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  1. Age-related dedifferentiation and compensatory changes in the functional network underlying face processing.

    PubMed

    Burianová, Hana; Lee, Yunjo; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence has shown that older adults fail to show adaptation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) to the same face presented repeatedly, despite accurate detection of the previously presented face. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this phenomenon is associated with age-related reductions in face specificity in brain activity and whether older adults compensate for these face-processing deficiencies by increasing activity in other areas within the face-processing network, or outside this network. A comparison of brain activity across multiple stimulus categories showed that, unlike young adults who engaged a number of brain regions specific to face processing, older adults generalized these patterns of activity to objects and houses. Also, young adults showed functional connectivity between the right FG and its homologous region during face processing, whereas older adults did not engage the left FG but showed a functional connection between the right FG and left orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, this frontotemporal functional connection was activated more strongly in older adults who performed better on a face-matching task (done outside of the scanner), suggesting increased involvement of this functional link for successful face recognition with increasing age. These findings suggest that 2 neural mechanisms, dedifferentiation and compensatory neural recruitment, underlie age differences in face processing.

  2. Detailed exploration of face-related processing in congenital prosopagnosia: 2. Functional neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Hasson, Uri; Malach, Rafael; Behrmann, Marlene

    2005-07-01

    Specific regions of the human occipito-temporal cortex are consistently activated in functional imaging studies of face processing. To understand the contribution of these regions to face processing, we examined the pattern of fMRI activation in four congenital prosopagnosic (CP) individuals who are markedly impaired at face processing despite normal vision and intelligence, and with no evidence of brain damage. These individuals evinced a normal pattern of fMRI activation in the fusiform gyrus (FFA) and in other ventral occipito-temporal areas, in response to faces, buildings, and other objects, shown both as line drawings in detection and discrimination tasks and under more naturalistic testing conditions when no task was required. CP individuals also showed normal adaptation levels in a block-design adaptation experiment and, like control subjects, exhibited evidence of global face representation in the FFA. The absence of a BOLD-behavioral correlation (profound behavioral deficit, normal face-related activation in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex) challenges existing accounts of face representation, and suggests that activation in these cortical regions per se is not sufficient to ensure intact face processing.

  3. Face sensorimotor cortex and its neuroplasticity related to orofacial sensorimotor functions.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Martin, Ruth; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J

    2011-12-01

    This review describes evidence in subprimates and primates that the face primary somatosensory cortex (face SI) and primary motor cortex (face MI) are involved in sensorimotor integration and control of orofacial motor functions that include semiautomatic movements (e.g., chewing, swallowing) and voluntary movements (e.g., jaw-opening). The review also notes that the neuroplastic capabilities of the face SI and face MI have recently been documented, and may reflect or allow for functional adaptation (or maladaptation) of the orofacial sensorimotor system to an altered oral state or oral motor behaviour. They may contribute to the processes whereby patients undergoing oral rehabilitation can (or cannot) restore the lost orofacial sensorimotor functions. Such understanding is important since pain, injuries to the oral tissues, and alterations to the dental occlusion induced by tooth loss or attrition are common occurrences in humans that may sometimes be accompanied by impaired oral sensorimotor functions. Furthermore, impaired oral sensorimotor functions are common in many neurological disorders, sometimes making the most vital functions of eating, swallowing and speaking difficult and thereby reducing the patient's quality of life. It has also been well documented that such negative consequences can be improved following oral rehabilitation as patients adapt, for example, to a new dental prosthesis aimed at restoring function. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and cortical neuroplastic processes underlying orofacial sensorimotor functions and adaptation is also important for the development of new therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery of patients suffering from orofacial pain and sensorimotor disorders and improve their quality of life.

  4. Functional connectivity differences in autism during face and car recognition: underconnectivity and atypical age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Andrew C; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Simmonds, Daniel; Foran, William; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz; O'Hearn, Kirsten

    2016-10-16

    Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning. We then examined task-based functional connectivity between the FFA and the rest of the brain, comparing autism and TD groups during encoding and recognition of face and car stimuli. The autism group exhibited underconnectivity, relative to the TD group, between the FFA and frontal and primary visual cortices, independent of age. Underconnectivity with the medial and rostral lateral prefrontal cortex was face-specific during encoding and recognition, respectively. Conversely, underconnectivity with the L orbitofrontal cortex was evident for both face and car encoding. Atypical age-related changes in connectivity emerged between the FFA and the R temporoparietal junction, and R dorsal striatum for face stimuli only. Similar differences in age-related changes in autism emerged for FFA connectivity with the amygdala across both face and car recognition. Thus, underconnectivity and atypical development of functional connectivity may lead to a less optimal face-processing network in the context of increasing general and social cognitive deficits in autism.

  5. Cortical deficits of emotional face processing in adults with ADHD: its relation to social cognition and executive function.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustin; Petroni, Agustin; Urquina, Hugo; Torrente, Fernando; Torralva, Teresa; Hurtado, Esteban; Guex, Raphael; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Beltrachini, Leandro; Muravchik, Carlos; Baez, Sandra; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Sigman, Mariano; Lischinsky, Alicia; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been shown that adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired social cognition, no previous study has reported the brain correlates of face valence processing. This study looked for behavioral, neuropsychological, and electrophysiological markers of emotion processing for faces (N170) in adult ADHD compared to controls matched by age, gender, educational level, and handedness. We designed an event-related potential (ERP) study based on a dual valence task (DVT), in which faces and words were presented to test the effects of stimulus type (faces, words, or face-word stimuli) and valence (positive versus negative). Individual signatures of cognitive functioning in participants with ADHD and controls were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including executive functioning (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). Compared to controls, the adult ADHD group showed deficits in N170 emotion modulation for facial stimuli. These N170 impairments were observed in the absence of any deficit in facial structural processing, suggesting a specific ADHD impairment in early facial emotion modulation. The cortical current density mapping of N170 yielded a main neural source of N170 at posterior section of fusiform gyrus (maximum at left hemisphere for words and right hemisphere for faces and simultaneous stimuli). Neural generators of N170 (fusiform gyrus) were reduced in ADHD. In those patients, N170 emotion processing was associated with performance on an emotional inference ToM task, and N170 from simultaneous stimuli was associated with EF, especially working memory. This is the first report to reveal an adult ADHD-specific impairment in the cortical modulation of emotion for faces and an association between N170 cortical measures and ToM and EF.

  6. The functional basis of face evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.; Todorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    People automatically evaluate faces on multiple trait dimensions, and these evaluations predict important social outcomes, ranging from electoral success to sentencing decisions. Based on behavioral studies and computer modeling, we develop a 2D model of face evaluation. First, using a principal components analysis of trait judgments of emotionally neutral faces, we identify two orthogonal dimensions, valence and dominance, that are sufficient to describe face evaluation and show that these dimensions can be approximated by judgments of trustworthiness and dominance. Second, using a data-driven statistical model for face representation, we build and validate models for representing face trustworthiness and face dominance. Third, using these models, we show that, whereas valence evaluation is more sensitive to features resembling expressions signaling whether the person should be avoided or approached, dominance evaluation is more sensitive to features signaling physical strength/weakness. Fourth, we show that important social judgments, such as threat, can be reproduced as a function of the two orthogonal dimensions of valence and dominance. The findings suggest that face evaluation involves an overgeneralization of adaptive mechanisms for inferring harmful intentions and the ability to cause harm and can account for rapid, yet not necessarily accurate, judgments from faces. PMID:18685089

  7. Symmetry complementarity-guided design of anthrax toxin inhibitors based on β-cyclodextrin: Synthesis and relative activities of face-selective functionalized polycationic clusters.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Moscoso, Alejandro; Méndez-Ardoy, Alejandro; Ortega-Caballero, Fernando; Benito, Juan M; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; Defaye, Jacques; Robinson, Tanisha M; Yohannes, Adiamseged; Karginov, Vladimir A; García Fernández, José M

    2011-01-03

    Three new series of potential anthrax toxin inhibitors based on the β-cyclodextrin (βCD) scaffold were developed by exploiting face-selective Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-cycloadditions, amine-isothiocyanate coupling, and allyl group hydroboration-oxidation/hydroxy → amine replacement reactions. The molecular design follows the "symmetry-complementarity" concept between homogeneously functionalized polycationic βCD derivatives and protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxin known to form C₇-symmetric pores on the cell membrane used by lethal and edema factors to gain access to the cytosol. The synthesis and antitoxin activity of a collection of βCD derivatives differing in the number, arrangement, and face location of the cationic elements are reported herein. These results set the basis for a structure-activity relationship development program of new candidates to combat the anthrax threat.

  8. A face a mother could love: depression-related maternal neural responses to infant emotion faces.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    Depressed mothers show negatively biased responses to their infants' emotional bids, perhaps due to faulty processing of infant cues. This study is the first to examine depression-related differences in mothers' neural response to their own infant's emotion faces, considering both effects of perinatal depression history and current depressive symptoms. Primiparous mothers (n = 22), half of whom had a history of major depressive episodes (with one episode occurring during pregnancy and/or postpartum), were exposed to images of their own and unfamiliar infants' joy and distress faces during functional neuroimaging. Group differences (depression vs. no-depression) and continuous effects of current depressive symptoms were tested in relation to neural response to own infant emotion faces. Compared to mothers with no psychiatric diagnoses, those with depression showed blunted responses to their own infant's distress faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Mothers with higher levels of current symptomatology showed reduced responses to their own infant's joy faces in the orbitofrontal cortex and insula. Current symptomatology also predicted lower responses to own infant joy-distress in left-sided prefrontal and insula/striatal regions. These deficits in self-regulatory and motivational response circuits may help explain parenting difficulties in depressed mothers.

  9. Facing a real person: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Pönkänen, Laura M; Hietanen, Jari K; Peltola, Mikko J; Kauppinen, Pasi K; Haapalainen, Antti; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2008-03-05

    Although faces are typically perceived in the context of human interaction, face processing is commonly studied by displaying faces on a computer screen. This study on event-related potential examined whether the processing of faces differs depending on whether participants are viewing faces live or on a computer screen. In both the conditions, the participants were shown a real face, a dummy face, and a control object. N170 and early posterior negativity discriminated between faces and control object in both the conditions. Interestingly, early posterior negativity differentiated between the real face and the dummy face only in the live condition. The results indicate that a live face, as a potentially interacting stimulus, is processed differently than an inanimate face already at the early processing stages.

  10. A Program in Community Relations: Face-to-Face Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Philip G.; O'Connell, Walter E.

    One of the sources of conflict in our urban centers today is the distrust that exists between the community and the police. In an effort to improve relations between community members and the police, so that both groups might work together more effectively in solving community problems, the Houston Cooperative Crime Prevention Program was…

  11. Functional dissociation of the left and right fusiform gyrus in self-face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the fusiform gyrus is engaged in face perception, such as the processes of face familiarity and identity. However, the functional role of the fusiform gyrus in face processing related to high-level social cognition remains unclear. The current study assessed the functional role of individually defined fusiform face area (FFA) in the processing of self-face physical properties and self-face identity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor neural responses to rapidly presented face stimuli drawn from morph continua between self-face (Morph 100%) and a gender-matched friend's face (Morph 0%) in a face recognition task. Contrasting Morph 100% versus Morph 60% that differed in self-face physical properties but were both recognized as the self uncovered neural activity sensitive to self-face physical properties in the left FFA. Contrasting Morphs 50% that were recognized as the self versus a friend on different trials revealed neural modulations associated with self-face identity in the right FFA. Moreover, the right FFA activity correlated with the frequency of recognizing Morphs 50% as the self. Our results provide evidence for functional dissociations of the left and right FFAs in the representations of self-face physical properties and self-face identity.

  12. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  13. A Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Functional Measurement Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Theuns, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information Integration Theory (IIT) is concerned with how people combine information into an overall judgment. A method is hereby presented to perform Functional Measurement (FM) experiments, the methodological counterpart of IIT, on the Web. In a comparison of Web-based FM experiments, face-to-face experiments, and computer-based experiments in…

  14. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Cuaya, Laura V.; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs’ brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  15. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    PubMed

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  16. Reduced face identity aftereffects in relatives of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Gray, Laura; Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition with complex aetiology. To aid the discovery of genetic mechanisms, researchers have turned towards identifying potential endophenotypes - subtle neurobiological or neurocognitive traits present in individuals with autism and their "unaffected" relatives. Previous research has shown that relatives of individuals with autism exhibit face processing atypicalities, which are similar in nature albeit of lesser degree, to those found in children and adults with autism. Yet very few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms responsible for such atypicalities. Here, we investigated whether atypicalities in adaptive norm-based coding of faces are present in relatives of children with autism, similar to those previously reported in children with autism. To test this possibility, we administered a face identity aftereffect task in which adaptation to a particular face biases perception towards the opposite identity, so that a previously neutral face (i.e., the average face) takes on the computationally opposite identity. Parents and siblings of individuals with autism showed smaller aftereffects compared to parents and siblings of typically developing children, especially so when the adapting stimuli were located further away from the average face. In addition, both groups showed stronger aftereffects for adaptors far from the average than for adaptors closer to the average. These results suggest that, in relatives of children with autism, face-coding mechanism are similar (i.e., norm-based) but less efficient than in relatives of typical children. This finding points towards the possibility that diminished adaptive mechanisms might represent a neurocognitive endophenotype for autism.

  17. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  18. Amygdala Activation during Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suslow, Thomas; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Schwindt, Wolfram; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that critical functions of the human amygdala are to modulate the moment-to-moment vigilance level and to enhance the processing and the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing material. In this functional magnetic resonance study, pictures of human faces bearing fearful, angry, and happy expressions were presented to…

  19. Fusiform gyrus face selectivity relates to individual differences in facial recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Furl, Nicholas; Garrido, Lúcia; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon; Duchaine, Bradley

    2011-07-01

    Regions of the occipital and temporal lobes, including a region in the fusiform gyrus (FG), have been proposed to constitute a "core" visual representation system for faces, in part because they show face selectivity and face repetition suppression. But recent fMRI studies of developmental prosopagnosics (DPs) raise questions about whether these measures relate to face processing skills. Although DPs manifest deficient face processing, most studies to date have not shown unequivocal reductions of functional responses in the proposed core regions. We scanned 15 DPs and 15 non-DP control participants with fMRI while employing factor analysis to derive behavioral components related to face identification or other processes. Repetition suppression specific to facial identities in FG or to expression in FG and STS did not show compelling relationships with face identification ability. However, we identified robust relationships between face selectivity and face identification ability in FG across our sample for several convergent measures, including voxel-wise statistical parametric mapping, peak face selectivity in individually defined "fusiform face areas" (FFAs), and anatomical extents (cluster sizes) of those FFAs. None of these measures showed associations with behavioral expression or object recognition ability. As a group, DPs had reduced face-selective responses in bilateral FFA when compared with non-DPs. Individual DPs were also more likely than non-DPs to lack expected face-selective activity in core regions. These findings associate individual differences in face processing ability with selectivity in core face processing regions. This confirms that face selectivity can provide a valid marker for neural mechanisms that contribute to face identification ability.

  20. Feminine Faces of Leadership: Beyond Structural- Functionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Hope-Arlene

    1999-01-01

    Reviews four philosophical leadership perspectives: structural-functionalism, constructivism, critical theory, and feminism. Explores the leadership phenomenon through the eyes of six women principals. Although the behaviors of all six fall within a structural-functionalist perspective, each is attempting to construct inclusive, positive, and…

  1. Written on the Face: Self- and Expert-Rated Impairments in Personality Functioning Are Differently Related to the Expression of Disgust Toward an Interviewer.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Zimmermann, Johannes; Peham, Doris; Bock, Astrid; Mitte, Kristin; Benecke, Cord

    2016-06-01

    Although current theories suggest that impairments in personality functioning are at the core of personality pathology, there is a lack of research on how these impairments play out behaviorally. The aim of the present study was to investigate disgust expressions as indicators of personality dysfunction. Facial expressions were investigated in a sample of 78 female participants during an in-depth clinical interview and coded with the Facial Action Coding System. Personality dysfunction was assessed with self- and expert ratings. By applying a joint regression analysis, the authors found that disgust expressions toward the interviewer were positively associated with expert ratings but negatively associated with self-ratings. In other words, disgust expressions were indicative of an underestimation of personality dysfunction by participants as compared with experts. This suggests that interactional expressions of disgust might be a behavioral marker of personality dysfunction when individuals are unaware of or deny impairments.

  2. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  3. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    PubMed Central

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization. PMID:27250879

  4. Race-specific norms for coding face identity and a functional role for norms.

    PubMed

    Armann, Regine; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

    2011-11-09

    Models of face perception often adopt a framework in which faces are represented as points or vectors in a multidimensional space, relative to the average face that serves as a norm for encoding. Since faces are very similar in their configuration and share many visual properties, they could be encoded in one common space against one norm. However, certain face properties may result in grouping and "subclassification" of similar faces. We studied the processing of faces of different races, using high-level aftereffects, where exposure to one face systematically distorts the perception of a subsequently viewed face toward the "opposite" identity in face space. We measured identity aftereffects for adapt-test pairs that were opposite relative to race-specific (Asian and Caucasian) averages and pairs that were opposite relative to a "generic" average (both races morphed together). Aftereffects were larger for race-specific compared to mixed-race adapt-test pairs. These results suggest that race-specific norms are used to code identity because aftereffects are generally larger for adapt-test pairs drawn from trajectories passing through the norm (opposite pairs) than for those that do not. We also found that identification thresholds were lower when targets were distributed around race-specific averages than around the mixed-race average, suggesting that norm-based face encoding may play a functional role in facilitating identity discrimination.

  5. Representations of faces and body parts in macaque temporal cortex: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Mark A; DeSimone, Kevin; Moore, Tirin; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2005-05-10

    Human neuroimaging studies suggest that areas in temporal cortex respond preferentially to certain biologically relevant stimulus categories such as faces and bodies. Single-cell studies in monkeys have reported cells in inferior temporal cortex that respond selectively to faces, hands, and bodies but provide little evidence of large clusters of category-specific cells that would form "areas." We probed the category selectivity of macaque temporal cortex for representations of monkey faces and monkey body parts relative to man-made objects using functional MRI in animals trained to fixate. Two face-selective areas were activated bilaterally in the posterior and anterior superior temporal sulcus exhibiting different degrees of category selectivity. The posterior face area was more extensively activated in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. Immediately adjacent to the face areas, regions were activated bilaterally responding preferentially to body parts. Our findings suggest a category-selective organization for faces and body parts in macaque temporal cortex.

  6. Typical and Atypical Development of Functional Connectivity in the Face Network.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Zhu, Qi; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia

    2015-10-28

    Extensive studies have demonstrated that face recognition performance does not reach adult levels until adolescence. However, there is no consensus on whether such prolonged improvement stems from development of general cognitive factors or face-specific mechanisms. Here, we used behavioral experiments and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate these two hypotheses. With a large cohort of children (n = 379), we found that the ability of face-specific recognition in humans increased with age throughout childhood and into late adolescence in both face memory and face perception. Neurally, to circumvent the potential problem of age differences in task performance, attention, or cognitive strategies in task-state fMRI studies, we measured the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) in human brain and found that the OFA-FFA RSFC increased until 11-13 years of age. Moreover, the OFA-FFA RSFC was selectively impaired in adults with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). In contrast, no age-related changes or differences between DP and normal adults were observed for RSFCs in the object system. Finally, the OFA-FFA RSFC matured earlier than face selectivity in either the OFA or FFA. These results suggest the critical role of the OFA-FFA RSFC in the development of face recognition. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that prolonged development of face recognition is face specific, not domain general.

  7. The other-race effect for face perception: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, M J; Schreppel, T; Jäger, D; Koehler, S; Ehlis, A-C; Fallgatter, A J

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that a recognition bias can be observed whenever subjects have to decide whether they have seen a person before that belongs to a different ethnical group. Although this "other-race effect" is well documented on a behavioural level, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One plausible explanation might be that cortical areas involved in face processing are not as effective for other-race faces due to a missing experience with individuals from other ethnical groups. This interpretation is strongly supported by a functional magnetic resonance imaging study showing decreased brain activity on other-race faces. Furthermore, two event-related potential studies revealed differences in brain activity in the first 250 ms after face presentation, but with inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated 12 Caucasian subjects, showing them faces of Asian and Caucasian subjects in a perceptual priming paradigm and measured the event-related brain potentials. On a behavioural level we found slower reaction times to Asian faces compared to Caucasian faces in the unprimed condition, reflecting a deficit for Caucasian subjects to process other-race faces. In accordance with these behavioural data we see a significantly reduced late N250r amplitude in the unprimed condition to the Asian faces compared to the Caucasian faces. These results clearly indicate that the other-race effect was present in our sample and very specific only in the unprimed condition around 350-450 ms after stimulus onset.

  8. Abnormal Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders during Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Sterling, Lindsey; Stegbauer, Keith C.; Mahurin, Roderick; Johnson, L. Clark; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in the interactions between functionally linked brain regions have been suggested to be associated with the clinical impairments observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated functional connectivity within the limbic system during face identification; a primary component of social cognition, in 19 high-functioning…

  9. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance

    PubMed Central

    Joel Shaw, Daniel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Bruce Pike, G.

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among ‘distal’ nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions. PMID:26772669

  10. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel Joel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G Bruce; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among 'distal' nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions.

  11. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  12. Reputation Management: The New Face of Corporate Public Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, James G.; Goodman, Michael B.; Alexander, Jill B.; Genest, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an empirical study of the Fortune 500 companies suggesting that "reputation management" is gaining ground as a driving philosophy behind corporate public relations. Finds some interesting correlations between reputation and specific categories of spending. Concludes that if reputation management is the new face of corporate…

  13. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ela I.; Iglesias, Jaime; Saavedra, Cristina; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs) as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM). New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing. PMID:26160999

  14. The eye-size illusion: psychophysical characteristics, generality, and relation to holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen S; Fu, Genyue; Quinn, Paul C; Sun, Yu-Hao; Xiao, Naiqi G; Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Pascalis, Olivier; Damon, Fabrice; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Rakover [(2011). In Y. H. Zhang (Ed.), Advances in face image analysis: Techniques and technologies (pp. 316-333). Hershey, PA: IGI Global] observed a novel eye-size illusion: when increasing the size of a face but keeping the size of its eyes unchanged, the eyes are perceived to be smaller than in the original face. Here, we systematically manipulated the face size and found that the magnitude of this illusion linearly changed as a function of the face frame size (experiment 1). Additionally, the same magnitude of an illusion was observed for the perception of the size of the mouth when we changed the face frame but kept the mouth size constant (experiment 2). Further, when the faces and eyes were presented upside down, the magnitude of the illusion was significantly reduced in both Chinese participants (experiment 3) and Caucasian participants (experiment 4). The results suggest that the perception of eye or mouth size occurs in the relational context of the whole face; and when the face is inverted, thereby disrupting holistic processing, the magnitude of the illusion is reduced. We therefore suggest that holistic processing is involved in producing the illusion.

  15. Distinct neural correlates of the preference-related valuation of supraliminally and subliminally presented faces.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayahito; Abe, Nobuhito; Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawasaki, Iori; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2015-08-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural substrates involved in the valuation of supraliminally presented targets and the subsequent preference decisions. However, the neural mechanisms of the valuation of subliminally presented targets, which can guide subsequent preference decisions, remain to be explored. In the present study, we determined whether the neural systems associated with the valuation of supraliminally presented faces are involved in the valuation of subliminally presented faces. The subjects were supraliminally and subliminally presented with faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following fMRI, the subjects were presented with pairs of faces and were asked to choose which face they preferred. We analyzed brain activation by back-sorting the fMRI data according to the subjects' choices. The present study yielded two main findings. First, the ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex predict preferences only for supraliminally presented faces. Second, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may predict preferences for subliminally presented faces. These findings indicate that neural correlates of the preference-related valuation of faces are dissociable, contingent upon whether the subjects consciously perceive the faces.

  16. Event-related potentials reflect impaired face recognition in patients with congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Kress, Thomas; Daum, Irene

    2003-12-04

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to faces have been shown to be altered in patients suffering from prosopagnosia. In this report we present ERP findings from two patients suffering from a congenital form of prosopagnosia, with other visual and cognitive functions being spared and without any structural abnormalities as assessed by anatomical brain imaging. Subjects were presented with photographs of faces and houses, and they had to respond to photographs of hands. Both patients did not show a difference in N170 amplitude to faces compared to houses, whereas there was a significant N170 difference of these two stimulus classes in healthy control subjects.

  17. Reward circuitry function in autism during face anticipation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Richey, J Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary outcomes, participants with ASDs showed hyperactivation in left midfrontal and anterior cingulate gyrus. Groups did not differ in nucleus accumbens responses to faces. The ASD group demonstrated hyperactivation in bilateral amygdala during face anticipation that predicted social symptom severity and in bilateral insular cortex during face outcomes. These results add to the growing body of evidence that autism is characterized by altered functioning of reward circuitry. Additionally, atypical amygdala activation during the processing of social rewards may contribute to the development or expression of autistic features.

  18. Neural networks related to dysfunctional face processing in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Rottschy, Claudia; Thommes, Johanna; Schneider, Frank; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most consistent neuropsychological findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a reduced interest in and impaired processing of human faces. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on 14 functional imaging studies on neural correlates of face processing enrolling a total of 164 ASD patients. Subsequently, normative whole-brain functional connectivity maps for the identified regions of significant convergence were computed for the task-independent (resting-state) and task-dependent (co-activations) state in healthy subjects. Quantitative functional decoding was performed by reference to the BrainMap database. Finally, we examined the overlap of the delineated network with the results of a previous meta-analysis on structural abnormalities in ASD as well as with brain regions involved in human action observation/imitation. We found a single cluster in the left fusiform gyrus showing significantly reduced activation during face processing in ASD across all studies. Both task-dependent and task-independent analyses indicated significant functional connectivity of this region with the temporo-occipital and lateral occipital cortex, the inferior frontal and parietal cortices, the thalamus and the amygdala. Quantitative reverse inference then indicated an association of these regions mainly with face processing, affective processing, and language-related tasks. Moreover, we found that the cortex in the region of right area V5 displaying structural changes in ASD patients showed consistent connectivity with the region showing aberrant responses in the context of face processing. Finally, this network was also implicated in the human action observation/imitation network. In summary, our findings thus suggest a functionally and structurally disturbed network of occipital regions related primarily to face (but potentially also language) processing, which interact with inferior frontal as well as limbic regions and may be the core of

  19. Encoding of faces and objects into visual working memory: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Berti, Stefan

    2013-09-11

    Visual working memory (VWM) is an important prerequisite for cognitive functions, but little is known on whether the general perceptual processing advantage for faces also applies to VWM processes. The aim of the present study was (a) to test whether there is a general advantage for face stimuli in VWM and (b) to unravel whether this advantage is related to early sensory processing stages. To address these questions, we compared encoding of faces and complex nonfacial objects into VWM within a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. In detail, we tested whether the N170 ERP component - which is associated with face-specific holistic processing - is affected by memory load for faces or whether it might be involved in WM encoding of any complex object. Participants performed a same-different task with either face or watch stimuli and with two different levels of memory load. Behavioral measures show an advantage for faces on the level of VWM, mirrored in higher estimated VWM capacity (i.e. Cowan's K) for faces compared with watches. In the ERP, the N170 amplitude was enhanced for faces compared with watches. However, the N170 was not modulated by working memory load either for faces or for watches. In contrast, the P3b component was affected by memory load irrespective of the stimulus category. Taken together, the results suggest that the VWM advantage for faces is not reflected at the sensory stages of stimulus processing, but rather at later higher-level processes as reflected by the P3b component.

  20. Neural Correlates of Perceiving Emotional Faces and Bodies in Developmental Prosopagnosia: An Event-Related fMRI-Study

    PubMed Central

    Van den Stock, Jan; van de Riet, Wim A. C.; Righart, Ruthger; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    Many people experience transient difficulties in recognizing faces but only a small number of them cannot recognize their family members when meeting them unexpectedly. Such face blindness is associated with serious problems in everyday life. A better understanding of the neuro-functional basis of impaired face recognition may be achieved by a careful comparison with an equally unique object category and by a adding a more realistic setting involving neutral faces as well facial expressions. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neuro-functional basis of perceiving faces and bodies in three developmental prosopagnosics (DP) and matched healthy controls. Our approach involved materials consisting of neutral faces and bodies as well as faces and bodies expressing fear or happiness. The first main result is that the presence of emotional information has a different effect in the patient vs. the control group in the fusiform face area (FFA). Neutral faces trigger lower activation in the DP group, compared to the control group, while activation for facial expressions is the same in both groups. The second main result is that compared to controls, DPs have increased activation for bodies in the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and for neutral faces in the extrastriate body area (EBA), indicating that body and face sensitive processes are less categorically segregated in DP. Taken together our study shows the importance of using naturalistic emotional stimuli for a better understanding of developmental face deficits. PMID:18797499

  1. Identification of famous faces and buildings: a functional neuroimaging study of semantically unique items.

    PubMed

    Gorno-Tempini, M L; Price, C J

    2001-10-01

    Several functional imaging experiments have clearly established that the fusiform gyri are preferentially responsive to faces, whereas the parahippocampal/lingual gyri are more responsive to buildings. Other studies have demonstrated that famous faces additionally activate the anterior temporal cortex relative to unfamiliar faces, animals, tools, body parts and maps. One explanation for this apparent specialization for known people could be that famous faces are 'semantically unique items'. In other words, they carry unique semantic associations that are not shared by other perceptually similar category members. If this hypothesis is correct, the anterior temporal cortex should also respond to other semantically unique items, such as famous buildings. In this PET study, we investigated the effect of fame (famous relative to non-famous) on activation elicited by famous and non-famous faces and buildings during a same-different matching task. We found that, when the task was held constant, category-specific activations in the fusiform and parahippocampal/lingual areas were not modulated by fame. In contrast, in the left anterior middle temporal gyrus there was an effect of fame that was common to faces and buildings. These results suggest that the identification of famous faces and buildings involves category-specific perceptual processing in the fusiform and parahippocampal/lingual regions, respectively, and shared analysis of unique semantic attributes in the left anterior temporal cortex.

  2. Visual scanpaths to threat-related faces in deluded schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa J; Williams, Leanne M; Davidson, Dean

    2003-08-01

    This study examined visuo-cognitive processing of threat-related (anger, fear) and non-threat faces (happy, sad, neutral) in deluded schizophrenia (n=11), non-deluded schizophrenia (n=8), and healthy control (n=22) participants. Focal analyses examined scanpath aberrations for particular facial expressions in sub-groups of schizophrenia patients determined by the presence or absence of overt delusions. Deluded schizophrenia subjects exhibited significantly fewer fixations of shorter duration for all faces, and fewer fixations of reduced duration to the feature areas of negative facial expressions (anger, sad), compared with healthy controls. Compared with non-deluded schizophrenia subjects, deluded subjects exhibited fewer fixations to fear expressions and more fixations to the feature areas of happy expressions. These findings were revealed in the context of restricted scanning (reduced number and duration of fixations, shorter scanpath length and shorter duration of fixations to facial features) in the entire schizophrenia group (n=19) compared with healthy controls. The findings suggest a controlled attentional bias away from the feature areas of negative facial expressions in deluded schizophrenia, that is, specific to threat-related expressions compared with non-deluded schizophrenia subjects. This controlled bias away from negative social stimuli in deluded schizophrenia is discussed in terms of an attentional style of 'vigilance-avoidance' operating across early and late stages of information processing.

  3. Quantifying interindividual variability and asymmetry of face-selective regions: a probabilistic functional atlas.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Yang, Zetian; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Xu; Dang, Xiaobin; Huang, Yangyue; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Face-selective regions (FSRs) are among the most widely studied functional regions in the human brain. However, individual variability of the FSRs has not been well quantified. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to localize the FSRs and quantify their spatial and functional variabilities in 202 healthy adults. The occipital face area (OFA), posterior and anterior fusiform face areas (pFFA and aFFA), posterior continuation of the superior temporal sulcus (pcSTS), and posterior and anterior STS (pSTS and aSTS) were delineated for each individual with a semi-automated procedure. A probabilistic atlas was constructed to characterize their interindividual variability, revealing that the FSRs were highly variable in location and extent across subjects. The variability of FSRs was further quantified on both functional (i.e., face selectivity) and spatial (i.e., volume, location of peak activation, and anatomical location) features. Considerable interindividual variability and rightward asymmetry were found in all FSRs on these features. Taken together, our work presents the first effort to characterize comprehensively the variability of FSRs in a large sample of healthy subjects, and invites future work on the origin of the variability and its relation to individual differences in behavioral performance. Moreover, the probabilistic functional atlas will provide an adequate spatial reference for mapping the face network.

  4. Comparison of Power Relations within Electronic and Face-to-Face Classroom Discussions: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeris, Laurel

    2002-01-01

    Online discussions and transcriptions of face-to-face discussions by graduate students (14 online, 14 on campus) were analyzed. Technical support was not available 24 hours a day to online students who were predominantly women. Online discussions were more student-to-student, classroom discussions student-to-teacher. The analysis suggests how…

  5. A Study of the Effectiveness of ITV as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Teaching of Functional Illiterates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornish, J. Robert

    This Pennsylvania study investigated whether functionally illiterate adults in a face-to-face adult basic education (ABE) program using instructional television (ITV) show greater achievement gains than those in similar programs without ITV. Achievement data were drawn from raw scores on Level I, Form A (pretest), and Level I, Form B, (posttest),…

  6. Eye coding mechanisms in early human face event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Guillaume A; Ince, Robin A A; van Rijsbergen, Nicola J; Schyns, Philippe G

    2014-11-10

    In humans, the N170 event-related potential (ERP) is an integrated measure of cortical activity that varies in amplitude and latency across trials. Researchers often conjecture that N170 variations reflect cortical mechanisms of stimulus coding for recognition. Here, to settle the conjecture and understand cortical information processing mechanisms, we unraveled the coding function of N170 latency and amplitude variations in possibly the simplest socially important natural visual task: face detection. On each experimental trial, 16 observers saw face and noise pictures sparsely sampled with small Gaussian apertures. Reverse-correlation methods coupled with information theory revealed that the presence of the eye specifically covaries with behavioral and neural measurements: the left eye strongly modulates reaction times and lateral electrodes represent mainly the presence of the contralateral eye during the rising part of the N170, with maximum sensitivity before the N170 peak. Furthermore, single-trial N170 latencies code more about the presence of the contralateral eye than N170 amplitudes and early latencies are associated with faster reaction times. The absence of these effects in control images that did not contain a face refutes alternative accounts based on retinal biases or allocation of attention to the eye location on the face. We conclude that the rising part of the N170, roughly 120-170 ms post-stimulus, is a critical time-window in human face processing mechanisms, reflecting predominantly, in a face detection task, the encoding of a single feature: the contralateral eye.

  7. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry.

    PubMed

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M; Klaver, P; Grüter, T; Specht, K; Weis, S; Kennerknecht, I; Elger, C E; Fernandez, G

    2011-05-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for faces with negative valence. Anatomical analysis revealed diminished gray matter density in the bilateral lingual gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In most of these areas, gray matter density correlated with memory success. Decreased functional activation was found in the left fusiform gyrus, a crucial area for face processing, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas activation of the medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced. Hence, our data lend strength to the hypothesis that congenital prosopagnosia is explained by network dysfunction and suggest that anatomic curtailing of visual processing in the lingual gyrus plays a substantial role. The dysfunctional circuitry further encompasses the fusiform gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to their difficulties in long-term memory for complex visual information. Despite their deficits in face identity recognition, processing of emotion related information is preserved and possibly mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. Congenital prosopagnosia may, therefore, be a blueprint of differential curtailing in networks of visual cognition.

  8. Abnormal GABAergic function and face processing in schizophrenia: A pharmacologic-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tso, Ivy F; Fang, Yu; Phan, K Luan; Welsh, Robert C; Taylor, Stephan F

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli ("Do you like this face?"). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia.

  9. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  10. The Development of Infant Learning about Specific Face-Voice Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Flom, Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the development of infants' ability to perceive, learn, and remember the unique face-voice relations of unfamiliar adults. Infants of 2, 4, and 6 months were habituated to the faces and voices of 2 same-gender adults speaking and then received test trials where the faces and voices were synchronized yet mismatched. Results…

  11. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  12. Processing of famous faces and medial temporal lobe event-related potentials: a depth electrode study.

    PubMed

    Dietl, T; Trautner, P; Staedtgen, M; Vannucci, M; Vannuchi, M; Mecklinger, A; Grunwald, T; Clusmann, H; Elger, C E; Kurthen, M

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims at analyzing the modulation of two types of event-related potentials originating from the human medial temporal lobe, the rhinal AMTL-N400 and the hippocampal P600 by the processing of famous faces. Therefore, we used a face recognition paradigm in which subjects had to discriminate the faces of famous persons from the faces of non-famous persons. Eleven patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing intrahippocampal depth electrode recording for presurgical evaluation participated in this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a sequence of famous and non-famous faces was presented to the patients. The presentation of each face was repeated. The faces evoked N400-like potentials (anterior medial temporal lobe N400, AMTL-N400) in the rhinal cortex and P600-like potentials in the hippocampus. ERPs elicited by famous faces were contrasted with ERPs elicited by non-famous faces. The first presentation of famous faces elicited an enhanced AMTL-N400 and an enhanced hippocampal P600 in comparison to the second presentations of the famous faces or the (first and second presentation of the) non-famous faces. This findings are discussed in terms of associative semantic memory processes and the retrieval of person-specific information from long-term memory stores triggered by the processing of famous faces.

  13. Separable effects of inversion and contrast-reversal on face detection thresholds and response functions: a sweep VEP study.

    PubMed

    Liu-Shuang, Joan; Ales, Justin; Rossion, Bruno; Norcia, Anthony M

    2015-02-10

    The human brain rapidly detects faces in the visual environment. We recently presented a sweep visual evoked potential approach to objectively define face detection thresholds as well as suprathreshold response functions (Ales, Farzin, Rossion, & Norcia, 2012). Here we determined these parameters are affected by orientation (upright vs. inverted) and contrast polarity (positive vs. negative), two manipulations that disproportionately disrupt the perception of faces relative to other object categories. Face stimuli parametrically increased in visibility through phase-descrambling while alternating with scrambled images at a fixed presentation rate of 3 Hz (6 images/s). The power spectrum and mean luminance of all stimuli were equalized. As a face gradually emerged during a stimulation sequence, EEG responses at 3 Hz appeared at ≈35% phase coherence over right occipito-temporal channels, replicating previous observations. With inversion and contrast-reversal, the 3-Hz amplitude decreased by ≈20%-50% and the face detection threshold increased by ≈30%-60% coherence. Furthermore, while the 3-Hz response emerged abruptly and saturated quickly for normal faces, suggesting a categorical neural response, the response profile for inverted and negative polarity faces was shallower and more linear, indicating gradual and continuously increasing activation of the underlying neural population. These findings demonstrate that inversion and contrast-reversal increase the threshold and modulate the suprathreshold response function of face detection.

  14. Visual Afterimages of Emotional Faces in High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Troubridge, Erin K.; Walsh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Fixating an emotional facial expression can create afterimages, such that subsequent faces are seen as having the opposite expression of that fixated. Visual afterimages have been used to map the relationships among emotion categories, and this method was used here to compare ASD and matched control participants. Participants adapted to a facial…

  15. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p < 0.0001), and dependent on stimulus frequency (p < 0.0001) and the sex of the participants (p < 0.005). VDTs were significantly higher for older adults when compared to younger adults for the finger stimulation condition (p < 0.05). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in cheek and lower lip VDTs between male and female subjects. Difference in the VDTs between the three stimulation sites is presumed to reflect the unique typing and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics.

  16. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing.

  17. Face Inversion Disproportionately Impairs the Perception of Vertical but Not Horizontal Relations between Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Upside-down inversion disrupts the processing of spatial relations between the features of a face, while largely preserving local feature analysis. However, recent studies on face inversion failed to observe a clear dissociation between relational and featural processing. To resolve these discrepancies and clarify how inversion affects face…

  18. Altered Neural Function to Happy Faces in Adolescents with and at Risk for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kerestes, Rebecca; Segreti, Anna Maria; Pan, Lisa A.; Phillips, Mary L.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is accumulating evidence of alterations in neural circuitry underlying the processing of social-affective information in adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However the extent to which such alterations are present in youth at risk for mood disorders remains unclear. Method Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent task responses and functional connectivity using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses to mild and intense happy face stimuli was examined in 29 adolescents with MDD (MDD; M age, 16.0, SD 1.2 years), 38 healthy adolescents at risk of a mood disorder, by virtue of having a parent diagnosed with either Bipolar Disorder (BD) or MDD (Mood-risk; M age 13.4, SD 2.5 years) and 43 healthy control adolescents, having parents with no psychiatric disorder (HC; M age 14.6, SD 2.2 years). Results Relative to HC adolescents, Mood-risk adolescents showed elevated right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to 100% intensity happy (vs. neutral) faces and concomitant lowered ventral putamen activity to 50% intensity happy (vs. neutral) faces. gPPI analyses revealed that MDD adolescents showed significantly lower right DLPFC functional connectivity with the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) compared to HC to all happy faces. Limitations The current study is limited by the smaller number of healthy offspring at risk for MDD compared to BD. Conclusions Because Mood-risk adolescents were healthy at the time of the scan, elevated DLPFC and lowered ventral striatal activity in Mood-risk adolescents may be associated with risk or resiliency. In contrast, altered DLPFC-VLPFC functional connectivity in MDD adolescents may be associated with depressed mood state. Such alterations may affect social-affective development and progression to a mood disorder in Mood-risk adolescents. Future longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to directly answer this research question. PMID:26724693

  19. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  20. Uncertainty relations for characteristic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Tasca, D. S.; Walborn, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    We present the uncertainty relation for the characteristic functions (ChUR) of the quantum mechanical position and momentum probability distributions. This inequality is more general than the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and is saturated in two extreme cases for wave functions described by periodic Dirac combs. We further discuss a broad spectrum of applications of the ChUR; in particular, we constrain quantum optical measurements involving general detection apertures and provide the uncertainty relation that is relevant for loop quantum cosmology. A method to measure the characteristic function directly using an auxiliary qubit is also briefly discussed.

  1. Recognition memory for emotional faces in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Schefter, Maria; Werheid, Katja; Almkvist, Ove; Lönnqvist-Akenine, Ulrika; Kathmann, Norbert; Winblad, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the temporal course of emotional face recognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Patients and healthy controls (HC) performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces displaying a negative or neutral expression. In aMCI patients, recognition accuracy was preserved for negative faces. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed disease-related changes in early perceptual components but not in ERP indices of explicit recognition. Specifically, aMCI patients showed impaired recognition effects for negative faces on the amplitudes of N170 and P2, suggesting deficient memory-related processing of negative faces at the stage of structural encoding and during an early recognition stage at which faces are individuated, respectively. Moreover, while a right-lateralized emotion effect specifically observed for correctly recognized faces on the amplitude of N170 was absent in aMCI, a similar emotion effect for successfully recognized faces on P2 was preserved in the patients, albeit with a different distribution. This suggests that in aMCI facilitated processing of successfully recognized emotional faces starts later in the processing sequence. Nonetheless, an early frontal old/new effect confined to negative faces and a parietal old/new effect unaffected by facial emotion were observed in both groups. This indicates that familiarity and conceptual priming processes may specifically contribute to recognition of negative faces in older adults and that aMCI patients can recruit the same retrieval mechanisms as controls, despite disease-related changes on early perceptual ERP components.

  2. Reduced Face Identity Aftereffects in Relatives of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Gray, Laura; Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition with complex aetiology. To aid the discovery of genetic mechanisms, researchers have turned towards identifying potential endophenotypes--subtle neurobiological or neurocognitive traits present in individuals with autism and their "unaffected" relatives. Previous research has shown that relatives of…

  3. Decreased face primary motor cortex (face-M1) excitability induced by noxious stimulation of the rat molar tooth pulp is dependent on the functional integrity of face-M1 astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Awamleh, L; Pun, H; Lee, J-C; Avivi-Arber, L

    2015-04-01

    Acute inflammatory dental pain is a prevalent condition often associated with limited jaw movements. Mustard oil (MO, a small-fiber excitant/inflammatory irritant) application to the rat molar tooth pulp induces increased excitability (i.e., central sensitization) of trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons that can be modulated by MDH application of the astrocytic inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO). The objectives of the study were to determine whether MO application to the rat right maxillary first molar tooth pulp affects left face-M1 excitability manifested as altered intracortical microstimulation thresholds for evoking electromyographic activity in the right anterior digastric (RAD, jaw-opening muscle), and whether MSO application to face-M1 can modulate this MO effect. Under Ketamine general anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley male rats had a microelectrode positioned at a low-threshold (≤30 μA) face-M1 site. Then MO (n = 16) or control solution (n = 16) was applied to the previously exposed tooth pulp, and RAD threshold was monitored for 15 min. MSO (0.1 mM, n = 8) or saline (n = 8) was then applied to the face-M1, and RAD thresholds were monitored every 15 min for 120 min. ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni was used to analyze data (p < 0.05). Within 15 min of MO (but not control) pulp application, RAD thresholds increased significantly (p < 0.001) as compared to baseline. One hour following MSO (but not saline) application to the face-M1, RAD thresholds decreased significantly (p = 0.005) toward baseline. These novel findings suggest that acute inflammatory dental pain is associated with decreased face-M1 excitability that may be dependent on the functional integrity of face-M1 astrocytes and related to mechanisms underlying limited jaw movements in acute orofacial pain conditions.

  4. The changing face of asthma and its relation with microbes.

    PubMed

    Earl, Chris S; An, Shi-qi; Ryan, Robert P

    2015-07-01

    During the past 50 years, the prevalence of asthma has increased and this has coincided with our changing relation with microorganisms. Asthma is a complex disease associated with local tissue inflammation of the airway that is determined by environmental, immunological, and host genetic factors. In a subgroup of sufferers, respiratory infections are associated with the development of chronic disease and more frequent inflammatory exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that these infections are polymicrobial in nature. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the recently discovered asthma airway microbiota may play a critical role in pathophysiological processes associated with the disease. Here, we discuss the current data regarding a possible role for infection in chronic asthma with a particular focus on the role bacteria may play. We discuss recent advances that are beginning to elucidate the complex relations between the microbiota and the immune response in asthma patients. We also highlight the clinical implications of these recent findings in regards to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  5. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: a multicentre functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Amir M; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bruehl, Ruediger; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mareckova, Klara; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents.

  6. Face processing pattern under top-down perception: a functional MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Jizheng; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Guangming

    2009-02-01

    Although top-down perceptual process plays an important role in face processing, its neural substrate is still puzzling because the top-down stream is extracted difficultly from the activation pattern associated with contamination caused by bottom-up face perception input. In the present study, a novel paradigm of instructing participants to detect faces from pure noise images is employed, which could efficiently eliminate the interference of bottom-up face perception in topdown face processing. Analyzing the map of functional connectivity with right FFA analyzed by conventional Pearson's correlation, a possible face processing pattern induced by top-down perception can be obtained. Apart from the brain areas of bilateral fusiform gyrus (FG), left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS), which are consistent with a core system in the distributed cortical network for face perception, activation induced by top-down face processing is also found in these regions that include the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC), right oribitofrontal cortex (OFC), left precuneus, right parahippocampal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right frontal pole, bilateral premotor cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and bilateral thalamus. The results indicate that making-decision, attention, episodic memory retrieving and contextual associative processing network cooperate with general face processing regions to process face information under top-down perception.

  7. Functional compartmentalization and viewpoint generalization within the macaque face-processing system.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, Winrich A; Tsao, Doris Y

    2010-11-05

    Primates can recognize faces across a range of viewing conditions. Representations of individual identity should thus exist that are invariant to accidental image transformations like view direction. We targeted the recently discovered face-processing network of the macaque monkey that consists of six interconnected face-selective regions and recorded from the two middle patches (ML, middle lateral, and MF, middle fundus) and two anterior patches (AL, anterior lateral, and AM, anterior medial). We found that the anatomical position of a face patch was associated with a unique functional identity: Face patches differed qualitatively in how they represented identity across head orientations. Neurons in ML and MF were view-specific; neurons in AL were tuned to identity mirror-symmetrically across views, thus achieving partial view invariance; and neurons in AM, the most anterior face patch, achieved almost full view invariance.

  8. Perceptual and Social Attributes Underlining Age-Related Preferences for Faces

    PubMed Central

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Cullen, Brendan; Clavin, Sarah L.; Newell, Fiona N.

    2016-01-01

    Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with aging, with an age-related bias in favoring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity) and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance) factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together with older aged

  9. The development of infant learning about specific face-voice relations.

    PubMed

    Bahrick, Lorraine E; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Flom, Ross

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the development of infants' ability to perceive, learn, and remember the unique face-voice relations of unfamiliar adults. Infants of 2, 4, and 6 months were habituated to the faces and voices of 2 same-gender adults speaking and then received test trials where the faces and voices were synchronized yet mismatched. Results indicated that 4- and 6-month-olds, but not 2-month-olds, detected the change in face-voice pairings. Two-month-olds did, however, discriminate among the faces and voices in a control study. Results of a subsequent intermodal matching procedure indicated that only the 6-month-olds showed matching and memory for the face-voice relations. These findings suggest that infants' ability to detect the arbitrary relations between specific faces and voices of unfamiliar adults emerges between 2 and 4 months of age, whereas matching and memory for these relations emerges somewhat later, perhaps between 4 and 6 months of age.

  10. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces.

  11. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour.

  12. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea; Polly, P David

    2013-01-01

    Facial length is one of the best known examples of heterochrony. Changes in the timing of facial growth have been invoked as a mechanism for the origin of our short human face from our long-faced extinct relatives. Such heterochronic changes arguably permit great evolutionary flexibility, allowing the mammalian face to be remodelled simply by modifying postnatal growth. Here we present new data that show that this mechanism is significantly constrained by adult size. Small mammals are more brachycephalic (short faced) than large ones, despite the putative independence between adult size and facial length. This pattern holds across four phenotypic lineages: antelopes, fruit bats, tree squirrels and mongooses. Despite the apparent flexibility of facial heterochrony, growth of the face is linked to absolute size and introduces what seems to be a loose but clade-wide mammalian constraint on head shape.

  13. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: evidence from event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Monk, Christopher S.; Phan, K. Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7 to 19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from increased efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. PMID:26220144

  14. The role of relational binding in item memory: evidence from face recognition in a case of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Lee, Yunjo; Kube, Jana; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-04-01

    Current theories state that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory representations regarding relations, whereas extrahippocampal cortical regions support representations for single items. However, findings of impaired item memory in hippocampal amnesics suggest a more nuanced role for the hippocampus in item memory. The hippocampus may be necessary when the item elements need to be bound within and across episodes to form a lasting representation that can be used flexibly. The current investigation was designed to test this hypothesis in face recognition. H.C., an individual who developed with a compromised hippocampal system, and control participants incidentally studied individual faces that either varied in presentation viewpoint across study repetitions or remained in a fixed viewpoint across the study repetitions. Eye movements were recorded during encoding and participants then completed a surprise recognition memory test. H.C. demonstrated altered face viewing during encoding. Although the overall number of fixations made by H.C. was not significantly different from that of controls, the distribution of her viewing was primarily directed to the eye region. Critically, H.C. was significantly impaired in her ability to subsequently recognize faces studied from variable viewpoints, but demonstrated spared performance in recognizing faces she encoded from a fixed viewpoint, implicating a relationship between eye movement behavior in the service of a hippocampal binding function. These findings suggest that a compromised hippocampal system disrupts the ability to bind item features within and across study repetitions, ultimately disrupting recognition when it requires access to flexible relational representations.

  15. Gaze Direction Modulates the Relation between Neural Responses to Faces and Visual Awareness.

    PubMed

    Madipakkam, Apoorva Rajiv; Rothkirch, Marcus; Guggenmos, Matthias; Heinz, Andreas; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-09-30

    Gaze direction and especially direct gaze is a powerful nonverbal cue that plays an important role in social interactions. Here we studied the neural mechanisms underlying the privileged access of direct gaze to visual awareness. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy human volunteers who were exposed to faces with direct or averted gaze under continuous flash suppression, thereby manipulating their awareness of the faces. A gaze processing network comprising fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and intraparietal sulcus showed overall reduced neural responses when participants reported to be unaware of the faces. Interestingly, direct gaze elicited greater responses than averted gaze when participants were aware of the faces, but smaller responses when they were unaware. Additional between-subject correlation and single-trial analyses indicated that this pattern of results was due to a modulation of the relationship between neural responses and awareness by gaze direction: with increasing neural activation in the FFA, direct-gaze faces entered awareness more readily than averted-gaze faces. These findings suggest that for direct gaze, lower levels of neural activity are sufficient to give rise to awareness than for averted gaze, thus providing a neural basis for privileged access of direct gaze to awareness. Significance statement: Another person's eye gaze directed at oneself is a powerful social signal acting as a catalyst for further communication. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms underlying the prioritized access of direct gaze to visual awareness in healthy human volunteers and show that with increasing neural activation, direct-gaze faces enter awareness more readily than averted-gaze faces. This suggests that for a socially highly relevant cue like direct gaze, lower levels of neural activity are sufficient to give rise to awareness compared with averted gaze, possibly because the human brain is attuned

  16. The Motivational Salience of Faces Is Related to Both Their Valence and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.

    2016-01-01

    Both behavioral and neural measures of the motivational salience of faces are positively correlated with their physical attractiveness. Whether physical characteristics other than attractiveness contribute to the motivational salience of faces is not known, however. Research with male macaques recently showed that more dominant macaques’ faces hold greater motivational salience. Here we investigated whether dominance also contributes to the motivational salience of faces in human participants. Principal component analysis of third-party ratings of faces for multiple traits revealed two orthogonal components. The first component (“valence”) was highly correlated with rated trustworthiness and attractiveness. The second component (“dominance”) was highly correlated with rated dominance and aggressiveness. Importantly, both components were positively and independently related to the motivational salience of faces, as assessed from responses on a standard key-press task. These results show that at least two dissociable components underpin the motivational salience of faces in humans and present new evidence for similarities in how humans and non-human primates respond to facial cues of dominance. PMID:27513859

  17. Test-retest reliability of infant event related potentials evoked by faces.

    PubMed

    Munsters, N M; van Ravenswaaij, H; van den Boomen, C; Kemner, C

    2017-04-05

    Reliable measures are required to draw meaningful conclusions regarding developmental changes in longitudinal studies. Little is known, however, about the test-retest reliability of face-sensitive event related potentials (ERPs), a frequently used neural measure in infants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of ERPs typically evoked by faces in 9-10 month-old infants. The infants (N=31) were presented with neutral, fearful and happy faces that contained only the lower or higher spatial frequency information. They were tested twice within two weeks. The present results show that the test-retest reliability of the face-sensitive ERP components is moderate (P400 and Nc) to substantial (N290). However, there is low test-retest reliability for the effects of the specific experimental manipulations (i.e. emotion and spatial frequency) on the face-sensitive ERPs. To conclude, in infants the face-sensitive ERP components (i.e. N290, P400 and Nc) show adequate test-retest reliability, but not the effects of emotion and spatial frequency on these ERP components. We propose that further research focuses on investigating elements that might increase the test-retest reliability, as adequate test-retest reliability is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions on individual developmental trajectories of the face-sensitive ERPs in infants.

  18. Attachment Avoidance Is Significantly Related to Attentional Preference for Infant Faces: Evidence from Eye Movement Data

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women’s eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants (N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18–29 years (M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment. PMID:28184210

  19. Anatomical Connections of the Functionally Defined "Face Patches" in the Macaque Monkey.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Tsao, Doris

    2016-06-15

    The neural circuits underlying face recognition provide a model for understanding visual object representation, social cognition, and hierarchical information processing. A fundamental piece of information lacking to date is the detailed anatomical connections of the face patches. Here, we injected retrograde tracers into four different face patches (PL, ML, AL, AM) to characterize their anatomical connectivity. We found that the patches are strongly and specifically connected to each other, and individual patches receive inputs from extrastriate cortex, the medial temporal lobe, and three subcortical structures (the pulvinar, claustrum, and amygdala). Inputs from prefrontal cortex were surprisingly weak. Patches were densely interconnected to one another in both feedforward and feedback directions, inconsistent with a serial hierarchy. These results provide the first direct anatomical evidence that the face patches constitute a highly specialized system and suggest that subcortical regions may play a vital role in routing face-related information to subsequent processing stages.

  20. An Exploration of the Characteristics of Public Relations in Regards to Face-to-Face versus Distance Learning in Two Private Liberal Arts Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Cessna Catherine Smith

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of Public Relations (PR) among graduate higher education publics regarding distance learning as contrasted with face-to-face learning contexts. The research questions assessed student, faculty and administrator perceptions of characteristics of PR: trust, communication, quality, respect and rigor. Participants…

  1. Symmetry Is Related to Sexual Dimorphism in Faces: Data Across Culture and Species

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; Waitt, Corri; Tiddeman, Bernard P.; Feinberg, David R.; Perrett, David I.; Apicella, Coren L.; Marlowe, Frank W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many animals both display and assess multiple signals. Two prominently studied traits are symmetry and sexual dimorphism, which, for many animals, are proposed cues to heritable fitness benefits. These traits are associated with other potential benefits, such as fertility. In humans, the face has been extensively studied in terms of attractiveness. Faces have the potential to be advertisements of mate quality and both symmetry and sexual dimorphism have been linked to the attractiveness of human face shape. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that measurements of symmetry and sexual dimorphism from faces are related in humans, both in Europeans and African hunter-gatherers, and in a non-human primate. Using human judges, symmetry measurements were also related to perceived sexual dimorphism. In all samples, symmetric males had more masculine facial proportions and symmetric females had more feminine facial proportions. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the claim that sexual dimorphism and symmetry in faces are signals advertising quality by providing evidence that there must be a biological mechanism linking the two traits during development. Such data also suggests that the signalling properties of faces are universal across human populations and are potentially phylogenetically old in primates. PMID:18461131

  2. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  3. The neural correlates of the face attractiveness aftereffect: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Genyue; Mondloch, Catherine J; Ding, Xiao Pan; A Short, Lindsey; Sun, Liping; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-15

    Extensive behavioral evidence shows that our internal representation of faces, or face prototype, can be dynamically updated by immediate experience. This is illustrated by the robust attractiveness aftereffect phenomenon whereby originally unattractive faces become attractive after we are exposed to a set of unattractive faces. Although behavioral evidence suggests this effect to have a strong neural basis, limited neuroimaging evidence exists. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy methodology (fNIRS) to bridge this gap. During the pre-adaptation trials, participants judged the attractiveness of three sets of faces: normal/undistorted faces, compressed faces (the internal features and distances between them were compressed), and expanded faces (the internal features and distances between them were stretched). Then, participants were shown extremely compressed faces for 5 min as adaptation stimuli, after which participants judged the same three sets of faces in post-adaptation trials. Behaviorally, after the adaptation trials, participants rated the compressed faces more attractive whereas they judged the other two sets of faces as less attractive, replicating the robust adaptation effect. fNIRS results showed that short-term exposure to compressed faces led to significant decreases in neural activity to all face types, but in a more extended network of cortical regions in the frontal and occipital cortexes for undistorted faces. Taken together, these findings suggest that the face attractiveness aftereffect mainly reflects changes in the neural representation of the face prototype in response to recent exposures to new face exemplars.

  4. Love withdrawal is related to heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and incongruent emotional feedback: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-03-01

    Parental use of love withdrawal is thought to affect children's later psychological functioning because it creates a link between children's performance and relational consequences. To investigate whether love withdrawal is also associated with the underlying level of basic information processing in the brain, we studied event-related potentials to feedback stimuli that combined performance feedback with emotional facial expressions. We focused on the VPP (face processing) and N400 (incongruence processing). More maternal use of love withdrawal was related to more positive VPP amplitudes, larger effects of the emotional facial expression on VPP amplitude, and more negative N400 responses to incongruent combinations of feedback and facial expressions. Our findings suggest a heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and greater sensitivity to incongruence between feedback and facial expression in individuals who experienced more love withdrawal.

  5. Do neural correlates of face expertise vary with task demands? Event-related potential correlates of own- and other-race face inversion

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Holger

    2013-01-01

    We are typically more accurate at remembering own- than other-race faces. This “own-race bias” has been suggested to result from enhanced expertise with and more efficient perceptual processing of own-race than other-race faces. In line with this idea, the N170, an event-related potential correlate of face perception, has been repeatedly found to be larger for other-race faces. Other studies, however, found no difference in N170 amplitude for faces from diverse ethnic groups. The present study tested whether these seemingly incongruent findings can be explained by varying task demands. European participants were presented with upright and inverted European and Asian faces (as well as European and Asian houses), and asked to either indicate the ethnicity or the orientation of the stimuli. Larger N170s for other-race faces were observed in the ethnicity but not in the orientation task, suggesting that the necessity to process facial category information is a minimum prerequisite for the occurrence of the effect. In addition, N170 inversion effects, with larger amplitudes for inverted relative to upright stimuli, were more pronounced for own- relative to other-race faces in both tasks. Overall, the present findings suggest that the occurrence of ethnicity effects in N170 for upright faces depends on the amount of facial detail required for the task at hand. At the same time, the larger inversion effects for own- than other-race faces occur independent of task and may reflect the fine-tuning of perceptual processing to faces of maximum expertise. PMID:24399955

  6. Functional MRI reveals compromised neural integrity of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2009-07-14

    The summed activity of multiple nodes of a distributed cortical network supports face recognition in humans, including "core" ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) regions, and "extended" regions outside VOTC. Many individuals with congenital prosopagnosia-an impairment in face processing-exhibit normal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation in the core VOTC regions. These individuals evince a reduction in the structural integrity of the white matter tracts connecting VOTC to anterior temporal and frontal cortices, part of the "extended" face network. The impairment in congenital prosopagnosia may arise, therefore, not from a dysfunction of the core VOTC areas but from a failure to propagate signals between the intact VOTC and the extended nodes of the network. Using the fMR adaptation paradigm with famous and unknown faces, we show that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia evince normal adaptation effects in VOTC, indicating sensitivity to facial identity, but show no differential activation for familiar versus unknown faces outside VOTC, particularly in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior paracingulate cortex. Normal BOLD activation in VOTC is thus insufficient to subserve intact face recognition, and disrupted information propagation between VOTC and the extended face processing network may explain the functional impairment in congenital prosopagnosia.

  7. Are the Functions of Teachers in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Learning Environments Really Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso Diaz, Laura; Blazquez Entonado, Florentino

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is not to compare online and traditional face-to-face instruction merely to prove which one is better, but rather it aims to highlight some of the possible risks and strengths which may help to improve the role of teachers in both methods. The scene consisted of various thematic blocks from a training programme, with…

  8. Callous-Unemotional Traits Are Related to Combined Deficits in Recognizing Afraid Faces and Body Poses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Luna C.

    2009-01-01

    Results from a study that involves letting boys aged 8-16 years label emotional faces and static body poses show that callous-unemotional traits are related to poor accuracy in the tests. The results imply that a general "fear-blindness" is associated to a lack of empathy and to violence and antisocial behavior.

  9. Early Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.

    2011-01-01

    Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…

  10. Hard to “tune in”: neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N.; Koike, Takahiko; Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Izuma, Keise; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Ishitobi, Makoto; Omori, Masao; Munesue, Toshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty in eye contact (EC). This may make it difficult for their partners during face to face communication with them. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interaction of ASD patients and normal subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with typically-developed (normal) subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline EC was maintained while subjects performed real-time joint-attention task. The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD–Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal–Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole (OP) activation by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. On the other hand, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG that was observed in the Normal-Normal pairs (Saito et al., 2010) during EC diminished in ASD–Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal–Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of the normal partners on the eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during EC may be a prerequisite for eye cue detection by the normal partner. PMID:23060772

  11. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the flashed face distortion effect.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tanya; Kung, Chun-Chia

    2014-10-27

    The flashed face distortion (FFD) effect was coined by Tangen, Murphy, and Thompson (2011) in their second-place winner of the 2012 Best Illusion of the Year Contest. The FFD arises when people view various eye-aligned faces that are sequentially flashed in the visual periphery, and gradually the faces appear to be deformed and grotesque. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants were presented with four conditions: (a) one face pair changing only its illumination; (b) two and (c) three alternating face pairs; and (d) nonrepeated face pairs. Participants rated the magnitude of each illusion immediately after each block. Results showed that the receptive region of the early visual cortex (V1-V4), and category-selective areas such as the fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA), responded proportionally to the participants' rated FFD strength. A random-effects voxelwise analysis further revealed positively correlated areas (including the medial and superolateral frontal areas) and negatively correlated areas (including the precuneus, postcentral gyrus, right insula, and bilateral middle frontal gyri) with respect to participants' ratings. Time series correlations among these nine ROIs (four positive and five negative) indicated that most participants showed a clustering of the two separate ROI types. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) also demonstrated the segregation of the positive and negative ROIs; additionally, two subsystems were identified within the negative ROIs. These results suggest that the FFD is mediated by at least two networks: one that is likely responsible for perception and another that is likely responsible for subjective feelings and engagement.

  12. Event-related repetitive TMS reveals distinct, critical roles for right OFA and bilateral posterior STS in judging the sex and trustworthiness of faces.

    PubMed

    Dzhelyova, Milena P; Ellison, Amanda; Atkinson, Anthony P

    2011-10-01

    Judging the sex of faces relies on cues related to facial morphology and spatial relations between features, whereas judging the trustworthiness of faces relies on both structural and expressive cues that signal affective valence. The right occipital face area (OFA) processes structural cues and has been associated with sex judgments, whereas the posterior STS processes changeable facial cues related to muscle movements and is activated when observers judge trustworthiness. It is commonly supposed that the STS receives inputs from the OFA, yet it is unknown whether these regions have functionally dissociable, critical roles in sex and trustworthiness judgments. We addressed this issue using event-related, fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve healthy volunteers judged the sex of individually presented faces and, in a separate session, whether those same faces were trustworthy or not. Relative to sham stimulation, RTs were significantly longer for sex judgments when rTMS was delivered over the right OFA but not the right or left STS, and for trustworthiness judgments on male but not female faces when rTMS was delivered over the right STS or left STS but not the right OFA. Nonetheless, an analysis of the RT distributions revealed a possible critical role also for the right OFA in trustworthiness judgments, limited to faces with longer RTs, perhaps reflecting the later, ancillary use of structural cues related to the sex of the face. On the whole, our findings provide evidence that evaluations of the trustworthiness and sex of faces rely on functionally dissociable cortical regions.

  13. Field Measurement of Head Related Transfer Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    HEAD RELATED TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FREDERIC WIGHTMAN, Ph.D. DORIS J. KISTLER, Ph.D. HEARING DEVELOPMENT... function , F the free-field to eardrum transfer function (sometimes called the head - related transfer function , or HRTF), and M the microphone transfer ...into three areas: 1) acoustical measurements of free-field-to-eardrum transfer functions (also called head -relaLed transfer functions , or

  14. Common neural systems associated with the recognition of famous faces and names: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M

    2010-04-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related functional-MRI in 17 healthy participants to directly compare activation in response to randomly presented famous and non-famous names and faces (25 stimuli in each of the four categories). Findings indicated distinct areas of activation that differed for faces and names in regions typically associated with pre-semantic perceptual processes. In contrast, overlapping brain regions were activated in areas associated with the retrieval of biographical knowledge and associated social affective features. Specifically, activation for famous faces was primarily right lateralized and famous names were left-lateralized. However, for both stimuli, similar areas of bilateral activity were observed in the early phases of perceptual processing. Activation for fame, irrespective of stimulus modality, activated an extensive left hemisphere network, with bilateral activity observed in the hippocampi, posterior cingulate, and middle temporal gyri. Findings are discussed within the framework of recent proposals concerning the neural network of person identification.

  15. Compositional and functional stability of arthropod communities in the face of ant invasions.

    PubMed

    Krushelnycky, Paul D; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2008-09-01

    There is a general consensus that the diversity of a biotic community can have an influence on its stability, but the strength, ubiquity, and relative importance of this effect is less clear. In the context of biological invasions, diversity has usually been studied in terms of its effect on a community's invasibility, but diversity may also influence stability by affecting the magnitude of compositional or functional changes experienced by a community upon invasion. We examined the impacts of invasive ants on arthropod communities at five natural area sites in the Hawaiian Islands, and assessed whether differences among sites in community diversity and density variables were related to measures of stability. Ant invasion was usually associated with significant changes in overall community composition, as measured by Bray-Curtis distances, particularly among endemic subsets of the communities. Changes in mean species richness were also strong at three of the five sites. Among sites, diversity was negatively related to stability as measured by resistance to overall compositional change, but this effect could not be separated from the strong negative effect of invasive ant density on compositional stability. When compositional stability was measured as proportional change in richness, the best predictor of stability among endemic community subsets was endemic richness, with richer communities losing proportionately more species than species-poor communities. This effect was highly significant even after controlling for differences in invasive ant density and suggested that communities that had already lost many endemic species were resistant to further species loss upon ant invasion, while more intact communities remained vulnerable to species loss. Communities underwent strong but idiosyncratic functional shifts in association with ant invasion, both in terms of trophic structure and total arthropod biomass. There were no apparent relationships, however, between

  16. The relativity of biological function.

    PubMed

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.

  17. How experience shapes memory for faces: an event-related potential study on the own-age bias.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Wolff, Nicole; Steffens, Melanie C; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-10-01

    Young adults more accurately remember own-age than older faces. We tested whether this own-age bias (OAB) is reduced by increased experience. Young experts (geriatric nurses) and controls performed a recognition experiment with young and old faces. Critically, while control participants demonstrated better memory for young faces, no OAB was observed in the experts. Event-related potentials revealed larger N170 and P2 amplitudes for young than old faces in both groups, suggesting no group differences during early perceptual processing. At test, N250 repetition effects were more anteriorily distributed for own- than other-age faces in control participants, whereas experts showed no corresponding effects. A larger late positive component (LPC) for old than young faces was observed in controls, but not in experts. Larger LPCs may reflect prolonged stimulus processing compromising memory retrieval. In sum, experience with other-age faces does not affect early perceptual processing, but modulates later stages related to memory retrieval.

  18. Response bias-related impairment of early subjective face discrimination in social anxiety disorders: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanyan; Gu, Ruolei; Cao, Jianqin; Bi, Xuejing; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xun

    2017-04-01

    Considerable research has shown that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is accompanied by various negative cognitive biases, such as social feedback expectancy bias, memory bias, and interpretation bias. However, whether the memory bias in individuals with SAD is actually a manifestation of response bias, and whether such response bias is associated with deficits in face discrimination, remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated response bias (i.e., a tendency to recognize more negative evaluations) to faces with positive (social acceptance) or negative (social rejection) social evaluations in individuals with SAD and healthy controls (HCs) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results revealed significant group differences in response bias in the forced-choice recall task, but no difference in overall memory accuracy. ERP results demonstrated that HCs showed a larger N170 to faces that had rejected them as compared to those that had accepted them, but this effect was not evident in the SAD group. Further analysis showed that response bias was correlated with the ΔN170 (rejected - accepted) amplitude. We concluded that the response bias in individuals with SAD is resulted from impairments in early discrimination of social faces, as reflected by the absent early N170 differentiation effect, which was associated with their combined negative biases.

  19. Automatic attention towards face or body as a function of mating motivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2012-03-22

    Because women's faces and bodies carry different cues of reproductive value, men may attend to different perceptual cues as functions of their long-term versus short-term mating motivations. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments on 135 male and 132 female participants. When influenced by short-term rather than long-term mating motivations, men's attention was captured by (Study 1), was shifted to (Study 2), and was distracted by (Study 3) the waist/hip area rather than the face on photographs of attractive women. Similar effects were not found among the female participants in response to photographs of attractive men. These results support the evolutionary view that, similar to the attentional selectivity found in other domains of life, male perceptual attention has evolved to selectively capture and hold reproductive information about the opposite sex as a function of short-term versus long-term mating goals.

  20. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA.

  1. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhishuai, Jin; Hong, Liu; Daxing, Wu; Pin, Zhang; Xuejing, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG) while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC) in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  2. Research on Sic/c Plasma-Facing Functionally Graded Materials (fgm) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Chang-Chun; Cao, Wen-Bin; Wu, An-Hua

    2003-06-01

    Graphite is widely used in present Tokamak facilities as first wall material and C/C composite has been selected as one of the candidate materials of diverter used in ITER. But C-based materials have too high chemical sputtering yield at 600-1000K and emerge irradiation enhanced sublimation at >1200K under the plasma erosion conditions, causing series contamination problem of plasma. SiC as a low Z advanced ceramic material, has a series of advantages for using as plasma-facing materials, however, it has relatively low thermal conductivity. Since 1997, the FGM design idea for making SiC/C plasma-facing FGM was proposed by the author and research on design and fabrication of SiC/C plasma-facing FGM was conducted in LSCPM with the aim to combine the excellent high temperature properties, low chemical sputtering, high erosion resistance, and low activation after irradiation of SiC with the high thermal conductivity of graphite, to reduce the thermal stress caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients on the interfaces and to prevent the cracks and failure under serious plasma erosion conditions. The evaluation of plasma-relevant performances was carried out in Southwest Institute of Nuclear Physics. The results of the evaluation show the good application perspective of SiC/C FGM as plasma-facing materials in fusion technology.

  3. Functional connectivity decreases in autism in emotion, self, and face circuits identified by Knowledge-based Enrichment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Wenbo; Ma, Liang; Wan, Lin; Luo, Qiang; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-03-01

    A powerful new method is described called Knowledge based functional connectivity Enrichment Analysis (KEA) for interpreting resting state functional connectivity, using circuits that are functionally identified using search terms with the Neurosynth database. The method derives its power by focusing on neural circuits, sets of brain regions that share a common biological function, instead of trying to interpret single functional connectivity links. This provides a novel way of investigating how task- or function-related networks have resting state functional connectivity differences in different psychiatric states, provides a new way to bridge the gap between task and resting-state functional networks, and potentially helps to identify brain networks that might be treated. The method was applied to interpreting functional connectivity differences in autism. Functional connectivity decreases at the network circuit level in 394 patients with autism compared with 473 controls were found in networks involving the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus cortex, and the precuneus, in networks that are implicated in the sense of self, face processing, and theory of mind. The decreases were correlated with symptom severity.

  4. Stimulus familiarity modulates functional connectivity of the perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus during visual discrimination of faces and objects.

    PubMed

    McLelland, Victoria C; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia-a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage-showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information.

  5. Stimulus familiarity modulates functional connectivity of the perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus during visual discrimination of faces and objects

    PubMed Central

    McLelland, Victoria C.; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia—a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage—showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information. PMID:24624075

  6. Beyond face validity - A comment on Nicholls, Licht, and Pearl. [gender-related personality traits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    In their discussion of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence and Helmrich, 1978), Nicholls, et al. (1982) blur two issues. The first concerns the legitimacy of equating the clusters of gender-related personality traits tapped by these instruments with the global constructs of masculinity and feminity. The second concerns item similarity between the PAQ and BSRI M scales and measures of self-esteem and the question of whether the several instruments measure the same or separable constructs. Decisions about each of these issues involve complex considerations that do not directly involve face validity.

  7. The influence of variations in eating disorder-related symptoms on processing of emotional faces in a non-clinical female sample: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Ridout, Nathan

    2016-06-30

    This study aimed to: (i) determine if the attention bias towards angry faces reported in eating disorders generalises to a non-clinical sample varying in eating disorder-related symptoms; (ii) examine if the bias occurs during initial orientation or later strategic processing; and (iii) confirm previous findings of impaired facial emotion recognition in non-clinical disordered eating. Fifty-two females viewed a series of face-pairs (happy or angry paired with neutral) whilst their attentional deployment was continuously monitored using an eye-tracker. They subsequently identified the emotion portrayed in a separate series of faces. The highest (n=18) and lowest scorers (n=17) on the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) were compared on the attention and facial emotion recognition tasks. Those with relatively high scores exhibited impaired facial emotion recognition, confirming previous findings in similar non-clinical samples. They also displayed biased attention away from emotional faces during later strategic processing, which is consistent with previously observed impairments in clinical samples. These differences were related to drive-for-thinness. Although we found no evidence of a bias towards angry faces, it is plausible that the observed impairments in emotion recognition and avoidance of emotional faces could disrupt social functioning and act as a risk factor for the development of eating disorders.

  8. Altered Automatic Face Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Visual Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Takako; Kamio, Yoko; Yamasaki, Takao; Yasumoto, Sawa; Hirose, Shinichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have different automatic responses to faces than typically developing (TD) individuals. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 10 individuals with high-functioning ASD (HFASD) and 10 TD individuals. Visual stimuli consisted of upright and inverted faces (fearful and neutral) and objects…

  9. Face Memory and Object Recognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome and in Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…

  10. Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-08-20

    A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

  11. Neuroanatomic localization of priming effects for famous faces with latency-corrected event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Rajan; Ouyang, Guang; Sommer, Werner; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-02-01

    The late components of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) pose a difficult problem in source localization. One of the reasons is the smearing of these components in conventional averaging because of trial-to-trial latency-variability. The smearing problem may be addressed by reconstructing the ERPs after latency synchronization with the Residue Iteration Decomposition (RIDE) method. Here we assessed whether the benefits of RIDE at the surface level also improve source localization of RIDE-reconstructed ERPs (RERPs) measured in a face priming paradigm. Separate source models for conventionally averaged ERPs and RERPs were derived and sources were localized for both early and late components. Jackknife averaging on the data was used to reduce the residual variance during source localization compared to conventional source model fitting on individual subject data. Distances between corresponding sources of both ERP and RERP models were measured to check consistency in both source models. Sources for activity around P100, N170, early repetition effect (ERE/N250r) and late repetition effect (LRE/N400) were reported and priming effects in these sources were evaluated for six time windows. Significant improvement in priming effect of the late sources was found from the RERP source model, especially in the Medio-Temporal Lobe, Prefrontal Cortex, and Anterior Temporal Lobe. Consistent with previous studies, we found early priming effects in the right hemisphere and late priming effects in the left hemisphere. Also, the priming effects in right hemisphere outnumbered the left hemisphere, signifying dominance of right hemisphere in face recognition. In conclusion, RIDE reconstructed ERPs promise a comprehensive understanding of the time-resolved dynamics the late sources play during face recognition.

  12. Cross-Modal Face Identity Aftereffects and Their Relation to Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter J.; Elward, Rachael L.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the magnitude of the face identity aftereffect following adaptation to different modes of adaptors in four experiments. The perceptual midpoint between two morphed famous faces was measured pre- and post-adaptation. Significant aftereffects were observed for visual (faces) and nonvisual adaptors (voices and names) but not nonspecific…

  13. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.

  14. Detailed exploration of face-related processing in congenital prosopagnosia: 1. Behavioral findings.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Avidan, Galia; Marotta, Jonathan J; Kimchi, Rutie

    2005-07-01

    We show that five individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) are impaired at face recognition and discrimination and do not exhibit the normal superiority for upright over inverted faces despite intact visual acuity, low-level vision and intelligence, and in the absence of any obvious neural concomitant. Interestingly, the deficit is not limited to faces: The CP individuals were also impaired at discriminating common objects and novel objects although to a lesser extent than discriminating faces. The perceptual deficit may be attributable to a more fundamental visual processing disorder; the CP individuals exhibited difficulty in deriving global configurations from simple visual stimuli, even with extended exposure duration and considerable perceptual support in the image. Deriving a global configuration from local components is more critical for faces than for other objects, perhaps accounting for the exaggerated deficit in face processing. These findings elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying CP and support the link between configural and face processing.

  15. Is Social Phobia a "Mis-Communication" Disorder? Brain Functional Connectivity during Face Perception Differs between Patients with Social Phobia and Healthy Control Subjects.

    PubMed

    Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Gentili, Claudio; Gobbini, Maria Ida; Pietrini, Pietro; Guazzelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a differential recruitment of brain areas throughout the distributed neural system for face perception has been found in social phobic patients as compared to healthy control subjects. These functional abnormalities in social phobic patients extend beyond emotion-related brain areas, such as the amygdala, to include cortical networks that modulate attention and process other facial features, and they are also associated with an alteration of the task-related activation/deactivation trade-off. Functional connectivity is becoming a powerful tool to examine how components of large-scale distributed neural systems are coupled together while performing a specific function. This study was designed to determine whether functional connectivity networks among brain regions within the distributed system for face perception also would differ between social phobic patients and healthy controls. Data were obtained from eight social phobic patients and seven healthy controls by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings indicated that social phobic patients and healthy controls have different patterns of functional connectivity across brain regions within both the core and the extended systems for face perception and the default mode network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that functional connectivity during brain response to socially relevant stimuli differs between social phobic patients and healthy controls. These results expand our previous findings and indicate that brain functional changes in social phobic patients are not restricted to a single specific brain structure, but rather involve a mis-communication among different sensory and emotional processing brain areas.

  16. Cultural shaping of neural responses: Feedback-related potentials vary with self-construal and face priming.

    PubMed

    Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Glazer, James; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Previous work shows that when an image of a face is presented immediately prior to each trial of a speeded cognitive task (face-priming), the error-related negativity (ERN) is upregulated for Asians, but it is downregulated for Caucasians. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that images of "generalized other" vary cross-culturally such that they evoke anxiety for Asians, whereas they serve as safety cues for Caucasians. Here, we tested whether the cross-cultural variation in the face-priming effect would be observed in a gambling paradigm. Caucasian Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian sojourners were exposed to a brief flash of a schematic face during a gamble. For Asian Americans, face-priming resulted in significant increases of both negative-going deflection of ERP upon negative feedback (feedback-related negativity [FRN]) and positive-going deflection of ERP upon positive feedback (feedback-related positivity [FRP]). For Caucasian Americans, face-priming showed a significant reversal, decreasing both FRN and FRP. The cultural difference in the face-priming effect in FRN and FRP was partially mediated by interdependent self-construal. Curiously, Asian sojourners showed a pattern similar to the one for Caucasian Americans. Our findings suggest that culture shapes neural pathways in both systematic and highly dynamic fashion.

  17. Simple Method for Converting Conventional Face-bow to Postural Face-bow for Recording the Relationship of Maxilla Relative to the Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Gooya, Ali; Zarakani, Houman; Memari, Yeganeh

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in prosthetic dentistry is that the axis-orbital plane will usually be parallel to the horizontal reference plane. Most articulator systems have incorporated this concept into their designs and use orbitale as the anterior reference point for transferring the vertical position of the maxilla to the articulator. Clinical observations of Cantonese patients suggest that in some individuals the Frankfort plane may not be horizontal, thus the orientation of the casts in the articulator is incorrect with respect to the horizontal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce a simple method for converting the conventional face-bow to postural face-bow to reproduce the orientation of the occlusal plane relative to the true horizontal plane with the patient in Natural Head Posture (NHP). PMID:26005456

  18. Age-related differences in brain electrical activity during extended continuous face recognition in younger children, older children and adults.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Jan W; Glimmerveen, Johanna C; Franken, Ingmar H A; Martens, Vanessa E G; de Bruin, Eveline A

    2011-09-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with distracter faces. The children were required to make old vs. new decisions. Older children responded faster than younger children, but younger children exhibited a steeper decrease in latencies across the five repetitions. Older children exhibited better accuracy for new faces, but there were no age differences in recognition accuracy for repeated faces. For the N2, N400 and late positive complex (LPC), we analyzed the old/new effects (repetition 1 vs. new presentation) and the extended repetition effects (repetitions 1 through 5). Compared to older children, younger children exhibited larger frontocentral N2 and N400 old/new effects. For extended face repetitions, negativity of the N2 and N400 decreased in a linear fashion in both age groups. For the LPC, an ERP component thought to reflect recollection, no significant old/new or extended repetition effects were found. Employing the same face recognition paradigm in 20 adults (Study 2), we found a significant N400 old/new effect at lateral frontal sites and a significant LPC repetition effect at parietal sites, with LPC amplitudes increasing linearly with the number of repetitions. This study clearly demonstrates differential developmental courses for the N400 and LPC pertaining to recognition memory for faces. It is concluded that face recognition in children is mediated by early and probably more automatic than conscious recognition processes. In adults, the LPC extended repetition effect indicates that adult face recognition memory is related to a conscious and graded recollection process rather than to an automatic recognition process.

  19. Neural correlates of own- and other-race face recognition in children: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-15

    The present study used the functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of elementary school children's own- and other-race face processing. An old-new paradigm was used to assess children's recognition ability of own- and other-race faces. FNIRS data revealed that other-race faces elicited significantly greater [oxy-Hb] changes than own-race faces in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9) and the left cuneus (BA18). With increased age, the [oxy-Hb] activity differences between own- and other-race faces, or the neural other-race effect (NORE), underwent significant changes in these two cortical areas: at younger ages, the neural response to the other-race faces was modestly greater than that to the own-race faces, but with increased age, the neural response to the own-race faces became increasingly greater than that to the other-race faces. Moreover, these areas had strong regional functional connectivity with a swath of the cortical regions in terms of the neural other-race effect that also changed with increased age. We also found significant and positive correlations between the behavioral other-race effect (reaction time) and the neural other-race effect in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9). These results taken together suggest that children, like adults, devote different amounts of neural resources to processing own- and other-race faces, but the size and direction of the neural other-race effect and associated functional regional connectivity change with increased age.

  20. MFI-type zeolite functional liquid phase sensor coated on the optical fiber end-face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaoxin; Sidiroglou, Fotios; Hill, Matthew R.; Collins, Stephen F.; Duke, Mikel

    2012-02-01

    Optical fibers are a unique medium to coat with functional sensor materials that change in refractive index upon adsorption/interaction with specific compounds. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique to coat the end face of an optical fiber with the microporous MFI-type zeolite. The exposure of the zeolite films from air to water or to aqueous solutions of ethanol and isopropanol causes a distinct change in the film's refractive index. This change was then detected using a simple fiber optic refractive index sensor by monitoring the signal intensity reflected back from the coated fiber endface and as the zeolite is transferred between air, water and solutions containing ethanol and isopropanol. The zeolite coating was developed using the in-situ templated growth technique to grow the zeolite crystals on the cleaved endface of an optical fiber. Effective coating was achieved when the fiber was oriented horizontally in the hydrothermal reactor. The zeolite coated end face reflected less energy in water, at 0.0201 μW, and exhibited almost no change (~2% increase) with increasing ethanol concentration, but exhibited a 135% increase in reflected energy, i.e. 0.048 μW, in 100% ethanol. The zeolite therefore gave the sensor alcohol selectivity. Further work is exploring applicability for liquid phase chemical and water quality analysis.

  1. Face-centered-cubic B80 metal: Density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qing-Bo; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang

    2008-06-01

    By means of ab initio calculations within the density functional theory, we have found that B80 fullerenes can condense to form stable face-centered-cubic (fcc) solids. It is shown that when forming a crystal, B80 cages are geometrically distorted, the Ih symmetry is lowered to Th , and four boron-boron chemical bonds are formed between every two nearest neighbor B80 cages. The cohesive energy of B80 fcc solid is 0.23 eV/atom with respect to the isolated B80 fullerene. The calculated electronic structure reveals that the fcc B80 solid is a metal. The predicted solid phase would constitute a form of pure boron and might have diverse implications. In addition, a simple electron counting rule is proposed, which could explain the stability of B80 fullerene and the recently predicted stable boron sheet.

  2. Wrist function in malunion: Is the distal radius designed to retain function in the face of fracture?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fractures of the distal radius are the most common fracture in humans and are the sempiternal hazard of 3.5 million years of bipedalism. Despite the antiquity of the injury, one of the most controversial topics in current orthopaedics is the management of distal radius fractures. It has been suggested that radiographic appearances rarely correlate with functional outcomes. As the success of the human species is predicated almost exclusively on its dexterity and intelligence, it is conceivable that the distal radius has evolved to preserve function even in the face of injury. We therefore hypothesise that the distal radius is designed to accommodate the possibility of fracture. Methods We conducted a review of studies comparing fracture pattern and form with function. We also explore the paleoanthropological evidence and comparative studies with other primates. Findings The evidence points to the human distal radius being highly tolerant of post-fracture deformity in terms of preservation of function. In addition, the distal radius appears to have apparently anatomically ‘redundant’ features that confer this capability. We believe these phenomena to be an evolved trait that developed with bipedalism, increasing the chances of survival for a species whose success depends upon its dexterity. PMID:27376442

  3. Functions of health fatalism: fatalistic talk as face saving, uncertainty management, stress relief and sense making.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Bethany; Wright, Lanelle; Condit, Celeste M

    2009-07-01

    Much research on fatalism assumes that fatalistic statements represent a global outlook that conflicts with belief in the efficacy of health behaviours. Other scholars have suggested a more contextual approach, suggesting that fatalism fulfils personal and social functions. This study analyses 96 in-depth lay interviews in the US, most with low-income members of the general public, about four diseases: heart disease, lung cancer, diabetes and depression. Within these interviews, fatalistic statements always occurred alongside statements endorsing the utility of behaviours for protecting health. This usage pattern suggests that these statements may have useful functions, rather than being simply a repudiation of the utility of health choices. We examine four functions that are suggested by previous researchers or by the participants' comments: stress relief, uncertainty management, sense making and (less strongly) face saving. As these themes indicate, individuals often make fatalistic statements to express an understanding of locally or broadly limiting factors for health efficacy, including genes, spiritual agents, prior behaviours, personality, and other factors.

  4. The social evaluation of faces: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Said, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience research on the social evaluation of faces has accumulated over the last decade, yielding divergent results. We used a meta-analytic technique, multi-level kernel density analysis (MKDA), to analyze 29 neuroimaging studies on face evaluation. Across negative face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in bilateral amygdala. Across positive face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in medial prefrontal cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), left caudate and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Based on additional analyses comparing linear and non-linear responses, we propose a ventral/dorsal dissociation within the amygdala, wherein separate populations of neurons code for face valence and intensity, respectively. Finally, we argue that some of the differences between studies are attributable to differences in the typicality of face stimuli. Specifically, extremely attractive faces are more likely to elicit responses in NAcc/caudate and mOFC. PMID:22287188

  5. On the Relation between Face and Object Recognition in Developmental Prosopagnosia: No Dissociation but a Systematic Association

    PubMed Central

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 individuals with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests of visual object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive correlations between the severity of the face recognition impairment and the degree of impaired performance with degraded objects. This suggests that the face and object deficits are systematically related rather than coincidental. We conclude that at present, there is no strong evidence in the literature on developmental prosopagnosia supporting domain-specific accounts of face recognition. PMID:27792780

  6. Event-Related Potential Responses to Beloved and Familiar Faces in Different Marriage Styles: Evidence from Mosuo Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002

  7. Interactive Explanations: The Functional Role of Gestural and Bodily Action for Explaining and Learning Scientific Concepts in Face-to-Face Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopelitis, Stephanie A.

    As human beings, we live in, live with, and live through our bodies. And because of this it is no wonder that our hands and bodies are in motion as we interact with others in our world. Hands and body move as we give directions to another, anticipate which way to turn the screwdriver, and direct our friend to come sit next to us. Gestures, indeed, fill our everyday lives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the functional role of the body in the parts of our lives where we teach and learn with another. This project is an investigation into, what I call, "interactive explanations". I explore how the hands and body work toward the joint achievement of explanation and learning in face-to-face arrangements. The study aims to uncover how the body participates in teaching and learning in and across events as it slides between the multiple, interdependent roles of (1) a communicative entity, (2) a tool for thinking, and (3) a resource to shape interaction. Understanding gestures functional roles as flexible and diverse better explains how the body participates in teaching and learning interactions. The study further aims to show that these roles and functions are dynamic and changeable based on the interests, goals and contingencies of participants' changing roles and aims in interactions, and within and across events. I employed the methodology of comparative microanalysis of pairs of videotaped conversations in which, first, experts in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) explained concepts to non-experts, and second, these non-experts re-explained the concept to other non-experts. The principle finding is that people strategically, creatively and collaboratively employ the hands and body as vital and flexible resources for the joint achievement of explanation and understanding. Findings further show that gestures used to explain complex STEM concepts travel across time with the non-expert into re-explanations of the concept. My

  8. Segregation of face sensitive areas within the fusiform gyrus using global signal regression? A study on amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Johann D; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Veer, Ilya M; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Pöhland, Lydia; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed. To characterize this effect in more detail, post hoc analyses revealed the following: first, direct overlays of task-functional magnetic resonance imaging derived face sensitive areas and clusters of positive versus negative amygdala rs-FC showed that the positive amygdala rs-FC cluster corresponded best with the fusiform face area, whereas the occipital face area corresponded to the negative amygdala rs-FC cluster. Second, as expected from a hierarchical face perception model, these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters showed differential rs-FC with other regions of the visual stream. Third, dynamic connectivity analyses revealed that these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters also differed in their rs-FC variance across time to the amygdala. Furthermore, subsample analyses of three independent research sites confirmed reliability of the effect of GSR, as revealed by similar patterns of distinct amygdala rs-FC polarity within the FFG. In this article, we discuss the potential of GSR to segregate face sensitive areas within the FFG and furthermore discuss how our results may relate to the functional organization of the face-perception circuit.

  9. Effect of empathy trait on attention to faces: an event-related potential (ERP) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is deeply linked with the ability to adapt to human social environments. The present study investigated the relationship between the empathy trait and attention elicited by discriminating facial expressions. Methods Event-related potentials were measured while 32 participants (17 men and 15 women) discriminated facial expressions (happy or angry) and colors of flowers (yellow or purple) under an oddball paradigm. The empathy trait of participants was measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980). Results The empathy trait correlated positively with both the early portion (300 to 600 ms after stimulus onset) and late portion (600 to 800 ms after stimulus onset) of late positive potential (LPP) amplitude elicited by faces, but not with LPP elicited by flowers. Conclusions This result suggests that, compared to people with low empathy, people with high empathy pay more attention when discriminating facial expressions. The present study suggests that differences exist in methods of adapting to social environments between people with high and low empathy. PMID:24460950

  10. Functional specialization and convergence in the occipito-temporal cortex supporting haptic and visual identification of human faces and body parts: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Kochiyama, Takanori; Lederman, Susan J

    2009-10-01

    Humans can recognize common objects by touch extremely well whenever vision is unavailable. Despite its importance to a thorough understanding of human object recognition, the neuroscientific study of this topic has been relatively neglected. To date, the few published studies have addressed the haptic recognition of nonbiological objects. We now focus on haptic recognition of the human body, a particularly salient object category for touch. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate that regions of the occipito-temporal cortex are specialized for visual perception of faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and other body parts (extrastriate body area, EBA). Are the same category-sensitive regions activated when these components of the body are recognized haptically? Here, we use fMRI to compare brain organization for haptic and visual recognition of human body parts. Sixteen subjects identified exemplars of faces, hands, feet, and nonbiological control objects using vision and haptics separately. We identified two discrete regions within the fusiform gyrus (FFA and the haptic face region) that were each sensitive to both haptically and visually presented faces; however, these two regions differed significantly in their response patterns. Similarly, two regions within the lateral occipito-temporal area (EBA and the haptic body region) were each sensitive to body parts in both modalities, although the response patterns differed. Thus, although the fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipito-temporal cortex appear to exhibit modality-independent, category-sensitive activity, our results also indicate a degree of functional specialization related to sensory modality within these structures.

  11. Biological Sex Determines Whether Faces Look Real

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Judging whether a face is real or artificial can be done relatively rapidly and accurately, even when visual information is substantially impoverished. The perception of animacy in the face also has several interesting properties that may reflect both the underlying “tuning” of face space to preferentially represent real face appearance and the diagnosticity of individual features for categorizing faces as animate or inanimate. In the current study, we examined how sex categories interact with animacy perception by separately characterizing animacy judgments as a function of stimulus sex. We find that stimulus sex affects subjective ratings of animacy and sex categorization of real and artificial faces. Specifically, female faces look more artificial and artificial faces look more female. We discuss our results in terms of the ecology of real and artificial faces and the possible role of visual experience with artificial female faces, and the objectification of female faces. PMID:24244103

  12. Pendulum, elliptic functions, and relative cohomology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Françoise, J.-P.; Garrido, P. L.; Gallavotti, G.

    2010-03-01

    Revisiting canonical integration of the classical pendulum around its unstable equilibrium, normal hyperbolic canonical coordinates are constructed and an identity between elliptic functions is found whose proof can be based on symplectic geometry and global relative cohomology. Alternatively it can be reduced to a well known identity between elliptic functions. Normal canonical action-angle variables are also constructed around the stable equilibrium and a corresponding identity is exhibited.

  13. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  14. Target-context unitization effect on the familiarity-related FN400: a face recognition exclusion task.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Etienne, Yann

    2015-03-01

    Using two exclusion tasks, the present study examined how the ERP correlates of face recognition are affected by the nature of the information to be retrieved. Intrinsic (facial expression) and extrinsic (background scene) visual information were paired with face identity and constituted the exclusion criterion at test time. Although perceptual information had to be taken into account in both situations, the FN400 old-new effect was observed only for old target faces on the expression-exclusion task, whereas it was found for both old target and old non-target faces in the background-exclusion situation. These results reveal that the FN400, which is generally interpreted as a correlate of familiarity, was modulated by the retrieval of intra-item and intrinsic face information, but not by the retrieval of extrinsic information. The observed effects on the FN400 depended on the nature of the information to be retrieved and its relationship (unitization) to the recognition target. On the other hand, the parietal old-new effect (generally described as an ERP correlate of recollection) reflected the retrieval of both types of contextual features equivalently. The current findings are discussed in relation to recent controversies about the nature of the recognition processes reflected by the ERP correlates of face recognition.

  15. Memory for famous faces and the temporal pole: functional imaging findings in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Griffith, H Randall; Richardson, Elizabeth; Pyzalski, Robert W; Bell, Brian; Dow, Christian; Hermann, Bruce P; Seidenberg, Michael

    2006-08-01

    The ability to recognize, name, and provide information about famous persons is deficient in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), although the neural basis for these deficits is not well understood. We examined the relationship of resting metabolism of the temporal poles, as determined by [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, to performance on a task of famous face recognition, naming, and generation of semantic information in 12 patients with TLE. Correlations between metabolic measures of the temporal poles and performance on the Famous Faces Task revealed strong relationships between all aspects of the Famous Faces Task and the left temporal pole, whereas Famous Faces Task correlations with the right temporal pole were not significant. These findings indicate that the left temporal pole is associated with lexical and semantic retrieval of knowledge of famous persons in patients with TLE. Further study appears warranted to elucidate the networks involved in semantic knowledge for famous faces.

  16. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  17. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance.

    PubMed

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J Christopher; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-10-16

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177-1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670-674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm(2) on the right and 50 mm(2) on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region.

  18. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177–1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670–674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm2 on the right and 50 mm2 on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region. PMID:23027970

  19. Special Relativity via Modified Bessel Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    2000-10-01

    The recursive formulas of modified Bessel functions give the relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Modified Bessel functions are solutions to a continuous time, one-dimensional discrete jump process. The jump process is analyzed from two inertial frames with a relative constant velocity; the average distance of a particle along the chain corresponds to the distance between two observers in the two inertial frames. The recursion relations of modified Bessel functions are compared to the 'k calculus' which uses the radial Doppler effect to derive relativistic kinematics. The Doppler effect predicts that the frequency is a decreasing function of the velocity, and the Planck frequency, which increases with velocity, does not transform like the frequency of a clock. The Lorentz transformation can be interpreted as energy and momentum conservation relations through the addition formula for hyperbolic cosine and sine, respectively. The addition formula for the hyperbolic tangent gives the well-known relativistic formula for the addition of velocities. In the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits the distributions of the particle's position are Gaussian and Poisson, respectively.

  20. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  1. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES

  2. Computing Partial Transposes and Related Entanglement Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    The partial transpose (PT) is an important function for entanglement testing and quantification and also for the study of geometrical aspects of the quantum state space. In this article, considering general bipartite and multipartite discrete systems, explicit formulas ready for the numerical implementation of the PT and of related entanglement functions are presented and the Fortran code produced for that purpose is described. What is more, we obtain an analytical expression for the Hilbert-Schmidt entanglement of two-qudit systems and for the associated closest separable state. In contrast to previous works on this matter, we only use the properties of the PT, not applying Lagrange multipliers.

  3. A U-Shaped Relation between Sitting Ability and Upright Face Processing in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Allen, Casey L.; Barna, Amelia Cevelle

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates connections exist between action, perception, and cognition in infants. In this study, associated changes between sitting ability and upright face processing were tested in 111 infants. Using the visual habituation "switch" task (C. H. Cashon & L. B. Cohen, 2004; L. B. Cohen & C. H. Cashon, 2001), holistic…

  4. Changes in vertical tooth position and face height related to long term anterior repositioning splint therapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, D T; Gaudet, E L; Phillips, C

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates whether extended full-time wear of a partial coverage mandibular anterior repositioning splint (MORA) causes intrusion of posterior teeth and determines the effect on jaw position. Sixty-four patients from two private orthodontic practices were studied using cephalometric radiographs to measure vertical change in position of the anterior and posterior teeth and the mandible. The splint wear time ranged from a minimum of one half year to a maximum of 4.8 years, with a mean of 1.33 years. No significant change was recorded in the distance from the mandibular molar to the mandibular plane. On average, the maxillary incisor and maxillary molar extruded about 1 mm, while the mandibular molar was unchanged and the mandibular incisor intruded about 0.6 mm. Posterior face height increased an average of 1.6 mm, and anterior face height increased an average of 2.7 mms. In 20% of the patients, intrusion of the mandibular molars of 1 mm or more occurred. In 41%, extrusion of the maxillary incisors of 1 mm or more was noted. Intrusion of the upper molars or extrusion of the lower incisors occurred in only 5% of the patients. The data indicates that only a very small proportion of patients having long term splint therapy using the MORA have clinically significant molar intrusion. Change in mandibular position was expressed in a vertical increase in posterior and anterior face height. Only very small changes occurred in antero-posterior position.

  5. The Resilience Function of Character Strengths in the Face of War and Protracted Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of character strengths and virtues in moderating relations between conflict exposure and psychiatric symptoms among 1078 adolescents aged 13–15 living in southern Israel, who were exposed to lengthy periods of war, terrorism and political conflict. Adolescents were assessed for character strengths and virtues, political violence exposure using the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, and psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the UCLA PTSD Index. Results confirmed that political violence exposure was positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms. Interpersonal, temperance and transcendence strengths were negatively associated with psychiatric symptoms. Moderating effects of the interpersonal strengths on the relation between political violence exposure and the psychiatric and PTSD indices were confirmed. The findings extend existing knowledge about the resilience function of character strengths in exposure to protracted conflict and have important practical implications for applying strength-building practices for adolescents who grow up in war-affected environments. PMID:26793139

  6. Relation between Amygdala Structure and Function in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G.; Womer, Fay Y.; Jones, Monique M.; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P.; Martin, Andres; Constable, R. Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed decreased amygdala volume and increased amygdala response to emotional faces. Amygdala volume is inversely related to activation during emotional face processing.

  7. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

  8. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-03-01

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the “uncanny valley” effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics.

  9. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the “uncanny valley” effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics. PMID:28332557

  10. Differential effects of face-realism and emotion on event-related brain potentials and their implications for the uncanny valley theory.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Zell, Eduard; Botsch, Mario; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-03-23

    Cartoon characters are omnipresent in popular media. While few studies have scientifically investigated their processing, in computer graphics, efforts are made to increase realism. Yet, close approximations of reality have been suggested to evoke sometimes a feeling of eeriness, the "uncanny valley" effect. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to investigate brain responses to professionally stylized happy, angry, and neutral character faces. We employed six face-stylization levels varying from abstract to realistic and investigated the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and late positive potential (LPP) event-related components. The face-specific N170 showed a u-shaped modulation, with stronger reactions towards both most abstract and most realistic compared to medium-stylized faces. For abstract faces, N170 was generated more occipitally than for real faces, implying stronger reliance on structural processing. Although emotional faces elicited highest amplitudes on both N170 and EPN, on the N170 realism and expression interacted. Finally, LPP increased linearly with face realism, reflecting activity increase in visual and parietal cortex for more realistic faces. Results reveal differential effects of face stylization on distinct face processing stages and suggest a perceptual basis to the uncanny valley hypothesis. They are discussed in relation to face perception, media design, and computer graphics.

  11. Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2004-11-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.

  12. Looking for a face in the crowd: fixation-related potentials in an eye-movement visual search task.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Lisandro N; Kamienkowski, Juan E; Varatharajah, Alexander; Sigman, Mariano; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Ison, Matias J

    2014-04-01

    Despite the compelling contribution of the study of event related potentials (ERPs) and eye movements to cognitive neuroscience, these two approaches have largely evolved independently. We designed an eye-movement visual search paradigm that allowed us to concurrently record EEG and eye movements while subjects were asked to find a hidden target face in a crowded scene with distractor faces. Fixation event-related potentials (fERPs) to target and distractor stimuli showed the emergence of robust sensory components associated with the perception of stimuli and cognitive components associated with the detection of target faces. We compared those components with the ones obtained in a control task at fixation: qualitative similarities as well as differences in terms of scalp topography and latency emerged between the two. By using single trial analyses, fixations to target and distractors could be decoded from the EEG signals above chance level in 11 out of 12 subjects. Our results show that EEG signatures related to cognitive behavior develop across spatially unconstrained exploration of natural scenes and provide a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of target detection during natural search.

  13. In Your Face: Risk of Punishment Enhances Cognitive Control and Error-Related Activity in the Corrugator Supercilii Muscle.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn R; Mattsson-Mårn, Isak Berglund; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is needed when mistakes have consequences, especially when such consequences are potentially harmful. However, little is known about how the aversive consequences of deficient control affect behavior. To address this issue, participants performed a two-choice response time task where error commissions were expected to be punished by electric shocks during certain blocks. By manipulating (1) the perceived punishment risk (no, low, high) associated with error commissions, and (2) response conflict (low, high), we showed that motivation to avoid punishment enhanced performance during high response conflict. As a novel index of the processes enabling successful cognitive control under threat, we explored electromyographic activity in the corrugator supercilii (cEMG) muscle of the upper face. The corrugator supercilii is partially controlled by the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) which is sensitive to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. As hypothesized, the cEMG exhibited several key similarities with the core temporal and functional characteristics of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) ERP component, the hallmark index of cognitive control elicited by performance errors, and which has been linked to the aMCC. The cEMG was amplified within 100 ms of error commissions (the same time-window as the ERN), particularly during the high punishment risk condition where errors would be most aversive. Furthermore, similar to the ERN, the magnitude of error cEMG predicted post-error response time slowing. Our results suggest that cEMG activity can serve as an index of avoidance motivated control, which is instrumental to adaptive cognitive control when consequences are potentially harmful.

  14. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  15. The face that sank the Essex: potential function of the spermaceti organ in aggression.

    PubMed

    Carrier, David R; Deban, Stephen M; Otterstrom, Jason

    2002-06-01

    'Forehead to forehead I meet thee, this third time, Moby Dick!' [Ahab (Melville, 1851)] Herman Melville's fictional portrayal of the sinking of the Pequod was inspired by instances in which large sperm whales sank whaling ships by ramming the ships with their heads. Observations of aggression in species of the four major clades of cetacean and the artiodactyl outgroup suggest that head-butting during male-male aggression is a basal behavior for cetaceans. We hypothesize that the ability of sperm whales to destroy stout wooden ships, 3-5 times their body mass, is a product of specialization for male-male aggression. Specifically, we suggest that the greatly enlarged and derived melon of sperm whales, the spermaceti organ, evolved as a battering ram to injure an opponent. To address this hypothesis, we examined the correlation between relative melon size and the level of sexual dimorphism in body size among cetaceans. We also modeled impacts between two equal-sized sperm whales to determine whether it is physically possible for the spermaceti organ to function as an effective battering ram. We found (i) that the evolution of relative melon size in cetaceans is positively correlated with the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body size and (ii) that the spermaceti organ of a charging sperm whale has enough momentum to seriously injure an opponent. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spermaceti organ has evolved to be a weapon used in male-male aggression.

  16. Adaptation Duration Dissociates Category-, Image-, and Person-Specific Processes on Face-Evoked Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Márta; Zbanţ, Adriana; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated that face perception is biased by the prior presentation of another face, a phenomenon termed as face-related after-effect (FAE). FAE is linked to a neural signal-reduction at occipito-temporal areas and it can be observed in the amplitude modulation of the early event-related potential (ERP) components. Recently, macaque single-cell recording studies suggested that manipulating the duration of the adaptor makes the selective adaptation of different visual motion processing steps possible. To date, however, only a few studies tested the effects of adaptor duration on the electrophysiological correlates of human face processing directly. The goal of the current study was to test the effect of adaptor duration on the image-, identity-, and generic category-specific face processing steps. To this end, in a two-alternative forced choice familiarity decision task we used five adaptor durations (ranging from 200–5000 ms) and four adaptor categories: adaptor and test were identical images—Repetition Suppression (RS); adaptor and test were different images of the Same Identity (SameID); adaptor and test images depicted Different Identities (DiffID); the adaptor was a Fourier phase-randomized image (No). Behaviorally, a strong priming effect was observed in both accuracy and response times for RS compared with both DiffID and No. The electrophysiological results suggest that rapid adaptation leads to a category-specific modulation of P100, N170, and N250. In addition, both identity and image-specific processes affected the N250 component during rapid adaptation. On the other hand, prolonged (5000 ms) adaptation enhanced, and extended category-specific adaptation processes over all tested ERP components. Additionally, prolonged adaptation led to the emergence of image-, and identity-specific modulations on the N170 and P2 components as well. In other words, there was a clear dissociation among category, identity-, and image

  17. Patterns, aetiology and risk factors of intimate partner violence-related injuries to head, neck and face in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) related injuries have been recognized among health care professionals. However, few studies have provided detailed information on injuries to the head, neck and face regions in Chinese women. As abused Chinese women are generally unwilling to disclose IPV and there are differences in socio-demographic characteristics, societal norms and behaviours, the women may exhibit different patterns, aetiology and risk factors of IPV-related HNF injuries. This study aims to examine the patterns of head, neck and face injuries presenting to Accident and Emergency departments, including the anatomical regions, types, severity, aetiology and demographic and non-demographic risk factors of injuries inflicted by intimate partners in Chinese context. Methods Medical charts of 223 women presented to the Accident and Emergency departments of two regional hospitals in Hong Kong between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Results Head, neck and face injuries remained the most common injuries found in abused Chinese women (77.6%), and punching with a fist was the most common aetiology (60.2%). In particular, punching with a fist was significantly associated on the upper third of the maxillofacial region (p = .01) and the back part of the head (p = .03). Moreover, cohabiting and separated women were more likely to have multiple injuries than those who were married (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4, 7.8; OR = 2.1, 95% CI = .4, 11.9). Conclusions The findings enhance the understanding of head, neck and face injuries and inform clinicians about the linkage among injuries and risks in abused Chinese women. PMID:24410868

  18. The ties to unbind: age-related differences in feature (un)binding in working memory for emotional faces

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivanoglu, Didem; Jain, Shivangi; Ariel, Robert; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated age-related differences in the processing of emotional stimuli. Specifically, we were interested in whether older adults would show deficits in unbinding emotional expression (i.e., either no emotion, happiness, anger, or disgust) from bound stimuli (i.e., photographs of faces expressing these emotions), as a hyper-binding account of age-related differences in working memory would predict. Younger and older adults completed different N-Back tasks (side-by-side 0-Back, 1-Back, 2-Back) under three conditions: match/mismatch judgments based on either the identity of the face (identity condition), the face’s emotional expression (expression condition), or both identity and expression of the face (both condition). The two age groups performed more slowly and with lower accuracy in the expression condition than in the both condition, indicating the presence of an unbinding process. This unbinding effect was more pronounced in older adults than in younger adults, but only in the 2-Back task. Thus, older adults seemed to have a specific deficit in unbinding in working memory. Additionally, no age-related differences were found in accuracy in the 0-Back task, but such differences emerged in the 1-Back task, and were further magnified in the 2-Back task, indicating independent age-related differences in attention/STM and working memory. Pupil dilation data confirmed that the attention/STM version of the task (1-Back) is more effortful for older adults than younger adults. PMID:24795660

  19. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Yunzhe; Wang, Xiaochun; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490–910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right) when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 μV•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 μV•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 μV•s). These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system. PMID:25221488

  20. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces: Implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature.

  1. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16 years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home.

  2. Functional brain activation to emotional and nonemotional faces in healthy children: evidence for developmentally undifferentiated amygdala function during the school-age period.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-12-01

    The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. In particular, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous research has consistently found greater amygdala responses to fearful than to neutral faces in adults, convergent with a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in fear processing. Studies have shown that the amygdala also responds differentially to other facial emotion types in adults. Yet the literature regarding when this differential amygdala responsivity develops is limited and mixed. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine amygdala responses to emotional and neutral faces in a relatively large sample of healthy school-age children (N = 52). Although the amygdala was active in response to emotional and neutral faces, the results did not support the hypothesis that the amygdala responds differentially to emotional faces in 7- to 12-year-old children. Nonetheless, amygdala activity was correlated with the severity of subclinical depression symptoms and with emotional regulation skills. Additionally, sex differences were observed in frontal, temporal, and visual regions, as well as effects of pubertal development in visual regions. These findings suggest important differences in amygdala reactivity in childhood.

  3. The European functional tree of bird life in the face of global change.

    PubMed

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Psomas, Achilleas; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lavergne, Sébastien; Pearman, Peter B; Renaud, Julien; Zupan, Laure; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized joint impact of climate and land cover change on facets of biodiversity and their associated functions, risk assessments have primarily evaluated impacts on species ranges and richness. Here we quantify the sensitivity of the functional structure of European avian assemblages to changes in both regional climate and land cover. We combine species range forecasts with functional-trait information. We show that species sensitivity to environmental change is randomly distributed across the functional tree of the European avifauna and that functionally unique species are not disproportionately threatened by 2080. However, projected species range changes will modify the mean species richness and functional diversity of bird diets and feeding behaviours. This will unequally affect the spatial structure of functional diversity, leading to homogenization across Europe. Therefore, global changes may alter the functional structure of species assemblages in the future in ways that need to be accounted for in conservation planning.

  4. The European functional tree of bird life in the face of global change

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Psomas, Achilleas; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lavergne, Sébastien; Pearman, Peter B.; Renaud, Julien; Zupan, Laure; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized joint impact of climate and land cover change on facets of biodiversity and their associated functions, risk assessments have primarily evaluated impacts on species ranges and richness. Here we quantify the sensitivity of the functional structure of European avian assemblages to changes in both regional climate and land cover. We combine species range forecasts with functional trait information. We show that species sensitivity to environmental change is randomly distributed across the functional tree of the European avifauna and that functionally unique species are not disproportionately threatened by 2080. However, projected species range changes will modify the mean species richness and functional diversity of bird diets and feeding behaviours. This will unequally affect the spatial structure of functional diversity, leading to homogenization across Europe. Therefore, global changes may alter the functional structure of species assemblages in the future in ways that need to be accounted for in conservation planning. PMID:24452245

  5. The influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A; Pachai, Matthew V; Rutherford, M D

    2013-11-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye contact (the cone of gaze) was narrower for upright than inverted faces. In both groups, the cone of gaze was wider for angry faces than for fearful or neutral faces. These results suggest that in high-functioning adults with ASD, the perception of eye contact is not tuned to be finer for upright than inverted faces, but that information is nevertheless integrated across expression and gaze direction.

  6. Facing Complaining Customer and Suppressed Emotion at Worksite Related to Sleep Disturbance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age < 65 years) in the 3rd Korean Working Condition Survey (2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sleep disturbance occurrence were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43–8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30–9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16–2.73) and 1.63 (1.02–2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34–20.80) and 10.17 (4.46–22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population. PMID:27709845

  7. An Island of Stability: Art Images and Natural Scenes – but Not Natural Faces – Show Consistent Esthetic Response in Alzheimer’s-Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Daniel J.; Stockinger, Simone; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of esthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in esthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved esthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar esthetic stability in early stage AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs – which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings – was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with esthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face-processing in healthy and diseased aging. Our work also gives insights into general theories of esthetics, since people with AD are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color esthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with AD, basic esthetic judgment of artistic images represents an “island of stability” in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, esthetic response could be a promising route to future therapies. PMID:23471005

  8. A general correlation of MPPS penetration as a function of face velocity with the model 8140 using the certitest 8160

    SciTech Connect

    Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Assessment of Institutional and Personnel-Related Challenges Facing Educational Programme for the Mentally Challenged Persons at Kaimosi Special School, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mmbwanga, Daniel M.; Matemba, Collins K.; Bota, Kennedy N.

    2015-01-01

    The mentally challenged child (MC) can achieve a lot if the right environment and curriculum are designed for him/her. However, the realization of the desirable outcomes faces many challenges. The objective of the study was to examine institutional and personnel-related challenges facing education programs for the MC persons at Kaimosi Special…

  10. The functional correlates of face perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions as evidenced by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Jehna, M; Neuper, C; Ischebeck, A; Loitfelder, M; Ropele, S; Langkammer, C; Ebner, F; Fuchs, S; Schmidt, R; Fazekas, F; Enzinger, C

    2011-06-01

    Recognition and processing of emotional facial expression are crucial for social behavior and employ higher-order cognitive and visual working processes. In neuropsychiatric disorders, impaired emotion recognition most frequently concerned three specific emotions, i.e., anger, fear, and disgust. As incorrect processing of (neutral) facial stimuli per se might also underlie deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions, we aimed to assess all these aspects in one experiment. We therefore report here a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm for parallel assessment of the neural correlates of both the recognition of neutral faces and the three clinically most relevant emotions for future use in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. FMRI analyses were expanded through comparisons of the emotional conditions with each other. The differential insights resulting from these two analyses strategies are compared and discussed. 30 healthy participants (21 F/9 M; age 36.3 ± 14.3, 17-66 years) underwent fMRI and behavioral testing for non-emotional and emotional face recognition. Recognition of neutral faces elicited activation in the fusiform gyri. Processing angry faces led to activation in left middle and superior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex. There was considerable heterogeneity regarding the fear versus neutral contrast, resulting in null effects for this contrast. Upon recognition of disgust, activation was noted in bilateral occipital, in the fronto-orbital cortex and in the insula. Analyzing contrasts between emotional conditions showed similar results (to those of contrasting with reference conditions) for separated emotional network patterns. We demonstrate here that our paradigm reproduces single aspects of separate previous studies across a cohort of healthy subjects, irrespective of age. Our approach might prove useful in future studies of patients with neurologic disorders with potential effect on emotion

  11. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  12. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  13. Gamma and Related Functions Generalized for Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Given a sequence g[subscript k] greater than 0, the "g-factorial" product [big product][superscript k] [subscript i=1] g[subscript i] is extended from integer k to real x by generalizing properties of the gamma function [Gamma](x). The Euler-Mascheroni constant [gamma] and the beta and zeta functions are also generalized. Specific examples include…

  14. Inhibition of Personally-Relevant Angry Faces Moderates the Effect of Empathy on Interpersonal Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Vanessa; Ellenbogen, Mark A.; Wilson, Alexa L.; Desormeau, Philip; Nijjar, Rami

    2015-01-01

    While empathy is typically assumed to promote effective social interactions, it can sometimes be detrimental when it is unrestrained and overgeneralized. The present study explored whether cognitive inhibition would moderate the effect of empathy on social functioning. Eighty healthy young adults underwent two assessments six months apart. Participants’ ability to suppress interference from distracting emotional stimuli was assessed using a Negative Affective Priming Task that included both generic and personally-relevant (i.e., participants’ intimate partners) facial expressions of emotion. The UCLA Life Stress Interview and Empathy Quotient were administered to measure interpersonal functioning and empathy respectively. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with worse concurrent interpersonal outcomes for individuals who showed weak inhibition of the personally-relevant depictions of anger. The effect of empathy on social functioning might be dependent on individuals’ ability to suppress interference from meaningful emotional distractors in their environment. PMID:25695426

  15. Age-Related Differences in Brain Electrical Activity during Extended Continuous Face Recognition in Younger Children, Older Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Martens, Vanessa E. G.; de Bruin, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with…

  16. Legal and regulatory challenges currently facing diabetes treatment providers and related durable medical equipment suppliers.

    PubMed

    Liles, Robert

    2013-03-01

    It has been estimated that 24 million Americans have diabetes, many of whom are Medicare beneficiaries. These individuals carefully monitor their blood glucose levels primarily through the use of in-home blood glucose testing kits. Although the test is relatively simple, the cumulative expense of providing glucose test strips and lancets to patients is ever increasing, both to the Medicare program and to uninsured individuals who must pay out-of-pocket for these testing supplies. This article discusses the diabetes durable medical equipment (DME) coverage under Part B Medicare, the establishment and role of DME Medicare administrative contractors, and national and local coverage requirements for diabetes DME suppliers. This article also discusses the federal government's ongoing concerns regarding the improper billing of diabetes testing supplies. To protect the Medicare Trust Fund, the federal government has contracted with multiple private entities to conduct reviews and audits of questionable Medicare claims. These private sector contractors have conducted unannounced site visits of DME supplier offices, interviewed patients and their families, placed suppliers on prepayment review, and conducted extensive postpayment audits of prior paid Medicare claims. In more egregious administrative cases, Medicare contractors have recommended that problematic providers and/or DME suppliers have their Medicare numbers suspended or, in some instances, revoked. More serious infractions can lead to civil or criminal liability. In the final part of this article, we will examine the future of enforcement efforts by law enforcement and Medicare contractors and the importance of understanding and complying with federal laws when ordering and supplying diabetes testing strips and lancets.

  17. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering counterproductive explanatory controversy. A good deal of what is viewed as biological (often thought to be inaccessible or hypothetical) can become publicly measurable variables using currently available and developing technologies. Moreover, such endogenous variables can serve as establishing operations, discriminative stimuli, conjoint mediating events, and maintaining consequences within a functional analysis of behavior and need not lead to reductionistic explanation. I suggest that explanatory misunderstandings often arise from conflating different levels of analysis and that behavior analysis can extend its reach by identifying variables operating within a functional analysis that also serve functions in other biological systems. PMID:17575907

  18. Face Context Influences Local Part Processing: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Sun, Yaoru; Zhao, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Perception of face parts on the basis of features is thought to be different from perception of whole faces, which is more based on configural information. Face context is also suggested to play an important role in face processing. To investigate how face context influences the early-stage perception of facial local parts, we used an oddball paradigm that tested perceptual stages of face processing rather than recognition. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by whole faces and face parts presented in four conditions (upright-normal, upright-thatcherised, inverted-normal and inverted-thatcherised), as well as the ERPs elicited by non-face objects (whole houses and house parts) with corresponding conditions. The results showed that face context significantly affected the N170 with increased amplitudes and earlier peak latency for upright normal faces. Removing face context delayed the P1 latency but did not affect the P1 amplitude prominently for both upright and inverted normal faces. Across all conditions, neither the N170 nor the P1 was modulated by house context. The significant changes on the N170 and P1 components revealed that face context influences local part processing at the early stage of face processing and this context effect might be specific for face perception. We further suggested that perceptions of whole faces and face parts are functionally distinguished.

  19. Functional neuroimaging of dressing-related skills

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Christopher T.; Foster, Donald J.; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of motor function following stroke involves reorganization of motor output through intact pathways, with compensatory brain activity likely variable by task. One class of motor tasks, those involved in self-care, is particularly important in stroke rehabilitation. Identifying the brain areas that are engaged in self-care and how they reorganize after stroke may enable development of more effective rehabilitation strategies. We piloted a paradigm for functional MRI assessment of self-care activity. In two groups, young adults and older adults, two self-care tasks (buttoning and zipping) produce activation similar to a bimanual tapping task, with bilateral activation of primary and secondary motor cortices, primary sensory cortex, and cerebellum. Quantitative differences include more activation of sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum in buttoning than bimanual tapping. Pilot subjects with stroke showed greater superior parietal activity across tasks than controls, potentially representing an increased need for sensorimotor integration to perform motor tasks. PMID:23070748

  20. How family members manage risk around functional decline: The autonomy management process in households facing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-01-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of retrospective interviewing in 2012–2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual’s natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual’s deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual’s ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual’s autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder’s functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  1. Biological adaptations for functional features of language in the face of cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick

    2011-04-01

    Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.

  2. Fabrication and evaluation of SiC/Cu functionally graded material used for plasma facing components in a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yun-Han; Li, Jiang-Tao; Ge, Chang-Chun; Bai, Xin-De

    2002-06-01

    A new SiC/Cu functionally graded material that contains a spectrum of 0-100% compositional distributions of SiC used for plasma facing component was proposed and fabricated by a novel process termed graded sintering under ultra-high pressure, by which a near dense graded composite has been successfully obtained. Tests on plasma relevant performances showed that in SiC/Cu graded composite the CD 4 production due to chemical sputtering is 85% lower than that of SMF800 nuclear graphite, while its thermal desorption is about 10% of that graphite; fatigue cracks and chemical decomposition were found on the surface of SiC/Cu FGM after 300 cyclic impacts of laser pulse with power density of 398 MW/m 2; slight damage was also observed on the material surface after in situ plasma irradiation in a Tokamak facility.

  3. The effect of face inversion for neurons inside and outside fMRI-defined face-selective cortical regions.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; Van Belle, Goedele; Vanduffel, Wim; Rossion, Bruno; Vogels, Rufin

    2015-03-01

    It is widely believed that face processing in the primate brain occurs in a network of category-selective cortical regions. Combined functional MRI (fMRI)-single-cell recording studies in macaques have identified high concentrations of neurons that respond more to faces than objects within face-selective patches. However, cells with a preference for faces over objects are also found scattered throughout inferior temporal (IT) cortex, raising the question whether face-selective cells inside and outside of the face patches differ functionally. Here, we compare the properties of face-selective cells inside and outside of face-selective patches in the IT cortex by means of an image manipulation that reliably disrupts behavior toward face processing: inversion. We recorded IT neurons from two fMRI-defined face-patches (ML and AL) and a region outside of the face patches (herein labeled OUT) during upright and inverted face stimulation. Overall, turning faces upside down reduced the firing rate of face-selective cells. However, there were differences among the recording regions. First, the reduced neuronal response for inverted faces was independent of stimulus position, relative to fixation, in the face-selective patches (ML and AL) only. Additionally, the effect of inversion for face-selective cells in ML, but not those in AL or OUT, was impervious to whether the neurons were initially searched for using upright or inverted stimuli. Collectively, these results show that face-selective cells differ in their functional characteristics depending on their anatomicofunctional location, suggesting that upright faces are preferably coded by face-selective cells inside but not outside of the fMRI-defined face-selective regions of the posterior IT cortex.

  4. Facing your fears in adolescence: cognitive-behavioral therapy for high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Reaven, Judy; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Leuthe, Eileen; Moody, Eric; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are at high risk for developing psychiatric symptoms, with anxiety disorders among the most commonly cooccurring. Cognitive behavior therapies (CBTs) are considered the best practice for treating anxiety in the general population. Modified CBT approaches for youth with high-functioning ASD and anxiety have resulted in significant reductions in anxiety following intervention. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intervention for treating anxiety in adolescents with ASD based on a CBT program designed for school-aged children. The Facing Your Fears-Adolescent Version (FYF-A) program was developed; feasibility and acceptability data were obtained, along with initial efficacy of the intervention. Twenty-four adolescents, aged 13-18, completed the FYF-A intervention. Results indicated significant reductions in anxiety severity and interference posttreatment, with low rates of anxiety maintained at 3-month follow-up. In addition, nearly 46% of teen participants met criteria for a positive treatment response on primary diagnosis following the intervention. Initial findings from the current study are encouraging and suggest that modified group CBT for adolescents with high-functioning ASD may be effective in reducing anxiety symptoms. Limitations include small sample size and lack of control group. Future directions are discussed.

  5. The own-age bias in face memory is unrelated to differences in attention--evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Markus F; End, Albert; Luttmann, Stefanie; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Participants are more accurate at remembering faces from their own relative to a different age group (the own-age bias, or OAB). A recent socio-cognitive account has suggested that differential allocation of attention to old versus young faces underlies this phenomenon. Critically, empirical evidence for a direct relationship between attention to own- versus other-age faces and the OAB in memory is lacking. To fill this gap, we tested the roles of attention in three different experimental paradigms, and additionally analyzed event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In Experiment 1, we compared the learning of old and young faces during focused versus divided attention, but revealed similar OABs in subsequent memory for both attention conditions. Similarly, manipulating attention during learning did not differentially affect the ERPs elicited by young versus old faces. In Experiment 2, we examined the repetition effects from task-irrelevant old and young faces presented under varying attentional loads on the N250r ERP component as an index of face recognition. Independent of load, the N250r effects were comparable for both age categories. Finally, in Experiment 3 we measured the N2pc as an index of attentional selection of old versus young target faces in a visual search task. The N2pc was not significantly different for the young versus the old target search conditions, suggesting similar orientations of attention to either face age group. Overall, we propose that the OAB in memory is largely unrelated to early attentional processes. Our findings therefore contrast with the predictions from socio-cognitive accounts on own-group biases in recognition memory, and are more easily reconciled with expertise-based models.

  6. Sex-related preferences for real and doll’s faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants: Boys prefer non-social or mechanical toys such as cars, while girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). Forty-eight 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls) and 48 young adults (24 women) saw six trials of all relevant pairs of faces and objects, with each trial containing a different exemplar of a stimulus type. The infant results showed no sex-related preferences; infants preferred faces of men and women, regardless of whether they were real or doll’s faces. Similarly, adults did not show sex-related preferences for social versus non-social stimuli, but, unlike infants, they preferred faces of the opposite sex over objects. These results challenge claims of an innate basis for sex-related preferences for toy and real stimuli preferences (Connellan et al., 2000) and suggest that sex-related preferences result from maturational and social development, which continues into adulthood. PMID:23933180

  7. The face and its emotion: right N170 deficits in structural processing and early emotional discrimination in schizophrenic patients and relatives.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Riveros, Rodrigo; Hurtado, Esteban; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Urquina, Hugo; Herrera, Eduar; Amoruso, Lucía; Reyes, Migdyrai Martin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-30

    Previous studies have reported facial emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenic patients, as well as abnormalities in the N170 component of the event-related potential. Current research on schizophrenia highlights the importance of complexly-inherited brain-based deficits. In order to examine the N170 markers of face structural and emotional processing, DSM-IV diagnosed schizophrenia probands (n=13), unaffected first-degree relatives from multiplex families (n=13), and control subjects (n=13) matched by age, gender and educational level, performed a categorization task which involved words and faces with positive and negative valence. The N170 component, while present in relatives and control subjects, was reduced in patients, not only for faces, but also for face-word differences, suggesting a deficit in structural processing of stimuli. Control subjects showed N170 modulation according to the valence of facial stimuli. However, this discrimination effect was found to be reduced both in patients and relatives. This is the first report showing N170 valence deficits in relatives. Our results suggest a generalized deficit affecting the structural encoding of faces in patients, as well as the emotion discrimination both in patients and relatives. Finally, these findings lend support to the notion that cortical markers of facial discrimination can be validly considered as vulnerability markers.

  8. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0

  9. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-03-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination - just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al., 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain.

  10. Looking to the eyes influences the processing of emotion on face-sensitive event-related potentials in 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Westerlund, Alissa; Montoya, Lina; McCormick, Sarah A; Miguel, Helga O; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies in infants have shown that face-sensitive components of the ongoing electroencephalogram (the event-related potential, or ERP) are larger in amplitude to negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger) versus positive emotions (e.g., happy). However, it is still unclear whether the negative emotions linked with the face or the negative emotions alone contribute to these amplitude differences. We simultaneously recorded infant looking behaviors (via eye-tracking) and face-sensitive ERPs while 7-month-old infants viewed human faces or animals displaying happy, fear, or angry expressions. We observed that the amplitude of the N290 was greater (i.e., more negative) to angry animals compared to happy or fearful animals; no such differences were obtained for human faces. Eye-tracking data highlighted the importance of the eye region in processing emotional human faces. Infants that spent more time looking to the eye region of human faces showing fearful or angry expressions had greater N290 or P400 amplitudes, respectively.

  11. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  12. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  13. Visual adaptation and face perception

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of faces can be strongly affected by the characteristics of faces viewed previously. These perceptual after-effects reflect processes of sensory adaptation that are found throughout the visual system, but which have been considered only relatively recently in the context of higher level perceptual judgements. In this review, we explore the consequences of adaptation for human face perception, and the implications of adaptation for understanding the neural-coding schemes underlying the visual representation of faces. The properties of face after-effects suggest that they, in part, reflect response changes at high and possibly face-specific levels of visual processing. Yet, the form of the after-effects and the norm-based codes that they point to show many parallels with the adaptations and functional organization that are thought to underlie the encoding of perceptual attributes like colour. The nature and basis for human colour vision have been studied extensively, and we draw on ideas and principles that have been developed to account for norms and normalization in colour vision to consider potential similarities and differences in the representation and adaptation of faces. PMID:21536555

  14. Relations between key executive functions and aggression in childhood.

    PubMed

    Granvald, Viktor; Marciszko, Carin

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between three key executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and mental set-shifting) and multiple types of aggression in a general population sample of 9-year-old children. One hundred and forty-eight children completed a battery of executive function tasks and were rated on aggression by their primary teachers. All executive function (EF) composites were related to a composite measure of aggression. Working memory (WM) was most consistently related to the different types of aggression (overt, relational, reactive, and proactive), whereas inhibition and mental set-shifting only were related to relational and reactive aggression, respectively. Specificity in relations (studied as independent contributions) was generally low with the exception of the relation between WM and relational aggression. Taken together, our results highlight the roles of WM and relational aggression in EF-aggression relations in middle childhood.

  15. The Effects of Face Inversion on the Perception of Long-Range and Local Spatial Relations in Eye and Mouth Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekunova, Alla; Barton, Jason J. S.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study hypothesized a configurational anisotropy in the face inversion effect, with vertical relations more difficult to process. However, another difference in the stimuli of that report was that the vertical but not horizontal shifts lacked local spatial references. Difficulty processing long-range spatial relations might also be…

  16. Electrophysiological Correlates of Refreshing: Event-related Potentials Associated with Directing Reflective Attention to Face, Scene, or Word Representations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; McCarthy, Gregory; Muller, Kathleen A; Brudner, Samuel N; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-09-01

    Refreshing is the component cognitive process of directing reflective attention to one of several active mental representations. Previous studies using fMRI suggested that refresh tasks involve a component process of initiating refreshing as well as the top-down modulation of representational regions central to refreshing. However, those studies were limited by fMRI's low temporal resolution. In this study, we used EEG to examine the time course of refreshing on the scale of milliseconds rather than seconds. ERP analyses showed that a typical refresh task does have a distinct electrophysiological response as compared to a control condition and includes at least two main temporal components: an earlier (∼400 msec) positive peak reminiscent of a P3 response and a later (∼800-1400 msec) sustained positivity over several sites reminiscent of the late directing attention positivity. Overall, the evoked potentials for refreshing representations from three different visual categories (faces, scenes, words) were similar, but multivariate pattern analysis showed that some category information was nonetheless present in the EEG signal. When related to previous fMRI studies, these results are consistent with a two-phase model, with the first phase dominated by frontal control signals involved in initiating refreshing and the second by the top-down modulation of posterior perceptual cortical areas that constitutes refreshing a representation. This study also lays the foundation for future studies of the neural correlates of reflective attention at a finer temporal resolution than is possible using fMRI.

  17. Adolescents' ability to read different emotional faces relates to their history of maltreatment and type of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Leist, Tatyana; Dadds, Mark R

    2009-04-01

    Emotional processing styles appear to characterize various forms of psychopathology and environmental adversity in children. For example, autistic, anxious, high- and low-emotion conduct problem children, and children who have been maltreated, all appear to show specific deficits and strengths in recognizing the facial expressions of emotions. Until now, the relationships between emotion recognition, antisocial behaviour, emotional problems, callous-unemotional (CU) traits and early maltreatment have never been assessed simultaneously in one study, and the specific associations of emotion recognition to maltreatment and child characteristics are therefore unknown. We examined facial-emotion processing in a sample of 23 adolescents selected for high-risk status on the variables of interest. As expected, maltreatment and child characteristics showed unique associations. CU traits were uniquely related to impairments in fear recognition. Antisocial behaviour was uniquely associated with better fear recognition, but impaired anger recognition. Emotional problems were associated with better recognition of anger and sadness, but lower recognition of neutral faces. Maltreatment was predictive of superior recognition of fear and sadness. The findings are considered in terms of social information-processing theories of psychopathology. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed.

  18. Faces and bodies in the brain.

    PubMed

    Berlucchi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of face-sensitive and body-sensitive regions in the extrastriate human cortex has raised the problem of the relations of these areas to face and body knowledge and their role in person identification. In this commentary, I point to some as yet unexplored aspects of these cortical regions, including their status as proper anatomo-functional areas, the role of body appearance in the recognition of persons, and the development of body-related and face-related areas in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

  19. Face it: collecting mental health and disaster related data using Facebook vs. personal interview: the case of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Aviel, Or; Dubiner, Yonit; Evelyn Baruch; Soffer, Yechiel; Shrira, Amit

    2013-06-30

    Collecting mental health data during disaster is a difficult task. The aim of this study was to compare reported sensitive information regarding the disaster and general questions on physical or psychological functioning between social network (Facebook) interview and face-to-face interview after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Data were collected from a battery of self-reported questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to 133 face-to-face participants and to 40 Facebook interviewees, during March-April 2011. The face-to-face interview group showed a significantly higher level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated risk for clinical level of PTSD and reported more worries about another disaster, lower life satisfaction, less perceived social support and lower self-rated health than the Facebook group. Our data may suggest that the reliability of internet surveys is jeopardized during extreme conditions such as large-scale disasters as it tends to underestimate the reactions to such events. This indicates the discrepancy from data collected in situ to data collected using social networks. The implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Relations among several nuclear and electronic density functional reactivity indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Luis, Josep M.; Duran, Miquel; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Solà, Miquel

    2003-11-01

    An expansion of the energy functional in terms of the total number of electrons and the normal coordinates within the canonical ensemble is presented. A comparison of this expansion with the expansion of the energy in terms of the total number of electrons and the external potential leads to new relations among common density functional reactivity descriptors. The formulas obtained provide explicit links between important quantities related to the chemical reactivity of a system. In particular, the relation between the nuclear and the electronic Fukui functions is recovered. The connection between the derivatives of the electronic energy and the nuclear repulsion energy with respect to the external potential offers a proof for the "Quantum Chemical le Chatelier Principle." Finally, the nuclear linear response function is defined and the relation of this function with the electronic linear response function is given.

  1. Ornstein-Zernike derivative relations and thermodynamic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Hin Hark; Eu, Byung Chan

    1992-01-01

    The consequences of the derivatives of the Ornstein-Zernike relation with respect to the density (ρ) and temperature (T) are examined. An approximate closure for the Ornstein-Zernike relation is used to evaluate the derivatives of the pair-correlation function to all orders without knowing explicitly the correlation functions higher in order than the pair-correlation function. The first- and second-order thermodynamic (ρ or T) derivatives of the pair-correlation function are calculated and compared with the experiments of Egelstaff et al. In addition, the thermodynamic functions involving these derivatives are evaluated to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the method.

  2. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  3. An Arginine-Faced Amphipathic Alpha Helix Is Required for Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6 Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Joseph S.; Ornelles, David A.

    1999-01-01

    A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic α helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this α helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic α helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection. PMID:10233919

  4. Families of tessellations of space by elementary polyhedra via retessellations of face-centered-cubic and related tilings.

    PubMed

    Gabbrielli, Ruggero; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    The problem of tiling or tessellating (i.e., completely filling) three-dimensional Euclidean space R(3) with polyhedra has fascinated people for centuries and continues to intrigue mathematicians and scientists today. Tilings are of fundamental importance to the understanding of the underlying structures for a wide range of systems in the biological, chemical, and physical sciences. In this paper, we enumerate and investigate the most comprehensive set of tilings of R(3) by any two regular polyhedra known to date. We find that among all of the Platonic solids, only the tetrahedron and octahedron can be combined to tile R(3). For tilings composed of only congruent tetrahedra and congruent octahedra, there seem to be only four distinct ratios between the sides of the two polyhedra. These four canonical periodic tilings are, respectively, associated with certain packings of tetrahedra (octahedra) in which the holes are octahedra (tetrahedra). Moreover, we derive two families of an uncountably infinite number of periodic tilings of tetrahedra and octahedra that continuously connect the aforementioned four canonical tilings with one another, containing the previously reported Conway-Jiao-Torquato family of tilings [Conway et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11009 (2011)] as a special case. For tilings containing infinite planar surfaces, nonperiodic arrangements can be easily generated by arbitrary relative sliding along these surfaces. We also find that there are three distinct canonical periodic tilings of R(3) by congruent regular tetrahedra and congruent regular truncated tetrahedra associated with certain packings of tetrahedra (truncated tetrahedra) in which the holes are truncated tetrahedra (tetrahedra). Remarkably, we discover that most of the aforementioned periodic tilings can be obtained by "retessellating" the well-known tiling associated with the face-centered-cubic lattice, i.e., by combining the associated fundamental tiles (regular tetrahedra and

  5. Relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and psychological wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autobiographical memory serves three basic functions in everyday life: self-definition, social connection, and directing behaviour (e.g., Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005). However, no research has examined relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and healthy functioning (i.e., psychological wellbeing). The present research examined the relations between the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory and three factors of psychological wellbeing in single and recurring autobiographical memories. A total of 103 undergraduate students were recruited and provided ratings of each function for four autobiographical memories (two single, two recurring events). Results found that individuals who use their autobiographical memories to serve self, social, and directive functions reported higher levels of Purpose and Communion and Positive Relationships, and that these relations differ slightly by event type.

  6. Multiple Faces of Dynamin-related Protein 1 and Its Role in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Ramesh; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a large role in neuronal function by constantly providing energy, particularly at synapses. Recent studies suggest that amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau interact with the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), causing excessive fragmentation of mitochondria and leading to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neurons. Recent research also revealed Aβ-induced and phosphorylated tau-induced changes in mitochondria, particularly affecting mitochondrial shape, size, distribution and axonal transport in AD neurons. These changes affect mitochondrial health and, in turn, could affect synaptic function and neuronal damage and ultimately leading to memory loss and cognitive impairment in patients with AD. This article highlights recent findings in the role of Drp1 in AD pathogenesis. This article also highlights Drp1 and its relationships to glycogen synthase kinase 3, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, p53, and microRNAs in AD pathogenesis. PMID:26708942

  7. Electron work function and surface energy of body-centered and face-centered cubic modifications of 4 d- and 5 d-metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, L. P.; Shebzukhova, I. G.

    2016-07-01

    A technique for the evaluation of the electron work function of metallic single crystals and the electron work function anisotropy has been developed in the framework of the electron-statistical method. The surface energy and the electron work function have been calculated for crystal faces of allotropic modifications of 4 d- and 5 d-metals. A change in the electron work function due to the allotropic transformations has been estimated, and the periodic dependence of the electron work function has been determined. It has been shown that the results obtained using the proposed technique correlate with the available experimental data for polycrystals.

  8. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions.

  9. Successful Decoding of Famous Faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

    2015-01-01

    What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

  10. Revealing the neural networks associated with processing of natural social interaction and the related effects of actor-orientation and face-visibility.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Manish; Shelly, Elizabeth Walter; Lepage, Jean-Francois; Hoeft, Fumiko; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the intentions and desires of those around us is vital for adapting to a dynamic social environment. In this paper, a novel event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with dynamic and natural stimuli (2s video clips) was developed to directly examine the neural networks associated with processing of gestures with social intent as compared to nonsocial intent. When comparing social to nonsocial gestures, increased activation in both the mentalizing (or theory of mind) and amygdala networks was found. As a secondary aim, a factor of actor-orientation was included in the paradigm to examine how the neural mechanisms differ with respect to personal engagement during a social interaction versus passively observing an interaction. Activity in the lateral occipital cortex and precentral gyrus was found sensitive to actor-orientation during social interactions. Lastly, by manipulating face-visibility we tested whether facial information alone is the primary driver of neural activation differences observed between social and nonsocial gestures. We discovered that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform gyrus (FFG) was partially driven by observing facial expressions during social gestures. Altogether, using multiple factors associated with processing of natural social interaction, we conceptually advance our understanding of how social stimuli is processed in the brain and discuss the application of this paradigm to clinical populations where atypical social cognition is manifested as a key symptom.

  11. Common Neural Systems Associated with the Recognition of Famous Faces and Names: An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Kristy A.; Seidenberg, Michael; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gross, William L.; Gander, Amelia; Guidotti, Leslie M.; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related…

  12. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  13. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  14. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  15. Stimulus Dependent Dynamic Reorganization of the Human Face Processing Network.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Gideon; Sporns, Olaf; Avidan, Galia

    2016-09-12

    Using the "face inversion effect", a hallmark of face perception, we examined network mechanisms supporting face representation by tracking functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stimulus-dependent dynamic functional connectivity within and between brain networks associated with the processing of upright and inverted faces. We developed a novel approach adapting the general linear model (GLM) framework classically used for univariate fMRI analysis to capture stimulus-dependent fMRI dynamic connectivity of the face network. We show that under the face inversion manipulation, the face and non-face networks have complementary roles that are evident in their stimulus-dependent dynamic connectivity patterns as assessed by network decomposition into components or communities. Moreover, we show that connectivity patterns are associated with the behavioral face inversion effect. Thus, we establish "a network-level signature" of the face inversion effect and demonstrate how a simple physical transformation of the face stimulus induces a dramatic functional reorganization across related brain networks. Finally, we suggest that the dynamic GLM network analysis approach, developed here for the face network, provides a general framework for modeling the dynamics of blocked stimulus-dependent connectivity experimental designs and hence can be applied to a host of neuroimaging studies.

  16. Constructing and Deriving Reciprocal Trigonometric Relations: A Functional Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K.; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed…

  17. Constructing and deriving reciprocal trigonometric relations: a functional analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires.

  18. BASCO: a toolbox for task-related functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Göttlich, Martin; Beyer, Frederike; Krämer, Ulrike M.

    2015-01-01

    BASCO (BetA Series COrrelation) is a user-friendly MATLAB toolbox with a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows investigating functional connectivity in event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Connectivity analyses extend and compliment univariate activation analyses since the actual interaction between brain regions involved in a task can be explored. BASCO supports seed-based functional connectivity as well as brain network analyses. Although there are a multitude of advanced toolboxes for investigating resting-state functional connectivity, BASCO is the first toolbox for evaluating task-related whole-brain functional connectivity employing a large number of network nodes. Thus, BASCO allows investigating task-specific rather than resting-state networks. Here, we summarize the main features of the toolbox and describe the methods and algorithms. PMID:26441558

  19. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy.

  20. The functional origins of speech-related hand gestures.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, Ian Q; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Travis, Scott G; Gholamrezaei, Gita; Karl, Jenni M

    2010-12-25

    Many theories of language posit its recent evolution, perhaps contemporaneous with the evolution of Homo sapiens. The embodied language theory, however, in proposing that language includes gestures, provides an avenue for tracing language origins to phylogenetically earlier ancestral species. Here, evidence is presented that the structure of functional hand movements (e.g., reaching for food, climbing a ladder, or crawling), in rats and humans is similar. The structure of these functional hand movements is then compared to speech-related hand gestures in humans. The sequence of language-related gestures are also found to be characteristic of functional hand movements. It is suggested that these findings show that the arm and hand gestures that accompany human speech are derived from the same neural substrates that produce functional movements. Additionally, evidence is reviewed that supports the idea that speech-related gestures resemble the movements elicited by long-train stimulation of the primate motor cortex. Together, this evidence suggests that speech-related hand gestures have their evolutionary origins in functional hand movements of ancestral non-primate and primate species and may be constrained by the neural substrate for those movements. These findings are further discussed in relation to the idea that speech-related gestures reflect forelimb motor cortex contributions to embodied language.

  1. Entanglement criteria via concave-function uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yichen

    2010-07-15

    A general theorem as a necessary condition for the separability of quantum states in both finite and infinite dimensional systems, based on concave-function uncertainty relations, is derived. Two special cases of the general theorem are stronger than two known entanglement criteria based on the Shannon entropic uncertainty relation and the Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation, respectively; other special cases are able to detect entanglement where some famous entanglement criteria fail.

  2. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  3. The fusiform face area is not sufficient for face recognition: evidence from a patient with dense prosopagnosia and no occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Jennifer K E; Culham, Jody C; Duchaine, Bradley C; Pratesi, Cristiana Cavina; Valyear, Kenneth F; Schindler, Igor; Humphrey, G Keith; Milner, A David; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2006-01-01

    We tested functional activation for faces in patient D.F., who following acquired brain damage has a profound deficit in object recognition based on form (visual form agnosia) and also prosopagnosia that is undocumented to date. Functional imaging demonstrated that like our control observers, D.F. shows significantly more activation when passively viewing face compared to scene images in an area that is consistent with the fusiform face area (FFA) (p < 0.01). Control observers also show occipital face area (OFA) activation; however, whereas D.F.'s lesions appear to overlap the OFA bilaterally. We asked, given that D.F. shows FFA activation for faces, to what extent is she able to recognize faces? D.F. demonstrated a severe impairment in higher level face processing--she could not recognize face identity, gender or emotional expression. In contrast, she performed relatively normally on many face categorization tasks. D.F. can differentiate faces from non-faces given sufficient texture information and processing time, and she can do this is independent of color and illumination information. D.F. can use configural information for categorizing faces when they are presented in an upright but not a sideways orientation and given that she also cannot discriminate half-faces she may rely on a spatially symmetric feature arrangement. Faces appear to be a unique category, which she can classify even when she has no advance knowledge that she will be shown face images. Together, these imaging and behavioral data support the importance of the integrity of a complex network of regions for face identification, including more than just the FFA--in particular the OFA, a region believed to be associated with low-level processing.

  4. Threat-related amygdala functional connectivity is associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Martin Korsbak; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie Bech; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Communication between the amygdala and other brain regions critically regulates sensitivity to threat, which has been associated with risk for mood and affective disorders. The extent to which these neural pathways are genetically determined or correlate with risk-related personality measures is not fully understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated independent and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala functional connectivity during an emotional faces paradigm in 76 healthy individuals. Functional connectivity between left amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and between both amygdalae and a cluster including posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and visual cortex was significantly increased in 5-HTTLPR S' allele carriers relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between right amygdala and mPFC and visual cortex, and between both amygdalae and left lateral orbitofrontal (lOFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Notably, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association between neuroticism and functional connectivity between both amygdalae and left lOFC/vlPFC, such that S' carriers exhibited a more negative association relative to L(A)L(A) individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for both independent and interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism on amygdala communication, which may mediate effects on risk for mood and affective disorders.

  5. Does volunteering moderate the relation between functional limitations and mortality?

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Newsom, Jason T

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that functional limitations increase, and organizational volunteering decreases, the risk of mortality in later life. However, scant attention has been paid to investigating the joint effect of functional limitations and organizational volunteering on mortality. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that volunteering moderates the relation between functional limitations and risk of mortality. This prospective study used baseline survey data from a representative sample of 916 non-institutionalized adults 65 years old and older who lived in the continental United States. Data on mortality were extracted six years later from the National Death Index. Survival analyses revealed that functional limitations were associated with an increased risk of dying only among participants who never or almost never volunteered, suggesting that volunteering buffers the association between functional limitations and mortality. We conclude that although it may be more difficult for older adults with functional limitations to volunteer, they may receive important benefits from doing so.

  6. The Use of Dispersion Relations For The Geomagnetic Transfer Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcuello, A.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J. J.

    The magnetotelluric responses are complex magnitudes, where real and imaginary parts contain the same information on the geoelectrical structure. It seems possible, from very general hypotheses on the geoelectrical models (causality, stability and passivity), to apply the Kramers-Krönig dispersion relations to the magnetotelluric responses (impedance, geomagnetic transfer functions,...). In particular, the applica- bility of these relations to the impedance is a current point of discussion, but there are not many examples of their application to the geomagnetic transfer functions (tipper). The aim of this paper is to study how the relations of dispersion are applied to the real and imaginary part of the geomagnetic transfer functions, and to check its validity. For this reason, we have considered data (or responses) from two- and three-dimensional structures, and for these data, we have taken two situations: 1.- Responses that have been synthetically generated from numerical modelling, that allows us to control the quality of the data. 2.- Responses obtained from fieldwork, that are affected by exper- imental error. Additionally, we have also explored the use of these relations to extrap- olate the geomagnetic transfer functions outside the interval of measured frequencies, in order to obtain constrains on the values of these extrapolated data. The results have shown that the dispersion relations are accomplished for the geomag- netic transfer functions, and they can offer information about how these responses are behaved outside (but near) the range of measured frequencies.

  7. Decreased face primary motor cortex (face-M1) excitability induced by noxious stimulation of the rat molar tooth pulp is dependent on the functional integrity of medullary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pun, H; Awamleh, L; Lee, J-C; Avivi-Arber, L

    2016-03-01

    We have recently shown that application of the small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the rat molar tooth pulp can decrease face-M1 excitability, but increase the excitability of trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons and that application of the astrocytic inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) to the face-M1 or MDH can attenuate the MO-induced changes. The present study aimed to determine whether medullary MSO application could modulate the MO-induced decreased face-M1 excitability. Under ketamine general anesthesia, electromyographic (EMG) electrodes were implanted into the right anterior digastric (RAD, jaw-opening muscle) of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. A microelectrode was positioned at a low-threshold (≤30 μA) site in the left face-M1. Then MO (n = 16) or control-solution (n = 16) was applied to the previously exposed molar tooth pulp, and intracortical microstimulation threshold intensities for evoking RAD EMG activities were monitored for 15 min. MSO (0.1 mM, n = 8) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, n = 8) was then applied to the MDH and RAD thresholds monitored every 15 min for 120 min. Statistics used ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni as appropriate (p < 0.05). As compared to baseline, RAD thresholds significantly increased (i.e., decreased excitability) within 1 min (26.3 ± 7.9%, p = 0.007) and peaked at 15 min following pulpal MO application (49.9 ± 5.7%, p < 0.001) but not following control-solution. Following MSO (but not PBS) application to the medulla, RAD thresholds significantly decreased within 15 min (26.5 ± 3.0%, p = 0.05) and at 60 min approached 6.3 ± 2.4%, of baseline values (p = 0.1). These novel findings suggest that clinically related motor disturbances arising from dental pain may involve decreased face-M1 excitability that is modulated by medullary astrocytes.

  8. Neural mechanisms underlying the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces: a tentative model

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In our daily lives, we form some impressions of other people. Although those impressions are affected by many factors, face-based affective signals such as facial expression, facial attractiveness, or trustworthiness are important. Previous psychological studies have demonstrated the impact of facial impressions on remembering other people, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this psychological process. The purpose of this article is to review recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies to investigate the effects of face-based affective signals including facial expression, facial attractiveness, and trustworthiness on memory for faces, and to propose a tentative concept for understanding this affective-cognitive interaction. On the basis of the aforementioned research, three brain regions are potentially involved in the processing of face-based affective signals. The first candidate is the amygdala, where activity is generally modulated by both affectively positive and negative signals from faces. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as the second candidate, increases as a function of perceived positive signals from faces; whereas activity in the insular cortex, as the third candidate, reflects a function of face-based negative signals. In addition, neuroscientific studies have reported that the three regions are functionally connected to the memory-related hippocampal regions. These findings suggest that the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces could be modulated by interactions between the regions associated with the processing of face-based affective signals and the hippocampus as a memory-related region. PMID:22837740

  9. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline.

  10. Tactile perception recruits functionally related visual areas in the late-blind.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manu S; Hansen, Peter J; Blakemore, Colin B

    2006-09-18

    When blind people touch Braille characters, blood flow increases in visual areas, leading to speculation that visual circuitry assists tactile discrimination in the blind. We tested this hypothesis in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study designed to reveal activation appropriate to the nature of tactile stimulation. In late-blind individuals, hMT/V5 and fusiform face area activated during visual imagery of moving patterns or faces. When they touched a doll's face, right fusiform face area was again activated. Equally, hMT/V5 was activated when objects moved over the skin. We saw no difference in hMT/V5 or fusiform face area activity during motion or face perception in the congenitally blind. We conclude that specialized visual areas, once established through visual experience, assist equivalent tactile identification tasks years after the onset of blindness.

  11. Animal, but not human, faces engage the distributed face network in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Elisabeth M; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy J; Garcia, Natalie V; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Multiple hypotheses have been offered to explain the impaired face-processing behavior and the accompanying underlying disruptions in neural circuitry among individuals with autism. We explored the specificity of atypical face-processing activation and potential alterations to fusiform gyrus (FG) morphology as potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and age-matched typically developing (TD) adolescents were scanned with sMRI and fMRI as they observed human and animal faces. In spite of exhibiting comparable face recognition behavior, the HFA adolescents evinced hypo-activation throughout the face-processing system in response to unfamiliar human, but not animal, faces. They also exhibited greater activation in affective regions of the face-processing network in response to animal, but not human, faces. Importantly, this atypical pattern of activation in response to human faces was not related to atypical structural properties of the FG. This atypical neural response to human faces in autism may stem from abnormalities in the ability to represent the reward value of social (i.e. conspecific) stimuli.

  12. Interindividual variation in fornix microstructure and macrostructure is related to visual discrimination accuracy for scenes but not faces.

    PubMed

    Postans, Mark; Hodgetts, Carl J; Mundy, Matthew E; Jones, Derek K; Lawrence, Andrew D; Graham, Kim S

    2014-09-03

    Transection of the nonhuman primate fornix has been shown to impair learning of configurations of spatial features and object-in-scene memory. Although damage to the human fornix also results in memory impairment, it is not known whether there is a preferential involvement of this white-matter tract in spatial learning, as implied by animal studies. Diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained from healthy participants who had completed versions of a task in which they made rapid same/different discriminations to two categories of highly visually similar stimuli: (1) virtual reality scene pairs; and (2) face pairs. Diffusion-MRI measures of white-matter microstructure [fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)] and macrostructure (tissue volume fraction, f) were then extracted from the fornix of each participant, which had been reconstructed using a deterministic tractography protocol. Fornix MD and f measures correlated with scene, but not face, discrimination accuracy in both discrimination tasks. A complementary voxelwise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics suggested the crus of the fornix as a focus for this relationship. These findings extend previous reports of spatial learning impairments after fornix transection in nonhuman primates, critically highlighting the fornix as a source of interindividual variation in scene discrimination in humans.

  13. Interindividual Variation in Fornix Microstructure and Macrostructure Is Related to Visual Discrimination Accuracy for Scenes But Not Faces

    PubMed Central

    Hodgetts, Carl J.; Mundy, Matthew E.; Jones, Derek K.; Lawrence, Andrew D.; Graham, Kim S.

    2014-01-01

    Transection of the nonhuman primate fornix has been shown to impair learning of configurations of spatial features and object-in-scene memory. Although damage to the human fornix also results in memory impairment, it is not known whether there is a preferential involvement of this white-matter tract in spatial learning, as implied by animal studies. Diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained from healthy participants who had completed versions of a task in which they made rapid same/different discriminations to two categories of highly visually similar stimuli: (1) virtual reality scene pairs; and (2) face pairs. Diffusion-MRI measures of white-matter microstructure [fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)] and macrostructure (tissue volume fraction, f) were then extracted from the fornix of each participant, which had been reconstructed using a deterministic tractography protocol. Fornix MD and f measures correlated with scene, but not face, discrimination accuracy in both discrimination tasks. A complementary voxelwise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics suggested the crus of the fornix as a focus for this relationship. These findings extend previous reports of spatial learning impairments after fornix transection in nonhuman primates, critically highlighting the fornix as a source of interindividual variation in scene discrimination in humans. PMID:25186756

  14. Hitchin functionals are related to measures of entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévay, Péter; Sárosi, Gábor

    2012-11-01

    According to the black hole/qubit correspondence (BHQC) certain black hole entropy formulas in supergravity can be related to multipartite entanglement measures of quantum information. Here we show that the origin of this correspondence is a connection between Hitchin functionals used as action functionals for form theories of gravity related to topological strings and entanglement measures for systems with a small number of constituents. The basic idea acting as a unifying agent in these seemingly unrelated fields is stability connected to the mathematical notion of special prehomogeneous vector spaces associated to Freudenthal systems coming from simple Jordan algebras. It is shown that the nonlinear function featuring these functionals and defining Calabi-Yau and generalized Calabi-Yau structures is the Freudenthal dual, a concept introduced recently in connection with the BHQC. We propose to use the Hitchin invariant for three-forms in seven dimensions as an entanglement measure playing a basic role in classifying three-fermion systems with seven modes. The representative of the class of maximal tripartite entanglement is the three-form used as a calibration for compactification on manifolds with G2 holonomy. The idea that entanglement measures are related to action functionals from which the usual correspondence of the BHQC follows at the tree level suggests that one can use the BHQC in a more general context.

  15. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  16. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  17. How Executive Functions Are Related to Intelligence in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio, Ana; Cruz, Raquel; Sampaio, Adriana; Garayzabal, Elena; Martinez-Regueiro, Rocio; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Carracedo, Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome is characterized by impairments in executive functions (EFs). However, it remains unknown how distinct types of EFs relate to intelligence in this syndrome. The present study analyzed performance on working memory, inhibiting and shifting, and its links to IQ in a sample of 17 individuals with WS, and compared them with a group…

  18. Relation between anthropometric and cephalometric measurements and proportions of the face of healthy young white adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Budai, Maria; Farkas, Leslie G; Tompson, Bryan; Katic, Marko; Forrest, Christopher R

    2003-03-01

    The specific aim of this study was to determine the differences between 6 anthropometric (taken from the surface) and cephalometric (taken from x-rays) measurements and 12 proportion indices formed by the measurements obtained from the face of 51 healthy Caucasoid young adult males and females. The z-score analysis revealed negligible differences in frequency of normal values, in surface measurements 97.4% (298 of 306) versus 96.7% (296 of 306) in cephalometric ones. The optimal normal measurements dominated, in males in 76.8% and in females in 80.8%. The mean values of the 6 linear measurements, taken from the surface and the cephalogram of the face were in equal number similar and significantly dissimilar in both sexes (Table 1). Comparison of the mean anthropometric and cephalometric proportion indices did not show significant differences in the two sexes (Table 2). For males 50% of the 12 proportions the indices were similar and 50% were significantly different. For females the frequency of similar proportions was seen in 33.3% and in 66.7% moderately-severely differing, statistically not significant. The z-score analysis identified subnormal measurements on the facial surface in 2.6% (8 of 306) and in cephalometric ones in 3.3% (10 of 306). The subnormal measurements of mild and moderate degree disclosed on the skeleton were not detected on the surface and some of the severely subnormal ones became mild-moderate on the skin surface. The study showed that the vertical anthropometric and cephalometric measurements in the facial profile were in highly significant percentage normal when compared with their normative data established for healthy populations. Generally, the cephalometric normal measurements were smaller than those of the anthropometric ones, some of them significantly. The significant differences between the proportions on the surface and skeleton in healthy subjects advice to be cautious in clinical practice, to judge the morphological changes of

  19. Process-Structure-Function Relations of Pectin in Food.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Stefanie; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Houben, Ken; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Moelants, Katlijn R N; Ngouémazong, Eugénie D; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc E G

    2016-01-01

    Pectin, a complex polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid, has been identified as a critical structural component of plant cell walls. The functionality of this intricate macromolecule in fruit- and vegetable-based-derived products and ingredients is strongly determined by the nanostructure of its most abundant polymer, homogalacturonan. During food processing, pectic homogalacturonan is susceptible to various enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic conversion reactions modifying its structural and, hence, its functional properties. Consequently, a profound understanding of the various process-structure-function relations of pectin aids food scientists to tailor the functional properties of plant-based derived products and ingredients. This review describes the current knowledge on process-structure-function relations of pectin in foods with special focus on pectin's functionality with regard to textural attributes of solid plant-based foods and rheological properties of particulated fruit- and vegetable-derived products. In this context, both pectin research performed via traditional, ex situ physicochemical analyses of fractionated walls and isolated polymers and pectin investigation through in situ pectin localization are considered.

  20. [Face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Kita, Yosuke; Inagaki, Masumi

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to review previous research conducted on face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Face recognition is a key question in the ASD research field because it can provide clues for elucidating the neural substrates responsible for the social impairment of these patients. Historically, behavioral studies have reported low performance and/or unique strategies of face recognition among ASD patients. However, the performance and strategy of ASD patients is comparable to those of the control group, depending on the experimental situation or developmental stage, suggesting that face recognition of ASD patients is not entirely impaired. Recent brain function studies, including event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have investigated the cognitive process of face recognition in ASD patients, and revealed impaired function in the brain's neural network comprising the fusiform gyrus and amygdala. This impaired function is potentially involved in the diminished preference for faces, and in the atypical development of face recognition, eliciting symptoms of unstable behavioral characteristics in these patients. Additionally, face recognition in ASD patients is examined from a different perspective, namely self-face recognition, and facial emotion recognition. While the former topic is intimately linked to basic social abilities such as self-other discrimination, the latter is closely associated with mentalizing. Further research on face recognition in ASD patients should investigate the connection between behavioral and neurological specifics in these patients, by considering developmental changes and the spectrum clinical condition of ASD.

  1. The Relations Between Patterning, Executive Function, and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Schmerold, Katrina; Bock, Allison; Peterson, Matthew; Leaf, Britney; Vennergrund, Katherine; Pasnak, Robert

    2017-02-17

    Patterning, or the ability to understand patterns, is a skill commonly taught to young children as part of school mathematics curricula. It seems likely that some aspects of executive function, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory, may be expressed in the patterning abilities of children. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between patterning and executive functioning for first grade children. In addition, the relations between patterning, executive functioning, mathematics, and reading were examined. The results showed that patterning was significantly related to cognitive flexibility and working memory, but not to inhibition. Patterning, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were significantly related to mathematical skills. Only patterning and working memory were significantly related to reading. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling both showed that patterning had effects on both reading and mathematics measures, and that the effects of cognitive flexibility were entirely mediated by patterning. Working memory had independent effects on reading and mathematics, and also effects moderated by patterning. In sum, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility and working memory are related to patterning and express their effects on reading and mathematics in whole or in part through patterning.

  2. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  3. Quantum groups and functional relations for lower rank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirov, Kh. S.; Razumov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed construction of the universal integrability objects related to the integrable systems associated with the quantum loop algebra Uq(L(sl2)) is given. The full proof of the functional relations in the form independent of the representation of the quantum loop algebra on the quantum space is presented. The case of the general gradation and general twisting is treated. The specialization of the universal functional relations to the case when the quantum space is the state space of a discrete spin chain is described. This is a digression of the corresponding consideration for the case of the quantum loop algebra Uq(L(sl3)) with an extension to the higher spin case.

  4. Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A.

    2013-04-01

    The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.

  5. Functional state of knee arthritis patients and related factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study is to provide a direction for efficient management of arthritis through the analysis of multiple factors related to the functional state of patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Visual Analog Scale, Knee Society Knee Score & Function Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Short Form-36 Health Survey and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for a total of 135 patients with knee arthritis were determined with a survey. [Results] There is a significant correlation between age, pain, Knee Society Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Knee Society Function Score, and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score. [Conclusion] It is necessary to improve the factors that affect knee function and quality of life, and a study on knee joint muscle strength is suggested as a follow-up study. PMID:28265166

  6. The impact of oxytocin administration and maternal love withdrawal on event-related potential (ERP) responses to emotional faces with performance feedback.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tops, Mattie; Grewen, Karen M; Light, Kathleen C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-03-01

    This is the first experimental study on the effect of oxytocin administration on the neural processing of facial stimuli conducted with female participants that uses event-related potentials (ERPs). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects design, we studied the effects of 16 IU of intranasal oxytocin on ERPs to pictures combining performance feedback with emotional facial expressions in 48 female undergraduate students. Participants also reported on the amount of love withdrawal they experienced from their mothers. Vertex positive potential (VPP) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were more positive after oxytocin compared to placebo administration. This suggests that oxytocin increased attention to the feedback stimuli (LPP) and enhanced the processing of emotional faces (VPP). Oxytocin heightened processing of the happy and disgusted faces primarily for those reporting less love withdrawal. Significant associations with LPP amplitude suggest that more maternal love withdrawal relates to the allocation of attention toward the motivationally relevant combination of negative feedback with a disgusted face.

  7. BmTx3, a scorpion toxin with two putative functional faces separately active on A-type K+ and HERG currents.

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Isabelle; Xu, Chen-Qi; Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Vacher, Hélène; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Chi, Cheng-Wu; Tytgat, Jan

    2004-01-01

    A novel HERG channel blocker was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, sequenced and characterized at the pharmacological level after chemical synthesis. According to the determined amino acid sequence, the cDNA and genomic genes were then cloned. The genomic gene consists of two exons interrupted by an intron of 65 bp at position -6 upstream from the mature toxin. The protein sequence of this toxin was completely identical with that of a known A-type K+ current blocker BmTx3, belonging to scorpion alpha-KTx subfamily 15. Thus BmTx3 is the first reported alpha-KTx peptide also showing HERG-blocking activity, like gamma-KTx peptides. Moreover, different from classical alpha-KTx peptides, such as charybdotoxin, BmTx3 cannot block Shaker -type K+ channels. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that this toxin takes an intermediate position between classical alpha-KTx and gamma-KTx toxins. From a structural point of view, we propose that two separate functional faces might exist on the BmTx3 molecule, responsible for the two different K+-current-blocking functions. Face A, composed of Arg18 and Lys19 in the alpha-helix side, might correspond to HERG blocking activity, whereas Face B, containing a putative functional dyad (Lys27 and Tyr36) in the beta-sheet side, might correspond to A-type blocking activity. A specific deletion mutant with the disrupted Face B, BmTx3-Y36P37del, loses the A-type current-blocking activity, but keeps a similar HERG-blocking activity, as seen with the wild-type toxin. PMID:14599291

  8. IntraFace

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/. PMID:27346987

  9. Synthesis and characterization of "face-to-face" porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, J P; Elliott, C M; Halbert, T R; Tovrog, B S

    1977-01-01

    The syntheses of four binary porphyrins, two of which are constrained to a "face-to-face" conformation, and their Co2+ and Cu2+ derivatives are described. Electron spin resonance indicates that the intermetallic separation in the binuclear "face-to-face" porphyrins is about 6.5-6.8 A. Electronic spectra and proton magnetic resonance spectra support the postulated "face-to-face" conformations. A hypothesis that related compounds may serve as multielectron redox catalysts for O2 and N2 is presented. PMID:189304

  10. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  11. Testing the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: Predicting Psychopathology Symptoms in Families Facing Economic Hardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Raviv, Tali; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model and its proposed relations between poverty-related stress, effortful and involuntary stress responses, and symptoms of psychopathology in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children and their parents. Prospective Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses conducted with 98…

  12. Social and emotional attachment in the neural representation of faces.

    PubMed

    Gobbini, M Ida; Leibenluft, Ellen; Santiago, Neil; Haxby, James V

    2004-08-01

    To dissociate the role of visual familiarity from the role of social and emotional factors in recognizing familiar individuals, we measured neural activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects viewed (1) faces of personally familiar individuals (i.e. friends and family), (2) faces of famous individuals, and (3) faces of strangers. Personally familiar faces evoked a stronger response than did famous familiar faces and unfamiliar faces in areas that have been associated with 'theory of mind', and a weaker response in the amygdala. These response modulations may reflect the spontaneous activation of social knowledge about the personality and attitudes of close friends and relatives and the less guarded attitude one has around these people. These results suggest that familiarity causes changes in neural response that extend beyond a visual memory for a face.

  13. Age-Related Effects of the Apolipoprotein E Gene on Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Hartmann, Daniel; Scheibe, Monika; Sepanski, Beate; Butz, Marius; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Knöchel, Christian; Karakaya, Tarik; Fußer, Fabian; Hattingen, Elke; Pantel, Johannes

    2016-03-16

    The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele is a well-established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Some evidence suggests a negative role of the ApoE ɛ4 allele for cognitive performance in late life, while beneficial effects on cognition have been shown in young age. We investigated age-related effects of the ApoE gene on brain function by assessing cognitive performance, as well as functional activation patterns during retrieval of Face-Name pairs in a group of young (n = 50; age 26.4±4.6 years, 25 ɛ4 carriers) and old (n = 40; age 66.1±7.0 years, 20 ɛ4 carriers) participants. A cross-sectional factorial design was used to examine the effects of age, ApoE genotype, and their interaction on both cognitive performance and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) brain response during retrieval of Face-Name pairs. While there were no genotype-related differences in cognitive performance, we found a significant interaction of age and ApoE genotype on task-related activation bilaterally in anterior cingulate gyrus and superior frontal gyrus, as well as left and right insula. Old age was associated with increased activity in ɛ4 carriers. The increased BOLD response in old ɛ4 carriers during retrieval could indicate a neurocognitive disadvantage associated with the ɛ4 allele with increasing age. Furthermore, recruitment of neuronal resources resulted in enhanced memory performance in young ɛ4 carriers, pointing to a better neurofunctional capacity associated with the ApoE4 genotype in young age.

  14. Beer goggles: blood alcohol concentration in relation to attractiveness ratings for unfamiliar opposite sex faces in naturalistic settings.

    PubMed

    Lyvers, Michael; Cholakians, Emma; Puorro, Megan; Sundram, Shanti

    2011-01-01

    The popular notion that alcohol intoxication enhances perceptions of the physical attractiveness of the opposite sex has been inconsistently supported. The current study tested intoxicated and non-intoxicated persons of both genders in naturalistic settings after measuring their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) by a breath test. A sample of 80 heterosexual university student social drinkers was recruited at a campus pub and campus parties over a 3-month period to take a survey rating the attractiveness of unfamiliar faces of the opposite gender presented in photographs. Attractiveness ratings were positively correlated with BAC. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted on attractiveness ratings with independent variables of gender and BAC group, with three levels of the latter: non-intoxicated (BAC = 0), moderately intoxicated (BAC .01% - .09%), and highly intoxicated (BAC .10% - .19%). Both intoxicated groups gave significantly higher attractiveness ratings than non-intoxicated controls. The findings confirm the "beer goggles" phenomenon of folk psychology for both genders, although the mechanism remains unclear.

  15. The functional neuroanatomy of thematic role and locative relational knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wu, Denise H; Waller, Sara; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2007-09-01

    Lexical-semantic investigations in cognitive neuroscience have focused on conceptual knowledge of concrete objects. By contrast, relational concepts have been largely ignored. We examined thematic role and locative knowledge in 14 left-hemisphere-damage patients. Relational concepts shift cognitive focus away from the object to the relationship between objects, calling into question the relevance of traditional sensory-functional accounts of semantics. If extraction of a relational structure is the critical cognitive process common to both thematic and locative knowledge, then damage to neural structures involved in such an extraction would impair both kinds of knowledge. If the nature of the relationship itself is critical, then functional neuroanatomical dissociations should occur. Using a new lesion analysis method, we found that damage to the lateral temporal cortex produced deficits in thematic role knowledge and damage to inferior fronto-parietal regions produced deficits in locative knowledge. In addition, we found that conceptual knowledge of thematic roles dissociates from its mapping onto language. These relational knowledge deficits were not accounted for by deficits in processing nouns or verbs or by a general deficit in making inferences. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that manners of visual motion serve as a point of entry for thematic role knowledge and networks dedicated to eye gaze, whereas reaching and grasping serve as a point of entry for locative knowledge. Intermediary convergence zones that are topographically guided by these sensory-motor points of entry play a critical role in the semantics of relational concepts.

  16. The relation between television exposure and executive function among preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Amy I; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L; Rasmussen, Eric E; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which children began watching television. Preschoolers' EF was assessed via one-on-one interviews. We found that several indicators of television exposure were significantly related to EF. These findings suggest that EF may be an important construct for continued research on the effects of media on young children.

  17. Reduced Anterior Temporal and Hippocampal Functional Connectivity During Face Processing Discriminates Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder from Healthy Controls and Panic Disorder, and Increases Following Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pantazatos, Spiro P; Talati, Ardesheer; Schneier, Franklin R; Hirsch, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with anomalous brain activation and functional connectivity (FC). However, brain-based features sensitive enough to discriminate individual subjects with a specific anxiety disorder and that track symptom severity longitudinally, desirable qualities for putative disorder-specific biomarkers, remain to be identified. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI during emotional face perceptual tasks and a new, large-scale and condition-dependent FC and machine learning approach were used to identify features (pair-wise correlations) that discriminated patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD, N=16) from controls (N=19). We assessed whether these features discriminated SAD from panic disorder (PD, N=16), and SAD from controls in an independent replication sample that performed a similar task at baseline (N: SAD=15, controls=17) and following 8-weeks paroxetine treatment (N: SAD=12, untreated controls=7). High SAD vs HCs discrimination (area under the ROC curve, AUC, arithmetic mean of sensitivity and specificity) was achieved with two FC features during unattended neutral face perception (AUC=0.88, P<0.05 corrected). These features also discriminated SAD vs PD (AUC=0.82, P=0.0001) and SAD vs HCs in the independent replication sample (FC during unattended angry face perception, AUC=0.71, P=0.01). The most informative FC was left hippocampus-left temporal pole, which was reduced in both SAD samples (replication sample P=0.027), and this FC increased following the treatment (post>pre, t(11)=2.9, P=0.007). In conclusion, SAD is associated with reduced FC between left temporal pole and left hippocampus during face perception, and results suggest promise for emerging FC-based biomarkers for SAD diagnosis and treatment effects. PMID:24084831

  18. Language in young children with neurofibromatosis-1: relations to functional communication, attention, and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Brei, Natalie G; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Schwarz, G Nathanael; Casnar, Christina L

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the language abilities of 30 children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) aged 4-6 years were examined using a standardized measure of language. Relations of language to multiple parental report measures of functional communication, social skills, and attention problems were investigated. Difficulties in core language skills were observed, and more than 1/3 of the children struggled on at least one language index. Language abilities were significantly related to parental report of functional communication, social interaction and communication, and social skills, such that language difficulties may be a risk factor for communication and social interaction challenges and communication-related adaptive behavior in children with NF1. Though receptive language abilities were an area of particular difficulty for many children with NF1, they were not significantly related to parental ratings of social functioning and functional communication. Few significant relations were found between language and parent-reported attention problems, although some trends were noted. Hence attention difficulties in children with NF1 may contribute to, but do not appear to fully account for, language difficulties. In sum, there is an increased risk of language difficulties for young children with NF1, and lab-measured language difficulties appear to relate to everyday communication and social interaction functioning.

  19. Transfer Relations Between Landscape Functions - The Hydrological Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohrer, N.; Lenhart, T.; Eckhardt, K.; Frede, H.-G.

    EC market policies and regional subsidy programs have an enormous impact on local land use. This has far reaching consequences on various landscape functions. In the joint research project SFB299 at the Giessen University the effect of land use options on economic, ecological and hydrological landscape functions are under investigation. The continuous time step model SWAT-G (Eckhardt et al., 2000; Arnold et al., 1998) is employed to characterize the influence of land use patterns on hydrological processes. The model was calibrated and validated employing a split sample approach. For two mesoscale watersheds (Aar, 60 km2; Dietzhölze, 81 km2) located in the Lahn-Dill- Bergland, Germany, different land use scenarios were analyzed with regard to their hydrological impact. Additionally the effect of land use change was analyzed with an ecological and an agro-economic model. The impact of the stepwise changing land use was expressed as trade off relations between different landscape functions.

  20. CHESS: a computer-based system for providing information, referrals, decision support and social support to people facing medical and other health-related crises.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D H; Bosworth, K; Hawkins, R P; Boberg, E W; Bricker, E

    1992-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS will improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has developed programs in five specific topic areas: Academic Crisis, Adult Children of Alcoholics, AIDS/HIV Infection, Breast Cancer and Sexual Assault. The lessons learned, and the structures developed, will serve as a model for future implementation of CHESS programs in a broad range of other topic areas. CHESS is designed around three major desired outcomes: 1) improving the emotional health status of users; 2) increasing the cost-effective use of health and human services; and 3) reducing the incidence of risk-taking behaviors that can lead to injury or illness. Pilot-testing and initial analysis of controlled evaluation data has shown that CHESS is extensively used, is useful and easy-to-use, and produces positive emotional outcomes. Further evaluation in continuing.

  1. Depression-related difficulties disengaging from negative faces are associated with sustained attention to negative feedback during social evaluation and predict stress recovery

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Nuria; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify: 1) the presence of depression-related attention bias related to a social stressor, 2) its association with depression-related attention biases as measured under standard conditions, and 3) their association with impaired stress recovery in depression. A sample of 39 participants reporting a broad range of depression levels completed a standard eye-tracking paradigm in which they had to engage/disengage their gaze with/from emotional faces. Participants then underwent a stress induction (i.e., giving a speech), in which their eye movements to false emotional feedback were measured, and stress reactivity and recovery were assessed. Depression level was associated with longer times to engage/disengage attention with/from negative faces under standard conditions and with sustained attention to negative feedback during the speech. These depression-related biases were associated and mediated the association between depression level and self-reported stress recovery, predicting lower recovery from stress after giving the speech. PMID:28362826

  2. Structure-function relations of carbohydrates by neoglycolipid arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang-Liang; Huang, Hua-Liang; Zhang, Hou-Cheng; Wang, Peng-George

    2006-06-01

    The work presented herein is a new noncovalent glycoarray assembly method for microplates created by simply mixing together a carbohydrate and a tetradecylamine. alpha-D-Mannopyranoside, alpha-D-glucopyranoside, and alpha-D-galactopyranoside were utilized in model studies and product formations were detected by lectin binding. The method can be extended to study the steric hindrance effect of carbohydrate-protein interactions, namely the structure-function relations of carbohydrates.

  3. Too many trees to see the forest: performance, event-related potential, and functional magnetic resonance imaging manifestations of integrative congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Bentin, Shlomo; Degutis, Joseph M; D'Esposito, Mark; Robertson, Lynn C

    2007-01-01

    Neuropsychological, event-related potential (ERP), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods were combined to provide a comprehensive description of performance and neurobiological profiles for K.W., a case of congenital prosopagnosia. We demonstrate that K.W.'s visual perception is characterized by almost unprecedented inability to identify faces, a large bias toward local features, and an extreme deficit in global/configural processing that is not confined to faces. This pattern could be appropriately labeled congenital integrative prosopagnosia, and accounts for some, albeit not all, cases of face recognition impairments without identifiable brain lesions. Absence of face selectivity is evident in both biological markers of face processing, fMRI (the fusiform face area [FFA]), and ERPs (N170). Nevertheless, these two neural signatures probably manifest different perceptual mechanisms. Whereas the N170 is triggered by the occurrence of physiognomic stimuli in the visual field, the deficient face-selective fMRI activation in the caudal brain correlates with the severity of global processing deficits. This correlation suggests that the FFA might be associated with global/configural computation, a crucial part of face identification.

  4. Leaf dry matter content predicts herbivore productivity, but its functional diversity is positively related to resilience in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Pakeman, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses whether the ecosystem service of animal production from grasslands depends upon plant functional identity, plant functional diversity or if the resilience of production is a function of this diversity. Using the results of nine grazing experiments the paper shows that productivity is highly dependent on one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content, as well as rainfall. Animal (secondary) productivity is not dependent on plant functional diversity, but the variability in productivity of grasslands is related to the functional diversity of leaf dry matter content. This and a range of independent studies have shown that functional diversity is reduced at high levels of grassland productivity, so it appears that there is a trade-off between productivity and the resilience of productivity in the face of environmental variation.

  5. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  6. Face Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadash, Dre Ann

    1984-01-01

    Eighth graders made prints of their own faces, using photographic papers and chemicals. Describes the supplies needed and the printing process involved. Because junior high school students are so concerned with self, this was a very meaningful activity for them. (CS)

  7. Uncovering Factors Related to Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Aoife M.; Ryan, Miriam F.; Drummond, Elaine; Gibney, Eileen R.; Gibney, Michael J.; Roche, Helen M.; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Aim The incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly on a global scale. Beta-cell dysfunction contributes to the overall pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, factors contributing to beta-cell function are not clear. The aims of this study were (i) to identify factors related to pancreatic beta-cell function and (ii) to perform mechanistic studies in vitro. Methods Three specific measures of beta-cell function were assessed for 110 participants who completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of the Metabolic Challenge Study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed as potential modulators of beta-cell function. Subsequent in vitro experiments were performed using the BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta-cell line. Validation of findings were performed in a second human cohort. Results Waist-to-hip ratio was the strongest anthropometric modulator of beta-cell function, with beta-coefficients of -0.33 (p = 0.001) and -0.30 (p = 0.002) for beta-cell function/homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and disposition index respectively. Additionally, the resistin-to-adiponectin ratio (RA index) emerged as being strongly associated with beta-cell function, with beta-coefficients of -0.24 (p = 0.038) and -0.25 (p = 0.028) for beta-cell function/HOMA-IR, and disposition index respectively. Similar results were obtained using a third measure for beta-cell function. In vitro experiments revealed that the RA index was a potent regulator of acute insulin secretion where a high RA index (20ng ml-1 resistin, 5nmol l-1 g-adiponectin) significantly decreased insulin secretion whereas a low RA index (10ng ml-1 resistin, 10nmol l-1 g-adiponectin) significantly increased insulin secretion. The RA index was successfully validated in a second human cohort with beta-coefficients of -0.40 (p = 0.006) and -0.38 (p = 0.008) for beta-cell function/ HOMA-IR, and disposition index respectively. Conclusions Waist-to-hip ratio and RA index were identified

  8. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  9. Thyroid function and aging: gender-related differences.

    PubMed

    da Costa, V M; Moreira, D G; Rosenthal, D

    2001-10-01

    The effects of aging on human or animal thyroid function are still not well defined. We evaluated some aspects of thyroid function during aging using an animal model (young and old Dutch-Miranda rats). In old rats of both genders, serum thyroxine (T4) decreased but serum thyrotrophin (TSH) remained unaltered, suggesting a disturbance in the pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism during aging. Serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) only decreased in old males, possibly because female rats are almost twice as efficient in hepatic T4 to T3 deiodination. Thyroidal T4-5'-deiodinase activity did not change much during aging, although it decreased slightly in males. Thyroidal iodothyronine-deiodinase type I mRNA expression but not total thyroidal enzymatic activity were higher in female than in male rats. Thus, ovarian/testicular hormones may modulate the expression and/or the activity of hepatic and thyroidal type I iodothyronine-deiodinase. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) expression were higher in young male rats than in females. In males, TPO and Tg gene expression decreased with aging, suggesting that androgens might increase their expression. Our results showed that aging induces real changes in rat thyroid gland function and regulation, affecting at least pituitary, thyroid and liver functions. Furthermore, some of these changes were gender related, indicating that gonadal hormones may modulate thyroid gland function and regulation.

  10. Functional crossover in the dispersion relations of magnons and phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoser, A.; Köbler, U.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental data are presented showing that the dispersion relations of magnons and acoustic phonons can consist of two sections with different functions of wave vector. In the low wave vector range a power function of wave vector often holds over a finite q-range while dispersions for larger wave vector values better approach the atomistic model predictions. In the magnon spectra ∼⃒qx power functions with exponents x=1.25, 1.5 and 2 are identified. The dispersion of the acoustic phonons can be a linear function of wave vector over a surprisingly large range of energy. Since the slope of the linear section agrees with the known sound velocities it can be concluded that the dispersion of the acoustic phonons has got attracted by the linear dispersion of the mass less Debye bosons (sound waves). Due to the different (translational) symmetries of bosons and atomistic excitations (magnons, phonons) the associated dispersions can attract each other. In the same way the different ∼⃒qx power functions in the magnon dispersions indicate that magnon dispersions are attracted by the dispersion of the bosons of the magnetic continuum (Goldstone bosons). This allows evaluation of the otherwise difficult to obtain dispersions of the Goldstone bosons from the known magnon dispersions. Interestingly, the dispersions of Goldstone bosons (Debye bosons) attract magnon dispersions (phonon dispersions) and not vice versa.

  11. Low dimensional representation of face space by face-selective inferior temporal neurons.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Sina; Dehaqani, Mohammad-Reza A; Esteky, Hossein

    2017-03-07

    Representation of visual objects in primate brain is distributed and multiple neurons are involved in encoding each object. One way to understand the neural basis of object representation is to estimate the number of neural dimensions that are needed for veridical representation of object categories. In this study, the characteristics of the match between physical-shape and neural representational spaces in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex have been evaluated. Specifically, we examined how the number of neural dimensions, stimulus behavioral saliency and stimulus category selectivity of neurons affect the correlation between shape and neural representational spaces in IT cortex. Single unit recordings from monkey IT revealed that there was a significant match between face space and its neural representation at lower neural dimensions while the optimal match for the non-face objects was observed at higher neural dimensions. There was a statistically significant match between the face and neural spaces only in the face selective neurons while a significant match was observed for non-face objects in all neurons regardless of their category selectivity. Interestingly, the face neurons showed higher match for the non-face objects than for the faces at higher neural dimensions. The optimal representation of face space in the responses of the face neurons was a low dimensional map that emerged early (~ 150ms post stimulus onset) and was followed by a high dimensional and relatively late (~300ms) map for the non-face stimuli. These results support a multiplexing function for the face neurons in the representation of highly similar shape spaces, but with different dimensionality and timing scales. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  13. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  14. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Geier, S A; Perro, C; Klauss, V; Naber, D; Kronawitter, U; Bogner, J R; Goebel, F D; Lund, O E; Hippius, H

    1993-03-01

    Ocular microangiopathic syndrome is found frequently in patients with AIDS or severe HIV infection. Symptoms of this microvascular syndrome can include cotton-wool spots, hemorrhages, and Roth's spots. The clinical and functional significance of HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome has not been clarified as yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible association between HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and cognitive functioning. Thirty-seven patients infected with HIV (24 with AIDS) underwent ophthalmological and neuropsychological examination. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome was measured by counting the number of cotton-wool spots in both eyes. Neuropsychological examination included five standardized tests, with the first three primarily measuring function of short-term memory; these tests were as follows: the Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, the Benton Test, the Stroop Colour Word Test, the Trail-Making Part B test, and the Vocabulary for Measuring Premorbid Intelligence test. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome was found in 15 patients with AIDS (62.5%), and in one patient, staged Walter Reed 5. In 10 patients, one eye was affected (mean count of cotton-wool spots 1.5). In six patients, both eyes were affected (mean count of cotton-wool spots 7.0). Univariate correlations between the number of cotton-wool spots in both eyes and test scores were as follows: Auditory-Verbal Learning Test: 0.56 (p < 0.001); Benton Test: 0.51 (p < 0.001); Stroop Colour and Word: 0.50 (p < 0.001); Trail-Making Part B: 0.15 (not significant); Vocabulary for Measuring Premorbid Intelligence: -0.05 (not significant). Multiple correlation between the test scores and the number of cotton-wool spots was 0.70 (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. [Sleep and autonomic function: sleep related breathing disorders in Parkinson's disease and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    In patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD), including obstructive and central sleep apnea, vocal cord abductor paralysis and dysrhythmic breathing pattern, are frequently observed. SRBD may have a considerable impact on variation of autonomic nervous activity during sleep. The previous studies correlated upper airway muscle dysfunction related parkinsonism with increased prevalence of SRBD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, recently, the clinical significance of SRBD and its impact on sleepiness and disease severity have been debated. In this review, we discuss sleep and autonomic function, especially, SRBD in PD and related disorders, including the previous studies from our department.

  16. Executive functioning, irritability, and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Godlaski, Aaron J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and (b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior.

  17. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature. PMID:24116236

  18. Transcription of functionally related constitutive genes is not coordinated.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Saumil J; Zenklusen, Daniel; Lionnet, Timothée; Singer, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    Expression of an individual gene can vary considerably among genetically identical cells because of stochastic fluctuations in transcription. However, proteins comprising essential complexes or pathways have similar abundances and lower variability. It is not known whether coordination in the expression of subunits of essential complexes occurs at the level of transcription, mRNA abundance or protein expression. To directly measure the level of coordination in the expression of genes, we used highly sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to count individual mRNAs of functionally related and unrelated genes within single Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Our results revealed that transcript levels of temporally induced genes are highly correlated in individual cells. In contrast, transcription of constitutive genes encoding essential subunits of complexes is not coordinated because of stochastic fluctuations. The coordination of these functional complexes therefore must occur post-transcriptionally, and likely post-translationally.

  19. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  20. Morphogenesis and morphology of HIV. Structure-function relations.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, H R; Ozel, M; Pauli, G

    1989-01-01

    Fine structure and antigenic make-up analysis of HIV were combined in a 2D model, from which functional aspects can be deduced. On the envelope 72 probably trimeric surface knobs (gp120) are connected to the virion via the transmembrane protein gp41. Gp120 is shed during ageing of the virion, but host cell antigens stay firmly anchored to the envelope. Underneath the envelope, p17 forms the matrix protein layer, while the capsid of the double cone shaped core is built up of p24. The relation between biochemical findings and morphogenesis and maturation of HIV as well as aspects of pathogenesis and vaccination are discussed.

  1. Are there approximate relations among transverse momentum dependent distribution functions?

    SciTech Connect

    Harutyun AVAKIAN; Anatoli Efremov; Klaus Goeke; Andreas Metz; Peter Schweitzer; Tobias Teckentrup

    2007-10-11

    Certain {\\sl exact} relations among transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions due to QCD equations of motion turn into {\\sl approximate} ones upon the neglect of pure twist-3 terms. On the basis of available data from HERMES we test the practical usefulness of one such ``Wandzura-Wilczek-type approximation'', namely of that connecting $h_{1L}^{\\perp(1)a}(x)$ to $h_L^a(x)$, and discuss how it can be further tested by future CLAS and COMPASS data.

  2. Novel Shank3 mutant exhibits behaviors with face validity for autism and altered striatal and hippocampal function.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Escamilla, Christine Ochoa; Weaver, Travis P; Liu, Shunan; Filonova, Irina; Powell, Craig M

    2017-01-01

    Mutations/deletions in the SHANK3 gene are associated with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. Here, we present electrophysiological and behavioral consequences in novel heterozygous and homozygous mice with a transcriptional stop cassette inserted upstream of the PDZ domain-coding exons in Shank3 (Shank3(E13) ). Insertion of a transcriptional stop cassette prior to exon 13 leads to loss of the two higher molecular weight isoforms of Shank3. Behaviorally, both Shank3(E13) heterozygous (HET) and homozygous knockout (KO) mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in social interaction tasks, and decreased rearing. Shank3(E13) KO mice also display deficits in spatial memory in the Morris water maze task. Baseline hippocampal synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity are preserved in Shank3(E13) HET and KO mice, while both HET and KO mice exhibit impaired hippocampal long-term plasticity. Additionally, Shank3(E13) HET and KO mice display impaired striatal glutamatergic synaptic transmission. These results demonstrate for the first time in this novel Shank3 mutant that both homozygous and heterozygous mutation of Shank3 lead to behavioral abnormalities with face validity for autism along with widespread synaptic dysfunction. Autism Res 2017, 10: 42-65. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Functional morphology and sexual dimorphism of mouthparts of the short-faced scorpionfly Panorpodes kuandianensis (Mecoptera: Panorpodidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Na; Huang, Jing; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-01-01

    Mouthparts are closely associated with the feeding behavior and feeding habits of insects. The features of mouthparts frequently provide important traits for evolutionary biologists and systematists. The short-faced scorpionflies (Panorpodidae) are distinctly different from other families of Mecoptera by their extremely short rostrum. However, their feeding habits are largely unknown so far. In this study, the mouthpart morphology of Panorpodes kuandianensis Zhong et al., 2011 was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and histological techniques. The mandibulate mouthparts are situated at the tip of the short rostrum. The clypeus and labrum are short and lack distinct demarcation between them. The epipharynx is furnished with sublateral and median sensilla patches. The blade-shaped mandibles are sclerotized and symmetrical, bearing apical teeth and serrate inner margins. The maxilla and labium retain the structures of the typical pattern of biting insects. The hirsute galea, triangular pyramid-shaped lacinia, and labial palps are described in detail at ultrastructural level for the first time. Abundant sensilla are distributed on the surface of maxillary and labial palps. The sexual dimorphism of mouthparts is found in Panorpodes for the first time, mainly exhibiting on the emargination of the labrum and apical teeth of mandibles. Based on the features of mouthparts, the potential feeding strategy and feeding mechanism are briefly discussed in Panorpodes.

  4. Inference of Functional Relations in Predicted Protein Networks with a Machine Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ezkurdia, Iakes; Andrés-León, Eduardo; Valencia, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular biology is currently facing the challenging task of functionally characterizing the proteome. The large number of possible protein-protein interactions and complexes, the variety of environmental conditions and cellular states in which these interactions can be reorganized, and the multiple ways in which a protein can influence the function of others, requires the development of experimental and computational approaches to analyze and predict functional associations between proteins as part of their activity in the interactome. Methodology/Principal Findings We have studied the possibility of constructing a classifier in order to combine the output of the several protein interaction prediction methods. The AODE (Averaged One-Dependence Estimators) machine learning algorithm is a suitable choice in this case and it provides better results than the individual prediction methods, and it has better performances than other tested alternative methods in this experimental set up. To illustrate the potential use of this new AODE-based Predictor of Protein InterActions (APPIA), when analyzing high-throughput experimental data, we show how it helps to filter the results of published High-Throughput proteomic studies, ranking in a significant way functionally related pairs. Availability: All the predictions of the individual methods and of the combined APPIA predictor, together with the used datasets of functional associations are available at http://ecid.bioinfo.cnio.es/. Conclusions We propose a strategy that integrates the main current computational techniques used to predict functional associations into a unified classifier system, specifically focusing on the evaluation of poorly characterized protein pairs. We selected the AODE classifier as the appropriate tool to perform this task. AODE is particularly useful to extract valuable information from large unbalanced and heterogeneous data sets. The combination of the information provided by five

  5. Equivalent activation of the hippocampus by face-face and face-laugh paired associate learning and recognition.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, J S; Crane, J; Bachorowski, J-A; Milner, B

    2010-11-01

    The human hippocampus is known to play an important role in relational memory. Both patient lesion studies and functional-imaging studies have shown that it is involved in the encoding and retrieval from memory of arbitrary associations. Two recent patient lesion studies, however, have found dissociations between spared and impaired memory within the domain of relational memory. Recognition of associations between information of the same kind (e.g., two faces) was spared, whereas recognition of associations between information of different kinds (e.g., face-name or face-voice associations) was impaired by hippocampal lesions. Thus, recognition of associations between information of the same kind may not be mediated by the hippocampus. Few imaging studies have directly compared activation at encoding and recognition of associations between same and different types of information. Those that have have shown mixed findings and been open to alternative interpretation. We used fMRI to compare hippocampal activation while participants studied and later recognized face-face and face-laugh paired associates. We found no differences in hippocampal activation between our two types of stimulus materials during either study or recognition. Study of both types of paired associate activated the hippocampus bilaterally, but the hippocampus was not activated by either condition during recognition. Our findings suggest that the human hippocampus is normally engaged to a similar extent by study and recognition of associations between information of the same kind and associations between information of different kinds.

  6. Head-related transfer function database and its analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bosun; Zhong, Xiaoli; Rao, Dan; Liang, Zhiqiang

    2007-06-01

    Based on the measurements from 52 Chinese subjects (26 males and 26 females), a high-spatial-resolution head-related transfer function (HRTF) database with corresponding anthropometric parameters is established. By using the database, cues relating to sound source localization, including interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), and spectral features introduced by pinna, are analyzed. Moreover, the statistical relationship between ITD and anthropometric parameters is estimated. It is proved that the mean values of maximum ITD for male and female are significantly different, so are those for Chinese and western subjects. The difference in ITD is due to the difference in individual anthropometric parameters. It is further proved that the spectral features introduced by pinna strongly depend on individual; while at high frequencies (f ⩾ 5.5 kHz), HRTFs are left-right asymmetric. This work is instructive and helpful for the research on binaural hearing and applications on virtual auditory in future.

  7. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed.

  8. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Kristian; Arter, Calvin A.; Thonhauser, T.; Cooper, Valentino R.; Lee, Kyuho; Lundqvist, Bengt I.; Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per

    2014-05-14

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those ground-state properties that can be described by density functional theory. One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B 89, 035412 (2014)] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO{sub 3}, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks, the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromatic-molecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general-purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  9. van der Waals density functionals built upon the electron-gas tradition: Facing the challenge of competing interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Kristian; Arter, Calvin A; Cooper, Valentino R; Lee, Dr. Kyuho; Lundqvist, Prof. Bengt I.; Schroder, Prof. Elsebeth; Thonhauser, Prof. Timo; Hyldgaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical description of sparse matter attracts much interest, in particular for those groundstate properties that can be described by density functional theory (DFT). One proposed approach, the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method, rests on strong physical foundations and offers simple yet accurate and robust functionals. A very recent functional within this method called vdW-DF-cx [K. Berland and P. Hyldgaard, Phys. Rev. B, in print] stands out in its attempt to use an exchange energy derived from the same plasmon-based theory from which the nonlocal correlation energy was derived. Encouraged by its good performance for solids, layered materials, and aromatic molecules, we apply it to several systems that are characterized by competing interactions. These include the ferroelectric response in PbTiO3, the adsorption of small molecules within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), the graphite/diamond phase transition, and the adsorption of an aromaticmolecule on the Ag(111) surface. Our results indicate that vdW-DF-cx is overall well suited to tackle these challenging systems. In addition to being a competitive density functional for sparse matter, the vdW-DF-cx construction presents a more robust general purpose functional that could be applied to a range of materials problems with a variety of competing interactions.

  10. Neurofunctional Signature of Hyperfamiliarity for Unknown Faces

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Elisa; D’Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Coriasco, Mario; Ferrio, Federica; Celeghin, Alessia; Diano, Matteo; Rubino, Elisa; de Gelder, Beatrice; Rainero, Innocenzo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Tamietto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces is a rare selective disorder that consists of the disturbing and abnormal feeling of familiarity for unknown faces, while recognition of known faces is normal. In one such patient we investigated with a multimodal neuroimaging design the hitherto undescribed neural signature associated with hyperfamiliarity feelings. Behaviorally, signal detection methods revealed that the patient’s discrimination sensitivity between familiar and unfamiliar faces was significantly lower than that of matched controls, and her response criterion for familiarity decisions was significantly more liberal. At the neural level, while morphometric analysis and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) showed the atrophy and hypofunctioning of the left temporal regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that hyperfamiliarity feelings were selectively associated to enhanced activity in the right medial and inferior temporal cortices. We therefore characterize the neurofunctional signature of hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces as related to the loss of coordinated activity between the complementary face processing functions of the left and right temporal lobes. PMID:26154253

  11. Bayesian face recognition and perceptual narrowing in face-space.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to 'perceptual narrowing', the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in developing humans and primates. Though the phenomenon is highly robust and replicable, there have been few efforts to model the emergence of perceptual narrowing as a function of the accumulation of experience with faces during infancy. The goal of the current study is to examine how perceptual narrowing might manifest as statistical estimation in 'face-space', a geometric framework for describing face recognition that has been successfully applied to adult face perception. Here, I use a computer vision algorithm for Bayesian face recognition to study how the acquisition of experience in face-space and the presence of race categories affect performance for own and other-race faces. Perceptual narrowing follows from the establishment of distinct race categories, suggesting that the acquisition of category boundaries for race is a key computational mechanism in developing face expertise.

  12. Relative scaling of mode shapes using transmissibility functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijtjens, Wout; De Sitter, Gert; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) is the collective term for different techniques that estimate the modal parameters of a linear structure using only the structural responses to unknown excitations. Therefore, OMA is the preferred approach when operational forces are hard to measure, when operational conditions are hard to replicate in a controlled environment or when an experimental modal analysis (EMA) is too time-consuming. However, OMA does not allow us to determine the relative contribution of each mode, i.e. the mode shapes found with OMA are unscaled. This paper introduces a novel approach to estimate the relative contributions of all modes within a given bandwidth and to reconstruct frequency response functions (FRF) that are proportional to the true FRFs of the system. This novel technique requires only response data and a general knowledge of the input locations of the dominant forces acting on the system. It is shown that even when only a limited number of input locations are known the proposed method can still be used by considering multiple loading conditions. Finally, since the technique is based on transmissibility functions, there are no necessary assumptions considering the spectral content of the excitations. Several numerical examples illustrate the claimed properties and are used to quantify the influence of measurement and ambient noise.

  13. Heterogeneity of hemiboreal forests in relation to ecosystems functioning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Dmitrii; Noe, Steffen M.; Krasnova, Alisa; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneity is one of the key components of sustainable development of every living system. It provides the source for restocking of ecosystem living components, irregular distribution of nutrients and habitats. Main components of forest horizontal heterogeneity are related with horizontal distribution of dominant species, soil properties, topography and as natural as human disturbances. Soil as the main source for nutrients supply plays essential role in functioning terrestrial ecosystems. The understanding of spatial distribution principles of such soil properties as soil acidity, nutrients available for living organisms, soil moisture and temperature, soil density and the role of tree dominant and co-dominant species can give deeper knowledge about ecosystem functioning. Models based on this knowledge can be more precise and give possibilities to predict more exactly the behavior of ecosystem in terms of global climate changing. The aim of the project is to assess spatial distribution and changes in soil properties related to spatial distribution of vegetation, microtopography and landscape position. For this purpose we used 3D modelling of sample plots and soil profiles using photogrammetry. PhotoModelerScanner software from EOS System Inc. was used to create 3D models from photogrammetric images and GIS technology was used for soil mapping. The project was done in the frame of SMEAR Estonia.

  14. Research on relation between cortical functional section and acupuncture point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuwang; Li, Chunhua; Liang, Guozhuang; Wang, Shuhai

    2008-02-01

    The application of the infrared imaging using in the brain cognition and the acupuncture is introduced. Acupuncturing a certain point of the healthy experimental cats, observing the responds of the cerebral cortical temperature by using of infrared imaging, and researching the corresponding relation between the acupuncture points with the active sections of the cerebral cortex, so the effect of the acupuncture is obtained. The theory of the refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick is approved. The method of the "refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick" can promote the metabolize renovation, improve the living function and increase the healing rate. However, the relations between the points and the cortical functional sections have not the last word still. After removing the skulls on the head, full of the cerebral cortex of a cat are exposed. Observing the infrared imaging and measuring the temperatures of the visual cerebral cortex during the process of acupuncturing the points to judge the activation position. During the process of acupuncture, the trend of the rising temperature on cerebral cortex is primary in terms of the phenomena in the infrared pictures. The cortical hemogram variety is measured in terms of the infrared pictures and the temperature values, so the characteristic curve of the temperature for a corresponding position on the cerebral cortex and the acupuncture point can be obtained. When the acupuncture point is changed, the position where temperature varied on cerebral cortex is different correspondingly. The variety in the cortical functional sections is corresponding to the result of the acupuncture point in terms of the imaging and the temperatures. The experimental results accord with the theoretic model, so they validate the correctness of the "refreshment and induce resuscitation pinprick". According to the experimental results, we know that the variety of a cortical functional section is corresponding to a special acupuncture

  15. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  16. Velocity analysis with local event slopes related probability density function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lu, Wenkai; Zhang, Yingqiang

    2015-12-01

    Macro velocity model plays a key role in seismic imaging and inversion. The performance of traditional velocity analysis methods is degraded by multiples and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) anomalies. Local event slopes, containing the subsurface velocity information, have been widely used to accomplish common time-domain seismic processing, imaging and velocity estimation. In this paper, we propose a method for velocity analysis with probability density function (PDF) related to local event slopes. We first estimate local event slopes with phase information in the Fourier domain. An adaptive filter is applied to improve the performance of slopes estimator in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situation. Second, the PDF is approximated with the histogram function, which is related to attributes derived from local event slopes. As a graphical representation of the data distribution, the histogram function can be computed efficiently. By locating the ray path of the first arrival on the semblance image with straight-ray segments assumption, automatic velocity picking is carried out to establish velocity model. Unlike local event slopes based velocity estimation strategies such as averaging filters and image warping, the proposed method does not make the assumption that the errors of mapped velocity values are symmetrically distributed or that the variation of amplitude along the offset is slight. Extension of the method to prestack time-domain migration velocity estimation is also given. With synthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that our method can achieve high resolution, even in the presence of multiples, strong amplitude variations and polarity reversals.

  17. Development of Neural Sensitivity to Face Identity Correlates with Perceptual Discriminability.

    PubMed

    Natu, Vaidehi S; Barnett, Michael A; Hartley, Jake; Gomez, Jesse; Stigliani, Anthony; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2016-10-19

    Face perception is subserved by a series of face-selective regions in the human ventral stream, which undergo prolonged development from childhood to adulthood. However, it is unknown how neural development of these regions relates to the development of face-perception abilities. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain responses of ventral occipitotemporal regions in children (ages, 5-12 years) and adults (ages, 19-34 years) when they viewed faces that parametrically varied in dissimilarity. Since similar faces generate lower responses than dissimilar faces due to fMRI adaptation, this design objectively evaluates neural sensitivity to face identity across development. Additionally, a subset of subjects participated in a behavioral experiment to assess perceptual discriminability of face identity. Our data reveal three main findings: (1) neural sensitivity to face identity increases with age in face-selective but not object-selective regions; (2) the amplitude of responses to faces increases with age in both face-selective and object-selective regions; and (3) perceptual discriminability of face identity is correlated with the neural sensitivity to face identity of face-selective regions. In contrast, perceptual discriminability is not correlated with the amplitude of response in face-selective regions or of responses of object-selective regions. These data suggest that developmental increases in neural sensitivity to face identity in face-selective regions improve perceptual discriminability of faces. Our findings significantly advance the understanding of the neural mechanisms of development of face perception and open new avenues for using fMRI adaptation to study the neural development of high-level visual and cognitive functions more broadly.

  18. Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, An-Chi; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chung, Wen-Hung; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2014-01-01

    Although minoxidil has been used for more than two decades to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA), an androgen-androgen receptor (AR) pathway-dominant disease, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that minoxidil may influence the AR or its downstream signaling. These tests revealed that minoxidil suppressed AR-related functions, decreasing AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays, reducing expression of AR targets at the protein level, and suppressing AR-positive LNCaP cell growth. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms, we found that minoxidil interfered with AR-peptide, AR-coregulator, and AR N/C-terminal interactions, as well as AR protein stability. Furthermore, a crystallographic analysis using the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) revealed direct binding of minoxidil to the AR in a minoxidil-AR-LBD co-crystal model, and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that minoxidil directly bound the AR with a Kd value of 2.6 μM. Minoxidil also suppressed AR-responsive reporter activity and decreased AR protein stability in human hair dermal papilla cells. The current findings provide evidence that minoxidil could be used to treat both cancer and age-related disease, and open a new avenue for applications of minoxidil in treating androgen-AR pathway-related diseases. PMID:24742982

  19. Relative Source Time Function Studies of Earthquakes in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C. R.; Doser, D.

    2008-12-01

    We are using the Relative Source Time Function (RSTF) method to determine the source properties of earthquakes within southeastern Alaska, a region extending from the Queen Charlotte Islands to Yakutat Bay. In our approach we deconvolve the spectral quotient of the P-arrival of a small event from that of a larger event. The arrivals are selected using a tapered cosine window, then we use a water level technique to stabilize the quotient in the frequency domain, and we apply a bandpass or highcut filter before inverse transforming our result. Our first goal is to compare the source processes of earthquakes along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system to those occurring off these major plate bounding faults to determine if there are differences in stress drop and source duration between these regions. Secondly, we hope to determine if observed differences in source processes of events along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system may be related to the location of the events relative to known fault asperities and segment boundaries. We have identified about twenty events occurring between 1995 and 2008 distributed throughout the study area. In addition, we have digitized and analyzed seismograms of older events occurring in July 1973 located in the Cross Sound area.

  20. Functional significance of the emotion-related late positive potential

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen B. R. E.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Band, Guido P. H.; de Rover, Mischa; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential (ERP) component over visual cortical areas that is modulated by the emotional intensity of a stimulus. However, the functional significance of this neural modulation remains elusive. We conducted two experiments in which we studied the relation between LPP amplitude, subsequent perceptual sensitivity to a non-emotional stimulus (Experiment 1) and visual cortical excitability, as reflected by P1/N1 components evoked by this stimulus (Experiment 2). During the LPP modulation elicited by unpleasant stimuli, perceptual sensitivity was not affected. In contrast, we found some evidence for a decreased N1 amplitude during the LPP modulation, a decreased P1 amplitude on trials with a relatively large LPP, and consistent negative (but non-significant) across-subject correlations between the magnitudes of the LPP modulation and corresponding changes in d-prime or P1/N1 amplitude. The results provide preliminary evidence that the LPP reflects a global inhibition of activity in visual cortex, resulting in the selective survival of activity associated with the processing of the emotional stimulus. PMID:22375117

  1. Interference between face and non-face domains of perceptual expertise: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    As car expertise increases, so does interference between the visual processing of faces and that of cars; this suggests performance trade-offs across domains of real-world expertise. Such interference between expert domains has been previously revealed in a relatively complex design, interleaving 2-back part-judgment task with faces and cars (Gauthier et al., 2003). However, the basis of this interference is unclear. Experiment 1A replicated the finding of interference between faces and cars, as a function of car expertise. Experiments 1B and 2 investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect by (1) providing baseline measures of performance and (2) assessing the specificity of this interference effect. Our findings support the presence of expertise-dependent interference between face and non-face domains of expertise. However, surprisingly, it is in the condition where faces are processed among cars with a disrupted configuration where expertise has a greater influence on faces. This finding highlights how expertise-related processing changes also occur for transformed objects of expertise and that such changes can also drive interference across domains of expertise.

  2. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  3. How adaptable is the hydraulic system of European beech in the face of climate change-related precipitation reduction?

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Knutzen, Florian; Delzon, Sylvain; Jansen, Steven; Müller-Haubold, Hilmar; Burlett, Régis; Clough, Yann; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming will increase the drought exposure of many forests world-wide. It is not well understood how trees adapt their hydraulic architecture to a long-term decrease in water availability. We examined 23 traits characterizing the hydraulic architecture and growth rate of branches and the dependent foliage of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees along a precipitation gradient (855-594 mm yr(-1) ) on uniform soil. A main goal was to identify traits that are associated with xylem efficiency, safety and growth. Our data demonstrate for the first time a linear increase in embolism resistance with climatic aridity (by 10%) across populations within a species. Simultaneously, vessel diameter declined by 7% and pit membrane thickness (Tm ) increased by 15%. Although specific conductivity did not change, leaf-specific conductivity declined by 40% with decreasing precipitation. Of eight plant traits commonly associated with embolism resistance, only vessel density in combination with pathway redundancy and Tm were related. We did not confirm the widely assumed trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency but obtained evidence in support of a positive relationship between hydraulic efficiency and growth. We conclude that the branch hydraulic system of beech has a distinct adaptive potential to respond to a precipitation reduction as a result of the environmental control of embolism resistance.

  4. Relating Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity among Denitrifiers and Quantifying their Capacity to Predict Community Functioning.

    PubMed

    Salles, Joana Falcão; Le Roux, Xavier; Poly, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity of phylogenetic or functional markers is widely used as a proxy of microbial diversity. However, it remains unclear to what extent functional diversity (FD), gene sequence diversity and community functioning are linked. For a range of denitrifying bacteria, we analyzed the relationships between (i) the similarity of functional traits evaluated from metabolic profiles (BIOLOG plates) or from N(2)O accumulation patterns on different carbon sources and (ii) the similarity of phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene) or functional (nir gene) markers. We also calculated different proxies for the diversity of denitrifier community based on taxa richness, phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene) or functional similarities (based either on metabolic profiles or N(2)O accumulation patterns), and evaluated their performance in inferring the functioning of assembled denitrifying communities. For individual strains, the variation in the 16S rRNA gene sequence was weakly correlated with the variation in metabolic patterns (ρ = 0.35) and was not related to N(2)O accumulation. The latter was correlated with the similarity of nitrite reductase residues. When nir genes were analyzed separately, the similarity in amino acids coded by the nirS genes was highly correlated with the observed patterns of N(2)O accumulation (ρ = 0.62), whereas nirK amino acid residues were unrelated to N(2)O accumulation. For bacterial assemblages, phylogenetic diversity (average similarity among species in a community) and mean community dissimilarity (average distance between species) calculated using 16S rRNA gene sequences, and FD measures associated with metabolic profiles, poorly predicted the variation in the functioning of assembled communities (≤15%). In contrast, the proxies of FD based on N(2)O accumulation patterns performed better and explained from 23 to 42% of the variation in denitrification. Amongst those, community niche was the best metric, indicating the importance of

  5. Condylar fractures treatment in children and youths: influence on function and face development (a five year retrospective analysis).

    PubMed

    Defabianis, P

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate relationship between consequences of TMJ fractures in children and disturbed facial skeleton growth, 46 children (18 girls, 28 boys), who were 14 years of age or younger and had undergone combined clinical and radiolographic examination for five years were retrospectively analyzed. Imaging studies were performed to investigate symptoms that included, either individually or in various combinations, pain, mechanical TMJ disfunction and facial skeleton abnormalities. The children were divided into two groups: those belonging to the former had been treated by functional orthopedic method alone, while the others had just been treated by physiotherapy. Both TMJs were normal in the patients treated functionally and they all showed normal facial structure, while different types of alterations (ranging from inflammatory to mechanical and structural ones) were observed in the others. We concluded that therapeutic procedures adopted after TMJ fractures in children are essential in minimizing consequences on occlusion and facial development.

  6. Functional Mechanisms of Treg in the Context of HIV Infection and the Janus Face of Immune Suppression.

    PubMed

    López-Abente, Jacobo; Correa-Rocha, Rafael; Pion, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in infections, by modulating host immune responses and avoiding the overreactive immunity that in the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to a marked erosion and deregulation of the entire immune system. Therefore, the suppressive function of Treg in HIV-infected patients is critical because of their implication on preventing the immune hyperactivation, even though it could also have a detrimental effect by suppressing HIV-specific immune responses. In recent years, several studies have shown that HIV-1 can directly infect Treg, disturbing their phenotype and suppressive capacity via different mechanisms. These effects include Foxp3 and CD25 downregulation, and the impairment of suppressive capacity. This review describes the functional mechanisms of Treg to modulate immune activation during HIV infection, and how such control is no longer fine-tune orchestrated once Treg itself get infected. We will review the current knowledge about the HIV effects on the Treg cytokine expression, on pathways implying the participation of different ectoenzymes (i.e., CD39/CD73 axis), transcription factors (ICER), and lastly on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), one of the keystones in Treg-suppressive function. To define which are the HIV effects upon these regulatory mechanisms is crucial not only for the comprehension of immune deregulation in HIV-infected patients but also for the correct understanding of the role of Tregs in HIV infection.

  7. Beyond the core face-processing network: Intracerebral stimulation of a face-selective area in the right anterior fusiform gyrus elicits transient prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Rossion, Bruno; Brissart, Hélène; Frismand, Solène; Jacques, Corentin; Hossu, Gabriela; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Vespignani, Hervé; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2015-11-01

    According to neuropsychological evidence, a distributed network of regions of the ventral visual pathway - from the lateral occipital cortex to the temporal pole - supports face recognition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have generally confined ventral face-selective areas to the posterior section of the occipito-temporal cortex, i.e., the inferior occipital gyrus occipital face area (OFA) and the posterior and middle fusiform gyrus fusiform face area (FFA). There is recent evidence that intracranial electrical stimulation of these areas in the right hemisphere elicits face matching and recognition impairments (i.e., prosopagnosia) as well as perceptual face distortions. Here we report a case of transient inability to recognize faces following electrical stimulation of the right anterior fusiform gyrus, in a region located anteriorly to the FFA. There was no perceptual face distortion reported during stimulation. Although no fMRI face-selective responses were found in this region due to a severe signal drop-out as in previous studies, intracerebral face-selective event-related potentials and gamma range electrophysiological responses were found at the critical site of stimulation. These results point to a causal role in face recognition of the right anterior fusiform gyrus and more generally of face-selective areas located beyond the "core" face-processing network in the right ventral temporal cortex. It also illustrates the diagnostic value of intracerebral electrophysiological recordings and stimulation in understanding the neural basis of face recognition and visual recognition in general.

  8. Primary function analysis of human mental retardation related gene CRBN.

    PubMed

    Xin, Wang; Xiaohua, Ni; Peilin, Chen; Xin, Chen; Yaqiong, Sun; Qihan, Wu

    2008-06-01

    The mutation of human cereblon gene (CRBN) is revealed to be related with mild mental retardation. Since the molecular characteristics of CRBN have not been well presented, we investigated the general properties of CRBN. We analyzed its gene structure and protein homologues. The CRBN protein might belong to a family of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent Lon protease. We also found that CRBN was widely expressed in different tissues, and the expression level in testis is significantly higher than other tissues. This may suggested it could play some important roles in several other tissues besides brain. Transient transfection experiment in AD 293 cell lines suggested that both CRBN and CRBN mutant (nucleotide position 1,274(C > T)) are located in the whole cells. This may suggest new functions of CRBN in cell nucleolus besides its mitochondria protease activity in cytoplasm.

  9. Localization using nonindividualized head-related transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Arruda, Marianne; Kistler, Doris J.; Wightman, Frederic L.

    1993-07-01

    The paper investigates the accuracy of localization by inexperienced listeners of the direction (azimuth and elevation) of wideband noisebursts presented in the free-field or over headphones, with headphone stimuli being synthesized using head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) from a representative subject of Wightman and Kistler (1989). Many subjects showed high rates of front-back and up-down confusions that increased significantly for virtual sources compared to the free-field stimuli. When confusions were resolved, localization of virtual sources was quite accurate and comparable to the free-field sources for 12 out of 16 subjects. The results of this study suggest that, while the interaural cues to horizontal location are robust, the spectral cues considered important for resolving location along a particular cone-of-confusion are distorted by a synthesis process that uses nonindividualized HRTFs.

  10. Modeling the relation between cardiac pump function and myofiber mechanics.

    PubMed

    Arts, T; Bovendeerd, P; Delhaas, T; Prinzen, F

    2003-05-01

    Complexity of the geometry and structure of the heart hampers easy modeling of cardiac mechanics. The modeling can however be simplified considerably when using the hypothesis that in the normal heart myofiber structure and geometry adapt, until load is evenly distributed. A simple and realistic relationship is found between the hemodynamic variables cavity pressure and volume, and myofiber load parameters stress and strain. The most important geometric parameter in the latter relation is the ratio of cavity volume to wall volume, while actual geometry appears practically irrelevant. Applying the found relationship, a realistic maximum is set to left ventricular pressure after chronic pressure load. Pressures exceeding this level are likely to cause decompensation and heart failure. Furthermore, model is presented to simulate left and right ventricular pump function with left-right interaction.

  11. Finding sequence motifs in groups of functionally related proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, H O; Annau, T M; Chandrasegaran, S

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a method for rapidly finding patterns of conserved amino acid residues (motifs) in groups of functionally related proteins. All 3-amino acid patterns in a group of proteins of the type aa1 d1 aa2 d2 aa3, where d1 and d2 are distances that can be varied in a range up to 24 residues, are accumulated into an array. Segments of the proteins containing those patterns that occur most frequently are aligned on each other by a scoring method that obtains an average relatedness value for all the amino acids in each column of the aligned sequence block based on the Dayhoff relatedness odds matrix. The automated method successfully finds and displays nearly all of the sequence motifs that have been previously reported to occur in 33 reverse transcriptases, 18 DNA integrases, and 30 DNA methyltransferases.

  12. The Functional Classification of Brain Damage-Related Vision Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colenbrander, August

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a terminological framework to show the relationships among different types of visual deficits. It distinguishes between visual functions, which describe how the eye and the lower visual system function, and functional vision, which describes how a person functions. When visual functions are disturbed, the term "visual…

  13. Congenital prosopagnosia: face-blind from birth.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Avidan, Galia

    2005-04-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia refers to the deficit in face processing that is apparent from early childhood in the absence of any underlying neurological basis and in the presence of intact sensory and intellectual function. Several such cases have been described recently and elucidating the mechanisms giving rise to this impairment should aid our understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms mediating face processing. Fundamental questions include: What is the nature and extent of the face-processing deficit in congenital prosopagnosia? Is the deficit related to a more general perceptual deficit such as the failure to process configural information? Are any neural alterations detectable using fMRI, ERP or structural analyses of the anatomy of the ventral visual cortex? We discuss these issues in relation to the existing literature and suggest directions for future research.

  14. Measurement of dynamic task related functional networks using MEG.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, George C; Tewarie, Prejaas K; Colclough, Giles L; Gascoyne, Lauren E; Hunt, Benjamin A E; Morris, Peter G; Woolrich, Mark W; Brookes, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    The characterisation of dynamic electrophysiological brain networks, which form and dissolve in order to support ongoing cognitive function, is one of the most important goals in neuroscience. Here, we introduce a method for measuring such networks in the human brain using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Previous network analyses look for brain regions that share a common temporal profile of activity. Here distinctly, we exploit the high spatio-temporal resolution of MEG to measure the temporal evolution of connectivity between pairs of parcellated brain regions. We then use an ICA based procedure to identify networks of connections whose temporal dynamics covary. We validate our method using MEG data recorded during a finger movement task, identifying a transient network of connections linking somatosensory and primary motor regions, which modulates during the task. Next, we use our method to image the networks which support cognition during a Sternberg working memory task. We generate a novel neuroscientific picture of cognitive processing, showing the formation and dissolution of multiple networks which relate to semantic processing, pattern recognition and language as well as vision and movement. Our method tracks the dynamics of functional connectivity in the brain on a timescale commensurate to the task they are undertaking.

  15. Adaptive face coding and discrimination around the average face.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Maloney, Laurence T; Turner, Jenny; Ewing, Louise

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation paradigms highlight the dynamic nature of face coding and suggest that identity is coded relative to an average face that is tuned by experience. In low-level vision, adaptive coding can enhance sensitivity to differences around the adapted level. We investigated whether sensitivity to differences around the average face is similarly enhanced. Converging evidence from three paradigms showed no enhancement. Discrimination of small interocular spacing differences was not better for faces close to the average (Study 1). Nor was perceived similarity reduced for face pairs close to (spanning) the average (Study 2). On the contrary, these pairs were judged most similar. Maximum likelihood perceptual difference scaling (Studies 3 and 4) confirmed that sensitivity to differences was reduced, not enhanced, around the average. We conclude that adaptive face coding does not enhance discrimination around the average face.

  16. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  17. Janus-faced Sestrin2 controls ROS and mTOR signalling through two separate functional domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanseong; An, Sojin; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Teixeira, Filipa; Jin Park, Gyeong; Kim, Cheal; Cho, Chun-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Sig; Jakob, Ursula; Hee Lee, Jun; Cho, Uhn-Soo

    2015-11-01

    Sestrins are stress-inducible metabolic regulators with two seemingly unrelated but physiologically important functions: reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). How Sestrins fulfil this dual role has remained elusive so far. Here we report the crystal structure of human Sestrin2 (hSesn2), and show that hSesn2 is twofold pseudo-symmetric with two globular subdomains, which are structurally similar but functionally distinct from each other. While the N-terminal domain (Sesn-A) reduces alkylhydroperoxide radicals through its helix-turn-helix oxidoreductase motif, the C-terminal domain (Sesn-C) modified this motif to accommodate physical interaction with GATOR2 and subsequent inhibition of mTORC1. These findings clarify the molecular mechanism of how Sestrins can attenuate degenerative processes such as aging and diabetes by acting as a simultaneous inhibitor of ROS accumulation and mTORC1 activation.

  18. A level-set method for pathology segmentation in fluorescein angiograms and en face retinal images of patients with age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Fatimah; Ansari, Rashid; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2013-03-01

    The visibility and continuity of the inner segment outer segment (ISOS) junction layer of the photoreceptors on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images is known to be related to visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Automatic detection and segmentation of lesions and pathologies in retinal images is crucial for the screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of patients with retinal diseases. One of the challenges of using the classical level-set algorithms for segmentation involves the placement of the initial contour. Manually defining the contour or randomly placing it in the image may lead to segmentation of erroneous structures. It is important to be able to automatically define the contour by using information provided by image features. We explored a level-set method which is based on the classical Chan-Vese model and which utilizes image feature information for automatic contour placement for the segmentation of pathologies in fluorescein angiograms and en face retinal images of the ISOS layer. This was accomplished by exploiting a priori knowledge of the shape and intensity distribution allowing the use of projection profiles to detect the presence of pathologies that are characterized by intensity differences with surrounding areas in retinal images. We first tested our method by applying it to fluorescein angiograms. We then applied our method to en face retinal images of patients with AMD. The experimental results included demonstrate that the proposed method provided a quick and improved outcome as compared to the classical Chan-Vese method in which the initial contour is randomly placed, thus indicating the potential to provide a more accurate and detailed view of changes in pathologies due to disease progression and treatment.

  19. Precedence of the eye region in neural processing of faces

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Elias; DiCarlo, James

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revealed multiple subregions in monkey inferior temporal cortex (IT) that are selective for images of faces over other objects. The earliest of these subregions, the posterior lateral face patch (PL), has not been studied previously at the neurophysiological level. Perhaps not surprisingly, we found that PL contains a high concentration of ‘face selective’ cells when tested with standard image sets comparable to those used previously to define the region at the level of fMRI. However, we here report that several different image sets and analytical approaches converge to show that nearly all face selective PL cells are driven by the presence of a single eye in the context of a face outline. Most strikingly, images containing only an eye, even when incorrectly positioned in an outline, drove neurons nearly as well as full face images, and face images lacking only this feature led to longer latency responses. Thus, bottom-up face processing is relatively local and linearly integrates features -- consistent with parts-based models -- grounding investigation of how the presence of a face is first inferred in the IT face processing hierarchy. PMID:23175821

  20. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  1. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. FACTS II, the Aspen FACE Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems. The Aspen FACE facility is located at the Harshaw Experimental Forest near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. It consists of twelve 30m rings in which the concentrations of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone can be controlled. The design provides the ability to assess the effects of these gasses alone, and in combination, on many ecosystem attributes, including growth, leaf development, root characteristics, and soil carbon. Each ring consists of a series of vertical ventpipes which disperse carbon dioxide, ozone or normal air into the center of the ring. This computer controlled system uses signal feedback technology to adjust gas release each second in order to maintain a stable, elevated concentration of carbon dioxide and/or ozone throughout the experimental plot. Because there is no confinement, there is no significant change in the natural, ambient environment other than elevating these trace gas concentrations. [copied from http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html] Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance

  2. Differential Amygdala Response to Lower Face in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishitobi, Makoto; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Omori, Masao; Matsumura, Yukiko; Munesue, Toshio; Mizukami, Kimiko; Shimoyama, Tomohiro; Murata, Tetsuhito; Sadato, Norihiro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Much functional neuroimaging evidence indicates that autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate marked brain abnormalities in face processing. Most of these findings were obtained from studies using tasks related to whole faces. However, individuals with ASD tend to rely more on individual parts of the face for identification than on the…

  3. Facing Up to Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  4. Two Faces of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  5. Daily life dialogue assessment in psychiatric care-face validity and inter-rater reliability of a tool based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Catrin; Åström, Sture; Kauffeldt, Anders; Carlström, Eric

    2013-12-01

    This article describes the development of an assessment tool based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) adapted to a psychiatric nursing context where both the patient and the nurse assess the patient's ability to participate in various spheres of life. The aim was to test psychometric properties, focusing on face validity and inter-rater reliability. Three Swedish expert groups participated. Analysis of inter-rater reliability was conducted through simulated patient cases. The results of an unweighted kappa value of 0.38, a linear weighted kappa value of 0.65 and a quadratic weighted kappa value of 0.73 were considered as acceptable when using simulated patient cases.

  6. Improving emotional face perception in autism with diuretic bumetanide: a proof-of-concept behavioral and functional brain imaging pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Zürcher, Nicole R; Rogier, Ophelie; Ruest, Torsten; Hippolyte, Loyse; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Lemonnier, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Clinical observations have shown that GABA-acting benzodiazepines exert paradoxical excitatory effects in autism, suggesting elevated intracellular chloride (Cl-)i and excitatory action of GABA. In a previous double-blind randomized study, we have shown that the diuretic NKCC1 chloride importer antagonist bumetanide, that decreases (Cl-)i and reinforces GABAergic inhibition, reduces the severity of autism symptoms. Here, we report results from an open-label trial pilot study in which we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing to determine the effects of 10 months bumetanide treatment in adolescents and young adults with autism. We show that bumetanide treatment improves emotion recognition and enhances the activation of brain regions involved in social and emotional perception during the perception of emotional faces. The improvement of emotion processing by bumetanide reinforces the usefulness of bumetanide as a promising treatment to improve social interactions in autism.

  7. Relating conformation to function in integrin α5β1.

    PubMed

    Su, Yang; Xia, Wei; Li, Jing; Walz, Thomas; Humphries, Martin J; Vestweber, Dietmar; Cabañas, Carlos; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-07-05

    Whether β1 integrin ectodomains visit conformational states similarly to β2 and β3 integrins has not been characterized. Furthermore, despite a wealth of activating and inhibitory antibodies to β1 integrins, the conformational states that these antibodies stabilize, and the relation of these conformations to function, remain incompletely characterized. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that the integrin α5β1 ectodomain adopts extended-closed and extended-open conformations as well as a bent conformation. Antibodies SNAKA51, 8E3, N29, and 9EG7 bind to different domains in the α5 or β1 legs, activate, and stabilize extended ectodomain conformations. Antibodies 12G10 and HUTS-4 bind to the β1 βI domain and hybrid domains, respectively, activate, and stabilize the open headpiece conformation. Antibody TS2/16 binds a similar epitope as 12G10, activates, and appears to stabilize an open βI domain conformation without requiring extension or hybrid domain swing-out. mAb13 and SG/19 bind to the βI domain and βI-hybrid domain interface, respectively, inhibit, and stabilize the closed conformation of the headpiece. The effects of the antibodies on cell adhesion to fibronectin substrates suggest that the extended-open conformation of α5β1 is adhesive and that the extended-closed and bent-closed conformations are nonadhesive. The functional effects and binding sites of antibodies and fibronectin were consistent with their ability in binding to α5β1 on cell surfaces to cross-enhance or inhibit one another by competitive or noncompetitive (allosteric) mechanisms.

  8. Capture-related stressors impair immune system function in sablefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupes, S.C.; Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a valuable North Pacific Ocean species that, when not targeted in various commercial fisheries, is often a part of discarded bycatch. Predictions of the survival of discarded fish are dependent on understanding how a fish responds to stressful conditions. Our objective was to describe the immunological health of sablefish exposed to capture stressors. In laboratory experiments designed to simulate the capture process, we subjected sablefish to various stressors that might influence survival: towing in a net, hooking, elevated seawater and air temperatures, and air exposure time. After stress was imposed, the in vitro mitogen-stimulated proliferation of sablefish leukocytes was used to evaluate the function of the immune system in an assay we validated for this species. The results demonstrated that regardless of fishing gear type, exposure to elevated seawater temperature, or time in air, the leukocytes from stressed sablefish exhibited significantly diminished proliferative responses to the T-cell mitogen, concanavalin A, or the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide. There was no difference in the immunological responses associated with seawater or air temperature. The duration and severity of the capture stressors applied in our study were harsh enough to induce significantly elevated levels of plasma cortisol and glucose, but there was no difference in the magnitude of levels among stressor treatments. These data suggest that immunological suppression occurs in sablefish subjected to capture-related stressors. The functional impairment of the immune system after capture presents a potential reason why delayed mortality is possible in discarded sablefish. Further studies are needed to determine whether delayed mortality in discarded sablefish can be caused by increased susceptibility to infectious agents resulting from stressor-mediated immunosuppression.

  9. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  10. Conformational Motions and Functionally Key Residues for Vitamin B12 Transporter BtuCD-BtuF Revealed by Elastic Network Model with a Function-Related Internal Coordinate.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Li, Xing-Yuan; Hou, Yan-Xue; Wu, Yi-Dong; Zhu, Jian-Zhuo; An, Hai-Long

    2015-08-04

    BtuCD-BtuF from Escherichia coli is a binding protein-dependent adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transmit vitamin B12 across cellular membranes. Experimental studies have showed that during the transport cycle, the transporter undergoes conformational transitions between the "inward-facing" and "outward-facing" states, which results in the open-closed motions of the cytoplasmic gate of the transport channel. The opening-closing of the channel gate play critical roles for the function of the transporter, which enables the substrate vitamin B12 to be translocated into the cell. In the present work, the extent of opening of the cytoplasmic gate was chosen as a function-related internal coordinate. Then the mean-square fluctuation of the internal coordinate, as well as the cross-correlation between the displacement of the internal coordinate and the movement of each residue in the protein, were calculated based on the normal mode analysis of the elastic network model to analyze the function-related motions encoded in the structure of the system. In addition, the key residues important for the functional motions of the transporter were predicted by using a perturbation method. In order to facilitate the calculations, the internal coordinate was introduced as one of the axes of the coordinate space and the conventional Cartesian coordinate space was transformed into the internal/Cartesian space with linear approximation. All the calculations were carried out in this internal/Cartesian space. Our method can successfully identify the functional motions and key residues for the transporter BtuCD-BtuF, which are well consistent with the experimental observations.

  11. Finding resiliency in the face of financial barriers: Development of a conceptual framework for people with cardiovascular-related chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David J T; Manns, Braden J; Leblanc, Pamela; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Sanmartin, Claudia; King-Shier, Kathryn

    2016-12-01

    Patients with chronic diseases often face financial barriers to optimize their health. These financial barriers may be related to direct healthcare costs such as medications or self-monitoring supplies, or indirect costs such as transportation to medical appointments. No known framework exists to understand how financial barriers impact patients' lives or their health outcomes.We undertook a grounded theory study to develop such a framework. We used semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of participants with cardiovascular-related chronic disease (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, or stroke) from Alberta, Canada. Interview transcripts were analyzed in triplicate, and interviews continued until saturation was reached.We interviewed 34 participants. We found that the confluence of 2 events contributed to the perception of having a financial barrier-onset of chronic disease and lack of income or health benefits. The impact of having a perceived financial barrier varied considerably. Protective, predisposing, or modifying of factors determined how impactful a financial barrier would be. An individual's particular set of factors is then shaped by their worldview. This combination of factors and lens determines one's degree of resiliency, which ultimately impacts how well they cope with their disease.The role of financial barriers is complex. How well an individual copes with their financial barriers is intimately tied to resiliency, which is related to the composite of a personal circumstances and their worldview. Our framework for understanding the experience of financial barriers can be used by both researchers and clinicians to better understand patient behavior.

  12. Structure–Function Relationships of Pre-Fibrillar Protein Assemblies in Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, F.; Shanmugam, A.; Bitan, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and prion diseases, are characterized pathognomonically by the presence of intra- and/or extracellular lesions containing proteinaceous aggregates, and by extensive neuronal loss in selective brain regions. Related non-neuropathic systemic diseases, e.g., light-chain and senile systemic amyloidoses, and other organ-specific diseases, such as dialysis-related amyloidosis and type-2 diabetes mellitus, also are characterized by deposition of aberrantly folded, insoluble proteins. It is debated whether the hallmark pathologic lesions are causative. Substantial evidence suggests that these aggregates are the end state of aberrant protein folding whereas the actual culprits likely are transient, pre-fibrillar assemblies preceding the aggregates. In the context of neurodegenerative amyloidoses, the proteinaceous aggregates may eventuate as potentially neuroprotective sinks for the neurotoxic, oligomeric protein assemblies. The pre-fibrillar, oligomeric assemblies are believed to initiate the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal loss, and disease-specific regional brain atrophy. The amyloid β-protein (Aβ), which is believed to cause Alzheimer's disease (AD), is considered an archetypal amyloidogenic protein. Intense studies have led to nominal, functional, and structural descriptions of oligomeric Aβ assemblies. However, the dynamic and metastable nature of Aβ oligomers renders their study difficult. Different results generated using different methodologies under different experimental settings further complicate this complex area of research and identification of the exact pathogenic assemblies in vivo seems daunting. Here we review structural, functional, and biological experiments used to produce and study pre-fibrillar Aβ assemblies, and highlight similar studies of proteins involved in related diseases. We discuss challenges that contemporary

  13. Structure-function relationships of pre-fibrillar protein assemblies in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, F; Shanmugam, A; Bitan, G

    2008-06-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and prion diseases, are characterized pathognomonically by the presence of intra- and/or extracellular lesions containing proteinaceous aggregates, and by extensive neuronal loss in selective brain regions. Related non-neuropathic systemic diseases, e.g., light-chain and senile systemic amyloidoses, and other organ-specific diseases, such as dialysis-related amyloidosis and type-2 diabetes mellitus, also are characterized by deposition of aberrantly folded, insoluble proteins. It is debated whether the hallmark pathologic lesions are causative. Substantial evidence suggests that these aggregates are the end state of aberrant protein folding whereas the actual culprits likely are transient, pre-fibrillar assemblies preceding the aggregates. In the context of neurodegenerative amyloidoses, the proteinaceous aggregates may eventuate as potentially neuroprotective sinks for the neurotoxic, oligomeric protein assemblies. The pre-fibrillar, oligomeric assemblies are believed to initiate the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal loss, and disease-specific regional brain atrophy. The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta), which is believed to cause Alzheimer's disease (AD), is considered an archetypal amyloidogenic protein. Intense studies have led to nominal, functional, and structural descriptions of oligomeric Abeta assemblies. However, the dynamic and metastable nature of Abeta oligomers renders their study difficult. Different results generated using different methodologies under different experimental settings further complicate this complex area of research and identification of the exact pathogenic assemblies in vivo seems daunting. Here we review structural, functional, and biological experiments used to produce and study pre-fibrillar Abeta assemblies, and highlight similar studies of proteins involved in related diseases. We discuss challenges that

  14. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  15. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  16. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age. PMID:28245274

  17. Faces and objects in macaque cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Doris Y; Freiwald, Winrich A; Knutsen, Tamara A; Mandeville, Joseph B; Tootell, Roger B H

    2003-09-01

    How are different object categories organized by the visual system? Current evidence indicates that monkeys and humans process object categories in fundamentally different ways. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that humans have a ventral temporal face area, but such evidence is lacking in macaques. Instead, face-responsive neurons in macaques seem to be scattered throughout temporal cortex, with some relative concentration in the superior temporal sulcus (STS). Here, using fMRI in alert fixating macaque monkeys and humans, we found that macaques do have discrete face-selective patches, similar in relative size and number to face patches in humans. The face patches were embedded within a large swath of object-selective cortex extending from V4 to rostral TE. This large region responded better to pictures of intact objects compared to scrambled objects, with different object categories eliciting different patterns of activity, as in the human. Overall, our results suggest that humans and macaques share a similar brain architecture for visual object processing.

  18. Early visual ERP sensitivity to the species and animacy of faces

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Koldewyn, Kami

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the agency of potential actors in the visual world is a critically important aspect of social cognition. Adult observers are generally capable of distinguishing real faces from artificial faces (even allowing for recent advances in graphics technology and motion capture); even small deviations from real facial appearance can lead to profound effects on face recognition. Presently, we examined how early components ofvisual event-related potentials (ERPs) are affected by the “life” in human faces and animal faces. We presented participants with real and artificial faces of humans and dogs, and analyzed the response properties of the P100 and the N170 as a function of stimulus appearance and task (species categorization vs. animacy categorization). The P100 exhibited sensitivity to face species and animacy. We found that the N170's differential responses to human faces vs. dog faces depended on the task participants’ performed. Also, the effect of species was only evident for real faces of humans and dogs, failing to obtain with artificial faces. These results suggest that face animacy does modulate early components of visual ERPs – the N170 is not merely a crude face detector, but reflects the tuning of the visual system to natural face appearance. PMID:24041668

  19. Not equal in the face of habitat change: closely related fishes differ in their ability to use predation-related information in degraded coral.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Maud C O; McCormick, Mark I; Allan, Bridie J M; Chivers, Douglas P

    2017-04-12

    Coral reefs are biodiversity hotpots that are under significant threat due to the degradation and death of hard corals. When obligate coral-dwelling species die, the remaining species must either move or adjust to the altered conditions. Our goal was to investigate the effect of coral degradation on the ability of coral reef fishes to assess their risk of predation using alarm cues from injured conspecifics. Here, we tested the ability of six closely related species of juvenile damselfish (Pomacentridae) to respond to risk cues in both live coral or dead-degraded coral environments. Of those six species, two are exclusively associated with live coral habitats, two are found mostly on dead-degraded coral rubble, while the last two are found in both habitat types. We found that the two live coral associates failed to respond appropriately to the cues in water from degraded habitats. In contrast, the cue response of the two rubble associates was unaffected in the same degraded habitat. Interestingly, we observed a mixed response from the species found in both habitat types, with one species displaying an appropriate cue response while the other did not. Our second experiment suggested that the lack of responses stemmed from deactivation of the alarm cues, rather than the inability of the species to smell. Habitat preference (live coral versus dead coral associates) and phylogeny are good candidates for future work aimed at predicting which species are affected by coral degradation. Our results point towards a surprising level of variation in the ability of congeneric species to fare in altered habitats and hence underscores the difficulty of predicting community change in degraded habitats.

  20. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta

    2016-01-01

    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  1. Elevated Amygdala Response to Faces following Early Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, N.; Hare, T. A.; Millner, A.; Gilhooly, T.; Zevin, J. D.; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo…

  2. Localization using nonindividualized head-related transfer functions.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, E M; Arruda, M; Kistler, D J; Wightman, F L

    1993-07-01

    A recent development in human-computer interfaces is the virtual acoustic display, a device that synthesizes three-dimensional, spatial auditory information over headphones using digital filters constructed from head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). The utility of such a display depends on the accuracy with which listeners can localize virtual sound sources. A previous study [F. L. Wightman and D. J. Kistler, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 868-878 (1989)] observed accurate localization by listeners for free-field sources and for virtual sources generated from the subjects' own HRTFs. In practice, measurement of the HRTFs of each potential user of a spatial auditory display may not be feasible. Thus, a critical research question is whether listeners can obtain adequate localization cues from stimuli based on nonindividualized transforms. Here, inexperienced listeners judged the apparent direction (azimuth and elevation) of wideband noisebursts presented in the free-field or over headphones; headphone stimuli were synthesized using HRTFs from a representative subject of Wightman and Kistler. When confusions were resolved, localization of virtual sources was quite accurate and comparable to the free-field sources for 12 of the 16 subjects. Of the remaining subjects, 2 showed poor elevation accuracy in both stimulus conditions, and 2 showed degraded elevation accuracy with virtual sources. Many of the listeners also showed high rates of front-back and up-down confusions that increased significantly for virtual sources compared to the free-field stimuli. These data suggest that while the interaural cues to horizontal location are robust, the spectral cues considered important for resolving location along a particular cone-of-confusion are distorted by a synthesis process that uses nonindividualized HRTFs.

  3. Age-Related Differences and Heterogeneity in Executive Functions: Analysis of NAB Executive Functions Module Scores.

    PubMed

    Buczylowska, Dorota; Petermann, Franz

    2016-05-01

    Normative data from the German adaptation of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery were used to examine age-related differences in 6 executive function tasks. A multivariate analysis of variance was employed to investigate the differences in performance in 484 participants aged 18-99 years. The coefficient of variation was calculated to compare the heterogeneity of scores between 10 age groups. Analyses showed an increase in the dispersion of scores with age, varying from 7% to 289%, in all subtests. Furthermore, age-dependent heterogeneity appeared to be associated with age-dependent decline because the subtests with the greatest increase in dispersion (i.e., Mazes, Planning, and Categories) also exhibited the greatest decrease in mean scores. In contrast, scores for the subtests Letter Fluency, Word Generation, and Judgment had the lowest increase in dispersion with the lowest decrease in mean scores. Consequently, the results presented here show a pattern of age-related differences in executive functioning that is consistent with the concept of crystallized and fluid intelligence.

  4. An ERP study of emotional face processing in the adult and infant brain.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Moulson, Margaret C; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K; Nelson, Charles A

    2007-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear) and infants (P400 was larger for fear). Behavioral measures showed no overt attentional bias toward fearful faces in adults, but in infants, the duration of the first fixation was longer for fearful than happy faces. Together, these results suggest that the neural systems underlying the differential processing of fearful and happy/neutral faces are functional early in life, and that affective factors may play an important role in modulating infants' face processing.

  5. Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of previously codes and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main programs. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chisquare, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F tests. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function I (subzero), gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)

  6. Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of previously coded and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main progress. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chi-square, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function, I sub o, gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions, and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer-plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)

  7. Monotonic sequences related to zeros of Bessel functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorch, Lee; Muldoon, Martin

    2008-12-01

    In the course of their work on Salem numbers and uniform distribution modulo 1, A. Akiyama and Y. Tanigawa proved some inequalities concerning the values of the Bessel function J 0 at multiples of π, i.e., at the zeros of J 1/2. This raises the question of inequalities and monotonicity properties for the sequences of values of one cylinder function at the zeros of another such function. Here we derive such results by differential equations methods.

  8. The Faces Symbol Test, a newly developed screening instrument to assess cognitive decline related to multiple sclerosis: first results of the Berlin Multi-Centre FST Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Scherer, P; Penner, I K; Rohr, A; Boldt, H; Ringel, I; Wilke-Burger, H; Burger-Deinerth, E; Isakowitsch, K; Zimmermann, M; Zahrnt, S; Hauser, R; Hilbert, K; Tiel-Wilck, K; Anvari, K; Behringer, A; Peglau, I; Friedrich, H; Plenio, A; Benesch, G; Ehret, R; Nippert, I; Finke, G; Schulz, I; Bergtholdt, B; Breitkopf, S; Kaskel, P; Reischies, F; Kugler, J

    2007-04-01

    Reliable, language-independent, short screening instruments to test for cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) remain rare, despite the high number of patients affected by cognitive decline. We developed a new, short screening instrument, the Faces Symbol Test (FST), and compared its diagnostic test characteristics with a composite of the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), in 108 MS patients and 33 healthy controls. An Informant-Report Questionnaire, a Self-Report Questionnaire, and a neurologist's estimation of the Every Day Life Cognitive Status were also applied to the MS patients. The statistical analyses comprised of a receiver operating characteristic analysis for test accuracy and for confounding variables. The PASAT and DSST composite score estimated that 36.5% of the MS patients had cognitive impairment. The FST estimated that 40.7% of the MS patients were cognitively impaired (sensitivity 84%; specificity 85%). The FST, DSST and PASAT results were significantly correlated with the patients' physical impairment, as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The results suggest that the FST might be a culture-free, sensitive, and practical short screening instrument for the detection of cognitive decline in patients with MS, including those in the early stages.

  9. Image preprocessing study on KPCA-based face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition as an important biometric identification method, with its friendly, natural, convenient advantages, has obtained more and more attention. This paper intends to research a face recognition system including face detection, feature extraction and face recognition, mainly through researching on related theory and the key technology of various preprocessing methods in face detection process, using KPCA method, focuses on the different recognition results in different preprocessing methods. In this paper, we choose YCbCr color space for skin segmentation and choose integral projection for face location. We use erosion and dilation of the opening and closing operation and illumination compensation method to preprocess face images, and then use the face recognition method based on kernel principal component analysis method for analysis and research, and the experiments were carried out using the typical face database. The algorithms experiment on MATLAB platform. Experimental results show that integration of the kernel method based on PCA algorithm under certain conditions make the extracted features represent the original image information better for using nonlinear feature extraction method, which can obtain higher recognition rate. In the image preprocessing stage, we found that images under various operations may appear different results, so as to obtain different recognition rate in recognition stage. At the same time, in the process of the kernel principal component analysis, the value of the power of the polynomial function can affect the recognition result.

  10. Recognition of face and non-face stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Arkush, Leo; Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Fiorentini, Chiara; Skuse, David H

    2013-12-01

    The ability to remember faces is critical for the development of social competence. From childhood to adulthood, we acquire a high level of expertise in the recognition of facial images, and neural processes become dedicated to sustaining competence. Many people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor face recognition memory; changes in hairstyle or other non-facial features in an otherwise familiar person affect their recollection skills. The observation implies that they may not use the configuration of the inner face to achieve memory competence, but bolster performance in other ways. We aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing the performance of a group of high-functioning unmedicated adolescents with ASD and a matched control group on a "surprise" face recognition memory task. We compared their memory for unfamiliar faces with their memory for images of houses. To evaluate the role that is played by peripheral cues in assisting recognition memory, we cropped both sets of pictures, retaining only the most salient central features. ASD adolescents had poorer recognition memory for faces than typical controls, but their recognition memory for houses was unimpaired. Cropping images of faces did not disproportionately influence their recall accuracy, relative to controls. House recognition skills (cropped and uncropped) were similar in both groups. In the ASD group only, performance on both sets of task was closely correlated, implying that memory for faces and other complex pictorial stimuli is achieved by domain-general (non-dedicated) cognitive mechanisms. Adolescents with ASD apparently do not use domain-specialized processing of inner facial cues to support face recognition memory.

  11. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  12. Adrenocortical function of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Verboven, Nanette; Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Evans, Neil P

    2010-03-01

    Unpredictable changes in the environment stimulate the avian hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to produce corticosterone, which induces behavioural and metabolic changes that enhance survival in the face of adverse environmental conditions. In addition to profound environmental perturbations, such as severe weather conditions and unpredictable food shortages, many Arctic-breeding birds are also confronted with chronic exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of which are known to disrupt endocrine processes. This study investigated the adrenocortical function of a top predator in the Arctic marine environment, the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). High concentrations of organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and metabolically-derived products in blood plasma of incubating glaucous gulls were associated with high baseline corticosterone concentrations in both sexes and a reduced stress response in males. Contaminant-related changes in corticosterone concentration occurred over and above differences in body condition and seasonal variation. Chronically high corticosterone concentrations and/or a compromised adrenocortical response to stress can have negative effects on the health of an individual. The results of the present study suggest that exposure to POPs may increase the vulnerability of glaucous gulls to environmental stressors and thus could potentially compromise their ability to adapt to the rapidly changing environmental conditions associated with climate change that are currently seen in the Arctic.

  13. From self to social cognition: Theory of Mind mechanisms and their relation to Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Elisabeth E F; Jentzsch, Ines; Gomez, Juan-Carlos

    2015-05-01

    'Theory of Mind' refers to the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and other people (Premack & Woodruff, 1978). This study examined the extent to which 'Self' and 'Other' belief-attribution processes within the Theory of Mind (ToM) mechanism could be distinguished behaviourally, and whether these separable components differentially related to Executive Functioning (EF) abilities. A computerized false-belief task, utilizing a matched-design to allow direct comparison of self-oriented vs. other-oriented belief-attribution, was used to assess ToM, and a face-image Stroop task was employed to assess EF, within a population of typically-developed adults. Results revealed significantly longer reaction times when attributing beliefs to other people as opposed to recognizing and attributing beliefs to oneself. Intriguingly, results revealed that 'perspective-shift' requirements (i.e. changing from adoption of the 'self' perspective to the perspective of the 'other', or vice versa) across false-belief trials influenced reaction times. Reaction times were significantly longer when the perspective shift was from self-to-other than from other-to-self. It is suggested that the 'self' forms the stem of understanding the 'other', and is therefore processed regardless of ultimate task demands; in contrast, the 'other' perspective is only processed when explicitly required. We conclude that adopting another person's perspective, even when their belief state is matched to one's own, requires more cognitive effort than recalling and reflecting on self-oriented belief-states.

  14. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  15. The stimuli drive the response: an fMRI study of youth processing adult or child emotional face stimuli.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Carré, Justin M; Thomason, Moriah E

    2013-12-01

    Effective navigation of the social world relies on the correct interpretation of facial emotions. This may be particularly important in formative years. Critically, literature examining the emergence of face processing in youth (children and adolescents) has focused on the neural and behavioral correlates of processing adult faces, which are relationally different from youth participants, and whose facial expressions may convey different meaning than faces of their peers. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, we compared concurrent neural and behavioral responses as youth (N=25) viewed validated, emotionally varied (i.e., anger, fear, happy, and neutral) adult and child face stimuli. We observed that participants made fewer errors when matching adult, compared to child, face stimuli, and that while similar brain regions were involved in processing both adult and child faces, activation in the face processing neural network was greater for adult than child faces. This was true across emotions, and also when comparing neutral adult versus neutral child faces. Additionally, a valence by stimuli-type effect was observed within the amygdala. That is, within adult face stimuli, negative and neutral face stimuli elicited the largest effects, whereas within child face stimuli, happy face stimuli elicited the largest amygdala effects. Thus, heightened engagement of the amygdala was observed for happy child and angry adult faces, which may reflect age-specific salience of select emotions in early life. This study provides evidence that the relational age of the perceived face influences neural processing in youth.

  16. Face adaptation depends on seeing the face.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Farshad; Koch, Christof; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-01-06

    Retinal input that is suppressed from visual awareness can nevertheless produce measurable aftereffects, revealing neural processes that do not directly result in a conscious percept. We here report that the face identity-specific aftereffect requires a visible face; it is effectively cancelled by binocular suppression or by inattentional blindness of the inducing face. Conversely, the same suppression does not interfere with the orientation-specific aftereffect. Thus, the competition between incompatible or interfering visual inputs to reach awareness is resolved before those aspects of information that are exploited in face identification are processed. We also found that the face aftereffect remained intact when the visual distracters in the inattention experiment were replaced with auditory distracters. Thus, cross-modal or cognitive interference that does not affect the visibility of the face does not interfere with the face aftereffect. We conclude that adaptation to face identity depends on seeing the face.

  17. Metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activation, and insulin sensitivity are associated with physical function in functionally-limited older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Chalé, Angela; Fielding, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    Identification of mechanisms underlying physical function will be important for addressing the growing challenge that health care will face with physical disablement in the expanding aging population. Therefore, the goals of the current study were to use metabolic profiling to provide insight into biologic mechanisms that may underlie physical function by examining the association between baseline and the 6-month change in serum mass spectrometry-obtained amino acids, fatty acids, and acylcarnitines with baseline and the 6-month change in muscle strength (leg press one repetition maximum divided by total lean mass, LP/Lean), lower extremity function [short physical performance battery (SPPB)], and mobility (400 m gait speed, 400-m), in response to 6 months of a combined resistance exercise and nutritional supplementation (whey protein or placebo) intervention in functionally-limited older adults (SPPB ≤ 10; 70–85 years, N = 73). Metabolites related to gut bacterial metabolism (cinnamoylglycine, phenol sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, serotonin, N-methylproline, hydrocinnamate, dimethylglycine, trans-urocanate, valerate) that are altered in response to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) activation (α-hydroxyisocaproate, α-hydroxyisovalerate, 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, indolelactate, serotonin, 2-hydroxypalmitate, glutarylcarnitine, isobutyrylcarnitine, cinnamoylglycine) and that are related to insulin sensitivity (monounsaturated fatty acids: 5-dodecenoate, myristoleate, palmitoleate; γ-glutamylamino acids: γ-glutamylglutamine, γ-glutamylalanine, γ-glutamylmethionine, γ-glutamyltyrosine; branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine) were associated with function at baseline, with the 6-month change in function or were identified in backward elimination regression predictive models. Collectively, these data suggest that gut microbial metabolism, PPAR-α activation, and insulin sensitivity may be involved in

  18. Issues and developments related to assessing function in serious mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matt A.; Velligan, Dawn I.

    2016-01-01

    Serious mental illness (SMI) results in functional disability that imposes a significant burden on individuals, caregivers, and society. Development of novel treatments is under way in an effort to improve the illness domains of cognitive impairment and negative symptoms and subsequently to improve functional outcomes. The assessment of functional outcomes in SMI faces a number of challenges, including the proliferation of assessment instruments and the differential prioritization of functional goals among stakeholder groups. Functional assessments relying on self- and informant report present a number of limitations. Identifying alternative strategies to assess functioning that are reliable, valid, and sensitive to change is necessary for use in clinical trials. Measures of functional capacity have been proposed for clinical trials investigating compounds to treat cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Alternative approaches employing effort-based decision making or daily activity recording using instruments such as the Daily Activity Report may be more appropriate for studies focused on improving negative symptoms. PMID:27489453

  19. Issues and developments related to assessing function in serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matt A; Velligan, Dawn I

    2016-06-01

    Serious mental illness (SMI) results in functional disability that imposes a significant burden on individuals, caregivers, and society. Development of novel treatments is under way in an effort to improve the illness domains of cognitive impairment and negative symptoms and subsequently to improve functional outcomes. The assessment of functional outcomes in SMI faces a number of challenges, including the proliferation of assessment instruments and the differential prioritization of functional goals among stakeholder groups. Functional assessments relying on self- and informant report present a number of limitations. Identifying alternative strategies to assess functioning that are reliable, valid, and sensitive to change is necessary for use in clinical trials. Measures of functional capacity have been proposed for clinical trials investigating compounds to treat cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Alternative approaches employing effort-based decision making or daily activity recording using instruments such as the Daily Activity Report may be more appropriate for studies focused on improving negative symptoms.

  20. Facing the challenge of teaching emotions to individuals with low- and high-functioning autism using a new Serious game: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that emotion processing difficulties are involved in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). An increasing number of studies have focused on the development of training programs and have shown promising results. However, most of these programs are appropriate for individuals with high-functioning ASC (HFA) but exclude individuals with low-functioning ASC (LFA). We have developed a computer-based game called JeStiMulE based on logical skills to teach emotions to individuals with ASC, independently of their age, intellectual, verbal and academic level. The aim of the present study was to verify the usability of JeStiMulE (which is its adaptability, effectiveness and efficiency) on a heterogeneous ASC group. We hypothesized that after JeStiMulE training, a performance improvement would be found in emotion recognition tasks. Methods A heterogeneous group of thirty-three children and adolescents with ASC received two one-hour JeStiMulE sessions per week over four weeks. In order to verify the usability of JeStiMulE, game data were collected for each participant. Furthermore, all participants were presented before and after training with five emotion recognition tasks, two including pictures of game avatars (faces and gestures) and three including pictures of real-life characters (faces, gestures and social scenes). Results Descriptive data showed suitable adaptability, effectiveness and efficiency of JeStiMulE. Results revealed a significant main effect of Session on avatars (ANOVA: F (1,32) = 98.48, P < .001) and on pictures of real-life characters (ANOVA: F (1,32) = 49.09, P < .001). A significant Session × Task × Emotion interaction was also found for avatars (ANOVA: F (6,192) = 2.84, P = .01). This triple interaction was close to significance for pictures of real-life characters (ANOVA: F (12,384) = 1.73, P = .057). Post-hoc analyses revealed that 30 out of 35 conditions found a significant increase after

  1. Gamma-ray strength functions and their relation to astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Buerger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J. B.; Renstroem, T.; Rose, S. J.; Ruud, I. E.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wikan, K.; Algin, E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Goergen, A.

    2011-10-28

    The nuclear {gamma}-ray strength function is one of the indispensable inputs needed for reaction-rate calculations, and is particularly important for the neutron-capture cross section. The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract simultaneously nuclear level density and {gamma}-ray strength function from particle-{gamma} coincidence measurements. Data on the strength functions of Sn nuclei as well as for lighter elements are presented. The Sn isotopes all display a resonance-like structure close to the neutron threshold, that could possibly be due to the neutron-skin oscillation mode. This so-called pygmy dipole resonance greatly influences the neutron-capture rates. In the lighter nuclei, an enhancement of the strength function at low {gamma} energies is observed. The possible impact of this increase on Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates has been investigated.

  2. Gamma-ray strength functions and their relation to astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Goriely, S.; Algin, E.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Lönnroth, T.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J. B.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Ruud, I. E.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wikan, K.

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear γ-ray strength function is one of the indispensable inputs needed for reaction-rate calculations, and is particularly important for the neutron-capture cross section. The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract simultaneously nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function from particle-γ coincidence measurements. Data on the strength functions of Sn nuclei as well as for lighter elements are presented. The Sn isotopes all display a resonance-like structure close to the neutron threshold, that could possibly be due to the neutron-skin oscillation mode. This so-called pygmy dipole resonance greatly influences the neutron-capture rates. In the lighter nuclei, an enhancement of the strength function at low γ energies is observed. The possible impact of this increase on Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates has been investigated.

  3. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function

    PubMed Central

    Venkiteshwaran, Kaushik; Bocher, Benjamin; Maki, James; Zitomer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1) hydrolysis rate, (2) direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3) community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4) methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5) bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses. PMID:27127410

  4. Local feature suppression effect in face and non-face stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kim, Hyojung; Danek, Adrian; Müller, Hermann J; Rangelov, Dragan

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence that the cognitive system processes human faces faster and more precisely than other stimuli. Also, faces summon visual attention in an automatic manner, as evidenced by efficient, 'pop-out' search for face targets amongst homogeneous non-face distractors. Pop-out for faces implies that faces are processed as a basic visual 'feature' by specialized face-tuned detectors, similar to the coding of other features (e.g., color, orientation, motion, etc.). However, it is unclear whether such face detectors encode only the global face configuration or both global and local face features. If the former were correct, the face detectors should be unable to support search for a local face feature, rendering search slower relative to non-face stimuli; that is, there would be local feature suppression (LFS) for faces. If the latter was the case, there should be no difference in the processing of local and, respectively, global face features. In two experiments, participants discerned the presence (vs. absence) of a local target defined as a part of either a normal or a scrambled (schematic or realistic) face or of a non-face (Kanizsa diamond or realistic house) configuration. The results consistently showed a robust LFS effect in both reaction times and error rates for face stimuli, and either no difference or even a local feature enhancement effect for the control stimuli. Taken together, these findings indicate that faces are encoded as a basic visual feature by means of globally tuned face detectors.

  5. Species-specific effects of pigmentation negation on the neural response to faces

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Stevenson, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Face processing is limited in scope as a function of experience – discrimination ability and face-specific behavioral effects are reduced in out-group faces. Nonetheless, other-species faces phylogenetically close to our own may be processed by similar mechanisms as human faces. Presently, we asked whether or not the well-known effect of contrast-negation on face recognition (Galper, 1970) was exclusive to human faces or generalized to monkey faces. Negation disrupts face pigmentation substantially, allowing us to examine species-specific use of surface cues as a function of expertise. We tested adult observers behaviorally and electrophysiologically: Participants completed a 4AFC discrimination task subject to manipulations of face species and independent negation of image luminance and image chroma, and the same stimuli were used to collect event-related potentials in a go/no-go task. We predicted that expertise for human faces would lead to larger deleterious effects of negation for human faces in both tasks, reflected in longer RTs for correct responses in the discrimination task and species-specific modulation of the N170 and P200 by contrast-negation. Our results however, indicate that behaviorally, luminance and chroma negation affect discrimination performance in a species-independent manner, while similar effects of contrast-negation effects are evident in each species at different components of the ERP response. PMID:23792327

  6. Chapter 9--face sensorimotor cortex neuroplasticity associated with intraoral alterations.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J

    2011-01-01

    Loss of teeth or dental attrition is a common clinical occurrence associated with altered somatosensation and impaired oral motor behavior (e.g., mastication, deglutition, phonation). Oral rehabilitation aims at restoring these sensorimotor functions to improve patients' quality of life. Recent studies have implicated neuroplastic changes within the primary motor cortex (M1) in the control of limb motor behaviors following manipulations of sensory inputs to or motor outputs from the central nervous system as well as in learning and adaptation processes. However, limited data are available of the neuroplastic capabilities of face-M1 in relation to orofacial motor functions. The overall objective of our series of studies was to use intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recordings of evoked muscle electromyographic activity to test if neuroplastic changes occur in the ICMS-defined motor representations of the tongue-protrusive (genioglossus, GG) and jaw-opening (anterior digastric, AD) muscles within the rat face-M1 and adjacent face primary somatosensory cortex (face-S1) following several different types of intraoral manipulations. We found that a change in diet consistency was not associated with statistically significant changes in AD and GG motor representations. However, incisor extraction resulted, one week later, in a significantly increased AD representation within the contralateral face-M1 and face-S1, and incisor trimming produced time-dependent changes in the AD motor representation. These novel findings underscore the neuroplastic capabilities of the face sensorimotor cortex and point to its possible role in adaptation to an altered peripheral state or altered sensorimotor behavior. Further insights into the neuroplastic capabilities of the face sensorimotor cortex promise to improve therapeutic strategies aimed at the restoration of oral functions, particularly in patients suffering from orofacial sensorimotor deficits or pain.

  7. Relating dissolved organic matter fluorescence to functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipping, E.; Baker, A.; Thacker, S.; Gondar, D.

    2007-12-01

    The fluorescence excitation emission matrix properties of dissolved organic matter from three rivers and one lake in NW England are analysed. Sites are sampled in duplicate and for some sites seasonally to cover variations in dissolved organic matter composition, river flow, and carbon isotopic (13C, 14C) variability. Results are compared to the functional properties of the dissolved organic matter, the functional assays provide quantitative information on light absorption, fluorescence, photochemical fading, pH buffering, copper binding, benzo[a]pyrene binding, hydrophilicity and adsorption to alumina. Fluorescence characterization of the dissolved organic matter samples demonstrates that peak C fluorescence emission wavelength, the ratio of peak T to peak C fluorescence intensity, and the fluorescence : absorbance ratio best differentiate different dissolved organic matter samples. These parameters correspond to dissolved organic matter aromaticity, the ratio of labile to recalcitrant organic matter, and dissolved organic matter molecular weight. Peak C fluorescence emission wavelength, the ratio of peak T to peak C fluorescence intensity, and the fluorescence : absorbance ratio fluorescence parameters also have strong correlations with several of the functional assays, in particular the extinction coefficients, benzo(a)pyrene binding and alumina adsorption, and buffering capacity. In many cases, regression equations with a correlation coefficient >0.9 are obtained, suggesting that dissolved organic matter functional character can be predicted from DOM fluorescence properties. For one site, the relationship between dissolved organic matter source, fluorescence, function and carbon isotopic composition is discussed.

  8. The Faces in Radiological Images: Fusiform Face Area Supports Radiological Expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilalić, Merim; Grottenthaler, Thomas; Nägele, Thomas; Lindig, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) has often been used as an example of a brain module that was developed through evolution to serve a specific purpose-face processing. Many believe, however, that FFA is responsible for holistic processing associated with any kind of expertise. The expertise view has been tested with various stimuli, with mixed results. One of the main stumbling blocks in the FFA controversy has been the fact that the stimuli used have been similar to faces. Here, we circumvent the problem by using radiological images, X-rays, which bear no resemblance to faces. We demonstrate that FFA can distinguish between X-rays and other stimuli by employing multivariate pattern analysis. The sensitivity to X-rays was significantly better in experienced radiologists than that in medical students with limited radiological experience. For the radiologists, it was also possible to use the patterns of FFA activations obtained on faces to differentiate X-ray stimuli from other stimuli. The overlap in the FFA activation is not based on visual similarity of faces and X-rays but rather on the processes necessary for expertise with both kinds of stimulus. Our results support the expertise view that FFA's main function is related to holistic processing.

  9. Functional relations and the Yang-Baxter algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleas, Wellington

    2013-11-01

    Functional equations methods are a fundamental part of the theory of Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics and they are intimately connected with Baxter's concept of commuting transfer matrices. This concept has culminated in the celebrated Yang-Baxter equation which plays a fundamental role for the construction of quantum integrable systems and also for obtaining their exact solution. Here I shall discuss a proposal that has been put forward in the past years, in which the Yang-Baxter algebra is viewed as a source of functional equations describing quantities of physical interest. For instance, this method has been successfully applied for the description of the spectrum of open spin chains, partition functions of elliptic models with domain wall boundaries and scalar product of Bethe vectors. Further applications of this method are also discussed.

  10. Seeing a haptically explored face: visual facial-expression aftereffect from haptic adaptation to a face.

    PubMed

    Matsumiya, Kazumichi

    2013-10-01

    Current views on face perception assume that the visual system receives only visual facial signals. However, I show that the visual perception of faces is systematically biased by adaptation to a haptically explored face. Recently, face aftereffects (FAEs; the altered perception of faces after adaptation to a face) have been demonstrated not only in visual perception but also in haptic perception; therefore, I combined the two FAEs to examine whether the visual system receives face-related signals from the haptic modality. I found that adaptation to a haptically explored facial expression on a face mask produced a visual FAE for facial expression. This cross-modal FAE was not due to explicitly imaging a face, response bias, or adaptation to local features. Furthermore, FAEs transferred from vision to haptics. These results indicate that visual face processing depends on substrates adapted by haptic faces, which suggests that face processing relies on shared representation underlying cross-modal interactions.

  11. An ab-initio density functional theory investigation of fullerene/Zn-phthalocyanine (C60/ZnPc) interface with face-on orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Javaid, Saqib; Javed Akhtar, M.

    2015-07-28

    We have employed density functional theory to study the C60/ZnPc interface with face-on orientation, which has recently been tailored experimentally. For this purpose, adsorption of ZnPc on C60 has been studied, while taking into account different orientations of C60. Out of various adsorption sites investigated, 6:6 C-C bridge position in apex configuration of C60 has been found energetically the most favourable one with C60-ZnPc adsorption distance of ∼2.77 Å. The adsorption of ZnPc on C60 ensues both charge re-organization and charge transfer at the interface, resulting in the formation of interface dipole. Moreover, by comparing results with that of C60/CuPc interface, we show that the direction of interface dipole can be tuned by the change of the central atom of the phthalocyanine molecule. These results highlight the complexity of electronic interactions present at the C60/Phthalocyanine interface.

  12. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  13. How child's play impacts executive function--related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive functioning be impacted by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions impact development of executive function in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively impact executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive function (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream.

  14. The Intestinal Tract: Structure, Function, Disorders and Related Medication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Dianne M.

    This instructional guide is intended for use within inservice or continuing education programs for people who work in long-term care facilities. This module includes an overview of the normal functions of the small and large intestines and discusses the structures of the intestines, absorption in the intestines, and commonly occurring conditions…

  15. Cancer-Related Functions and Subcellular Localizations of Septins

    PubMed Central

    Poüs, Christian; Klipfel, Laurence; Baillet, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial discovery of septin family GTPases, the understanding of their molecular organization and cellular roles keeps being refined. Septins have been involved in many physiological processes and the misregulation of specific septin gene expression has been implicated in diverse human pathologies, including neurological disorders and cancer. In this minireview, we focus on the importance of the subunit composition and subcellular localization of septins relevant to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. We especially underline the importance of septin polymer composition and of their association with the plasma membrane, actin, or microtubules in cell functions involved in cancer and in resistance to cancer therapies. Through their scaffolding role, their function in membrane compartmentalization or through their protective function against protein degradation, septins also emerge as critical organizers of membrane-associated proteins and of signaling pathways implicated in cancer-associated angiogenesis, apoptosis, polarity, migration, proliferation, and in metastasis. Also, the question as to which of the free monomers, hetero-oligomers, or filaments is the functional form of mammalian septins is raised and the control over their spatial and temporal localization is discussed. The increasing amount of crosstalks identified between septins and cellular signaling mediators reinforces the exciting possibility that septins could be new targets in anti-cancer therapies or in therapeutic strategies to limit drug resistance. PMID:27878118

  16. Academic Literacies and Systemic Functional Linguistics: How Do They Relate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline; Donohue, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Two approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and teaching which have arisen in recent years are systemic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and elsewhere (e.g. Hood, 2006; Lee, 2010; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacies approaches in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Lillis & Scott, 2008; Thesen &…

  17. Functional Thinking Ways in Relation to Linear Function Tables of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanisli, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    One of the basic components of algebraic thinking is functional thinking. Functional thinking involves focusing on the relationship between two (or more) varying quantities and such thinking facilitates the studies on both algebra and the notion of function. The development of functional thinking of students should start in the early grades and it…

  18. Greater sensitivity of the cortical face processing system to perceptually-equated face detection

    PubMed Central

    Maher, S.; Ekstrom, T.; Tong, Y.; Nickerson, L.D.; Frederick, B.; Chen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Face detection, the perceptual capacity to identify a visual stimulus as a face before probing deeper into specific attributes (such as its identity or emotion), is essential for social functioning. Despite the importance of this functional capacity, face detection and its underlying brain mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the roles that the cortical face processing system, which is identified largely through studying other aspects of face perception, play in face detection. Specifically, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the activations of the fusifom face area (FFA), occipital face area (OFA) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) when face detection was isolated from other aspects of face perception and when face detection was perceptually-equated across individual human participants (n=20). During face detection, FFA and OFA were significantly activated, even for stimuli presented at perceptual-threshold levels, whereas STS was not. During tree detection, however, FFA and OFA were responsive only for highly salient (i.e., high contrast) stimuli. Moreover, activation of FFA during face detection predicted a significant portion of the perceptual performance levels that were determined psychophysically for each participant. This pattern of result indicates that FFA and OFA have a greater sensitivity to face detection signals and selectively support the initial process of face vs. non-face object perception. PMID:26592952

  19. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  20. Learning Faces from Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Christopher A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies examining face learning have mostly used only a single exposure to 1 image of each of the faces to be learned. However, in daily life, faces are usually learned from multiple encounters. These 6 experiments examined the effects on face learning of repeated exposures to single or multiple images of a face. All experiments…

  1. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  2. Bodies adapt orientation-independent face representations

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ellyanna; Walls, Shawn A.; Ghuman, Avniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Faces and bodies share a great number of semantic attributes, such as gender, emotional expressiveness, and identity. Recent studies demonstrate that bodies can activate and modulate face perception. However, the nature of the face representation that is activated by bodies remains unknown. In particular, face and body representations have previously been shown to have a degree of orientation specificity. Here we use body-face adaptation aftereffects to test whether bodies activate face representations in an orientation-dependent manner. Specifically, we used a two-by-two design to examine the magnitude of the body-face aftereffect using upright and inverted body adaptors and upright and inverted face targets. All four conditions showed significant body-face adaptation. We found neither a main effect of body orientation nor an interaction between body and face orientation. There was a main effect of target face orientation, with inverted target faces showing larger aftereffects than upright target faces, consistent with traditional face-face adaptation. Taken together, these results suggest that bodies adapt and activate a relatively orientation-independent representation of faces. PMID:23874311

  3. Configural processing in face recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Barbara L.; Marvel, Cherie L.; Drapalski, Amy; Rosse, Richard B.; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. There is currently substantial literature to suggest that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on many face-processing tasks. This study investigated the specific effects of configural changes on face recognition in groups of schizophrenia patients. Methods. In Experiment 1, participants identified facial expressions in upright faces and in faces inverted from their upright orientation. Experiments 2 and 3 examined recognition memory for faces and other non-face objects presented in upright and inverted orientations. Experiment 4 explored recognition of facial identity in composite images where the top half of one face was fused to the bottom half of another face to form a new face configuration. Results. In each experiment, the configural change had the same effect on face recognition for the schizophenia patients as it did for control participants. Recognising inverted faces was more difficult than recognising upright faces, with a disproportionate effect of inversion on faces relative to other objects. Recognition of facial identity in face-halves was interfered with by the formation of a new face configuration. Conclusion. Collectively, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia rely on configural information to recognise photographs of faces. PMID:16528403

  4. The Human Face of Health News: A Multi-Method Analysis of Sourcing Practices in Health-Related News in Belgian Magazines.

    PubMed

    De Dobbelaer, Rebeca; Van Leuven, Sarah; Raeymaeckers, Karin

    2017-03-03

    Health journalists are central gatekeepers who select, frame, and communicate health news to a broad audience, but the selection and content of health news are also influenced by the sources journalists, rely on (Hinnant, Len-Rios, & Oh, 2012). In this paper, we examine whether the traditional elitist sourcing practices (e.g., research institutions, government) are still important in a digitalized news environment where bottom-up non-elite actors (e.g., patients, civil society organizations) can act as producers (Bruns, 2003). Our main goal, therefore, is to detect whether sourcing practices in health journalism can be linked with strategies of empowerment. We use a multi-method approach combining quantitative and qualitative research methods. First, two content analyses are developed to examine health-related news in Belgian magazines (popular weeklies, health magazines, general interest magazines, and women's magazines). The analyses highlight sourcing practices as visible in the texts and give an overview of the different stakeholders represented as sources. In the first wave, the content analysis includes 1047 health-related news items in 19 different Belgian magazines (March-June 2013). In the second wave, a smaller sample of 202 health-related items in 10 magazines was studied for follow-up reasons (February 2015). Second, to contextualize the findings of the quantitative analysis, we interviewed 16 health journalists and editors-in-chief. The results illustrate that journalists consider patients and blogs as relevant sources for health news; nonetheless, elitist sourcing practices still prevail at the cost of bottom-up communication. However, the in-depth interviews demonstrate that journalists increasingly consult patients and civil society actors to give health issues a more "human" face. Importantly, the study reveals that this strategy is differently applied by the various types of magazines. While popular weeklies and women's magazines give a voice to

  5. Faces as objects of non-expertise: processing of thatcherised faces in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Thomas; Weber, Joachim E; Lueschow, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (cPA) is a severe disorder in recognising familiar faces, a human characteristic that is presumably innate, without any macro-spatial brain anomalies. Following the idea that cPA is based on deficits of configural face processing, we used a speeded grotesqueness decision task with thatcherised faces, since the Thatcher illusion can serve as a test of configural disruption (Lewis and Johnston, 1997 Perception 26 225-227). The time needed to report the grotesqueness of a face in relation to orientation showed dissociate patterns between a group of fourteen people with cPA and a group of matched controls: whereas the RTs of controls followed a strong sigmoid function depending on rotation from the upright orientation, the RTs of people with cPA showed a much weaker sigmoid trend approaching a linear function. The latter result is interpreted as a diagnostic sign of impaired configural processing, being the primary cause of the absence of 'face expertise' in prosopagnosia.

  6. Executive functioning in anorexia nervosa patients and their unaffected relatives.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Elisa; Fadda, Emma; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2013-08-15

    Formal genetic studies suggested a substantial genetic influence for anorexia nervosa (AN), but currently results are inconsistent. The use of the neurocognitive endophenotype approach may facilitate our understanding of the AN pathophysiology. We investigated decision-making, set-shifting and planning in AN patients (n=29) and their unaffected relatives (n=29) compared to healthy probands (n=29) and their relatives (n=29). The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Tower of Hanoi (ToH) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were administered. Concordance rates and heritability indices were also calculated in probands/relatives. Impaired performance on the IGT and the WCST were found in both AN probands and their relatives, although planning appeared to be preserved. The IGT heritability index suggested the presence of genetic effects that influence this measure. No evidence for genetic effects was found for the WCST. The results suggest the presence of a shared dysfunctional executive profile in women with AN and their unaffected relatives, characterized by deficient decision-making and set-shifting. Concordance analysis strongly suggests that these impairments aggregate in AN families, supporting the hypothesis that they may constitute biological markers for AN. Decision-making impairment presents a moderate heritability, suggesting that decision-making may be a candidate endophenotype for AN.

  7. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training (‘better’ trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics’ everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits. PMID:24691394

  8. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  9. The relation of airway size to lung function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, J. Ken; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Bon, Jessica M.; Park, Sang C.; Pu, Jiantao; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may cause airway remodeling, and small airways are the mostly likely site of associated airway flow obstruction. Detecting and quantifying airways depicted on a typical computed tomography (CT) images is limited by spatial resolution. In this study, we examined the association between lung function and airway size. CT examinations and spirometry measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percent predicted (FEV I%) from 240 subjects were used in this study. Airway sections depicted in axial CT section were automatically detected and quantified. Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) were computed to compare lung function across three size categories: (1) all detected airways, (2) the smallest 50% of detected airways, and (3) the largest 50% of detected airways using the CORANOVA test. The mean number of all airways detected per subject was 117.4 (+/- 40.1) with mean size ranging from 20.2 to 50.0 mm2. The correlation between lung function (i.e., FEV I) and airway morphometry associated with airway remodeling and airflow obstruction (i.e., lumen perimeter and wall area as a percent of total airway area) was significantly stronger for smaller compared to larger airways (p < 0.05). The PCCs between FEV I and all airways, the smallest 50%, and the largest 50% were 0.583, 0.617, 0.523, respectively, for lumen perimeter and -0.560, -0.584, and -0.514, respectively, for wall area percent. In conclusion, analyzing a set of smaller airways compared to larger airways may improve detection of an association between lung function and airway morphology change.

  10. The Interfacial-Area-Based Relative Permeability Function

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Khaleel, Raziuddin

    2009-09-25

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) requested the services of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical support for the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) activity within the Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project. A portion of the support provided in FY2009, was to extend the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using an alternative approach. This alternative approach incorporates the Brooks and Corey (1964), van Genuchten (1980), and a modified van Genuchten water-retention models into the interfacial-area-based relative permeability model presented by Embid (1997). The general performance of the incorporated models is shown using typical hydraulic parameters. The relative permeability models for the wetting phase were further examined using data from literature. Results indicate that the interfacial-area-based model can describe the relative permeability of the wetting phase reasonably well.

  11. Relating methanogen community structure and anaerobic digester function.

    PubMed

    Bocher, B T W; Cherukuri, K; Maki, J S; Johnson, M; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Much remains unknown about the relationships between microbial community structure and anaerobic digester function. However, knowledge of links between community structure and function, such as specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and COD removal rate, are valuable to improve anaerobic bioprocesses. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) to predict SMA using methanogen community structure descriptors for 49 cultures. Community descriptors were DGGE demeaned standardized band intensities for amplicons of a methanogen functional gene (mcrA). First, predictive accuracy of MLR QSARs was assessed using cross validation with training (n = 30) and test sets (n = 19) for glucose and propionate SMA data. MLR equations correlating band intensities and SMA demonstrated good predictability for glucose (q(2) = 0.54) and propionate (q(2) = 0.53). Subsequently, data from all 49 cultures were used to develop QSARs to predict SMA values. Higher intensities of two bands were correlated with higher SMA values; high abundance of methanogens associated with these two bands should be encouraged to attain high SMA values. QSARs are helpful tools to identify key microorganisms or to study and improve many bioprocesses. Development of new, more robust QSARs is encouraged for anaerobic digestion or other bioprocesses, including nitrification, nitritation, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

  12. Prediction of functional residues in water channels and related proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Froger, A.; Tallur, B.; Thomas, D.; Delamarche, C.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present an updated classification of the ubiquitous MIP (Major Intrinsic Protein) family proteins, including 153 fully or partially sequenced members available in public databases. Presently, about 30 of these proteins have been functionally characterized, exhibiting essentially two distinct types of channel properties: (1) specific water transport by the aquaporins, and (2) small neutral solutes transport, such as glycerol by the glycerol facilitators. Sequence alignments were used to predict amino acids and motifs discriminant in channel specificity. The protein sequences were also analyzed using statistical tools (comparisons of means and correspondence analysis). Five key positions were clearly identified where the residues are specific for each functional subgroup and exhibit high dissimilar physico-chemical properties. Moreover, we have found that the putative channels for small neutral solutes clearly differ from the aquaporins by the amino acid content and the length of predicted loop regions, suggesting a substrate filter function for these loops. From these results, we propose a signature pattern for water transport. PMID:9655351

  13. Cellular functions of gamma-secretase-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Christof; Haass, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is generated by gamma-secretase, a membrane protein complex with an unusual aspartyl protease activity consisting of the four components presenilin, nicastrin, APH-1 and PEN-2. Presenilin is considered the catalytic subunit of this complex since it represents the prototype of the new family of intramembrane-cleaving GxGD-type aspartyl proteases. Recently, five novel members of this family and a nicastrin-like protein were identified. Whereas one of the GxGD-type proteins was shown to be identical with signal peptide peptidase (SPP), the function of the others, now called SPP-like proteins (SPPLs), is not known. We therefore analyzed SPPL2b and SPPL3 and demonstrated that they localize to different subcellular compartments suggesting nonredundant functions. This was supported by different phenotypes obtained in knockdown studies in zebrafish embryos. In addition, these phenotypes could be phenocopied by ectopic expression of putative active site mutants, providing strong evidence for a proteolytic function of SPPL2b and SPPL3. We also identified and characterized the nicastrin-like protein nicalin which, together with the 130-kDa protein NOMO (Nodal modulator), forms a membrane protein complex different from gamma-secretase. We found that during zebrafish embryogenesis this complex is involved in the patterning of the axial mesendoderm, a process controlled by the Nodal signaling pathway.

  14. A Comparison of Face-to-Face and Electronic Peer-Mentoring: Interactions with Mentor Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.; Scielzo, Shannon A.; Yarbrough, Charyl S.; Rosopa, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the relative impact of peer-mentoring that took place either face-to-face or through electronic chat. Proteges were 106 college freshmen randomly assigned to a senior college student mentor and to one of the two communication modes. Fifty-one mentors interacted with one of these proteges face-to-face and one solely…

  15. Highlights from a Literature Review Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2009 and March 2011, Talk To Your Baby has been engaged in a research project, under the title of Face to Face, to identify key messages for parents and carers in relation to communicating with babies and young children, and has examined the most effective ways to promote these messages to parents and carers. The Face to Face project…

  16. The Importance of Formalizing Computational Models of Face Adaptation Aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    Ross, David A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Face adaptation is widely used as a means to probe the neural representations that support face recognition. While the theories that relate face adaptation to behavioral aftereffects may seem conceptually simple, our work has shown that testing computational instantiations of these theories can lead to unexpected results. Instantiating a model of face adaptation not only requires specifying how faces are represented and how adaptation shapes those representations but also specifying how decisions are made, translating hidden representational states into observed responses. Considering the high-dimensionality of face representations, the parallel activation of multiple representations, and the non-linearity of activation functions and decision mechanisms, intuitions alone are unlikely to succeed. If the goal is to understand mechanism, not simply to examine the boundaries of a behavioral phenomenon or correlate behavior with brain activity, then formal computational modeling must be a component of theory testing. To illustrate, we highlight our recent computational modeling of face adaptation aftereffects and discuss how models can be used to understand the mechanisms by which faces are recognized. PMID:27378960

  17. Functional Network Architecture of Reading-Related Regions across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Church, Jessica A.; Power, Jonathan D.; Miezin, Fran M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    Reading requires coordinated neural processing across a large number of brain regions. Studying relationships between reading-related regions informs the specificity of information processing performed in each region. Here, regions of interest were defined from a meta-analysis of reading studies, including a developmental study. Relationships…

  18. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  19. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  20. [Age-related characteristics of structural support for ovarian function].

    PubMed

    Koval'skiĭ, G B

    1984-12-01

    Histoenzymological assay was used to investigate various structures of the ovaries of rats of two groups aged 3-4 and 12-14 months during estral cycle. The activity of 3 beta-, 17 beta- and 20 alpha-steroid dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD and NADP-diaphorases, esterase, acid and alkaline phosphatases was studied. It has been shown that transport alterations in the microcirculation including the hematofollicular barrier play, the leading part in age-dependent depression of reproductive and endocrine functions. Ageing rats demonstrated no linkage between endothelial, thecal and granular cells, which points to the injury of the histophysiological mechanisms of the follicular system integration.

  1. A Brain Network Processing the Age of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Homola, György A.; Jbabdi, Saad; Beckmann, Christian F.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2012-01-01

    Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships. PMID:23185334

  2. Polymerization and Functionalization of Membrane Pores for Water Related Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was modified by chemical treatments in order to create active double bonds to obtain covalent grafting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on membrane. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirms the formation of conjugated C=C double bonds with surface dehydrofluorination. The membrane morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface composition was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thermal stability of the dehydrofluorinated membrane (Def-PVDF) and functionalized membranes were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The influence of covalently attached PAA on Def-PVDF membrane has been investigated to determine its effect on the transport of water and charged solute. Variations in the solution pH show an effect on both permeability and solute retention in a reversible fashion. Metal nanoparticles were also immobilized in the membrane for the degradation of toxic chlorinated organics from water. In addition, PVDF membranes with an asymmetric and sponge-like morphology were developed by immersion-precipitation phase-inversion methods in both lab-scale and large-scale. The new type of spongy PVDF membrane shows high surface area with higher yield of PAA functionalization. The ion-capacity with Ca2+ ions was also investigated. PMID:26074669

  3. Polymerization and Functionalization of Membrane Pores for Water Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Davenport, Douglas M; Ormsbee, Lindell; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2015-04-29

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was modified by chemical treatments in order to create active double bonds to obtain covalent grafting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on membrane. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirms the formation of conjugated C=C double bonds with surface dehydrofluorination. The membrane morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface composition was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thermal stability of the dehydrofluorinated membrane (Def-PVDF) and functionalized membranes were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The influence of covalently attached PAA on Def-PVDF membrane has been investigated to determine its effect on the transport of water and charged solute. Variations in the solution pH show an effect on both permeability and solute retention in a reversible fashion. Metal nanoparticles were also immobilized in the membrane for the degradation of toxic chlorinated organics from water. In addition, PVDF membranes with an asymmetric and sponge-like morphology were developed by immersion-precipitation phase-inversion methods in both lab-scale and large-scale. The new type of spongy PVDF membrane shows high surface area with higher yield of PAA functionalization. The ion-capacity with Ca(2+) ions was also investigated.

  4. Emergent structure-function relations in emphysema and asthma.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Tilo; Suki, Béla

    2011-01-01

    Structure-function relationships in the respiratory system are often a result of the emergence of self-organized patterns or behaviors that are characteristic of certain respiratory diseases. Proper description of such self-organized behavior requires network models that include nonlinear interactions among different parts of the system. This review focuses on 2 models that exhibit self-organized behavior: a network model of the lung parenchyma during the progression of emphysema that is driven by mechanical force-induced breakdown, and an integrative model of bronchoconstriction in asthma that describes interactions among airways within the bronchial tree. Both models suggest that the transition from normal to pathologic states is a nonlinear process that includes a tipping point beyond which interactions among the system components are reinforced by positive feedback, further promoting the progression of pathologic changes. In emphysema, the progressive destruction of tissue is irreversible, while in asthma, it is possible to recover from a severe bronchoconstriction. These concepts may have implications for pulmonary medicine. Specifically, we suggest that structure-function relationships emerging from network behavior across multiple scales should be taken into account when the efficacy of novel treatments or drug therapy is evaluated. Multiscale, computational, network models will play a major role in this endeavor.

  5. Versatile Functions of Caveolin-1 in Aging-related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Cuc Thi

    2017-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a trans-membrane protein that is a major component of the caveolae structure on the plasma membrane. Cav-1 is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, endocytosis, and in particular it has been implied in cellular senescence. Here we review current knowledge about Cav-1 in cellular signaling and discuss the role of Cav-1 in aging-related diseases. PMID:28184336

  6. Functionalizing Carbon Nanotubes and Related Nanostructures for Various Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-26

    applications, such as photovoltaics, optoelectronics, sensing, and energy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nano -Materials, Carbon nano tubes, Silicon Nano Tips 16...SiNTs), GaN nanowires, and related advanced nano -composites. Building on these ground works, a number of photovoltaic, optoelectronic, sensing and...energy/power devices that utilize the above-mentioned nanomaterials as their key components have been developed. Nano -structured system with well

  7. Developmental changes in analytic and holistic processes in face perception

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jane E.; DiBartolo, Michelle D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2nd order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses [i.e., increased reaction time (RT), as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli]. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in RT as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations). Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2nd order faces) and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6–8 years), in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9–11 years) showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2nd order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2nd order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2nd order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2nd order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood. PMID:26300838

  8. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance.

  9. Foil Face Seal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  10. IMPACTS OF INTERACTING ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND O3 ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF A NORTHERN FOREST ECOSYSTEM: OPERATING AND DECOMMISSIONING THE ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, Andrew J.; Zak, Donald R.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.

    2014-06-30

    Two of the most important and pervasive greenhouse gases driving global change and impacting forests in the U.S. and around the world are atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. As the only free air, large-scale manipulative experiment studying the interaction of elevated CO2 and O3 on forests, the Aspen FACE experiment was uniquely designed to address the long-term ecosystem level impacts of these two greenhouse gases on aspen-birch-maple forests, which dominate the richly forested Lake States region. The project was established in 1997 to address the overarching scientific question: “What are the effects of elevated [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, on the structure and functioning of northern hardwood forest ecosystems?” From 1998 through the middle of the 2009 growing season, we examined the interacting effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on ecosystem processes in an aggrading northern forest ecosystem to compare the responses of early-successional, rapid-growing shade intolerant trembling aspen and paper birch to those of a late successional, slower growing shade tolerant sugar maple. Fumigations with elevated CO2 (560 ppm during daylight hours) and O3 (approximately 1.5 x ambient) were conducted during the growing season from 1998 to 2008, and in 2009 through harvest date. Response variables quantified during the experiment included growth, competitive interactions and stand dynamics, physiological processes, plant nutrient status and uptake, tissue biochemistry, litter quality and decomposition rates, hydrology, soil respiration, microbial community composition and respiration, VOC production, treatment-pest interactions, and treatment-phenology interactions. In 2009, we conducted a detailed harvest of the site. The harvest included detailed sampling of a subset of trees by component (leaves and buds, fine branches, coarse branches and stem, coarse roots, fine roots) and excavation of soil to a depth of 1 m. Throughout the experiment, aspen and birch

  11. Electrical stimulation of human fusiform face-selective regions distorts face perception

    PubMed Central

    Parvizi, Josef; Jacques, Corentin; Foster, Brett L.; Withoft, Nathan; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Weiner, Kevin S.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2012-01-01

    Face-selective neural responses in the human fusiform gyrus have been widely examined. However, their causal role in human face perception is largely unknown. Here, we used a multimodal approach of electrocorticography (ECoG), high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) to directly investigate the causal role of face-selective neural responses of the fusiform gyrus (FG) in face perception in a patient implanted with subdural electrodes in the right inferior temporal lobe. High-resolution fMRI identified two distinct FG face-selective regions (mFus-faces and pFus-faces). ECoG revealed a striking anatomical and functional correspondence with fMRI data where a pair of face-selective electrodes, positioned one centimeter apart, overlapped mFus-faces and pFus-faces, respectively. Moreover, electrical charge delivered to this pair of electrodes induced a profound face-specific perceptual distortion during viewing of real faces. Specifically, the subject reported a “metamorphosed” appearance of faces of people in the room. Several controls illustrate the specificity of the effect to the perception of faces. EBS of mFus-faces and pFus-faces neither produced a significant deficit in naming pictures of famous faces on the computer, nor did it affect the appearance of nonface objects. Further, the appearance of faces remained unaffected during both sham stimulation and stimulation of a pair of nearby electrodes that were not face-selective. Overall, our findings reveal a striking convergence of fMRI, ECoG, and EBS, which together offer a rare causal link between functional subsets of the human FG network and face perception. PMID:23100414

  12. The Utility of the Faces Pain Scale in the Assessment of Shoulder Pain in Turkish Stroke Patients: Its Relation with Quality of Life and Psychologic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Ay, Saime; Oztuna, Derya; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Evcik, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the utility of the vertical Faces Pain Scale (FPS) in the assessment of pain in stroke patients using the shoulder pain model and to assess its utility in the Turkish patient population. The secondary aim was to analyze the association of FPS with the quality of life and depression in the study population.…

  13. (Neutron scatter studies of chromatin structure related to function)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    This study is concerned with the application of neutron scatter techniques to the different structural states of nucleosomes and chromatin with the long term objective of understanding how the enormous lengths of DNA are folded into chromosomes. Micrococcal nuclease digestion kinetics have defined two subnucleosome particles; the chromatosome with 168 bp DNA, the histone octamer and one H1 and the nucleosome core particle with 146 bp DNA and the histone octamer. As will be discussed, the structure of the 146 bp DNA core particle is known in solution at low resolution from neutron scatter studies and in crystals. Based on this structure, the authors have a working model for the chromatosome and the mode of binding of H1. In order to define the structure of the nucleosome and also the different orders of chromatin structures they need to know the paths of DNA that link nucleosomes and the factors associated with chromosome functions that act on those DNA paths. The major region for this situation is the inherent variabilities in nucleosome DNA sequences, in the histone subtypes and their states of chemical modification and in the precise locations of nucleosomes. Such variabilities obscure the underlying principles that govern the packaging of DNA into the different structural states of nucleosomes and chromatin. The only way to elucidate these principles is to study the structures of nucleosomes and oligonucleosomes that are fully defined. They have largely achieved these objectives.

  14. Modeling of Red Blood Cells and Related Spleen Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming

    2011-11-01

    A key function of the spleen is to clear red blood cells (RBCs) with abnormal mechanical properties from the circulation. These abnormal mechanical properties may be due to RBC aging or RBC diseases, e.g., malaria and sickle cell anemia. Specifically, 10% of RBCs passing through the spleen are forced to squeeze into the narrow slits between the endothelial cells, and stiffer cells which get stuck are killed and digested by macrophages. To investigate this important physiological process, we employ three different approaches to study RBCs passage through these small slits, including analytical theory, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation and Multiscale Finite Element Method (MS-FEM). By applying the analytical theory, we estimate the critical limiting geometries RBCs can pass. By using the DPD method, we study the full fluid-structure interaction problem, and compute RBC deformation under different pressure gradients. By employing the MS-FEM approach, we model the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton as two distinct layers, and focus on the cytoskeleton deformation and the bilayer-skeleton interaction force at the molecular level. Finally the results of these three approaches are compared to each other and correlated to the experimental observations.

  15. Age-related neuromuscular function during drop jumps.

    PubMed

    Hoffrén, M; Ishikawa, M; Komi, P V

    2007-10-01

    Muscle- and movement-specific fascicle-tendon interaction affects the performance of the neuromuscular system. This interaction is unknown among elderly and consequently contributes to the lack of understanding the age-related problems on neuromuscular control. The present experiment studied the age specificity of fascicle-tendon interaction of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle in drop jump (DJ) exercises. Twelve young and thirteen elderly subjects performed maximal squat jumps and DJs with maximal rebound effort on a sledge apparatus. Ankle and knee joint angles, reaction force, and electromyography (EMG) from the soleus (Sol), GM, and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were measured together with the GM fascicle length by ultrasonography. The results showed that the measured ankle joint stiffness (AJS) during the braking phase correlated positively with the rebound speed in both age groups and that both parameters were significantly lower in the elderly than in young subjects. In both groups, the AJS correlated positively with averaged EMG (aEMG) in Sol during the braking phase and was further associated with GM activation (r = 0.55, P < 0.01) and TA coactivation (TA/GM r = -0.4 P < 0.05) in the elderly subjects. In addition, compared with the young subjects, the elderly subjects showed significantly lower GM aEMG in the braking phase and higher aEMG in the push-off phase, indicating less utilization of tendinous tissue (TT) elasticity. These different activation patterns are in line with the mechanical behavior of GM showing significantly less fascicle shortening and relative TT stretching in the braking phase in the elderly than in the young subjects. These results suggest that age-specific muscle activation patterns as well as mechanical behaviors exist during DJs.

  16. Olfactory and gustatory functions and its relation to body weight.

    PubMed

    Skrandies, Wolfgang; Zschieschang, Romy

    2015-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the influence of body weight as defined by BMI on gustatory and olfactory perception. A total of 66 healthy adults (41 females; 25 males) participated in psychophysical measurements using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test and "Taste Strips" test. Odor thresholds as well as discrimination and identification performance were determined. Tests of gustatory function involved the identification and thresholds of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter taste. In this study, all subjects were healthy participants in a middle age range (between 20 and 56 years of age). Persons with an extreme BMI value were excluded. Subjects were classified according to their BMI in four groups: (1) 15-19.9 kg/m, (2) 20-24.9 kg/m, (3) 25-29.9 kg/m, and (4) >30 kg/m. We did not observe an overall effect of BMI on general sensory sensitivity. There was a significant influence of BMI on olfactory thresholds (F(3,62)=2.79; p<0.047) which increased with increasing BMI. In a similar line, the gustatory thresholds for "salty" were significantly higher with higher BMI (F(3,62)=3.06; p<0.035). Olfactory discrimination and identification was not affected by BMI. Thresholds for odor and sweet or salty taste were also correlated. Our data show that body weight influences gustatory and olfactory perception in healthy adults. Increasing BMI is associated with a decrease in olfactory and taste sensitivity. These findings may have implications for the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients.

  17. The face, beauty, and symmetry: perceiving asymmetry in beautiful faces.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, D W; Cohen, J A

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between bilateral facial symmetry and beauty remains to be clarified. Here, straight head-on photographs of "beautiful" faces from the collections of professional modeling agencies were selected. First, beauty ratings were obtained for these faces. Then, the authors created symmetrical left-left and right-right composites of the beautiful faces and asked a new group of subjects to choose the most attractive pair member. "Same" responses were allowed. No difference between the left-left and right-right composites was revealed but significant differences were obtained between "same" and the left-left or right-right. These results show that subjects detected asymmetry in beauty and suggest that very beautiful faces can be functionally asymmetrical.

  18. Modeled Microgravity Affects Fibroblast Functions Related to Wound Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Monici, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Wound healing is crucial for the survival of an organism. Therefore, in the perspective of space exploration missions, it is important to understand if and how microgravity conditions affect the behavior of the cell populations involved in wound healing and the evolution of the process. Since fibroblasts are the major players in tissue repair, this study was focused on the behavior of fibroblasts in microgravity conditions, modeled by a RCCS. Cell cytoskeleton was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy, the ability to migrate was assessed by microchemotaxis and scratch assay, and the expression of markers of fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and inflammation was assessed by western blot. Results revealed that after cell exposure to modeled microgravity conditions, a thorough rearrangement of microtubules occurred and α-SMA bundles were replaced by a tight network of faulty and disorganized filaments. Exposure to modeled microgravity induced a decrease in α-SMA and E-CAD expressions. Also, the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF decreased, while that of the inflammatory signal COX-2 increased. Fibroblast ability to adhere, migrate, and respond to chemoattractants (PRP), closely related to cytoskeleton integrity and membrane junctions, was significantly impaired. Nevertheless, PRP was able to partially restore fibroblast migration.

  19. Modeled Microgravity Affects Fibroblast Functions Related to Wound Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Monici, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is crucial for the survival of an organism. Therefore, in the perspective of space exploration missions, it is important to understand if and how microgravity conditions affect the behavior of the cell populations involved in wound healing and the evolution of the process. Since fibroblasts are the major players in tissue repair, this study was focused on the behavior of fibroblasts in microgravity conditions, modeled by a RCCS. Cell cytoskeleton was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy, the ability to migrate was assessed by microchemotaxis and scratch assay, and the expression of markers of fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and inflammation was assessed by western blot. Results revealed that after cell exposure to modeled microgravity conditions, a thorough rearrangement of microtubules occurred and α-SMA bundles were replaced by a tight network of faulty and disorganized filaments. Exposure to modeled microgravity induced a decrease in α-SMA and E-CAD expressions. Also, the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF decreased, while that of the inflammatory signal COX-2 increased. Fibroblast ability to adhere, migrate, and respond to chemoattractants (PRP), closely related to cytoskeleton integrity and membrane junctions, was significantly impaired. Nevertheless, PRP was able to partially restore fibroblast migration.

  20. Labels and Children's Perception of Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Seavey, Carol

    The relation between type of label and perception of faces was assessed. Sixty-four second and sixth grade Ss were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions in which various kinds of labeling training were associated with four purple and green smiling and frowning faces. Ss then judged the similarity of pairs of the faces. Results revealed…

  1. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite...

  2. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite...

  3. The Functional Well-Being Scale: a measure of functioning loss due to well-being-related barriers.

    PubMed

    Evers, Kerry E; Castle, Patricia H; Fernandez, Anne C; Prochaska, James O; Prochaska, Janice M; Paiva, Andrea L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the Pro-Change Functional Well-Being Scale, a measure that provides an informative evaluation of general functioning loss due to well-being-related barriers. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses on data from 642 individuals supported a one-factor solution with good model fit. A strong positive correlation existed between the Pro-Change Functional Well-Being Scale and Well-Being Assessment for Productivity. Initial construct validity was demonstrated by predictable relationships between functioning loss and other measures of health and well-being. This initial psychometric evidence suggests that the Pro-Change Functional Well-Being Scale is a reliable and valid assessment of functioning loss due to common well-being-related barriers.

  4. Facing facts: neuronal mechanisms of face perception.

    PubMed

    Dekowska, Monika; Kuniecki, Michał; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The face is one of the most important stimuli carrying social meaning. Thanks to the fast analysis of faces, we are able to judge physical attractiveness and features of their owners' personality, intentions, and mood. From one's facial expression we can gain information about danger present in the environment. It is obvious that the ability to process efficiently one's face is crucial for survival. Therefore, it seems natural that in the human brain there exist structures specialized for face processing. In this article, we present recent findings from studies on the neuronal mechanisms of face perception and recognition in the light of current theoretical models. Results from brain imaging (fMRI, PET) and electrophysiology (ERP, MEG) show that in face perception particular regions (i.e. FFA, STS, IOA, AMTG, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex) are involved. These results are confirmed by behavioral data and clinical observations as well as by animal studies. The developmental findings reviewed in this article lead us to suppose that the ability to analyze face-like stimuli is hard-wired and improves during development. Still, experience with faces is not sufficient for an individual to become an expert in face perception. This thesis is supported by the investigation of individuals with developmental disabilities, especially with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

  5. Three Faces of Fragile X.

    PubMed

    Lieb-Lundell, Cornelia C E

    2016-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the first of 3 syndromes identified as a health condition related to fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene dysfunction. The other 2 syndromes are fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency syndrome (FXPOI) and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), which together are referred to as fragile X-associated disorders (FXDs). Collectively, this group comprises the 3 faces of fragile X. Even though the 3 conditions share a common genetic defect, each one is a separate health condition that results in a variety of body function impairments such as motor delay, musculoskeletal issues related to low muscle tone, coordination limitations, ataxia, tremor, undefined muscle aches and pains, and, for FXTAS, a late-onset neurodegeneration. Although each FXD condition may benefit from physical therapy intervention, available evidence as to the efficacy of intervention appropriate to FXDs is lacking. This perspective article will discuss the genetic basis of FMR1 gene dysfunction and describe health conditions related to this mutation, which have a range of expressions within a family. Physical therapy concerns and possible assessment and intervention strategies will be introduced. Understanding the intergenerational effect of the FMR1 mutation with potential life-span expression is a key component to identifying and treating the health conditions related to this specific genetic condition.

  6. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  7. Development of Effective Connectivity during Own- and Other-Race Face Processing: A Granger Causality Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guifei; Liu, Jiangang; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Numerous developmental studies have suggested that other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition emerges as early as in infancy and develops steadily throughout childhood. However, there is very limited research on the neural mechanisms underlying this developmental ORE. The present study used Granger causality analysis (GCA) to examine the development of children's cortical networks in processing own- and other-race faces. Children were between 3 and 13 years. An old-new paradigm was used to assess their own- and other-race face recognition with ETG-4000 (Hitachi Medical Co., Japan) acquiring functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. After preprocessing, for each participant and under each face condition, we obtained the causal map by calculating the weights of causal relations between the time courses of [oxy-Hb] of each pair of channels using GCA. To investigate further the differential causal connectivity for own-race faces and other-race faces at the group level, a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the GCA weights for each pair of channels with the face race task (own-race face vs. other-race face) as the within-subject variable and the age as a between-subject factor (continuous variable). We found an age-related increase in functional connectivity, paralleling a similar age-related improvement in behavioral face processing ability. More importantly, we found that the significant differences in neural functional connectivity between the recognition of own-race faces and that of other-race faces were modulated by age. Thus, like the behavioral ORE, the neural ORE emerges early and undergoes a protracted developmental course.

  8. Development of Effective Connectivity during Own- and Other-Race Face Processing: A Granger Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guifei; Liu, Jiangang; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Numerous developmental studies have suggested that other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition emerges as early as in infancy and develops steadily throughout childhood. However, there is very limited research on the neural mechanisms underlying this developmental ORE. The present study used Granger causality analysis (GCA) to examine the development of children's cortical networks in processing own- and other-race faces. Children were between 3 and 13 years. An old-new paradigm was used to assess their own- and other-race face recognition with ETG-4000 (Hitachi Medical Co., Japan) acquiring functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. After preprocessing, for each participant and under each face condition, we obtained the causal map by calculating the weights of causal relations between the time courses of [oxy-Hb] of each pair of channels using GCA. To investigate further the differential causal connectivity for own-race faces and other-race faces at the group level, a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the GCA weights for each pair of channels with the face race task (own-race face vs. other-race face) as the within-subject variable and the age as a between-subject factor (continuous variable). We found an age-related increase in functional connectivity, paralleling a similar age-related improvement in behavioral face processing ability. More importantly, we found that the significant differences in neural functional connectivity between the recognition of own-race faces and that of other-race faces were modulated by age. Thus, like the behavioral ORE, the neural ORE emerges early and undergoes a protracted developmental course. PMID:27713696

  9. On the relation between Green's functions of the SUSY theory with and without soft terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashuk, I.

    1999-12-01

    We study possible relations between the full Green's functions of softly broken supersymmetric theories and the full Green's functions of rigid supersymmetric theories on the example of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that algebraic relations can exist and can be written in a simple form. These algebraic relations between the Green's functions have been derived by transforming the path integral of the rigid theory. In this approach soft terms appear as the result of general changes of coordinates in the superspace.

  10. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia.

  11. Accelerated Testing and Modeling of Potential-Induced Degradation as a Function of Temperature and Relative Humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Terwilliger, Kent; Perrin, Greg; Glick, Stephen; Kurtz, Sarah; Wohlgemuth, John

    2015-06-14

    An acceleration model based on the Peck equation was applied to power performance of crystalline silicon cell modules as a function of time and of temperature and humidity, the two main environmental stress factors that promote potential-induced degradation. This model was derived from module power degradation data obtained semi-continuously and statistically by in-situ dark current-voltage measurements in an environmental chamber. The modeling enables prediction of degradation rates and times as functions of temperature and humidity. Power degradation could be modeled linearly as a function of time to the second power; additionally, we found that coulombs transferred from the active cell circuit to ground during the stress test is approximately linear with time. Therefore, the power loss could be linearized as a function of coulombs squared. With this result, we observed that when the module face was completely grounded with a condensed phase conductor, leakage current exceeded the anticipated corresponding degradation rate relative to the other tests performed in damp heat.

  12. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  13. Programmed versus Face-to-Face Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William M.; Ewing, Thomas N.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of a programmed Self-Counseling Manual and a normal precollege counseling interview by experienced counselors. Findings supported the use of programmed counseling as an adjunct to or substitute for face-to-face counseling. (Author)

  14. Robust Face Image Matching under Illumination Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chyuan-Huei Thomas; Lai, Shang-Hong; Chang, Long-Wen

    2004-12-01

    Face image matching is an essential step for face recognition and face verification. It is difficult to achieve robust face matching under various image acquisition conditions. In this paper, a novel face image matching algorithm robust against illumination variations is proposed. The proposed image matching algorithm is motivated by the characteristics of high image gradient along the face contours. We define a new consistency measure as the inner product between two normalized gradient vectors at the corresponding locations in two images. The normalized gradient is obtained by dividing the computed gradient vector by the corresponding locally maximal gradient magnitude. Then we compute the average consistency measures for all pairs of the corresponding face contour pixels to be the robust matching measure between two face images. To alleviate the problem due to shadow and intensity saturation, we introduce an intensity weighting function for each individual consistency measure to form a weighted average of the consistency measure. This robust consistency measure is further extended to integrate multiple face images of the same person captured under different illumination conditions, thus making our robust face matching algorithm. Experimental results of applying the proposed face image matching algorithm on some well-known face datasets are given in comparison with some existing face recognition methods. The results show that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms other methods and achieves higher than 93% recognition rate with three reference images for different datasets under different lighting conditions.

  15. Alcoholism and Dampened Temporal Limbic Activation to Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Urban, Trinity; O’Reilly, Cara E.; Howard, Julie A.; Sawyer, Kayle; Harris, Gordon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive chronic drinking is accompanied by a broad spectrum of emotional changes ranging from apathy and emotional flatness to deficits in comprehending emotional information, but their neural bases are poorly understood. Methods Emotional abnormalities associated with alcoholism were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging in abstinent long-term alcoholic men in comparison to healthy demographically matched controls. Participants were presented with emotionally valenced words and photographs of faces during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding tasks followed by recognition. Results Overall, faces evoked stronger activation than words, with the expected material-specific laterality (left hemisphere for words, and right for faces) and depth of processing effects. However, whereas control participants showed stronger activation in the amygdala and hippocampus when viewing faces with emotional (relative to neutral) expressions, the alcoholics responded in an undifferentiated manner to all facial expressions. In the alcoholic participants, amygdala activity was inversely correlated with an increase in lateral prefrontal activity as a function of their behavioral deficits. Prefrontal modulation of emotional function as a compensation for the blunted amygdala activity during a socially relevant face appraisal task is in agreement with a distributed network engagement during emotional face processing. Conclusions Deficient activation of amygdala and hippocampus may underlie impaired processing of emotional faces associated with long-term alcoholism and may be a part of the wide array of behavioral problems including disinhibition, concurring with previously documented interpersonal difficulties in this population. Furthermore, the results suggest that alcoholics may rely on prefrontal rather than temporal limbic areas in order to compensate for reduced limbic responsivity and to maintain behavioral adequacy when faced with emotionally

  16. On the facilitative effects of face motion on face recognition and its development

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Naiqi G.; Perrotta, Steve; Quinn, Paul C.; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Yu-Hao P.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    For the past century, researchers have extensively studied human face processing and its development. These studies have advanced our understanding of not only face processing, but also visual processing in general. However, most of what we know about face processing was investigated using static face images as stimuli. Therefore, an important question arises: to what extent does our understanding of static face processing generalize to face processing in real-life contexts in which faces are mostly moving? The present article addresses this question by examining recent studies on moving face processing to uncover the influence of facial movements on face processing and its development. First, we describe evidence on the facilitative effects of facial movements on face recognition and two related theoretical hypotheses: the supplementary information hypothesis and the representation enhancement hypothesis. We then highlight several recent studies suggesting that facial movements optimize face processing by activating specific face processing strategies that accommodate to task requirements. Lastly, we review the influence of facial movements on the development of face processing in the first year of life. We focus on infants' sensitivity to facial movements and explore the facilitative effects of facial movements on infants' face recognition performance. We conclude by outlining several future directions to investigate moving face processing and emphasize the importance of including dynamic aspects of facial information to further understand face processing in real-life contexts. PMID:25009517

  17. Insulated face brick

    SciTech Connect

    Cromrich, J.; Cromrich, L.B.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a method for forming insulated brick intended solely for use in building walls and having superior insulation qualities and lighter weight consonant with the load bearing capabilities of building bricks and the appearance of facing brick. It comprises dry mixing two parts of vermiculite and one part of brick clay, thereby forming a dry mixture having a vermiculite to clay ratio of approximately two-to-one by volume; adding water to the dry mixture and mixing, so that a substantially dry admixture having expanded vermiculite and brick clay is formed; forming a facing layer solely from brick clay; molding and compressing the substantially dry admixture, so as to form a generally rectangular main body layer having parallel top and bottom faces, a pair of parallel side faces and a pair of parallel end faces, respectively, the top and bottom faces being substantially larger in area than the respective side faces, and the side faces being substantially larger in area than the respective end faces, the body layer further having at least one bore formed therein, the bore running from the top face to the bottom face perpendicularly thereto and substantially parallel to the side surfaces thereof, the bore being substantially centrally disposed and wherein the facing layer is disposed on one of the side surfaces of the body portion; curing the molded admixture having the facing layer disposed thereon; whereby a cured brick is formed; and firing the cured brick and the facing layer disposed thereon, whereby an integral brick is formed having top and bottom faces of the brick which are entirely devoid of facing layers, wherein the brick has the desired load bearing capability substantially between its top and bottom faces, whereby the outer facing layer only provides the desired appearance and weather resistance, and further whereby the weight of the brick is substantially reduced.

  18. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  19. Developmental origins of the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Cashon, Cara H; Holt, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of adults' expertise for faces is that they are better at recognizing, discriminating, and processing upright faces compared to inverted faces. We investigate the developmental origins of "the face inversion effect" by reviewing research on infants' perception of upright and inverted faces during the first year of life. We review the effects of inversion on infants' face preference, recognition, processing (holistic and second-order configural), and scanning as well as face-related neural responses. Particular attention is paid to the developmental patterns that emerge within and across these areas of face perception. We conclude that the developmental origins of the inversion effect begin in the first few months of life and grow stronger over the first year, culminating in effects that are commonly thought to indicate adult-like expertise. We posit that by the end of the first year, infants' face-processing system has become specialized to upright faces and a foundation for adults' upright-face expertise has been established. Developmental mechanisms that may facilitate the emergence of this upright-face specialization are discussed, including the roles that physical and social development may play in upright faces' becoming more meaningful to infants during the first year.

  20. Functions and Relations: Some Applications from Database Management for the Teaching of Classroom Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Sharon K.

    While functions and relations are important concepts in the teaching of mathematics, research suggests that many students lack an understanding and appreciation of these concepts. The present paper discusses an approach for teaching functions and relations that draws on the use of illustrations from database management. This approach has the…

  1. Are child anxiety and somatization associated with pain in pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated individual and incremental contributions of somatization and trait anxiety to pain report in children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. Eighty children (7-10 years) with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders completed the State-Trait Anxiet...

  2. Verbal Memory Deficits in Relation to Organization Strategy in High- and Low-Functioning Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…

  3. Perception and recognition of faces in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, D.; Knoll, L. J.; Sakhardande, A. L.; Speekenbrink, M.; Kadosh, K. C.; Blakemore, S. -J.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the development of face cognition abilities have focussed on childhood, with early maturation accounts contending that face cognition abilities are mature by 3–5 years. Late maturation accounts, in contrast, propose that some aspects of face cognition are not mature until at least 10 years. Here, we measured face memory and face perception, two core face cognition abilities, in 661 participants (397 females) in four age groups (younger adolescents (11.27–13.38 years); mid-adolescents (13.39–15.89 years); older adolescents (15.90–18.00 years); and adults (18.01–33.15 years)) while controlling for differences in general cognitive ability. We showed that both face cognition abilities mature relatively late, at around 16 years, with a female advantage in face memory, but not in face perception, both in adolescence and adulthood. Late maturation in the face perception task was driven mainly by protracted development in identity perception, while gaze perception abilities were already comparatively mature in early adolescence. These improvements in the ability to memorize, recognize and perceive faces during adolescence may be related to increasing exploratory behaviour and exposure to novel faces during this period of life. PMID:27647477

  4. Neural pathways subserving face-based mentalizing.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Yordanka Nikolova; Duffau, Hugues; Herbet, Guillaume

    2017-02-27

    Over the past few years, considerable progress has been done in clarifying the neural networks underlying mentalizing. However, although the cortical architecture of this function is relatively well understood, the white matter pathways that may be involved in conveying neural signals within the mentalizing network remain to be elucidated. To gain insight into this matter, a detailed stimulation mapping of face-based mentalizing was performed in 27 patients undergoing awake surgery for a right-sided diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG). Direct electrical stimulation (DES) was applied to both the cortical and subcortical levels. In perfect agreement with previous literature using face-based mentalizing tasks, cortical sites were identified in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). Most importantly, critical sites were found along the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), and within the white matter fibres supplying the dlPFC. Disconnectome analyses confirmed the very high probability of IFOF disconnection during temporal subcortical stimulation, and revealed an additional implication of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) during prefrontal subcortical stimulations. Altogether, these findings suggest that functional integrity of both the IFOF and the SLF is required for accurately inferring complex mental states from human faces.

  5. Training-related changes in early visual processing of functionally illiterate adults: evidence from event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate training-related changes in fast visual word recognition of functionally illiterate adults. Analyses focused on the left-lateralized occipito-temporal N170, which represents the earliest processing of visual word forms. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 20 functional illiterates receiving intensive literacy training for adults, 10 functional illiterates not participating in the training and 14 regular readers while they read words, pseudowords or viewed symbol strings. Subjects were required to press a button whenever a stimulus was immediately repeated. Results Attending intensive literacy training was associated with improvements in reading and writing skills and with an increase of the word-related N170 amplitude. For untrained functional illiterates and regular readers no changes in literacy skills or N170 amplitude were observed. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that the word-related N170 can still be modulated in adulthood as a result of the improvements in literacy skills. PMID:24330622

  6. The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H; Fabes, Richard A; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Murphy, Bridget C; Cumberland, Amanda J; Shepard, Stephanie A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parental observed warmth and positive expressivity to children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems in a sample of 180 elementary school children. Data was collected when the children were in second to fifth grades (age: M = 112.8 months), and again 2 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models supported the hypothesis that parents' (mostly mothers') positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and children's empathy mediated the relation between parental positive expressivity and children's social functioning. These relations persisted after controlling for prior levels of parenting and child characteristics. Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning.

  7. Design of Computer-Related Workstations in Relation to Job Functions and Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    d:r:>v to differences tor physical requirements by job function ! ., ,h ranulat ion is identified by the respondent within each cell , as i qy whether...an t ore ,,’’ rated h ’l I ca Mtor -I ’Itn~ L 1; 1am - (0 ca in wo I berf I or the 1o mI or ur ra I ab 1) r: I iuldr’ i 1l 1 r’’.I’tnil he r, 1110~. mI...rating this variable ngf-eatively remained stable in all cells ); or does manavoment nee d to exercise much less control in the renovated prototype? r ,1

  8. Temporal pole activity during perception of sad faces, but not happy faces, correlates with neuroticism trait.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2009-03-27

    It is known that the temporal cortex is involved in perception of emotional facial expressions, and the involvement is relatively independent of the emotional valence of those expressions. The present study revealed a valence-dependent aspect of the temporal cortex through individual differences analyses involving the neuroticism trait, one of the representative affective personality traits. Functional MRI was administered while subjects classified expressions of faces, and neuroticism scores were obtained from individual subjects. Significant brain activity was observed in the temporal pole (TP) during perception of both happy and sad expressions relative to neutral expressions. Correlational analyses revealed that TP activity during perception of sad expressions, but not happy expressions, correlated with the neuroticism scores. These results demonstrate differential roles for the temporal cortex in perception of happy and sad faces, and suggest that TP recruitment during understanding of negative emotions is dependent on the personality of the individuals.

  9. Relations between Short-term Memory Deficits, Semantic Processing, and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Corinne M.; Martin, Randi C.; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested separable short-term memory (STM) buffers for the maintenance of phonological and lexical-semantic information, as some patients with aphasia show better ability to retain semantic than phonological information and others show the reverse. Recently, researchers have proposed that deficits to the maintenance of semantic information in STM are related to executive control abilities. Aims The present study investigated the relationship of executive function abilities with semantic and phonological short-term memory (STM) and semantic processing in such patients, as some previous research has suggested that semantic STM deficits and semantic processing abilities are critically related to specific or general executive function deficits. Method and Procedures 20 patients with aphasia and STM deficits were tested on measures of short-term retention, semantic processing, and both complex and simple executive function tasks. Outcome and Results In correlational analyses, we found no relation between semantic STM and performance on simple or complex executive function tasks. In contrast, phonological STM was related to executive function performance in tasks that had a verbal component, suggesting that performance in some executive function tasks depends on maintaining or rehearsing phonological codes. Although semantic STM was not related to executive function ability, performance on semantic processing tasks was related to executive function, perhaps due to similar executive task requirements in both semantic processing and executive function tasks. Conclusions Implications for treatment and interpretations of executive deficits are discussed. PMID:22736889

  10. Brain Responses Differ to Faces of Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsalidou, Marie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Bayless, Sarah J.; Taylor, Margot J.

    2010-01-01

    We encounter many faces each day but relatively few are personally familiar. Once faces are familiar, they evoke semantic and social information known about the person. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate differential brain activity to familiar and non-familiar faces; however, brain responses related to personally familiar faces have been more rarely…

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  12. Face to Face Communications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  13. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder scan own-race faces differently from other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Feng, Cong; Joseph, Lisa; Li, Jiao; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that people recognize and scan other-race faces differently from faces of their own race. The current study examined whether this cross-racial difference in face processing found in the typical population also exists in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 5- to 10-year-old children with ASD (n=29), typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age (n=29), and TD children matched on nonverbal IQ (n=29). Children completed a face recognition task in which they were asked to memorize and recognize both own- and other-race faces while their eye movements were tracked. We found no recognition advantage for own-race faces relative to other-race faces in any of the three groups. However, eye-tracking results indicated that, similar to TD children, children with ASD exhibited a cross-racial face-scanning pattern: they looked at the eyes of other-race faces longer than at those of own-race faces, whereas they looked at the mouth of own-race faces longer than at that of other-race faces. The findings suggest that although children with ASD have difficulty with processing some aspects of faces, their ability to process face race information is relatively spared.

  14. Face engagement during infancy predicts later face recognition ability in younger siblings of children with autism.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Carina C J M; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2014-07-01

    Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study by our lab demonstrated that infants at increased familial risk for ASD, irrespective of their diagnostic status at 3 years, exhibit a clear orienting response to faces. The present study was conducted as a follow-up on the same cohort to investigate how measures of early engagement with faces relate to face-processing abilities later in life. We also investigated whether face recognition difficulties are specifically related to an ASD diagnosis, or whether they are present at a higher rate in all those at familial risk. At 3 years we found a reduced ability to recognize unfamiliar faces in the high-risk group that was not specific to those children who received an ASD diagnosis, consistent with face recognition difficulties being an endophenotype of the disorder. Furthermore, we found that longer looking at faces at 7 months was associated with poorer performance on the face recognition task at 3 years in the high-risk group. These findings suggest that longer looking at faces in infants at risk for ASD might reflect early face-processing difficulties and predicts difficulties with recognizing faces later in life.

  15. Reanimating the paralyzed face

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Facial animation is an essential part of human communication and one of the main means of expressing emotions, indexing our physiologic state and providing nonverbal cues. The loss of this important human quality due to facial paralysis can be devastating and is often associated with depression, social isolation and poor quality of life. Interruption of the neuromuscular pathway from the facial motor cortex to the facial muscles is the common causative factor in facial paralysis resulting from various etiologies. Restoring tone, symmetry and movement to the paralyzed face requires timely nerve grafting intervention in cases of reversible paralysis and the transfer of functional muscle units in irreversible paralysis. We review recent advances in these techniques. PMID:24273650

  16. Event-related brain potentials reveal correlates of the transformation of stimulus functions through derived relations in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, L M; Farina, F R; Hussey, I; Roche, R A P

    2015-03-02

    This research aimed to explore the neural correlates of relational learning by recording high-density EEG during a behavioural task involving derivation levels of varying complexity. A total of 15 participants (5 male; age range 18-23 years; mean age=20.0 years) completed contextual cue training, relational learning, function training and a derivation task while 128-channel event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the scalp (Background). Differences in response latencies were observed between the two derived (symmetry and equivalence) and directly trained relations, with longest latencies found for equivalence and shortest for the directly trained relations. This pattern failed to reach statistical significance. Importantly, ERPs revealed an early P3a positivity (from 230 to 350ms) over right posterior scalp sites. Significantly larger mean amplitudes were found at three channels (P6, E115 and E121) for the equivalence relations compared to the two other types (Results). We believe this may constitute a first demonstration of differences in brain electrophysiology in the transformation of stimulus functions through derived relations of hierarchical levels of complexity (Conclusions).

  17. Enhanced functional connectivity and increased gray matter volume of insula related to action video game playing

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Liu, Dongbo; Ma, Weiyi; Dong, Li; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that distinct insular subregions are associated with particular neural networks (e.g., attentional and sensorimotor networks). Based on the evidence that playing action video games (AVGs) facilitates attentional and sensorimotor functions, this study examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of insular subregions and the functional networks therein that are related to attentional and sensorimotor functions. By comparing AVG experts and amateurs, we found that AVG experts had enhanced functional connectivity and grey matter volume in insular subregions. Furthermore, AVG experts exhibited increased functional connectivity between the attentional and sensorimotor networks, and the experience-related enhancement was predominantly evident in the left insula, an understudied brain area. Thus, AVG playing may enhance functional integration of insular subregions and the pertinent networks therein. PMID:25880157

  18. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  19. The Relations Among Inhibition and Interference Control Functions: A Latent-Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira

    2004-01-01

    This study used data from 220 adults to examine the relations among 3 inhibition-related functions. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that Prepotent Response Inhibition and Resistance to Distractor Interference were closely related, but both were unrelated to Resistance to Proactive Interference. Structural equation modeling, which combined…

  20. Using Grunig's "Indices for Models of Public Relations" To Differentiate Job Functions within Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Joey; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine the function of a firm within the context of public relations practice. The assessment of James E. Grunig's "Indices for Models of Public Relations" (an instrument for measuring the type of public relations practiced by an organization) was of primary concern. This instrument places public relations…

  1. Functional Analyses of Endometriosis-Related Polymorphisms in the Estrogen Synthesis and Metabolism-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsin-Shih; Wu, Hsien-Ming; Cheng, Bi-Hwa; Yen, Chih-Feng; Chang, Pi-Yueh; Chao, Angel; Lee, Yun-Shien; Huang, Hsien-Da; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is determined by genetic factors, and the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms varies greatly depending on the ethnic group studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 9 genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism and the risks of endometriosis. Three hundred patients with endometriosis and 337 non-endometriotic controls were recruited. Thirty four non-synonymous SNPs, which change amino acid residues, were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The functions of SNP-resulted amino acid changes were analyzed using multiple web-accessible databases and phosphorylation predicting algorithms. Among the 34 NCBI-listed SNPs, 22 did not exhibit polymorphism in this study of more than 600 Taiwanese Chinese women. However, homozygous and heterozygous mutants of 4 SNPs - rs6165 (genotype GG+GA, 307Ala/Ala+307Ala/Thr) of FSHR, rs 6166 (genotype GG+GA, 680Ser/Asn+680Ser/Ser) of FSHR, rs2066479 (genotype AA+AG, 289Ser/Ser+289Ser/Gly) of HSD17B3 and rs700519 (genotype TT+TC, 264Cys/Cys+264Cys/Arg) of CYP19, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with decreased risks of endometriosis. Bioinformatics results identified 307Thr of FSHR to be a site for O-linked glycosylation, 680Ser of FSHR a phosphorylated site by protein kinase B, and 289Ser of HSD17B3 a phosphorylated site by protein kinase B or ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1. Results of this study suggest that non-synonymous polymorphisms of FSHR, HSD17B3 and CYP19 genes may modulate the risk of endometriosis in Taiwanese Chinese women. Identification of the endometrosis-preferential non-synonymous SNPs and the conformational changes in those proteins may pave the way for the development of more disease-specific drugs. PMID:23139742

  2. Covert face priming reveals a 'true face effect' in a case of congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher; Gingerich, Trevor; Striemer, Danielle; Dixon, Mike

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) fail to demonstrate significant priming from faces to related names in covert recognition tasks. The interpretation has been that CP precludes the ability to acquire face representations. In the current study we replicated this important finding. In addition, we also demonstrated significant 'true face effect' in a CP patient, where face primes that matched the probe names facilitated reaction times compared to unrelated face primes. These data suggest that some individuals with CP may possess degraded face representations that facilitate the priming of a person's identity, but not semantic associates.

  3. Prevalence and impact of dementia-related functional limitations in the United States, 2001 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Henry Michael; McLaughlin, Trent; Leibman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    These analyses examined the relationship between dementia and comorbid conditions with respect to degree of functional impairment and emotional impact. Analyses were conducted using National Health Interview Survey (2001 through 2005) data from a subset of individuals aged > or =60 years with activity limitations attributed to dementia, senility, or Alzheimer disease compared with those whose limitations were attributed to other conditions. The mean number of limited activities was 6.84 (95% confidence interval: 6.48-7.20) for persons with dementia-related limitations and 4.87 (95% confidence interval: 4.81-4.93) for those with limitations not dementia related. Both groups reported similar prevalence of diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, heart disease, prostate cancer, breast cancer, angina, and emphysema; respondents with dementia-related functional limitations were more likely to report diabetes, depression or anxiety, and vision problems as being related to functional limitations. Persons with dementia-related functional limitations were also more likely than persons with non-dementia-related functional limitations to report feeling sad, hopeless, worthless, nervous, and that "everything is an effort." Improving or maintaining functional independence in patients with dementia will likely require a multifaceted approach across disease states. Additional research will help define the impact of dementia on the development and progression of functional limitations related to comorbidities.

  4. Neural Correlate of the Thatcher Face Illusion in a Monkey Face-Selective Patch.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; Van Belle, Goedele; Vanduffel, Wim; Rossion, Bruno; Vogels, Rufin

    2015-07-08

    Compelling evidence that our sensitivity to facial structure is conserved across the primate order comes from studies of the "Thatcher face illusion": humans and monkeys notice changes in the orientation of facial features (e.g., the eyes) only when faces are upright, not when faces are upside down. Although it is presumed that face perception in primates depends on face-selective neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex, it is not known whether these neurons respond differentially to upright faces with inverted features. Using microelectrodes guided by functional MRI mapping, we recorded cell responses in three regions of monkey IT cortex. We report an interaction in the middle lateral face patch (ML) between the global orientation of a face and the local orientation of its eyes, a response profile consistent with the perception of the Thatcher illusion. This increased sensitivity to eye orientation in upright faces resisted changes in screen location and was not found among face-selective neurons in other areas of IT cortex, including neurons in another face-selective region, the anterior lateral face patch. We conclude that the Thatcher face illusion is correlated with a pattern of activity in the ML that encodes faces according to a flexible holistic template.

  5. Are child anxiety and somatization associated with pain in pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    PubMed

    Williams, Amy E; Czyzewski, Danita I; Self, Mariella M; Shulman, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated individual and incremental contributions of somatization and trait anxiety to pain report in children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. Eighty children (7-10 years) with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Children's Somatization Inventory, and 2-week pain diaries (assessing pain frequency and maximum pain). Hierarchical regressions indicated that both trait anxiety and somatization were significantly related to maximum pain and pain frequency, with somatization explaining more variance. Trait anxiety did not significantly add to prediction above somatization. Assessment of somatization may assist with treatment planning for children with functional abdominal pain.

  6. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  7. Face, eye, and body selective responses in fusiform gyrus and adjacent cortex: an intracranial EEG study.

    PubMed

    Engell, Andrew D; McCarthy, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have investigated the degree to which processing of whole faces, face-parts, and bodies are differentially localized within the fusiform gyrus and adjacent ventral occipitotemporal cortex. While some studies have emphasized the spatial differentiation of processing into discrete areas, others have emphasized the overlap of processing and the importance of distributed patterns of activity. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from subdural electrodes provides excellent temporal and spatial resolution of local neural activity, and thus provides an alternative method to fMRI for studying differences and commonalities in face and body processing. In this study we recorded iEEG from 12 patients while they viewed images of novel faces, isolated eyes, headless bodies, and flowers. Event-related potential analysis identified 69 occipitotemporal sites at which there was a face-, eye-, or body-selective response when contrasted to flowers. However, when comparing faces, eyes, and bodies to each other at these sites, we identified only 3 face-specific, 13 eye-specific, and 1 body-specific electrodes. Thus, at the majority of sites, faces, eyes, and bodies evoked similar responses. However, we identified ten locations at which the amplitude of the responses spatially varied across adjacent electrodes, indicating that the configuration of current sources and sinks were different for faces, eyes, and bodies. Our results also demonstrate that eye-sensitive regions are more abundant and more purely selective than face- or body-sensitive regions, particularly in lateral occipitotemporal cortex.

  8. Face, eye, and body selective responses in fusiform gyrus and adjacent cortex: an intracranial EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Engell, Andrew D.; McCarthy, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have investigated the degree to which processing of whole faces, face-parts, and bodies are differentially localized within the fusiform gyrus and adjacent ventral occipitotemporal cortex. While some studies have emphasized the spatial differentiation of processing into discrete areas, others have emphasized the overlap of processing and the importance of distributed patterns of activity. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from subdural electrodes provides excellent temporal and spatial resolution of local neural activity, and thus provides an alternative method to fMRI for studying differences and commonalities in face and body processing. In this study we recorded iEEG from 12 patients while they viewed images of novel faces, isolated eyes, headless bodies, and flowers. Event-related potential analysis identified 69 occipitotemporal sites at which there was a face-, eye-, or body-selective response when contrasted to flowers. However, when comparing faces, eyes, and bodies to each other at these sites, we identified only 3 face-specific, 13 eye-specific, and 1 body-specific electrodes. Thus, at the majority of sites, faces, eyes, and bodies evoked similar responses. However, we identified ten locations at which the amplitude of the responses spatially varied across adjacent electrodes, indicating that the configuration of current sources and sinks were different for faces, eyes, and bodies. Our results also demonstrate that eye-sensitive regions are more abundant and more purely selective than face- or body-sensitive regions, particularly in lateral occipitotemporal cortex. PMID:25191255

  9. Reduced set averaging of face identity in children and adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Neumann, Markus F; Ewing, Louise; Palermo, Romina

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty abstracting and updating average representations from their diet of faces. These averages function as perceptual norms for coding faces, and poorly calibrated norms may contribute to face recognition difficulties in autism. Another kind of average, known as an ensemble representation, can be abstracted from briefly glimpsed sets of faces. Here we show for the first time that children and adolescents with autism also have difficulty abstracting ensemble representations from sets of faces. On each trial, participants saw a study set of four identities and then indicated whether a test face was present. The test face could be a set average or a set identity, from either the study set or another set. Recognition of set averages was reduced in participants with autism, relative to age- and ability-matched typically developing participants. This difference, which actually represents more accurate responding, indicates weaker set averaging and thus weaker ensemble representations of face identity in autism. Our finding adds to the growing evidence for atypical abstraction of average face representations from experience in autism. Weak ensemble representations may have negative consequences for face processing in autism, given the importance of ensemble representations in dealing with processing capacity limitations.

  10. Affective attitudes to face images associated with intracerebral EEG source location before face viewing.

    PubMed

    Pizzagalli, D; Koenig, T; Regard, M; Lehmann, D

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether different, personality-related affective attitudes are associated with different brain electric field (EEG) sources before any emotional challenge (stimulus exposure). A 27-channel EEG was recorded in 15 subjects during eyes-closed resting. After recording, subjects rated 32 images of human faces for affective appeal. The subjects in the first (i.e., most negative) and fourth (i.e., most positive) quartile of general affective attitude were further analyzed. The EEG data (mean=25+/-4. 8 s/subject) were subjected to frequency-domain model dipole source analysis (FFT-Dipole-Approximation), resulting in 3-dimensional intracerebral source locations and strengths for the delta-theta, alpha, and beta EEG frequency band, and for the full range (1.5-30 Hz) band. Subjects with negative attitude (compared to those with positive attitude) showed the following source locations: more inferior for all frequency bands, more anterior for the delta-theta band, more posterior and more right for the alpha, beta and 1.5-30 Hz bands. One year later, the subjects were asked to rate the face images again. The rating scores for the same face images were highly correlated for all subjects, and original and retest affective mean attitude was highly correlated across subjects. The present results show that subjects with different affective attitudes to face images had different active, cerebral, neural populations in a task-free condition prior to viewing the images. We conclude that the brain functional state which implements affective attitude towards face images as a personality feature exists without elicitors, as a continuously present, dynamic feature of brain functioning.

  11. The Development of Metaphor Comprehension and Its Relationship with Relational Verbal Reasoning and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Montoro, Pedro R.; Herrero, Laura; Ballestrino, Patricia; Sebastián, Iraia

    2016-01-01

    Our main objective was to analyse the different contributions of relational verbal reasoning (analogical and class inclusion) and executive functioning to metaphor comprehension across development. We postulated that both relational reasoning and executive functioning should predict individual and developmental differences. However, executive functioning would become increasingly involved when metaphor comprehension is highly demanding, either because of the metaphors’ high difficulty (relatively novel metaphors in the absence of a context) or because of the individual’s special processing difficulties, such as low levels of reading experience or low semantic knowledge. Three groups of participants, 11-year-olds, 15-year-olds and young adults, were assessed in different relational verbal reasoning tasks—analogical and class-inclusion—and in executive functioning tasks—updating information in working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The results revealed clear progress in metaphor comprehension between ages 11 and 15 and between ages 15 and 21. However, the importance of executive function in metaphor comprehension was evident by age 15 and was restricted to updating information in working memory and cognitive inhibition. Participants seemed to use two different strategies to interpret metaphors: relational verbal reasoning and executive functioning. This was clearly shown when comparing the performance of the "more efficient" participants in metaphor interpretation with that of the "less efficient” ones. Whereas in the first case none of the executive variables or those associated with relational verbal reasoning were significantly related to metaphor comprehension, in the latter case, both groups of variables had a clear predictor effect. PMID:26954501

  12. The Development of Metaphor Comprehension and Its Relationship with Relational Verbal Reasoning and Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R; Herrero, Laura; Ballestrino, Patricia; Sebastián, Iraia

    2016-01-01

    Our main objective was to analyse the different contributions of relational verbal reasoning (analogical and class inclusion) and executive functioning to metaphor comprehension across development. We postulated that both relational reasoning and executive functioning should predict individual and developmental differences. However, executive functioning would become increasingly involved when metaphor comprehension is highly demanding, either because of the metaphors' high difficulty (relatively novel metaphors in the absence of a context) or because of the individual's special processing difficulties, such as low levels of reading experience or low semantic knowledge. Three groups of participants, 11-year-olds, 15-year-olds and young adults, were assessed in different relational verbal reasoning tasks-analogical and class-inclusion-and in executive functioning tasks-updating information in working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The results revealed clear progress in metaphor comprehension between ages 11 and 15 and between ages 15 and 21. However, the importance of executive function in metaphor comprehension was evident by age 15 and was restricted to updating information in working memory and cognitive inhibition. Participants seemed to use two different strategies to interpret metaphors: relational verbal reasoning and executive functioning. This was clearly shown when comparing the performance of the "more efficient" participants in metaphor interpretation with that of the "less efficient" ones. Whereas in the first case none of the executive variables or those associated with relational verbal reasoning were significantly related to metaphor comprehension, in the latter case, both groups of variables had a clear predictor effect.

  13. Spatial Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Functions and Services using Human Relating Factors for SDG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.; Kim, T.; Lim, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Application of ecosystem service concept in environmental related decision making could be numerical and objective standard for policy maker between preserving and developing perspective of environment. However, pursuing maximum benefit from natural capital through ecosystem services caused failure by losing ecosystem functions through its trade-offs. Therefore, difference between ecosystem functions and services were demonstrated and would apply human relating perspectives. Assessment results of ecosystem functions and services can be divided 3 parts. Tree growth per year set as the ecosystem function factor and indicated through so called pure function map. After that, relating functions can be driven such as water conservation, air pollutant purification, climate change regulation, and timber production. Overall process and amount are numerically quantified. These functional results can be transferred to ecosystem services by multiplying economic unit value, so function reflecting service maps can be generated. On the other hand, above services, to implement more reliable human demand, human reflecting service maps are also be developed. As the validation, quantified ecosystem functions are compared with former results through pixel based analysis. Three maps are compared, and through comparing difference between ecosystem function and services and inversed trends in function based and human based service are analysed. In this study, we could find differences in PF, FRS, and HRS in relation to based ecosystem conditions. This study suggests that the differences in PF, FRS, and HRS should be understood in the decision making process for sustainable management of ecosystem services. Although the analysis is based on in sort existing process separation, it is important to consider the possibility of different usage of ecosystem function assessment results and ecosystem service assessment results in SDG policy making. Furthermore, process based functional approach

  14. The relation between Escherichia coli surface functional groups’ composition and their physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Hamadi, Fatima; Latrache, Hassan; Zahir, Hafida; Elghmari, Abderrahmene; Timinouni, Mohamed; Ellouali, Mostapha

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli surface characteristics including hydrophobicity, electrophoretic mobility and surface functional groups’ composition were investigated. These characteristics were determined respectively by water contact angle measurements, microelectrophoresis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The relation between the physicochemical properties and functional groups’ composition was also examined. The electrophoretic mobility at pH 7 appeared to be governed on the cell surface by the (O=C) functional groups. The cell surface’s hydrophilicity was associated with high levels of (C-(O.N)) and (OH- (C-O-C)) functional groups, whereas the cell surface’s hydrophobicity was associated with (C-(C,H)) functional groups. PMID:24031168

  15. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  16. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians. PMID:27774081

  17. What affects facing direction in human facial profile drawing? A meta-analytic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Sümeyra; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Two meta-analyses were conducted to examine two potential sources of spatial orientation biases in human profile drawings by brain-intact individuals. The first examined profile facing direction as function of hand used to draw. The second examined profile facing direction in relation to directional scanning biases related to reading/writing habits. Results of the first meta-analysis, based on 27 study samples with 4171 participants, showed that leftward facing of profiles (from the viewer's perspective) was significantly associated with using the right hand to draw. The reading/writing direction meta-analysis, based on 10 study samples with 1552 participants, suggested a modest relationship between leftward profile facing and primary use of a left-to-right reading/writing direction. These findings suggest that biomechanical and cultural factors jointly influence hand movement preferences and in turn the direction of facing of human profile drawings.

  18. Geometric structure, electronic structure and optical absorption properties of one-dimensional thiolate-protected gold clusters containing a quasi-face-centered-cubic (quasi-fcc) Au-core: a density-functional theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongyun; Wang, Pu; Pei, Yong

    2016-09-29

    Based on the recently reported atomic structures of thiolate-protected Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, and Au52(SR)32 clusters, a family of homogeneous, linear, thiolate-protected gold superstructures containing novel quasi-face-centered-cubic (quasi-fcc) Au-cores is theoretically envisioned, denoted as the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N cluster. By means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations, a unified view of the geometric structure, electronic structure, magic stable size and size-dependent NIR absorption properties of Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters is provided. We find that the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters demonstrate oscillating transformation energies dependent on N. The odd-N clusters show more favorable (negative) reaction energies than the even-N clusters. The magic stability of recently reported Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, Au44(SR)28, Au52(SR)32 and Au76(SR)44 clusters can be addressed from the relative reaction energies and geometric distortion of Au-cores. A novel 4N + 4 magic electron-number is suggested for the Au20+8N(SR)16+4N cluster. Using the polyhedral skeletal electron pair theory (PSEPT) and the extended Hückel molecular orbital (EHMO) calculations, we suggest that the magic 4N + 4 electron number is correlated with the quasi-fcc Au-cores, which can be viewed as double helical tetrahedron-Au4 chains. The size-dependent optical absorption properties of Au20+8N(SR)16+4N clusters are revealed based on TD-DFT calculations. We propose that these clusters are potential candidates for the experimental synthesis of atomically precise one-dimensional ligand protected gold superstructures with tunable NIR absorption properties.

  19. Relation between equal-time and light-front wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Gerald A.; Tiburzi, Brian C.

    2010-03-15

    The relation between equal-time and light-front wave functions is studied using models for which the four-dimensional solution of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function can be obtained. The popular prescription of defining the longitudinal momentum fraction using the instant-form free kinetic energy and third component of momentum is found to be incorrect except in the nonrelativistic limit. One may obtain light-front wave functions from rest-frame, instant-form wave functions by boosting the latter wave functions to the infinite momentum frame. Despite this difficulty, we prove a relation between certain integrals of the equal-time and light-front wave functions.

  20. Relation of the diffuse reflectance remission function to the fundamental optical parameters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Kubelka-Munk equations describing the diffuse reflectance of a powdered sample were compared to equations obtained using a uniformly-sized rough-surfaced spherical particle model. The comparison resulted in equations relating the remission function and the Kubelka-Munk constants to the index of refraction, the absorption coefficient, and the average particle diameter of a powdered sample. Published experimental results were used to test the equation relating to the remission function to the fundamental optical parameters.

  1. Relations between Secondary Pupils' Conceptions about Functions and Problem Solving in Different Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti; Eracleous, Anastasia; Gagatsis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores pupils' constructed definitions of the concept of function in relation to their abilities in dealing with tasks of functions involving different forms of representations and problem solving tasks. A major concern is also to examine the interrelations between these three ways of thinking about or dealing with the concept…

  2. Response-Time Variability Is Related to Parent Ratings of Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Martin, Cristina Dominguez; Mairena, Maria Angeles; Di Martino, Adriana; Wang, Jing; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Isquith, Peter K.; Gioia, Gerard; Petkova, Eva; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD are often characterized as inconsistent across many contexts. ADHD is also associated with deficits in executive function. We examined the relationships between response time (RT) variability on five brief computer tasks to parents' ratings of ADHD-related features and executive function in a group of children with…

  3. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  4. Executive Functioning in Children, and Its Relations with Reasoning, Reading, and Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; de Jong, Peter F.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether the executive functions, inhibition, shifting, and updating, are distinguishable as latent variables (common factors) in children aged 9 to 12, and to examine the relations between these executive functions and reading, arithmetic, and (non)verbal reasoning. Confirmatory factor analysis was used…

  5. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  6. ACCOMMODATIVE MOVEMENTS OF THE LENS/CAPSULE AND THE STRAND THAT EXTENDS BETWEEN THE POSTERIOR VITREOUS ZONULE INSERTION ZONE & THE LENS EQUATOR, IN RELATION TO THE VITREOUS FACE AND AGING

    PubMed Central

    CROFT, MARY ANN; HEATLEY, GREGG; MCDONALD, JARED P.; KATZ, ALEXANDER; KAUFMAN, PAUL L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the dynamic accommodative movements of the lens capsule, posterior lens and the strand that attaches to the posterior vitreous zonule insertion zone and posterior lens equator (PVZ INS-LE), and their age-related changes. Methods Twelve human subjects (ages 19–65 years) and twelve rhesus monkeys (ages 6–27 years) were studied. Accommodation was induced pharmacologically (humans) or by central electrical stimulation (monkeys). Ultrasound biomicroscopy was used to image intraocular structures in both species. Surgical procedures and contrast agents were utilized in the monkey eyes to elucidate function and allow visualization of the intraocular accommodative structures. Results Human: The posterior pole of the lens moves posteriorly during accommodation in proportion to accommodative amplitude and ciliary muscle movement. Monkey: Similar accommodative movements of the posterior lens pole were seen in the monkey eyes. Following extracapsular lens extraction (ECLE), the central capsule bows backward during accommodation in proportion to accommodative amplitude and ciliary muscle movement, while the peripheral capsule moves forward. During accommodation the ciliary muscle moved forward by ~1.0 mm, pulling forward the vitreous zonule and the PVZ INS-LE structure. During the accommodative response the PVZ INS-LE structure moved forward when the lens was intact and when the lens substance and capsule were removed. In both the monkey and the human eyes these movements declined with age. Conclusions The accommodative shape change of the central capsule may be due to the elastic properties of the capsule itself. For these capsule/lens accommodative posterior movements to occur, the vitreous face must either allow for it or facilitate it. The PVZ INS-LE structure may act as a “strut” to the posterior lens equator (pushing the lens equator forward) and thereby facilitate accommodative forward lens equator movement and lens thickening. The age-related

  7. Health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p < .001) or their parents (p < .001), although disagreement (intra-class coefficient = -.075) between children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being.

  8. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease *

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mauricio; Gomez, Dario Maldonado; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Villegas, Claudia Jaramillo; Pérez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. METHODS: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. PMID:23670499

  9. Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Functional Capacity Using the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT)

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, A.S.; Stroescu, I.; Spagnola, N.B.; Davis, V.G.; Patterson, T.D.; Narasimhan, M.; Harvey, P.D.; Keefe, R.S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials for primary prevention and early intervention in preclinical AD require measures of functional capacity with improved sensitivity to deficits in healthier, non-demented individuals. To this end, the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) was developed as a direct performance-based assessment of functional capacity that is sensitive to changes in function across multiple populations. Using a realistic virtual reality environment, the VRFCAT assesses a subject's ability to complete instrumental activities associated with a shopping trip. The present investigation represents an initial evaluation of the VRFCAT as a potential co-primary measure of functional capacity in healthy aging and preclinical MCI/AD by examining test-retest reliability and associations with cognitive performance in healthy young and older adults. The VRFCAT was compared and contrasted with the UPSA-2-VIM, a traditional performance-based assessment utilizing physical props. Results demonstrated strong age-related differences in performance on each VRFCAT outcome measure, including total completion time, total errors, and total forced progressions. VRFCAT performance showed strong correlations with cognitive performance across both age groups. VRFCAT Total Time demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICC=.80 in young adults; ICC=.64 in older adults) and insignificant practice effects, indicating the measure is suitable for repeated testing in healthy populations. Taken together, these results provide preliminary support for the VRFCAT as a potential measure of functionally relevant change in primary prevention and preclinical AD/MCI trials. PMID:26618145

  10. Generic relation between the electron work function and Young's modulus of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Guomin; Li Dongyang

    2011-07-25

    In this study, efforts were made to establish a generic relation between the Young's modulus and the electron work function of polycrystalline metals, in which Young's Modulus was defined as the second order derivative of interaction potential with respect to the equilibrium distance. The obtained Young's modulus shows a sextic relation with the work function. Data of Young's modulus and work function of polycrystalline metals, including Alkali earth metals, transition metals, and rare earth metals, can be fitted reasonably well by this derived generic relationship.

  11. Ethnicity identification from face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  12. Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

  13. The Effects of a Local Negative Feedback Function between Choice and Relative Reinforcer Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas; Marr, M. Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained on two-key concurrent variable-interval schedules with no changeover delay. In Phase 1, relative reinforcers on the two alternatives were varied over five conditions from 0.1 to 0.9. In Phases 2 and 3, we instituted a molar feedback function between relative choice in an interreinforcer interval and the probability of…

  14. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  15. Timing of Parenthood in Relation to Other Life Transitions and Adult Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea; Mesiainen, Paivi

    2009-01-01

    The timing of having one's first child, in relation to the timing of other transitions into adulthood and to social functioning, was investigated based on the Finnish Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, conducted from age 8 (173 females and 196 males) to 42. Results showed that in women, relatively early (less than…

  16. Feedback Functions, Optimization, and the Relation of Response Rate to Reinforcer Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Paul L.; McDowell, Jack J.; Dallery, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    The present experiment arranged a series of inverted U-shaped feedback functions relating reinforcer rate to response rate to test whether responding was consistent with an optimization account or with a one-to-one relation of response rate to reinforcer rate such as linear system theory's rate equation or Herrnstein's hyperbola. Reinforcer rate…

  17. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  18. Optoelectronic-based face recognition versus electronic PCA-based face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsamman, A.

    2003-11-01

    Face recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) using eigenfaces is popular in face recognition markets. In this paper we present a comparison between various optoelectronic face recognition techniques and principal component analysis (PCA) based technique for face recognition. Computer simulations are used to study the effectiveness of PCA based technique especially for facial images with a high level of distortion. Results are then compared to various distortion-invariant optoelectronic face recognition algorithms such as synthetic discriminant functions (SDF), projection-slice SDF, optical correlator based neural networks, and pose estimation based correlation.

  19. Faces of matrix models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.

    2012-08-01

    Partition functions of eigenvalue matrix models possess a number of very different descriptions: as matrix integrals, as solutions to linear and nonlinear equations, as τ-functions of integrable hierarchies and as special-geometry prepotentials, as result of the action of W-operators and of various recursions on elementary input data, as gluing of certain elementary building blocks. All this explains the central role of such matrix models in modern mathematical physics: they provide the basic "special functions" to express the answers and relations between them, and they serve as a dream model of what one should try to achieve in any other field.

  20. The use of discontinuities and functional groups to assess relative resilience in complex systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Gunderson, Lance; Johnson, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    It is evident when the resilience of a system has been exceeded and the system qualitatively changed. However, it is not clear how to measure resilience in a system prior to the demonstration that the capacity for resilient response has been exceeded. We argue that self-organizing human and natural systems are structured by a relatively small set of processes operating across scales in time and space. These structuring processes should generate a discontinuous distribution of structures and frequencies, where discontinuities mark the transition from one scale to another. Resilience is not driven by the identity of elements of a system, but rather by the functions those elements provide, and their distribution within and across scales. A self-organizing system that is resilient should maintain patterns of function within and across scales despite the turnover of specific elements (for example, species, cities). However, the loss of functions, or a decrease in functional representation at certain scales will decrease system resilience. It follows that some distributions of function should be more resilient than others. We propose that the determination of discontinuities, and the quantification of function both within and across scales, produce relative measures of resilience in ecological and other systems. We describe a set of methods to assess the relative resilience of a system based upon the determination of discontinuities and the quantification of the distribution of functions in relation to those discontinuities. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.