Depression-related difficulties disengaging from negative faces are associated with sustained attention to negative feedback during social evaluation and predict stress recovery

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Nuria; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify: 1) the presence of depression-related attention bias related to a social stressor, 2) its association with depression-related attention biases as measured under standard conditions, and 3) their association with impaired stress recovery in depression. A sample of 39 participants reporting a broad range of depression levels completed a standard eye-tracking paradigm in which they had to engage/disengage their gaze with/from emotional faces. Participants then underwent a stress induction (i.e., giving a speech), in which their eye movements to false emotional feedback were measured, and stress reactivity and recovery were assessed. Depression level was associated with longer times to engage/disengage attention with/from negative faces under standard conditions and with sustained attention to negative feedback during the speech. These depression-related biases were associated and mediated the association between depression level and self-reported stress recovery, predicting lower recovery from stress after giving the speech. PMID:28362826

  18. Wavelet networks for face processing.

    PubMed

    Krüger, V; Sommer, G

    2002-06-01

    Wavelet networks (WNs) were introduced in 1992 as a combination of artificial neural radial basis function (RBF) networks and wavelet decomposition. Since then, however, WNs have received only a little attention. We believe that the potential of WNs has been generally underestimated. WNs have the advantage that the wavelet coefficients are directly related to the image data through the wavelet transform. In addition, the parameters of the wavelets in the WNs are subject to optimization, which results in a direct relation between the represented function and the optimized wavelets, leading to considerable data reduction (thus making subsequent algorithms much more efficient) as well as to wavelets that can be used as an optimized filter bank. In our study we analyze some WN properties and highlight their advantages for object representation purposes. We then present a series of results of experiments in which we used WNs for face tracking. We exploit the efficiency that is due to data reduction for face recognition and face-pose estimation by applying the optimized-filter-bank principle of the WNs.

  19. Wavelet networks for face processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, V.; Sommer, G.

    2002-06-01

    Wavelet networks (WNs) were introduced in 1992 as a combination of artificial neural radial basis function (RBF) networks and wavelet decomposition. Since then, however, WNs have received only a little attention. We believe that the potential of WNs has been generally underestimated. WNs have the advantage that the wavelet coefficients are directly related to the image data through the wavelet transform. In addition, the parameters of the wavelets in the WNs are subject to optimization, which results in a direct relation between the represented function and the optimized wavelets, leading to considerable data reduction (thus making subsequent algorithms much more efficient) as well as to wavelets that can be used as an optimized filter bank. In our study we analyze some WN properties and highlight their advantages for object representation purposes. We then present a series of results of experiments in which we used WNs for face tracking. We exploit the efficiency that is due to data reduction for face recognition and face-pose estimation by applying the optimized-filter-bank principle of the WNs.

  20. Cognitive functioning related to quality of life in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mié; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Arai, Hirofumi; Higuchi, Yuko; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia to that of healthy subjects, and investigated the relationships between cognitive function and quality of life (QOL). Participants consisted of 53 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 31 normal controls. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery assessing executive function, verbal memory, and social knowledge. QOL was rated using the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale. Patients with schizophrenia showed lower performance across various cognitive measures of memory, including the Sentence Memory Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Script Test, as well as the Rule Shift Cards Test of executive function. Multiple regression analyses were used to eval